MAXIM 71M6521FE

19-5370; Rev 2; 11/11
71M6521DE/DH/FE
Energy Meter ICs
DATA SHEET
FEATURES
GENERAL DESCRIPTION
The Teridian™ 71M6521DE/DH/FE energy meter ICs are highly integrated
systems-on-a-chip (SoCs) with an MPU core, RTC, flash, and LCD driver.
The Single Converter Technology® with a 22-bit delta-sigma ADC, four
analog inputs, digital temperature compensation, precision voltage
reference, battery voltage monitor, and 32-bit computation engine (CE)
supports a wide range of residential metering applications with very few
low-cost external components. A 32kHz crystal time base for the entire
system and internal battery-backup support for RAM and RTC further
reduce system cost. The ICs support 2-wire, 3-wire, and 4-wire singlephase and dual-phase residential metering along with tamper-detection
mechanisms.
Maximum design flexibility is provided by multiple UARTs, I2C,
MICROWIRE®, up to 18 DIO pins, and in-system programmable flash
memory, which can be updated with data or application code in operation.
A complete array of ICE and development tools, programming libraries, and
reference designs enable rapid development and certification of TOU,
AMR, and prepay meters that comply with worldwide electricity metering
standards.
A
CT/SHUNT
LOAD
NEUT
POWER SUPPLY
LOAD
B
CONVERTER
V3.3A
IA
VA
IB
VB
V3.3
GNDA GNDD
SYS
PWR MODE
CONTROL
TERIDIAN
71M6521
WAKE-UP
REGULATOR
VBAT
V2.5
VOLTAGE REF
VREF
VBIAS
TEMP
SENSOR
RAM
COM0..3
SERIAL PORTS
TX
AMR
FLASH
RX
RX/DIO1
IR
POWER
FAULT
TX/DIO2
SENSE
DRIVE/MOD
COMPARATOR
V1
OSC/PLL
XIN
32 kHz
XOUT
COMPUTE
ENGINE
MPU
SEG0..18
SEG 24..31/
DIO 4..11
SEG 34..37/
DIO 14..17
3.3V LCD
88.88.8888
IIC or uWire
EEPROM
SEG 32,33,
38/ICE
TEST PULSES
RTC
TIMERS
ICE
BATTERY
DIO, PULSE
ICE_E
07/25/2007
Teridian is a trademark and Single Converter Technology is a registered
trademark of Maxim Integrated Products Inc.
MICROWIRE is a registered trademark of National Semiconductor Corp.
Rev 2
V3P3D
GNDD
• Up to 0.1% Wh Accuracy Over 2000:1 Current
Range
• Exceeds IEC 62053/ANSI C 12.20 Standards
• Voltage Reference < 40 ppm/°C (< 20ppm/°C for
71M6521DH)
• Four Sensor Inputs—VDD Referenced
• Low-Jitter Wh and VARh Pulse Test Outputs
(10kHz max)
• Pulse Count for Pulse Outputs
• Four-Quadrant Metering
• Tamper Detection
Neutral Current with CT or Shunt
• Line Frequency Count for RTC
• Digital Temperature Compensation
• Sag Detection for Phase A and B
• Independent 32-Bit Compute Engine
• 46-64Hz Line Frequency Range with Same
Calibration
• Phase Compensation (±7°)
• Battery backup for RTC and battery monitor
• Three Battery Modes with Wake-Up on Pushbutton
or Timer:
Brownout Mode (48µA)
LCD Mode (5.7µA)
Sleep Mode (2.9µA)
• Energy Display on Main Power Failure
• Wake-Up with Pushbutton
• 22-Bit Delta-Sigma ADC
• 8-Bit MPU (80515), 1 Clock Cycle per Instruction
with Integrated ICE for MPU Debug
• RTC with Temperature Compensation
• Auto-Calibration
• Hardware Watchdog Timer, Power-Fail Monitor
• LCD Driver (Up to 152 Pixels)
• Up to 18 General-Purpose I/O Pins
• 32kHz Time Base
• 16KB (6521DE/DH) or 32KB (6521FE) Flash with
Security
• 2KB MPU XRAM
• Two UARTs for IR and AMR
• Digital I/O Pins Compatible with 5V Inputs
• 64-Pin LQFP or 68-Pin QFN Package
• Lead(Pb)-Free Packages
Page: 1 of 107
71M6521DE/DH/FE Data Sheet
Table of Contents
GENERAL DESCRIPTION ........................................................................................................................ 1
FEATURES ................................................................................................................................................ 1
HARDWARE DESCRIPTION ..................................................................................................................... 10
Hardware Overview ..................................................................................................................... 10
Analog Front End (AFE)............................................................................................................... 10
Input Multiplexer ............................................................................................................ 10
A/D Converter (ADC) ..................................................................................................... 11
FIR Filter ........................................................................................................................ 11
Voltage References ....................................................................................................... 11
Temperature Sensor ...................................................................................................... 12
Battery Monitor .............................................................................................................. 13
Functional Description ................................................................................................... 13
Digital Computation Engine (CE) ................................................................................................. 13
Meter Equations ............................................................................................................ 14
Description ................................................................................................................................... 14
Real-Time Monitor ......................................................................................................... 15
Pulse Generator ............................................................................................................ 15
CE Functional Overview ................................................................................................ 15
80515 MPU Core ........................................................................................................... 17
Memory Organization .................................................................................................... 17
Special Function Registers (SFRs)................................................................................ 19
Special Function Registers (Generic 80515 SFRs) ....................................................... 20
Special Function Registers Specific to the 71M6521DE/DH/FE .................................... 22
Instruction Set................................................................................................................ 23
UART ............................................................................................................................. 23
Timers and Counters ..................................................................................................... 25
WD Timer (Software Watchdog Timer) .......................................................................... 28
Interrupts ....................................................................................................................... 30
On-Chip Resources ..................................................................................................................... 38
Oscillator ....................................................................................................................... 38
PLL and Internal Clocks ................................................................................................ 38
Real-Time Clock (RTC) ................................................................................................. 38
Temperature Sensor ...................................................................................................... 38
Physical Memory ........................................................................................................... 39
Optical Interface ............................................................................................................ 40
Digital I/O ....................................................................................................................... 40
LCD Drivers ................................................................................................................... 42
Battery Monitor .............................................................................................................. 42
EEPROM Interface ........................................................................................................ 43
Page: 2 of 107
Rev 2
71M6521DE/DH/FE Data Sheet
Hardware Watchdog Timer ............................................................................................ 46
Program Security ........................................................................................................... 46
Test Ports ...................................................................................................................... 47
FUNCTIONAL DESCRIPTION ................................................................................................................... 48
Theory of Operation ..................................................................................................................... 48
System Timing Summary ............................................................................................................. 49
Battery Modes .............................................................................................................................. 50
MISSION...................................................................................................................................... 51
BROWNOUT Mode ....................................................................................................... 51
LCD Mode ..................................................................................................................... 52
SLEEP Mode ................................................................................................................. 52
Fault and Reset Behavior ............................................................................................................ 57
Wake Up Behavior ....................................................................................................................... 57
Wake on PB................................................................................................................... 58
Wake on Timer .............................................................................................................. 58
Data Flow..................................................................................................................................... 59
CE/MPU Communication ............................................................................................................. 59
APPLICATION INFORMATION ................................................................................................................. 60
Connection of Sensors (CT, Resistive Shunt) .............................................................................. 60
Distinction between 71M6521DE/71M6521FE and 71M6521DH Parts ....................................... 60
Temperature Measurement ......................................................................................................... 61
Temperature Compensation ........................................................................................................ 61
Temperature Compensation and Mains Frequency Stabilization for the RTC ............................. 64
Connecting 5 V Devices............................................................................................................... 65
Connecting LCDs ......................................................................................................................... 66
Connecting I2C EEPROMs .......................................................................................................... 68
Connecting Three-Wire EEPROMs ............................................................................................. 69
UART0 (TX/RX) ........................................................................................................................... 69
Optical Interface ........................................................................................................................... 70
Connecting V1 and Reset Pins .................................................................................................... 70
Connecting the Emulator Port Pins .............................................................................................. 71
Crystal Oscillator .......................................................................................................................... 71
Flash Programming ..................................................................................................................... 72
MPU Firmware Library ................................................................................................................. 72
Meter Calibration ......................................................................................................................... 72
FIRMWARE INTERFACE .......................................................................................................................... 73
I/O RAM MAP – In Numerical Order ............................................................................................ 73
SFR MAP (SFRs Specific to the Teridian 80515) – In Numerical Order ...................................... 74
I/O RAM DESCRIPTION – Alphabetical Order ............................................................................ 75
CE Interface Description .............................................................................................................. 82
CE Program ................................................................................................................... 82
Rev 2
Page: 3 of 107
71M6521DE/DH/FE Data Sheet
Formats ......................................................................................................................... 82
Constants ...................................................................................................................... 82
Environment .................................................................................................................. 82
CE Calculations ............................................................................................................. 83
CE STATUS .................................................................................................................. 83
CE TRANSFER VARIABLES ........................................................................................ 85
ELECTRICAL SPECIFICATIONS .............................................................................................................. 89
ABSOLUTE MAXIMUM RATINGS .............................................................................................. 89
RECOMMENDED EXTERNAL COMPONENTS ......................................................................... 90
RECOMMENDED OPERATING CONDITIONS .......................................................................... 90
PERFORMANCE SPECIFICATIONS .......................................................................................... 91
INPUT LOGIC LEVELS ................................................................................................. 91
OUTPUT LOGIC LEVELS ............................................................................................. 91
POWER-FAULT COMPARATOR .................................................................................. 91
BATTERY MONITOR .................................................................................................... 91
SUPPLY CURRENT ...................................................................................................... 92
V3P3D SWITCH ............................................................................................................ 92
2.5 V VOLTAGE REGULATOR ..................................................................................... 92
LOW POWER VOLTAGE REGULATOR....................................................................... 92
CRYSTAL OSCILLATOR .............................................................................................. 93
VREF, VBIAS ................................................................................................................ 93
LCD DRIVERS .............................................................................................................. 94
ADC CONVERTER, V3P3A REFERENCED ................................................................. 94
TEMPERATURE SENSOR ........................................................................................... 95
TIMING SPECIFICATIONS ......................................................................................................... 96
RAM AND FLASH MEMORY ..................................................................................................................... 96
FLASH MEMORY TIMING ............................................................................................ 96
EEPROM INTERFACE .................................................................................................. 96
RESET and V1 .............................................................................................................. 96
RTC ............................................................................................................................... 96
TYPICAL PERFORMANCE DATA ................................................................................ 97
PACKAGE OUTLINE (LQFP 64) ................................................................................................. 98
PACKAGE OUTLINE (QFN 68) ................................................................................................... 98
PINOUT (LQFP-64) ..................................................................................................................... 100
PINOUT (QFN 68) ....................................................................................................................... 100
Recommended PCB Land Pattern for the QFN-68 Package ....................................................... 101
PIN DESCRIPTIONS ................................................................................................................... 102
Power/Ground Pins: ...................................................................................................... 102
Analog Pins: .................................................................................................................. 102
Digital Pins:.................................................................................................................... 103
I/O Equivalent Circuits: .................................................................................................. 104
Page: 4 of 107
Rev 2
71M6521DE/DH/FE Data Sheet
ORDERING INFORMATION ...................................................................................................................... 105
REVISION HISTORY ................................................................................................................................. 106
Rev 2
Page: 5 of 107
71M6521DE/DH/FE Data Sheet
List of Figures
Figure 1: IC Functional Block Diagram ....................................................................................................................................9
Figure 2: General Topology of a Chopped Amplifier .............................................................................................................11
Figure 3: AFE Block Diagram.................................................................................................................................................13
Figure 4: Samples from Multiplexer Cycle ............................................................................................................................16
Figure 5: Accumulation Interval ............................................................................................................................................16
Figure 6: Interrupt Structure .................................................................................................................................................37
Figure 7: Optical Interface ....................................................................................................................................................40
Figure 8: Connecting an External Load to DIO Pins ..............................................................................................................42
Figure 9: 3-Wire Interface. Write Command, HiZ=0..............................................................................................................44
Figure 10: 3-Wire Interface. Write Command, HiZ=1............................................................................................................44
Figure 11: 3-Wire Interface. Read Command........................................................................................................................45
Figure 12: 3-Wire Interface. Write Command when CNT=0 ..................................................................................................45
Figure 13: 3-Wire Interface. Write Command when HiZ=1 and WFR=1. ..............................................................................45
Figure 14: Functions defined by V1 ......................................................................................................................................46
Figure 15: Voltage. Current, Momentary and Accumulated Energy ......................................................................................48
Figure 16: Timing Relationship between ADC MUX, Compute Engine, and Serial Transfers................................................49
Figure 17: RTM Output Format .............................................................................................................................................49
Figure 18: Operation Modes State Diagram ..........................................................................................................................52
Figure 19: Functional Blocks in BROWNOUT Mode (inactive blocks grayed out).................................................................53
Figure 20: Functional Blocks in LCD Mode (inactive blocks grayed out) ..............................................................................54
Figure 21: Functional Blocks in SLEEP Mode (inactive blocks grayed out) ..........................................................................55
Figure 22: Transition from BROWNOUT to MISSION Mode when System Power Returns ..................................................56
Figure 23: Power-Up Timing with V3P3SYS and VBAT tied together ...................................................................................56
Figure 24: Power-Up Timing with VBAT only .......................................................................................................................57
Figure 25: Wake Up Timing...................................................................................................................................................58
Figure 26: MPU/CE Data Flow ...............................................................................................................................................59
Figure 27: MPU/CE Communication .....................................................................................................................................59
Figure 28: Resistive Voltage Divider (Left), Current Transformer (Right) ............................................................................60
Figure 29: Resistive Shunt ....................................................................................................................................................60
Figure 30: Error Band for VREF over Temperature (Regular-Accuracy Parts) ......................................................................62
Figure 31: Error Band for VREF over Temperature (High-Accuracy Parts) ...........................................................................63
Figure 32: Crystal Frequency over Temperature ...................................................................................................................64
Figure 33: Crystal Compensation ..........................................................................................................................................65
Figure 34: Connecting LCDs .................................................................................................................................................66
Figure 35: I2C EEPROM Connection ......................................................................................................................................68
Figure 36: Three-Wire EEPROM Connection.........................................................................................................................69
Figure 37: Connections for the RX Pin ..................................................................................................................................69
Figure 38: Connection for Optical Components ....................................................................................................................70
Figure 39: Voltage Divider for V1 ..........................................................................................................................................70
Figure 40: External Components for RESET: Development Circuit (Left), Production Circuit (Right) .................................. 71
Figure 41: External Components for the Emulator Interface .................................................................................................71
Figure 42: Wh Accuracy, 0.1A to 200A at 240V/50Hz and Room Temperature....................................................................97
Figure 43: Meter Accuracy over Harmonics at 240V, 30A ....................................................................................................97
Figure 44: Typical Meter Accuracy over Temperature Relative to 25°C (71M6521FE) .........................................................98
Page: 6 of 107
Rev 2
71M6521DE/DH/FE Data Sheet
List of Tables
Table 1: Inputs Selected in Regular and Alternate Multiplexer Cycles ..................................................................................11
Table 2: CE DRAM Locations for ADC Results......................................................................................................................14
Table 3: Meter Equations. ....................................................................................................................................................14
Table 4: Memory Map ...........................................................................................................................................................17
Table 5: Stretch Memory Cycle Width ..................................................................................................................................18
Table 6: Internal Data Memory Map......................................................................................................................................19
Table 7: Special Function Registers Locations .....................................................................................................................19
Table 8: Special Function Registers Reset Values ................................................................................................................20
Table 9: PSW Register Flags .................................................................................................................................................21
Table 10: PSW Bit Functions.................................................................................................................................................21
Table 11: Port Registers .......................................................................................................................................................22
Table 12: Special Function Registers ....................................................................................................................................23
Table 13: Baud Rate Generation............................................................................................................................................24
Table 14: UART Modes .........................................................................................................................................................24
Table 15: The S0CON Register .............................................................................................................................................24
Table 16: The S1CON register ..............................................................................................................................................25
Table 17: The S0CON Bit Functions .....................................................................................................................................25
Table 18: The S1CON Bit Functions .....................................................................................................................................25
Table 19: The TCON Register ..............................................................................................................................................26
Table 20: The TCON Register Bit Functions ..........................................................................................................................26
Table 21: The TMOD Register..............................................................................................................................................27
Table 22: TMOD Register Bit Description ............................................................................................................................27
Table 23: Timers/Counters Mode Description ......................................................................................................................27
Table 24: Timer Modes .........................................................................................................................................................28
Table 25: The PCON Register ..............................................................................................................................................28
Table 26: PCON Register Bit Description.............................................................................................................................28
Table 27: The IEN0 Register (see also Table 32) .................................................................................................................29
Table 28: The IEN0 Bit Functions (see also Table 32)..........................................................................................................29
Table 29: The IEN1 Register (see also Tables 30/31) ..........................................................................................................29
Table 30: The IEN1 Bit Functions (see also Tables 30/31) ...................................................................................................29
Table 31: The IP0 Register (see also Table 45) ....................................................................................................................29
Table 32: The IP0 bit Functions (see also Table 45).............................................................................................................30
Table 33: The WDTREL Register .........................................................................................................................................30
Table 34: The WDTREL Bit Functions ..................................................................................................................................30
Table 35: The IEN0 Register ................................................................................................................................................31
Table 36: The IEN0 Bit Functions .........................................................................................................................................31
Table 37: The IEN1 Register ................................................................................................................................................31
Table 38: The IEN1 Bit Functions .........................................................................................................................................31
Table 39: The IEN2 Register ................................................................................................................................................32
Table 40: The IEN2 Bit Functions .........................................................................................................................................32
Table 41: The TCON Register ..............................................................................................................................................32
Table 42: The TCON Bit Functions .......................................................................................................................................32
Table 43: The T2CON Bit Functions .....................................................................................................................................32
Table 44: The IRCON Register .............................................................................................................................................33
Table 45: The IRCON Bit Functions .....................................................................................................................................33
Table 46: External MPU Interrupts ........................................................................................................................................33
Table 47: Interrupt Enable and Flag Bits ..............................................................................................................................34
Table 48: Priority Level Groups ............................................................................................................................................35
Table 49: The IP0 Register ...................................................................................................................................................35
Table 50: The IP1 Register: ..................................................................................................................................................35
Table 51: Priority Levels .......................................................................................................................................................35
Table 52: Interrupt Polling Sequence....................................................................................................................................36
Table 53: Interrupt Vectors ...................................................................................................................................................36
Table 54: Data/Direction Registers and Internal Resources for DIO Pin Groups ..................................................................41
Rev 2
Page: 7 of 107
71M6521DE/DH/FE Data Sheet
Table 55: DIO_DIR Control Bit ............................................................................................................................................41
Table 56: Selectable Controls using the DIO_DIR Bits ........................................................................................................42
Table 57: EECTRL Status Bits .............................................................................................................................................43
Table 58: EECTRL bits for 3-wire interface ........................................................................................................................44
Table 59: TMUX[4:0] Selections ..........................................................................................................................................47
Table 60: Available Circuit Functions (“—“ means “not active)............................................................................................51
Table 62: VREF Definition for the High-Accuracy Parts ........................................................................................................62
Table 63: Frequency over Temperature.................................................................................................................................64
Table 64: LCD and DIO Pin Assignment by LCD_NUM for the QFN-68 Package................................................................67
Table 65: LCD and DIO Pin Assignment by LCD_NUM for the LQFP-64 Package ..............................................................68
Page: 8 of 107
Rev 2
71M6521DE/DH/FE Data Sheet
V3P3A
VREF
V3P3SYS
GNDA
∆Σ ADC
CONVERTER
IA
VA
IB
VB
V3P3D
VBIAS
VBIAS
MUX
VBAT
V3P3D
-
V3P3A
+
FIR
ADC_E
VREF
TEMP
VREF_CAL
VREF_DIS
MUX
MUX
CTRL
EQU
MUX_ALT
CHOP_E
MUX_DIV
X4MHZ
VBAT
CK32
VOLT
REG
MCK
PLL
RTCLK (32KHz)
DIV
ADC
CK32
32KHz
XOUT
CKTEST/
SEG19
FIR_LEN
CROSS
OSC
(32KHz)
XIN
VBAT
VREF
CKOUT_E
4.9MHz
V2P5
CKFIR
4.9MHz
4.9MHz
2.5V to logic
CKOUT_E
V3P3D
CK_GEN
CK_2X
LCD_GEN
ECK_DIS
MPU_DIV
MUX_SYNC
WPULSE
VARPULSE
STRT
CE
TEST
MODE
LCD DISPLAY
DRIVER
MEMORY SHARE
1000-11FF
RTM_0..3
RTM_E
CE_E
XFER BUSY
I/O RAM
CE_BUSY
EEPROM
INTERFACE
RTC
UART
OPT_RX/
DIO1
OPTICAL
MOD
OPT_TXMOD
OPT_FDC
CONFIG
OPT_RXDIS
OPT_RXINV
OPT_TXE
OPT_TXINV
SEG0..18
SEG32,33
SEG19,38
SEG24/DIO4 ..
SEG31/DIO11
SEG34/DIO14 ..
SEG37/DIO17
DIO1,2
PB
RTCLK
CONFIGURATION
PARAMETERS
(68 Pin Package Only)
SDIN
MPU
(80515)
COM0..3
RTC_DEC_SEC
RTC_INC_SEC
SDCK
SDOUT
TX
OPT_TX/
DIO2/
WPULSE/
VARPULSE
LCD_NUM
LCD_MODE
LCD_CLK
LCD_E
LCD_BLKMAP
LCD_SEG
LCD_Y
DIGITAL I/O
DIO_EEX
DIO_PV/PW
DIO_DIR
DIO_R
LCD_NUM
DIO
WPULSE
VARPULSE
CKMPU
<4.9MHz
RX
VLC0
MUX
DATA
00-7F
PROG
000-7FF
CE
CONTROL
PLS_INV
PLS_INTERVAL
PLS_MAXWIDTH
CE_LCTN
EQU
PRE_SAMPS
SUM_CYCLES
LCD_MODE
LCD_E
RTM
32 bit Compute
Engine
VLC2
VLC1
CE RAM
(0.5KB)
CKCE
<4.9MHz
TEST
GNDD
LCD_ONLY
SLEEP
CKADC
2000-20FF
DIO3,
DIO19/SEG39,
DIO20/SEG40,
DIO21/SEG41
DATA
0000-FFFF
0000-07FF
PROG
0000-7FFF
MEMORY
SHARE
CE_LCTN
MPU XRAM
(2KB)
00007FFF
FLASH
(16/32KB)
FLSH66ZT
VBIAS
MPU_RSTZ
POWER FAULT
EMULATOR
PORT
WAKE
V1
FAULTZ
E_RXTX
E_TCLK
E_RST (Open Drain)
COMP_STAT
RESET
E_RXTX/SEG38
E_TCLK/SEG33
E_RST/SEG32
ICE_E
TEST
MUX
TMUXOUT
TMUX[4:0]
December 11, 2006
Figure 1: IC Functional Block Diagram
Rev 2
Page: 9 of 107
71M6521DE/DH/FE Data Sheet
HARDWARE DESCRIPTION
Hardware Overview
The Teridian 71M6521DE/DH/FE single-chip energy meter integrates all primary functional blocks required to
implement a solid-state electricity meter. Included on chip are an analog front end (AFE), an independent digital
computation engine (CE), an 8051-compatible microprocessor (MPU) which executes one instruction per clock cycle
(80515), a voltage reference, a temperature sensor, LCD drivers, RAM, flash memory, a real time clock (RTC), and a
variety of I/O pins. Various current sensor technologies are supported including Current Transformers (CT), and
Resistive Shunts.
In a typical application, the 32-bit compute engine (CE) of the 71M6521DE/DH/FE sequentially processes the
samples from the voltage inputs on pins IA, VA, IB, VB and performs calculations to measure active energy (Wh),
reactive energy (VARh), A2h, and V2h for four-quadrant metering. These measurements are then accessed by the
MPU, processed further and output using the peripheral devices available to the MPU.
In addition to advanced measurement functions, the real time clock function allows the 71M6521DE/DH/FE to record
time of use (TOU) metering information for multi-rate applications and to time-stamp tamper events. Measurements
can be displayed on 3.3V LCD commonly used in low temperature environments. Flexible mapping of LCD display
segments will facilitate integration of existing custom LCD. Design trade-off between number of LCD segments vs.
DIO pins can be implemented in software to accommodate various requirements.
In addition to the temperature-trimmed ultra-precision voltage reference, the on-chip digital temperature compensation mechanism includes a temperature sensor and associated controls for correction of unwanted temperature
effects on measurement and RTC accuracy, e.g. to meet the requirements of ANSI and IEC standards. Temperature
dependent external components such as crystal oscillator, current transformers (CTs), and their corresponding signal
conditioning circuits can be characterized and their correction factors can be programmed to produce electricity
meters with exceptional accuracy over the industrial temperature range.
The 71M6521DH is trimmed at +85°C in addition to the trim at room temperature, which provides a set of
individualized trim fuse values that enable temperature compensation with accuracy better than ±20 PPM/°C.
One of the two internal UARTs is adapted to support an Infrared LED with internal drive and sense configuration, and
can also function as a standard UART. The optical output can be modulated at 38 kHz. This flexibility makes it
possible to implement AMR meters with an IR interface. A block diagram of the IC is shown in Figure 1. A detailed
description of various functional blocks follows.
Analog Front End (AFE)
The AFE of the 71M6521DE/DH/FE is composed of an input multiplexer, a delta-sigma A/D converter and a voltage
reference.
Input Multiplexer
The input multiplexer supports up to four input signals that are applied to pins IA, VA, IB and VB of the device.
Additionally, using the alternate mux selection, it has the ability to select temperature and the battery voltage. The
multiplexer can be operated in two modes:
•
•
During a normal multiplexer cycle, the signals from the IA, IB, VA, and VB pins are selected.
During the alternate multiplexer cycle, the temperature signal (TEMP) and the battery monitor are selected,
along with the signal sources shown in Table 1. To prevent unnecessary drainage on the battery, the battery
monitor is enabled only with the BME bit (0x2020[6]) in the I/O RAM.
The alternate mux cycles are usually performed infrequently (e.g. every second) by the MPU. In order to prevent
disruption of the voltage tracking PLL and voltage allpass networks, VA is not replaced in the ALT mux selections.
Table 1 details the regular and alternative MUX sequences. Missing samples due to an ALT multiplexer sequence are
filled in by the CE.
Page: 10 of 107
Rev 2
71M6521DE/DH/FE Data Sheet
Regular MUX Sequence
Mux State
0
1
2
3
IA
VA
IB
VB
EQU
0, 1, 2
ALT MUX Sequence
Mux State
0
1
2
TEMP
VA
VBAT
3
VB
Table 1: Inputs Selected in Regular and Alternate Multiplexer Cycles
In a typical application, IA and IB are connected to current transformers that sense the current on each phase of the
line voltage. VA and VB are typically connected to voltage sensors through resistor dividers.
The multiplexer control circuit handles the setting of the multiplexer. The function of the control circuit is governed by
the I/O RAM registers MUX_ALT, MUX_DIV and EQU. MUX_DIV controls the number of samples per cycle. It can
request 2, 3, or 4 multiplexer states per cycle. Multiplexer states above 4 are reserved and must not be used. The
multiplexer always starts at the beginning of its list and proceeds until MUX_DIV states have been converted.
The MUX_ALT bit requests an alternative multiplexer frame. The bit may be asserted on any MPU cycle and may be
subsequently de-asserted on any cycle including the next one. A rising edge on MUX_ALT will cause the multiplexer
control circuit to wait until the next multiplexer cycle and implement a single alternate cycle.
The multiplexer control circuit also controls the FIR filter initiation and the chopping of the ADC reference voltage,
VREF. The multiplexer control circuit is clocked by CK32, the 32768Hz clock from the PLL block, and launches with
each new pass of the CE program.
A/D Converter (ADC)
A single delta-sigma A/D converter digitizes the voltage and current inputs to the 71M6521DE/DH/FE. The resolution
of the ADC is programmable using the FIR_LEN register as shown in the I/O RAM section. ADC resolution can be
selected to be 21 bits (FIR_LEN=0), or 22 bits (FIR_LEN=1). Conversion time is two cycles of CK32 with FIR_LEN = 0
and three cycles with FIR_LEN = 1.
In order to provide the maximum resolution, the ADC should be operated with FIR_LEN = 1. Accuracy and
timing specifications in this data sheet are based on FIR_LEN = 1.
Initiation of each ADC conversion is controlled by the multiplexer control circuit as described previously. At the end of
each ADC conversion, the FIR filter output data is stored into the CE DRAM location determined by the multiplexer
selection.
FIR Filter
The finite impulse response filter is an integral part of the ADC and it is optimized for use with the multiplexer. The
purpose of the FIR filter is to decimate the ADC output to the desired resolution. At the end of each ADC conversion,
the output data is stored into the fixed CE DRAM location determined by the multiplexer selection. FIR data is stored
LSB justified, but shifted left by nine bits.
Voltage References
The device includes an on-chip precision bandgap voltage reference that incorporates auto-zero techniques. The
reference is trimmed to minimize errors caused by component mismatch and drift. The result is a voltage output with
a predictable temperature coefficient.
The amplifier within the reference is chopper stabilized, i.e. the polarity can be switched by the MPU using the I/O
RAM register CHOP_E (0x2002[5:4]). The two bits in the CHOP_E register enable the MPU to operate the chopper
circuit in regular or inverted operation, or in “toggling” mode. When the chopper circuit is toggled in between
multiplexer cycles, DC offsets on the measured signals will automatically be averaged out.
The general topology of a chopped amplifier is given in Figure 2.
A
Vinp
B
A
Vinn
B
A
+
G
-
Voutp
B
A
Voutn
B
CROSS
Figure 2: General Topology of a Chopped Amplifier
Rev 2
Page: 11 of 107
71M6521DE/DH/FE Data Sheet
It is assumed that an offset voltage Voff appears at the positive amplifier input. With all switches, as controlled by
CROSS in the “A” position, the output voltage is:
Voutp – Voutn = G (Vinp + Voff – Vinn) = G (Vinp – Vinn) + G Voff
With all switches set to the “B” position by applying the inverted CROSS signal, the output voltage is:
Voutn – Voutp = G (Vinn – Vinp + Voff) = G (Vinn – Vinp) + G Voff, or
Voutp – Voutn = G (Vinp – Vinn) - G Voff
Thus, when CROSS is toggled, e.g. after each multiplexer cycle, the offset will alternately appear on the output as
positive and negative, which results in the offset effectively being eliminated, regardless of its polarity or magnitude.
When CROSS is high, the hookup of the amplifier input devices is reversed. This preserves the overall polarity of
that amplifier gain; it inverts its input offset. By alternately reversing the connection, the amplifier’s offset is averaged
to zero. This removes the most significant long-term drift mechanism in the voltage reference. The CHOP_E bits
control the behavior of CROSS. The CROSS signal will reverse the amplifier connection in the voltage reference in
order to negate the effects of its offset. On the first CK32 rising edge after the last mux state of its sequence, the mux
will wait one additional CK32 cycle before beginning a new frame. At the beginning of this cycle, the value of CROSS
will be updated according to the CHOP_E bits. The extra CK32 cycle allows time for the chopped VREF to settle.
During this cycle, MUXSYNC is held high. The leading edge of muxsync initiates a pass through the CE program
sequence. The beginning of the sequence is the serial readout of the 4 RTM words.
CHOP_E has 3 states: positive, reverse, and chop. In the ‘positive’ state, CROSS is held low. In the ‘reverse’ state,
CROSS is held high. In the ‘chop’ state, CROSS is toggled near the end of each Mux Frame, as described above. It
is desirable that CROSS take on alternate values at the beginning of each Mux cycle. For this reason, if ‘chop’ state
is selected, CROSS will not toggle at the end of the last Mux cycle in a SUM cycle.
The internal bias voltage VBIAS (typically 1.6 V) is used by the ADC when measuring the temperature and battery
monitor signals.
Temperature Sensor
The 71M6521DE/DH/FE includes an on-chip temperature sensor implemented as a bandgap reference. It is used to
determine the die temperature The MPU may request an alternate multiplexer cycle containing the temperature
sensor output by asserting MUX_ALT.
The primary use of the temperature data is to determine the magnitude of compensation required to offset the
thermal drift in the system (see section titled “Temperature Compensation”).
Page: 12 of 107
Rev 2
71M6521DE/DH/FE Data Sheet
Battery Monitor
The battery voltage is measured by the ADC during alternative multiplexer frames if the BME (Battery Measure
Enable) bit in the I/O RAM is set. While BME is set, an on-chip 45kΩ load resistor is applied to the battery, and a
scaled fraction of the battery voltage is applied to the ADC input. After each alternative MUX frame, the result of the
ADC conversion is available at CE DRAM address 07. BME is ignored and assumed zero when system power is not
available (V1 < VBIAS). See the Battery Monitor section of the Electrical Specifications for details regarding the ADC
LSB size and the conversion accuracy.
Functional Description
The AFE functions as a data acquisition system, controlled by the MPU. The main signals (IA, VA, IB, VB) are
sampled and the ADC counts obtained are stored in CE DRAM where they can be accessed by the CE and, if
necessary, by the MPU. Alternate multiplexer cycles are initiated less frequently by the MPU to gather access to the
slow temperature and battery signals.
VREF
∆Σ ADC
CONVERTER
IA
VA
IB
VB
VBIAS
MUX
VBAT
VBIAS
V3P3A
FIR
+
ADC_E
VREF
TEMP
MUX
MUX
CTRL
EQU
MUX_ALT
CHOP_E
MUX_DIV
VREF
VREF_CAL
VREF_DIS
CROSS
FIR_LEN
4.9MHz
CK32
FIR_DONE
FIR_START
Figure 3: AFE Block Diagram
Digital Computation Engine (CE)
The CE, a dedicated 32-bit signal processor, performs the precision computations necessary to accurately measure
energy. The CE calculations and processes include:
•
Multiplication of each current sample with its associated voltage sample to obtain the energy per sample
(when multiplied with the constant sample time).
•
Frequency-insensitive delay cancellation on all six channels (to compensate for the delay between samples
caused by the multiplexing scheme).
•
90° phase shifter (for VAR calculations).
•
Pulse generation.
•
Monitoring of the input signal frequency (for frequency and phase information).
•
Monitoring of the input signal amplitude (for sag detection).
•
Scaling of the processed samples based on calibration coefficients.
The CE program resides in flash memory. Common access to flash memory by CE and MPU is controlled by a
memory share circuit. Each CE instruction word is two bytes long. Allocated flash space for the CE program cannot
exceed 1024 words (2KB). The CE program counter begins a pass through the CE code each time multiplexer state 0
begins. The code pass ends when a HALT instruction is executed. For proper operation, the code pass must be
completed before the multiplexer cycle ends (see System Timing Summary in the Functional Description Section).
The CE program must begin on a 1Kbyte boundary of the flash address. The I/O RAM register CE_LCTN[4:0]
defines which 1KB boundary contains the CE code. Thus, the first CE instruction is located at 1024*CE_LCTN[4:0].
The CE DRAM can be accessed by the FIR filter block, the RTM circuit, the CE, and the MPU. Assigned time slots
are reserved for FIR, RTM, and MPU, respectively, to prevent bus contention for CE DRAM data access. Holding registers are used to convert 8-bit wide MPU data to/from 32-bit wide CE DRAM data, and wait states are inserted as
needed, depending on the frequency of CKMPU.
Rev 2
Page: 13 of 107
71M6521DE/DH/FE Data Sheet
The CE DRAM contains 128 32-bit words. The MPU can read and write the CE DRAM as the primary means of data
communication between the two processors.
Table 2 shows the CE DRAM addresses allocated to analog inputs from the AFE.
ADDRESS (HEX)
00
01
02
03
04
05
06
07
NAME
IA
VA
IB
VB
TEMP
VBAT
DESCRIPTION
Phase A current
Phase A voltage
Phase B current
Phase B voltage
Not used
Not used
Temperature
Battery Voltage
Table 2: CE DRAM Locations for ADC Results
The CE of the 71M6521DE/DH/FE is aided by support hardware that facilitates implementation of equations, pulse
counters, and accumulators. This support hardware is controlled through I/O RAM locations EQU (equation assist),
DIO_PV and DIO_PW (pulse count assist), and PRE_SAMPS and SUM_CYCLES (accumulation assist). PRE_SAMPS
and SUM_CYCLES support a dual level accumulation scheme where the first accumulator accumulates results from
PRE_SAMPS samples and the second accumulator accumulates up to SUM_CYCLES of the first accumulator results.
The integration time for each energy output is PRE_SAMPS * SUM_CYCLES/2520.6 (with MUX_DIV = 1). CE hardware
issues the XFER_BUSY interrupt when the accumulation is complete.
Meter Equations
Compute Engine (CE) firmware and hardware for residential meter configurations implement the equations listed in
Table 3. The register EQU (located in the I/O RAM) specifies the equation to be used based on the number of phases
used for metering.
EQU
0
1
2
Description
1 element, 2W 1φ with neutral current sense
and tamper detection (VA connected to VB)
1 element, 3W 1φ
2 element, 4W 2φ
Watt & VAR Formula
Element 0
Element 1
VA IA
VA IB
VA(IA-IB)/2
VA IA
N/A
VB IB
Table 3: Meter Equations.
Page: 14 of 107
Rev 2
71M6521DE/DH/FE Data Sheet
Real-Time Monitor
The CE contains a Real-Time Monitor (RTM), which can be programmed through the UART to monitor four
selectable CE DRAM locations at full sample rate. The four monitored locations are serially output to the TMUXOUT
pin via the digital output multiplexer at the beginning of each CE code pass. The RTM can be enabled and disabled
with RTM_EN. The RTM output is clocked by CKTEST. Each RTM word is clocked out in 35 cycles and contains a
leading flag bit. See the Functional Description section for the RTM output format. RTM is low when not in use.
Pulse Generator
The chip contains two pulse generators that create low-jitter pulses at a rate set by either CE or MPU. The function is
distinguished by EXT_PULSE (a CE input variable in CE DRAM):
•
If EXT_PULSE = 1, APULSEW*WRATE and APULSER*WRATE control the pulse rate (external pulse
generation)
•
If EXT_PULSE is 0, APULSEW is replaced with WSUM_X and APULSER is replaced with VARSUM_X (internal
pulse generation).
The I/O RAM bits DIO_PV and DIO_PW, as described in the Digital I/O section, can be programmed to route
WPULSE to the output pin DIO6 and VARPULSE to the output pin DIO7. Pulses can also be output on OPT_TX (see
OPT_TXE[1:0] for details).
During each CE code pass, the hardware stores exported sign bits in an 8-bit FIFO and outputs them at a specified
interval. This permits the CE code to calculate all of the pulse generator outputs at the beginning of its code pass and
to rely on hardware to spread them over the MUX frame. The FIFO is reset at the beginning of each MUX frame.
PLS_INTERVAL controls the delay to the first pulse update and the interval between subsequent updates. Its LSB is
four CK_FIR cycles, or 4 * 203ns. If PLS_INTERVAL is zero, the FIFO is deactivated and the pulse outputs are
updated immediately. Thus, NINTERVAL is 4*PLS_INTERVAL.
For use with the supplied standard Teridian CE code, PLS_INTERVAL is set to a fixed value of 81. PLS_INTERVAL is
specified so that all of the pulse updates are output before the MUX frame completes.
On-chip hardware provides a maximum pulse width feature: PLS_MAXWIDTH[7:0] selects a maximum negative pulse
width to be ‘Nmax’ updates per multiplexer cycle according to the formula: Nmax = (2*PLS_MAXWIDTH+1). If
PLS_MAXWIDTH = 255, no width checking is performed.
Given that PLS_INTERVAL = 81, the maximum pulse width is determined by:
Maximum Pulse Width = (2 * PLS_MAXWIDTH +1) * 81*4*203ns = 65.9µs + PLS_MAXWIDTH * 131.5µs
If the pulse period corresponding to the pulse rate exceeds the desired pulse width, a square wave with 50% dutycycle is generated.
The CE pulse output polarity is programmable to be either positive or negative. Pulse polarity may be inverted with
PLS_INV. When this bit is set, the pulses are active high, rather than the more usual active low.
CE Functional Overview
The ADC processes one sample per channel per multiplexer cycle. Figure 4 shows the timing of the samples taken
during one multiplexer cycle.
The number of samples processed during one accumulation cycle is controlled by the I/O RAM registers PRE_SAMPS
(0x2001[7:6]) and SUM_CYCLES (0x2001[5:0]). The integration time for each energy output is
PRE_SAMPS * SUM_CYCLES / 2520.6, where 2520.6 is the sample rate [Hz]
For example, PRE_SAMPS = 42 and SUM_CYCLES = 50 will establish 2100 samples per accumulation cycle.
PRE_SAMPS = 100 and SUM_CYCLES = 21 will result in the exact same accumulation cycle of 2100 samples or
833ms. After an accumulation cycle is completed, the XFER_BUSY interrupt signals to the MPU that accumulated
data are available.
Rev 2
Page: 15 of 107
71M6521DE/DH/FE Data Sheet
1/32768Hz =
30.518µs
IB
VB
IA
VA
13/32768Hz = 397µs
per mux cycle
Figure 4: Samples from Multiplexer Cycle
The end of each multiplexer cycle is signaled to the MPU by the CE_BUSY interrupt. At the end of each multiplexer
cycle, status information, such as sag data and the digitized input signal, is available to the MPU.
833ms
20ms
XFER_BUSY
Interrupt to MPU
Figure 5: Accumulation Interval
Figure 5 shows the accumulation interval resulting from PRE_SAMPS = 42 and SUM_CYCLES = 50, consisting of 2100
samples of 397µs each, followed by the XFER_BUSY interrupt. The sampling in this example is applied to a 50Hz
signal.
There is no correlation between the line signal frequency and the choice of PRE_SAMPS or SUM_CYCLES (even
though when SUM_CYCLES = 42 one set of SUM_CYCLES happens to sample a period of 16.6ms). Furthermore,
sampling does not have to start when the line voltage crosses the zero line, and the length of the accumulation
interval need not be an integer multiple of the signal cycles.
It is important to note that the length of the accumulation interval, as determined by NACC, the product of
SUM_CYCLES and PRE_SAMPS, is not an exact multiple of 1000ms. For example, if SUM_CYCLES = 60, and
PRE_SAMPS = 00 (42), the resulting accumulation interval is:
τ=
N ACC
2520
60 ⋅ 42
=
=
= 999.75ms
32768Hz 2520.62 Hz
fS
13
This means that accurate time measurements should be based on the RTC, not the accumulation interval.
Page: 16 of 107
Rev 2
71M6521DE/DH/FE Data Sheet
80515 MPU Core
The 71M6521DE/DH/FE includes an 80515 MPU (8-bit, 8051-compatible) that processes most instructions in one
clock cycle. Using a 5 MHz clock results in a processing throughput of 5 MIPS. The 80515 architecture eliminates
redundant bus states and implements parallel execution of fetch and execution phases. Normally a machine cycle is
aligned with a memory fetch, therefore, most of the 1-byte instructions are performed in a single cycle. This leads to
an 8x performance (in average) improvement (in terms of MIPS) over the Intel 8051 device running at the same clock
frequency.
Actual processor clocking speed can be adjusted to the total processing demand of the application (metering
calculations, AMR management, memory management, LCD driver management and I/O management) using the I/O
RAM register MPU_DIV[2:0].
Typical measurement and metering functions based on the results provided by the internal 32-bit compute engine
(CE) are available for the MPU as part of the Teridian standard library. A standard ANSI “C” 80515-application
programming interface library is available to help reduce design cycle.
Memory Organization
The 80515 MPU core incorporates the Harvard architecture with separate code and data spaces.
Memory organization in the 80515 is similar to that of the industry standard 8051. There are three memory areas:
Program memory (flash), external data memory (XRAM), physically consisting of XRAM, CE DRAM, and I/O RAM,
and internal data memory (Internal RAM). Table 4 shows the memory map.
Address
(hex)
0000-7FFF
0000-3FFF
0000-1FFF
on 1K
boundary
0000-07FF
1000-11FF
2000-20FF
Memory
Technology
Memory Type
Typical Usage
Wait States
(at 5MHz)
Memory Size
(bytes)
Flash Memory
Non-volatile
MPU Program and nonvolatile data
0
32K
16K
8K
Flash Memory
Non-volatile
CE program
0
2K
Static RAM
Static RAM
Volatile
Volatile
0
6
2K
512
Static RAM
Volatile
MPU data XRAM,
CE data
Configuration RAM
I/O RAM
0
256
Table 4: Memory Map
Internal and External Data Memory: Both internal and external data memory are physically located on the
71M6521DE/DH/FE IC. “External” data memory is only external to the 80515 MPU core.
Program Memory: The 80515 can theoretically address up to 64KB of program memory space from 0x0000 to
0xFFFF. Program memory is read when the MPU fetches instructions or performs a MOVC operation.
After reset, the MPU starts program execution from location 0x0000. The lower part of the program memory includes
reset and interrupt vectors. The interrupt vectors are spaced at 8-byte intervals, starting from 0x0003.
External Data Memory: While the 80515 is capable of addressing up to 64KB of external data memory (0x0000 to
0xFFFF), only the memory ranges shown in Table 4: Memory Map
contain physical memory. The 80515 writes into external data memory when the MPU executes a MOVX @Ri,A or
MOVX @DPTR,A instruction. The MPU reads external data memory by executing a MOVX A,@Ri or MOVX
A,@DPTR instruction (SFR USR2 provides the upper 8 bytes for the MOVX A,@Ri instruction).
Clock Stretching: MOVX instructions can access fast or slow external RAM and external peripherals. The three low
order bits of the CKCON register define the stretch memory cycles. Setting all the CKCON stretch bits to one allows
access to very slow external RAM or external peripherals.
Table 5 shows how the signals of the External Memory Interface change when stretch values are set from 0 to 7. The
widths of the signals are counted in MPU clock cycles. The post-reset state of the CKCON register, which is in bold in
the table, performs the MOVX instructions with a stretch value equal to 1.
Rev 2
Page: 17 of 107
71M6521DE/DH/FE Data Sheet
CKCON register
Stretch Value
Read signals width
Write signal width
CKCON.1
CKCON.0
memaddr
memrd
memaddr
memwr
0
0
0
0
1
1
2
1
0
0
1
1
2
2
3
1
0
1
0
2
3
3
4
2
0
1
1
3
4
4
5
3
1
0
0
4
5
5
6
4
1
0
1
5
6
6
7
5
1
1
0
6
7
7
8
6
1
1
1
7
8
8
9
7
CKCON.2
Table 5: Stretch Memory Cycle Width
There are two types of instructions, differing in whether they provide an eight-bit or sixteen-bit indirect address to the
external data RAM.
In the first type (MOVX A,@Ri), the contents of R0 or R1, in the current register bank, provide the eight lower-ordered
bits of address. The eight high-ordered bits of address are specified with the USR2 SFR. This method allows the user
paged access (256 pages of 256 bytes each) to all ranges of the external data RAM. In the second type of MOVX
instruction (MOVX A,@DPTR), the data pointer generates a sixteen-bit address. This form is faster and more efficient
when accessing very large data arrays (up to 64 Kbytes), since no additional instructions are needed to set up the
eight high ordered bits of address.
It is possible to mix the two MOVX types. This provides the user with four separate data pointers, two with direct
access and two with paged access to the entire 64KB of external memory range.
Dual Data Pointer: The Dual Data Pointer accelerates the block moves of data. The standard DPTR is a 16-bit
register that is used to address external memory or peripherals. In the 80515 core, the standard data pointer is called
DPTR, the second data pointer is called DPTR1. The data pointer select bit chooses the active pointer. The data
pointer select bit is located at the LSB of the DPS register (DPS.0). DPTR is selected when DPS.0 = 0 and DPTR1 is
selected when DPS.0 = 1.
The user switches between pointers by toggling the LSB of the DPS register. All data pointer-related instructions use
the currently selected data pointer for any activity.
The second data pointer may not be supported by certain compilers.
Internal Data Memory: The Internal data memory provides 256 bytes (0x00 to 0xFF) of data memory. The internal
data memory address is always 1 byte wide and can be accessed by either direct or indirect addressing. The Special
Function Registers occupy the upper 128 bytes. This SFR area is available only by direct addressing. Indirect
addressing accesses the upper 128 bytes of Internal RAM.
Page: 18 of 107
Rev 2
71M6521DE/DH/FE Data Sheet
Internal Data Memory: The lower 128 bytes contain working registers and bit-addressable memory. The lower 32
bytes form four banks of eight registers (R0-R7). Two bits on the program memory status word (PSW) select which
bank is in use. The next 16 bytes form a block of bit-addressable memory space at bit addressees 0x00-0x7F. All of
the bytes in the lower 128 bytes are accessible through direct or indirect addressing. Table 6 shows the internal data
memory map.
Address
0xFF
0x80
Direct addressing
Indirect addressing
Special Function Registers
(SFRs)
RAM
0x7F
Byte-addressable area
0x30
0x2F
Bit-addressable area
0x20
0x1F
Register banks R0…R7
0x00
Table 6: Internal Data Memory Map
Special Function Registers (SFRs)
A map of the Special Function Registers is shown in Table 7.
Hex\Bin
Bit-addressable
F8
F0
E8
E0
D8
D0
X000
INTBITS
B
WDI
A
WDCON
PSW
C8
T2CON
CF
C0
IRCON
IEN1
C7
B8
Byte-addressable
X001
X010
X011
X100
X101
Bin/Hex
X110
FF
F7
EF
E7
DF
D7
IP1
S0RELH
IEN0
P2
IP0
DIR2
98
S0CON
S0BUF
FLSHCTL
S0RELL
DIR0
IEN2
S1CON
S1BUF
S1RELL
EEDATA
90
88
80
P1
TCON
P0
DIR1
TMOD
SP
DPS
TL0
DPL
TL1
DPH
ERASE
TH0
DPL1
TH1
DPH1
CKCON
WDTREL
B0
A8
A0
X111
S1RELH
USR2
BF
PGADR
B7
AF
A7
EECTRL
9F
PCON
97
8F
87
Table 7: Special Function Registers Locations
Only a few addresses are occupied, the others are not implemented. SFRs specific to the 652X are shown in bold
print. Any read access to unimplemented addresses will return undefined data, while any write access will have no
effect. The registers at 0x80, 0x88, 0x90, etc., are bit-addressable, all others are byte-addressable.
Rev 2
Page: 19 of 107
71M6521DE/DH/FE Data Sheet
Special Function Registers (Generic 80515 SFRs)
Table 8 shows the location of the SFRs and the value they assume at reset or power-up.
Name
Location
Reset value
Description
P0
SP
DPL
DPH
DPL1
DPH1
WDTREL
PCON
TCON
TMOD
TL0
TL1
TH0
TH1
CKCON
P1
DPS
S0CON
S0BUF
IEN2
S1CON
S1BUF
S1RELL
P2
IEN0
IP0
S0RELL
IEN1
IP1
S0RELH
S1RELH
USR2
IRCON
T2CON
PSW
WDCON
A
B
0x80
0x81
0x82
0x83
0x84
0x85
0x86
0x87
0x88
0x89
0x8A
0x8B
0x8C
0x8D
0x8E
0x90
0x92
0x98
0x99
0x9A
0x9B
0x9C
0x9D
0xA0
0xA8
0xA9
0xAA
0xB8
0xB9
0xBA
0xBB
0xBF
0xC0
0xC8
0xD0
0xD8
0xE0
0xF0
0xFF
0x07
0x00
0x00
0x00
0x00
0x00
0x00
0x00
0x00
0x00
0x00
0x00
0x00
0x01
0xFF
0x00
0x00
0x00
0x00
0x00
0x00
0x00
0x00
0x00
0x00
0xD9
0x00
0x00
0x03
0x03
0x00
0x00
0x00
0x00
0x00
0x00
0x00
Port 0
Stack Pointer
Data Pointer Low 0
Data Pointer High 0
Data Pointer Low 1
Data Pointer High 1
Watchdog Timer Reload register
UART Speed Control
Timer/Counter Control
Timer Mode Control
Timer 0, low byte
Timer 1, high byte
Timer 0, low byte
Timer 1, high byte
Clock Control (Stretch=1)
Port 1
Data Pointer select Register
Serial Port 0, Control Register
Serial Port 0, Data Buffer
Interrupt Enable Register 2
Serial Port 1, Control Register
Serial Port 1, Data Buffer
Serial Port 1, Reload Register, low byte
Port 2
Interrupt Enable Register 0
Interrupt Priority Register 0
Serial Port 0, Reload Register, low byte
Interrupt Enable Register 1
Interrupt Priority Register 1
Serial Port 0, Reload Register, high byte
Serial Port 1, Reload Register, high byte
User 2 Port, high address byte for [email protected]
Interrupt Request Control Register
Polarity for INT2 and INT3
Program Status Word
Baud Rate Control Register (only WDCON.7 bit used)
Accumulator
B Register
Table 8: Special Function Registers Reset Values
Page: 20 of 107
Rev 2
71M6521DE/DH/FE Data Sheet
Accumulator (ACC, A): ACC is the accumulator register. Most instructions use the accumulator to hold the
operand. The mnemonics for accumulator-specific instructions refer to accumulator as “A”, not ACC.
B Register: The B register is used during multiply and divide instructions. It can also be used as a scratch-pad
register to hold temporary data.
Program Status Word (PSW):
MSB
LSB
CV
AC
F0
RS1
RS
OV
-
P
Table 9: PSW Register Flags
Bit
Symbol
Function
PSW.7
CV
Carry flag
PSW.6
AC
Auxiliary Carry flag for BCD operations
PSW.5
F0
General purpose Flag 0 available for user.
F0 is not to be confused with the F0 flag in the CE STATUS register.
PSW.4
RS1
PSW.3
RS0
Register bank select control bits. The contents of RS1 and RS0 select the working
register bank:
RS1/RS0
Bank selected
Location
00
Bank 0
(0x00 – 0x07)
01
Bank 1
(0x08 – 0x0F)
10
Bank 2
(0x10 – 0x17)
11
Bank 3
(0x18 – 0x1F)
Overflow flag
PSW.2
OV
PSW.1
-
User defined flag
PSW.0
P
Parity flag, affected by hardware to indicate odd / even number of “one” bits in the
Accumulator, i.e. even parity.
Table 10: PSW Bit Functions
Stack Pointer (SP): The stack pointer is a 1-byte register initialized to 0x07 after reset. This register is incremented
before PUSH and CALL instructions, causing the stack to begin at location 0x08.
Data Pointer: The data pointer (DPTR) is 2 bytes wide. The lower part is DPL, and the highest is DPH. It can be
loaded as two registers (e.g. MOV DPL,#data8). It is generally used to access external code or data space (e.g.
MOVC A,@A+DPTR or MOVX A,@DPTR respectively).
Program Counter: The program counter (PC) is 2 bytes wide initialized to 0x0000 after reset. This register is
incremented when fetching operation code or when operating on data from program memory.
Port Registers: The I/O ports are controlled by Special Function Registers P0, P1, and P2. The contents of the SFR
can be observed on corresponding pins on the chip. Writing a ‘1’ to any of the ports (see Table 11) causes the
corresponding pin to be at high level (V3P3), and writing a ‘0’ causes the corresponding pin to be held at low level
(GND). The data direction registers DIR0, DIR1, and DIR2 define individual pins as input or output pins (see section
Digital I/O for details).
Rev 2
Page: 21 of 107
71M6521DE/DH/FE Data Sheet
SFR
Address
R/W
Description
P0
DIR0
0x80
0xA2
R/W
R/W
P1
DIR1
P2
DIR2
0x90
0x91
0xA0
0xA1
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Register for port 0 read and write operations (pins DIO4…DIO7)
Data direction register for port 0. Setting a bit to 1 means that the corresponding pin is
an output.
Register for port 1 read and write operations (pins DIO8…DIO11, DIO14-DIO15)
Data direction register for port 1.
Register for port 2 read and write operations (pins DIO16…DIO17, DIO19…DIO21)
Data direction register for port 2.
Register
Table 11: Port Registers
All DIO ports on the chip are bi-directional. Each of them consists of a Latch (SFR ‘P0’ to ‘P2’), an output driver, and
an input buffer, therefore the MPU can output or read data through any of these ports. Even if a DIO pin is configured
as an output, the state of the pin can still be read by the MPU, for example when counting pulses issued via DIO pins
that are under CE control.
The technique of reading the status of or generating interrupts based on DIO pins configured as outputs,
can be used to implement pulse counting.
Special Function Registers Specific to the 71M6521DE/DH/FE
Table 12 shows the location and description of the 71M6521DE/DH/FE-specific SFRs.
Alternative
Name
Register
SFR
Address
R/W
Description
ERASE
FLSH_ERASE
0x94
W
This register is used to initiate either the Flash Mass Erase cycle or
the Flash Page Erase cycle. Specific patterns are expected for
FLSH_ERASE in order to initiate the appropriate Erase cycle (default =
0x00).
0x55 – Initiate Flash Page Erase cycle. Must be preceded by a write
to FLSH_PGADR @ SFR 0xB7.
0xAA – Initiate Flash Mass Erase cycle. Must be preceded by a write
to FLSH_MEEN @ SFR 0xB2 and the debug port must be
enabled.
Any other pattern written to FLSH_ERASE will have no effect.
PGADDR
FLSH_PGADR
0xB7
R/W
0x9E
0x9F
R/W
R/W
Flash Page Erase Address register containing the flash memory
page address (page 0 thru 127) that will be erased during the Page
Erase cycle (default = 0x00).
Must be re-written for each new Page Erase cycle.
2
I C EEPROM interface data register
I2C EEPROM interface control register. If the MPU wishes to write a
byte of data to EEPROM, it places the data in EEDATA and then
writes the ‘Transmit’ code to EECTRL. The write to EECTRL initiates
the transmit sequence. See the EEPROM Interface section for a
description of the command and status bits available for EECTRL.
EEDATA
EECTRL
Page: 22 of 107
Rev 2
71M6521DE/DH/FE Data Sheet
0xB2
FLSHCRL
R/W
W
R/W
R
0xE8
WDI
R/W
R/W
W
INTBITS
INT0…INT6
0xF8
R
Bit 0 (FLSH_PWE): Program Write Enable:
0 – MOVX commands refer to XRAM Space, normal operation
(default).
1 – MOVX @DPTR,A moves A to Program Space (Flash) @
DPTR.
This bit is automatically reset after each byte written to flash. Writes
to this bit are inhibited when interrupts are enabled.
Bit 1 (FLSH_MEEN): Mass Erase Enable:
0 – Mass Erase disabled (default).
1 – Mass Erase enabled.
Must be re-written for each new Mass Erase cycle.
Bit 6 (SECURE):
Enables security provisions that prevent external reading of flash
memory and CE program RAM. This bit is reset on chip reset and
may only be set. Attempts to write zero are ignored.
Bit 7 (PREBOOT):
Indicates that the preboot sequence is active.
Only byte operations on the whole WDI register
should be used when writing. The byte must have all
bits set except the bits that are to be cleared.
The multi-purpose register WDI contains the following bits:
Bit 0 (IE_XFER): XFER Interrupt Flag:
This flag monitors the XFER_BUSY interrupt. It is set by hardware
and must be cleared by the interrupt handler
Bit 1 (IE_RTC): RTC Interrupt Flag:
This flag monitors the RTC_1SEC interrupt. It is set by hardware and
must be cleared by the interrupt handler
Bit 7 (WD_RST): WD Timer Reset:
Read: Reads the PLL_FALL interrupt flag
Write 0: Clears the PLL_FALL interrupt flag
Write 1: Resets the watch dog timer
Interrupt inputs. The MPU may read these bits to see the input to
external interrupts INT0, INT1, up to INT6. These bits do not have
any memory and are primarily intended for debug use
Table 12: Special Function Registers
Instruction Set
All instructions of the generic 8051 microcontroller are supported. A complete list of the instruction set and of the
associated op-codes is contained in the 71M6521 Software User’s Guide (SUG).
UART
The 71M6521DE/DH/FE includes a UART (UART0) that can be programmed to communicate with a variety of AMR
modules. A second UART (UART1) is connected to the optical port, as described in the optical port description.
The UARTs are dedicated 2-wire serial interfaces, which can communicate with an external host processor at up to
38,400 bits/s (with MPU clock = 1.2288MHz). The operation of each pin is as follows:
RX: Serial input data are applied at this pin. Conforming to RS-232 standard, the bytes are input LSB first.
TX: This pin is used to output the serial data. The bytes are output LSB first.
The 71M6521DE/DH/FE has several UART-related registers for the control and buffering of serial data. All UART
transfers are programmable for parity enable, parity, 2 stop bits/1 stop bit and XON/XOFF options for variable
communication baud rates from 300 to 38400 bps. Table 13 shows how the baud rates are calculated. Table 14
shows the selectable UART operation modes.
Rev 2
Page: 23 of 107
71M6521DE/DH/FE Data Sheet
Using Timer 1
Using Internal Baud Rate Generator
UART 0
2smod * fCKMPU/ (384 * (256-TH1))
2smod * fCKMPU/(64 * (210-S0REL))
UART 1
N/A
fCKMPU/(32 * (210-S1REL))
Note: S0REL and S1REL are 10-bit values derived by combining bits from the respective timer reload registers. SMOD is the SMOD
bit in the SFR PCON. TH1 is the high byte of timer 1.
Table 13: Baud Rate Generation
UART 0
UART 1
Mode 0
N/A
Start bit, 8 data bits, parity, stop bit, variable baud
rate (internal baud rate generator)
Mode 1
Start bit, 8 data bits, stop bit, variable baud
rate (internal baud rate generator or timer 1)
Start bit, 8 data bits, stop bit, variable baud rate
(internal baud rate generator)
Mode 2
Start bit, 8 data bits, parity, stop bit, fixed
baud rate 1/32 or 1/64 of fCKMPU
N/A
Mode 3
Start bit, 8 data bits, parity, stop bit, variable
baud rate (internal baud rate generator or
timer 1)
N/A
Table 14: UART Modes
Parity of serial data is available through the P flag of the accumulator. Seven-bit serial modes with parity,
such as those used by the FLAG protocol, can be simulated by setting and reading bit 7 of 8-bit output data.
Seven-bit serial modes without parity can be simulated by setting bit 7 to a constant 1. 8-bit serial modes
with parity can be simulated by setting and reading the 9th bit, using the control bits TB80 (S0CON.3) and
TB81 (S1CON.3) in the S0COn and S1CON SFRs for transmit and RB81 (S1CON.2) for receive operations.
SM20 (S0CON.5) and SM21 (S1CON.5) can be used as handshake signals for inter-processor communication in multiprocessor systems.
Serial Interface 0 Control Register (S0CON).
The function of the UART0 depends on the setting of the Serial Port Control Register S0CON.
MSB
SM0
LSB
SM1
SM20
REN0
TB80
RB80
TI0
RI0
Table 15: The S0CON Register
Serial Interface 1 Control Register (S1CON).
The function of the serial port depends on the setting of the Serial Port Control Register S1CON.
Page: 24 of 107
Rev 2
71M6521DE/DH/FE Data Sheet
MSB
LSB
SM
-
SM21
REN1
TB81
RB81
TI1
RI1
Table 16: The S1CON register
Bit
Symbol
S0CON.7
SM0
S0CON.6
Function
These two bits set the UART0 mode:
SM0
Mode
Description
0
N/A
0
SM1
SM1
0
1
8-bit UART
0
1
2
9-bit UART
1
0
3
9-bit UART
1
1
S0CON.5
SM20
Enables the inter-processor communication feature.
S0CON.4
REN0
If set, enables serial reception. Cleared by software to disable reception.
S0CON.3
TB80
The 9th transmitted data bit in Modes 2 and 3. Set or cleared by the MPU, depending
on the function it performs (parity check, multiprocessor communication etc.)
S0CON.2
RB80
In modes 2 and 3 it is the 9th data bit received. In Mode 1, if SM20 is 0, RB80 is the
stop bit. In mode 0 this bit is not used. Must be cleared by software
S0CON.1
TI0
Transmit interrupt flag, set by hardware after completion of a serial transfer. Must be
cleared by software.
S0CON.0
RI0
Receive interrupt flag, set by hardware after completion of a serial reception. Must
be cleared by software
Table 17: The S0CON Bit Functions
Bit
Symbol
S1CON.7
SM
Function
Sets the baud rate for UART1
SM
Mode
Description
Baud Rate
0
A
9-bit UART
variable
1
B
8-bit UART
variable
Enables the inter-processor communication feature.
S1CON.5
SM21
S1CON.4
REN1
If set, enables serial reception. Cleared by software to disable reception.
S1CON.3
TB81
The 9 transmitted data bit in Mode A. Set or cleared by the MPU, depending on the
function it performs (parity check, multiprocessor communication etc.)
S1CON.2
RB81
In Modes A and B, it is the 9th data bit received. In Mode B, if SM21 is 0, RB81 is the
stop bit. Must be cleared by software
S1CON.1
TI1
Transmit interrupt flag, set by hardware after completion of a serial transfer. Must be
cleared by software.
S1CON.0
RI1
Receive interrupt flag, set by hardware after completion of a serial reception. Must
be cleared by software
th
Table 18: The S1CON Bit Functions
Timers and Counters
The 80515 has two 16-bit timer/counter registers: Timer 0 and Timer 1. These registers can be configured for counter
or timer operations.
In timer mode, the register is incremented every machine cycle meaning that it counts up after every 12 periods of the
MPU clock signal.
Rev 2
Page: 25 of 107
71M6521DE/DH/FE Data Sheet
In counter mode, the register is incremented when the falling edge is observed at the corresponding input signal T0
or T1 (T0 and T1 are the timer gating inputs derived from certain DIO pins, see the DIO Ports chapter). Since it takes
2 machine cycles to recognize a 1-to-0 event, the maximum input count rate is 1/2 of the oscillator frequency. There
are no restrictions on the duty cycle, however to ensure proper recognition of 0 or 1 state, an input should be stable
for at least 1 machine cycle.
The timers/counters are controlled by the TCON Register
Timer/Counter Control Register (TCON)
MSB
LSB
TF1
TR1
TF0
TR0
IE1
IT1
IE0
IT0
Table 19: The TCON Register
Bit
Symbol
Function
TCON.7
TF1
The Timer 1 overflow flag is set by hardware when Timer 1 overflows. This flag
can be cleared by software and is automatically cleared when an interrupt is
processed.
TCON.6
TR1
Timer 1 Run control bit. If cleared, Timer 1 stops.
TCON.5
TF0
Timer 0 overflow flag set by hardware when Timer 0 overflows. This flag can be
cleared by software and is automatically cleared when an interrupt is
processed.
TCON.4
TR0
Timer 0 Run control bit. If cleared, Timer 0 stops.
TCON.3
IE1
Interrupt 1 edge flag is set by hardware when the falling edge on external pin
int1 is observed. Cleared when an interrupt is processed.
TCON.2
IT1
Interrupt 1 type control bit. Selects either the falling edge or low level on input
pin to cause an interrupt.
TCON.1
IE0
Interrupt 0 edge flag is set by hardware when the falling edge on external pin
int0 is observed. Cleared when an interrupt is processed.
TCON.0
IT0
Interrupt 0 type control bit. Selects either the falling edge or low level on input
pin to cause interrupt.
Table 20: The TCON Register Bit Functions
Page: 26 of 107
Rev 2
71M6521DE/DH/FE Data Sheet
Four operating modes can be selected for Timer 0 and Timer 1. Two Special Function Registers (TMOD and TCON)
are used to select the appropriate mode.
Timer/Counter Mode Control register (TMOD):
MSB
LSB
GATE
C/T
M1
Timer 1
M0
GATE
C/T
M1
Timer 0
M0
Table 21: The TMOD Register
Bits TR1 (TCON.6) and TR0 (TCON.4) in the TCON register (see Table 19 and Table 20) start their associated timers
when set.
Bit
Symbol
Function
TMOD.7
TMOD.3
Gate
If set, enables external gate control (pin int0 or int1 for Counter 0 or 1,
respectively). When int0 or int1 is high, and TRX bit is set (see TCON register), a
counter is incremented every falling edge on t0 or t1 input pin
TMOD.6
TMOD.2
C/T
Selects Timer or Counter operation. When set to 1, a Counter operation is
performed. When cleared to 0, the corresponding register will function as a Timer.
TMOD.5
TMOD.1
M1
Selects the mode for Timer/Counter 0 or Timer/Counter 1, as shown in TMOD
description.
TMOD.4
TMOD.0
M0
Selects the mode for Timer/Counter 0 or Timer/Counter 1, as shown in TMOD
description.
Table 22: TMOD Register Bit Description
M1
M0
Mode
0
0
Mode 0
13-bit Counter/Timer with 5 lower bits in the TL0 or TL1 register and the
remaining 8 bits in the TH0 or TH1 register (for Timer 0 and Timer 1,
respectively). The 3 high order bits of TL0 and TL1 are held at zero.
Function
0
1
Mode 1
16-bit Counter/Timer.
1
0
Mode 2
8-bit auto-reload Counter/Timer. The reload value is kept in TH0 or TH1,
while TL0 or TL1 is incremented every machine cycle. When TL(x) overflows,
a value from TH(x) is copied to TL(x).
1
1
Mode 3
If Timer 1 M1 and M0 bits are set to '1', Timer 1 stops. If Timer 0 M1 and M0
bits are set to '1', Timer 0 acts as two independent 8-bit Timer/Counters.
Table 23: Timers/Counters Mode Description
Note:
Rev 2
In Mode 3, TL0 is affected by TR0 and gate control bits, and sets the TF0 flag on overflow, while
TH0 is affected by the TR1 bit, and the TF1 flag is set on overflow.
Page: 27 of 107
71M6521DE/DH/FE Data Sheet
Table 24 specifies the combinations of operation modes allowed for timer 0 and timer 1:
Timer 1
Timer 0 - mode 0
Mode 0
Mode 1
Mode 2
YES
YES
YES
Timer 0 - mode 1
YES
YES
YES
Timer 0 - mode 2
Not allowed
Not allowed
YES
Table 24: Timer Modes
Timer/Counter Mode Control register (PCON):
MSB
LSB
SMOD
--
--
--
--
--
--
--
Table 25: The PCON Register
The SMOD bit in the PCON register doubles the baud rate when set.
Bit
Symbol
PCON.7
SMOD
Function
Baud rate control.
Table 26: PCON Register Bit Description
WD Timer (Software Watchdog Timer)
The software watchdog timer is a 16-bit counter that is incremented once every 24 or 384 clock cycles. After a reset,
the watchdog timer is disabled and all registers are set to zero. The watchdog consists of a 16-bit counter (WDT), a
reload register (WDTREL), prescalers (by 2 and by 16), and control logic. Once the watchdog is started, it cannot be
stopped unless the internal reset signal becomes active.
Note: It is recommended to use the hardware watchdog timer instead of the software watchdog
timer.
WD Timer Start Procedure: The WDT is started by setting the SWDT flag. When the WDT register enters the state
0x7CFF, an asynchronous WDTS signal will become active. The signal WDTS sets bit 6 in the IP0 register and
requests a reset state. WDTS is cleared either by the reset signal or by changing the state of the WDT timer.
Refreshing the WD Timer: The watchdog timer must be refreshed regularly to prevent the reset request signal from
becoming active. This requirement imposes an obligation on the programmer to issue two instructions. The first
instruction sets WDT and the second instruction sets SWDT. The maximum delay allowed between setting WDT and
SWDT is 12 clock cycles. If this period has expired and SWDT has not been set, the WDT is automatically reset,
otherwise the watchdog timer is reloaded with the content of the WDTREL register and the WDT is automatically
reset. Since the WDT requires exact timing, firmware needs to be designed with special care in order to avoid
unwanted WDT resets. It is strongly discouraged to use the software WDT.
Page: 28 of 107
Rev 2
71M6521DE/DH/FE Data Sheet
Special Function Registers for the WD Timer
Interrupt Enable 0 Register (IEN0):
MSB
LSB
EAL
WDT
ET2
ES0
ET1
EX1
ET0
EX0
Table 27: The IEN0 Register (see also Table 32)
Bit
Symbol
IEN0.6
WDT
Function
Watchdog timer refresh flag.
Set to initiate a refresh of the watchdog timer. Must be set directly before SWDT is
set to prevent an unintentional refresh of the watchdog timer. WDT is reset by
hardware 12 clock cycles after it has been set.
Table 28: The IEN0 Bit Functions (see also Table 32)
Note: The remaining bits in the IEN0 register are not used for watchdog control
Interrupt Enable 1 Register (IEN1):
MSB
LSB
EXEN2
SWDT
EX6
EX5
EX4
EX3
EX2
Table 29: The IEN1 Register (see also Tables 30/31)
Bit
Symbol
IEN1.6
SWDT
Function
Watchdog timer start/refresh flag.
Set to activate/refresh the watchdog timer. When directly set after setting WDT, a
watchdog timer refresh is performed. Bit SWDT is reset by the hardware 12 clock
cycles after it has been set.
Table 30: The IEN1 Bit Functions (see also Tables 30/31)
Note: The remaining bits in the IEN1 register are not used for watchdog control
Interrupt Priority 0 Register (IP0):
MSB
--
LSB
WDTS
IP0.5
IP0.4
IP0.3
IP0.2
IP0.1
IP0.0
Table 31: The IP0 Register (see also Table 45)
Rev 2
Page: 29 of 107
71M6521DE/DH/FE Data Sheet
Bit
Symbol
IP0.6
WDTS
Function
Watchdog timer status flag. Set when the watchdog timer was started. Can be
read by software.
Table 32: The IP0 bit Functions (see also Table 45)
Note: The remaining bits in the IP0 register are not used for watchdog control
Watchdog Timer Reload Register (WDTREL):
MSB
LSB
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Table 33: The WDTREL Register
Bit
Symbol
Function
WDTREL.7
7
Prescaler select bit. When set, the watchdog is clocked through an additional
divide-by-16 prescaler
WDTREL.6
to
WDTREL.0
6-0
Seven bit reload value for the high-byte of the watchdog timer. This value is
loaded to the WDT when a refresh is triggered by a consecutive setting of bits
WDT and SWDT.
Table 34: The WDTREL Bit Functions
The WDTREL register can be loaded and read at any time.
Interrupts
The 80515 provides 11 interrupt sources with four priority levels. Each source has its own request flag(s) located in a
special function register (TCON, IRCON, and SCON). Each interrupt requested by the corresponding flag can be
individually enabled or disabled by the enable bits in SFRs IEN0, IEN1, and IEN2.
External interrupts are the interrupts external to the 80515 core, i.e. signals that originate in other
parts of the 71M6521DE/DH/FE, for example the CE, DIO, RTC EEPROM interface.
Interrupt Overview
When an interrupt occurs, the MPU will vector to the predetermined address as shown in Table 53. Once interrupt
service has begun, it can be interrupted only by a higher priority interrupt. The interrupt service is terminated by a
return from instruction, "RETI". When an RETI is performed, the MPU will return to the instruction that would have
been next when the interrupt occurred.
When the interrupt condition occurs, the MPU will also indicate this by setting a flag bit. This bit is set regardless of
whether the interrupt is enabled or disabled. Each interrupt flag is sampled once per machine cycle, then samples are
polled by the hardware. If the sample indicates a pending interrupt when the interrupt is enabled, then the interrupt
request flag is set.
Page: 30 of 107
Rev 2
71M6521DE/DH/FE Data Sheet
On the next instruction cycle, the interrupt will be acknowledged by hardware forcing an LCALL to the appropriate
vector address, if the following conditions are met:
•
•
•
No interrupt of equal or higher priority is already in progress.
An instruction is currently being executed and is not completed.
The instruction in progress is not RETI or any write access to the registers IEN0, IEN1, IEN2, IP0 or IP1.
Special Function Registers for Interrupts:
Interrupt Enable 0 register (IE0)
MSB
LSB
EAL
WDT
ES0
ET1
EX1
ET0
EX0
Table 35: The IEN0 Register
Bit
Symbol
Function
IEN0.7
EAL
EAL=0 – disable all interrupts
IEN0.6
WDT
Not used for interrupt control
IEN0.5
-
IEN0.4
ES0
ES0=0 – disable serial channel 0 interrupt
IEN0.3
ET1
ET1=0 – disable timer 1 overflow interrupt
IEN0.2
EX1
EX1=0 – disable external interrupt 1
IEN0.1
ET0
ET0=0 – disable timer 0 overflow interrupt
IEN0.0
EX0
EX0=0 – disable external interrupt 0
Table 36: The IEN0 Bit Functions
Interrupt Enable 1 Register (IEN1)
MSB
LSB
SWDT
EX6
EX5
EX4
EX3
EX2
Table 37: The IEN1 Register
Bit
Symbol
Function
IEN1.7
-
IEN1.6
SWDT
IEN1.5
EX6
EX6=0 – disable external interrupt 6
IEN1.4
EX5
EX5=0 – disable external interrupt 5
IEN1.3
EX4
EX4=0 – disable external interrupt 4
IEN1.2
EX3
EX3=0 – disable external interrupt 3
IEN1.1
EX2
EX2=0 – disable external interrupt 2
IEN1.0
-
Not used for interrupt control
Table 38: The IEN1 Bit Functions
Rev 2
Page: 31 of 107
71M6521DE/DH/FE Data Sheet
Interrupt Enable 2 register (IE2)
MSB
LSB
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
ES1
Table 39: The IEN2 Register
Bit
Symbol
IEN2.0
ES1
Function
ES1=0 – disable serial channel 1 interrupt
Table 40: The IEN2 Bit Functions
Timer/Counter Control register (TCON)
MSB
LSB
TF1
TR1
TF0
TR0
IE1
IT1
IE0
IT0
Table 41: The TCON Register
Bit
Symbol
Function
TCON.7
TF1
Timer 1 overflow flag
TCON.6
TR1
Not used for interrupt control
TCON.5
TF0
Timer 0 overflow flag
TCON.4
TR0
Not used for interrupt control
TCON.3
IE1
External interrupt 1 flag
TCON.2
IT1
External interrupt 1 type control bit
TCON.1
IE0
External interrupt 0 flag
TCON.0
IT0
External interrupt 0 type control bit
Table 42: The TCON Bit Functions
Timer2/Counter2 Control register (T2CON):
Bit
Symbol
Function
Not used
T2CON.7
--
T2CON.6
I3FR
Polarity control for INT3: 0 - falling edge, 1 – rising edge
T2CON.5
I2FR
Polarity control for INT3: 0 - falling edge, 1 – rising edge
TCON.4 …
T2CON0
--
Not used
Table 43: The T2CON Bit Functions
Page: 32 of 107
Rev 2
71M6521DE/DH/FE Data Sheet
Interrupt Request register (IRCON)
MSB
LSB
EX6
IEX5
IEX4
IEX3
IEX2
Table 44: The IRCON Register
Bit
Symbol
Function
IRCON.7
-
IRCON.6
-
IRCON.5
IEX6
External interrupt 6 edge flag
IRCON.4
IEX5
External interrupt 5 edge flag
IRCON.3
IEX4
External interrupt 4 edge flag
IRCON.2
IEX3
External interrupt 3 edge flag
IRCON.1
IEX2
External interrupt 2 edge flag
IRCON.0
Table 45: The IRCON Bit Functions
Only TF0 and TF1 (timer 0 and timer 1 overflow flag) will be automatically cleared by hardware when the
service routine is called (Signals T0ACK and T1ACK – port ISR – active high when the service routine is
called).
External Interrupts
The 71M6521DE/DH/FE MPU allows seven external interrupts. These are connected as shown in Table 46. The
direction of interrupts 2 and 3 is programmable in the MPU. Interrupts 2 and 3 should be programmed for falling
sensitivity. The generic 8051 MPU literature states that interrupt 4 through 6 are defined as rising edge sensitive.
Thus, the hardware signals attached to interrupts 5 and 6 are inverted to achieve the edge polarity shown in Table
46.
External
Interrupt
Connection
Polarity
Flag Reset
0
Digital I/O High Priority
see DIO_Rx
automatic
1
Digital I/O Low Priority
see DIO_Rx
automatic
2
FWCOL0, FWCOL1
falling
automatic
3
CE_BUSY
falling
automatic
4
PLL_OK (rising), PLL_OK (falling)
rising
automatic
5
EEPROM busy
falling
automatic
6
XFER_BUSY OR RTC_1SEC
falling
manual
Table 46: External MPU Interrupts
FWCOLx interrupts occur when the CE collides with a flash write attempt. See the flash write description for more
detail.
SFR (special function register) enable bits must be set to permit any of these interrupts to occur. Likewise, each
interrupt has its own flag bit, which is set by the interrupt hardware, and reset by the MPU interrupt handler. Note that
XFER_BUSY, RTC_1SEC, FWCOL0, FWCOL1, PLLRISE, PLLFALL, have their own enable and flag bits in addition
to the interrupt 6, 4, and 2 enable and flag bits.
IE0 through IEX6 are cleared automatically when the hardware vectors to the interrupt handler. The other flags,
IE_XFER through IE_PB, are cleared by writing a zero to them. Since these bits are in a bit-addressable SFR byte,
common practice would be to clear them with a bit operation. This is to be avoided. The hardware implements bit
operations as a byte wide read-modify-write hardware macro. If an interrupt occurs after the read, but before the
write, its flag will be cleared unintentionally. The proper way to clear the flag bits is to write a byte mask consisting of
all ones except for a zero in the location of the bit to be cleared. The flag bits are configured in hardware to ignore
ones written to them.
Rev 2
Page: 33 of 107
71M6521DE/DH/FE Data Sheet
Interrupt Enable
NAME
LOCATION
EX0
EX1
EX2
EX3
EX4
EX5
EX6
EX_XFER
EX_RTC
SFR A8[[0]
SFR A8[2]
SFR B8[1]
SFR B8[2]
SFR B8[3]
SFR B8[4]
SFR B8[5]
2002[0]
2002[1]
EX_FWCOL
2007[4]
EX_PLL
2007[5]
Interrupt Flag
NAME
LOCATION
IE0
IE1
IEX2
IEX3
IEX4
IEX5
IEX6
IE_XFER
IE_RTC
IE_FWCOL0
IE_FWCOL1
IE_PLLRISE
IE_PLLFALL
IE_WAKE
IE_PB
SFR 88[1]
SFR 88[3]
SFR C0[1]
SFR C0[2]
SFR C0[3]
SFR C0[4]
SFR C0[5]
SFR E8[0]
SFR E8[1]
SFR E8[3]
SFR E8[2]
SFRE8[6]
SFRE8[7]
SFRE8[5]
SFRE8[4]
Interrupt Description
External interrupt 0
External interrupt 1
External interrupt 2
External interrupt 3
External interrupt 4
External interrupt 5
External interrupt 6
XFER_BUSY interrupt (int 6)
RTC_1SEC interrupt (int 6)
FWCOL0 interrupt (int 2)
FWCOL1 interrupt (int 2)
PLL_OK rise interrupt (int 4)
PLL_OK fall interrupt (int 4)
AUTOWAKE flag
PB flag
Table 47: Interrupt Enable and Flag Bits
The AUTOWAKE and PB flag bits are shown in Table 47 because they behave similarly to interrupt flags, even though
they are not actually related to an interrupt. These bits are set by hardware when the MPU wakes from a push button
or wake timeout. The bits are reset by writing a zero. Note that the PB flag is set whenever the PB is pushed, even if
the part is already awake.
Each interrupt has its own flag bit, which is set by the interrupt hardware and is reset automatically by the MPU
interrupt handler (0 through 5). XFER_BUSY and RTC_1SEC, which are OR-ed together, have their own enable and
flag bits in addition to the interrupt 6 enable and flag bits (see Table 47), and these interrupts must be cleared by the
MPU software.
When servicing the XFER_BUSY and RTC_1SEC interrupts, special care must be taken to avoid lockup conditions: If, for example, the XFER_BUSY interrupt is serviced, control must not return to the main
program without checking the RTC_1SEC flag. If this rule is ignored, a RTC_1SEC interrupt appearing
during the XFER_BUSY service routine will disable the processing of any XFER_BUSY or RTC_1SEC
interrupt, since both interrupts are edge-triggered (see the Software User’s Guide SUG652X).
The external interrupts are connected as shown in Table 47. The polarity of interrupts 2 and 3 is programmable in the
MPU via the I3FR and I2FR bits in T2CON. Interrupts 2 and 3 should be programmed for falling sensitivity. The
generic 8051 MPU literature states that interrupts 4 through 6 are defined as rising edge sensitive. Thus, the
hardware signals attached to interrupts 5 and 6 are inverted to achieve the edge polarity shown in Table 47.
SFR (special function register) enable bits must be set to permit any of these interrupts to occur. Likewise, each
interrupt has its own flag bit that is set by the interrupt hardware and is reset automatically by the MPU interrupt
handler (0 through 5). XFER_BUSY and RTC_1SEC, which are OR-ed together, have their own enable and flag bits in
addition to the interrupt 6 enable and flag bits (see Table 47), and these interrupts must be cleared by the MPU
software.
Page: 34 of 107
Rev 2
71M6521DE/DH/FE Data Sheet
Interrupt Priority Level Structure
All interrupt sources are combined in groups, as shown in Table 48:
Group
0
External interrupt 0
Serial channel 1 interrupt
1
Timer 0 interrupt
-
External interrupt 2
2
External interrupt 1
-
External interrupt 3
3
Timer 1 interrupt
-
External interrupt 4
4
Serial channel 0 interrupt
-
External interrupt 5
5
-
-
External interrupt 6
Table 48: Priority Level Groups
Each group of interrupt sources can be programmed individually to one of four priority levels by setting or clearing
one bit in the special function register IP0 and one in IP1. If requests of the same priority level are received
simultaneously, an internal polling sequence as per Table 52 determines which request is serviced first.
An overview of the interrupt structure is given in Figure 6.
IEN enable bits must be set to permit any of these interrupts to occur. Likewise, each interrupt has its own flag bit that
is set by the interrupt hardware and is reset automatically by the MPU interrupt handler (0 through 5). XFER_BUSY
and RTC_1SEC, which are OR-ed together, have their own enable and flag bits in addition to the interrupt 6 enable
and flag bits (see Table 47) and these interrupts must be cleared by the MPU software.
Interrupt Priority 0 Register (IP0)
MSB
LSB
--
WDTS
IP0.5
IP0.4
IP0.3
IP0.2
IP0.1
IP0.0
Table 49: The IP0 Register
Note: WDTS is not used for interrupt controls
Interrupt Priority 1 Register (IP1)
MSB
LSB
-
-
IP1.5
IP1.4
IP1.3
IP1.2
IP1.1
IP1.0
Table 50: The IP1 Register:
IP1.x
IP0.x
Priority Level
0
0
Level0 (lowest)
0
1
Level1
1
0
Level2
1
1
Level3 (highest)
Table 51: Priority Levels
Rev 2
Page: 35 of 107
71M6521DE/DH/FE Data Sheet
External interrupt 0
Serial channel 1 interrupt
Timer 0 interrupt
Polling sequence
External interrupt 2
External interrupt 1
External interrupt 3
Timer 1 interrupt
External interrupt 4
Serial channel 0 interrupt
External interrupt 5
External interrupt 6
Table 52: Interrupt Polling Sequence
Interrupt Sources and Vectors
Table 53 shows the interrupts with their associated flags and vector addresses.
Interrupt Request Flag
Description
IE0
External interrupt 0
Interrupt Vector Address
0x0003
TF0
Timer 0 interrupt
0x000B
IE1
External interrupt 1
0x0013
TF1
Timer 1 interrupt
0x001B
RI0/TI0
Serial channel 0 interrupt
0x0023
RI1/TI1
Serial channel 1 interrupt
0x0083
IEX2
External interrupt 2
0x004B
IEX3
External interrupt 3
0x0053
IEX4
External interrupt 4
0x005B
IEX5
External interrupt 5
0x0063
IEX6
External interrupt 6
0x006B
Table 53: Interrupt Vectors
Page: 36 of 107
Rev 2
71M6521DE/DH/FE Data Sheet
Individual
Interrupt
Flags
DIO
General
Interrupt
Flags
Logic and
Polarity
Selection
Interrupt
Control
Re g i s t e r
Interrupt
Enable
IEN0.7
IEN0.0
Priority
Assignment
IE0
IEN2.0
RI1
UART1
(optical)
IP1.0/
IP0.0
Polling Se quen ce
Internal/
External
Source
>=1
TI1
IEN0.1
TF0
Timer 0
IEN1.1
Flash Write
Collision
IE_FWCOL0
IE_FWCOL1
INT2
I2FR
IP1.1/
IP0.1
Interrupt
Vector
IRCON.1
IEN0.2
DIO
IE1
IEN1.2
CE_BUSY
INT3
I3FR
IP1.2/
IP0.2
IRCON.2
IEN0.3
Timer 1
TF1
IEN1.3
PLL OK
IE_PLLRISE
IE_PLLFALL
IRCON.3
INT4
IEN0.4
RI0
UART0
IP1.3/
IP0.3
>=1
TI0
IEN1.4
EEPROM/
I2C
INT5
IP1.4/
IP0.4
IRCON.4
IEN1.5
XF ER_ BUSY
IRCON.5
IE_XFER
IP1.5/
IP0.5
INT6
RTC_1S
IE_RTC
Figure 6: Interrupt Structure
Rev 2
Page: 37 of 107
71M6521DE/DH/FE Data Sheet
On-Chip Resources
Oscillator
The 71M6521DE/DH/FE oscillator drives a standard 32.768kHz watch crystal. These crystals are accurate and do not
require a high-current oscillator circuit. The 71M6521DE/DH/FE oscillator has been designed specifically to handle
these crystals and is compatible with their high impedance and limited power handling capability.
PLL and Internal Clocks
Timing for the device is derived from the 32.768kHz oscillator output. On-chip timing functions include the MPU
master clock, a real time clock (RTC), and the delta-sigma sample clock. In addition, the MPU has two general
counter/timers (see MPU section).
The ADC master clock, CKADC, is generated by an on-chip PLL. It multiplies the oscillator output frequency (CK32)
by 150.
The CE clock frequency is always CK32 * 150, or 4.9152MHz, where CK32 is the 32kHz clock. The MPU clock
frequency is determined by MPU_DIV and can be 4.9152MHz *2-MPU_DIV Hz where MPU_DIV varies from 0 to 7
(MPU_DIV is 0 on power-up). This makes the MPU clock scalable from 4.9152MHz down to 38.4kHz. The circuit also
generates a 2x MPU clock for use by the emulator. This clock is not generated when ECK_DIS is asserted by the
MPU.
The setting of MPU_DIV is maintained when the device transitions to BROWNOUT mode, but the time base in
BROWNOUT mode is 28,672Hz.
Real-Time Clock (RTC)
The RTC is driven directly by the crystal oscillator. It is powered by the net V2P5NV (battery-backed up supply). The
RTC consists of a counter chain and output registers. The counter chain consists of seconds, minutes, hours, day of
week, day of month, month, and year. The RTC is capable of processing leap years. Each counter has its own output
register. Whenever the MPU reads the seconds register, all other output registers are automatically updated. Since
the RTC clock is not coherent to the MPU clock, the MPU must read the seconds register until two consecutive reads
are the same (requires either 2 or 3 reads). At this point, all RTC output registers will have the correct time.
Regardless of the MPU clock speed, RTC reads require one wait state.
RTC time is set by writing to the RTC registers in I/O RAM. Each byte written to RTC must be delayed at least 3 RTC
cycles from any previous byte written to RTC. Hardware RTC write protection requires that a write to address 0x201F
occur before each RTC write. Writing to address 0x201F opens a hardware ‘enable gate’ that remains open until an
RTC write occurs and then closes. It is not necessary to disable interrupts between the write operation to 0x201F and
the RTC write because the ‘enable gate’ will remain open until the RTC write finally occurs
Two time correction bits, RTC_DEC_SEC and RTC_INC_SEC are provided to adjust the RTC time. A pulse on one of
these bits causes the time to be decremented or incremented by an additional second at the next update of the
RTC_SEC register. Thus, if the crystal temperature coefficient is known, the MPU firmware can integrate temperature
and correct the RTC time as necessary.
Temperature Sensor
The device includes an on-chip temperature sensor for determining the temperature of the bandgap reference. The
MPU may request an alternate multiplexer frame containing the temperature sensor output by asserting MUX_ALT.
The primary use of the temperature data is to determine the magnitude of compensation required to offset the
thermal drift in the system (see section titled “Temperature Compensation”).
Page: 38 of 107
Rev 2
71M6521DE/DH/FE Data Sheet
Physical Memory
Flash Memory: The 71M6521DE/DH/FE includes 16KB (71M6521DE/DH) or 32KB (71M6521FE) of on-chip flash
memory. The flash memory primarily contains MPU and CE program code. It also contains images of the CE DRAM,
MPU RAM, and I/O RAM. On power-up, before enabling the CE, the MPU copies these images to their respective
locations.
Allocated flash space for the CE program cannot exceed 1024 words (2KB). The CE program must begin on a 1KB
boundary of the flash address. The CE_LCTN[4:0] word defines which 1KB boundary contains the CE code. Thus,
the first CE instruction is located at 1024*CE_LCTN[4:0]. CE_LCTN must be defined before the CE is enabled.
The flash memory is segmented into 512 byte individually erasable pages.
The CE engine cannot access its program memory when flash write occurs. Thus, the flash write procedure is to
begin a sequence of flash writes when CE_BUSY falls (CE_BUSY interrupt) and to make sure there is sufficient time
to complete the sequence before CE_BUSY rises again. The actual time for the flash write operation will depend on
the exact number of cycles required by the CE program. Typically (CE program is 512 instructions, mux frame is 13
CK32 cycles), there will be 200µs of flash write time, enough for 4 bytes of flash write. If the CE code is shorter, there
will be even more time.
Two interrupts warn of collisions between the MPU firmware and the CE timing. If a flash write is attempted while the
CE is busy, the flash write will not execute and the FW_COL0 interrupt will be issued. If a flash write is still in
progress when the CE would otherwise begin a code pass, the code pass is skipped, the write is completed, and the
FW_COL1 interrupt is issued.
The bit FLASH66Z (see I/O RAM table) defines the speed for accessing flash memory. To minimize supply current
draw, this bit should be set to 1.
Flash erasure is initiated by writing a specific data pattern to specific SFR registers in the proper sequence. These
special pattern/sequence requirements prevent inadvertent erasure of the flash memory.
The mass erase sequence is:
1.
Write 1 to the FLSH_MEEN bit (SFR address 0xB2[1].
2.
Write pattern 0xAA to FLSH_ERASE (SFR address 0x94)
The mass erase cycle can only be initiated when the ICE port is enabled.
The page erase sequence is:
1.
Write the page address to FLSH_PGADR (SFR address 0xB7[7:1]
2.
Write pattern 0x55 to FLSH_ERASE (SFR address 0x94)
The MPU may write to the flash memory. This is one of the non-volatile storage options available to the user in
addition to external EEPROM.
FLSH_PWE (flash program write enable) differentiates 80515 data store instructions ([email protected],A) between flash
and XRAM writes.
Updating individual bytes in flash memory:
The original state of a flash byte is 0xFF (all ones). Once, a value other than 0xFF is written to a flash memory cell,
overwriting with a different value usually requires that the cell is erased first. Since cells cannot be erased individually,
the page has to be copied to RAM, followed by a page erase. After this, the page can be updated in RAM and then
written back to the flash memory.
MPU RAM: The 71M6521DE/DH/FE includes 2k-bytes of static RAM memory on-chip (XRAM) plus 256-bytes of
internal RAM in the MPU core. The 2K-bytes of static RAM are used for data storage during normal MPU operations.
CE DRAM: The CE DRAM is the working data memory of the CE (128 32-bit words). The MPU can read and write
the CE DRAM as the primary means of data communication between the two processors.
Rev 2
Page: 39 of 107
71M6521DE/DH/FE Data Sheet
Optical Interface
The device includes an interface to implement an IR/optical port. The pin OPT_Tx is designed to directly drive an
external LED for transmitting data on an optical link. The pin OPT_RX is designed to sense the input from an external
photo detector used as the receiver for the optical link. These two pins are connected to a dedicated UART port
(UART1).
The OPT_TX and OPT_RX pins can be inverted with configuration bits OPT_TXINV and OPT_RXINV, respectively.
Additionally, the OPT_TX output may be modulated at 38kHz. Modulation is available when system power is present
(i.e. not in BROWNOUT mode). The OPT_TXMOD bit enables modulation. Duty cycle is controlled by OPT_FDC[1:0],
which can select 50%, 25%, 12.5%, and 6.25% duty cycle. 6.25% duty cycle means OPT_TX is low for 6.25% of the
period. Figure 7 illustrates the OPT_TX generator.
VARPULSE
from OPT_TX UART
EN
OPT_TXMOD
OPT_FDC
WPULSE
2
DIO2
B
1
MOD
A
OPT_TXINV
3
DUTY
V3P3
Internal
OPT_TX
0
OPT_TXE[1:0]
2
OPT_TXMOD=1,
OPT_FDC=2 (25%)
OPT_TXMOD=0
A
A
B
B
1/38kHz
Figure 7: Optical Interface
When not needed for the optical UART, the OPT_TX pin can alternatively be configured as DIO2, WPULSE, or
VARPULSE. The configuration bits are OPT_TXE[1:0]. Likewise, OPT_RX can alternately be configured as DIO_1. Its
control is OPT_RXDIS.
Digital I/O
The device includes up to 18 pins (QFN 68 package) or 14 pins (LQFP 64 package) of general purpose digital I/O.
These pins are compatible with 5 V inputs (no current-limiting resistors are needed). Some of them are dedicated DIO
(DIO3), some are dual-function that can alternatively be used as LCD drivers (DIO4-11, 14-17, 19-21) and some
share functions with the optical port (DIO1, DIO2). On reset or power-up, all DIO pins are inputs until they are
configured for the desired direction under MPU control. The pins are configured by the DIO registers and by the five
bits of the LCD_NUM register (located in I/O RAM). Once declared as DIO, each pin can be configured independently
as an input or output with the DIO_DIRn bits. A 3-bit configuration word, DIO_Rx, can be used for certain pins, when
configured as DIO, to individually assign an internal resource such as an interrupt or a timer control. Table 54 lists the
direction registers and configurability associated with each group of DIO pins. Table 55 shows the configuration for a
DIO pin through its associated bit in its DIO_DIR register.
Tables showing the relationship between LCD_NUM and the available segment/DIO pins can be found in the
Applications section and in the I/O RAM Description under LCD_NUM[4:0].
Page: 40 of 107
Rev 2
71M6521DE/DH/FE Data Sheet
DIO
Pin no. (64 LQFP)
Pin no. (68 QFN)
Data Register
Direction Register
Internal Resources
Configurable
DIO
Pin no. (64 LQFP)
Pin no. (68 QFN)
Data Register
Direction Register
Internal Resources
Configurable
PB
62
65
0
2
3
4
5
6
3
37 38 39
3
5
39 40 41
2
3
4
5
6
DIO0=P0 (SFR 0x80)
1
2
3
4
5
6
DIO_DIR0 (SFR 0xA2)
7
40
42
7
8
41
43
0
7
0
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
16
22
23
0
17
12
13
1
18 19 20 21 22
------24 47 68
-3
4
5
-DIO2=P2 (SFR 0xA0)
1
-3
4
5
-DIO_DIR2 (SFR 0xA1)
23
--
N
--
0
0
N
1
57
60
1
Y
--
Y
N
Y
N
Y
N
9
42
44
1
10 11 12 13
43 44
--45 46
--2
3
--DIO1=P1 (SFR 0x90)
1
2
3
--DIO_DIR1 (SFR 0x91)
14
20
21
6
15
21
22
7
6
7
Y
--
--
Y
Y
--
--
---
--
Table 54: Data/Direction Registers and Internal Resources for DIO Pin Groups
DIO_DIR [n]
DIO Pin n Function
0
1
Input
Output
Table 55: DIO_DIR Control Bit
Additionally, if DIO6 and DIO7 are declared outputs, they can be configured as dedicated pulse outputs (WPULSE =
DIO6, VARPULSE = DIO7) using DIO_PW and DIO_PV registers. In this case, DIO6 and DIO7 are under CE control.
DIO4 and DIO5 can be configured to implement the EEPROM Interface.
The PB pin is a dedicated digital input. If the optical UART is not used, OPT_TX and OPT_RX can be configured as
dedicated DIO pins (DIO1, DIO2, see Optical Interface section).
A 3-bit configuration word, I/O RAM register, DIO_Rx (0x2009[2:0] through 0x200E[6:4]) can be used for certain pins,
when configured as DIO, to individually assign an internal resource such as an interrupt or a timer control (see Table
54 for DIO pins available for this option). This way, DIO pins can be tracked even if they are configured as outputs.
Tracking DIO pins configured as outputs is useful for pulse counting without external hardware.
When driving LEDs, relay coils etc., the DIO pins should sink the current into GNDD (as shown in
Figure 8, right), not source it from V3P3D (as shown in Figure 8, left). This is due to the resistance
of the internal switch that connects V3P3D to either V3P3SYS or VBAT.
When configured as inputs, the dual-function (DIO/SEG) pins should not be pulled above V3P3SYS
in MISSION and above VBAT in LCD and BROWNOUT modes. Doing so will distort the LCD
waveforms of the other pins. This limitation applies to any pin that can be configured as a LCD
driver.
The control resources selectable for the DIO pins are listed in Table 56. If more than one input is connected to the
same resource, the resources are combined using a logical OR.
The PB pin is a dedicated digital input. In addition, if the optical UART is not used, OPT_TX and OPT_RX can be
configured as dedicated DIO pins. Thus, in addition to the 16 general-purpose DIO pins (DIO4…DIO11,
DIO14…DIO21), there are three additional pins that can be used for digital input and output.
Rev 2
Page: 41 of 107
71M6521DE/DH/FE Data Sheet
71M6521
71M6521
V3P3SYS
VBAT
V3P3D
V3P3SYS
VBAT
V3P3D
3.3V
DIO1
3.3V
LED
DIO1
R
R
LED
DGND
DGND
Not recommended
Recommended
Figure 8: Connecting an External Load to DIO Pins
DIO_R Value
Resource Selected for DIO Pin
0
NONE
1
Reserved
2
T0 (counter0 clock)
3
T1 (counter1 clock)
4
High priority I/O interrupt (INT0 rising)
5
Low priority I/O interrupt (INT1 rising)
6
High priority I/O interrupt (INT0 falling)
7
Low priority I/O interrupt (INT1 falling)
Table 56: Selectable Controls using the DIO_DIR Bits
LCD Drivers
The device in the 68-pin QFN package contains 20 dedicated LCD segment drivers in addition to the 18 multi-use
pins described above. Thus, the device is capable of driving between 80 to 152 pixels of LCD display with 25% duty
cycle (or 60 to 114 pixels with 33% duty cycle). At eight pixels per digit, this corresponds to 10 to 19 digits.
The device in the 64-pin LQFP package contains 20 dedicated LCD segment drivers in addition to the 15 multi-use
pins described above. Thus, the device is capable of driving between 80 to 140 pixels of LCD display with 25% duty
cycle (or 60 to 105 pixels with 33% duty cycle). At eight pixels per digit, this corresponds to 10 to 17 digits.
The LCD drivers are grouped into four commons and up to 38 segment drivers (68-pin package), or 4 commons and
35 segment drivers (64-pin package). The LCD interface is flexible and can drive either digit segments or enunciator
symbols.
Segment drivers SEG18 and SEG19 can be configured to blink at either 0.5Hz or 1Hz. The blink rate is controlled by
LCD_Y. There can be up to four pixels/segments connected to each of these drivers. LCD_BLKMAP18[3:0] and
LCD_BLKMAP19[3:0] identify which pixels, if any, are to blink.
LCD interface memory is powered by the non-volatile supply. The bits of the LCD memory are
preserved in LCD and SLEEP modes, even if their pin is not configured as SEG. In this case, they can
be useful as general-purpose nonvolatile storage.
Battery Monitor
The battery voltage is measured by the ADC during alternative MUX frames if the BME (Battery Measure Enable) bit
is set. While BME is set, an on-chip 45kΩ load resistor is applied to the battery and a scaled fraction of the battery
voltage is applied to the ADC input. After each alternative MUX frame, the result of the ADC conversion is available at
CE DRAM address 0x07. BME is ignored and assumed zero when system power is not available. See the Battery
Monitor section of the Electrical Specification section for details regarding the ADC LSB size and the conversion
accuracy.
Page: 42 of 107
Rev 2
71M6521DE/DH/FE Data Sheet
EEPROM Interface
The 71M6521DE/DH/FE provides hardware support for either type of EEPROM interface, a two-pin interface and a
three-pin interface. The interfaces use the EECTRL and EEDATA registers for communication.
Two-Pin EEPROM Interface
The dedicated 2-pin serial interface communicates with external EEPROM devices. The interface is multiplexed onto
pins DIO4 (SCK) and DIO5 (SDA) controlled by the DIO_EEX bit I/O RAM (see I/O RAM Table). The MPU
communicates with the interface through two SFR registers: EEDATA and EECTRL. If the MPU wishes to write a byte
of data to EEPROM, it places the data in EEDATA and then writes the ‘Transmit’ command (CMD = 0011) to EECTRL.
This initiates the transmit operation. The transmit operation is finished when the BUSY bit falls. Interrupt INT5 is also
asserted when BUSY falls. The MPU can then check the RX_ACK bit to see if the EEPROM acknowledged the
transmission.
A byte is read by writing the ‘Receive’ command (CMD = 0001) to EECTRL and waiting for the BUSY bit to fall. Upon
completion, the received data is in EEDATA. The serial transmit and receive clock is 78kHz during each transmission,
and the clock is held in a high state until the next transmission. The bits in EECTRL are shown in Table 57.
The EEPROM interface can also be operated by controlling the DIO4 and DIO5 pins directly (“bit-banging”).
However, controlling DIO4 and DIO5 directly is discouraged, because it may tie up the MPU to the point
where it may become too busy to process interrupts.
Status
Bit
Name
Read/
Write
Reset
State
Polarity
Description
7
6
5
ERROR
BUSY
RX_ACK
R
R
R
0
0
1
Positive
Positive
Negative
1 when an illegal command is received.
1 when serial data bus is busy.
0 indicates that the EEPROM sent an ACK bit.
4
TX_ACK
R
1
Negative
0 indicates when an ACK bit has been sent to the EEPROM
3-0
CMD[3:0
]
W
0
Positive,
see CMD
Table
CMD
Operation
0000
0001
No-op. Applying the no-op command will stop the I2C clock
(SCK, DIO4). Failure to issue the no-op command will keep
the SCK signal toggling.
Receive a byte from EEPROM and send ACK.
0011
0101
Transmit a byte to EEPROM.
Issue a ‘STOP’ sequence.
0110
Receive the last byte from EEPROM, do not send ACK.
1001
Others
Issue a ‘START’ sequence.
No Operation, set the ERROR bit.
Table 57: EECTRL Status Bits
Rev 2
Page: 43 of 107
71M6521DE/DH/FE Data Sheet
Three-Wire EEPROM Interface
A 500kHz three-wire interface, using SDATA, SCK, and a DIO pin for CS is available. The interface is selected with
DIO_EEX=3. The same 2-wire EECTRL register is used, except the bits are reconfigured, as shown in Table 58. When
EECTRL is written, up to 8 bits from EEDATA are either written to the EEPROM or read from the EEPROM, depending
on the values of the EECTRL bits.
Control
Bit
Name
Read/Write
7
WFR
W
6
BUSY
R
5
HiZ
W
4
RD
W
3-0
CNT[3:0]
W
Description
Wait for Ready. If this bit is set, the trailing edge of BUSY will be delayed
until a rising edge is seen on the data line. This bit can be used during
the last byte of a Write command to cause the INT5 interrupt to occur
when the EEPROM has finished its internal write sequence. This bit is
ignored if HiZ=0.
Asserted while serial data bus is busy. When the BUSY bit falls, an INT5
interrupt occurs.
Indicates that the SD signal is to made high impedance immediately after
the last SCK rising edge.
Indicates that EEDATA is to be filled with data from EEPROM.
Specifies the number of clocks to be issued. Allowed values are 0
through 8. If RD=1, CNT bits of data will be read MSB first, and right
justified into the low order bits of EEDATA. If RD=0, CNT bits will be sent
MSB first to EEPROM, shifted out of EEDATA’s MSB. If CNT is zero,
SDATA will simply obey the HiZ bit.
Table 58: EECTRL bits for 3-wire interface
The timing diagrams in Figure 9 through Figure 13 describe the 3-wire EEPROM interface behavior. All commands
begin when the EECTRL register is written. Transactions start by first raising the DIO pin that is connected to CS.
Multiple 8-bit or less commands such as those shown in Figure 9 through Figure 13 are then sent via EECTRL and
EEDATA. When the transaction is finished, CS must be lowered. At the end of a Read transaction, the EEPROM will
be driving SDATA, but will transition to HiZ (high impedance) when CS falls. The firmware should then immediately
issue a write command with CNT=0 and HiZ=0 to take control of SDATA and force it to a low-Z state.
EECTRL Byte Written
INT5
CNT Cycles (6 shown)
Write -- No HiZ
SCLK (output)
SDATA (output)
D7
D6
SDATA output Z
D5
D4
D3
D2
(LoZ)
BUSY (bit)
Figure 9: 3-Wire Interface. Write Command, HiZ=0.
EECTRL Byte Written
INT5
CNT Cycles (6 shown)
Write -- With HiZ
SCLK (output)
SDATA (output)
SDATA output Z
D7
D6
D5
D4
D3
D2
(LoZ)
(HiZ)
BUSY (bit)
Figure 10: 3-Wire Interface. Write Command, HiZ=1
Page: 44 of 107
Rev 2
71M6521DE/DH/FE Data Sheet
EECTRL Byte Written
INT5
CNT Cycles (8 shown)
READ
SCLK (output)
SDATA (input)
D7
D6
SDATA output Z
D5
D4
D3
D2
D1
D0
(HiZ)
BUSY (bit)
Figure 11: 3-Wire Interface. Read Command.
EECTRL Byte Written
Write -- No HiZ
INT5 not issued
CNT Cycles (0 shown)
EECTRL Byte Written
Write -- HiZ
INT5 not issued
CNT Cycles (0 shown)
SCLK (output)
SCLK (output)
SDATA (output)
SDATA (output)
D7
SDATA output Z
SDATA output Z
(LoZ)
(HiZ)
BUSY (bit)
BUSY (bit)
Figure 12: 3-Wire Interface. Write Command when CNT=0
EECTRL Byte Written
INT5
CNT Cycles (6 shown)
Write -- With HiZ and WFR
SCLK (output)
SDATA (out/in)
SDATA output Z
D7
D6
D5
(From 6520)
(LoZ)
D4
D3
D2
BUSY
(From EEPROM)
READY
(HiZ)
BUSY (bit)
Figure 13: 3-Wire Interface. Write Command when HiZ=1 and WFR=1.
Rev 2
Page: 45 of 107
71M6521DE/DH/FE Data Sheet
Hardware Watchdog Timer
V1
V3P3
V3P3 - 10mV
WDT disabled
V3P3 400mV
Normal
operation,
WDT
enabled
VBIAS
Battery
modes
0V
In addition to the basic watchdog timer included in the 80515 MPU, an
independent, robust, fixed-duration, watchdog timer (WDT) is included in the
device. It uses the RTC crystal oscillator as its time base and must be refreshed
by the MPU firmware at least every 1.5 seconds. When not refreshed on time the
WDT overflows, and the part is reset as if the RESET pin were pulled high, except
that the I/O RAM bits will be in the same state as after a wake-up from SLEEP or
LCD modes (see the I/O RAM description for a list of I/O RAM bit states after
RESET and wake-up). 4100 oscillator cycles (or 125ms) after the WDT overflow,
the MPU will be launched from program address 0x0000.
A status bit, WD_OVF, is set when WDT overflow occurs. This bit is powered by
the non-volatile supply and can be read by the MPU to determine if the part is
initializing after a WDT overflow event or after a power-up. After it is read, MPU
firmware must clear WD_OVF. The WD_OVF bit is cleared by the RESET pin
There is no internal digital state that deactivates the WDT. For debug purposes,
however, the WDT can be disabled by tying the V1 pin to V3P3 (see Figure 39).
Of course, this also deactivates V1 power fault detection. Since there is no
method in firmware to disable the crystal oscillator or the WDT, it is guaranteed
that whatever state the part might find itself in, upon WDT overflow, the part will
be reset to a known state.
Asserting ICE_E will also deactivate the WDT. This is the only method that will
disable the WDT in BROWNOUT mode.
In normal operation, the WDT is reset by periodically writing a one to the
WDT_RST bit. The watchdog timer is also reset when the internal signal WAKE=0 (see section on Wake Up Behavior).
Figure 14: Functions defined by V1
Program Security
When enabled, the security feature limits the ICE to global flash erase operations only. All other ICE operations are
blocked. This guarantees the security of the user’s MPU and CE program code. Security is enabled by MPU code
that is executed in a 32 cycle preboot interval before the primary boot sequence begins. Once security is enabled, the
only way to disable it is to perform a global erase of the flash, followed by a chip reset.
The first 32 cycles of the MPU boot code are called the preboot phase because during this phase the ICE is inhibited.
A read-only status bit, PREBOOT, identifies these cycles to the MPU. Upon completion of preboot, the ICE can be
enabled and is permitted to take control of the MPU.
SECURE, the security enable bit, is reset whenever the chip is reset. Hardware associated with the bit permits only
ones to be written to it. Thus, preboot code may set SECURE to enable the security feature but may not reset it. Once
SECURE is set, the preboot code is protected and no external read of program code is possible
Specifically, when SECURE is set:
•
The ICE is limited to bulk flash erase only.
•
Page zero of flash memory, the preferred location for the user’s preboot code, may not be page-erased by
either MPU or ICE. Page zero may only be erased with global flash erase.
Writes to page zero, whether by MPU or ICE are inhibited.
•
The SECURE bit is to be used with caution! Inadvertently setting this bit will inhibit access to the part via
the ICE interface, if no mechanism for actively resetting the part between reset and erase operations is
provided (see ICE Interface description).
Page: 46 of 107
Rev 2
71M6521DE/DH/FE Data Sheet
Test Ports
TMUXOUT Pin: One out of 16 digital or 8 analog signals can be selected to be output on the TMUXOUT pin. The
function of the multiplexer is controlled with the I/O RAM register TMUX (0x20AA[4:0]), as shown in Table 59.
TMUX[4:0]
Mode
Function
0
1
2
3-5
6
7
8-0x0F
0x10 – 0x13
0x14
0x15
0x16 – 0x17
0x18
0x19
0x1A
0x1B
0x1C
0X1D
0X1E
0X1F
Analog
Analog
Analog
Analog
Analog
Analog
--Digital
Digital
DGND
Reserved
DGND
Reserved
VBIAS
Not used
Reserved
Not used
RTM (Real time output from CE)
WDTR_EN (Comparator 1 Output AND V1LT3)
Not used
RXD (from Optical interface, w/ optional inversion)
MUX_SYNC
CK_10M (10MHz clock)
CK_MPU (MPU clock)
Reserved
RTCLK (output of the oscillator circuit, nominally 32,786Hz)
CE_BUSY (busy interrupt generated by CE, 396µs)
XFER_BUSY (transfer busy interrupt generated by CE,
nominally every 999.7ms)
Digital
Digital
Digital
Digital
-Digital
Digital
Digital
Table 59: TMUX[4:0] Selections
Rev 2
Page: 47 of 107
71M6521DE/DH/FE Data Sheet
FUNCTIONAL DESCRIPTION
Theory of Operation
The energy delivered by a power source into a load can be expressed as:
t
E = ∫ V (t ) I (t )dt
0
Assuming phase angles are constant, the following formulae apply:

P = Real Energy [Wh] = V * A * cos φ* t

Q = Reactive Energy [VARh] = V * A * sin φ * t

S = Apparent Energy [VAh] =
P2 + Q2
For a practical meter, not only voltage and current amplitudes, but also phase angles and harmonic content may
change constantly. Thus, simple RMS measurements are inherently inaccurate. A modern solid-state electricity meter
IC such as the Teridian 71M6521DE/DH/FE functions by emulating the integral operation above, i.e. it processes
current and voltage samples through an ADC at a constant frequency. As long as the ADC resolution is high enough
and the sample frequency is beyond the harmonic range of interest, the current and voltage samples, multiplied with
the time period of sampling will yield an accurate quantity for the momentary energy. Summing up the momentary
energy quantities over time will result in accumulated energy.
500
400
300
200
100
0
0
5
10
15
20
-100
-200
Current [A]
-300
Voltage [V]
-400
Accumulated Energy [Ws]
Energy per Interval [Ws]
-500
Figure 15: Voltage. Current, Momentary and Accumulated Energy
Figure 15 shows the shapes of V(t), I(t), the momentary power and the accumulated power, resulting from 50
samples of the voltage and current signals over a period of 20ms. The application of 240VAC and 100A results in an
accumulation of 480Ws (= 0.133Wh) over the 20ms period, as indicated by the Accumulated Power curve.
The described sampling method works reliably, even in the presence of dynamic phase shift and harmonic distortion.
Page: 48 of 107
Rev 2
71M6521DE/DH/FE Data Sheet
System Timing Summary
Figure 16 summarizes the timing relationships between the input MUX states, the CE_BUSY signal, and the two
serial output streams. In this example, MUX_DIV=4 and FIR_LEN=1 (384). The duration of each MUX frame is 1 +
MUX_DIV * 2 if FIR_LEN=288, and 1 + MUX_DIV * 3 if FIR_LEN=384. An ADC conversion will always consume an
integer number of CK32 clocks. Followed by the conversions is a single CK32 cycle where the bandgap voltage is
allowed to recover from the change in CROSS.
Each CE program pass begins when ADC0 (channel IA) conversion begins. Depending on the length of the CE
program, it may continue running until the end of the ADC3 (VB) conversion. CE opcodes are constructed to ensure
that all CE code passes consume exactly the same number of cycles. The result of each ADC conversion is inserted
into the CE DRAM when the conversion is complete. The CE code is written to tolerate sudden changes in ADC data.
The exact CK count when each ADC value is loaded into DRAM is shown in Figure 16.
Figure 16 also shows that the serial RTM data stream begins transmitting at the beginning of state ‘S.’ RTM,
consisting of 140 CK cycles, will always finish before the next code pass starts.
ADC MUX Frame
ADC TIMING
MUX_DIV Conversions, MUX_DIV=1 (4 conversions) is shown
Settle
CK32
150
MUX_SYNC
MUX STATE
0
S
1
2
S
3
ADC EXECUTION
ADC0
CE TIMING
0
ADC1
ADC2
900
450
ADC3
1350
1800
CE_EXECUTION
CK COUNT = CE_CYCLES + floor((CE_CYCLES + 2) / 5)
MAX CK COUNT
CE_BUSY
XFER_BUSY
INITIATED BY A CE OPCODE AT END OF SUM INTERVAL
RTM TIMING
140
RTM
NOTES:
1. ALL DIMENSIONS ARE 5MHZ CK COUNTS.
2. THE PRECISE FREQUENCY OF CK IS 150*CRYSTAL FREQUENCY = 4.9152MHz.
3. XFER_BUSY OCCURS ONCE EVERY (PRESAMPS * SUM_CYCLES) CODE PASSES.
Figure 16: Timing Relationship between ADC MUX, Compute Engine, and Serial Transfers.
CK32
MUX_SYNC
CKTEST
30
31
0
FLAG
1
30
31
0
FLAG
1
30
31
SIG
N
FLAG
1
LSB
0
SIG
N
31
LSB
30
SIG
N
RTM DATA0 (32 bits)
RTM DATA1 (32 bits)
RTM DATA2 (32 bits)
RTM DATA3 (32 bits)
1
LSB
FLAG
LSB
0
SIG
N
TMUXOUT/RTM
Figure 17: RTM Output Format
Rev 2
Page: 49 of 107
71M6521DE/DH/FE Data Sheet
Battery Modes
Shortly after system power (V3P3SYS) is applied, the part will be in MISSION mode. MISSION mode means that the
part is operating with system power and that the internal PLL is stable. This mode is the normal operation mode
where the part is capable of measuring energy.
When system power is not available (i.e. when V1<VBIAS), the 71M6521DE/DH/FE can be in one of three battery
modes, i.e. BROWNOUT, LCD, or SLEEP mode. As soon as V1 falls below VBIAS or when the part wakes up under
battery power (with sufficient voltage margin), the part will automatically enter BROWNOUT mode (see Wake Up
Behavior section). From BROWNOUT mode, the MPU may enter either LCD mode or SLEEP mode by setting either
the LCD_ONLY or SLEEP I/O RAM bits (only one bit can be set at the same time in BROWNOUT mode, since setting
one bit will already force the part into SLEEP or LCD mode, disabling the MPU).
Figure 18 shows a state diagram of the various operation modes, with the possible transitions between modes. For
information on the timing of mode transitions refer to Figure 22 through Figure 24.
Meters that do not require functionality in the battery modes, e.g. meters that only use the SLEEP mode to
maintain the RTC, still need to contain code that brings the chip from BROWNOUT mode to SLEEP mode.
Otherwise, the chip remains in BROWNOUT mode, once the system power is missing, and consumes more
current than intended.
Similarly, meters equipped with batteries need to contain code that transitions the chip to SLEEP mode as
soon as the battery is attached in production. Otherwise, remaining in BROWNOUT mode would add
unnecessary drain to the battery.
The transition from MISSION mode to BROWNOUT mode is signaled by the IE_PLLFALL interrupt flag (in SFR
0xE8[7]). The transition in the other direction is signaled by the IE_PLLRISE interrupt flag (SFR 0xE8[6]), when the
PLL becomes stable.
Transitions from both LCD and SLEEP mode back to BROWNOUT mode are initiated by wake-up timer timeout
conditions or pushbutton events. When the PB pin is pulled high (pushbutton is pressed), the IE_PB interrupt flag
(SFR 0xE8[4]) is set, and when the wake-up timer times out, the IE_WAKE interrupt flag (SFR 0xE8[5]) is set.
In the absence of system power, if the voltage margin for the LDO regulator providing 2.5 V to the internal circuitry
becomes too low to be safe, the part automatically enters sleep mode (BAT_OK false). The battery voltage must stay
above 3V to ensure that BAT_OK remains true. Under this condition, the 71M6521DE/DH/FE stays in SLEEP mode,
even if the voltage margin for the LDO improves (BAT_OK true).
Table 60 shows the circuit functions available in each operating mode.
Page: 50 of 107
Rev 2
71M6521DE/DH/FE Data Sheet
Circuit Function
CE
CE Data RAM
FIR
Analog circuits:
PLL, ADC, VREF, BME etc
MPU clock rate
MPU_DIV
ICE
DIO Pins
Watchdog Timer
LCD
EEPROM Interface (2-wire)
EEPROM Interface (3-wire)
UART
Optical TX modulation
Flash Read
Flash Page Erase
Flash Write
RAM Read and Write
Wakeup Timer
Oscillator and RTC
DRAM data preservation
V3P3D voltage output pin
System Power
MISSION
Battery Power (Non-volatile Supply)
BROWNOUT
LCD
SLEEP
Yes
Yes
Yes
-Yes
--
----
----
Yes
--
--
--
4.92MHz
(from PLL)
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
28.672kHz
(7/8 of 32768Hz)
-Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes (8kb/s)
Yes (16kb/s)
Yes
-Yes
Yes
-Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
--
--
----Yes
--------Yes
Yes
--
-------------Yes
Yes
--
Yes
Yes
--
--
Table 60: Available Circuit Functions (“—“ means “not active)
BROWNOUT Mode
In BROWNOUT mode, most non-metering digital functions, as shown in Table 60, are active, including ICE, UART,
EEPROM, LCD, and RTC. In BROWNOUT mode, a low bias current regulator will provide 2.5 Volts to V2P5 and
V2P5NV. The regulator has an output called BAT_OK to indicate that it has sufficient overhead. When BAT_OK = 0,
the part will enter SLEEP mode. From BROWNOUT mode, the MPU can voluntarily enter LCD or SLEEP modes.
When system power is restored, the part will automatically transition from any of the battery modes to mission mode,
once the PLL has settled.
The MPU will run at crystal clock rate in BROWNOUT. The value of MPU_DIV will be remembered (not changed) as
the part enters and exits BROWNOUT. MPU_DIV will be ignored during BROWNOUT.
While PLL_OK = 0, the I/O RAM bits ADC_E and CE_E are held in zero state disabling both ADC and CE. When
PLL_OK falls, the CE program counter is cleared immediately and all FIR processing halts. Figure 19 shows the
functional blocks active in BROWNOUT mode.
Rev 2
Page: 51 of 107
71M6521DE/DH/FE Data Sheet
RESET
MISSION
V3P3SYS
falls
IE_PLLRISE
-> 1
V3P3SYS
rises
V1 > VBIAS
V1 <= VBIAS
IE_PLLFALL
-> 1
V3P3SYS
rises
LCD_ONLY
BROWNOUT
V3P3SYS
rises
RESET &
VBAT_OK
IE_PB -> 1
IE_WAKE ->
1
PB
SLEEP or
VBAT_OK
timer
LCD
timer
PB
VBAT_OK
VBAT_OK
RESET &
VBAT_OK
SLEEP
Figure 18: Operation Modes State Diagram
LCD Mode
In LCD mode, the data contained in the LCD_SEG registers is displayed, i.e. up to four LCD segments connected to
each of the pins SEG18 and SEG19 can be made to blink without the involvement of the MPU, which is disabled in
LCD mode.
This mode can be exited only by system power up, a timeout of the wake-up timer, or a push button. Figure 20 shows
the functional blocks active in LCD mode.
SLEEP Mode
In SLEEP mode, the battery current is minimized and only the Oscillator and RTC functions are active. This mode
can be exited only by system power-up, a timeout of the wake-up timer, or a push button event. Figure 21 shows the
functional blocks active in SLEEP mode.
Page: 52 of 107
Rev 2
71M6521DE/DH/FE Data Sheet
V3P3A
VREF
V3P3SYS
GNDA
∆Σ ADC
CONVERTER
IA
VA
IB
VB
V3P3D
VBIAS
VBIAS
MUX
VBAT
V3P3D
-
V3P3A
+
FIR
ADC_E
VREF
TEMP
VREF_CAL
VREF_DIS
MUX
MUX
CTRL
EQU
MUX_ALT
CHOP_E
MUX_DIV
OSC
(32KHz)
VBAT
CK32
VOLT
REG
MCK
PLL
RTCLK (32KHz)
DIV
ADC
CK32
32KHz
XOUT
CKTEST/
SEG19
FIR_LEN
CROSS
X4MHZ
XIN
VBAT
VREF
CKOUT_E
4.9MHz
V2P5
CKFIR
4.9MHz
4.9MHz
2.5V to logic
CKOUT_E
V3P3D
CK_GEN
CK_2X
LCD_GEN
ECK_DIS
MPU_DIV
MUX_SYNC
WPULSE
VARPULSE
STRT
CE
TEST
MODE
LCD DISPLAY
DRIVER
MEMORY SHARE
1000-11FF
RTM_0..3
RTM_E
CE_E
I/O RAM
CE_BUSY
XFER BUSY
EEPROM
INTERFACE
RTC
UART
OPT_RX/
DIO1
OPTICAL
MOD
OPT_TXMOD
OPT_FDC
CONFIG
OPT_RXDIS
OPT_RXINV
OPT_TXE
OPT_TXINV
SEG0..18
SEG32,33
SEG19,38
SEG24/DIO4 ..
SEG31/DIO11
SEG34/DIO14 ..
SEG37/DIO17
DIO1,2
PB
RTCLK
CONFIGURATION
PARAMETERS
(68 Pin Package Only)
SDIN
MPU
(8051)
COM0..3
RTC_DEC_SEC
RTC_INC_SEC
SDCK
SDOUT
TX
OPT_TX/
DIO2/
WPULSE/
VARPULSE
LCD_NUM
LCD_MODE
LCD_CLK
LCD_E
LCD_BLKMAP
LCD_SEG
LCD_Y
DIGITAL I/O
DIO_EEX
DIO_PV/PW
DIO_DIR
DIO_R
LCD_NUM
DIO
WPULSE
VARPULSE
CKMPU
<4.9MHz
RX
VLC0
MUX
DATA
00-7F
PROG
000-7FF
CE
CONTROL
PLS_INV
PLS_INTERVAL
PLS_MAXWIDTH
CE_LCTN
EQU
PRE_SAMPS
SUM_CYCLES
LCD_MODE
LCD_E
RTM
32 bit Compute
Engine
VLC2
VLC1
CE RAM
(0.5KB)
CKCE
<4.9MHz
TEST
GNDD
LCD_ONLY
SLEEP
CKADC
2000-20FF
DIO3,
DIO19/SEG39,
DIO20/SEG40,
DIO21/SEG41
DATA
0000-FFFF
0000-07FF
PROG
0000-7FFF
MEMORY
SHARE
CE_LCTN
MPU XRAM
(2KB)
00007FFF
FLASH
(16/32KB)
FLSH66ZT
VBIAS
MPU_RSTZ
POWER FAULT
V1
EMULATOR
PORT
WAKE
FAULTZ
E_RXTX
E_TCLK
E_RST (Open Drain)
COMP_STAT
RESET
E_RXTX/SEG38
E_TCLK/SEG33
E_RST/SEG32
ICE_E
TEST
MUX
TMUXOUT
TMUX[4:0]
December 11, 2006
Figure 19: Functional Blocks in BROWNOUT Mode (inactive blocks grayed out)
Rev 2
Page: 53 of 107
71M6521DE/DH/FE Data Sheet
V3P3A
VREF
V3P3SYS
GNDA
∆Σ ADC
CONVERTER
IA
VA
IB
VB
V3P3D
VBIAS
VBIAS
MUX
VBAT
V3P3D
-
V3P3A
+
FIR
ADC_E
VREF
TEMP
VREF_CAL
VREF_DIS
MUX
MUX
CTRL
EQU
MUX_ALT
CHOP_E
MUX_DIV
OSC
(32KHz)
VBAT
CK32
VOLT
REG
MCK
PLL
RTCLK (32KHz)
DIV
ADC
CK32
32KHz
XOUT
CKTEST/
SEG19
FIR_LEN
CROSS
X4MHZ
XIN
VBAT
VREF
CKOUT_E
4.9MHz
V2P5
CKFIR
4.9MHz
4.9MHz
2.5V to logic
CKOUT_E
V3P3D
CK_GEN
CK_2X
LCD_GEN
ECK_DIS
MPU_DIV
MUX_SYNC
WPULSE
VARPULSE
STRT
CE
TEST
MODE
LCD DISPLAY
DRIVER
MEMORY SHARE
1000-11FF
RTM_0..3
RTM_E
CE_E
I/O RAM
CE_BUSY
XFER BUSY
EEPROM
INTERFACE
RTC
UART
OPT_RX/
DIO1
OPTICAL
MOD
OPT_TXMOD
OPT_FDC
CONFIG
OPT_RXDIS
OPT_RXINV
OPT_TXE
OPT_TXINV
SEG0..18
SEG32,33
SEG19,38
SEG24/DIO4 ..
SEG31/DIO11
SEG34/DIO14 ..
SEG37/DIO17
DIO1,2
PB
RTCLK
CONFIGURATION
PARAMETERS
(68 Pin Package Only)
SDIN
MPU
(8051)
COM0..3
RTC_DEC_SEC
RTC_INC_SEC
SDCK
SDOUT
TX
OPT_TX/
DIO2/
WPULSE/
VARPULSE
LCD_NUM
LCD_MODE
LCD_CLK
LCD_E
LCD_BLKMAP
LCD_SEG
LCD_Y
DIGITAL I/O
DIO_EEX
DIO_PV/PW
DIO_DIR
DIO_R
LCD_NUM
DIO
WPULSE
VARPULSE
CKMPU
<4.9MHz
RX
VLC0
MUX
DATA
00-7F
PROG
000-7FF
CE
CONTROL
PLS_INV
PLS_INTERVAL
PLS_MAXWIDTH
CE_LCTN
EQU
PRE_SAMPS
SUM_CYCLES
LCD_MODE
LCD_E
RTM
32 bit Compute
Engine
VLC2
VLC1
CE RAM
(0.5KB)
CKCE
<4.9MHz
TEST
GNDD
LCD_ONLY
SLEEP
CKADC
2000-20FF
DIO3,
DIO19/SEG39,
DIO20/SEG40,
DIO21/SEG41
DATA
0000-FFFF
0000-07FF
PROG
0000-7FFF
MEMORY
SHARE
CE_LCTN
MPU XRAM
(2KB)
00007FFF
FLASH
(16/32KB)
FLSH66ZT
VBIAS
MPU_RSTZ
POWER FAULT
V1
EMULATOR
PORT
WAKE
FAULTZ
E_RXTX
E_TCLK
E_RST (Open Drain)
COMP_STAT
RESET
E_RXTX/SEG38
E_TCLK/SEG33
E_RST/SEG32
ICE_E
TEST
MUX
TMUXOUT
TMUX[4:0]
December 11, 2006
Figure 20: Functional Blocks in LCD Mode (inactive blocks grayed out)
Page: 54 of 107
Rev 2
71M6521DE/DH/FE Data Sheet
V3P3A
VREF
V3P3SYS
GNDA
∆Σ ADC
CONVERTER
IA
VA
IB
VB
V3P3D
VBIAS
VBIAS
MUX
VBAT
V3P3D
-
V3P3A
+
FIR
ADC_E
VREF
TEMP
VREF_CAL
VREF_DIS
MUX
MUX
CTRL
EQU
MUX_ALT
CHOP_E
MUX_DIV
OSC
(32KHz)
VBAT
CK32
VOLT
REG
MCK
PLL
RTCLK (32KHz)
DIV
ADC
CK32
32KHz
XOUT
CKTEST/
SEG19
FIR_LEN
CROSS
X4MHZ
XIN
VBAT
VREF
CKOUT_E
4.9MHz
V2P5
CKFIR
4.9MHz
4.9MHz
2.5V to logic
CKOUT_E
V3P3D
CK_GEN
CK_2X
LCD_GEN
ECK_DIS
MPU_DIV
MUX_SYNC
WPULSE
VARPULSE
STRT
CE
TEST
MODE
LCD DISPLAY
DRIVER
MEMORY SHARE
1000-11FF
RTM_0..3
RTM_E
CE_E
I/O RAM
CE_BUSY
XFER BUSY
EEPROM
INTERFACE
SDCK
SDOUT
UART
OPT_RX/
DIO1
OPT_TX/
DIO2/
WPULSE/
VARPULSE
MPU
(8051)
OPTICAL
MOD
OPT_TXMOD
OPT_FDC
OPT_RXDIS
OPT_RXINV
OPT_TXE
OPT_TXINV
RTC
SEG0..18
SEG32,33
SEG19,38
SEG24/DIO4 ..
SEG31/DIO11
SEG34/DIO14 ..
SEG37/DIO17
DIO1,2
PB
RTCLK
RTC_DEC_SEC
RTC_INC_SEC
CONFIG
CONFIGURATION
PARAMETERS
(68 Pin Package Only)
SDIN
TX
COM0..3
LCD_NUM
LCD_MODE
LCD_CLK
LCD_E
LCD_BLKMAP
LCD_SEG
LCD_Y
DIGITAL I/O
DIO_EEX
DIO_PV/PW
DIO_DIR
DIO_R
LCD_NUM
DIO
WPULSE
VARPULSE
CKMPU
<4.9MHz
RX
VLC0
MUX
DATA
00-7F
PROG
000-1FF
CE
CONTROL
PLS_INV
PLS_INTERVAL
PLS_MAXWIDTH
CE_LCTN
EQU
PRE_SAMPS
SUM_CYCLES
LCD_MODE
LCD_E
RTM
32 bit Compute
Engine
VLC2
VLC1
CE RAM
(0.5KB)
CKCE
<4.9MHz
TEST
GNDD
LCD_ONLY
SLEEP
CKADC
2000-20FF
DIO3,
DIO19/SEG39,
DIO20/SEG40,
DIO21/SEG41
DATA
0000-FFFF
0000-07FF
PROG
0000-7FFF
MEMORY
SHARE
CE_LCTN
00007FFF
MPU XRAM
(2KB)
FLASH
(16/32KB)
FLSH66ZT
VBIAS
MPU_RSTZ
POWER FAULT
V1
EMULATOR
PORT
WAKE
FAULTZ
E_RXTX
E_TCLK
E_RST (Open Drain)
COMP_STAT
RESET
E_RXTX/SEG38
E_TCLK/SEG33
E_RST/SEG32
ICE_E
TEST
MUX
TMUXOUT
TMUX[4:0]
December 11, 2006
Figure 21: Functional Blocks in SLEEP Mode (inactive blocks grayed out)
Rev 2
Page: 55 of 107
71M6521DE/DH/FE Data Sheet
System
Power
(V3P3SYS)
V1_OK
Battery
Current
MPU Mode
300nA
BROWNOUT
PLL_OK
MISSION
13..14 CK
cycles
WAKE
MPU Clock
Source
Transition
PLL
(4.2MHz/MUX_DIV)
Xtal
2048...4096
CK32 cycles
time
Figure 22: Transition from BROWNOUT to MISSION Mode when System Power Returns
V3P3SYS
and VBAT
V1_OK
Battery
Current
MPU Mode
MPU Clock
Source
WAKE
PLL_OK
Internal
RESETZ
300nA
BROWNOUT
Xtal
MISSION
PLL
(4.2MHz)
14.5 CK32
cycles
4096 CK32
cycles
1024 CK32
cycles
time
Figure 23: Power-Up Timing with V3P3SYS and VBAT tied together
Page: 56 of 107
Rev 2
71M6521DE/DH/FE Data Sheet
VBAT
Battery
Current
BROWNOUT
MPU Mode
MPU Clock
Source
WAKE
Xtal
14.5 CK32
cycles
PLL_OK
Internal
RESETZ
1024 CK32
cycles
VBAT_OK
time
Figure 24: Power-Up Timing with VBAT only
Fault and Reset Behavior
Reset Mode: When the RESET pin is pulled high all digital activity stops. The oscillator and RTC module continue to
run. Additionally, all I/O RAM bits are set to their default states. As long as V1, the input voltage at the power fault
block, is greater than VBIAS, the internal 2.5 V regulator will continue to provide power to the digital section.
Once initiated, the reset mode will persist until the reset timer times out, signified by the internal signal WAKE rising.
This will occur in 4100 cycles of the real time clock after RESET goes low, at which time the MPU will begin executing
its preboot and boot sequences from address 00. See the security section for more description of preboot and boot.
If system power is not present, the reset timer duration will be 2 cycles of the crystal clock, at which time the MPU will
begin executing in BROWNOUT mode, starting at address 00.
Power Fault Circuit: The 71M6521DE/DH/FE includes a comparator to monitor system power fault conditions. When
the output of the comparator falls (V1<VBIAS), the I/P RAM bits PLL_OK is zeroed and the part switches to BROWNOUT mode if a battery is present. Once, system power returns, the MPU remains in reset and does not start Mission
Mode until 4100 oscillator clocks later, when PLL_OK rises. If a battery is not present, indicated by BAT_OK=0,
WAKE will fall and the part will enter SLEEP mode.
There are several conditions the part could be in as system power returns. If the part is in BROWNOUT mode, it will
automatically switch to mission mode when PLL_OK rises. It will receive an interrupt indicating this. No configuration
bits will be reset or reconfigured during this transition.
If the part is in LCD or SLEEP mode when system power returns, it will also switch to mission mode when PLL_OK
rises. In this case, all configuration bits will be in the reset state due to WAKE having been zero. The RTC clock will
not be disturbed, but the MPU RAM must be re-initialized. The hardware watchdog timer will become active when the
part enters MISSION mode.
If there is no battery when system power returns, the part will switch to mission mode when PLL_OK rises. All
configuration bits will be in reset state, and RTC and MPU RAM data will be unknown and must be initialized by the
MPU.
Wake Up Behavior
As described above, the part will always wake up in mission mode when system power is restored. Additionally, the
part will wake up in BROWNOUT mode when PB rises (push button pressed) or when a timeout of the wake-up timer
occurs.
Rev 2
Page: 57 of 107
71M6521DE/DH/FE Data Sheet
Wake on PB
If the part is in SLEEP or LCD mode, it can be awakened by a rising edge on the PB pin. This pin is normally pulled to
GND and can be pulled high by a push button depression. Before the PB signal rises, the MPU is in reset due to the
internal signal WAKE being low. When PB rises, WAKE rises and within three crystal cycles, the MPU begins to
execute. The MPU can determine whether the PB signal woke it up by checking the IE_PB flag.
For debouncing, the PB pin is monitored by a state machine operating from a 32Hz clock. This circuit will reject
between 31ms and 62ms of noise. Detection hardware will ignore all transitions after the initial rising edge. This will
continue until the MPU clears the IE_PB bit.
System
Power
(V3P3SYS)
PB or wakeup timer
15 CK32
cycles
WAKE
MPU Mode
LCD
BROWNOUT
PLL_OK
time
Figure 25: Wake Up Timing
Wake on Timer
If the part is in SLEEP or LCD mode, it can be awakened by the wake-up timer. Until this timer times out, the MPU is
in reset due to WAKE being low. When the wake-up timer times out, the WAKE signal rises and within three crystal
cycles, the MPU begins to execute. The MPU can determine whether the timer woke it by checking the AUTOWAKE
interrupt flag (IE_WAKE).
The wake-up timer begins timing when the part enters LCD or SLEEP mode. Its duration is controlled by
WAKE_PRD[2:0] and WAKE_RES. WAKE_RES selects a timer LSB of either 1 minute (WAKE_RES=1) or 2.5 seconds
(WAKE_RES=0). WAKE_PRD[2:0] selects a duration of from 1 to 7 LSBs.
The timer is armed by WAKE_ARM=1. It must be armed at least three RTC cycles before SLEEP or LCD_ONLY is
initiated. Setting WAKE_ARM presets the timer with the values in WAKE_RES and WAKE_PRD and readies the timer
to start when the MPU writes to SLEEP or LCD_ONLY. The timer is reset and disarmed whenever the MPU is awake.
Thus, if it is desired to wake the MPU periodically (every 5 seconds, for example) the timer must be rearmed every
time the MPU is awakened.
Page: 58 of 107
Rev 2
71M6521DE/DH/FE Data Sheet
Data Flow
The data flow between CE and MPU is shown in Figure 26. In a typical application, the 32-bit compute engine (CE)
sequentially processes the samples from the voltage inputs on pins IA, VA, IB, and VB, performing calculations to
measure active power (Wh), reactive power (VARh), A2h, and V2h for four-quadrant metering. These measurements
are then accessed by the MPU, processed further and output using the peripheral devices available to the MPU.
Pulses
IRQ
CE
Samples
MPU
Data
PreProcessor
PostProcessor
Processed
Metering
Data
I/O RAM (Configuration RAM)
Figure 26: MPU/CE Data Flow
CE/MPU Communication
Figure 27 shows the functional relationship between CE and MPU. The CE is controlled by the MPU via shared
registers in the I/O RAM and by registers in the CE DRAM. The CE outputs two interrupt signals to the MPU:
CE_BUSY and XFER_BUSY, which are connected to the MPU interrupt service inputs as external interrupts.
CE_BUSY indicates that the CE is actively processing data. This signal will occur once every multiplexer cycle.
XFER_BUSY indicates that the CE is updating data to the output region of the CE DRAM. This will occur whenever
the CE has finished generating a sum by completing an accumulation interval determined by SUM_CYCLES *
PRE_SAMPS samples. Interrupts to the MPU occur on the falling edges of the XFER_BUSY and CE_BUSY signals.
PULSES
W (DIO6)
WSUM
VARSUM
VAR (DIO7)
APULSEW
APULSER
SERIAL
(UART0/1)
EXT_PULSE
SAG CONTROL
ADC
DISPLAY (memory-mapped
LCD segments)
SAMPLES
MPU
DATA
EEPROM
(I2C)
CE_BUSY
CE
Mux Ctrl.
XFER_BUSY
DIO
INTERRUPTS
I/O RAM (CONFIGURATION RAM)
Figure 27: MPU/CE Communication
Rev 2
Page: 59 of 107
71M6521DE/DH/FE Data Sheet
APPLICATION INFORMATION
Connection of Sensors (CT, Resistive Shunt)
Figure 28 and Figure 29 show how resistive dividers, current transformers, and restive shunts are connected to the
voltage and current inputs of the 71M6521DE/DH/FE.
VA = Vin * Rout/(Rout + Rin)
VA
Rin
Vin
Rout
Figure 28: Resistive Voltage Divider (Left), Current Transformer (Right)
Figure 29: Resistive Shunt
Distinction between 71M6521DE/71M6521FE and 71M6521DH Parts
The 71M6521DH (high-accuracy) part go through an additional process of characterization during production which
makes them suitable to high-accuracy performance over temperature.
The first process, applied to all parts is the trimming of the reference voltage to the target value of 1.195 V.
The second process, which is applied only to the high-accuracy parts, is the characterization of the reference voltage
over temperature. The coefficients for the reference voltage are stored in trim fuses (I/O RAM registers TRIMBGA,
TRIMBGB, TRIMM[2:0]. The MPU can read these trim fuses and calculate the correction coefficients PPM1 and
PPMC2 per the formulae given in VREF, VBIAS section. See Temperature Compensation section for additional
details.
The fuse TRIMBGB is non-zero for the high-accuracy parts and zero for the regular parts.
Page: 60 of 107
Rev 2
71M6521DE/DH/FE Data Sheet
Temperature Measurement
Measurement of absolute temperature uses the on-chip temperature sensor while applying the following formula:
T=
( N (T ) − N n )
+ Tn
Sn
In the above formula T is the temperature in °C, N(T) is the ADC count at temperature T, Nn is the ADC count at
25°C, Sn is the sensitivity in LSB/°C as stated in the Electrical Specifications, and Tn is +25°C.
Example: At 25°C a temperature sensor value of 518,203,584 (Nn) is read by the ADC by a 71M6521FE in the 64-pin
LQFP package. At an unknown temperature T the value 449.648.000 is read at (N(T)). The absolute temperature is
then determined by dividing both Nn and N(T) by 512 to account for the 9-bit shift of the ADC value and then inserting
the results into the above formula, using –2220 for LSB/°C:
T=
449.648.000 - 518,203,584
+ 25C = 85.3°C
512 ⋅ (−2220)
It is recommended to base temperature measurements on TEMP_RAW_X which is the sum of two consecutive
temperature readings thus being higher by a factor of two than the raw sensor readings.
Temperature Compensation
Temperature Coefficients: The internal voltage reference is calibrated during device manufacture.
For the 71M6521DE/FE, the temperature coefficients TC1 and TC2 are given as constants that represent typical
component behavior (in µV/°C and µV/°C2, respectively).
For the 71M6521DH, the temperature characteristics of the chip are measured during production and then stored in
the fuse registers TRIMBGA, TRIMBGB, TRIMT and TRIMM[2:0]. TC1 and TC2 can be derived from the fuses by
using the relations given in the Electrical Specifications section.
Since TC1 and TC2 are given in µV/°C and µV/°C2, respectively, the value of the VREF voltage (1.195 V) has
to be taken into account when transitioning to PPM/°C and PPM/°C2. This means that PPMC =
26.84*TC1/1.195, and PPMC2 = 1374*TC2/1.195.
Close examination of the electrical specification (see Table 61) for the parts with regular accuracy reveals that the
achievable deviation is not strictly ±40 PPM/°C over the whole temperature range: Only for temperatures for which T22 > 40 (i.e. T > 62°C) or for which T-22 < -40 (i.e. T < -18°C), the data sheet states ±40 PPM/°C. For temperatures
between -18°C and +62°C, the error should be considered constant at ±1,600 PPM, or ±0.16%.
Similar considerations apply to the high-accuracy parts (see Table 62), where the error around the calibration
temperature should be considered constant at ±800 PPM, or ±0.08%.
Parameter
Condition
VREF(T) deviation from VNOM(T)
VREF (T ) − VNOM (T )
10 6
max( T − 22 ,40)
VNOM (T )
Min
-40
Typ
+40
PPM/ºC
Table 61: VREF Definition for the Regular Accuracy Parts
Rev 2
Page: 61 of 107
71M6521DE/DH/FE Data Sheet
Parameter
Condition
Min
VREF(T) deviation from VNOM(T)
VREF (T ) − VNOM (T )
10 6
VNOM (T )
max( T − 22 ,40)
Typ
-20
+20
PPM/ºC
Table 62: VREF Definition for the High-Accuracy Parts
Figure 30 and Figure 31 show this concept graphically. The “box” from -18°C to +62°C reflects the fact that it is
impractical to measure the temperature coefficient of high-quality references at small temperature excursions. For
example, at +25°C, the expected error would be ±3°C * 40 PPM/°C, or just 0.012% for the regular-accuracy parts..
The maximum deviation of ±2520 PPM (or 0.252%) for the regular-accuracy parts is reached at the temperature
extremes. If the reference voltage is used to measure both voltage and current, the identical errors of ±0.252% add
up to a maximum Wh registration error of ±0.504%.
The maximum deviation of ±1260 PPM (or 0.126%) for the high-accuracy parts is reached at the temperature
extremes. If the reference voltage is used to measure both voltage and current, the identical errors of ±0.126% add
up to a maximum Wh registration error of ±0.252%.
Error Band (PPM) over Temperature (°C)
2800
2400
2000
1600
1200
800
400
0
-400
-800
-1200
-1600
-2000
-2400
-2800
±40 PPM/°C
±40 PPM/°C
-40
-20
0
20
40
60
80
Figure 30: Error Band for VREF over Temperature (Regular-Accuracy Parts)
Page: 62 of 107
Rev 2
71M6521DE/DH/FE Data Sheet
Error Band (PPM) over Temperature (°C)
1400
±20 PPM/°C
1000
600
200
-200
-600
-1000
±20 PPM/°C
-1400
-40
-20
0
20
40
60
80
Figure 31: Error Band for VREF over Temperature (High-Accuracy Parts)
Temperature Compensation: The CE provides the bandgap temperature to the MPU, which then may digitally compensate the power outputs for the temperature dependence of VREF, using the CE register GAIN_ADJ. Since the
band gap amplifier is chopper-stabilized via the CHOP_EN bits, the most significant long-term drift mechanism in the
voltage reference is removed.
The MPU, not the CE, is entirely in charge of providing temperature compensation. The MPU applies the following
formula to determine GAIN_ADJ (address 0x12). In this formula TEMP_X is the deviation from nominal or calibration
temperature expressed in multiples of 0.1°C:
TEMP _ X ⋅ PPMC TEMP _ X 2 ⋅ PPMC 2
GAIN _ ADJ = 16385 +
+
214
2 23
In a production electricity meter, the 71M6521DE/DH/FE is not the only component contributing to temperature dependency. A whole range of components (e.g. current transformers, resistor dividers, power sources, filter capacitors)
will contribute temperature effects.
Since the output of the on-chip temperature sensor is accessible to the MPU, temperature-compensation
mechanisms with great flexibility are possible. MPU access to GAIN_ADJ permits a system-wide temperature
correction over the entire meter rather than local to the chip.
Rev 2
Page: 63 of 107
71M6521DE/DH/FE Data Sheet
Temperature Compensation and Mains Frequency Stabilization for the RTC
The flexibility provided by the MPU allows for compensation of the RTC using the substrate temperature. To achieve
this, the crystal has to be characterized over temperature and the three coefficients Y_CAL, Y_CALC, and Y_CAL_C2
have to be calculated. Provided the IC substrate temperatures tracks the crystal temperature the coefficients can be
used in the MPU firmware to trigger occasional corrections of the RTC seconds count, using the RTC_DEC_SEC or
RTC_INC_SEC registers in I/O RAM.
Example: Let us assume a crystal characterized by the measurements shown in Table 63:
Deviation from
Nominal
Temperature [°C]
Measured
Frequency [Hz]
Deviation from
Nominal
Frequency [PPM]
+50
32767.98
-0.61
+25
32768.28
8.545
0
32768.38
11.597
-25
32768.08
2.441
-50
32767.58
-12.817
Table 63: Frequency over Temperature
The values show that even at nominal temperature (the temperature at which the chip was calibrated for energy), the
deviation from the ideal crystal frequency is 11.6 PPM, resulting in about one second inaccuracy per day, i.e. more
than some standards allow. As Figure 32 shows, even a constant compensation would not bring much improvement,
since the temperature characteristics of the crystal are a mix of constant, linear, and quadratic effects.
32768.5
32768.4
32768.3
32768.2
32768.1
32768
32767.9
32767.8
32767.7
32767.6
32767.5
-50
-25
0
25
50
Figure 32: Crystal Frequency over Temperature
One method to correct the temperature characteristics of the crystal is to obtain coefficients from the curve in Figure
32 by curve-fitting the PPM deviations. A fairly close curve fit is achieved with the coefficients a = 10.89, b = 0.122,
and c = –0.00714 (see Figure 33).
a
b
c 

f = f nom ⋅ 1 + 6 + T 6 + T 2 6 
10
10
10


When applying the inverted coefficients, a curve (see Figure 33) will result that effectively neutralizes the original
crystal characteristics.
Page: 64 of 107
Rev 2
71M6521DE/DH/FE Data Sheet
32768.5
32768.4
32768.3
32768.2
32768.1
32768
32767.9
32767.8
crystal
32767.7
curve fit
32767.6
inverse curve
32767.5
-50
-25
0
25
50
Figure 33: Crystal Compensation
The MPU Demo Code supplied with the Teridian Demo Kits has a direct interface for these coefficients and it directly
controls the RTC_DEC_SEC or RTC_INC_SEC registers. The Demo Code uses the coefficients in the form:
CORRECTION ( ppm) =
Y _ CAL
Y _ CALC
Y _ CALC 2
+T ⋅
+T2 ⋅
10
100
1000
Note that the coefficients are scaled by 10, 100, and 1000 to provide more resolution. For our example case, the
coefficients would then become (after rounding):
Y_CAL = 109, Y_CALC = 12, Y_CALC2 = 7
Alternatively, the mains frequency may be used to stabilize or check the function of the RTC. For this purpose, the
CE provides a count of the zero crossings detected for the selected line voltage in the MAIN_EDGE_X address. This
count is equivalent to twice the line frequency, and can be used to synchronize and/or correct the RTC.
Connecting 5 V Devices
All digital input pins of the 71M6521DE/DH/FE are compatible with external 5 V devices. I/O pins configured as inputs
do not require current-limiting resistors when they are connected to external 5 V devices.
Rev 2
Page: 65 of 107
71M6521DE/DH/FE Data Sheet
Connecting LCDs
The 71M6521DE/DH/FE has a LCD controller on-chip capable of controlling static or multiplexed LCDs. Figure 34
shows the basic connection for a LCD.
6521
LCD
segments
commons
Figure 34: Connecting LCDs
The LCD segment pins can be organized in the following groups:
1.
Nineteen pins are dedicated LCD segment pins (SEG0 to SEG18).
2.
Four pins are dual-function pins CKTEST/SEG19, E_RXTX/SEG38, E_TCLK/SEG33, and E_RST/SEG32.
3.
Twelve pins are available as combined DIO and segment pins SEG24/DIO4 to SEG31/DIO11 and
SEG34/DIO14 to SEG37/DIO17)
4.
The QFN-68 package adds the three combination pins SEG39/DIO19 to SEG41/DIO21.
The split between DIO and LCD use of the combined pins is controlled with the DIO register LCD_NUM. LCD_NUM
can be assigned any number between 0 and 18. The first dual-purpose pin to be allocated as LCD is SEG41/DIO21
(on the 68-pin QFN package). Thus if LCD_NUM=2, SEG41 and SEG 40 will be configured as LCD. The remaining
SEG39 to SEG24 will be configured as DIO19 to DIO4. DIO1 and DIO2 are always available, if not used for the
optical port.
Note that pins CKTEST/SEG19, E_RXTX/SEG38, E_TCLK/SEG33, and E_RST/SEG32 are not affected by
LCD_NUM.
Table 64 and Table 65 show the allocation of DIO and segment pins as a function of LCD_NUM for both package
types.
Page: 66 of 107
Rev 2
71M6521DE/DH/FE Data Sheet
LCD_NUM
SEG in Addition to
SEG0-SEG18
Total Number of
LCD Segment Pins
Including SEG0SEG18
DIO Pins in Addition
to DIO1-DIO2
Total Number of DIO
Pins Including DIO1,
DIO2
0
None
19
4-11,14-17, 19-21
18
1
41
20
4-11, 14-17, 19-20
17
2
40-41
21
4-11, 14-17, 19
16
3
39-41
22
4-11, 14-17
15
4
39-41
22
4-11, 14-17
15
5
37, 39-41
23
4-11, 14-16
14
6
36-37, 39-41
24
4-11, 14-15
13
7
35-37, 39-41
25
4-11, 14
12
8
34-37, 39-41
26
4-11
11
9
34-37, 39-41
26
4-11
11
10
34-37, 39-41
27
4-11
11
11
31, 34-37, 39-41
27
4-10
10
12
30-31, 34-37, 39-41
28
4-9
9
13
29-31, 34-37, 39-41
29
4-8
8
14
28-31, 34-37, 39-41
30
4-7
7
15
27-31, 34-37, 39-41
31
4-6
6
16
26-31, 34-37, 39-41
32
4-5
5
17
25-31, 34-37, 39-41
33
4
4
18
24-31, 34-37, 39-41
34
None
3
Note: LCD segment numbers are given without CKTEST/SEG19, E_RXTX/SEG38, E_TCLK/SEG33, and
E_RST/SEG32.
Table 64: LCD and DIO Pin Assignment by LCD_NUM for the QFN-68 Package
Rev 2
Page: 67 of 107
71M6521DE/DH/FE Data Sheet
LCD_NUM
SEG in Addition
to SEG0-SEG18
Total Number of LCD
Segment Pins Including SEG0-SEG18
DIO Pins in Addition
to DIO1-DIO2
Total Number of DIO
Pins Including DIO1,
DIO2
0
-
19
4-11, 14-17
14
1
-
19
4-11, 14-17
14
2
-
19
4-11, 14-17
14
3
-
19
4-11, 14-17
14
4
-
19
4-11, 14-17
14
5
37
20
4-11, 14-16
13
6
36-37
21
4-11, 14-15
12
7
35-37
22
4-11, 14
11
8
34-37
23
4-11
10
9
34-37
23
4-11
10
10
34-37
23
4-11
10
11
31, 34-37
24
4-10
9
12
30-31, 34-37
25
4-9
8
13
29-31, 34-37
26
4-8
7
14
28-31, 34-37
27
4-7
6
15
27-31, 34-37
28
4-6
5
16
26-31, 34-37
29
4-5
4
17
25-31, 34-37
30
4
3
18
24-31, 34-37
31
None
2
Note: LCD segment numbers are given without CKTEST/SEG19, E_RXTX/SEG38, E_TCLK/SEG33, and
E_RST/SEG32.
Table 65: LCD and DIO Pin Assignment by LCD_NUM for the LQFP-64 Package
Connecting I2C EEPROMs
I2C EEPROMs or other I2C compatible devices should be connected to the DIO pins DIO4 and DIO5, as shown in
Figure 35. Pull-up resistors of roughly 10kΩ to V3P3D (to ensure operation in BROWNOUT mode) should be used for
both SCL and SDA signals. The DIO_EEX register in I/O RAM must be set to 01 in order to convert the DIO pins
2
DIO4 and DIO5 to I C pins SCL and SDA
V3P3D
10kΩ
71M6521
10kΩ
EEPROM
DIO4
SCL
DIO5
SDA
.
Figure 35: I2C EEPROM Connection
Page: 68 of 107
Rev 2
71M6521DE/DH/FE Data Sheet
Connecting Three-Wire EEPROMs
µWire EEPROMs and other compatible devices should be connected to the DIO pins DIO4 and DIO5, as shown in
Figure 36. DIO5 connects to both the DI and DO pins of the three-wire device. The CS pin must be connected to a
vacant DIO pin of the 71M6521DE/DH/FE. A pull-up resistor of roughly 10kΩ to V3P3D (to ensure operation in
BROWNOUT mode) should be used for the DI/DO signals, and the CS pin should be pulled down with a resistor to
prevent that the three-wire device is selected on power-up, before the 71M6521DE/DH/FE can establish a stable
signal for CS. The DIO_EEX register in I/O RAM must be set to 10 in order to convert the DIO pins DIO4 and DIO5 to
MICROWIRE pins. The pull-up resistor for DIO5 may not be necessary.
V3P3D
71M6521
10kΩ
10kΩ
EEPROM
SCLK
DI
DO
CS
DIO4
DIO5
DIOn
Figure 36: Three-Wire EEPROM Connection
UART0 (TX/RX)
The RX pin should be pulled down by a 10kΩ resistor and additionally protected by a 100pF ceramic capacitor, as
shown in Figure 37.
71M6521E
RX
100pF
10kΩ
TX
RX
TX
Figure 37: Connections for the RX Pin
Rev 2
Page: 69 of 107
71M6521DE/DH/FE Data Sheet
Optical Interface
The pins OPT_TX and OPT_RX can be used for a regular serial interface, e.g. by connecting a RS_232 transceiver,
or they can be used to directly operate optical components, e.g. an infrared diode and phototransistor implementing a
FLAG interface. Figure 38 shows the basic connections. The OPT_TX pin becomes active when the I/O RAM register
OPT_TXDIS is set to 0.
The polarity of the OPT_TX and OPT_RX pins can be inverted with configuration bits OPT_TXINV and OPT_RXINV,
respectively.
The OPT_TX output may be modulated at 38kHz when system power is present. Modulation is not available in
BROWNOUT mode. The OPT_TXMOD bit enables modulation. The duty cycle is controlled by OPT_FDC[1:0], which
can select 50%, 25%, 12.5%, and 6.25% duty cycle. A 6.25% duty cycle means OPT_TX is low for 6.25% of the
period.
The receive pin (OPT_RX) may need an analog filter when receiving modulated optical signals.
With modulation, an optical emitter can be operated at higher current than nominal, enabling it to increase the
distance along the optical path.
If operation in BROWNOUT mode is desired, the external components should be connected to V3P3D.
V3P3SYS
R1
71M6521
OPT_RX
100pF 100kΩ
Phototransistor
V3P3SYS
R2
LED
OPT_TX
Figure 38: Connection for Optical Components
Connecting V1 and Reset Pins
A voltage divider should be used to establish that V1 is in a safe range when the meter is in mission mode (V1 must
be lower than 2.9V in all cases in order to keep the hardware watchdog timer enabled). For proper debugging or
loading code into the 71M6521DE/DH/FE mounted on a PCB, it is necessary to have a provision like the header
shown above R1 in Figure 39. A shorting jumper on this header pulls V1 up to V3P3 disabling the hardware watchdog
timer.
The parallel impedance of R1 and R2 should be approximately 20 to 30kΩ in order to provide hysteresis for the
power fault monitor.
R3
R1
V3P3
5kΩ
R2
C1
100pF
V1
GND
Figure 39: Voltage Divider for V1
Page: 70 of 107
Rev 2
71M6521DE/DH/FE Data Sheet
Even though a functional meter will not necessarily need a reset switch, it is useful to have a reset pushbutton for
prototyping, as shown in Figure 40, left side. The RESET signal may be sourced from V3P3SYS (functional in
MISSION mode only), V3P3D (MISSION and BROWNOUT modes), VBAT (all modes, if battery is present), or from a
combination of these sources, depending on the application. For a production meter, the RESET pin should be
protected by the external components shown in Figure 40, right side. R1 should be in the range of 100Ω and mounted
as closely as possible to the IC.
Since the 71M6521DE/DH/FE generates its own power-on reset, a reset button or circuitry, as shown in
Figure 40, left side, is only required for test units and prototypes.
VBAT/
V3P3D
V3P3D
R2
1kΩ
71M6521
71M6521
Reset
Switch
RESET
RESET
100Ω
R1
10kΩ
R1
1nF
DGND
DGND
Figure 40: External Components for RESET: Development Circuit (Left), Production Circuit (Right)
Connecting the Emulator Port Pins
Capacitors to ground must be used for protection from EMI. Production boards should have the ICE_E pin connected
to ground.
If the ICE pins are used to drive LCD segments, the pull-up resistors should be omitted, as shown in Figure 41, and
22pF capacitors to GNDD should be used for protection from EMI.
It is important to bring out the ICE_E pin to the programming interface in order to create a way for
reprogramming parts that have the flash SECURE bit (SFR 0xB2[6]) set. Providing access to ICE_E ensures that
the part can be reset between erase and program cycles, which will enable programming devices to reprogram the
part. The reset required is implemented with a watchdog timer reset (i.e. the hardware WDT must be enabled).
LCD Segments
(optional)
V3P3D
71M6521
ICE_E
62Ω
E_RST
62Ω
E_RXTX
E_TCLK
62Ω
22pF 22pF 22pF
Figure 41: External Components for the Emulator Interface
Crystal Oscillator
The oscillator of the 71M6521DE/DH/FE drives a standard 32.768kHz watch crystal. The oscillator has been
designed specifically to handle these crystals and is compatible with their high impedance and limited power handling
capability. The oscillator power dissipation is very low to maximize the lifetime of any battery backup device attached
to VBAT.
Rev 2
Page: 71 of 107
71M6521DE/DH/FE Data Sheet
Board layouts with minimum capacitance from XIN to XOUT will require less battery current. Good layouts will have
XIN and XOUT shielded from each other.
Since the oscillator is self-biasing, an external resistor must not be connected across the crystal.
Flash Programming
Operational or test code can be programmed into the flash memory using either an in-circuit emulator or the Teridian
Flash Programmer Module (TFP-1). The flash programming procedure uses the E_RST, E_RXTX, and E_TCLK pins.
MPU Firmware Library
All application-specific MPU functions mentioned above under “Application Information” are available as a standard
ANSI C library and as ANSI “C” source code. The code is available as part of the Demonstration Kit for the
71M6521DE/DH/FE IC. The Demonstration Kits come with the 71M6521DE/DH/FE IC preprogrammed with demo
firmware mounted on a functional sample meter PCB (Demo Board). The Demo Boards allow for quick and efficient
evaluation of the IC without having to write firmware or having to supply an in-circuit emulator (ICE).
Meter Calibration
Once the Teridian 71M6521DE/DH/FE energy meter device has been installed in a meter system, it has to be
calibrated for tolerances of the current sensors, voltage dividers and signal conditioning components. The device can
be calibrated using the gain and phase adjustment factors accessible to the CE. The gain adjustment is used to
compensate for tolerances of components used for signal conditioning, especially the resistive components. Phase
adjustment is provided to compensate for phase shifts introduced by the current sensors.
Due to the flexibility of the MPU firmware, any calibration method, such as calibration based on energy, or current
and voltage can be implemented. It is also possible to implement segment-wise calibration (depending on current
range).
The 71M6521DE/DH/FE supports common industry standard calibration techniques, such as single-point (energyonly), multi-point (energy, Vrms, Irms), and auto-calibration.
Page: 72 of 107
Rev 2
71M6521DE/DH/FE Data Sheet
FIRMWARE INTERFACE
I/O RAM MAP – In Numerical Order
‘Not Used’ bits are grayed out, contain no memory and are read by the MPU as zero. RESERVED bits may be in use
and should not be changed. This table lists only the SFR registers that are not generic 8051 SFR registers.
Name
Addr
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
Configuration:
EQU[2:0]
CE_E
CE0
2000
Reserved
PRE_SAMPS[1:0]
SUM_CYCLES[5:0]
CE1
2001
MUX_DIV[1:0]
CHOP_E[1:0]
RTM_E
WD_OVF
EX_RTC
EX_XFR
CE2
2002
PLL_OK
COMP0 2003 Not Used
Not Used
Reserved
Reserved Reserved COMP_STAT[0]
CKOUT_E[1:0]
VREF_DIS
MPU_DIV[2:0]
CONFIG0 2004 VREF_CAL PLS_INV
ECK_DIS
FIR_LEN
ADC_E
MUX_ALT
FLSH66Z
CONFIG1 2005 Reserved Reserved
Reserved
VERSION[7:0]
VERSION 2006
OPT_TXE[1:0]
EX_PLL EX_FWCOL
OPT_FDC[1:0]
CONFIG2 2007
Reserved
CE_LCTN[4:0]
CE3
20A8 Not Used Not Used
Not Used
SLEEP
LCD_ONLY Not Used WAKE_RES
WAKE_PRD[2:0]
WAKE 20A9 WAKE_ARM
TMUX[4:0]
TMUX 20AA Not Used Not Used
Not Used
Digital I/O:
DIO_EEX[1:0]
OPT_RXDIS OPT_RXINV DIO_PW
DIO_PV OPT_TXMOD OPT_TXINV
DIO0
2008
DIO_R1[2:0]
DI_RPB[2:0]
DIO1
2009 Not Used
Not Used
DIO_R2[2:0]
DIO2
200A Not Used
Reserved
Not Used
DIO_R5[2:0]
DIO_R4[2:0]
DIO3
200B Not Used
Not Used
DIO_R7[2:0]
DIO_R6[2:0]
DIO4
200C Not Used
Not Used
DIO_R9[2:0]
DIO_R8[2:0]
DIO5
200D Not Used
Not Used
DIO_R11[2:0]
DIO_R10[2:0]
DIO6
200E Not Used
Not Used
Real Time Clock:
RTC_SEC[5:0]
RTC0 2015 Not Used Not Used
RTC_MIN[5:0]
RTC1 2016 Not Used Not Used
RTC_HR[4:0]
RTC2 2017 Not Used Not Used Not Used
RTC_DAY[2:0]
RTC3 2018 Not Used Not Used Not Used Not Used
Not Used
RTC_DATE[2:0]
RTC4 2019 Not Used Not Used Not Used
RTC_MO[3:0]
RTC5 201A Not Used Not Used Not Used Not Used
RTC_YR[7:0]
RTC6 201B
RTC7 201C Not Used Not Used Not Used Not Used
Not Used
Not Used RTC_DEC_SEC RTC_INC_SEC
Write enable for RTC
WE
201F
LCD Display Interface:
BME
LCD_NUM[4:0]
LCDX 2020 Not Used
Reserved
LCD_Y
LCD_E
LCD_MODE[2:0]
LCD_CLK[1:0]
LCDY 2021 Not Used
LCDZ 2022 Not Used Not Used
Not Used
Reserved
LCD_SEG0[3:0]
LCD0 2030
Not Used
…
…
…
Not Used
LCD_SEG19[3:0]
LCD19 2043
Not Used
LCD_SEG24[3:0]
LCD24 2048
Not Used
…
…
…
Not Used
LCD_SEG38[3:0]
LCD38 2056
Not Used
LCD_BLKMAP19[3:0]
LCD_BLKMAP18[3:0]
LCD_BLNK 205A
Rev 2
Page: 73 of 107
71M6521DE/DH/FE Data Sheet
RTM Probes:
RTM0 2060
RTM1 2061
RTM2 2062
RTM3 2063
Pulse Generator:
PLS_W 2080
PLS_I 2081
RTM0[7:0]
RTM1[7:0]
RTM2[7:0]
RTM3[7:0]
PLS_MAXWIDTH[7:0]
PLS_INTERVAL[7:0]
SFR MAP (SFRs Specific to the Teridian 80515) – In Numerical Order
‘Not Used’ bits are blacked out and contain no memory and are read by the MPU as zero. RESERVED bits are in use
and should not be changed. This table lists only the SFR registers that are not generic 8051 SFR registers
Name
SFR Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Digital I/O:
DIO_0[7:4] (Port 0)
DIO7
80
Reserved
DIO_DIR0[7:4]
DIO8
A2
Reserved
DIO_1[7:6]
DIO9
90
Reserved
DIO_DIR1[7:6]
DIO10
91
Reserved
DIO11
A0
Not Used Not Used
DIO2[5:3] (QFN-68) *
DIO12
A1
Not Used Not Used
DIO_DIR2[5:3] (QFN-68) *
Interrupts and WD Timer:
INT6
INT5
INT4
INT3
INTBITS F8
IFLAGS
E8
IE_PLLFALL
IE_PLLRISE
WD_RST
Flash:
ERASE
94
FLSHCTL B2 PREBOOT
PGADR B7
Serial EEPROM:
EEDATA 9E
EECTRL 9F
SECURE
IE_WAKE
IE_PB
Bit 2
Bit 0
DIO_0[2:1]
PB
DIO_DIR0[2:1]
Reserved
DIO_1[3:0] (Port 1)
DIO_DIR1[3:0]
DIO_2[1:0] (Port 2)
Reserved
DIO_DIR2[1:0]
Reserved
INT2
IE_FWCOL1 IE_FWCOL0
FLSH_ERASE[7:0]
Not Used Not Used Not Used
FLSH_PGADR[6:0]
Bit 1
Not Used
INT1
INT0
IE_RTC
IE_XFER
FLSH_MEEN FLSH_PWE
Not Used
EEDATA[7:0]
EECTRL[7:0]
* = Only available on QFN-68 package. Reserved in LQFP-64 package.
Page: 74 of 107
Rev 2
71M6521DE/DH/FE Data Sheet
I/O RAM DESCRIPTION – Alphabetical Order
Bits with a W (write) direction are written by the MPU into configuration RAM. Typically, they are initially stored in
flash memory and copied to the configuration RAM by the MPU. Some of the more frequently programmed bits are
mapped to the MPU SFR memory space. The remaining bits are mapped to the address range 0x2xxx. Bits with R
(read) direction can be read by the MPU. Columns labeled “Rst” and “Wk” describe the bit values upon reset and
wake, respectively. No entry in one of these columns means the bit is either read-only or is powered by the nonvolatile supply and is not initialized. Write-only bits will return zero when they are read.
Name
Location
Rst
Wk
Dir
Description
ADC_E
2005[3]
0
0
R/W
Enables ADC and VREF. When disabled, removes bias current
BME
2020[6]
0
-
R/W
Battery Measure Enable. When set, a load current is immediately
applied to the battery and it is connected to the ADC to be
measured on Alternative Mux Cycles. See MUX_ALT bit.
CE_E
2000[4]
0
0
R/W
CE enable.
CE_LCTN[4:0]
20A8[4:0]
31
31
R/W
CHOP_E[1:0]
2002[5:4]
0
0
R/W
CE program location. The starting address for the CE program is
1024*CE_LCTN. CE_LCTN must be defined before the CE is enabled.
Chop enable for the reference bandgap circuit. The value of CHOP
will change on the rising edge of MUXSYNC according to the value
in CHOP_E:
00-toggle1 01-positive 10-reversed 11-toggle
1
except at the mux sync edge at the end of SUMCYCLE.
CKOUT_E[1:0]
2004[5,4]
00
00
R/W
CKTEST Enable. The default is 00
00-SEG19,
01-CK_FIR (5MHz Mission, 32kHz Brownout)
10-Not allowed (reserved for production test)
11-Same as 10.
COMP_STAT[0]
2003[0]
--
--
R
The status of the power fail comparator for V1.
2009[2:0]
2009[6:4]
200A[2:0]
200B[2:0]
200B[6:4]
200C[2:0]
200C[6:4]
200D[2:0]
200D[6:4]
200E[2:0]
200E[6:4]
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
R/W
0
0
R/W
DI_RPB[2:0]
DIO_R1[2:0]
DIO_R2[2:0]
DIO_R4[2:0]
DIO_R5[2:0]
DIO_R6[2:0]
DIO_R7[2:0]
DIO_R8[2:0]
DIO_R9[2:0]
DIO_R10[2:0]
DIO_R11[2:0]
DIO_DIR0[7:4,2:1]
Rev 2
SFRA2
[7:4,2:0]
Connects dedicated I/O pins DIO2 and DIO4 through DIO11 as well
as input pins PB and DIO1 to internal resources. If more than one
input is connected to the same resource, the ‘MULTIPLE’ column
below specifies how they are combined.
DIO_Rx
000
001
010
011
100
101
110
111
Resource
NONE
Reserved
T0 (Timer0 clock or gate)
T1 (Timer1 clock or gate)
High priority IO interrupt (int0 rising)
Low priority IO interrupt (int1 rising)
High priority IO interrupt (int0 falling)
Low priority IO interrupt (int1 falling)
MULTIPLE
-OR
OR
OR
OR
OR
OR
OR
Programs the direction of pins DIO7-DIO4 and DIO2-DIO1. 1 indicates output. Ignored if the pin is not configured as I/O. See
DIO_PV and DIO_PW for special option for DIO6 and DIO7 outputs.
See DIO_EEX for special option for DIO4 and DIO5.
Page: 75 of 107
71M6521DE/DH/FE Data Sheet
DIO_DIR1[7:6, 3:0]
SFR91
[7:6,3:0]
0
0
R/W
Programs the direction of pins DIO15-DIO14, DIO11-DIO8. 1 indicates output. Ignored if the pin is not configured as I/O.
DIO_DIR2 [5:3,2:1]
SFRA1
[5:3,2:1]
0
0
R/W
DIO_0[7:4,2:0]
SFR80
[7:4,2:0]
0
0
R/W
DIO_1[7:6,3:0]
SFR90
[7:6,3:0]
0
0
R/W
DIO_2[5:3,1:0]
SFRA0
[5:3,1:0]
0
0
R/W
DIO_EEX[1:0]
2008[7:6]
0
0
R/W
DIO_PV
2008[2]
0
0
R/W
DIO_PW
2008[3]
0
0
R/W
EEDATA[7:0]
EECTRL[7:0]
ECK_DIS
SFR9E
SFR9F
2005[5]
0
0
0
0
0
0
R/W
R/W
R/W
EQU[2:0]
EX_XFR
EX_RTC
EX_FWCOL
EX_PLL
FIR_LEN
2000[7:5]
2002[0]
2002[1]
2007[4]
2007[5]
2005[4]
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
R/W
R/W
Programs the direction of pins DIO17-DIO16 (and DIO19-DIO21 for
the QFN package). 1 indicates output. Ignored if the pin is not configured as I/O.
The value on the pins DIO7-DIO4 and DIO2-DIO1. Pins configured
as LCD will read zero. When written, changes data on pins configured as outputs. Pins configured as LCD or input will ignore write
operations. The pushbutton input PB is read on DIO_0[0].
The value on the pins DIO15-DIO14 and DIO11-DIO8. Pins configured as LCD will read zero. When written, changes data on pins
configured as outputs. Pins configured as LCD or input will ignore
write operations.
The value on the pins DIO17-DIO16 (and DIO19-DIO21 for the QFN
package). Pins configured as LCD will read zero. When written,
changes data on pins configured as outputs. Pins configured as
LCD or input will ignore write operations.
When set, converts DIO4 and DIO5 to interface with external
EEPROM. DIO4 becomes SDCK and DIO5 becomes bi-directional
SDATA. LCD_NUM must be less than or equal to 18.
DIO_EEX[1:0]
Function
00
Disable EEPROM interface
01
2-Wire EEPROM interface
10
3-Wire EEPROM interface
11
--not used-Causes VARPULSE to be output on DIO7, if DIO7 is configured as
output. LCD_NUM must be less than 15.
Causes WPULSE to be output on DIO6, if DIO6 is configured as
output. LCD_NUM must be less than 16.
Serial EEPROM interface data
Serial EEPROM interface control
Emulator clock disable. When one, the emulator clock is disabled.
This bit is to be used with caution! Inadvertently
setting this bit will inhibit access to the part with the
ICE interface and thus preclude flash erase and programming operations. If ECK_ENA is set, it should be done at
least 1000ms after power-up to give emulators and programming
devices enough time to complete an erase operation.
Specifies the power equation to be used by the CE.
Interrupt enable bits. These bits enable the XFER_BUSY, the
RTC_1SEC, the FirmWareCollision, and PLL interrupts. Note that if
one of these interrupts is to be enabled, its corresponding EX
enable bit must also be set. See the Interrupts section for details.
The length of the ADC decimation FIR filter.
1-384 cycles, 0-288 cycles
When FIR_LEN=1, the ADC has 2.370370x higher gain.
Page: 76 of 107
R/W
Rev 2
71M6521DE/DH/FE Data Sheet
FLSH_ERASE[7:0]
SFR94[7:0]
0
0
W
FLSH_MEEN
SFRB2[1]
0
0
W
FLSH_PGADR[6:0]
SFRB7[7:1]
0
0
W
FLSH_PWE
SFRB2[0]
0
0
R/W
FOVRIDE
20FD[4]
0
0
R/W
IE_FWCOL0
IE_FWCOL1
IE_PB
SFRE8[2]
SFRE8[3]
SFRE8[4]
0
0
0
0
0
--
R/W
R/W
R/W
IE_PLLRISE
SFRE8[6]
0
0
R/W
IE_PLLFALL
SFRE8[7]
0
0
R/W
IE_XFER
IE_RTC
SFRE8[0]
SFRE8[1]
0
0
0
0
R/W
IE_WAKE
SFRE8[5]
0
--
R/W
INTBITS
SFRF8[6:0]
--
--
R/W
LCD_BLKMAP19[3:0]
LCD_BLKMAP18[3:0]
205A[7:4]
205A[3:0]
0
--
R/W
LCD_CLK[1:0]
2021[1:0]
0
--
R/W
Flash Erase Initiate
FLSH_ERASE is used to initiate either the Flash Mass Erase cycle or
the Flash Page Erase cycle. Specific patterns are expected for
FLSH_ERASE in order to initiate the appropriate Erase cycle.
(default = 0x00).
0x55 – Initiate Flash Page Erase cycle. Must be proceeded by a
write to FLSH_PGADR @ SFR 0xB7.
0xAA – Initiate Flash Mass Erase cycle. Must be proceeded by a
write to FLSH_MEEN @ SFR 0xB2 and the debug (CC)
port must be enabled.
Any other pattern written to FLSH_ERASE will have no effect.
Mass Erase Enable
0 – Mass Erase disabled (default).
1 – Mass Erase enabled.
Must be re-written for each new Mass Erase cycle.
Flash Page Erase Address
FLSH_PGADR[6:0] – Flash Page Address (page 0 thru 127) that will
be erased during the Page Erase cycle. (default = 0x00).
Must be re-written for each new Page Erase cycle.
Program Write Enable
0 – MOVX commands refer to XRAM Space, normal operation
(default).
1 – MOVX @DPTR,A moves A to Program Space (Flash) @ DPTR.
This bit is automatically reset after each byte written to flash. Writes
to this bit are inhibited when interrupts are enabled.
Permits the values written by MPU to temporarily override the
values in the fuse register (reserved for production test).
Interrupt flags for Firmware Collision Interrupt. See Flash Memory
Section for details.
PB flag. Indicates that a rising edge occurred on PB. Firmware must
write a zero to this bit to clear it. The bit is also cleared when MPU
requests SLEEP or LCD mode. On bootup, the MPU can read this
bit to determine if the part was woken with the PB DIO0[0].
Indicates that the MPU was woken or interrupted (int 4) by System
power becoming available, or more precisely, by PLL_OK rising.
Firmware must write a zero to this bit to clear it
Indicates that the MPU has entered BROWNOUT mode because
System power has become unavailable (int 4), or more precisely,
because PLL_OK fell.
Note: this bit will not be set if the part wakes into
BROWNOUT mode because of PB or the WAKE timer.
Firmware must write a zero to this bit to clear it.
Interrupt flags. These flags monitor the XFER_BUSY interrupt and
the RTC_1SEC interrupt. The flags are set by hardware and must
be cleared by the interrupt handler. Note that IE6, the interrupt 6
flag bit in the MPU must also be cleared when either of these
interrupts occur.
Indicates that the MPU was woken by the autowake timer. This bit
is typically read by the MPU on bootup. Firmware must write a zero
to this bit to clear it
Interrupt inputs. The MPU may read these bits to see the input to
external interrupts INT0, INT1, up to INT6. These bits do not have
any memory and are primarily intended for debug use.
Identifies which segments connected to SEG18 and SEG19 should
blink. 1 means ‘blink.’ Most significant bit corresponds to COM3.
Least significant, to COM0.
Sets the LCD clock frequency (for COM/SEG pins, not frame rate).
Note: fw = 32768Hz
00: fw/29, 01: fw/28, 10: fw/27, 11: fw/26
Rev 2
Page: 77 of 107
71M6521DE/DH/FE Data Sheet
LCD_E
2021[5]
0
--
R/W
LCD_MODE[2:0]
2021[4:2]
0
--
R/W
LCD_NUM[4:0]
2020[4:0]
0
--
R/W
LCD_ONLY
20A9[5]
0
0
W
LCD_SEG0[3:0]
…
LCD_SEG19[3:0]
LCD_SEG24[3:0]
…
LCD_SEG38[3:0]
2030[3:0]
…
2043[3:0]
2048[3:0]
…
2056[3:0]
0
…
0
0
…
0
-…
--…
--
R/W
LCD_Y
2021[6]
0
0
R/W
MPU_DIV[2:0]
2004[2:0]
0
0
R/W
MUX_ALT
2005[2]
0
0
R/W
Page: 78 of 107
R/W
Enables the LCD display. When disabled, VLC2, VLC1, and VLC0
are ground as are the COM and SEG outputs.
The LCD bias mode.
000: 4 states, 1/3 bias
001: 3 states, 1/3 bias
010: 2 states, ½ bias
011: 3 states, ½ bias
100: static display
Number of dual-purpose LCD/DIO pins to be configured as LCD.
This will be a number between 0 and 18. The first dual-purpose pin
to be allocated as LCD is SEG41/DIO21. Thus if LCD_NUM=2,
SEG41 and SEG 40 will be configured as LCD. The remaining
SEG39 to SEG24 will be configured as DIO19 to DIO4.
DIO1 and DIO2 (plus DIO3 on the QFN-68 package) are always
available, if not used for the optical port.
See tables in Application Section.
Takes the 6521FE/DE to LCD mode. Ignored if system power is
present. The part will awaken when autowake timer times out,
when push button is pushed, or when system power returns.
LCD Segment Data. Each word contains information for from 1 to 4
time divisions of each segment. In each word, bit 0 corresponds to
COM0, on up to bit 3 for COM3.
These bits are preserved in LCD and SLEEP modes,
even if their pin is not configured as SEG. In this case,
they can be useful as general-purpose non-volatile
storage.
LCD Blink Frequency (ignored if blink is disabled or if segment is
off).
0: 1Hz (500ms ON, 500ms OFF)
1: 0.5Hz (1s ON, 1s OFF)
The MPU clock divider (from 4.9152MHz). These bits may be programmed by the MPU without risk of losing control.
000-4.9152MHz, 001-4.9152MHz /21, …, 111-4.9152MHz /27
MPU_DIV remains unchanged when the part enters BROWNOUT
mode.
The MPU asserts this bit when it wishes the MUX to perform ADC
conversions on an alternate set of inputs.
Rev 2
71M6521DE/DH/FE Data Sheet
MUX_DIV[1:0]
2002[7:6]
0
0
R/W
2007[1:0]
0
0
R/W
OPT_RXDIS
2008[5]
0
0
R/W
OPT_RXINV
2008[4]
0
0
R/W
OPT_TXE[1,0]
2007[7,6]
00
00
R/W
OPT_TXINV
OPT_TXMOD
2008[0]
2008[1]
0
0
0
0
R/W
R/W
PLL_OK
2003[6]
0
0
R
PLS_MAXWIDTH
[7:0]
2080[7:0]
FF
FF
R/W
PLS_INTERVAL
[7:0]
2081[7:0]
0
0
R/W
2004[6]
0
0
R/W
PREBOOT
SFRB2[7]
--
--
R
PRE_SAMPS[1:0]
2001[7:6]
0
0
R/W
RTC_SEC[5:0]
RTC_MIN[5:0]
RTC_HR[4:0]
RTC_DAY[2:0]
RTC_DATE[4:0]
RTC_MO[3:0]
RTC_YR[7:0]
2015
2016
2017
2018
2019
201A
201B
--------
--------
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
OPT_FDC[1:0]
PLS_INV
Rev 2
The number of states in the input multiplexer.
00- illegal
01- 4 states 10-3 states 11-2 states
Selects OPT_TX modulation duty cycle
OPT_FDC
Function
00
50% Low
01
25% Low
10
12.5% Low
11
6.25% Low
OPT_RX can be configured as an analog input to the optical UART
comparator or as a digital input/output, DIO1.
0—OPT_RX, 1—DIO1.
Inverts result from OPT_RX comparator when 1. Affects only the
UART input. Has no effect when OPT_RX is used as a DIO input.
Configures the OPT_TX output pin.
00—OPT_TX, 01—DIO2, 10—WPULSE, 11—VARPULSE
Invert OPT_TX when 1. This inversion occurs before modulation.
Enables modulation of OPT_TX. When OPT_TXMOD is set,
OPT_TX is modulated when it would otherwise have been zero.
The modulation is applied after any inversion caused by
OPT_TXINV.
Indicates that system power is present and the clock generation PLL
is settled.
Determines the maximum width of the pulse (low going pulse).
Maximum pulse width is (2*PLS_MAXWIDTH + 1)*TI. Where TI is
PLS_INTERVAL. If PLS_INTERVAL=0, TI is the sample time
(397µs). If 255, disable MAXWIDTH.
If the FIFO is used, PLS_INTERVAL must be set to 81. If
PLS_INTERVAL = 0, the FIFO is not used and pulses are output as
soon as the CE issues them.
Inverts the polarity of WPULSE and VARPULSE. Normally, these
pulses are active low. When inverted, they become active high.
Indicates that preboot sequence is active.
The duration of the pre-summer, in samples.
00-42, 01-50, 10-84, 11-100.
The RTC interface. These are the ‘year’, ‘month’, ‘day’, ‘hour’,
‘minute’ and ‘second’ parameters of the RTC. The RTC is set by
writing to these registers. Year 00 and all others divisible by 4 are
defined as leap years.
SEC 00 to 59
MIN 00 to 59
HR
00 to 23 (00=Midnight)
DAY 01 to 07 (01=Sunday)
DATE 01 to 31
MO 01 to 12
YR
00 to 99
Each write to one of these registers must be preceded by a write to
201F (WE).
Page: 79 of 107
71M6521DE/DH/FE Data Sheet
RTC_DEC_SEC
RTC_INC_SEC
201C[1]
201C[0]
0
0
0
0
W
RTM_E
2002[3]
0
0
R/W
2060
2061
2062
2063
SFRB2[6]
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
--
R/W
20A9[6]
0
0
W
2001[5:0]
20AA[4:0]
0
2
0
--
R/W
R/W
20FF
0
0
R/W
RTM0[7:0]
RTM1[7:0]
RTM2[7:0]
RTM3[7:0]
SECURE
SLEEP
SUM_CYCLES[5:0]
TMUX[4:0]
TRIM[7:0]
TRIMSEL[3:0]
Page: 80 of 107
20FD[3:0]
0
0
R/W
RTC time correction bits. Only one bit may be pulsed at a time.
When pulsed, causes the RTC time value to be incremented (or
decremented) by an additional second the next time the RTC_SEC
register is clocked. The pulse width may be any value. If an
additional correction is desired, the MPU must wait 2 seconds
before pulsing one of the bits again. Each write to one of these bits
must be preceded by a write to 201F (WE).
Real Time Monitor enable. When ‘0’, the RTM output is low. This
bit enables the two wire version of RTM
Four RTM probes. Before each CE code pass, the values of these
registers are serially output on the RTM pin. The RTM registers are
ignored when RTM_E=0.
Enables security provisions that prevent external reading of flash
memory and CE program RAM. This bit is reset on chip reset and
may only be set. Attempts to write zero are ignored.
Takes the 6521DE/DH/FE to sleep mode. Ignored if system power
is present. The part will wake when the autowake timer times out,
when push button is pushed, or when system power returns.
The number of pre-summer outputs summed in the final summer.
Selects one of 32 signals for TMUXOUT.
[4:0]
Selected Signal
[4:0]
Selected Signal
0x00
DGND (analog)
0x01
Reserved
0x02
Reserved
0x03
Reserved
0x04
Reserved
0x05
Reserved
0x06
VBIAS (analog)
0x07
Not used
0x08
Reserved
0x09
Reserved
0x0A
Reserved
0x0B
Reserved
-0x13
0x14
RTM (Real time
0x15
WDTR_E, comparator 1
output from CE)
Output AND V1LT3)
0x16 – Not used
0x18
RXD, from optical in0x17
terface, after optional
inversion
0x19
MUX_SYNC
0x1A
CK_10M
0x1B
CK_MPU
0x1C
Reserved
0x1D
RTCLK_2P5
0x1E
CE_BUSY
0x1F
XFER_BUSY
Contains TRIMT[7:0], TRIMBGA,TRIMBGB or TRIMM[2:0] depending
on the value written to TRIMSEL[3:0]. If TRIMBGB = 0, the device is
a 71M6521DE/FE, else it is a 71M6521DH.
Selects the temperature trim fuse to be read with the TRIM register:
TRIMSEL[3:0]
1
Trim Fuse
TRIMT[7:0]
4
5
6
TRIMM[2:0]
TRIMBGA
TRIMBGB
R/W
Purpose
Trim for the magnitude of
VREF
Trim values related to
temperature compensation
Rev 2
71M6521DE/DH/FE Data Sheet
2006
--
--
R
VREF_CAL
2004[7]
0
0
R/W
VREF_DIS
WAKE_ARM
2004[3]
20A9[7]
0
0
1
--
R/W
W
WAKE_PRD
20A9[2:0]
001
--
R/W
WAKE_RES
20A9[3]
0
--
R/W
WD_RST
SFRE8[7]
0
0
W
WD_OVF
2002[2]
0
0
R/W
201F7:0]
--
--
W
VERSION[7:0]
WE
Rev 2
The version index. This word may be read by firmware to determine
the silicon version.
VERSION[7:0]
Silicon Version
0000 0110
A06
Brings VREF to VREF pad. This feature is disabled when
VREF_DIS=1.
Disables the internal voltage reference.
Arm the autowake timer. Writing a 1 to this bit arms the autowake
timer and presets it with the values presently in WAKE_PRD and
WAKE_RES. The autowake timer is reset and disarmed whenever
the MPU is in MISSION mode or BROWNOUT mode. The timer
must be armed at least three RTC cycles before the SLEEP or LCDONLY mode is commanded.
Sleep time. Time=WAKE_PRD[2:0]*WAKE_RES. Default=001.
Maximum value is 7.
Resolution of WAKE timer: 1 – 1 minute, 0 – 2.5 seconds.
WD timer bit: Possible operations to this bit are:
Read: Gets the status of the flag IE_PLLFALL
Write 0: Clears the flag
Write 1:.Resets the WDT
The WD overflow status bit. This bit is set when the WD timer
overflows. It is powered by the non-volatile supply and at bootup
will indicate if the part is recovering from a WD overflow or a power
fault. This bit should be cleared by the MPU on bootup. It is also
automatically cleared when RESET is high.
Write operations on the RTC registers must be preceded by a write
operation to WE.
Page: 81 of 107
71M6521DE/DH/FE Data Sheet
CE Interface Description
CE Program
The CE program is supplied as a data image that can be merged with the MPU operational code for meter
applications. Typically, the CE program covers most applications and does not need to be modified. For EQU = 0 and
EQU = 1, CE code CE21A04_2 should be used. For EQU = 2, CE code image CE21A03_2 should be used. The
description in this section applies to CE code revision CE21A03_2.
Formats
All CE words are 4 bytes. Unless specified otherwise, they are in 32-bit two’s complement (-1 = 0xFFFFFFFF).
‘Calibration’ parameters are defined in flash memory (or external EEPROM) and must be copied to CE data memory
by the MPU before enabling the CE. ‘Internal’ variables are used in internal CE calculations. ‘Input’ variables allow
the MPU to control the behavior of the CE code. ‘Output’ variables are outputs of the CE calculations. The
corresponding MPU address for the most significant byte is given by 0x1000 + 4 x CE_address and 0x1003 + 4 x
CE_address for the least significant byte.
Constants
Constants used in the CE Data Memory tables are:






FS = 32768Hz/13 = 2520.62Hz.
F0 is the fundamental frequency.
IMAX is the external rms current corresponding to 250mV pk at the inputs IA and IB.
VMAX is the external rms voltage corresponding to 250mV pk at the VA and VB inputs.
NACC, the accumulation count for energy measurements is PRE_SAMPS*SUM_CYCLES.
Accumulation count time for energy measurements is PRE_SAMPS*SUM_CYCLES/FS.
The system constants IMAX and VMAX are used by the MPU to convert internal quantities (as used by the CE) to external, i.e. metering quantities. Their values are determined by the off-chip scaling of the voltage and current sensors
used in an actual meter. The LSB values used in this document relate digital quantities at the CE or MPU interface to
external meter input quantities. For example, if a SAG threshold of 80V peak is desired at the meter input, the digital
value that should be programmed into SAG_THR would be 80V/SAG_THRLSB, where SAG_THRLSB is the LSB value in
the description of SAG_THR.
The parameters EQU, CE_E, PRE_SAMPS, and SUM_CYCLES essential to the function of the CE are stored in I/O RAM
(see I/O RAM section).
Environment
Before starting the CE using the CE_E bit, the MPU has to establish the proper environment for the CE by
implementing the following steps:

Load the CE data into CE DRAM.

Establish the equation to be applied in EQU.

Establish the accumulation period and number of samples in PRE_SAMPS and SUM_CYCLES.

Establish the number of cycles per ADC mux frame.

Set PLS_INTERVAL[7:0] to 81.

Set FIR_LEN to 1 and MUX_DIV to 1.
There must be thirteen 32768Hz cycles per ADC mux frame (see System Timing Diagram, Figure 16). This means
that the product of the number of cycles per frame and the number of conversions per frame must be 12 (allowing for
one settling cycle). The required configuration is FIR_LEN = 1 (three cycles per conversion) and MUX_DIV = 1 (4
conversions per mux frame).
Page: 82 of 107
Rev 2
71M6521DE/DH/FE Data Sheet
During operation, the MPU is in charge of controlling the multiplexer cycles, for example by inserting an alternate
multiplexer sequence at regular intervals using MUX_ALT. This enables temperature measurement. The polarity of
chopping circuitry must be altered for each sample. It must also alternate for each alternate multiplexer reading. This
is accomplished by maintaining CHOP_E = 00.
CE Calculations
The CE performs the precision computations necessary to accurately measure energy. These computations include
offset cancellation, products, product smoothing, product summation, frequency detection, VAR calculation, sag
detection, peak detection, and voltage phase measurement. All data computed by the CE is dependent on the
selected meter equation as given by EQU (in I/O RAM). Although EQU=0 and EQU=2 have the same element
mapping, the MPU code can use the value of EQU to decide if element 2 is used for tamper detection (typically done
by connecting VB to VA) or as a second independent element.
EQU
Element Input Mapping
Watt & VAR Formula
(WSUM/VARSUM)
W0SUM/
VAR0SUM
W1SUM/
VAR1SUM
I0SQSUM
I1SQSUM
VA*IA
VA*IB
IA
IB
0
VA IA (1 element, 2W 1φ)
with tamper detection
1
VA*(IA-IB)/2
(1 element, 3W 1φ)
VA*(IA-IB)/2
VA*IB/2
IA-IB
IB
2
VA*IA + VB*IB
(2 element, 4W 2φ)
VA*IA
VB*IB
IA
IB
CE STATUS
Since the CE_BUSY interrupt occurs at 2520.6Hz, it is desirable to minimize the computation required in the interrupt
handler of the MPU. The MPU can read the CE status word at every CE_BUSY interrupt.
CE
Address
0x7A
Name
CESTATUS
Description
See description of CE status word below
The CE Status Word is used for generating early warnings to the MPU. It contains sag warnings for VA as well as F0,
the derived clock operating at the fundamental input frequency. CESTATUS provides information about the status of
voltage and input AC signal frequency, which are useful for generating early power fail warnings, e.g. to initiate
necessary data storage. CESTATUS represents the status flags for the preceding CE code pass (CE busy interrupt).
Sag alarms are not remembered from one code pass to the next. The CE Status word is refreshed at every
CE_BUSY interrupt.
Rev 2
Page: 83 of 107
71M6521DE/DH/FE Data Sheet
The significance of the bits in CESTATUS is shown in the table below:
CESTATUS
[bit]
Name
31-29
Not Used
28
F0
27
RESERVED
26
SAG_B
Normally zero. Becomes one when VB remains below SAG_THR for SAG_CNT
samples. Will not return to zero until VB rises above SAG_THR.
25
SAG_A
Normally zero. Becomes one when VA remains below SAG_THR for SAG_CNT
samples. Will not return to zero until VA rises above SAG_THR.
24-0
Not Used
Description
These unused bits will always be zero.
F0 is a square wave at the exact fundamental input frequency.
These unused bits will always be zero.
The CE is initialized by the MPU using CECONFIG (CESTATE.). This register contains in packed form SAG_CNT,
FREQSEL, EXT_PULSE, I0_SHUNT, I1_SHUNT, PULSE_SLOW, and PULSE_FAST.
CE
Address
0x10
Name
Default
Description
CECONFIG
0x5020
See description of CECONFIG below
The significance of the bits in CECONFIG is shown in the table below:
IA_SHUNT and/or IB_SHUNT can configure their respective current inputs to accept shunt resistor sensors. In this
case the CE provides an additional gain of 8 to the selected current input. WRATE may need to be adjusted based on
the values of IA_SHUNT and IB_SHUNT. Whenever IA_SHUNT or IB_SHUNT are set to 1, In_8 (in the equation for Kh)
is assigned a value of 8.
The CE pulse generator can be controlled by either the MPU (external) or CE (internal) variables. Control is by the
MPU if EXT_PULSE = 1. In this case, the MPU controls the pulse rate by placing values into APULSEW and APULSER.
By setting EXT_PULSE = 0, the CE controls the pulse rate based on W0SUM_X + W1SUM_X (and VAR0SUM_X +
VAR1SUM_X).
If EXT_PULSE is 1, and if EQU = 2, the pulse inputs are W0SUM_X+W1SUM_X and VAR0SUM_X+VAR1SUM_X . In this
case, creep cannot be controlled since creep is an MPU function. If EXT_PULSE = 1 and EQU = 0, the pulse inputs
are W0SUM_X if I0SQSUM_X > I1SQSUM_X, and W1SUM_X, if I1SQSUM_X > I0SQSUM_X.
Note: The 6521 Demo Code creep function halts both internal and external pulse generation.
Page: 84 of 107
Rev 2
71M6521DE/DH/FE Data Sheet
CECONFIG
[bit]
Name
Default
Description
[15:8]
SAG_CNT
80
(0x50)
Number of consecutive voltage samples below SAG_THR before a sag
alarm is declared. The maximum value is 255. SAG_THR is at address
0x14.
[7]
--
0
Unused
[6]
FREQSEL
0
Selected phase for frequency monitor (0 = A, 1 = B).
[5]
EXT_PULSE
1
When zero, causes the pulse generators to respond to WSUM_X and
VARSUM_X. Otherwise, the generators respond to values the MPU places
in APULSEW and APULSER.
[4]
--
0
Unused
[3]
IB_SHUNT
0
When 1, the current gain of channel B is increased by 8. The gain factor
controlled by In_SHUNT is referred to as In_8 throughout this document.
[2]
IA_SHUNT
0
When 1, the current gain of channel A is increased by 8.
[1]
PULSE_FAST
0
When PULSE_SLOW = 1, the pulse generator input is reduced by a factor of
64. When PULSE_FAST = 1, the pulse generator input is increased 16x.
These two parameters control the pulse gain factor X (see table below).
Allowed values are either 1 or 0. Default is 0 (X = 6).
X
PULSE_SLOW
PULSE_FAST
0
0
0
1
1.5 * 2 = 0.09375
1
0
1.5
1
1
2
1.5 * 2 = 6
6
[0]
PULSE_SLOW
0
1.5 * 2 = 96
-4
CE TRANSFER VARIABLES
When the MPU receives the XFER_BUSY interrupt, it knows that fresh data is available in the transfer variables. The
transfer variables can be categorized as:
Rev 2
1.
Fundamental energy measurement variables
2.
Instantaneous (RMS) values
3.
Other measurement parameters
4.
Pulse generation variables
5.
Current shunt variables
6.
Calibration parameters
Page: 85 of 107
71M6521DE/DH/FE Data Sheet
Fundamental Energy Measurement Variables
The table below describes each transfer variable for fundamental energy measurement. All variables are signed 32
bit integers. Accumulated variables such as WSUM are internally scaled so they have at least 2x margin before
overflow when the integration time is 1 second. Additionally, the hardware will not permit output values to ‘fold back’
upon overflow.
CE
Address
Name
0x76
W0SUM_X
0x72
W1SUM_X
0x75
VAR0SUM_X
0x71
VAR1SUM_X
Description
The sum of Watt samples from each wattmeter element (In_8 is the gain
configured by IA_SHUNT or IB_SHUNT).
LSB = 6.6952*10-13 VMAX IMAX / In_8 Wh.
The sum of VAR samples from each wattmeter element (In_8 is the gain
configured by IA_SHUNT or IB_SHUNT).
LSB = 6.6952*10-13 VMAX IMAX / In_8 Wh.
WxSUM_X is the Wh value accumulated for element ‘X’ in the last accumulation interval and can be computed based
on the specified LSB value.
For example with VMAX = 600V and IMAX = 208A, LSB (for WxSUM_X ) is 0.08356 µWh.
Instantaneous Energy Measurement Variables
The Frequency measurement is computed using the Frequency locked loop for the selected phase.
IxSQSUM_X and VxSQSUM are the squared current and voltage samples acquired during the last accumulation
interval. INSQSUM_X can be used for computing the neutral current.
CE
Address
Name
0x79
FREQ_X
0x77
I0SQSUM_X
0x73
I1SQSUM_X
0x78
V0SQSUM_X
0x74
V1SQSUM_X
0x7D
WSUM_ACCUM
0x7E
VSUM_ACCUM
Description
Fundamental frequency. LSB
≡
FS
≈ 0.587 ⋅ 10 −6 Hz
2 32
The sum of squared current samples from each element.
-13
2
2 2
LSB = 6.6952*10 IMAX / In_8 A h
The sum of squared voltage samples from each element.
-13
2 2
LSB= 6.6952*10 VMAX V h
These are roll-over accumulators for WPULSE and VPULSE
respectively.
The RMS values can be computed by the MPU from the squared current and voltage samples as follows:
Ix RMS =
IxSQSUM ⋅ LSB ⋅ 3600 ⋅ FS
N ACC
VxRMS =
VxSQSUM ⋅ LSB ⋅ 3600 ⋅ FS
N ACC
Other Measurement Parameters
MAINEDGE_X is useful for implementing a real-time clock based on the input AC signal. MAINEDGE_X is the number
of half-cycles accounted for in the last accumulated interval for the AC signal.
TEMP_RAW may be used by the MPU to monitor chip temperature or to implement temperature compensation.
Page: 86 of 107
Rev 2
71M6521DE/DH/FE Data Sheet
CE
Address
Name
Default
0x7C
MAINEDGE_X
N/A
The number of zero crossings of the selected voltage in the previous accumulation interval. Zero crossings are either direction and are debounced.
0x7B
TEMP_RAW_X
N/A
Filtered, unscaled reading from the temperature sensor.
0x12
GAIN_ADJ
16384
Scales all voltage and current inputs. 16384 provides unity gain.
0x14
SAG_THR
443000
The threshold for sag warnings. The default value is equivalent to 80V RMS
-7
if VMAX = 600V. The LSB value is VMAX * 4.255*10 V (peak).
Description
GAIN_ADJ is a scaling factor for measurements based on the temperature. GAIN_ADJ is controlled by the MPU for
temperature compensation.
Pulse Generation
CE
Address
0x11
Name
WRATE
0x0E
APULSEW
0x0F
APULSER
Default
122
Description
Kh = VMAX*IMAX*47.1132 / (In_8*WRATE*NACC*X) Wh/pulse. The default
value results in a Kh of 3.2Wh/pulse when 2520 samples are taken in each
accumulation interval (and VMAX=600, IMAX = 208, In_8 = 1, X = 6).
15
The maximum value for WRATE is 2 – 1.
0
Watt pulse generator input (see DIO_PW bit). The output pulse rate is:
APULSEW * FS * 2-32 * WRATE * X * 2-14. This input is buffered and can be
loaded during a computation interval. The change will take effect at the
beginning of the next interval.
0
VAR pulse generator input (see DIO_PV bit). The output pulse rate is:
-32
-14
APULSER * FS*2 * WRATE * X * 2 . This input is buffered and can be
loaded during a computation interval. The change will take effect at the
beginning of the next interval.
WRATE controls the number of pulses that are generated per measured Wh and VARh quantities. The lower WRATE
is the slower the pulse rate for measured energy quantity. The metering constant Kh is derived from WRATE as the
amount of energy measured for each pulse. That is, if Kh = 1Wh/pulse, a power applied to the meter of 120V and
30A results in one pulse per second. If the load is 240V at 150A, ten pulses per second will be generated.
The maximum pulse rate is 7.5kHz.
The maximum time jitter is 67µs and is independent of the number of pulses measured. Thus, if the pulse generator
is monitored for 1 second, the peak jitter is 67ppm. After 10 seconds, the peak jitter is 6.7ppm.
The average jitter is always zero. If it is attempted to drive either pulse generator faster than its maximum rate, it will
simply output at its maximum rate without exhibiting any rollover characteristics. The actual pulse rate, using WSUM
as an example, is:
RATE =
WRATE ⋅ WSUM ⋅ FS ⋅ X
Hz ,
2 46
where FS = sampling frequency (2520.6Hz), X = Pulse speed factor
Rev 2
Page: 87 of 107
71M6521DE/DH/FE Data Sheet
CE Calibration Parameters
The table below lists the parameters that are typically entered to effect calibration of meter accuracy.
CE
Address
Name
Default
0x08
CAL_IA
16384
0x09
CAL_VA
16384
0x0A
CAL_IB
16384
0x0B
CAL_VB
16384
0x0C
PHADJ_A
0
Description
These constants control the gain of their respective channels. The nominal
value for each parameters is 214 = 16384. The gain of each channel is directly
proportional to its CAL parameter. Thus, if the gain of a channel is 1% slow,
CAL should be scaled by 1/(1 – 0.01).
These two constants control the CT phase compensation. No compensation
occurs when PHADJ_X = 0. As PHADJ_X is increased, more compensation
15
(lag) is introduced. Range: ±2 – 1. If it is desired to delay the current by the
angle Φ:
0.02229 ⋅ TANΦ
at 60Hz
0.1487 − 0.0131 ⋅ TANΦ
0.0155 ⋅ TANΦ
at 50Hz
PHADJ _ X = 2 20
0.1241 − 0.009695 ⋅ TANΦ
PHADJ _ X = 2 20
0x0D
PHADJ_B
0
Other CE Parameters
The table below shows CE parameters used for suppression of noise due to scaling and truncation effects.
CE
Address
Name
Default
0x13
QUANTA
0
This parameter is added to the Watt calculation for element 0 to compensate
for input noise and truncation.
LSB = (VMAX*IMAX / In_8) *7.4162*10-10 W
0x18
QUANTB
0
This parameter is added to the Watt calculation for element 1 to compensate
for input noise and truncation. Same LSB as QUANTA.
0x15
QUANT_VARA
0
This parameter is added to the VAR calculation for element A to compensate
for input noise and truncation.
LSB = (VMAX*IMAX / In_8) * 7.4162*10-10 W
0x1B
QUANT_VARB
0
This parameter is added to the VAR calculation for element B to compensate
for input noise and truncation. Same LSB as for QUANT_VARA.
0x16
QUANT_I
0
This parameter is added to compensate for input noise and truncation in the
2
squaring calculations for I . QUANT_I affects only I0SQSUM and I1SQSUM.
2
2
LSB = (IMAX /In_8 )*7.4162*10-10 A2
Page: 88 of 107
Description
Rev 2
71M6521DE/DH/FE Data Sheet
ELECTRICAL SPECIFICATIONS
ABSOLUTE MAXIMUM RATINGS
Supplies and Ground Pins:
V3P3SYS, V3P3A
VBAT
GNDD
Analog Output Pins:
V3P3D
VREF
V2P5
−0.5 V to 4.6 V
-0.5 V to 4.6 V
-0.5 V to +0.5 V
-10 mA to 10 mA,
-0.5 V to 4.6 V
-10 mA to +10 mA,
-0.5 V to V3P3A+0.5 V
-10 mA to +10 mA,
-0.5 V to 3.0V
Analog Input Pins:
IA, VA, IB, VB, V1
XIN, XOUT
-10 mA to +10 mA
-0.5 V to V3P3A+0.5 V
-10 mA to +10 mA
-0.5 V to 3.0V
All Other Pins:
Configured as SEG or COM drivers
Configured as Digital Inputs
Configured as Digital Outputs
All other pins
Operating junction temperature (peak, 100ms)
Operating junction temperature (continuous)
Storage temperature
Solder temperature – 10 second duration
ESD stress on all pins
-1 mA1 mA to +1 mA1
mA,
-0.5 to V3P3D+0.5
-10 mA to +10 mA,
-0.5 to 6 V
-15 mA to +15 mA,
-0.5 V to V3P3D+0.5 V
−0.5 V to V3P3D+0.5 V
140 °C
125 °C
−45 °C to +165 °C
250 °C
±4 kV
Stresses beyond Absolute Maximum Ratings may cause permanent damage to the device. These are stress ratings only and
functional operation at these or any other conditions beyond those indicated under “recommended operating conditions” is not
implied. Exposure to absolute-maximum-rated conditions for extended periods may affect device reliability. All voltages are
with respect to GNDA.
Rev 2
Page: 89 of 107
71M6521DE/DH/FE Data Sheet
RECOMMENDED EXTERNAL COMPONENTS
NAME
C1
C2
CSYS
C2P5
FROM
V3P3A
V3P3D
V3P3SYS
V2P5
TO
AGND
DGND
DGND
DGND
XTAL
XIN
XOUT
CXS †
XIN
AGND
XOUT
AGND
CXL
†
FUNCTION
Bypass capacitor for 3.3 V supply
Bypass capacitor for 3.3 V output
Bypass capacitor for V3P3SYS
Bypass capacitor for V2P5
32.768 kHz crystal – electrically similar to ECS
.327-12.5-17X or Vishay XT26T, load capacitance 12.5 pF
Load capacitor for crystal (exact value depends
on crystal specifications and parasitic capacitance of board).
VALUE
≥0.1±20%
0.1±20%
≥1.0±30%
0.1±20%
UNIT
µF
µF
µF
µF
32.768
kHz
27±10%
pF
27±10%
pF
†
Depending on trace capacitance, higher or lower values for CXS and CXL must be used. Capacitance from XIN to
GNDD and XOUT to GNDD (combining pin, trace and crystal capacitance) should be 35pF to 37pF.
RECOMMENDED OPERATING CONDITIONS
PARAMETER
3.3V Supply Voltage (V3P3SYS, V3P3A)
V3P3A and V3P3SYS must be at the
same voltage
VBAT
Operating Temperature
Maximum input voltage on DIO/SEG pins
configured as DIO input. *
CONDITION
Normal Operation
Battery Backup
No Battery
Battery Backup
BRN and LCD modes
SLEEP mode
MISSION mode
BROWNOUT mode
LCD mode
MIN
3.0
0
TYP
3.3
MAX
3.6
3.6
UNIT
V
V
Externally Connect to V3P3SYS
3.0
2.0
-40
3.8
3.8
+85
V3P3SYS+0.3
VBAT+0.3
VBAT+0.3
V
V
ºC
V
V
V
*Exceeding this limit will distort the LCD waveforms on other pins.
Page: 90 of 107
Rev 2
71M6521DE/DH/FE Data Sheet
PERFORMANCE SPECIFICATIONS
INPUT LOGIC LEVELS
PARAMETER
Digital high-level input voltage†, VIH
Digital low-level input voltage†, VIL
Input pull-up current, IIL
E_RXTX,
E_RST, CKTEST
Other digital inputs
Input pull down current, IIH
ICE_E
PB
Other digital inputs
†
CONDITION
MIN
2
TYP
MAX
0.8
UNIT
V
V
µA
µA
µA
µA
µA
µA
VIN=0 V, ICE_E=1
10
10
-1
0
100
100
1
10
-1
-1
0
0
100
1
1
VIN=V3P3D
In battery powered modes, digital inputs should be below 0.3V or above 2.5 V to minimize battery current.
OUTPUT LOGIC LEVELS
PARAMETER
CONDITION
ILOAD = 1 mA
Digital high-level output voltage VOH
ILOAD = 15 mA
Digital low-level output voltage VOL
OPT_TX VOH (V3P3D-OPT_TX)
OPT_TX VOL
1
ILOAD = 1 mA
ILOAD = 15 mA
ISOURCE=1 mA
ISINK=20 mA
MIN
V3P3D
–0.4
V3P3D0.61
0
TYP
MIN
TYP
MAX
UNIT
V
V
0.4
0.81
0.4
0.71
V
V
V
V
MAX
UNIT
+15
mV
1.2
10
100
-10
μA
μs
μs
mV
MAX
63
-4.9
-2.0
+100
UNIT
kΩ
μV
μV
mV
Guaranteed by design; not production tested.
POWER-FAULT COMPARATOR
PARAMETER
Offset Voltage
V1-VBIAS
Hysteresis Current
V1
Response Time
V1
WDT Disable Threshold (V1-V3P3A)
CONDITION
-20
Vin = VBIAS – 100 mV
+100 mV overdrive
-100 mV overdrive
0.8
2
10
-400
5
BATTERY MONITOR
BME=1
PARAMETER
Load Resistor
LSB Value - does not include the 9-bit left
shift at CE input.
Offset Error
Rev 2
CONDITION
FIR_LEN=0
FIR_LEN=1
MIN
27
-6.0
-2.6
-200
TYP
45
-5.4
-2.3
-72
Page: 91 of 107
71M6521DE/DH/FE Data Sheet
SUPPLY CURRENT
PARAMETER
V3P3A + V3P3SYS current
VBAT current
CONDITION
Normal Operation,
V3P3A=V3P3SYS=3.3 V
MPU_DIV=3 (614kHz) CKOUT_E=00,
CE_EN=1,
RTM_E=0,
ECK_DIS=1,
ADC_E=1,
ICE_E=0
MIN
TYP
MAX
UNIT
6.1
7.7
mA
+300
nA
-300
V3P3A + V3P3SYS current vs.
MPU clock frequency
Same conditions as above
0.5
V3P3A + V3P3SYS current,
write flash
Normal Operation as above, except write
flash at maximum rate, CE_E=0,
ADC_E=0
9.1
10
mA
48
651
120
1501
µA
µA
5.7
8.5
151
5.0
101
µA
µA
µA
µA
VBAT=3.6 V
BROWNOUT mode, <25°C
BROWNOUT mode, >25°C
VBAT current †
LCD Mode, 25°C
LCD mode, over temperature
SLEEP Mode, 25°C
Sleep mode, over temperature
2.9
mA/
MHz
†
Current into V3P3A and V3P3SYS pins is not zero if voltage is applied at these pins in brownout, LCD or sleep
modes.
1
Guaranteed by design; not production tested.
V3P3D SWITCH
PARAMETER
On resistance – V3P3SYS to V3P3D
On resistance – VBAT to V3P3D
2.5 V VOLTAGE REGULATOR
Unless otherwise specified, load = 5 mA
PARAMETER
Voltage overhead V3P3-V2P5
PSSR ∆V2P5/∆V3P3
CONDITION
| IV3P3D | ≤ 1 mA
| IV3P3D | ≤ 1 mA
MIN
TYP
MAX
10
40
UNIT
Ω
Ω
CONDITION
Reduce V3P3 until V2P5
drops 200mV
RESET=0, iload=0
MIN
TYP
MAX
UNIT
440
mV
+3
mV/V
MAX
2.7
30
UNIT
V
mV
3.0
V
50
mV/V
-3
LOW POWER VOLTAGE REGULATOR
Unless otherwise specified, V3P3SYS=V3P3A=0, PB=GND (BROWNOUT)
PARAMETER
V2P5
V2P5 load regulation
VBAT voltage requirement
PSRR ΔV2P5/ΔVBAT
Page: 92 of 107
CONDITION
ILOAD=0
ILOAD=0 MA to 1 mA1 mA
ILOAD=1 MA,
Reduce VBAT until
REG_LP_OK=0
ILOAD=0
MIN
2.0
-50
TYP
2.5
Rev 2
71M6521DE/DH/FE Data Sheet
CRYSTAL OSCILLATOR
PARAMETER
Maximum Output Power to Crystal
XIN to XOUT Capacitance
Capacitance to DGND
XIN
XOUT
CONDITION
Crystal connected
VREF, VBIAS
Unless otherwise specified, VREF_DIS=0
PARAMETER
CONDITION
VREF output voltage, VNOM(25)
Ta = 22ºC
VREF chop step
VREF_CAL =1,
VREF output impedance
ILOAD = 10 µA, -10 µA
MIN
MIN
1.193
TYP
1.195
TYP
MAX
1
3
UNIT
μW
pF
5
5
pF
pF
MAX
1.197
50
UNIT
V
mV
2.5
kΩ
VNOM (T ) = VREF (22) + (T − 22)TC1 + (T − 22) 2 TC 2
VNOM definition2
V
-- If TRIMBGA and TRIMBGB not available -VREF temperature coefficients
TC1
TC2
VREF(T) deviation from VNOM(T)
+7.0
-0.341
VREF (T ) − VNOM (T )
10 6
Ta = -40ºC to +85ºC
VNOM (T )
max( T − 22 ,40)
µV/ºC
µV/°C2
-401
+401
-- If TRIMBGA and TRIMBGB are available (71M6521DH) -Define the following variables:
22,1 ≡ __/210 --where TEMP_RAW_X is measured with FIRLEN=1
22,1
22,0 =
--this calculates the value of TEMP22 if measured with FIRLEN=0
2.3704
 = 0.1 ∙  − 0.143 ∙ ( + 0.5)
22,0 − (500 ∙  + 370000)
=
900
 = (56.2 − ) ∙ 0.55
VNOM temperature coefficients
(Δv and ΔT are defined in the
section entitled “Voltage Reference”)
 + 19 − 0.065 + 0.34 + 8.0
TC1
TC2
0.015 − 0.0013 − 0.35
ppm/ºC
μV/ºC
μV/ºC2
VREF(T) deviation from VNOM(T)
VREF (T ) − VNOM (T )
10 6
Ta = -40ºC to +85ºC
VNOM (T )
max( T − 22 ,40)
-201
VREF aging
VBIAS voltage
1
2
Ta = 25ºC
Ta = -40ºC to 85ºC
(-1%)
(-4%)1
±25
1.6
1.61
+201
ppm/ºC
(+1%)
(+4%)1
ppm/ year
V
V
Guaranteed by design; not production tested.
This relationship describes the nominal behavior of VREF at different temperatures.
Rev 2
Page: 93 of 107
71M6521DE/DH/FE Data Sheet
LCD DRIVERS
Applies to all COM and SEG pins.
PARAMETER
MIN
CONDITION
VLC2 Max Voltage
With respect to VLCD
-0.1
VLC1 Voltage,
1/3 bias
With respect to 2*VLC2/3
-4
½ bias
With respect to VLC2/2
-3
VLC0 Voltage,
1/3 bias
With respect to VLC2/3
-3
½ bias
With respect to VLC2/2
-3
VLCD is V3P3SYS in MISSION mode and VBAT in BROWNOUT and LCD modes.
TYP
MAX
+0.1
UNIT
V
0
+2
%
%
+2
+2
%
%
MAX
UNIT
mV
peak
ADC CONVERTER, V3P3A REFERENCED
FIR_LEN=0, VREF_DIS=0, LSB values do not include the 9-bit left shift at CE input.
PARAMETER
Recommended Input Range
(Vin-V3P3A)
Voltage to Current Crosstalk:
CONDITION
Vin = 200 mV peak, 65
Hz, on VA
10 6 *Vcrosstalk
cos(∠Vin − ∠Vcrosstalk ) Vcrosstalk = largest
Vin
MIN
TYP
-250
250
-101
101
μV/V
90
dB
dB
kΩ
measurement on IA or IB
THD (First 10 harmonics)
250mV-pk
20mV-pk
Input Impedance
Temperature coefficient of Input
Impedance
Vin=65 Hz,
64 kpts FFT, BlackmanHarris window
Vin=65 Hz
LSB size
Digital Full Scale
ADC Gain Error vs
%Power Supply Variation
10 6 ∆Nout PK 357 nV / VIN
100 ∆V 3P3 A / 3.3
Input Offset (Vin-V3P3A)
1
-75
-90
40
Vin=65 Hz
1.7
FIR_LEN=0
FIR_LEN=1
FIR_LEN=0
FIR_LEN=1
357
151
+884736
±2097152
Vin=200 mV pk, 65 Hz
V3P3A=3.0 V, 3.6 V
-10
Ω/°C
nV/LSB
LSB
50
ppm/%
10
mV
Guaranteed by design; not production tested.
Page: 94 of 107
Rev 2
71M6521DE/DH/FE Data Sheet
TEMPERATURE SENSOR
PARAMETER
Nominal Sensitivity (Sn)
CONDITION
†
Nominal (Nn) † †
MIN
TA=25ºC, TA=75ºC,
FIR_LEN = 1
Nominal relationship:
N(T)= Sn*(T-Tn)+Nn
TYP
MAX
UNIT
-2180
LSB/ºC
1.0
106 LSB
Temperature Error†
 ( N (T ) − N n )

ERR = T − 
+ Tn 
Sn


TA = -40ºC to +85ºC
Tn = 25°C
-101
+101
ºC
1
Guaranteed by design; not production tested.
LSB values do not include the 9-bit left shift at CE input.
††
Nn is measured at Tn during meter calibration and is stored in MPU or CE for use in temperature calculations.
†
Rev 2
Page: 95 of 107
71M6521DE/DH/FE Data Sheet
TIMING SPECIFICATIONS
RAM AND FLASH MEMORY
PARAMETER
CE DRAM wait states
Flash Read Pulse Width
Flash write cycles
Flash data retention
Flash data retention
Flash byte writes between page or mass
erase operations
CONDITION
CKMPU = 4.9 MHz
CKMPU = 1.25 MHz
CKMPU = 614 kHz
MIN
5
2
1
V3P3A=V3P3SYS=0
BROWNOUT MODE
30
-40°C to +85°C
25°C
85°C
TYP
MAX
UNIT
Cycles
Cycles
Cycles
100
ns
20,000
100
10
Cycles
Years
Years
2
Cycles
MAX
UNIT
42
µs
20
ms
200
ms
MAX
UNIT
FLASH MEMORY TIMING
PARAMETER
Write Time per Byte
CONDITION
MIN
TYP
Page Erase (512 bytes)
Mass Erase
EEPROM INTERFACE
PARAMETER
Write Clock frequency (I2C)
Write Clock frequency (3-wire)
CONDITION
CKMPU=4.9 MHz, Using
interrupts
CKMPU=4.9 MHz, “bitbanging” DIO4/5
MIN
CKMPU=4.9 MHz
TYP
78
kHz
150
kHz
500
kHz
RESET and V1
PARAMETER
Reset pulse fall time
Reset pulse width
1
CONDITION
MIN
TYP
MAX
11
UNIT
µs
µs
TYP
-
MAX
2255
UNIT
year
5
Guaranteed by design; not production tested.
RTC
PARAMETER
Range for date
Page: 96 of 107
CONDITION
MIN
2000
Rev 2
71M6521DE/DH/FE Data Sheet
TYPICAL PERFORMANCE DATA
0.5
0.4
0.3
Error [%]
0.2
0.1
0
-0.1
-0.2
Phase_0
-0.3
Phase_60
-0.4
Phase_300
-0.5
0.1
1
10
100
1000
Current [A]
Figure 42: Wh Accuracy, 0.1A to 200A at 240V/50Hz and Room Temperature
2
1
0
Error [%]
-1
-2
-3
50Hz Harmonic Data
60Hz Harmonic Data
-4
-5
-6
-7
-8
1
3
5
7
9
11
13
15
17
19
21
23
25
Harmonic
Measured at current distortion amplitude of 40% and voltage distortion amplitude of 10%.
Figure 43: Meter Accuracy over Harmonics at 240V, 30A
Rev 2
Page: 97 of 107
71M6521DE/DH/FE Data Sheet
Relative Accuracy over Temperature
Accuracy [PPM/°C]
40
30
20
10
0
-10
-20
-30
-60
-40
-20
0
20
40
60
80
100
Temperature [°C]
Figure 44: Typical Meter Accuracy over Temperature Relative to 25°C (71M6521FE)
PACKAGE OUTLINE (LQFP 64)
11.7
12.3
11.7
+
12.3
PIN No. 1 Indicator
9.8
10.2
0.50 Typ.
0.60 Typ.
0.00
0.20
0.14
0.28
1.40
1.60
NOTE: Controlling dimensions are in mm
PACKAGE OUTLINE (QFN 68)
Page: 98 of 107
Rev 2
71M6521DE/DH/FE Data Sheet
Dimensions (in mm):
Symbol
Min.
Nom.
Max.
Comment
Pin pitch (CC)
e
0.4 BSC
Nd
17
Pins per row
Ne
17
Pins
column
A
0.85
0.90
0.01
0.05
A2
0.65
0.70
A3
0.20 REF
A1
b
0.00
0.15
0.20
D
8.00 BSC
D1
7.75 BSC
D2
6.3
E
8.00 BSC
E1
7.75 BSC
E2
0.25
Total height
Pin width *)
Total width
Exposed pad
**)
Total length
6.3
Exposed pad
b
0.15
0.20
0.25
Pad width
P
0.24
0.42
0.60
45° corner
12°
Angle
θ
per
*) Pin length is nominally 0.4mm (min. 0.3mm, max 0.4mm)
**) Exposed pad is internally connected to GNDD.
Rev 2
Page: 99 of 107
71M6521DE/DH/FE Data Sheet
IA
IB
VB
VA
V3P3A
GNDA
52
51
50
49
VREF
55
53
V1
56
54
X4MHZ
OPT_RX/DIO1
57
59
58
TEST
XIN
60
PB
XOUT
61
63
62
E_TCLK/SEG33
E_RST/SEG32
64
PINOUT (LQFP-64)
GNDD
1
E_RXTX/SEG38
2
OPT_TX/DIO2
3
TMUXOUT
4
TX
5
SEG3
6
43
SEG30/DIO10
V3P3D
7
42
SEG29/DIO9
CKTEST/SEG19
8
41
SEG28/DIO8
V3P3SYS
9
40
SEG27/DIO7
48
°
TERIDIAN
RESET
47
V2P5
46
VBAT
45
RX
44
SEG31/DIO11
39
SEG26/DIO6
38
SEG25/DIO5
SEG4
10
SEG5
11
SEG37/DIO17
12
37
SEG24/DIO4
COM0
13
36
ICE_E
71M6521FE-IGT
31
SEG14
SEG15
VB
VA
32
30
29
SEG13
SEG12
28
SEG11
26
SEG9
SEG10
27
25
SEG8
24
23
22
SEG36/DIO16
SEG7
21
SEG35/DIO15
SEG6
20
SEG16
19
33
SEG2
16
SEG34/DIO14
SEG17
COM3
18
SEG18
34
17
35
SEG1
14
15
SEG0
COM1
COM2
GNDA
V3P3A
IB
IA
VREF
V1
OPT_RX/DIO1
X4MHZ
TEST
XIN
XOUT
PB
E_RST/SEG32
SEG41/DIO21
GNDD
1
68 67 66 65 64 63 62 61 60 59 58 57 56 55 54 53 52
51
E_RXTX/SEG38
2
50
OPT_TX/DIO2
3
49
4
48
DIO3
5
47
SEG40/DIO20
TMUXOUT
RESET
V2P5
VBAT
RX
TX
6
46
SEG31/DIO11
SEG3
7
45
SEG30/DIO10
V3P3D
8
44
SEG29/DIO9
CKTEST/SEG19
9
43
SEG28/DIO8
V3P3SYS
10
42
SEG27/DIO7
SEG4
11
41
SEG26/DIO6
SEG5
12
40
SEG25/DIO5
SEG37/DIO17
13
39
SEG24/DIO4
COM0
14
38
ICE_E
COM1
15
37
SEG18
COM2
16
36
SEG17
COM3
35
17
18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34
SEG16
SEG15
SEG14
SEG13
SEG12
SEG11
SEG10
SEG9
SEG8
SEG7
SEG6
SEG39/DIO19
SEG36/DIO16
SEG35/DIO15
SEG34/DIO14
SEG2
TERIDIAN
71M6521DE-IM
SEG1
SEG0
Page: 100 of 107
E_TCLK/SEG33
PINOUT (QFN 68)
Rev 2
71M6521DE/DH/FE Data Sheet
Recommended PCB Land Pattern for the QFN-68 Package
Recommended PCB Land Pattern Dimensions
Symbol
Description
Typical
Dimension
e
Lead pitch
0.4mm
x
Pad width
0.23mm
y
Pad length, see note 3
0.8mm
d
See note 1
6.3mm
A
6.63mm
G
7.2mm
Note 1: Do not place unmasked vias in region denoted by dimension “d”.
Note 2: Soldering of bottom internal pad is not required for proper operation.
Note 3: The ‘y’ dimension has been elongated to allow for hand soldering and reworking. Production assembly may
allow this dimension to be reduced as long as the ‘G’ dimension is maintained.
Rev 2
Page: 101 of 107
71M6521DE/DH/FE Data Sheet
PIN DESCRIPTIONS
Power/Ground Pins:
Name
Type
Circui
t
GNDA
P
--
Analog ground: This pin should be connected directly to the ground plane.
GNDD
P
--
V3P3A
P
--
V3P3SYS
P
--
V3P3D
O
13
VBAT
P
12
V2P5
O
10
Digital ground: This pin should be connected directly to the ground plane.
Analog power supply: A 3.3V power supply should be connected to this pin, must be
the same voltage as V3P3SYS.
System 3.3V supply. This pin should be connected to a 3.3V power supply.
Auxiliary voltage output of the chip, controlled by the internal 3.3V selection switch.
In mission mode, this pin is internally connected to V3P3SYS. In BROWNOUT
mode, it is internally connected to VBAT. This pin is high impedance in LCD and
sleep mode.
Battery backup power supply. A battery or super-capacitor is to be connected
between VBAT and GNDD. If no battery is used, connect VBAT to V3P3SYS.
Output of the internal 2.5 V regulator. A 0.1µF capacitor to GNDA should be
connected to this pin.
Description
Analog Pins:
Name
Type
Circui
t
IA, IB
I
6
VA, VB
I
6
V1
I
7
VREF
O
9
XIN
XOUT
I
8
Description
Line Current Sense Inputs: These pins are voltage inputs to the internal A/D
converter. Typically, they are connected to the outputs of current sensors. Unused
pins must be connected to V3P3A.
Line Voltage Sense Inputs: These pins are voltage inputs to the internal A/D
converter. Typically, they are connected to the outputs of resistor dividers. Unused
pins must be connected to V3P3A or tied to the voltage sense input that is in
use.
Comparator Input: This pin is a voltage input to the internal power-fail comparator.
The input voltage is compared to the internal BIAS voltage (1.6 V). If the input
voltage is above VBIAS, the comparator output will be high (1). If the comparator
output is lower, a voltage fault will occur and the chip will be forced to battery mode.
Voltage Reference for the ADC. This pin is normally disabled by setting the
VREF_CAL bit in the I/O RAM and can then be left unconnected. If enabled, a 0.1µF
capacitor to GNDA should be connected.
Crystal Inputs: A 32kHz crystal should be connected across these pins. Typically, a
27pF capacitor is also connected from each pin to GNDA. It is important to minimize
the capacitance between these pins. See the crystal manufacturer datasheet for
details.
Pin types: P = Power, O = Output, I = Input, I/O = Input/Output
The circuit number denotes the equivalent circuit, as specified under “I/O Equivalent Circuits”.
Page: 102 of 107
Rev 2
71M6521DE/DH/FE Data Sheet
Digital Pins:
Name
COM3,
COM2,
COM1,
COM0
SEG0…SEG18
SEG24/DIO4…
SEG31/DIO11
SEG34/DIO14…
SEG37/DIO17
SEG39/DIO19…
SEG41/DIO21
E_RXTX/SEG38
E_RST/SEG32
E_TCLK/SEG33
Type
Circui
t
O
5
O
5
I/O
3, 4, 5
I/O
3, 4, 5
I/O
3, 4, 5
I/O
1, 4, 5
O
4, 5
Description
LCD common outputs: These 4 pins provide the select signals for the LCD
display.
Dedicated LCD segment output pins.
Multi-use pins, configurable as either LCD SEG driver or DIO. (DIO4 = SCK,
DIO5 = SDA when configured as EEPROM interface, WPULSE = DIO6,
VARPULSE = DIO7 when configured as pulse outputs). If unused, these
pins must be configured as outputs.
Multi-use pins, configurable as either LCD SEG driver or DIO. If unused,
these pins must be configured as outputs.
Multi-use pins, configurable as LCD driver or DIO (QFN 68 package only). If
unused, these pins must be configured as outputs.
Multi-use pins, configurable as either emulator port pins (when ICE_E pulled
high) or LCD SEG drivers (when ICE_E tied to GND).
ICE_E
I
2
CKTEST/SEG19
O
4, 5
TMUXOUT
O
4
OPT_RX/DIO1
I/O
3, 4, 7
OPT_TX/DIO2
I/O
3, 4
DIO3
I/O
3, 4
RESET
I
3
RX
I
3
ICE enable. When zero, E_RST, E_TCLK, and E_RXTX become SEG32,
SEG33, and SEG38 respectively. For production units, this pin should be
pulled to GND to disable the emulator port. This pin should be brought out to
the programming interface in order to create a way for reprogramming parts
that have the SECURE bit set.
Multi-use pin, configurable as either Clock PLL output or LCD segment driver.
Can be enabled and disabled by CKOUT_EN.
Digital output test multiplexer. Controlled by TMUX[4:0].
Multi-use pin, configurable as Optical Receive Input or general DIO. When
configured as OPT_RX, this pin receives a signal from an external photodetector used in an IR serial interface. If unused, this pin must be
configured as an output or terminated to V3P3D or GNDD.
Multi-use pin, configurable as Optical LED Transmit Output, WPULSE,
RPULSE, or general DIO. When configured as OPT_TX, this pin is capable of
directly driving an LED for transmitting data in an IR serial interface. If
unused, this pin must be configured as an output or terminated to
V3P3D or GNDD.
DIO pin (QFN 68 package only)
This input pin resets the chip into a known state. For normal operation, this
pin is connected to GNDD. To reset the chip, this pin should be pulled high.
No external reset circuitry is necessary.
UART input. If unused, this pin must be terminated to V3P3D or GNDD.
TX
O
4
UART output.
TEST
I
7
PB
I
3
X4MHZ
I
3
Enables Production Test. Must be grounded in normal operation.
Push button input. A rising edge sets the IE_PB flag and causes the part to
wake up if it is in SLEEP or LCD mode. PB does not have an internal pull-up
or pull-down. If unused, this pin must be terminated to GNDD.
This pin must be connected to GNDD.
Pin types: P = Power, O = Output, I = Input, I/O = Input/Output
The circuit number denotes the equivalent circuit, as specified on the following page.
Rev 2
Page: 103 of 107
71M6521DE/DH/FE Data Sheet
I/O Equivalent Circuits:
V3P3D
V3P3D
V3P3A
110K
Digital
Input
Pin
CMOS
Input
LCD SEG
Output
Pin
LCD
Driver
from
internal
reference
VREF
Pin
GNDD
GNDA
GNDD
Digital Input Equivalent Circuit
Type 1:
Standard Digital Input or
pin configured as DIO Input
with Internal Pull-Up
V3P3D
VREF Equivalent Circuit
Type 9:
VREF
LCD Output Equivalent Circuit
Type 5:
LCD SEG or
pin configured as LCD SEG
V3P3A
V3P3D
Digital
Input
Pin
CMOS
Input
110K
GNDD
Analog
Input
Pin
from
internal
reference
To
MUX
V2P5
Pin
GNDD
GNDA
GNDD
Analog Input Equivalent Circuit
Type 6:
ADC Input
Digital Input
Type 2:
Pin configured as DIO Input
with Internal Pull-Down
V2P5 Equivalent Circuit
Type 10:
V2P5
V3P3D
V3P3A
Digital
Input
Pin
CMOS
Input
Comparator
Input
Pin
To
Comparator
Power
Down
Circuits
VBAT
Pin
GNDD
GNDA
Digital Input Type 3:
Standard Digital Input or
pin configured as DIO Input
GNDD
Comparator Input Equivalent
Circuit Type 7:
Comparator Input
VBAT Equivalent Circuit
Type 12:
VBAT Power
V3P3D
V3P3D
10
Digital
Output
Pin
CMOS
Output
from
V3P3SYS
40
GNDD
GNDD
Digital Output Equivalent Circuit
Type 4:
Standard Digital Output or
pin configured as DIO Output
Page: 104 of 107
V3P3D
Pin
To
Oscillator
Oscillator
Pin
GNDD
Oscillator Equivalent Circuit
Type 8:
Oscillator I/O
from
VBAT
V3P3D Equivalent Circuit
Type 13:
V3P3D
Rev 2
71M6521DE/DH/FE Data Sheet
ORDERING INFORMATION
PART
PART DESCRIPTION
(Package)
Accuracy
(ppm/°C)
FLASH
MEMORY
SIZE (KB)
PACKAGING
71M6521DE
64-pin LQFP,
lead(Pb)-free
±40
16
Bulk
71M6521DE
64-pin LQFP,
lead(Pb)-free
±40
16
Tape & Reel
71M6521DH*
64-pin LQFP,
lead(Pb)-free
±20
16
Bulk
71M6521DH*
64-pin LQFP,
lead(Pb)-free
±20
16
Tape & Reel
71M6521FE
64-pin LQFP,
lead(Pb)-free
±40
32
Bulk
71M6521FE
64-pin LQFP,
lead(Pb)-free
±40
32
Tape & Reel
71M6521DE
68-pin QFN,
lead(Pb)-free
±40
16
Bulk
71M6521DE
68-pin QFN,
lead(Pb)-free
±40
16
Tape & Reel
71M6521FE
68-pin QFN,
lead(Pb)-free
±40
32
Bulk
71M6521FE
68-pin QFN,
lead(Pb)-free
±40
32
Tape & Reel
*
ORDERING
NUMBER
PACKAGE
MARKING
71M6521DE-IGT/F
71M6521DE-IGT
71M6521DE-IGTR/F
71M6521DE-IGT
71M6521DH-IGT/F
71M6521DH-IGT
71M6521DH-IGTR/F
71M6521DH-IGT
71M6521FE-IGT/F
71M6521FE-IGT
71M6521FE-IGTR/F
71M6521FE-IGT
71M6521DE-IM/F
71M6521DE-IM
71M6521DE-IMR/F
71M6521DE-IM
71M6521FE-IM/F
71M6521FE-IM
71M6521FE-IMR/F
71M6521FE-IM
Future product—contact factory for availability.
Rev 2
Page: 105 of 107
71M6521DE/DH/FE Data Sheet
REVISION HISTORY
REVISION
NUMBER
REVISION
DATE
1.1
2
10/10
11/11
DESCRIPTION
Added the note “Guaranteed by design; not production tested.” to
several Performance Specifications table parameters (VOH and VOL in
the Output Logic Levels table; VBAT current in the Supply Current
table; VREF(T) deviation from VNOM(T) and VBIAS voltage in the
VREF, VBIAS table; Voltage to Current Crosstalk in the ADC
Converter, Voltage to Current Crosstalk V3P3A Referenced table;
Temperature Error in the Temperature Sensor table) and Timing
Specifications table parameters (Reset pulse fall time in the RESET
and V1 table)
Changed the Response Time (V1) condition from ±100mV overdrive to
split +100mV and -100mV overdrive conditions with new MIN and MAX
numbers for -100mV in the Power-Fault Comparator table
Added < 25°C and > 25°C to BROWNOUT mode in the VBAT current
parameter of the Supply Current table
Changed the XIN to XOUT Capacitance parameter from 3pF (max) to
3pF (typ) and changed XIN/XOUT for Capacitance to DGND from 5pF
(max) to 5pF (typ) in the Crystal Oscillator table
Changed the THD (First 10 harmonics) parameters for 250mV-pk and
20mV-pk from -75dB (max) and -90dB (max) to -75dB (typ) and -90dB
(typ) in the ADC Converter, V3P3A Referenced table
Deleted the Optical Interface parameters table
Added part type 71M6521DH
89–93
89
90
91
92
93
All
Added description of 71M6521DH in Hardware Overview
10
Added specification of temperature coefficients TC1/TC2 in Electrical
Specifications for 71M6521DH
93
Separated numbers from units by one space, e.g. 5 mA.
All
Rephrased accuracy statement on title page (“up to 0.1% Wh accuracy
over 2,000:1 current range”). Added 20 ppm/°C for 71M6521DH.
1
Added explanation of how TC1 and TC2 are generated for the
71M6521DH from the TRIMBGA, TRIMBGB, TRIM, and TRIMT fuses.
61
Corrected ALT MUX Sequence in Table 1
11
Updated Ordering Information Table (71M6521DH future product).
105
Added 71M6521DH version to header.
All
Added 71M6521DH to FLASH memory description.
39
Changed TRIMM to TRIMM[2:0].
61
Added formula to convert TC1/TC2 to PPMC1/PPMC2.
61
Added explanation of “box” temperature concept.
Page: 106 of 107
PAGES
CHANGED
61-62
Added description of TRIMSEL[3:0] and TRIM[7:0] to I/O RAM
DESCRIPTION.
80
Added VREF(T) deviation from VNOM(T) description for 71M6521DH
in VREF, VBIAS section.
93
Added section explaining the distinction between
71M6521DE/71M6521FE and 71M6521DH parts.
60
Rev 2
71M6521DE/DH/FE Data Sheet
Maxim cannot assume responsibility for use of any circuitry other than circuitry entirely embodied in a Maxim product. No circuit
patent licenses are implied. Maxim reserves the right to change the circuitry and specifications without notice at any time.
Maxim Integrated Products, 120 San Gabriel Drive, Sunnyvale, CA 94086 408-737-7600
 2011 Maxim Integrated Products
is a registered trademark of Maxim Integrated Products.