Vicor DCM3623X50M31C2Y7Z Isolated, regulated dc converter Datasheet

DCM™ DC-DC Converter
DCM3623x50M31C2y7z
®
S
US
C
C
NRTL
US
Isolated, Regulated DC Converter
Features & Benefits
Product Ratings
• Isolated, regulated DC-DC converter
• Up to 320 W, 11.43 A continuous
• 93.6% peak efficiency
• 818 W/in3 Power density
VIN = 16 V to 50 V
POUT = 320 W
VOUT = 28.0 V
(22.0 V to 30.8 V Trim)
IOUT = 11.43 A
Product Description
• Wide input range 16 – 50 Vdc
The DCM Isolated, Regulated DC Converter is a DC-DC
converter, operating from an unregulated, wide range input to
generate an isolated 28.0 Vdc output. With its high frequency
zero voltage switching (ZVS) topology, the DCM converter
consistently delivers high efficiency across the input line range.
Modular DCM converters and downstream DC-DC products
support efficient power distribution, providing superior power
system performance and connectivity from a variety of
unregulated power sources to the point-of-load.
• Safety Extra Low Voltage (SELV) 28.0 V Nominal Output
• 2250 Vdc isolation
• ZVS high frequency switching
n Enables low-profile, high-density filtering
• Fully operational current limit
• OV, OC, UV, short circuit and thermal protection
• 3623 through-hole ChiP package
Leveraging the thermal and density benefits of Vicor’s ChiP
packaging technology, the DCM module offers flexible thermal
management options with very low top and bottom side
thermal impedances. Thermally-adept ChiP based power
components enable customers to achieve cost effective power
system solutions with previously unattainable system size,
weight and efficiency attributes, quickly and predictably.
n 1.524” x 0.898” x 0.284”
(38.72 mm x 22.8 mm x 7.21 mm)
Typical Applications
•
•
•
•
Industrial
Process Control
Heavy Equipment
Defense / Aerospace
Part Ordering Information
Product
Function
Package
Size
Package
Type
Max
Input
Voltage
Range
Ratio
Max
Output
Voltage
Max
Output
Power
Temperature
Grade
Option
50
M
31
C2
y
7z
T = -40°C – 125°C
70 = Enhanced VOUT
Regulation / Analog
Control Interface Version
DCM
36
23
x
DCM =
DC-DC
Converter
Length
in mm
x 10
Width
in mm
x 10
T=
Through hole
ChiPs
Internal Reference
DCM™ DC-DC Converter
Rev 1.0
Page 1 of 23
08/2017
M = -55°C – 125°C
DCM3623x50M31C2y7z
Typical Application
DCM
TR
EN
L2
F1
Vin
Load 1
FT
R1
L1
+IN
+OUT
C1
COUT-EXT
-IN
-OUT
Non-isolated
Point-of-Load
Regulator
Load 2
Typical Application: Single DCM3623x50M31C2y7z, to a non-isolated regulator, and direct to load
DCM™ DC-DC Converter
Rev 1.0
Page 2 of 23
08/2017
DCM3623x50M31C2y7z
Pin Configuration
TOP VIEW
1
2
+IN
A
A’
+OUT
TR
B
B’
-OUT
EN
C
C’ +OUT
FT
D
-IN
E
D’
-OUT
3623 ChiP Package
Pin Descriptions
Pin
Number
Signal Name
Type
A1
+IN
INPUT POWER
B1
TR
INPUT
Enables and disables trim functionality. Adjusts output voltage when trim active.
C1
EN
INPUT
Enables and disables power supply
D1
FT
OUTPUT
E1
-IN
INPUT POWER
RETURN
Negative input power terminal
A’2, C’2
+OUT
OUTPUT POWER
Positive output power terminal
B’2, D’2
-OUT
OUTPUT POWER
RETURN
Negative output power terminal
Function
Positive input power terminal
Fault monitoring
DCM™ DC-DC Converter
Rev 1.0
Page 3 of 23
08/2017
DCM3623x50M31C2y7z
Absolute Maximum Ratings
The absolute maximum ratings below are stress ratings only. Operation at or beyond these maximum ratings can cause permanent damage to the device.
Electrical specifications do not apply when operating beyond rated operating conditions.
Parameter
Comments
Input Voltage (+IN to –IN)
Input Voltage Slew Rate
Min
Max
Unit
-0.5
65.0
V
-1
1
V/µs
TR to - IN
-0.3
3.5
V
EN to -IN
-0.3
3.5
V
-0.3
3.5
V
5
mA
39.2
V
FT to -IN
Output Voltage (+Out to –Out)
Dielectric withstand (input to output)
-0.5
Basic insulation
2250
Vdc
T Grade
-40
125
°C
M Grade
-55
125
°C
T Grade
-40
125
°C
M Grade
-65
125
°C
14.5
A
Internal Operating Temperature
Storage Temperature
Average Output Current
Figure 1 — Thermal Specified Operating Area: Max Output Power
Figure 2 — Electrical Specified Operating Area
vs. Case Temp, module at minimum full load efficiency
DCM™ DC-DC Converter
Rev 1.0
Page 4 of 23
08/2017
DCM3623x50M31C2y7z
Electrical Specifications
Specifications apply over all line, trim and load conditions, internal temperature TINT = 25ºC, unless otherwise noted. Boldface specifications apply over the
temperature range of -40°C < TINT < 125°C for T grade and -55°C < TINT < 125°C for M grade.
Attribute
Symbol
Conditions / Notes
Min
Typ
Max
Unit
16
28
50
V
Power Input Specification
Input voltage range
Inrush current (peak)
VIN
Continuous operation
IINRP
With maximum COUT-EXT, full resistive load
30.0
A
Input capacitance (internal)
CIN-INT
Effective value at nominal input voltage
29.7
µF
Input capacitance (internal) ESR
RCIN-INT
At 1 MHz
0.73
mΩ
Input inductance (external)
LIN
Differential mode, with no further line bypassing
1
µH
0.4
W
0.5
W
5.8
W
8.5
W
No Load Specification
Nominal line, see Fig. 3
Input power – disabled
PQ
0.3
Worst case line, see Fig. 3
Nominal line, see Fig. 4
Input power – enabled with no load
PNL
3.0
Worst case line, see Fig. 4
Power Output Specification
Output voltage set point
Rated output voltage trim range
Output voltage light load regulation
VOUT accuracy
VOUT-NOM
VOUT-TRIMMING
ΔVOUT-LL
%VOUT-ACCURACY
Rated output power
POUT
Rated output current
IOUT
27.86
28.0
28.14
V
Trim range over temp, with > 5% rated load.
Specifies the Low, Nominal and High Trim conditions.
22.0
28.0
30.8
V
0% to 5% load, additional VOUT relative to VOUT
accuracy; see Fig. 5 and Sec. Design Guidelines
-0.00
5.01
V
The total output voltage setpoint accuracy from the
calculated ideal VOUT based on trim. Excludes ΔVOUT-LL
-1.0
1.0
%
Continuous, VOUT ≥ 28.0 V
Continuous, VOUT ≤ 28.0 V
Output current limit
IOUT-LM
Of rated IOUT max. Fully operational current limit, for
nominal trim and below
Current limit delay
tIOUT-LIM
The module will power limit in a fast transient event
Efficiency
η
320
W
11.43
A
100
115
123
%
1
ms
Full load, nominal line, nominal trim
92.9
93.6
%
Full load, over line and temperature, nominal trim
91.4
%
50% load, over rated line, temperature and trim
90.0
%
Output voltage ripple
VOUT-PP
20 MHz bandwidth. At nominal trim, minimum COUT-EXT and
at least 5 % rated load
535
mV
Output capacitance (internal)
COUT-INT
Effective value at nominal output voltage
33
µF
Output capacitance (internal) ESR
RCOUT-INT
At 1 MHz
0.069
mΩ
TRANS-TRIM
Excludes component temperature coefficient For load
transients that remain > 5% rated load
Excludes component temperature coefficient For load
transients down to 0% rated load, with static trim
Excludes component temperature coefficient For load
transients down to 0% rated load, with dynamic trimming
RCOUT-EXT
At 10 kHz, excludes component tolerances
Output capacitance (external)
COUT-EXT
Output capacitance (external)
COUT-EXT-TRANS
Output capacitance (external)
Output capacitance, ESR (ext.)
COUT-EXT-
DCM™ DC-DC Converter
Rev 1.0
Page 5 of 23
08/2017
1000
10000
µF
1000
10000
µF
10000
10000
µF
10
mΩ
DCM3623x50M31C2y7z
Electrical Specifications (cont.)
Specifications apply over all line, trim and load conditions, internal temperature TINT = 25ºC, unless otherwise noted. Boldface specifications apply over the
temperature range of -40°C < TINT < 125°C for T grade and -55°C < TINT < 125°C for M grade.
Attribute
Symbol
Conditions / Notes
Min
Typ
Max
Unit
40
ms
Power Output Specifications (Cont.)
Initialization delay
tINIT
See state diagram
25
Output turn-on delay
tON
From rising edge EN, with VIN pre-applied. See timing
diagram
200
Output turn-off delay
tOFF
From falling edge EN. See timing diagram
Soft start ramp time
tSS
At full rated resistive load, with min COUT-EXT.
VOUT threshold for max
rated load current
IOUT at startup
Monotonic soft-start threshold
voltage
Minimum required disabled duration
Minimum required disabled duration
for predictable restart
Voltage deviation (transient)
Settling time
VOUT-FL-THRESH
IOUT-START
VOUT-MONOTONIC
600
220
During startup, VOUT must achieve this threshold before
output can support full rated current
Max load current at startup while VOUT
is below VOUT-FL_THRESH
Output voltage rise becomes monotonic with 25% of
preload once it crosses VOUT-MONOTONIC
µs
µs
ms
14.0
3.08
V
A
12.5
V
tOFF-MIN
This refers to the minimum time a module needs to be
in the disabled state before it will attempt to start via EN
2
ms
tOFF-MONOTONIC
This refers to the minimum time a module needs to be in
the disabled state before it is guaranteed to exhibit
monotonic soft-start and have predictable startup timing
100
ms
%VOUT-TRANS
tSETTLE
Minimum COUT_EXT (10 ↔ 90% load step).
<10
%
12.0
ms
Powertrain Protections
Input Voltage Initialization threshold
VIN-INIT
Threshold to start tINIT delay
Input Voltage Reset threshold
VIN-RESET
Input undervoltage lockout threshold
VIN-UVLO-
Input undervoltage recovery threshold
VIN-UVLO+
Input overvoltage lockout threshold
VIN-OVLO+
Input overvoltage recovery threshold
VIN-OVLO-
See Timing diagram
Output overvoltage threshold
VOUT-OVP
Output overvoltage threshold
VOUT-OVP-LL
Minimum current limited VOUT
VOUT-UVP
Overtemperature threshold (internal)
TINT-OTP
Power limit
tOVLO-SW
VIN overvoltage response time
tOVLO
VIN undervoltage response time
tUVLO
Short circuit, or temperature fault
recovery time
3
tSC
tFAULT
V
V
12.00
See Timing diagram
14.50
V
16.00
V
60
V
50
V
From 25% to 100% load. Latched shutdown
35.50
V
From 0% to 25% load. Latched shutdown
36.50
V
Over all operating steady-state line and trim conditions
14.00
125
750
Independent of fault logic
1.5
For fault logic only
Powertrain on, operational state
See Timing diagram
DCM™ DC-DC Converter
Rev 1.0
Page 6 of 23
08/2017
V
°C
PLIM
VIN overvoltage to cessation of
powertrain switching
Short circuit response time
Latching faults will clear once VIN falls below VIN-RESET
6
1
W
µs
200
µs
100
ms
200
µs
s
DCM3623x50M31C2y7z
Signal Specifications
Specifications apply over all line, trim and load conditions, internal temperature TINT = 25ºC, unless otherwise noted. Boldface specifications apply over the
temperature range of -40°C < TINT < 125°C for T grade and -55°C < TINT < 125°C for M grade.
Enable: EN
• The EN pin enables and disables the DCM converter; when held low the unit will be disabled.
• The EN pin has an internal pull-up to VCC and is referenced to the -IN pin of the converter.
SIGNAL TYPE
DIGITAL
INPUT
STATE
Any
ATTRIBUTE
SYMBOL
CONDITIONS / NOTES
MIN
NOM
MAX
UNIT
2.31
V
EN enable threshold
VENABLE-EN
EN disable threshold
VENABLE-DIS
0.99
VCC
3.21
3.30
3.39
V
RENABLE-INT
9.5
10.0
10.5
kΩ
Internally generated VCC
EN internal pull up
resistance to VCC
V
Trim: TR
• The TR pin enables and disables trim functionality when VIN is initially applied to the DCM converter.
When Vin first crosses VIN-UVLO+, the voltage on TR determines whether or not trim is active.
• If TR is not floating at power up and has a voltage less than TR trim enable threshold, trim is active.
• If trim is active, the TR pin provides dynamic trim control with at least 30Hz of -3dB control bandwidth over the output voltage of the DCM converter.
• The TR pin has an internal pull-up to VCC and is referenced to the -IN pin of the converter.
SIGNAL TYPE
DIGITAL
INPUT
ANALOG
INPUT
STATE
ATTRIBUTE
SYMBOL
TR trim disable threshold
VTRIM-DIS
Trim disabled when TR above this threshold
at power up
TR trim enable threshold
VTRIM-EN
Trim enabled when TR below this threshold
at power up
Internally generated VCC
VCC
3.21
3.30
3.39
V
TR pin functional range
VTRIM-RANGE
0.00
2.14
3.16
V
Startup
Operational
with Trim
enabled
VOUT referred TR
pin resolution
VOUT-RES
TR internal pull up
resistance to VCC
RTRIIM-INT
CONDITIONS / NOTES
MIN
NOM
MAX
UNIT
3.20
V
3.15
With VCC = 3.3 V
V
34
9.5
10.0
mV
10.5
kΩ
Fault: FT
• The FT pin is a Fault flag pin.
• When the module is enabled and no fault is present, the FT pin does not have current drive capability.
• Whenever the powertrain stops (due to a fault protection or disabling the module by pulling EN low), the FT pin output Vcc and provides current to drive
an external ciruit.
• When module starts up, the FT pin is pulled high to VCC during microcontroller initialization and will remain high until soft start process starts.
SIGNAL TYPE
STATE
Any
DIGITAL
OUTPUT
FT Active
ATTRIBUTE
FT internal pull up
resistance to VCC
SYMBOL
RFAULT-INT
FT voltage
VFAULT-ACTIVE
FT current drive capability
IFAULT-ACTIVE
FT response time
CONDITIONS / NOTES
tFT-ACTIVE
At rated current drive capability
Over-load beyond the ABSOLUTE MAXIMUM
ratings may cause module damage
Delay from cessation of switching to
FT Pin Active
DCM™ DC-DC Converter
Rev 1.0
Page 7 of 23
08/2017
MIN
NOM
MAX
UNIT
474
499
524
kΩ
3.0
V
4
mA
200
µs
DCM3623x50M31C2y7z
High Level Functional State Diagram
Conditions that cause state transitions are shown along arrows. Sub-sequence activities listed inside the state bubbles.
Application of
VIN
VIN > VIN-INIT
INITIALIZATION
SEQUENCE
EN = False
tMIN-OFF delay
NON LATCHED
FAULT
tOFF
ult
Fa oved
m
Re
Powertrain: Stopped
FT = True
tINIT delay
Powertrain: Stopped
FT = True
Powertrain: Stopped
FT = True
EN = True and
No Faults
tON delay
EN = False
tOFF delay
In
p
In ut O
pu V
tU L
VL O o
O r
VIN > VIN-UVLO+ and
not Over-temp
TR mode latched
STANDBY
or
O
L
V LO
t O UV
u
t
p
In npu
I
EN = False
tOFF-MIN delay
SOFT START
VOUT Ramp Up
tss delay
Powertrain: Active
FT = False
RUNNING
tSS Expiry
Ou
Regulates VOUT
Powertrain: Active
FT = False
tpu
or
mp
r-te
P
Ove put UV
Out
REINITIALIZATION
SEQUENCE
tINIT delay
Powertrain: Stopped
FT = True
Fault Removed
Ov
e
Ou r-tem
tpu
p
t U or
VP
VP
tO
pu
ut
O
tO
VP
NON LATCHED
FAULT
tFAULT
Powertrain: Stopped
FT = True
LATCHED
FAULT
EN = False
DCM™ DC-DC Converter
Rev 1.0
Page 8 of 23
08/2017
Powertrain: Stopped
FT = True
Output
Input
DCM™ DC-DC Converter
Rev 1.0
Page 9 of 23
08/2017
FT
ILOAD
FULL LOAD
IOUT
VOUT
VOUT-UVP
FULL LOAD
VOUT-NOM
TR
VTR-DIS
EN
VIN
VIN-UVLO+/VIN-INIT
VIN-OVLO+/-
tINIT
tON
1
Input Power On
- Trim Inactive
tSS
2
3
Ramp to TR
Full Load Ignored
tOFF
tMIN_OFF
4
EN
Low
tSS
tON
5
EN
High
tOFF
6
Input
OVLO
tSS
tOFF
7
Input
UVLO
tSS
tOFF
8
Input
returned
to zero
DCM3623x50M31C2y7z
Timing Diagrams
Module Inputs are shown in blue; Module Outputs are shown in brown.
Output
Input
DCM™ DC-DC Converter
Rev 1.0
Page 10 of 23
08/2017
FT
ILOAD
FULL LOAD
IOUT
VOUT
VOUT-UVP
VOUT-NOM
FULL LOAD
TR
VTR = nom
VTR-EN
EN
VIN
VIN-UVLO+/VIN-INIT
VIN-OVLO+/-
tINIT
tON
9
Input Power On
- Trim Active
tSS
VOUT-OVP
10
Vout
based on
VTR
tOFF
11
Load dump
and reverse
current
tINIT
tON
tSS
12
Vout OVP
(primary
sensed)
13
Latched
fault cleared
RLOAD
tIOUT-LIM
14
Current Limit
with Resistive
Load
tFAULT
15
Resistive
Load with
decresing R
tINIT
16
Overload induced
Output UVP
tON
tSS
DCM3623x50M31C2y7z
Timing Diagrams (Cont.)
Module Inputs are shown in blue; Module Outputs are shown in brown.
DCM3623x50M31C2y7z
Typical Performance Characteristics
The following figures present typical performance at TC = 25ºC, unless otherwise noted. See associated figures for general trend data.
Figure 3 — Disabled power dissipation vs. VIN
Figure 6 — Full Load Efficiency vs. VIN, at low trim
Figure 4 — No load power dissipation vs. VIN, at nominal trim
Figure 7 — Full Load Efficiency vs. VIN, at nominal trim
Figure 5 — Ideal VOUT vs. load current, at 25°C case
Figure 8 — Full Load Efficiency vs. VIN, at high trim
DCM™ DC-DC Converter
Rev 1.0
Page 11 of 23
08/2017
DCM3623x50M31C2y7z
Typical Performance Characteristics (cont.)
The following figures present typical performance at TC = 25ºC, unless otherwise noted. See associated figures for general trend data.
Figure 9 — Efficiency and power dissipation vs.load at TCASE = -40°C,
nominal trim
Figure 12 — Nominal powertrain switching frequency vs. load,
at nominal trim
Figure 10 — Efficiency and power dissipation vs.load at TCASE = 25°C,
nominal trim
Figure 13 — Effective internal input capacitance vs. applied voltage
Figure 11 — Efficiency and power dissipation vs.load at TCASE = 90°C,
nominal trim
Figure 14 — Startup from EN, VIN = 28 V, COUT_EXT = 10000 µF,
RLOAD = 2.450 Ω
DCM™ DC-DC Converter
Rev 1.0
Page 12 of 23
08/2017
DCM3623x50M31C2y7z
Typical Performance Characteristics (cont.)
The following figures present typical performance at TC = 25ºC, unless otherwise noted. See associated figures for general trend data.
Figure 15 — Nominal powertrain switching frequency vs. load,
Figure 16 — Output voltage ripple, VIN = 28 V,
VOUT = 28.0 V, COUT_EXT = 1000 µF, RLOAD = 2.450 Ω
at nominal VIN
DCM™ DC-DC Converter
Rev 1.0
Page 13 of 23
08/2017
DCM3623x50M31C2y7z
General Characteristics
Specifications apply over all line, trim and load conditions, internal temperature TINT = 25ºC, unless otherwise noted. Boldface specifications apply over the
temperature range of -40°C < TINT < 125°C for T grade and -55°C < TINT < 125°C for M grade.
Attribute
Symbol
Conditions / Notes
Min
Typ
Max
Unit
Mechanical
Length
L
38.34/[1.509]
38.72/[1.524]
39.10/[1.539]
mm/[in]
Width
W
22.67/[0.893]
22.8/[0.898]
22.93/[0.903]
mm/[in]
Height
H
7.11/[0.28]
7.21/[0.284]
7.31/[0.288]
mm/[in]
Volume
Vol
Weight
W
Lead finish
No heat sink
6.41/[0.39]
cm3/[in3]
24.0/[0.85]
g/[oz]
Nickel
0.51
2.03
Palladium
0.02
0.15
Gold
0.003
0.051
T-Grade
-40
125
°C
M-Grade
-55
125
°C
µm
Thermal
Operating internal temperature
Thermal resistance top side
Thermal resistance leads
Thermal resistance bottom side
TINT
θINT-TOP
θINT-LEADS
θINT-BOTTOM
Estimated thermal resistance to maximum
temperature internal component from
2.28
°C/W
5.39
°C/W
2.57
°C/W
17.7
Ws/°C
isothermal top
Estimated thermal resistance to
maximum temperature internal
component from isothermal leads
Estimated thermal resistance to
maximum temperature internal
component from isothermal bottom
Thermal capacity
Assembly
Storage temperature
TST
HBM
ESD rating
CDM
T-Grade
-40
125
°C
M-Grade
-65
125
°C
Method per Human Body Model Test
ESDA/JEDEC JDS-001-2012
Charged Device Model JESD22-C101E
CLASS 1C
V
CLASS 2
Soldering [1]
Peak temperature top case
[1]
For further information, please contact
factory applications
Product is not intended for reflow solder attach.
DCM™ DC-DC Converter
Rev 1.0
Page 14 of 23
08/2017
135
°C
DCM3623x50M31C2y7z
General Characteristics (Cont.)
Specifications apply over all line, trim and load conditions, internal temperature TINT = 25ºC, unless otherwise noted. Boldface specifications apply over the
temperature range of -40°C < TINT < 125°C for T grade and -55°C < TINT < 125°C for M grade.
Attribute
Symbol
Conditions / Notes
Min
Typ
Max
Unit
Safety
Dielectric Withstand Test
VHIPOT
IN to OUT
2250
Vdc
IN to CASE
2250
Vdc
OUT to CASE
707
Vdc
Reliability
MIL-HDBK-217 FN2 Parts Count 25°C
Ground Benign, Stationary, Indoors /
MTBF
3.39
MHrs
5.68
MHrs
Computer
Telcordia Issue 2, Method I Case 3, 25°C,
100% D.C., GB, GC
Agency Approvals
cTÜVus, EN 60950-1
Agency approvals/standards
cURus, UL 60950-1
CE Marked for Low Voltage Directive and RoHS Recast Directive, as applicable
DCM™ DC-DC Converter
Rev 1.0
Page 15 of 23
08/2017
DCM3623x50M31C2y7z
Pin Functions
The DCM will latch trim behavior at application of VIN (once VIN
exceeds VIN-UVLO+), and persist in that same behavior until loss of
input voltage.
n At application of VIN, if TR is sampled at above VTRIM-DIS, the
module will latch in a non-trim mode, and will ignore the TR
input for as long as VIN is present.
+IN, -IN
Input power pins. -IN is the reference for all control pins, and
therefore a Kelvin connection for the control signals is
recommended as close as possible to the pin on the package, to
reduce effects of voltage drop due to -IN currents.
n At application of VIN, if TR is sampled at below VTRIM-EN, the TR
will serve as an input to control the real time output voltage,
relative to full load, 25°C. It will persist in this behavior until VIN is
no longer present.
+OUT, -OUT
Output power pins.
If trim is active when the DCM is operating, the TR pin provides
dynamic trim control at a typical 30 Hz of -3dB bandwidth over the
output voltage. TR also decreases the current limit threshold when
trimming above VOUT-NOM.
EN (Enable)
This pin enables and disables the DCM converter; when held low the
unit will be disabled. It is referenced to the -IN pin of the converter.
The EN pin has an internal pull-up to VCC through a
10 kΩ resistor.
FT (Fault)
n Output enable: When EN is allowed to pull up above the enable
The FT pin provides a Fault signal.
threshold, the module will be enabled. If leaving EN floating, it is
pulled up to VCC and the module will be enabled.
Anytime the module is enabled and has not recognized a fault, the
FT pin is inactive. FT has an internal 499 kΩ pull-up to Vcc, therefore
a shunt resistor, RSHUNT, of approximately 50 kΩ can be used to
ensure the LED is completly off when there is no fault, per the
diagram below.
n Output disable: EN may be pulled down externally in order
to disable the module.
n EN is an input only, it does not pull low in the event of a fault.
Whenever the powertrain stops (due to a fault protection or
disabling the module by pulling EN low), the FT pin becomes active
and provides current to drive an external circuit.
TR (Trim)
The TR pin is used to select the trim mode and to trim the output
voltage of the DCM converter. The TR pin has an internal pull-up to
VCC through a 10.0 kΩ resistor.
When active, FT pin drives to VCC, with up to 4 mA of external
loading. Module may be damaged from an over-current FT drive,
thus a resistor in series for current limiting is recommended.
The FT pin becomes active momentarily when the module starts up.
Typical External Circuits for Signal Pins (TR, EN, FT)
Vcc
Vcc
10k
Vcc
Output Voltage
Reference,
Current Limit
Reference
and Soft Start Control
TR
499k
Fault
Monitoring
10k
Soft Start and
Fault Monitoring
FT
EN
RSERIES
SW
RTRIM
RSHUNT
Kelvin -IN connection
DCM™ DC-DC Converter
Rev 1.0
Page 16 of 23
08/2017
DCM3623x50M31C2y7z
Design Guidelines
Use 0 V for ∆VOUT-LL when load is above 5% of rated load. See section on
light load boosting operation for light load effects on output voltage.
Building Blocks and System Design
The DCM™ converter input accepts the full 16 to 50 V range, and it
generates an isolated trimmable 28.0 Vdc output.
Output Current Limit
The DCM features a fully operational current limit which effectively
keeps the module operating inside the Safe Operating Area (SOA) for
all valid trim and load profiles. The current limit approximates a
“brick wall” limit, where the output current is prevented from
exceeding the current limit threshold by reducing the output voltage
via the internal error amplifier reference. The current limit threshold
at nominal trim and below is typically 115% of rated output current,
but it can vary between 100% to 123%. In order to preserve the SOA,
when the converter is trimmed above the nominal output voltage,
the current limit threshold is automatically reduced to limit the
available output power.
The DCM converter provides a tightly regulated output voltage with
regulation accuracy of ± 1% for all line conditions and for any load
above 10% the rated load.
The DCM3623x50M31C2y7z is designed to be used in applications
where the output power requirements are up to 320 W.
Soft Start
When the DCM starts, it will go through a soft start. The soft start
routine ramps the output voltage by modulating the internal error
amplifier reference. This causes the output voltage to approximate a
piecewise linear ramp. The output ramp finishes when the voltage
reaches either the nominal output voltage, or the trimmed output
voltage in cases where trim mode is active.
When the output current exceeds the current limit threshold, current
limit action is held off by 1ms, which permits the DCM to
momentarily deliver higher peak output currents to the load. Peak
output power during this time is still constrained by the internal
Power Limit of the module. The fast Power Limit and relatively slow
Current Limit work together to keep the module inside the SOA.
Delaying entry into current limit also permits the DCM to minimize
droop voltage for load steps.
During soft-start, the maximum load current capability is reduced.
Until Vout achieves at least VOUT-FL-THRESH, the output current must be
less than IOUT-START in order to guarantee startup. Note that this is
current available to the load, above that which is required to charge
the output capacitor.
Sustained operation in current limit is permitted, and no derating of
output power is required.
Trim Mode and Output Trim Control
When the input voltage is initially applied to a DCM, and after tINIT
elapses, the trim pin voltage VTR is sampled. The TR pin has an
internal pull up resistor to VCC, so unless external circuitry pulls the
pin voltage lower, it will pull up to VCC. If the initially sampled trim
pin voltage is higher than VTRIM-DIS, then the DCM will disable
trimming as long as the VIN remains applied. In this case, for all
subsequent operation the output voltage will be programmed to the
nominal. This minimizes the support components required for
applications that only require the nominal rated Vout, and also
provides the best output setpoint accuracy, as there are no additional
errors from external trim components
Some applications may benefit from well matched current
distribution, in which case fine tuning sharing via the trim pins
permits control over sharing. The DCM does not require this for
proper operation, due to the power limit and current limit behaviors
described here.
Current limit can reduce the output voltage to as little as the UVP
threshold (VOUT-UVP). Below this minimum output voltage
compliance level, further loading will cause the module to shut
down due to the output undervoltage fault protection.
Line Impedance, Input Slew rate and Input Stability Requirements
Connect a high-quality, low-noise power supply to the +IN and –IN
terminals. Additional capacitance may have to be added between +IN
and –IN to make up for impedances in the interconnect cables as
well as deficiencies in the source.
If at initial application of VIN, the TR pin voltage is prevented from
exceeding VTRIM-EN, then the DCM will activate trim mode, and it will
remain active for as long as VIN is applied.
VOUT set point can be calculated using the equation below:
VOUT-FL = 19.50 + (13.110 • VTR/VCC)
(1)
Excessive source impedance can bring about system stability issues
for a regulated DC-DC converter, and must either be avoided or
compensated by filtering components. A 1000 µF input capacitor is
the minimum recommended in case the source impedance is
insufficient to satisfy stability requirements.
Note that the trim mode is not changed when a DCM recovers from
any fault condition or being disabled.
Module performance is guaranteed through output voltage trim
range VOUT-TRIMMING. If VOUT is trimmed above this range, then certain
combinations of line and load transient conditions may trigger the
output OVP.
Additional information can be found in the filter design application
note:
www.vicorpower.com/documents/application_notes/vichip_appnote23.pdf
Please refer to this input filter design tool to ensure input stability:
http://app2.vicorpower.com/filterDesign/intiFilter.do.
Overall Output Voltage Transfer Function
Taking trim (equation 1) into account, the general equation relating
the DC VOUT to programmed trim (when active), load is given by:
VOUT = 19.50 + (13.110 • VTR/VCC) + ∆VOUT-LL
Ensure that the input voltage slew rate is less than 1V/us, otherwise a
pre-charge circuit is required for the DCM input to control the input
voltage slew rate and prevent overstress to input stage components.
(2)
Finally, note that when the load current is below 5% of the rated
capacity, there is an additional ∆V which may add to the output
voltage, depending on the line voltage which is related to light load
boosting. Please see the section on light load boosting below for
details.
DCM™ DC-DC Converter
Rev 1.0
Page 17 of 23
08/2017
DCM3623x50M31C2y7z
immediately stops switching, and the output voltage of the converter
falls. The converter remains disabled for a time tFAULT. Once recovered
and provided the converter is still enabled, the powertrain will again
enter the soft start sequence after tINIT and tON.
Input Fuse Selection
The DCM is not internally fused in order to provide flexibility in
configuring power systems. Input line fusing is recommended at the
system level, in order to provide thermal protection in case of
catastrophic failure. The fuse shall be selected by closely matching
system requirements with the following characteristics:
Temperature Fault Protections (OTP)
The fault logic monitors the internal temperature of the converter. If
the measured temperature exceeds TINT-OTP, a temperature fault is
registered. As with the under voltage fault protection, once a
temperature fault is registered, the powertrain immediately stops
switching, the output voltage of the converter falls, and the converter
remains disabled for at least time tFAULT. Then, the converter waits for
the internal temperature to return to below TINT-OTP before
recovering. Provided the converter is still enabled, the DCM will
restart after tINIT and tON.
n Current rating (usually greater than the DCM converter’s
maximum current)
n Maximum voltage rating (usually greater than the maximum
possible input voltage)
n Ambient temperature
n Breaking capacity per application requirements
n Nominal melting I2t
n Recommended fuse: See Agency Approvals for Recommended Fuse
Output Overvoltage Fault Protection (OVP)
The converter monitors the output voltage during each switching
cycle by a corresponding voltage reflected to the primary side control
circuitry. If the primary sensed output voltage exceeds VOUT-OVP, the
OVP fault protection is triggered. The control logic disables the
powertrain, and the output voltage of the converter falls.
http://www.vicorpower.com/dc-dc/isolatedregulated/dcm#Documentation
Fault Handling
Input Undervoltage Fault Protection (UVLO)
The converter’s input voltage is monitored to detect an input under
voltage condition. If the converter is not already running, then it will
ignore enable commands until the input voltage is greater than
VIN-UVLO+. If the converter is running and the input voltage falls
below VIN-UVLO-, the converter recognizes a fault condition, the
powertrain stops switching, and the output voltage of the unit falls.
This type of fault is latched, and the converter will not start again
until the latch is cleared. Clearing the fault latch is achieved by either
disabling the converter via the EN pin, or else by removing the input
power such that the input voltage falls below VIN-INIT.
External Output Capacitance
The DCM converter internal compensation requires a minimum
external output capacitor. An external capacitor in the range of 1000
to 10000 µF with ESR of 10 mΩ is required, per DCM for control loop
compensation purposes.
Input voltage transients which fall below UVLO for less than tUVLO
may not be detected by the fault proection logic, in which case the
converter will continue regular operation. No protection is required
in this case.
However some DCM models require an increase to the minimum
external output capacitor value in certain loading and trim
condition. In applications where the load can go below 5% of rated
load but the output trim is held constant, the range of output
capacitor required is given by COUT-EXT-TRANS in the Electrical
Specifications table. If the load can go below 5% of rated load and the
DCM output trim is also dynamically varied, the range of output
capacitor required is given by COUT-EXT-TRANS-TRIM in the Electrical
Specifications table.
Once the UVLO fault is detected by the fault protection logic, the
converter shuts down and waits for the input voltage to rise above
VIN-UVLO+. Provided the converter is still enabled, it will then restart.
Input Overvoltage Fault Protection (OVLO)
The converter’s input voltage is monitored to detect an input over
voltage condition. When the input voltage is more than the
VIN-OVLO+, a fault is detected, the powertrain stops switching, and the
output voltage of the converter falls.
After an OVLO fault occurs, the converter will wait for the input
voltage to fall below VIN-OVLO-. Provided the converter is still enabled,
the powertrain will restart.
Light Load Boosting
Under light load conditions, the DCM converter may operate in light
load boosting depending on the line voltage. Light load boosting
occurs whenever the internal power consumption of the converter
combined with the external output load is less than the minimum
power transfer per switching cycle. In order to maintain regulation,
the error amplifier will switch the powertrain off and on repeatedly,
to effectively lower the average switching frequency, and permit
operation with no external load. During the time when the power
train is off, the module internal consumption is significantly
reduced, and so there is a notable reduction in no-load input power
in light load boosting. When the load is less than 5% of rated Iout,
the output voltage may rise by a maximum of 5.01 V, above the
output voltage calculated from trim, temperature, and load
line conditions.
The powertrain controller itself also monitors the input voltage.
Transient OVLO events which have not yet been detected by the fault
sequence logic may first be detected by the controller if the input
slew rate is sufficiently large. In this case, powertrain switching will
immediately stop. If the input voltage falls back in range before the
fault sequence logic detects the out of range condition, the
powertrain will resume switching and the fault logic will not
interrupt operation Regardless of whether the powertrain is running
at the time or not, if the input voltage does not recover from OVLO
before tOVLO, the converter fault logic will detect the fault.
Output Undervoltage Fault Protection (UVP)
The converter determines that an output overload or short circuit
condition exists by measuring its primary sensed output voltage and
the output of the internal error amplifier. In general, whenever the
powertrain is switching and the primary-sensed output voltage falls
below VOUT-UVP threshold, a short circuit fault will be registered. Once
an output undervoltage condition is detected, the powertrain
DCM™ DC-DC Converter
Rev 1.0
Page 18 of 23
08/2017
DCM3623x50M31C2y7z
Thermal Design
Based on the safe thermal operating area shown in page 5, the full
rated power of the DCM3623x50M31C2y7z can be processed
provided that the top, bottom, and leads are all held below 95°C.
These curves highlight the benefits of dual sided thermal
management, but also demonstrate the flexibility of the Vicor ChiP
platform for customers who are limited to cooling only the top or the
bottom surface.
Thermal Resistance Top
Thermal Resistance Bottom
θINT-BOTTOM°C / W
Power Dissipation (W)
The OTP sensor is located on the top side of the internal PCB
structure. Therefore in order to ensure effective over-temperature
fault protection, the case bottom temperature must be constrained
by the thermal solution such that it does not exceed the temperature
of the case top.
Thermal Resistance Top
TCASE_BOTTOM(°C)
+
–
TCASE_TOP(°C)
Thermal Resistance Bottom
θINT-BOTTOM°C / W
Power Dissipation (W)
Thermal Resistance Leads
TCASE_BOTTOM(°C)
θINT-LEADS°C / W
TLEADS(°C)
TCASE_TOP(°C)
Figure 19 shows a scenario where there is no bottom side and leads
cooling. In this case, the heat flow path to the bottom is left open and
the equations now simplify to:
TINT – PD1 • θINT-TOP = TCASE_TOP
PDTOTAL = PD1
θINT-LEADS°C / W
TLEADS(°C)
+
–
TCASE_TOP(°C)
+
–
Figure 19 — One side cooling thermal model
Thermal Resistance Leads
+
–
+
–
MAX INTERNAL TEMP
θINT-TOP°C / W
MAX INTERNAL TEMP
θINT-BOTTOM°C / W
Power Dissipation (W)
TLEADS(°C)
TINT – PD1 • θINT-TOP = TCASE_TOP
TINT – PD3 • θINT-LEADS = TLEADS
PDTOTAL = PD1 + PD3
This analysis provides an estimate of heat flow through the various
pathways as well as internal temperature.
Thermal Resistance Bottom
θINT-LEADS°C / W
TCASE_BOTTOM(°C)
Figure 18 shows a scenario where there is no bottom side cooling.
In this case, the heat flow path to the bottom is left open and the
equations now simplify to:
Since the ChiP has a maximum internal temperature rating, it is
necessary to estimate this internal temperature based on a real
thermal solution. Given that there are three pathways to remove heat
from the ChiP, it is helpful to simplify the thermal solution into a
roughly equivalent circuit where power dissipation is modeled as a
current source, isothermal surface temperatures are represented as
voltage sources and the thermal resistances are represented as
resistors. Figure 17 shows the "thermal circuit" for a 3623 ChiP DCM,
in an application where both case top and case bottom, and leads are
cooled. In this case, the DCM power dissipation is PDTOTAL and the
three surface temperatures are represented as TCASE_TOP, TCASE_BOTTOM,
and TLEADS. This thermal system can now be very easily analyzed
with simple resistors, voltage sources, and a current source.
θINT-TOP°C / W
Thermal Resistance Leads
Figure 18 — One side cooling and leads thermal model
The ChiP package provides a high degree of flexibility in that it
presents three pathways to remove heat from internal power
dissipating components. Heat may be removed from the top surface,
the bottom surface and the leads. The extent to which these three
surfaces are cooled is a key component for determining the
maximum power that is available from a ChiP, as can be seen from
Figure 17.
Thermal Resistance Top
MAX INTERNAL TEMP
θINT-TOP°C / W
+
–
Figure 17 — Double side cooling and leads thermal model
Alternatively, equations can be written around this circuit and
analyzed algebraically:
TINT – PD1 • θINT-TOP = TCASE_TOP
TINT – PD2 • θINT-BOTTOM = TCASE_BOTTOM
TINT – PD3 • θINT-LEADS = TLEADS
PDTOTAL = PD1+ PD2+ PD3
Where TINT represents the internal temperature and PD1, PD2, and
PD3 represent the heat flow through the top side, bottom side, and
leads respectively.
Figure 20 — Thermal Specified Operating Area: Max Power
Dissipation vs. Case Temp for current
limited operation
DCM™ DC-DC Converter
Rev 1.0
Page 19 of 23
08/2017
DCM3623x50M31C2y7z
Vicor provides a suite of online tools, including a simulator and
thermal estimator which greatly simplify the task of determining
whether or not a DCM thermal configuration is sufficient for a given
condition. These tools can be found at:
www.vicorpower.com/powerbench.
DCMs in current limit will operate with higher output current or
power than the rated levels. Therefore the Figure 20 Thermal Safe
Operating Area plot should be used for loads that drive the DCM in
to current limit for sustained operation.
Standalone Operation
The following Figure 21 shows the configuration of the Enhanced
VOUT DCM. An input filter is required to attenuate noise coming from
the input source. In case of the excessive line inductance, a properly
sized decoupling capacitor CDECOUPLE is required as shown
in the following figure.
DCM
R5
+
+
VTR
R1
VEN
FB1
EN
C2
R3
F1
+IN
-IN
FT
+IN
L1
CDECOUPLE
TR
C1
R2
+OUT
R4
_ _
D1
-IN
+OUT
L2
COUT-EXT
C4
C5
-OUT
-OUT
Figure 21 — Enhanced VOUT DCM configuration circuit
If signal pins (TR, EN, FT) are not used, they can be left floating, and
DCM will work in the nominal output condition.
When common mode noise in the input side is not a concern, TR and
EN can be driven and FT received using -IN as a reference.
L1: 1 µH, minimized DCR;
R1: 0.3 Ω;
C1: Ceramic capacitors in parallel, C1 = 20 µF;
L2: L2 ≥ 0.15 µH;
R2: 1 Ω;
COUT-EXT: electrolytic or tantalum capacitor, 1000 µF ≤ C3 ≤10000 µF;
C4, C5: additional ceramic /electrolytic capacitors, if needed for
output ripple filtering;
In order to help sensitive signal circuits reject potential noise,
additional components are recommended:
R5: 301 Ω, facilitate noise attenuation for TR pin;
FB1, C2: FB1 is a ferrite bead with an impedance of at least 10 Ω at
100MHz. C2 can be a ceramic capacitor of 0.1µF. Facilitate noise
attenuation for EN pin.
Note: Use an RCR filter network as suggested in the application note
AN:030 to reduce the noise on the signal pins.
DCM™ DC-DC Converter
Rev 1.0
Page 20 of 23
08/2017
DCM3623x50M31C2y7z
DCM Module Product Outline Drawing Recommended PCB Footprint and Pinout
38.72±.38
1.524±.015
11.43
.450
19.36
.762
0
1.52
.060
(2) PL.
11.40
.449
0
0
22.80±.13
.898±.005
1.02
.040
(3) PL.
0
1.52
.060
(4) PL.
TOP VIEW (COMPONENT SIDE)
.05 [.002]
7.21±.10
.284±.004
SEATING
.
PLANE
4.17
.164
(9) PL.
18.60
.732
0
18.60
.732
.41
.016
(9) PL.
8.25
.325
8.00
.315
2.75
.108
0
0
2.75
.108
1.38
.054
4.13
.162
1.38
.054
8.00
.315
0
8.25
.325
8.00±.08
.315±.003
4.13±.08
.162±.003
1.38±.08
.054±.003
+IN
0
2.03
.080
PLATED THRU
.25 [.010]
ANNULAR RING
(2) PL.
2.75±.08
.108±.003
-OUT
TR
0
EN
FT
8.00±.08
.315±.003
8.25±.08
.325±.003
+OUT
-IN
+OUT
2.75±.08
.108±.003
-OUT
8.25±.08
.325±.003
0
1.38±.08
.054±.003
0
18.60±.08
.732±.003
1.52
.060
PLATED THRU
.25 [.010]
ANNULAR RING
(3) PL.
18.60±.08
.732±.003
BOTTOM VIEW
RECOMMENDED HOLE PATTERN
(COMPONENT SIDE)
NOTES:
1- RoHS COMPLIANT PER CST-0001 LATEST REVISION.
DCM™ DC-DC Converter
Rev 1.0
Page 21 of 23
08/2017
2.03
.080
PLATED THRU
.38 [.015]
ANNULAR RING
(4) PL.
DCM3623x50M31C2y7z
Revision History
Revision
Date
1.0
08/31/17
Description
Initial release
Page Number(s)
n/a
DCM™ DC-DC Converter
Rev 1.0
Page 22 of 23
08/2017
DCM3623x50M31C2y7z
Vicor’s comprehensive line of power solutions includes high density AC-DC and DC-DC modules and
accessory components, fully configurable AC-DC and DC-DC power supplies, and complete custom
power systems.
Information furnished by Vicor is believed to be accurate and reliable. However, no responsibility is assumed by Vicor for its use. Vicor
makes no representations or warranties with respect to the accuracy or completeness of the contents of this publication. Vicor reserves
the right to make changes to any products, specifications, and product descriptions at any time without notice. Information published by
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Testing and other quality controls are used to the extent Vicor deems necessary to support Vicor’s product warranty. Except where
mandated by government requirements, testing of all parameters of each product is not necessarily performed.
Specifications are subject to change without notice.
Visit http://www.vicorpower.com/dc-dc/isolated-regulated/dcm for the latest product information.
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All sales are subject to Vicor’s Standard Terms and Conditions of Sale, and Product Warranty which are available on Vicor’s webpage
(http://www.vicorpower.com/termsconditionswarranty) or upon request.
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VICOR’S PRODUCTS ARE NOT AUTHORIZED FOR USE AS CRITICAL COMPONENTS IN LIFE SUPPORT DEVICES OR SYSTEMS WITHOUT THE
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herein, life support devices or systems are devices which (a) are intended for surgical implant into the body, or (b) support or sustain life and
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result in a significant injury to the user. A critical component is any component in a life support device or system whose failure to perform
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property rights is granted by this document. Interested parties should contact Vicor’s Intellectual Property Department.
The products described on this data sheet are protected by the following U.S. Patents Numbers:
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email
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DCM™ DC-DC Converter
Rev 1.0
Page 23 of 23
08/2017
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