19-3880; Rev 2; 1/10 KIT ATION EVALU E L B A AVAIL Offline and DC-DC PWM Controllers for High-Brightness LED Drivers Features ♦ Suitable for Buck, Boost, Flyback, SEPIC, and Other Topologies ♦ Up to 50W or Higher Output Power ♦ Universal Offline Input Voltage Range: Rectified 85VAC to 265VAC (MAX16801) ♦ IN Pin Directly Driven From 10.8VDC to 24VDC Input (MAX16802) ♦ Internal Error Amplifier with 1% Accurate Reference for Precise LED Current Regulation ♦ PWM or Linear Dimming ♦ Fixed Switching Frequency of 262kHz ±12% ♦ Thermal Shutdown ♦ Digital Soft-Start ♦ Programmable Input Startup Voltage ♦ Internal Bootstrap UVLO with Large Hysteresis (MAX16801) ♦ 45µA (typ) Startup Supply Current, 1.4mA (typ) Operating Supply Current ♦ 50% (MAX16801A/MAX16802A) or 75% (MAX16801B/MAX16802B) Maximum Duty Cycle ♦ Available in a Tiny 8-Pin µMAX Package The MAX16801A/B/MAX16802A/B high-brightness (HB) LED driver-control ICs contain all the circuitry required for the design of wide-input-voltage-range LED drivers for general lighting and display applications. The MAX16801 is well suited for universal input (rectified 85VAC to 265VAC) LED drivers, while the MAX16802 is intended for low-input-voltage (10.8VDC to 24VDC) LED drivers. When the LED current needs to be tightly regulated, an additional on-board error amplifier with 1% accurate reference can be utilized. A wide dimming range can be implemented by using low-frequency PWM dimming. The MAX16801/MAX16802 feature an input undervoltage lockout (UVLO) for programming the input-supply start voltage, and to ensure proper operation during brownout conditions. The MAX16801 has an internal-bootstrap undervoltage lockout circuit with a large hysteresis that simplifies offline LED driver designs. The MAX16802 does not have this internal bootstrap circuit and can be biased directly from a +12V rail. The 262kHz fixed switching frequency is internally trimmed, allowing for optimization of the magnetic and filter components, resulting in a compact, cost-effective LED driver. The MAX16801A/MAX16802A are offered with 50% maximum duty cycle. The MAX16801B/MAX16802B are offered with 75% maximum duty cycle. These devices are available in an 8-pin µMAX® package and operate over the -40°C to +85°C temperature range. Ordering Information TEMP RANGE PART Applications Offline and DC-DC LED Drivers RGB Back Light for LCD TVs and Monitors Commercial and Industrial Lighting Decorative and Architectural Lighting PINPACKAGE MAX16801AEUA+ -40°C to +85°C 8 µMAX MAX16801BEUA+ -40°C to +85°C 8 µMAX MAX16802AEUA+ -40°C to +85°C 8 µMAX MAX16802BEUA+ -40°C to +85°C 8 µMAX +Denotes lead-free package. µMAX is a registered trademark of Maxim Integrated Products, Inc. Typical Operating Circuit 10.8VDC TO 24VDC ENABLE UVLO/EN IN C3 L1 DIM/FB VCC PWM LEDs D1 MAX16802B COMP CS Q1 NDRV GND C1 C2 R1 GND Warning: The MAX16801/MAX16802 are designed to work with high voltages. Exercise caution. ________________________________________________________________ Maxim Integrated Products For pricing, delivery, and ordering information, please contact Maxim Direct at 1-888-629-4642, or visit Maxim’s website at www.maxim-ic.com. 1 MAX16801A/B/MAX16802A/B General Description MAX16801A/B/MAX16802A/B Offline and DC-DC PWM Controllers for High-Brightness LED Drivers ABSOLUTE MAXIMUM RATINGS IN to GND..........................................................................-0.3V to +30V VCC to GND ......................................................................-0.3V to +13V DIM/FB, COMP, UVLO, CS to GND..........................-0.3V to +6V NDRV to GND.............................................-0.3V to (VCC + 0.3V) Continuous Power Dissipation (TA = +70°C) 8-Pin µMAX (derate 4.5mW/°C above +70°C) ..............362mW Operating Temperature Range ...........................-40°C to +85°C Storage Temperature Range ............................-65°C to +150°C Junction Temperature ......................................................+150°C Lead Temperature (soldering, 10s) .................................+300°C Stresses beyond those listed under “Absolute Maximum Ratings” may cause permanent damage to the device. These are stress ratings only, and functional operation of the device at these or any other conditions beyond those indicated in the operational sections of the specifications is not implied. Exposure to absolute maximum rating conditions for extended periods may affect device reliability. ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS (VIN = +12V (MAX16801: VIN must first be brought up to +23.6V for startup), 10nF bypass capacitors at IN and VCC, CNDRV = 0µF, VUVLO = +1.4V, VDIM/FB = +1.0V, COMP = unconnected, VCS = 0V, TA = -40°C to +85°C, unless otherwise noted. Typical values are at TA = +25°C.) (Note 1) PARAMETER SYMBOL CONDITIONS MIN TYP MAX UNITS UNDERVOLTAGE LOCKOUT/STARTUP Bootstrap UVLO Wake-Up Level VSUVR VIN rising (MAX16801 only) 19.68 21.6 23.60 V Bootstrap UVLO Shutdown Level VSUVF VIN falling (MAX16801 only) 9.05 9.74 10.43 V UVLO/EN Wake-Up Threshold VULR2 UVLO/EN rising 1.188 1.28 1.371 V UVLO/EN Shutdown Threshold VULF2 UVLO/EN falling 1.168 1.23 1.291 UVLO/EN Input Current IUVLO TJ = +125°C UVLO/EN Hysteresis IN Supply Current In Undervoltage Lockout IN Voltage Range UVLO/EN Propagation Delay Bootstrap UVLO Propagation Delay ISTART VIN = +19V, for MAX16801 only when in bootstrap UVLO VIN V 25 nA 50 mV 45 10.8 tEXTR UVLO/EN steps up from +1.1V to +1.4V 12 tEXTF UVLO/EN steps down from +1.4V to +1.1V 1.8 tBUVR VIN steps up from +9V to +24V 5 tBUVF VIN steps down from +24V to +9V 1 VCCSP VIN = +10.8V to +24V, sinking 1µA to 20mA from VCC 90 µA 24 V µs µs INTERNAL SUPPLY VCC Regulator Set Point IN Supply Current After Startup IIN Shutdown Supply Current 7 VIN = +24V 1.4 UVLO/EN = low 10.5 V 2.5 mA 90 µA GATE DRIVER Driver Output Impedance RON(LOW) Measured at NDRV sinking, 100mA 2 4 RON(HIGH) Measured at NDRV sourcing, 20mA 4 12 Driver Peak Sink Current Driver Peak Source Current Ω 1 A 0.65 A PWM COMPARATOR Comparator Offset Voltage CS Input Bias Current Comparator Propagation Delay Minimum On-Time 2 VOPWM ICS tPWM tON(MIN) VCOMP - VCS VCS = 0V VCS = +0.1V 1.15 1.38 -2 1.70 V +2 µA 60 ns 150 ns _______________________________________________________________________________________ Offline and DC-DC PWM Controllers for High-Brightness LED Drivers (VIN = +12V (MAX16801: VIN must first be brought up to +23.6V for startup), 10nF bypass capacitors at IN and VCC, CNDRV = 0µF, VUVLO = +1.4V, VDIM/FB = +1.0V, COMP = unconnected, VCS = 0V, TA = -40°C to +85°C, unless otherwise noted. Typical values are at TA = +25°C.) (Note 1) PARAMETER SYMBOL CONDITIONS MIN TYP MAX UNITS 262 291 320 mV +2 µA CURRENT-SENSE COMPARATOR Current-Sense Trip Threshold VCS CS Input Bias Current ICS Propagation Delay From Comparator Input to NDRV Switching Frequency Maximum Duty Cycle tPWM VCS = 0V 50mV overdrive fSW DMAX -2 60 230 ns 262 290 MAX1680_A 50 50.5 MAX1680_B 75 76 26.1 29.0 kHz % IN CLAMP VOLTAGE IN Clamp Voltage VINC 2mA sink current, MAX16801 only (Note 3) 24.1 V ERROR AMPLIFIER Voltage Gain RLOAD = 100kΩ 80 dB Unity-Gain Bandwidth RLOAD = 100kΩ, CLOAD = 200pF 2 MHz Phase Margin RLOAD = 100kΩ, CLOAD = 200pF 65 Degrees DIM/FB Input Offset Voltage 3 COMP Clamp Voltage High 2.2 3.5 Low 0.4 1.1 mV V Source Current 0.5 mA Sink Current 0.5 mA Reference Voltage VREF (Note 2) 1.218 1.230 Input Bias Current COMP Short-Circuit Current 1.242 V 50 nA 8 mA Thermal-Shutdown Temperature 130 °C Thermal Hysteresis 25 °C 15,872 Clock cycles Reference Voltage Steps During Soft-Start 31 Steps Reference Voltage Step 40 mV THERMAL SHUTDOWN DIGITAL SOFT-START Soft-Start Duration Note 1: All devices are 100% tested at TA = +85°C. All limits over temperature are guaranteed by characterization. Note 2: VREF is measured with DIM/FB connected to the COMP pin (see the Functional Diagram). Note 3: The MAX16801 is intended for use in universal input offline drivers. The internal clamp circuit is used to prevent the bootstrap capacitor (C1 in Figure 5) from charging to a voltage beyond the absolute maximum rating of the device when EN/UVLO is low. The maximum current to IN (hence to clamp) when UVLO is low (device in shutdown), must be externally limited to 2mA (max). Clamp currents higher than 2mA may result in clamp voltage higher than +30V, thus exceeding the absolute maximum rating for IN. For the MAX16802, do not exceed the +24V maximum operating voltage of the device. _______________________________________________________________________________________ 3 MAX16801A/B/MAX16802A/B ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS (continued) Typical Operating Characteristics (VUVLO/EN = +1.4V, VFB = +1V, COMP = unconnected, VCS = 0V, TA = +25°C, unless otherwise noted.) 21.55 10.1 MAX16801 VIN FALLING UVLO/EN WAKE-UP THRESHOLD vs. TEMPERATURE 1.280 UVLO/EN RISING 1.275 MAX16801 toc03 MAX16801 VIN RISING MAX16801 toc01 21.60 BOOTSTRAP UVLO SHUTDOWN LEVEL vs. TEMPERATURE MAX16801 toc02 BOOTSTRAP UVLO WAKE-UP LEVEL vs. TEMPERATURE 10.0 21.45 UVLO/EN (V) VIN (V) VIN (V) 21.50 9.9 21.40 1.270 1.265 1.260 9.8 21.35 1.255 9.7 -20 0 20 40 60 80 1.250 -40 -20 0 20 40 60 80 -40 -20 0 20 40 60 80 TEMPERATURE (°C) TEMPERATURE (°C) TEMPERATURE (°C) UVLO/EN SHUTDOWN THRESHOLD vs. TEMPERATURE VIN SUPPLY CURRENT IN UNDERVOLTAGE LOCKOUT vs. TEMPERATURE VIN SUPPLY CURRENT AFTER STARTUP vs. TEMPERATURE UVLO/EN FALLING 52 51 50 1.25 1.5 MAX16801 toc05 1.30 MAX16801 toc04 -40 VIN = 19V MAX16801 WHEN IN BOOTSTRAP UVLO MAX16802 WHEN UVLO/EN IS LOW VIN = 24V MAX16801 toc06 21.30 1.4 1.20 48 IIN (mA) ISTART (µA) UVLO/EN (V) 49 47 1.3 46 45 1.15 1.2 44 43 -20 0 20 40 60 80 0 20 40 60 -20 0 20 40 60 VCC REGULATOR SET POINT vs. TEMPERATURE CURRENT-SENSE THRESHOLD vs. TEMPERATURE VIN = 10.8V 8.8 8.7 10mA LOAD VCC (V) 9.5 8.5 8.4 9.4 20mA LOAD 8.3 NDRV OUTPUT IS SWITCHING 9.3 8.2 -20 0 20 40 TEMPERATURE (°C) 60 80 TOTAL NUMBER OF DEVICES = 100 +3σ 305 80 300 295 MEAN 290 285 280 -3σ 275 8.1 9.2 310 CURRENT-SENSE THRESHOLD (µV) MAX16801 toc07 8.9 MAX116801 toc08 VCC REGULATOR SET POINT vs. TEMPERATURE 8.6 -40 -40 80 TEMPERATURE (°C) NDRV OUTPUT IS NOT SWITCHING, VFB = 1.5V 9.6 -20 TEMPERATURE (°C) VIN = 19V NO LOAD 9.7 -40 TEMPERATURE (°C) 9.8 4 1.1 42 -40 270 -40 -20 0 20 40 TEMPERATURE (°C) 60 80 -40 -20 0 20 40 TEMPERATURE (°C) _______________________________________________________________________________________ 60 80 MAX16801 toc09 1.10 VCC (V) MAX16801A/B/MAX16802A/B Offline and DC-DC PWM Controllers for High-Brightness LED Drivers Offline and DC-DC PWM Controllers for High-Brightness LED Drivers SWITCHING FREQUENCY vs. TEMPERATURE 15 10 5 255 250 -3σ 270 280 290 300 310 10 -20 0 20 40 60 80 230 240 250 260 270 280 SWITCHING FREQUENCY (kHz) PROPAGATION DELAY FROM CURRENT-SENSE COMPARATOR INPUT TO NDRV vs. TEMPERATURE UVLO/EN PROPAGATION DELAY vs. TEMPERATURE REFERENCE VOLTAGE vs. TEMPERATURE 60 55 50 -20 0 20 40 60 80 VIN = 12V 1.229 1.228 1.227 1.226 UVLO/EN FALLING 1.225 -40 -20 0 20 40 60 -40 80 -20 0 20 40 60 TEMPERATURE (°C) TEMPERATURE (°C) TEMPERATURE (°C) INPUT CURRENT vs. INPUT CLAMP VOLTAGE INPUT CLAMP VOLTAGE vs. TEMPERATURE NDRV OUTPUT IMPEDANCE vs. TEMPERATURE 8 7 6 5 4 27.0 IIN = 2mA 26.8 26.6 2.2 2.1 1.9 26.2 1.8 1.7 25.8 1.6 25.6 1.5 2 25.4 1.4 1 25.2 1.3 0 25.0 3 10.0 12.5 15.0 17.5 20.0 22.5 25.0 27.5 30.0 INPUT VOLTAGE (V) VIN = 24V SINKING 100mA 2.0 26.4 26.0 80 MAX16801 toc18 9 RON (Ω) MAX16801 toc16 10 INPUT CLAMP VOLTAGE (V) -40 UVLO/EN RISING REFERENCE VOLTAGE (V) 65 1.230 MAX16801 toc14 MAX16801 toc13 70 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 290 MAX16801 toc15 TEMPERATURE (°C) UNDERVOLTAGE LOCKOUT DELAY (µs) CURRENT-SENSE THRESHOLD (mV) 75 MAX16801 toc12 15 0 -40 320 20 5 240 260 tPWM (ns) MEAN 260 245 0 INPUT CURRENT (mA) 265 TOTAL NUMBER OF DEVICES = 200 25 PERCENTAGE OF UNITS (%) 20 270 30 MAX16801 toc17 PERCENTAGE OF UNITS (%) 25 TOTAL NUMBER OF DEVICES = 100 +3σ 275 SWITCHING FREQUENCY MAX16801 toc11 TOTAL NUMBER OF DEVICES = 200 280 SWITCHING FREQUENCY (kHz) 30 MAX16801 toc10 CURRENT-SENSE THRESHOLD 1.2 -40 -20 0 20 40 TEMPERATURE (°C) 60 80 -40 -20 0 20 40 60 80 TEMPERATURE (°C) _______________________________________________________________________________________ 5 MAX16801A/B/MAX16802A/B Typical Operating Characteristics (continued) (VUVLO/EN = +1.4V, VFB = +1V, COMP = unconnected, VCS = 0V, TA = +25°C, unless otherwise noted.) Typical Operating Characteristics (continued) (VUVLO/EN = +1.4V, VFB = +1V, COMP = unconnected, VCS = 0V, TA = +25°C, unless otherwise noted.) ERROR-AMPLIFIER OPEN-LOOP GAIN AND PHASE vs. FREQUENCY NDRV OUTPUT IMPEDANCE vs. TEMPERATURE 4.8 4.6 100 30 80 10 GAIN 60 4.4 GAIN (dB) 4.2 4.0 3.8 50 -10 40 -30 20 -50 0 -70 PHASE -20 -90 3.6 -40 -110 3.4 -60 -130 3.2 -80 -150 3.0 -100 -40 -20 0 20 40 60 0.1 80 1 10 100 1k PHASE (DEGREES) VIN = 24V SOURCING 20mA MAX16801 toc20 120 MAX16801 toc19 5.0 RON (Ω) MAX16801A/B/MAX16802A/B Offline and DC-DC PWM Controllers for High-Brightness LED Drivers -170 10k 100k 1M 10M 100M FREQUENCY (Hz) TEMPERATURE (°C) Pin Description PIN NAME FUNCTION Externally Programmable Undervoltage Lockout. UVLO programs the input start voltage. Connect UVLO to GND to disable the device. 1 UVLO/EN 2 DIM/FB Low-Frequency PWM Dimming Input/Error-Amplifier Inverting Input 3 COMP Error-Amplifier Output. Connect the compensation components between DIM/FB and COMP in highaccuracy LED current regulation. 4 CS Current-Sense Connection for Current Regulation. Connect to high side of sense resistor. An RC filter may be necessary to eliminate leading-edge spikes. 5 GND 6 NDRV 7 VCC Gate-Drive Supply. Internally regulated down from IN. Decouple with a 10nF or larger capacitor to GND. 8 IN IC Supply. Decouple with a 10nF or larger capacitor to GND. For bootstrapped operation (MAX16801), connect a startup resistor from the input supply line to IN. Connect the bias winding supply to this point (see Figure 5). For the MAX16802, connect IN directly to a +10.8V to +24V supply. Power-Supply Ground External n-Channel MOSFET Gate Connection Detailed Description The MAX16801/MAX16802 family of devices is intended for constant current drive of high-brightness (HB) LEDs used in general lighting and display applications. They are specifically designed for use in isolated and nonisolated circuit topologies such as buck, boost, flyback, and SEPIC, operating in continuous or discontinuous mode. Current mode control is implemented with an internally trimmed, fixed 262kHz switching frequency. A bootstrap UVLO with a large hysteresis (11.9V), very low startup current, and low operating current 6 result in an efficient universal-input LED driver. In addition to the internal bootstrap UVLO, these devices also offer programmable input startup voltage programmed through the UVLO/EN pin. The MAX16801 is well suited for universal AC input (rectified 85VAC to 265VAC) drivers. The MAX16802 is well suited for low input voltage (10.8VDC to 24VDC) applications. The MAX16801/MAX16802 regulate the LED current by monitoring current through the external MOSFET cycle by cycle. _______________________________________________________________________________________ Offline and DC-DC PWM Controllers for High-Brightness LED Drivers the power dissipation across R1, even at the high end of the universal AC input voltage. An internal shutdown circuit protects the device whenever the junction temperature exceeds +130°C (typ). Dimming Linear dimming can be implemented by creating a summing node at CS, as shown in Figures 6 and 7. Low-frequency PWM (chopped-current) dimming is possible by applying an inverted-logic PWM signal to the DIM/FB pin of the IC (Figure 8). This might be a preferred way of dimming in situations where it is critical to retain the light spectrum unchanged. It is accomplished by keeping constant the amplitude of the chopped LED current. MAX16801/MAX16802 Biasing Implement bootstrapping from the transformer when it is present (Figure 5). Biasing can also be realized directly from the LEDs in non-isolated topologies (Figure 1). Bias the MAX16802 directly from the input voltage of 10.8VDC to 24VDC. The MAX16802 can also be used R5 R1 R2 IN AC IN BRIDGE RECTIFIER COMP C1 C2 Q1 NDRV VCC GND MAX16801B CS C3 DIM/FB UVLO/EN R3 R6 R4 L1 C4 TOTAL LED VOLTAGE: 11V TO 23V D3 Figure 1. Biasing the IC using LEDs in Nonisolated Flyback Driver _______________________________________________________________________________________ 7 MAX16801A/B/MAX16802A/B When in the bootstrapped mode with a transformer (Figure 5), the circuit is protected against most output short-circuit faults when the tertiary voltage drops below +10V, causing the UVLO to turn off the gate drive of the external MOSFET. This re-initiates a startup sequence with soft-start. When the LED current needs to be tightly regulated, an internal error amplifier with 1% accurate reference can be used (Figure 9). This additional feedback minimizes the impact of passive circuit component variations and tolerances, and can be implemented with a minimum number of additional external components. A wide dimming range can be implemented using a low-frequency PWM dimming signal fed directly to the DIM/FB pin. LED driver circuits designed with the MAX16801 use a high-value startup resistor R1 that charges a reservoir capacitor C1 (Figure 5 or Figure 9). During this initial period, while the voltage is less than the internal bootstrap UVLO threshold, the device typically consumes only 45µA of quiescent current. This low startup current and the large bootstrap UVLO hysteresis help minimize MAX16801A/B/MAX16802A/B Offline and DC-DC PWM Controllers for High-Brightness LED Drivers VDC R VDC Q R IN IN MAX16802A D D MAX16802A C (b) (a) Figure 2. (a) Resistor-Zener and (b) Transistor-Zener-Resistor Bias Arrangements in applications with higher input DC voltages by implementing resistor-Zener bias (Figure 2a) or transistorZener-resistor bias (Figure 2b). MAX16801/MAX16802 Undervoltage Lockout The MAX16801/MAX16802 have an input voltage UVLO/EN pin. The threshold of this UVLO is +1.28V. Before any operation can commence, the voltage on this pin has to exceed +1.28V. The UVLO circuit keeps the CPWM comparator, ILIM comparator, oscillator, and output driver in shutdown to reduce current consumption (see the Functional Diagram). Use this UVLO function to program the input start voltage. Calculate the divider resistor values, R2 and R3 (Figure 5), by using the following formulas: R3 ≅ VULR2 × VIN 500 × IUVLO (VIN − VULR2 ) The value of R3 is calculated to minimize the voltagedrop error across R2 as a result of the input bias current of the UVLO/EN pin. V ULR2 = +1.28V, I UVLO = 50nA (max), VIN is the value of the input-supply voltage where the power supply must start. V − VULR2 R2 = IN × R3 VULR2 where IUVLO is the UVLO/EN pin input current, and VULR2 is the UVLO/EN wake-up threshold. 8 MAX16801 Bootstrap Undervoltage Lockout In addition to the externally programmable UVLO function offered in both the MAX16801/MAX16802, the MAX16801 has an additional internal bootstrap UVLO that is very useful when designing high-voltage LED drivers (see the Functional Diagram). This allows the device to bootstrap itself during initial power-up. The MAX16801 attempts to start when V IN exceeds the bootstrap UVLO threshold of +23.6V. During startup, the UVLO circuit keeps the CPWM comparator, ILIM comparator, oscillator, and output driver shut down to reduce current consumption. Once V IN reaches +23.6V, the UVLO circuit turns on both the CPWM and ILIM comparators, as well as the oscillator, and allows the output driver to switch. If VIN drops below +9.7V, the UVLO circuit will shut down the CPWM comparator, ILIM comparator, oscillator, and output driver thereby returning the MAX16801 to the startup mode. MAX16801 Startup Operation In isolated LED driver applications, VIN can be derived from a tertiary winding of a transformer. However, at startup there is no energy delivered through the transformer. Therefore, a special bootstrap sequence is required. Figure 3 shows the voltages on IN and VCC during startup. Initially, both VIN and VCC are 0V. After the line voltage is applied, C1 charges through the startup resistor R1 to an intermediate voltage. At this point, the internal regulator begins charging C2 (see Figure 5). The MAX16801 uses only 45µA of the current supplied by R1, and the remaining input current charges C1 and C2. The charging of C2 stops when the VCC voltage reaches approximately +9.5V, while the voltage across C1 continues rising until it reaches _______________________________________________________________________________________ Offline and DC-DC PWM Controllers for High-Brightness LED Drivers VCC 2V/div MAX16801 VIN PIN 5V/div 0 The MAX16801/MAX16802 soft-start feature allows the LED current to ramp up in a controlled manner. Softstart begins after UVLO deasserts. The voltage applied to the noninverting node of the amplifier ramps from 0 to +1.23V over a 60ms soft-start timeout period. Figure 4 shows a typical 0.5A output current during startup. Note the staircase increase of the LED current. This is a result of the digital soft-starting technique used. Unlike other devices, the reference voltage to the internal amplifier is soft-started. This method results in superior control of the LED current. n-Channel MOSFET Switch Driver 100ms/div Figure 3. VIN and VCC During Startup when Using the MAX16801 in Bootstrapped Mode the wake-up level of +23.6V. Once VIN exceeds the bootstrap UVLO threshold, NDRV begins switching the MOSFET and transfers energy to the secondary and tertiary outputs. If the voltage on the tertiary output builds to a value higher than +9.7V (the bootstrap UVLO lower threshold), then startup has been accomplished and sustained operation commences. If VIN drops below +9.7V before startup is complete, the device goes back to low-current UVLO. In this case, increase C1 in order to store enough energy to allow for the voltage at the tertiary winding to build up. The NDRV pin drives an external n-channel MOSFET. The NDRV output is supplied by the internal regulator (VCC), which is internally set to approximately +9.5V. For the universal input voltage and applications with a transformer, the MOSFET used must be able to withstand the DC level of the high-line input voltage plus the reflected voltage at the primary of the transformer. For most offline applications that use the discontinuous flyback topology, this requires a MOSFET rated at 600V. NDRV can source/sink in excess of the 650mA/1000mA peak current. Select a MOSFET that yields acceptable conduction and switching losses. Internal Error Amplifier The MAX16801/MAX16802 include an internal error amplifier that can be used to regulate the LED current very accurately. For example, see the nonisolated power supply in Figure 5. Calculate the LED current using the following equation: V ILED = REF R7 100mA/div where V REF = +1.23V. The amplifier’s noninverting input is internally connected to a digital soft-start circuit that gradually increases the reference voltage during startup and is applied to this pin. This forces the LED current to come up in an orderly and well-defined manner under all conditions. 0 10ms/div Figure 4. Typical Current Soft-Start During Initial Startup _______________________________________________________________________________________ 9 MAX16801A/B/MAX16802A/B Soft-Start MAX16801A/B/MAX16802A/B Offline and DC-DC PWM Controllers for High-Brightness LED Drivers Applications Information Assuming C1 > C2, calculate the value of R1 as follows: Startup Time Considerations for HighBrightness LED Drivers Using MAX16801 The IN bypass capacitor C1 supplies current immediately after wake-up (Figure 5). The size of C1 and the connection configuration of the tertiary winding determine the number of cycles available for startup. Large values of C1 increase the startup time but also supply gate charge for more cycles during initial startup. If the value of C1 is too small, V IN drops below +9.7V because NDRV does not have enough time to switch and build up sufficient voltage across the tertiary winding that powers the device. The device goes back into UVLO and does not start. Use low-leakage capacitors for C1 and C2. Assuming that offline LED drivers keep typical startup times to less than 500ms even in low-line conditions (85VAC input for universal offline applications), size the startup resistor R1 to supply both the maximum startup bias of the device (90µA, worst case) and the charging current for C1 and C2. The bypass capacitor C2 must charge to +9.5V and C1 to +24V, all within the desired time period of 500ms. Because of the internal 60ms soft-start time of the MAX16801, C1 must store enough charge to deliver current to the device for at least this much time. To calculate the approximate amount of capacitance required, use the following formula: Ig = Qgtot × fSW C1 = (IIN + Ig ) (tSS ) VHYST where IIN is the MAX16801’s internal supply current after startup (1.4mA), Qgtot is the total gate charge for Q1, f SW is the MAX16801’s switching frequency (262kHz), V HYST is the bootstrap UVLO hysteresis (11.9V) and tSS is the internal soft-start time (60ms). For example: Ig = (8nC) × (262kHz) = 2.1mA C1 = (1.4mA + 2.1mA) × (60ms) = 17.5µF (12V) × C1 V IC1 = SUVR (500ms) R1 = VIN(MIN) − VSUVR IC1 + ISTART where VIN(MIN) is the minimum input supply voltage for the application, VSUVR is the bootstrap UVLO wake-up level (+23.6V, max), and ISTART is the IN supply current at startup (90µA, max). For example, for the minimum AC input of 85V: IC1 = ( 24V ) × (15µF ) = 0.72mA ( 500ms) R1 = 120V − 24V = 119kΩ (0.72mA + (90µA)) Choose the 120kΩ standard value. Choose a higher value for R1 than the one calculated above if longer startup time can be tolerated in order to minimize power loss on this resistor. The above startup method is applicable to a circuit similar to the one shown in Figure 5. In this circuit, the tertiary winding has the same phase as the output windings. Thus, the voltage on the tertiary winding at any given time is proportional to the output voltage and goes through the same soft-start period as the output voltage. The minimum discharge voltage of C1 from +22V to +10V must be greater than the soft-start time of 60ms. Another method of bootstrapping the circuit is to have a separate bias winding than the one used for regulating the output voltage and to connect the bias winding so that it is in phase with the MOSFET ON time (see Figure 9). In this case, the amount of capacitance required is much smaller. However, in this mode, the input voltage range has to be less than 2:1. Another consideration is whether the bias winding is in phase with the output. If so, the LED driver circuit hiccups and soft-starts under output shortcircuit conditions. However, this property is lost if the bias winding is in phase with the MOSFET ON time. Choose the 15µF standard value. 10 ______________________________________________________________________________________ Offline and DC-DC PWM Controllers for High-Brightness LED Drivers Figure 8 shows an offline isolated flyback HB LED driver with low-frequency PWM using MAX16801. The PWM signal needs to be inverted (see the Functional Diagram). Transformer T1 provides full safety isolation and operation from universal AC line (85VAC to 265VAC). D1 T1 VSUPPLY D2 R1 R2 C4 Q1 NDRV IN VOUT LEDs C1 VCC CS R4 C2 COMP R6 R7 MAX16801 C3 GND DIM/FB UVLO/EN R3 R5 GND Figure 5. Offline, Nonisolated, Flyback LED Driver with Programmable Input-Supply Start Voltage ______________________________________________________________________________________ 11 MAX16801A/B/MAX16802A/B Application Circuits Figure 5 shows an offline application of an HB LED driver using the MAX16801. The use of transformer T1 allows significant design flexibility. Use the internal error amplifier for a very accurate LED current control. Figure 6 shows a discontinuous flyback LED driver with linear dimming capability. The total LED voltage can be lower or higher than the input voltage. Figure 7 shows a continuous-conduction-mode HB LED buck driver with linear dimming and just a few external components. MAX16801A/B/MAX16802A/B Offline and DC-DC PWM Controllers for High-Brightness LED Drivers VIN 10.8V TO 24V R1 UVLO/EN DIM/FB 1 8 2 7 COMP 3 CS MAX16802B 4 6 5 LED(s) L1 IN C4 VCC NDRV Q1 D1 GND R2 R4 R3 DIMMING C2 C3 R5 C1 GND Figure 6. MAX16802 Flyback HB LED Driver with Dimming Capability, 10.8V to 24V Input Voltage Range VIN 10.8V TO 24V R1 LED(s) UVLO/EN DIM/FB 1 8 2 7 COMP 3 CS MAX16802B 4 6 5 D1 IN C4 VCC NDRV Q1 L1 GND R2 R3 R4 DIMMING C2 C3 R5 C1 GND Figure 7. MAX16802 Buck HB LED Driver with Dimming Capability, 10.8V to 24V Input Voltage Range 12 ______________________________________________________________________________________ Offline and DC-DC PWM Controllers for High-Brightness LED Drivers MAX16801A/B/MAX16802A/B OPTIONAL ONLY WHEN PWM DIMMING IS USED D3 T1 D1 C4 D2 R2 R1 UNIVERSAL AC INPUT Q1 NDRV VCC LEDs C3 BRIDGE RECTIFIER IN C6 GND MAX16801B CS C1 C2 DIM/FB R4 UVLO/EN R3 *PWM C5 *WARNING: PWM DIMMING SIGNAL IS SHOWN AT THE PRIMARY SIDE. USE AN OPTOCOUPLER FOR SAFETY ISOLATION OF THE PWM SIGNAL. Figure 8. Universal AC Input, Offline, Isolated Flyback HB LED Driver with Low-Frequency PWM Dimming D1 T1 +VIN D3 R1 U2 OPTO LED R2 R8 Q1 NDRV IN VOUT C1 VCC CS R11 C4 C3 R4 MAX16801 R7 U2 OPTO TRANS COMP R9 Z1 GND U3 TLV431 R5 DIM/FB R6 UVLO/EN R3 C2 C5 GND R10 Figure 9. Universal Input, Offline, High-Accuracy Current Regulation in an Isolated Flyback HB LED Driver ______________________________________________________________________________________ 13 MAX16801A/B/MAX16802A/B Offline and DC-DC PWM Controllers for High-Brightness LED Drivers Functional Diagram IN IN CLAMP 26.1V VCC VCC IN REGULATOR BOOTSTRAP UVLO** REG_OK DIGITAL SOFT-START VL REFERENCE 1.23V 21.6V 9.74V UVLO (INTERNAL 5.25V SUPPLY) UVLO 1.28V 1.23V COMP FB DRIVER S ERROR AMP NDRV Q R CPWM VOPWM CS *OSCILLATOR 264kHz 1.38V THERMAL SHUTDOWN VCS 0.3V LIM MAX16801 MAX16802 GND *MAX16801A/MAX16802A: 50% MAXIMUM DUTY CYCLE MAX16801B/MAX16802B: 75% MAXIMUM DUTY CYCLE **MAX16801 ONLY Selector Guide BOOTSTRAP UVLO STARTUP VOLTAGE (V) MAX DUTY CYCLE (%) MAX16801A Yes 22 50 MAX16801B Yes 22 75 PART MAX16802A No 10.8* 50 MAX16802B No 10.8* 75 *The MAX16802 does not have an internal bootstrap UVLO. The MAX16802 starts operation as long as the VCC pin is higher than +7V, (the guaranteed output with an IN pin voltage of +10.8V), and the UVLO/EN pin is high. 14 Pin Configuration TOP VIEW UVLO/EN 1 8 IN 7 VCC DIM/FB 2 COMP 3 MAX16801 MAX16802 CS 4 6 NDRV 5 GND µMAX ______________________________________________________________________________________ Offline and DC-DC PWM Controllers for High-Brightness LED Drivers PACKAGE TYPE PACKAGE CODE DOCUMENT NO. 8 µMAX — 21-0036 ______________________________________________________________________________________ 15 MAX16801A/B/MAX16802A/B Package Information For the latest package outline information and land patterns, go to www.maxim-ic.com/packages. Note that a “+”, “#”, or “-” in the package code indicates RoHS status only. Package drawings may show a different suffix character, but the drawing pertains to the package regardless of RoHS status. MAX16801A/B/MAX16802A/B Offline and DC-DC PWM Controllers for High-Brightness LED Drivers Revision History REVISION NUMBER REVISION DATE 0 10/05 Initial release 1 1/06 MAX16802AEUA+ parts are available 2 1/10 Corrected formulas, updated subscripts, and removed package outline DESCRIPTION PAGES CHANGED — 1 1, 2, 3, 6–14 Maxim cannot assume responsibility for use of any circuitry other than circuitry entirely embodied in a Maxim product. No circuit patent licenses are implied. Maxim reserves the right to change the circuitry and specifications without notice at any time. 16 ____________________Maxim Integrated Products, 120 San Gabriel Drive, Sunnyvale, CA 94086 408-737-7600 © 2010 Maxim Integrated Products Maxim is a registered trademark of Maxim Integrated Products, Inc.