LP2982 Micropower 50 mA Ultra Low-Dropout Regulator General Description Features The LP2982 is a 50 mA, fixed-output voltage regulator designed to provide ultra low dropout and lower noise in battery powered applications. Using an optimized VIP™ (Vertically Integrated PNP) process, the LP2982 delivers unequaled performance in all specifications critical to battery-powered designs: Dropout Voltage: Typically 120 mV @ 50 mA load, and 7 mV @ 1 mA load. Ground Pin Current: Typically 375 µA @ 50 mA load, and 80 µA @ 1 mA load. Sleep Mode: Less than 1 µA quiescent current when on/off pin is pulled low. Smallest Possible Size: SOT-23 and micro SMD packages use absolute minimum board space. Precision Output: 1.0% tolerance output voltages available (A grade). Low Noise: By adding an external bypass capacitor, output noise can be reduced to 30 µV (typical). Ten output voltage versions, from 2.5V to 5.0V, are available as standard products. n n n n n n n n n n n n n n Ultra low dropout voltage Guaranteed 50 mA output current Typical dropout voltage 180 mV @ 80 mA Smallest possible size (SOT-23, micro SMD package) Requires minimum external components < 1 µA quiescent current when shutdown Low ground pin current at all loads Output voltage accuracy 1.0% (A Grade) High peak current capability (150 mA typical) Wide supply voltage range (16V max) Low ZOUT 0.3Ω typical (10 Hz to 1 MHz) Overtemperature/overcurrent protection −40˚C to +125˚C junction temperature range Custom voltages available Applications n n n n Cellular Phone Palmtop/Laptop Computer Personal Digital Assistant (PDA) Camcorder, Personal Stereo, Camera Block Diagram DS012679-1 VIP™ is a trademark of National Semiconductor Corporation. © 2000 National Semiconductor Corporation DS012679 www.national.com LP2982 Micropower 50 mA Ultra Low-Dropout Regulator March 2000 LP2982 Connection Diagrams 5-Lead Small Outline Package (M5) micro SMD, 5 Bump Package (BPA05) DS012679-55 DS012679-3 Bottom View See NS Package Number BPA05 Top View See NS Package Number MF05A For ordering information see Table 1 Basic Application Circuit DS012679-2 *ON/OFF input must be actively terminated. Tie to VIN if this function is not to be used. **Minimum capacitance is shown to insure stability over full load current range. More capacitance provides superior dynamic performance (see Application Hints). ***See Application Hints. www.national.com 2 LP2982 Ordering Information TABLE 1. Package Marking and Ordering Information Output Voltage (V) Grade Package Marking Order Information Supplied as: 5-Lead Small Outline Package (M5) 2.5 A LP2982AIM5X-2.5 L58A 3000 Units on Tape and Reel 2.5 A LP2982AIM5-2.5 L58A 1000 Units on Tape and Reel 2.5 STD LP2982IM5X-2.5 L58B 3000 Units on Tape and Reel 2.5 STD LP2982IM5-2.5 L58B 1000Units on Tape and Reel 2.6 A LP2982AIM5X-2.6 LBYA 3000 Units on Tape and Reel 2.6 A LP2982AIM5-2.6 LBYA 1000 Units on Tape and Reel 2.6 STD LP2982IM5X-2.6 LBYB 3000 Units on Tape and Reel 2.6 STD LP2982IM5-2.6 LBYB 1000Units on Tape and Reel 2.8 A LP2982AIM5X-2.8 L60A 3000 Units on Tape and Reel 2.8 A LP2982AIM5-2.8 L60A 1000 Units on Tape and Reel 2.8 STD LP2982IM5X-2.8 L60B 3000 Units on Tape and Reel 2.8 STD LP2982IM5-2.8 L60B 1000 Units on Tape and Reel 3.0 A LP2982AIM5X-3.0 L20A 3000 Units on Tape and Reel 3.0 A LP2982AIM5-3.0 L20A 1000 Units on Tape and Reel 3.0 STD LP2982IM5X-3.0 L20B 3000 Units on Tape and Reel 3.0 STD LP2982IM5-3.0 L20B 1000 Units on Tape and Reel 3.3 A LP2982AIM5X-3.3 L19A 3000 Units on Tape and Reel 3.3 A LP2982AIM5-3.3 L19A 1000 Units on Tape and Reel 3.3 STD LP2982IM5X-3.3 L19B 3000 Units on Tape and Reel 3.3 STD LP2982IM5-3.3 L19B 1000 Units on Tape and Reel 3.6 A LP2982AIM5X-3.6 L0BA 3000 Units on Tape and Reel 3.6 A LP2982AIM5-3.6 L0BA 1000 Units on Tape and Reel 3.6 STD LP2982IM5X-3.6 L0BB 3000 Units on Tape and Reel 3.6 STD LP2982IM5-3.6 L0BB 1000 Units on Tape and Reel 3.8 A LP2982AIM5X-3.8 L76A 3000 Units on Tape and Reel 3.8 A LP2982AIM5-3.8 L76A 1000 Units on Tape and Reel 3.8 STD LP2982IM5X-3.8 L76B 3000 Units on Tape and Reel 3.8 STD LP2982IM5-3.8 L76B 1000 Units on Tape and Reel 4.0 A LP2982AIM5X-4.0 L29A 3000 Units on Tape and Reel 4.0 A LP2982AIM5-4.0 L29A 1000 Units on Tape and Reel 4.0 STD LP2982IM5X-4.0 L29B 3000 Units on Tape and Reel 4.0 STD LP2982IM5-4.0 L29B 1000 Units on Tape and Reel 4.5 A LP2982AIM5X-4.5 LA8A 3000 Units on Tape and Reel 4.5 A LP2982AIM5-4.5 LA8A 1000 Units on Tape and Reel 4.5 STD LP2982IM5X-4.5 LA8B 3000 Units on Tape and Reel 4.5 STD LP2982IM5-4.5 LA8B 1000 Units on Tape and Reel 4.7 A LP2982AIM5X-4.7 L0HA 3000 Units on Tape and Reel 4.7 A LP2982AIM5-4.7 L0HA 1000 Units on Tape and Reel 4.7 STD LP2982IM5X-4.7 L0HB 3000 Units on Tape and Reel 4.7 STD LP2982IM5-4.7 L0HB 1000 Units on Tape and Reel 5.0 A LP2982AIM5X-5.0 L18A 3000 Units on Tape and Reel 5.0 A LP2982AIM5-5.0 L18A 1000 Units on Tape and Reel 5.0 STD LP2982IM5X-5.0 L18B 3000 Units on Tape and Reel 5.0 STD LP2982IM5-5.0 L18B 1000 Units on Tape and Reel 5.3 A LP2982AIM5X-5.3 LBZA 3000 Units on Tape and Reel 3 www.national.com LP2982 Ordering Information (Continued) TABLE 1. Package Marking and Ordering Information (Continued) Output Voltage (V) Grade Package Marking Order Information Supplied as: 5-Lead Small Outline Package (M5) 5.3 A LP2982AIM5-5.3 LBZA 1000 Units on Tape and Reel 5.3 STD LP2982IM5X-5.3 LBZB 3000 Units on Tape and Reel 5.3 STD LP2982IM5-5.3 LBZB 1000 Units on Tape and Reel micro SMD, 5 Bump Package (BPA05) 2.8 A LP2982AIBP-2.8 250 Units on Tape and Reel 2.8 A LP2982AIBPX-2.8 3000 Units on Tape and Reel 2.8 STD LP2982IBP-2.8 250 Units on Tape and Reel 2.8 STD LP2982IBPX-2.8 3000 Units on Tape and Reel 3.0 A LP2982AIBP-3.0 250 Units on Tape and Reel 3.0 A LP2982AIBPX-3.0 3000 Units on Tape and Reel 3.0 STD LP2982IBP-3.0 250 Units on Tape and Reel 3.0 STD LP2982IBPX-3.0 3000 Units on Tape and Reel www.national.com 4 Power Dissipation (Note 3) Internally Limited Input Supply Voltage (Survival) −0.3V to +16V Input Supply Voltage (Operating) 2.1V to +16V Shutdown Input Voltage (Survival) −0.3V to +16V Output Voltage (Survival, (Note 4)) −0.3V to +9V Short Circuit Protected IOUT (Survival) Input-Output Voltage (Survival, (Note 5)) −0.3V to +16V If Military/Aerospace specified devices are required, please contact the National Semiconductor Sales Office/ Distributors for availability and specifications. Storage Temperature Range Operating Junction Temperature Range Lead Temperature (Soldering, 5 sec.) ESD Rating (Note 2) −65˚C to +150˚C −40˚C to +125˚C 260˚C 2 kV Electrical Characteristics Limits in standard typeface are for TJ = 25˚C, and limits in boldface type apply over the full operating temperature range. Unless otherwise specified: VIN = VO(NOM) + 1V, IL = 1 mA, CIN = 1 µF, COUT = 4.7 µF, VON/OFF = 2V. Symbol ∆VO VIN–VO Parameter Output Voltage Tolerance Conditions Typ LP2982AI-X.X LP2982I-X.X (Note 6) (Note 6) Min Max Min Max IL = 1 mA −1.0 +1.0 −1.5 +1.5 1 mA < IL < 50 mA −1.5 +1.5 −2.0 +2.0 −2.0 +2.0 −3.5 +3.5 Output Voltage Line Regulation VO(NOM) + 1V ≤ VIN ≤ 16V Dropout Voltage IL = 0 0.007 1 (Note 7) IGND Ground Pin Current 3 5 5 10 10 15 15 IL = 10 mA 40 60 60 90 90 IL = 50 mA 120 150 150 225 225 IL = 0 65 80 140 IL = 50 mA 375 VON/OFF < 0.3V 0.01 95 95 125 125 110 110 170 170 220 220 460 460 600 600 1200 1200 0.8 0.8 VON/OFF < 0.15V 0.10 ON/OFF Input Voltage High = O/P ON 1.4 (Note 8) Low = O/P OFF 0.55 0.15 0.15 VON/OFF = 0 0.01 −2 −2 5 15 15 ON/OFF Input Current VON/OFF = 5V IO(PK) Peak Output Current VOUT ≥ VO(NOM) − 5% 150 VIN–VO Dropout Voltage IL = 80 mA 180 IGND Ground Pin Current IL = 80 mA 525 en 3 7 IL = 10 mA ION/OFF 0.014 0.032 IL = 1 mA IL = 1 mA VON/OFF 0.014 0.032 Output Noise Voltage (RMS) 2.0 1.6 %VNOM %/V mV µA 2.0 1.6 100 Units 100 V µA mA 225 225 325 325 750 750 1400 1400 mV µA µV BW = 300 Hz–50 kHz, COUT = 10 µF CBYPASS = 0.01 µF 30 5 www.national.com LP2982 Absolute Maximum Ratings (Note 1) LP2982 Electrical Characteristics (Continued) Limits in standard typeface are for TJ = 25˚C, and limits in boldface type apply over the full operating temperature range. Unless otherwise specified: VIN = VO(NOM) + 1V, IL = 1 mA, CIN = 1 µF, COUT = 4.7 µF, VON/OFF = 2V. Symbol Parameter Conditions Typ LP2982AI-X.X LP2982I-X.X (Note 6) (Note 6) Min Ripple Rejection IO(MAX) Short Circuit Current Max Min Units Max f = 1 kHz COUT = 10 µF 45 dB RL = 0 (Steady State) (Note 9) 150 mA Note 1: Absolute maximum ratings indicate limits beyond which damage to the component may occur. Electrical specifications do not apply when operating the device outside of its rated operating conditions. Note 2: The ESD rating of pins 3 and 4 is 1 kV. Note 3: The maximum allowable power dissipation is a function of the maximum junction temperature, TJ(MAX), the junction-to-ambient thermal resistance, θJA, and the ambient temperature, TA. The maximum allowable power dissipation at any ambient temperature is calculated using: The value of θJA for the SOT-23 package is 220˚C/W and the micro SMD package is 320˚C/W. Exceeding the maximum allowable power dissipation will cause excessive die temperature, and the regulator will go into thermal shutdown. Note 4: If used in a dual-supply system where the regulator load is returned to a negative supply, the LP2982 output must be diode-clamped to ground. Note 5: The output PNP structure contains a diode between the VIN and VOUT terminals that is normally reverse-biased. Reversing the polarity from VIN to VOUT will turn on this diode. Note 6: temperature range are guaranteed through correlation using Statistical Quality Control (SQC) methods. The limits are used to calculate National’s Average Outgoing Quality Level (AOQL). Note 7: Dropout voltage is defined as the input to output differential at which the output voltage drops 100 mV below the value measured with a 1V differential. Note 8: The ON/OFF inputs must be properly driven to prevent possible misoperation. For details, refer to Application Hints. Note 9: See Typical Performance Characteristics curves. Typical Performance Characteristics Unless otherwise specified: TA = 25˚C, VIN = VO(NOM) + 1V, COUT = 4.7 µF, CIN = 1 µF, all voltage options, ON/OFF pin tied to VIN. Output Voltage vs Temperature Output Voltage vs Temperature DS012679-5 DS012679-4 www.national.com 6 Unless otherwise specified: TA = 25˚C, VIN = VO(NOM) + 1V, COUT = 4.7 µF, CIN = 1 µF, all voltage options, ON/OFF pin tied to VIN. (Continued) Output Voltage vs Temparature Dropout Characteristics DS012679-7 DS012679-6 Dropout Characteristics Dropout Characteristics DS012679-9 DS012679-8 Dropout Voltage vs Temperature Dropout Voltage vs Load Current DS012679-10 DS012679-11 7 www.national.com LP2982 Typical Performance Characteristics LP2982 Typical Performance Characteristics Unless otherwise specified: TA = 25˚C, VIN = VO(NOM) + 1V, COUT = 4.7 µF, CIN = 1 µF, all voltage options, ON/OFF pin tied to VIN. (Continued) Ground Pin Current vs Temperature Ground Pin Current vs Load Current DS012679-13 DS012679-12 Input Current vs VIN Input Current vs VIN DS012679-15 DS012679-14 Line Transient Response Line Transient Response DS012679-16 www.national.com DS012679-17 8 Unless otherwise specified: TA = 25˚C, VIN = VO(NOM) + 1V, COUT = 4.7 µF, CIN = 1 µF, all voltage options, ON/OFF pin tied to VIN. (Continued) Load Transient Response Load Transient Response DS012679-18 Load Transient Response DS012679-19 Load Transient Response DS012679-20 Short Circuit Current DS012679-21 Instantaneous Short Circuit Current vs Temperature DS012679-22 DS012679-23 9 www.national.com LP2982 Typical Performance Characteristics LP2982 Typical Performance Characteristics Unless otherwise specified: TA = 25˚C, VIN = VO(NOM) + 1V, COUT = 4.7 µF, CIN = 1 µF, all voltage options, ON/OFF pin tied to VIN. (Continued) Short Circuit Current Instantaneous Short Circuit Current vs Output Voltage DS012679-24 DS012679-25 Output Impedance vs Frequency Output Impedance vs Frequency DS012679-26 ON/OFF Pin Current vs VON/OFF DS012679-29 ON/OFF Threshold vs Temperature DS012679-35 DS012679-34 www.national.com 10 Unless otherwise specified: TA = 25˚C, VIN = VO(NOM) + 1V, COUT = 4.7 µF, CIN = 1 µF, all voltage options, ON/OFF pin tied to VIN. (Continued) Input to Output Leakage vs Temperature Output Reverse Leakage vs Temperature DS012679-30 Output Noise Density DS012679-31 Output Noise Density DS012679-48 DS012679-42 Output Noise Density Ripple Rejection DS012679-49 DS012679-41 11 www.national.com LP2982 Typical Performance Characteristics LP2982 Typical Performance Characteristics Unless otherwise specified: TA = 25˚C, VIN = VO(NOM) + 1V, COUT = 4.7 µF, CIN = 1 µF, all voltage options, ON/OFF pin tied to VIN. (Continued) Turn-ON Waveform Turn-ON Waveform DS012679-50 DS012679-51 Turn-ON Waveform DS012679-52 www.national.com 12 EXTERNAL CAPACITORS An aluminum electrolytic can exhibit an ESR increase of as much as 50X when going from 20˚C to −40˚C. Also, some aluminum electrolytic are not operational below −25˚C because the electrolyte can freeze. Like any low-dropout regulator, the external capacitors used with the LP2982 must be carefully selected to assure regulator loop stability. INPUT CAPACITOR: An input capacitor whose value is ≥ 1 µF is required with the LP2982 (amount of capacitance can be increased without limit). This capacitor must be located a distance of not more than 0.5" from the input pin of the LP2982 and returned to a clean analog ground. Any good quality ceramic or tantalum can be used for this capacitor. OUTPUT CAPACITOR: The output capacitor must meet both the requirement for minimum amount of capacitance and E.S.R. (equivalent series resistance) value. Curves are provided which show the allowable ESR range as a function of load current for various output voltages and capacitor values (refer to Figure 1, Figure 2). IMPORTANT: The output capacitor must maintain its ESR in the stable region over the full operating temperature to assure stability. Also, capacitor tolerance and variation with temperature must be considered to assure the minimum amount of capacitance is provided at all times. This capacitor should be located not more than 0.5" from the output pin of the LP2982 and returned to a clean analog ground. LOW-CURRENT OPERATION: In applications where the load current is < 1 mA, special consideration must be given to the output capacitor. Circuitry inside the LP2982 is specially designed to reduce operating (quiescent) current at light loads down to about 65 µA. The mode of operation which yields this very low quiescent current also means that the output capacitor ESR is critical. For optimum stability and minimum output noise, it is recommended that a 10Ω resistor be placed in series with the output capacitor in any applications where IL < 1 mA. DS012679-43 CAPACITOR CHARACTERISTICS TANTALUM: Tantalum capacitors are the best choice for use with the LP2982. Most good quality tantalum can be used with the LP2982, but check the manufacturer’s data sheet to be sure the ESR is in range. It is important to remember that ESR increases sharply at lower temperatures ( < 10˚C) and a capacitor that is near the upper limit for stability at room temperature can cause instability when it gets cold. In applications which must operate at very low temperatures, it may be necessary to parallel the output tantalum capacitor with a ceramic capacitor to prevent the ESR from going up too high (see next section for important information on ceramic capacitors). CERAMIC: Ceramic capacitors are not recommended for use at the output of the LP2982. This is because the ESR of a ceramic can be low enough to go below the minimum stable value for the LP2982. A good 2.2 µF ceramic was measured and found to have an ESR of about 15 mΩ, which is low enough to cause oscillations. If a ceramic capacitor is used on the output, a 1Ω resistor should be placed in series with the capacitor. ALUMINUM: Because of large physical size, aluminum electrolytic are not typically used with the LP2982. They must FIGURE 1. 5V/2.2 µF ESR Curves FIGURE 2. 3V/4.7 µF ESR Curves DS012679-44 BYPASS CAPACITOR The 0.01 µF capacitor connected to the bypass pin to reduce noise must have very low leakage. The current flowing out of the bypass pin comes from the bandgap reference, which is used to set the output voltage. This capacitor leakage current causes the output voltage to decline by an amount proportional to the current. Typical values are −0.015%/nA @ −40˚C, −0.021%/nA @ 25˚C, and −0.035%/nA @ +125˚C. This data is valid up to a maximum leakage current of about 500 nA, beyond which the bandgap is so severely loaded that it can not function. Care must be taken to ensure that the capacitor selected will not have excessive leakage current over the operating temperature range of the application. A high quality ceramic capacitor which uses either NPO or COG type dielectric material will typically have very low leakage. Small surface mount polypropylene or polycarbonate film capacitors also have extremely low leakage, but are slightly larger than ceramics. 13 www.national.com LP2982 meet the same ESR requirements over the operating temperature range, which is more difficult because of their large increase in ESR at cold temperature. Application Hints LP2982 Application Hints ON/OFF INPUT OPERATION (Continued) The LP2982 is shut off by pulling the ON/OFF input low, and turned on by driving the input high. If this feature is not to be used, the ON/OFF input should be tied to VIN to keep the regulator on at all times (the ON/OFF input must not be left floating). REVERSE CURRENT PATH The power transistor used in the LP2982 has an inherent diode connected between the regulator input and output (see below). To ensure proper operation, the signal source used to drive the ON/OFF input must be able to swing above and below the specified turn-on/turn-off voltage thresholds which guarantee an ON or OFF state (see Electrical Characteristics). The ON/OFF signal may come from either a totem-pole output, or an open-collector output with pull-up resistor to the LP2982 input voltage or another logic supply. The high-level voltage may exceed the LP2982 input voltage, but must remain within the Absolute Maximum Ratings for the ON/OFF pin. It is also important that the turn-on/turn-off voltage signals applied to the ON/OFF input have a slew rate which is greater than 40 mV/µs. Important: the regulator shutdown function will operate incorrectly if a slow-moving signal is applied to the ON/OFF input. DS012679-39 If the output is forced above the input by more than a VBE, this diode will become forward biased and current will flow from the VOUT terminal to VIN. This current must be limited to < 100 mA to prevent damage to the part. The internal diode can also be turned on by abruptly stepping the input voltage to a value below the output voltage. To prevent regulator misoperation, a Schottky diode should be used in any application where input/output voltage conditions can cause the internal diode to be turned on (see below). Micro SMD Mounting The micro SMD package requires specific mounting techniques which are detailed in National Semiconductor Application Note # 1112. Referring to the section Surface Mount Technology (SMT) Assembly Considerations, it should be noted that the pad style which must be used with the 5-pin package is the NSMD (non-solder mask defined) type. For best results during assembly, alignment ordinals on the PC board may be used to facilitate placement of the micro SMD device. DS012679-40 Micro SMD Light Sensitivity Exposing the micro SMD device to direct sunlight will cause misoperation of the device. Light sources such as Halogen lamps can also affect electrical performance if brought near to the device. The wavelenghts which have the most detrimental effect are reds and infra-reds, which means that the fluorescent lighting used inside most buildings has very little effect on performance. A micro SMD test board was brought to within 1 cm of a fluorescent desk lamp and the effect on the regulated output voltage was negligible, showing a deviation of less than 0.1% from nominal. As shown, the Schottky diode is connected in parallel with the internal parasitic diode and prevents it from being turned on by limiting the voltage drop across it to about 0.3V. www.national.com 14 LP2982 Physical Dimensions inches (millimeters) unless otherwise noted 5-Lead Small Outline Package (M5) NS Package Number MF05A For Order Numbers, refer to Table 1in the “Ordering Information” section of this document. 15 www.national.com LP2982 Physical Dimensions inches (millimeters) unless otherwise noted (Continued) NOTES: UNLESS OTHERWISE SPECIFIED 1. EPOXY COATING 2. 63Sn/37Pb EUTECTIC BUMP 3. RECOMMEND NON-SOLDER MASK DEFINED LANDING PAD. 4. PIN 1 IS ESTABLISHED BY LOWER LEFT CORNER WITH RESPECT TO TEXT ORIENTATION. REMAINING PINS ARE NUMBERED COUNTER CLOCKWISE. 5. XXX IN DRAWING NUMBER REPRESENTS PACKAGE SIZE VARIATION WHERE X1 IS PACKAGE WIDTH, X2 IS PACKAGE LENGTH AND X3 IS PACKAGE HEIGHT. 6.NO JEDEC REGISTRATION AS OF AUG.1999. micro SMD, 5 Bump, Package (BPA05) NS Package Number BPA05A For Order Numbers, refer to Table 1“Ordering Information” section of this document. The dimensions for X1, X2 and X3 are as given: X1 = 0.930 +/− 0.030mm X2 = 1.107 +/− 0.030mm X3 = 0.850 +/− 0.050mm www.national.com 16 LP2982 Micropower 50 mA Ultra Low-Dropout Regulator Notes LIFE SUPPORT POLICY NATIONAL’S PRODUCTS ARE NOT AUTHORIZED FOR USE AS CRITICAL COMPONENTS IN LIFE SUPPORT DEVICES OR SYSTEMS WITHOUT THE EXPRESS WRITTEN APPROVAL OF THE PRESIDENT AND GENERAL COUNSEL OF NATIONAL SEMICONDUCTOR CORPORATION. As used herein: 1. Life support devices or systems are devices or systems which, (a) are intended for surgical implant into the body, or (b) support or sustain life, and whose failure to perform when properly used in accordance with instructions for use provided in the labeling, can be reasonably expected to result in a significant injury to the user. National Semiconductor Corporation Americas Tel: 1-800-272-9959 Fax: 1-800-737-7018 Email: [email protected] www.national.com National Semiconductor Europe Fax: +49 (0) 180-530 85 86 Email: [email protected] Deutsch Tel: +49 (0) 69 9508 6208 English Tel: +44 (0) 870 24 0 2171 Français Tel: +33 (0) 1 41 91 8790 2. A critical component is any component of a life support device or system whose failure to perform can be reasonably expected to cause the failure of the life support device or system, or to affect its safety or effectiveness. National Semiconductor Asia Pacific Customer Response Group Tel: 65-2544466 Fax: 65-2504466 Email: [email protected] National Semiconductor Japan Ltd. Tel: 81-3-5639-7560 Fax: 81-3-5639-7507 National does not assume any responsibility for use of any circuitry described, no circuit patent licenses are implied and National reserves the right at any time without notice to change said circuitry and specifications.