ETC CS209A/D

CS209A
Proximity Detector
The CS209A is a bipolar monolithic integrated circuit for use in
metal detection/proximity sensing applications. The IC (see Figure 1)
contains two on–chip current regulators, oscillator and low–level
feedback circuitry, peak detection/demodulation circuit, a comparator
and two complementary output stages.
The oscillator, along with an external LC network, provides
controlled oscillations where amplitude is highly dependent on the Q
of the LC tank. During low Q conditions, a variable low–level
feedback circuit provides drive to maintain oscillation. The peak
demodulator senses the negative portion of the oscillator envelope and
provides a demodulated waveform as input to the comparator. The
comparator sets the states of the complementary outputs by comparing
the input from the demodulator to an internal reference. External loads
are required for the output pins.
A transient suppression circuit is included to absorb negative
transients at the tank circuit terminal.
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8
DIP–8
N SUFFIX
CASE 626
CS209A
AWL
YYWW
8
1
8
1
SO–8
D SUFFIX
CASE 751
8
1
Features
• Separate Current Regulator for Oscillator
• Negative Transient Suppression
• Variable Low–Level Feedback
• Improved Performance Over Temperature
• 6.0 mA Supply Current Consumption at VCC = 12 V
• Output Current Sink Capability
– 20 mA at 4.0 VCC
– 100 mA at 24 VCC
MARKING
DIAGRAMS
209A
ALYWX
1
14
SO–14
D SUFFIX
CASE 751A
14
1
CS209A
AWLYWW
1
A
WL, L
YY, Y
WW, W
= Assembly Location
= Wafer Lot
= Year
= Work Week
ORDERING INFORMATION
Device
 Semiconductor Components Industries, LLC, 2001
April, 2001 – Rev. 2
1
Package
Shipping
CS209AYN8
DIP–8
50 Units/Rail
CS209AYD8
SO–8
95 Units/Rail
CS209AYDR8
SO–8
2500 Tape & Reel
CS209AYD14
SO–14
55 Units/Rail
CS209AYDR14
SO–14
2500 Tape & Reel
Publication Order Number:
CS209A/D
CS209A
PIN CONNECTIONS
DIP–8 and SO–8
OSC
1
8
SO–14
1
TANK
VCC
GND
OUT1
DEMOD
OUT2
∆VBE/R Current
Regulator
OSC
TANK
GND
OUT1
NC
OUT2
NC
RF
14
NC
RF
VCC
NC
DEMOD
NC
NC
VBE/R Current
Regulator
300 µA
VCC
Oscillator
OSC
4.8 kΩ
23.6 kΩ
OSC
Feedback
OUT1
RF
VCC
Neg Transient
Suppression
OUT2
+
COMP
–
DEMOD
TANK
GND
DEMOD
Figure 1. Block Diagram
ABSOLUTE MAXIMUM RATINGS*
Rating
Value
Unit
Supply Voltage
24
V
Power Dissipation (TA = 125°C)
200
mW
Storage Temperature Range
–55 to +165
°C
Junction Temperature Range
–40 to +150
°C
2.0
kV
260 peak
230 peak
°C
°C
Electrostatic Discharge (except TANK pin)
Lead Temperature Soldering:
Wave Solder (through hole styles only) (Note 1.)
Reflow (SMD style only) (Note 2.)
1. 10 second maximum.
2. 60 second maximum above 183°C.
*The maximum package power dissipation must be observed.
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2
CS209A
ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS: (–40°C ≤ TA ≤ +125°C, unless otherwise specified.)
Characteristic
Test Conditions
Min
Typ
Max
Unit
Supply Current ICC
VCC = 4.0 V
VCC = 12 V
VCC = 24 V
–
–
–
3.5
6.0
11.0
6.0
11.6
20
mA
mA
mA
TANK Current
VCC = 20 V
–550
–300
–100
µA
Demodulator Charge Current
VCC = 20 V
–60
–30
–10
µA
Output Leakage Current
VCC = 24 V
–
0.01
10
µA
Output VSAT
VCC = 4.0 V, IS = 20 mA
VCC = 24 V, IS = 100 mA
–
–
60
200
200
500
mV
mV
Oscillator Bias
VCC = 20 V
1.1
1.9
2.5
V
Feedback Bias
VCC = 20 V
1.1
1.9
2.5
V
OSC – RF Bias
VCC = 20 V
–250
100
550
mV
Protect Voltage
ITANK = –10 mA
–10
–8.9
–7.0
V
Detect Threshold
–
720
1440
1950
mV
Release Threshold
–
550
1200
1700
mV
PACKAGE PIN DESCRIPTION
PACKAGE PIN #
DIP–8 & SO–8
SO–14
PIN SYMBOL
FUNCTION
1
1
OSC
Adjustable feedback resistor connected between OSC and RF sets detection range.
2
2
TANK
Connects to parallel tank circuit.
3
3
GND
Ground connection.
4
4
OUT1
Complementary open collector output; when OUT1 = LOW, metal is present.
5
6
OUT2
Complementary open collector output; when OUT2 = HIGH, metal is present.
6
10
DEMOD
7
12
VCC
Supply voltage.
8
13
RF
Adjustable feedback resistor connected between OSC and RF set detection range.
–
5, 7, 8, 9, 11, 14
NC
No connection.
Input to comparator controlling OUT1 and OUT2.
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3
CS209A
TYPICAL PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS
6.5
8
(VCC = 12 V, RLOAD = 1.0 kΩ)
Switching Delay (µs)
Switching Delay (µs)
(T = 25°C, VCC = 12 V)
6
4
5.5
4.5
3.5
0.1 kΩ
2
2.5
0
4
8
12
16
20
–40
–20
0
20
40
60
80
100
Output Load (kΩ)
Temperature (°C)
Figure 2. Output Switching Delay vs.
Output Load
Figure 3. Output Switching Delay vs.
Temperature
Object
Detected
(T = 25°C, VCC = 12 V)
120
DEMOD (V)
1.75
1.5
Object Not
Detected,
L Unloaded
1.25
2.5 kΩ
5.0 kΩ 7.5 kΩ
12.5 kΩ
15 kΩ
17.5 kΩ
1.0
0.75
0
0.100
0.200
0.300
0.400
Distance To Object (in.)
Figure 4. Demodulator Voltage vs. Distance for Different RF
PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION
The detection is performed as follows: A capacitor
connected to DEMOD is charged via an internal 30 µA current
source. This current, however, is diverted away from the
capacitor in proportion to the negative bias generated by the
tank at TANK. Charge is therefore removed from the capacitor
tied to DEMOD on every negative half cycle of the resonant
voltage. (See Figure 6) The voltage on the capacitor at
DEMOD, a DC voltage with ripple, is then directly compared
to an internal 1.44 V reference. When the internal comparator
trips it turns on a transistor which places a 23.6 kΩ resistor in
parallel to the 4.8 kΩ. The resulting reference then becomes
approximately 1.2 V. This hysteresis is necessary for preventing
false triggering.
The CS209A is a metal detector circuit which operates on
the principle of detecting a reduction in Q of an inductor
when it is brought into close proximity of metal. The
CS209A contains an oscillator set up by an external parallel
resonant tank and a feedback resistor connected between
OSC and RF. (See Figure 5.) The impedance of a parallel
resonant tank is highest when the frequency of the source
driving it is equal to the tank’s resonant frequency. In the
CS209A the internal oscillator operates close to the resonant
frequency of the tank circuit selected. As a metal object is
brought close to the inductor, the amplitude of the voltage
across the tank gradually begins to drop. When the envelope
of the oscillation reaches a certain level, the IC causes the
output stages to switch states.
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4
CS209A
VCC
RL
1.0 kΩ
OSC
RL
1.0 kΩ
20 kΩ
CS209A
OUT1
RF
OUT2
TANK
GND
DEMOD
CDEMOD
2200 pF
4300 pF
NORMALLY
HI
NORMALLY
LO
L: Core: Siemens B65531–D–R–33
52 Turns, 6 × 44 AWG, Litz Unserved
Single Polyurethane
L
Figure 5. Test and Application Diagram
VOUT1
VTANK
VDEMOD
VDEMOD
Figure 6. Capacitor Ripple
Figure 7. Output Pulse for an 8 Tooth Gear
circuit is required to detect, assuming of course the Q of the
tank is high enough to allow the object to be within the IC’s
detection range. Then adjust the potentiometer to obtain a
lower resistance while observing one of the CS209A outputs
return to its normal state. (See Figure 5.) Readjust the
potentiometer slowly toward a higher resistance until the
outputs have switched to their tripped condition. Remove
the metal and confirm that the outputs switch back to their
normal state. Typically the maximum distance range the
circuit is capable of detecting is around 0.3 inch. The higher
the Q, the higher the detection distance.
The feedback potentiometer connected between OSC and
RF is adjusted to achieve a certain detection distance range.
The larger the resistance the greater the trip–point distance.
(See Figure 4.) Note that this is a plot representative of one
particular set–up since detection distance is dependent on
the Q of the tank. Note also from the graph that the capacitor
voltage corresponding to the greatest detection distance has
a higher residual voltage when the metal object is well
outside the trip point. Higher values of feedback resistance
for the same inductor Q will therefore eventually result in a
latched–ON condition because the residual voltage will be
higher than the comparator’s thresholds.
As an example of how to set the detection range, place the
metal object at the maximum distance from the inductor the
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5
CS209A
Commonly Encountered Metals
For this application it is recommended to use a core which
concentrates the magnetic field in only one direction. This
is accomplished very well with a pot core half. The next step
is to select a core material with low loss factor (inverse of Q).
The loss factor can be represented by a resistance in series
with the inductor which arises from core losses and is a
function of frequency.
The final step in obtaining a high Q inductor is the selection
of wire size. The higher the frequency the faster the decrease
in current density towards the center of the wire. Thus most
of the current flow is concentrated on the surface of the wire
resulting in a high AC resistance. LITZ wire is recommended
for this application. Considering the many factors involved,
it is also recommended to operate at a resonant frequency
between 200 and 700 kHz. The formula commonly used to
determine the Q for parallel resonant circuits is:
QP Stainless Steel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Carbon Steel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Copper . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Aluminum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Brass . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
0.101″
0.125″
0.044″
0.053″
0.052″
Coins
US Quarter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Canadian Quarter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1 German Mark . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1 Pound Sterling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
100 Japanese Yen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
100 Italian Lira . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
0.055″
0.113″
0.090″
0.080″
0.093″
0.133″
Other
12 oz. soda can . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.087″
R
2fRL
Note that the above is only a comparison among different
metals and no attempt was made to achieve the greatest
detection distance.
A different type of application involves, for example,
detecting the teeth of a rotating gear. For these applications
the capacitor on DEMOD should not be selected too small
(not below 1000 pF) where the ripple becomes too large and
not too large (not greater than 0.01 µF) that the response time
is too slow. Figure 6 for example shows the capacitor ripple
only and Figure 7 shows the entire capacitor voltage and the
output pulses for an 8–tooth gear rotating at about 2400 rpm
using a 2200 pF capacitor on the DEMOD pin.
Because the output stages go into hard saturation, a time
interval is required to remove the stored base charge
resulting in both outputs being low for approximately 3.0 µs.
(See Figure 3.)
where R is the effective resistance of the tank. The resistance
component of the inductor consists primarily of core losses
and “skin effect” or AC resistance.
The resonant capacitor should be selected to resonate with
the inductor within the frequency range recommended in
order to yield the highest Q. The capacitor type should be
selected to have low ESR: multilayer ceramic for example.
Detection distances vary for different metals. Following
are different detection distances for some selected metals
and metal objects relative to one particular circuit set–up:
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6
CS209A
PACKAGE DIMENSIONS
DIP–8
N SUFFIX
CASE 626–05
ISSUE L
8
NOTES:
1. DIMENSION L TO CENTER OF LEAD WHEN
FORMED PARALLEL.
2. PACKAGE CONTOUR OPTIONAL (ROUND OR
SQUARE CORNERS).
3. DIMENSIONING AND TOLERANCING PER ANSI
Y14.5M, 1982.
5
–B–
1
4
DIM
A
B
C
D
F
G
H
J
K
L
M
N
F
–A–
NOTE 2
L
C
J
–T–
MILLIMETERS
MIN
MAX
9.40
10.16
6.10
6.60
3.94
4.45
0.38
0.51
1.02
1.78
2.54 BSC
0.76
1.27
0.20
0.30
2.92
3.43
7.62 BSC
--10
0.76
1.01
INCHES
MIN
MAX
0.370
0.400
0.240
0.260
0.155
0.175
0.015
0.020
0.040
0.070
0.100 BSC
0.030
0.050
0.008
0.012
0.115
0.135
0.300 BSC
--10
0.030
0.040
N
SEATING
PLANE
D
M
K
G
H
0.13 (0.005)
M
T A
M
B
M
SO–8
D SUFFIX
CASE 751–07
ISSUE W
–X–
NOTES:
1. DIMENSIONING AND TOLERANCING PER ANSI
Y14.5M, 1982.
2. CONTROLLING DIMENSION: MILLIMETER.
3. DIMENSION A AND B DO NOT INCLUDE MOLD
PROTRUSION.
4. MAXIMUM MOLD PROTRUSION 0.15 (0.006) PER
SIDE.
5. DIMENSION D DOES NOT INCLUDE DAMBAR
PROTRUSION. ALLOWABLE DAMBAR
PROTRUSION SHALL BE 0.127 (0.005) TOTAL IN
EXCESS OF THE D DIMENSION AT MAXIMUM
MATERIAL CONDITION.
A
8
5
0.25 (0.010)
S
B
1
M
Y
M
4
K
–Y–
G
C
N
X 45 SEATING
PLANE
–Z–
0.10 (0.004)
H
M
D
0.25 (0.010)
M
Z Y
S
X
S
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7
J
DIM
A
B
C
D
G
H
J
K
M
N
S
MILLIMETERS
MIN
MAX
4.80
5.00
3.80
4.00
1.35
1.75
0.33
0.51
1.27 BSC
0.10
0.25
0.19
0.25
0.40
1.27
0
8
0.25
0.50
5.80
6.20
INCHES
MIN
MAX
0.189
0.197
0.150
0.157
0.053
0.069
0.013
0.020
0.050 BSC
0.004
0.010
0.007
0.010
0.016
0.050
0
8
0.010
0.020
0.228
0.244
CS209A
SO–14
D SUFFIX
CASE 751A–03
ISSUE F
NOTES:
1. DIMENSIONING AND TOLERANCING PER ANSI
Y14.5M, 1982.
2. CONTROLLING DIMENSION: MILLIMETER.
3. DIMENSIONS A AND B DO NOT INCLUDE
MOLD PROTRUSION.
4. MAXIMUM MOLD PROTRUSION 0.15 (0.006)
PER SIDE.
5. DIMENSION D DOES NOT INCLUDE DAMBAR
PROTRUSION. ALLOWABLE DAMBAR
PROTRUSION SHALL BE 0.127 (0.005) TOTAL
IN EXCESS OF THE D DIMENSION AT
MAXIMUM MATERIAL CONDITION.
–A–
14
8
–B–
1
P 7 PL
0.25 (0.010)
7
G
M
B
M
F
R X 45 C
–T–
SEATING
PLANE
D 14 PL
0.25 (0.010)
M
J
M
K
T B
S
A
S
DIM
A
B
C
D
F
G
J
K
M
P
R
MILLIMETERS
MIN
MAX
8.55
8.75
3.80
4.00
1.35
1.75
0.35
0.49
0.40
1.25
1.27 BSC
0.19
0.25
0.10
0.25
0
7
5.80
6.20
0.25
0.50
INCHES
MIN
MAX
0.337
0.344
0.150
0.157
0.054
0.068
0.014
0.019
0.016
0.049
0.050 BSC
0.008
0.009
0.004
0.009
0
7
0.228
0.244
0.010
0.019
PACKAGE THERMAL DATA
Parameter
DIP–8
SO–8
SO–14
Unit
RΘJC
Typical
52
45
30
°C/W
RΘJA
Typical
100
165
125
°C/W
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are trademarks of Semiconductor Components Industries, LLC (SCILLC). SCILLC reserves the right to make changes
without further notice to any products herein. SCILLC makes no warranty, representation or guarantee regarding the suitability of its products for any particular
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8
CS209A/D