MAXIM 71M6545H

19-5378; Rev 1.0; 4/11
71M6545/71M6545H
Metrology Processors
A Maxim Integrated Products Brand
DATA SHEET
April 2011
GENERAL DESCRIPTION
FEATURES
The 71M6545/71M6545H metrology processors are based on
Teridian’s 4th-generation metering architecture supporting the
71M6xxx series of isolated current sensing products that offer
drastic reduction in component count, immunity to magnetic
tampering, and unparalleled reliability. The 71M6545/71M6545H
integrate our Single Converter Technology® with a 22-bit deltasigma ADC, a customizable 32-bit computation engine (CE) for
core metrology functions, as well as a user-programmable 8051compatible application processor (MPU) core with up to 64KB
flash and up to 5KB RAM.
• Up to < 0.1% Accuracy Over 2000:1
Current Range
• Exceeds IEC 62053/ANSI C12.20 Standards
• Seven Sensor Inputs with Neutral Current
Measurement, Differential Mode Selectable
for Current Inputs
• Selectable Gain of 1 or 8 for One Current
Input to Support Shunts
• High-Speed Wh/VARh Pulse Outputs with
Programmable Width
• Flash/RAM Size
32KB/3KB (71M6545)
64KB/5KB (71M6545H)
• Up to Four Pulse Outputs with Pulse Count
• Four-Quadrant Metering, Phase
Sequencing
• Digital Temperature Compensation
Metrology Compensation
Accurate RTC for TOU Functions with
Automatic Temperature Compensation
for Crystal in All Power Modes
• Independent 32-Bit Compute Engine
• 46–64Hz Line Frequency Range with the
Same Calibration
• Phase Compensation (±7°)
• 1µA Supply Current in Sleep Mode
• Flash Security
• In-System Program Update
• 8-Bit MPU (80515), Up to 5 MIPS, for
Optional Implementation of Postprocessing
and Host Support Functions (Optional Use)
• Up to 29 DIO Pins
• Hardware Watchdog Timer (WDT)
• I2C/MICROWIRE® EEPROM Interface
• SPI Interface for Host:
Full Access to Shared Memory Space
Flash Program Capability
• UART
• Industrial Temperature Range
• 64-Pin Lead(Pb)-Free LQFP Package
An external host processor can access metrology functions directly through the SPI™ interface, or alternatively through the
embedded MPU core in applications requiring metrology data
capture, storage, and preprocessing within the metrology
subsystem. In addition, the devices integrate an RTC, DIO, and
UART. A complete array of ICE and development tools,
programming libraries, and reference designs enable rapid
development and certification of meters that meet all ANSI and
IEC electricity metering standards worldwide.
C
Shunt Resistor Sensors
NEUTRAL
B
LOAD
A
71M6xx3
71M6xx3
71M6xx3
POWER SUPPLY
This system is referenced to Neutral
NEUTRAL
Resistor Dividers
Pulse Transformers
C
B
A
MUX and ADC
IADC0
} IN*
IADC1
VADC10 (VC)
IADC6
IADC7 } IC
VADC9 (VB)
IADC4
} IB
IADC5
VADC8(VA)
IADC2
} IA
IADC3
V3P3A V3P3SYS GNDA GNDD
PWR MODE
CONTROL
TERIDIAN
71M6545/H
PB
REGULATOR
VBAT_RTC
TEMPERATURE
SENSOR
BATTERY
MONITOR
RAM
OSCILLATOR/
PLL XIN
VREF
RTC
BATTERY
32 kHz
SERIAL PORT
XOUT
RX
TX
MPU
FLASH
MEMORY
RTC
TIMERS
DIO, PULSES,
LEDs
V3P3D
HOST
SPI INTERFACE
DIO
2
ICE
SPI_CKI
SPI_DI
SPI_DO
SPI_CSZ
24
DIO
T
M COMPUTE
U
ENGINE
X
XFER_BUSY
SAG
I C or µWire
EEPROM
WPULSE
XPULSE
RPULSE
YPULSE
10/7/2010
PULSES
3.3 VDC
*IN = Optional Neutral Current
Single Converter Technology is a registered trademark of Maxim Integrated Products, Inc.
SPI is a trademark of Motorola, Inc.
MICROWIRE is a registered trademark of National Semiconductor Corp.
v1.0
© 2008–2011 Teridian Semiconductor Corporation
1
Data Sheet 71M6545/H
PDS_6545_009
Table of Contents
1
2
3
INTRODUCTION ........................................................................................................................... 10
Hardware Description .................................................................................................................. 11
2.1 Hardware Overview............................................................................................................... 11
2.2 Analog Front End (AFE) ........................................................................................................ 12
2.2.1 Signal Input Pins ....................................................................................................... 13
2.2.2 Input Multiplexer ........................................................................................................ 14
2.2.3 Delay Compensation ................................................................................................. 19
2.2.4 ADC Pre-Amplifier ..................................................................................................... 20
2.2.5 A/D Converter (ADC) ................................................................................................. 20
2.2.6 FIR Filter ................................................................................................................... 20
2.2.7 Voltage References ................................................................................................... 20
2.2.8 71M6xx3 Isolated Sensor Interface............................................................................ 21
2.3 Digital Computation Engine (CE) ........................................................................................... 25
2.3.1 CE Program Memory ................................................................................................. 25
2.3.2 CE Data Memory ....................................................................................................... 25
2.3.3 CE Communication with the MPU .............................................................................. 25
2.3.4 Meter Equations ........................................................................................................ 26
2.3.5 Real-Time Monitor (RTM) .......................................................................................... 26
2.3.6 Pulse Generators ...................................................................................................... 26
2.3.7 CE Functional Overview ............................................................................................ 28
2.4 80515 MPU Core .................................................................................................................. 30
2.4.1 MPU Setup Code ...................................................................................................... 30
2.4.2 80515 MPU Overview................................................................................................ 30
2.4.3 Memory Organization and Addressing ....................................................................... 31
2.4.4 Special Function Registers (SFRs) ............................................................................ 33
2.4.5 Generic 80515 Special Function Registers ................................................................ 33
2.4.6 Instruction Set ........................................................................................................... 36
2.4.7 UARTs ...................................................................................................................... 36
2.4.8 Timers and Counters ................................................................................................. 38
2.4.9 WD Timer (Software Watchdog Timer) ...................................................................... 40
2.4.10 Interrupts................................................................................................................... 40
2.5 On-Chip Resources............................................................................................................... 46
2.5.1 Physical Memory ....................................................................................................... 46
2.5.2 Oscillator ................................................................................................................... 48
2.5.3 PLL and Internal Clocks............................................................................................. 48
2.5.4 Real-Time Clock (RTC) ............................................................................................. 49
2.5.5 71M6545/H Temperature Sensor............................................................................... 53
2.5.6 71M6xx3 Temperature Sensor .................................................................................. 54
2.5.7 71M6545/H Battery Monitor ....................................................................................... 55
2.5.8 71M6xx3 VCC Monitor .............................................................................................. 55
2.5.9 UART Interface ......................................................................................................... 55
2.5.10 DIO Pins ................................................................................................................... 55
2.5.11 EEPROM Interface .................................................................................................... 57
2.5.12 SPI Slave Port ........................................................................................................... 60
2.5.13 Hardware Watchdog Timer ........................................................................................ 64
2.5.14 Test Ports (TMUXOUT and TMUX2OUT Pins)........................................................... 64
Functional Description ................................................................................................................ 66
2
© 2008–2011 Teridian Semiconductor Corporation
v1.0
PDS_6545_009
Data Sheet 71M6545/H
3.1
3.2
3.3
4
5
6
v1.0
Theory of Operation .............................................................................................................. 66
SLP Mode (Sleep Mode) ....................................................................................................... 67
Fault and Reset Behavior ...................................................................................................... 68
3.3.1 Events at Power-Down .............................................................................................. 68
3.3.2 Reset Sequence ........................................................................................................ 69
3.4 Data Flow and Host Communication ..................................................................................... 69
Application Information ............................................................................................................... 71
4.1 Connecting 5 V Devices ........................................................................................................ 71
4.2 Directly Connected Sensors .................................................................................................. 71
4.3 Systems Using 71M6xx3 Isolated Sensors and Current Shunts ............................................. 72
4.4 System Using Current Transformers ..................................................................................... 73
4.5 Metrology Temperature Compensation.................................................................................. 74
4.5.1 Distinction Between Standard and High-Precision Parts ............................................ 74
4.5.2 Temperature Coefficients for the 71M6545 ................................................................ 75
4.5.3 Temperature Coefficients for the 71M6545H.............................................................. 75
4.5.4 Temperature Coefficients for the 71M6603 and 71M6103 (1% Energy Accuracy) ...... 75
4.5.5 Temperature Compensation for VREF and Shunt Sensors ........................................ 75
4.5.6 Temperature Compensation of VREF and Current Transformers ............................... 77
4.6 Connecting I2C EEPROMs .................................................................................................... 79
4.7 Connecting Three-Wire EEPROMs ....................................................................................... 79
4.8 UART (TX/RX) ...................................................................................................................... 79
4.9 Connecting the Reset Pin...................................................................................................... 79
4.10 Connecting the Emulator Port Pins ........................................................................................ 80
4.11 Flash Programming ............................................................................................................... 80
4.11.1 Flash Programming via the ICE Port .......................................................................... 80
4.11.2 Flash Programming via the SPI Port .......................................................................... 80
4.12 MPU Demonstration Code..................................................................................................... 81
4.13 Crystal Oscillator ................................................................................................................... 81
4.14 Meter Calibration................................................................................................................... 81
Firmware Interface ....................................................................................................................... 82
5.1 I/O RAM Map –Functional Order ........................................................................................... 82
5.2 I/O RAM Map – Alphabetical Order ....................................................................................... 88
5.3 Reading the Info Page (71M6545H only) ............................................................................... 98
5.4 CE Interface Description ..................................................................................................... 100
5.4.1 CE Program ............................................................................................................ 100
5.4.2 CE Data Format ...................................................................................................... 100
5.4.3 Constants ................................................................................................................ 100
5.4.4 Environment ............................................................................................................ 101
5.4.5 CE Calculations....................................................................................................... 101
5.4.6 CE Front End Data (Raw Data)................................................................................ 102
5.4.7 CE Status and Control ............................................................................................. 103
5.4.8 CE Transfer Variables ............................................................................................. 105
5.4.9 Pulse Generation..................................................................................................... 107
5.4.10 CE Calibration Parameters ...................................................................................... 110
5.4.11 CE Flow Diagrams .................................................................................................. 111
71M6545/H Specifications ......................................................................................................... 113
© 2008–2011 Teridian Semiconductor Corporation
3
Data Sheet 71M6545/H
PDS_6545_009
6.1
6.2
6.3
6.4
Absolute Maximum Ratings ................................................................................................. 113
Recommended External Components ................................................................................. 114
Recommended Operating Conditions .................................................................................. 114
Performance Specifications ................................................................................................. 115
6.4.1 Input Logic Levels ................................................................................................... 115
6.4.2 Output Logic Levels................................................................................................. 115
6.4.3 Battery Monitor ........................................................................................................ 116
6.4.4 Temperature Monitor ............................................................................................... 117
6.4.5 Supply Current ........................................................................................................ 118
6.4.6 V3P3D Switch ......................................................................................................... 118
6.4.7 Internal Power Fault Comparators ........................................................................... 119
6.4.8 2.5 V Voltage Regulator – System Power ................................................................ 119
6.4.9 Crystal Oscillator ..................................................................................................... 119
6.4.10 Phase-Locked Loop (PLL) ....................................................................................... 120
6.4.11 71M6545/H VREF ................................................................................................... 121
6.4.12 ADC Converter (71M6545/H)................................................................................... 122
6.4.13 Pre-Amplifier for IADC0-IADC1 ................................................................................ 123
6.5 Timing Specifications .......................................................................................................... 124
6.5.1 Flash Memory ......................................................................................................... 124
6.5.2 SPI Slave ................................................................................................................ 124
6.5.3 EEPROM Interface .................................................................................................. 124
6.5.4 RESET Pin .............................................................................................................. 125
6.5.5 Real-Time Clock (RTC) ........................................................................................... 125
6.6 64-Pin LQFP Package Outline Drawing ............................................................................... 126
6.7 71M6545/H Pinout .............................................................................................................. 127
6.8 71M6545/H Pin Descriptions ............................................................................................... 128
6.8.1 71M6545/H Power and Ground Pins........................................................................ 128
6.8.2 71M6545/H Analog Pins .......................................................................................... 129
6.8.3 71M6545/H Digital Pins ........................................................................................... 130
6.8.4 I/O Equivalent Circuits ............................................................................................. 131
7
Ordering Information ................................................................................................................. 132
7.1 71M6545/H Ordering Guide ................................................................................................ 132
8
Related Information ................................................................................................................ 132
9
Contact Information ................................................................................................................ 132
Appendix A: Acronyms .................................................................................................................... 133
Appendix B: Revision History .......................................................................................................... 134
4
© 2008–2011 Teridian Semiconductor Corporation
v1.0
PDS_6545_009
Data Sheet 71M6545/H
Figures
Figure 1: IC Functional Block Diagram ..................................................................................................... 9
Figure 2: AFE Block Diagram (Shunts: One-Local, Three-Remotes) ...................................................... 12
Figure 3. AFE Block Diagram (Four CTs) ............................................................................................... 13
Figure 4: States in a Multiplexer Frame (MUX_DIV[3:0] = 6) .................................................................. 17
Figure 5: States in a Multiplexer Frame (MUX_DIV[3:0] = 7) .................................................................. 17
Figure 6: General Topology of a Chopped Amplifier ............................................................................... 21
Figure 7: CROSS Signal with CHOP_E = 00........................................................................................... 21
Figure 8: RTM Timing ............................................................................................................................ 26
Figure 9. Pulse Generator FIFO Timing ................................................................................................. 28
Figure 10: Samples from Multiplexer Cycle (Frame) ............................................................................... 29
Figure 11: Accumulation Interval ............................................................................................................ 29
Figure 12: Interrupt Structure ................................................................................................................. 45
Figure 13: Automatic Temperature Compensation ................................................................................. 52
Figure 14: Connecting an External Load to DIO Pins ............................................................................. 57
Figure 15: 3-wire Interface. Write Command, HiZ=0. ............................................................................. 59
Figure 16: 3-wire Interface. Write Command, HiZ=1 .............................................................................. 59
Figure 17: 3-wire Interface. Read Command. ........................................................................................ 59
Figure 18: 3-Wire Interface. Write Command when CNT=0 ................................................................... 59
Figure 19: 3-wire Interface. Write Command when HiZ=1 and WFR=1. ................................................. 60
Figure 20: SPI Slave Port - Typical Multi-Byte Read and Write operations.............................................. 61
Figure 21: Voltage, Current, Momentary and Accumulated Energy......................................................... 66
Figure 22: Data Flow ............................................................................................................................. 70
Figure 23: Resistive Voltage Divider (Voltage Sensing) .......................................................................... 71
Figure 24. CT with Single-Ended Input Connection (Current Sensing) .................................................... 71
Figure 25: CT with Differential Input Connection (Current Sensing) ........................................................ 71
Figure 26: Differential Resistive Shunt Connections (Current Sensing)................................................... 71
Figure 27: System Using Three-Remotes and One-Local (Neutral) Sensor ............................................ 72
Figure 28. System Using Current Transformers ..................................................................................... 73
Figure 29: I2C EEPROM Connection...................................................................................................... 79
Figure 30: Connections for the UART .................................................................................................... 79
Figure 31: External Components for the RESET Pin: Push-Button (Left), Production Circuit (Right) ....... 80
Figure 32: External Components for the Emulator Interface ................................................................... 80
Figure 33. Trim Fuse Bit Mapping .......................................................................................................... 98
Figure 34: CE Data Flow: Multiplexer and ADC .................................................................................... 111
Figure 35: CE Data Flow: Scaling, Gain Control, Intermediate Variables for one Phase........................ 111
Figure 36: CE Data Flow: Squaring and Summation Stages ................................................................. 112
Figure 37: 64-pin LQFP Package Outline ............................................................................................. 126
Figure 38: Pinout for the LQFP-64 Package ......................................................................................... 127
Figure 39: I/O Equivalent Circuits......................................................................................................... 131
v1.0
© 2008–2011 Teridian Semiconductor Corporation
5
Data Sheet 71M6545/H
PDS_6545_009
Tables
Table 1. Required CE Code and Settings for 1-Local / 3-Remotes ......................................................... 15
Table 2. Required CE Code and Settings for CT Sensors ...................................................................... 16
Table 3: Multiplexer and ADC Configuration Bits ................................................................................... 19
Table 4. RCMD[4:0] Bits ........................................................................................................................ 22
Table 5: Remote Interface Read Commands ........................................................................................ 23
Table 6: I/O RAM Control Bits for Isolated Sensor ................................................................................. 23
Table 7: Inputs Selected in Multiplexer Cycles ....................................................................................... 26
Table 8: CKMPU Clock Frequencies ...................................................................................................... 30
Table 9: Memory Map ............................................................................................................................ 31
Table 10: Internal Data Memory Map ..................................................................................................... 33
Table 11: Special Function Register Map ............................................................................................... 33
Table 12: Generic 80515 SFRs - Location and Reset Values ................................................................. 33
Table 13: PSW Bit Functions (SFR 0xD0) ............................................................................................... 35
Table 14: Port Registers (DIO0-14)........................................................................................................ 35
Table 15: Stretch Memory Cycle Width .................................................................................................. 36
Table 16: Baud Rate Generation............................................................................................................ 37
Table 17: UART Modes ......................................................................................................................... 37
Table 18: The S0CON (UART0) Register (SFR 0x98) ............................................................................. 38
Table 19: PCON Register Bit Description (SFR 0x87) .............................................................................. 38
Table 20: Timers/Counters Mode Description ........................................................................................ 38
Table 21: Allowed Timer/Counter Mode Combinations ........................................................................... 39
Table 22: TMOD Register Bit Description (SFR 0x89) ............................................................................ 39
Table 23: The TCON Register Bit Functions (SFR 0x88) ........................................................................ 39
Table 24: The IEN0 Bit Functions (SFR 0xA8)........................................................................................ 40
Table 25: The IEN1 Bit Functions (SFR 0xB8)........................................................................................ 41
Table 26: The IEN2 Bit Functions (SFR 0x9A)........................................................................................ 41
Table 27: TCON Bit Functions (SFR 0x88) ............................................................................................. 41
Table 28: The T2CON Bit Functions (SFR 0xC8) ................................................................................... 41
Table 29: The IRCON Bit Functions (SFR 0xC0) .................................................................................... 42
Table 30: External MPU Interrupts ......................................................................................................... 42
Table 31: Interrupt Enable and Flag Bits ................................................................................................ 43
Table 32: Interrupt Priority Level Groups ................................................................................................ 43
Table 33: Interrupt Priority Levels .......................................................................................................... 44
Table 34: Interrupt Priority Registers (IP0 and IP1) ................................................................................. 44
Table 35: Interrupt Polling Sequence ..................................................................................................... 44
Table 36: Interrupt Vectors .................................................................................................................... 44
Table 37: Flash Memory Access ............................................................................................................ 46
Table 38: Flash Security ........................................................................................................................ 47
Table 39: Clock System Summary ......................................................................................................... 49
Table 40: RTC Control Registers ........................................................................................................... 50
Table 41: I/O RAM Registers for RTC Temperature Compensation ........................................................ 51
Table 42: I/O RAM Registers for RTC Interrupts .................................................................................... 52
Table 43: I/O RAM Registers for Temperature and Battery Measurement .............................................. 54
Table 44: Data/Direction Registers and Internal Resources for DIO0 to DIO14....................................... 55
Table 45: Data/Direction Registers for DIO19-25 and DIO28-29 ............................................................. 56
Table 46: Data/Direction Registers for DIO55 ........................................................................................ 56
Table 47: Selectable Resources using the DIO_Rn[2:0] Bits................................................................... 56
Table 48: EECTRL Bits for 2-pin Interface............................................................................................... 57
6
© 2008–2011 Teridian Semiconductor Corporation
v1.0
PDS_6545_009
Data Sheet 71M6545/H
Table 49: EECTRL Bits for the 3-wire Interface ....................................................................................... 58
Table 50: SPI Transaction Fields ........................................................................................................... 61
Table 51: SPI Command Sequences ..................................................................................................... 62
Table 52: SPI Registers ......................................................................................................................... 62
Table 53: TMUX[4:0] Selections ............................................................................................................ 64
Table 54: TMUX2[4:0] Selections........................................................................................................... 65
Table 55: Available Circuit Functions ..................................................................................................... 67
Table 56: VSTAT[2:0] (SFR 0xF9[2:0]) ................................................................................................... 68
Table 57: GAIN_ADJn Compensation Channels (Figure 2, Figure 27, Table 1) ...................................... 76
Table 58: GAIN_ADJx Compensation Channels (Figure 3, Figure 28, Table 2) ...................................... 78
Table 59: I/O RAM Map – Functional Order, Basic Configuration ........................................................... 82
Table 60: I/O RAM Map – Functional Order ........................................................................................... 84
Table 61: I/O RAM Map – Alphabetical Order ........................................................................................ 88
Table 62. Info Page Trim Fuses ............................................................................................................. 98
Table 63: CE EQU[2:0] Equations and Element Input Mapping ............................................................ 101
Table 64: CE Raw Data Access Locations ........................................................................................... 102
Table 65: CESTATUS Register .............................................................................................................. 103
Table 66: CESTATUS Bit Definitions...................................................................................................... 103
Table 67: CECONFIG Register ............................................................................................................. 103
Table 68: CECONFIG Bit Definitions (CE RAM 0x20) ........................................................................... 103
Table 69: Sag Threshold, Phase Measurement, and Gain Adjust Control ............................................. 105
Table 70: CE Transfer Variables (with Shunts) ..................................................................................... 105
Table 71: CE Transfer Variables (with CTs) ......................................................................................... 105
Table 72: CE Energy Measurement Variables (with Shunts)................................................................. 106
Table 73: CE Energy Measurement Variables (with CTs) ..................................................................... 106
Table 74: Other Transfer Variables ...................................................................................................... 107
Table 75: CE Pulse Generation Parameters......................................................................................... 108
Table 76: CE Parameters for Noise Suppression and Code Version..................................................... 109
Table 77: CE Calibration Parameters ................................................................................................... 110
Table 78: Absolute Maximum Ratings .................................................................................................. 113
Table 79: Recommended External Components .................................................................................. 114
Table 80: Recommended Operating Conditions ................................................................................... 114
Table 81: Input Logic Levels ................................................................................................................ 115
Table 82: Output Logic Levels ............................................................................................................. 115
Table 83: Battery Monitor Performance Specifications (TEMP_BAT = 1) ............................................... 116
Table 84. Temperature Monitor............................................................................................................ 117
Table 85: Supply Current Performance Specifications.......................................................................... 118
Table 86: V3P3D Switch Performance Specifications........................................................................... 118
Table 87: 2.5 V Voltage Regulator Performance Specifications (VDD pin) ............................................ 119
Table 88: Crystal Oscillator Performance Specifications....................................................................... 119
Table 89: PLL Performance Specifications........................................................................................... 120
Table 90: 71M6545/H VREF Performance Specifications ..................................................................... 121
Table 91: ADC Converter Performance Specifications ......................................................................... 122
Table 92: Pre-Amplifier Performance Specifications ............................................................................. 123
Table 93: Flash Memory Timing Specifications .................................................................................... 124
Table 94. SPI Slave Timing Specifications ........................................................................................... 124
Table 95: EEPROM Interface Timing ................................................................................................... 124
Table 96: RESET Pin Timing ............................................................................................................... 125
Table 97: RTC Range for Date ............................................................................................................ 125
Table 98: 71M6545/H Power and Ground Pins .................................................................................... 128
v1.0
© 2008–2011 Teridian Semiconductor Corporation
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Data Sheet 71M6545/H
PDS_6545_009
Table 99: 71M6545/H Analog Pins....................................................................................................... 129
Table 100: 71M6545/H Digital Pins ...................................................................................................... 130
Table 101. 71M6545/H Ordering Guide................................................................................................ 132
8
© 2008–2011 Teridian Semiconductor Corporation
v1.0
PDS_6545_009
Data Sheet 71M6545/H
VREF
IADC0
IADC1
IADC2
IADC3
IADC4
IADC5
IADC6
IADC7
VADC8
VADC9
VADC10
GNDA GNDA GNDD GNDD
V3P3SYS V3P3A
∆Σ
AD CONVERTER
VBIAS
MUX
and
PREAMP
VBIAS
FIR
V3P3A
V3P3D
+
VREF
VREF
MUX
MUX CTRL
CROSS
Voltage
Regulator
CK32
XIN
XOUT
MCK
PLL
RTCLK (32KHz)
Oscillator
CK32
32KHz
32 KHz
DIV
ADC
4.9 MHZ
CKADC
VDD
4.9 MHz
CKFIR
22
2.5V to logic
CLOCK GEN
CK_4X
MUX
CKMPU_2x
MUX_SYNC
WPULSE
VARPULSE
CKCE
< 4.9MHz
RTM
32-bit Compute
Engine
TEST
MODE
CEDATA
32 0x000...0x2FF
CE CONTROL
SPI
TEST
MEMORY SHARE
MPU RAM
(5 KB)
CE
STRT
0x0000...0x13FF
8
PROG
0x000...0x3FF
SPI I/F
DIGITAL I/O
16
DIO Pins
XFER BUSY
I/O RAM
CE_BUSY
WPULSE
VARPULSE
EEPROM
INTERFACE
CKMPU
PB
VBAT_RTC
RTC
< 4.9MHz
RTCLK
SDCK
RX
MPU
(80515)
UART
SDOUT
Non-Volatile
CONFIGURATION
RAM
SDIN
TX
CONFIGURATION
RAM
(I/O RAM)
DATA
0x0000...0xFFFF
0x2000...0x20FF
8
8
PROGRAM
0x0000...0xFFFF
VBIAS
MEMORY
SHARE
MPU_RSTZ
CKMPU_2x
TEMP
SENSOR
0x0000…
FLASH 64 KB
0xFFFF
16
CONFIGURATION
PARAMETERS
8
POWER FAULT
DETECTION
BAT
TEST
EMULATOR
PORT
WAKE
TEST MUX
RTM
FAULTZ
3
VSTAT
RESET
E_RXTX
E_TCLK
E_RST
TEST MUX 2
E_RXTX
E_TCLK
E_RST(Open Drain)
ICE_E
TMUXOUT TMU2XOUT
April 2011
Figure 1: IC Functional Block Diagram
v1.0
© 2008–2011 Teridian Semiconductor Corporation
9
Data Sheet 71M6545/H
1
PDS_6545_009
INTRODUCTION
This data sheet covers the 71M6545 (0.5%) and 71M6545H (0.1%) fourth generation Teridian poly-phase
Metrology Processors. The term “71M6545/H” is used when discussing a device feature or behavior that
is applicable to both part numbers. The appropriate part number is indicated when a device feature or
behavior is being discussed that applies only to a specific part number. This data sheet also covers
details about the companion 71M6xx3 isolated current sensor device.
This document covers the use of the 71M6545/H in conjunction with the 71M6xx3 isolated current sensor.
The 71M6545/H and 71M6xx3 ICs make it possible to use one non-isolated and three additional isolated
shunt current sensors to create poly-phase energy meters using inexpensive shunt resistors, while
achieving unprecedented performance with this type of sensor technology. The 71M6545/H Metrology
Processors also support Current Transformers (CT).
To facilitate document navigation, hyperlinks are often used to reference figures, tables and section
headings that are located in other parts of the document. All hyperlinks in this document are highlighted in
blue. Hyperlinks are used extensively to increase the level of detail and clarity provided within each
section by referencing other relevant parts of the document. To further facilitate document navigation, this
document is published as a PDF document with bookmarks enabled.
The reader is also encouraged to obtain and review the documents listed in 8 RELATED
INFORMATION on page 132 of this document.
10
© 2008–2011 Teridian Semiconductor Corporation
v1.0
PDS_6545_009
Data Sheet 71M6545/H
2
HARDWARE DESCRIPTION
2.1
Hardware Overview
The Teridian 71M6545/H single-chip Metrology Processor integrates all primary functional blocks required
to implement a solid-state electricity meter. Included on the chip are:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
An analog front end (AFE) featuring a 22-bit second-order sigma-delta ADC
An independent 32-bit digital computation engine (CE) to implement DSP functions
An 8051-compatible microprocessor (MPU) which executes one instruction per clock cycle (80515)
A precision voltage reference (VREF)
A temperature sensor for digital temperature compensation:
- Metrology digital temperature compensation (MPU)
- Automatic RTC digital temperature compensation operational in sleep mode (SLP)
RAM and Flash memory
A real time clock (RTC)
A variety of I/O pins
A power failure interrupt (CE code feature)
A zero-crossing interrupt (CE code feature)
Selectable current sensor interfaces for locally-connected sensors as well as isolated sensors (i.e.,
using the 71M6xx3 companion IC with a shunt resistor sensor)
Resistive Shunt and Current Transformers are supported
In order to implement a poly-phase meter with or without neutral current sensing, one resistive shunt
current sensor may be connected directly (non-isolated) to the 71M6545/H device, while three additional
current shunts are isolated using a companion 71M6xx3 isolated sensor IC. An inexpensive, small size
pulse transformer is used to electrically isolate the 71M6xx3 remote sensor from the 71M6545/H. The
71M6545/H performs digital communications bi-directionally with the 71M6xx3 and also provides power to
the 71M6xx3 through the isolating pulse transformer. Isolated (remote) shunt current sensors are
connected to the differential input of the 71M6xx3. The 71M6545/H may also be used with Current
Transformers; in this case the 71M6xx3 isolated sensors are not required. Included on the 71M6xx3
companion isolator chip are:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Digital isolation communications interface
An analog front end (AFE) featuring a 22-bit second-order sigma-delta ADC
A precision voltage reference (VREF)
A temperature sensor (for current-sensing digital temperature compensation)
A fully differential shunt resistor sensor input
A pre-amplifier to optimize shunt current sensor performance
Isolated power circuitry obtains dc power from pulses sent by the 71M6545/H
In a typical application, the 32-bit compute engine (CE) of the 71M6545/H sequentially processes the
samples from the voltage inputs on analog input pins and performs calculations to measure active energy
2
2
(Wh) and reactive energy (VARh), as well as A h, and V h for four-quadrant metering. These measurements
are then accessed by the host processor via the SPI or by the on-chip MPU, to be processed further and
output using either the peripheral devices available to the on-chip MPU or by the host processor.
In addition to advanced measurement functions, the real time clock (RTC) function allows the 71M6545/H to
record time of use (TOU) metering information for multi-rate applications and to time-stamp tamper or other
events. An automatic RTC temperature compensation circuit operates in all power states including when the
MPU is halted, and continues to compensate using back-up battery power during power outages
(VBAT_RTC pin).
In addition to the temperature-trimmed ultra-precision voltage reference, the on-chip digital temperature
compensation mechanism includes a temperature sensor and associated controls for correction of unwanted
temperature effects on metrology and RTC accuracy (i.e., to meet the requirements of ANSI and IEC
standards). Temperature-dependent external components such as the crystal, current transformers
(CTs), Current Shunts and their corresponding signal conditioning circuits can be characterized and their
v1.0
© 2008–2011 Teridian Semiconductor Corporation
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Data Sheet 71M6545/H
PDS_6545_009
correction factors can be programmed to produce electricity meters with exceptional accuracy over the
industrial temperature range.
One of the two internal UARTs is adapted to support an Infrared LED with internal drive and sense
configuration and can also function as a standard UART. This flexibility makes it possible to implement
AMR meters with an IR interface. A block diagram of the IC is shown in Figure 1.
2.2
Analog Front End (AFE)
The AFE functions as a data acquisition system, controlled by the MPU or by the host processor over the
SPI interface. The 71M6545/H AFE may also be augmented by isolated 71M6xx3 sensors in order to
support low-cost current shunt sensors. Figure 2 and Figure 3 show two of the most common
configurations; other configurations are possible. Sensors that are connected directly to the 71M6545/H
(i.e., IADC0-IADC1, VADC8, VADC9 and VADC10) are multiplexed into the single second-order sigmadelta ADC input for sampling in the 71M6545/H. The 71M6545/H ADC output is decimated by the FIR
filter and stored in CE RAM where it can be accessed and processed by the CE.
Shunt current sensors that are isolated by using a 71M6xx3 device, are sampled by a second-order
sigma delta ADC in the 71M6xx3 and the signal samples are transferred over the digital isolation interface
through the low-cost isolation pulse transformer.
Figure 2 shows the 71M6545/H using shunt current sensors and the 71M6xx3 isolated sensor devices.
Figure 2 supports neutral current measurement with a local shunt connected to the IADC0-IADC1 input
plus three remote (isolated) shunt sensors. As seen in Figure 2, when a remote isolated shunt sensor is
connected via the 71M6xx3, the samples associated with this current channel are not routed to the
multiplexer, and are instead transferred digitally to the 71M6545/H via the isolation interface and are
directly stored in CE RAM. The MUX_SELn[3:0] I/O RAM control fields allow the MPU to configure the
AFE for the desired multiplexer sampling sequence. Refer to Table 1 and Table 2 for the appropriate CE
code and the corresponding AFE settings.
See Figure 27 for the meter wiring configuration corresponding to Figure 2.
VREF
IN*
IADC0
Local
Shunt
∆Σ ADC
CONVERTER
MUX
VREF
VREF
IADC1
FIR
VADC
VADC8 (VA)
22
VADC9 (VB)
VADC10 (VC)
IA
INP
Remote
Shunt
SP
IADC2
SN
IADC3
SP
IADC4
SN
IADC5
SP
IADC6
SN
IADC7
71M6xx3
22
INN
CE RAM
IB
INP
Remote
Shunt
71M6xx3
Digital
Isolation
Interface
22
INN
IC
INP
Remote
Shunt
71M6xx3
22
INN
71M6545/H
*IN = Neutral Current
10/7/2010
Figure 2: AFE Block Diagram (Shunts: One-Local, Three-Remotes)
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Data Sheet 71M6545/H
The 71M6545/H AFE can also be directly interfaced to Current Transformers (CTs), as seen in Figure 3.
In this case, all voltage and current channels are multiplexed into a single second-order sigma-delta ADC
in the 71M6545/H and the 71M6xx3 remote isolated sensors are not used. The fourth CT and the
measurement of Neutral current via the IADC0-IADC1 current channel are optional.
See Figure 28 for the meter wiring configuration corresponding to Figure 3.
VREF
IA
IADC2
∆Σ ADC
CONVERTER
MUX
CT
VREF
IADC3
VREF
VADC
IB
FIR
CE RAM
22
IADC4
CT
IADC5
IC
IADC6
CT
IADC7
IN*
IADC0
CT
IADC1
VADC8 (VA)
VADC9 (VB)
VADC10 (VC)
71M6545/H
*IN = Neutral Current
10/7/2010
Figure 3. AFE Block Diagram (Four CTs)
2.2.1
Signal Input Pins
The 71M6545/H features eleven ADC input pins.
IADC0 through IADC7 are intended for use as current sensor inputs. These eight current sensor inputs can
be configured as eight single-ended inputs, or can be paired to form four differential inputs. For best
performance, it is recommended to configure the current sensor inputs as differential inputs (i.e., IADC0IADC1, IADC2-IADC3, IADC4-IADC5 and IADC6-IADC7). The first differential input (IADC0-IADC1)
features a pre-amplifier with a selectable gain of 1 or 8, and is intended for direct connection to a shunt
resistor sensor, and can also be used with a Current Transformer (CT). The three remaining differential
pairs (i.e., IADC2-IADC3, IADC4-IADC5 and IADC6-IADC7) may be used with CTs, or may be enabled to
interface to a remote 71M6xx3 isolated current sensor providing isolation for a shunt resistor sensor using a
low cost pulse transformer.
The remaining three inputs VADC8 (VA), VADC9 (VB) and VADC10 (VC) are single-ended, and are
intended for sensing each of the phase voltages in a poly-phase meter application. These three singleended inputs are referenced to the V3P3A pin.
All ADC input pins measure voltage. In the case of shunt current sensors, currents are sensed as a voltage
drop in the shunt resistor sensor. In the case of Current Transformers (CT), the current is measured as a
voltage across a burden resistor that is connected to the secondary of the CT. Meanwhile, line voltages are
sensed through resistive voltage dividers. The VADC8 (VA), VADC9 (VB) and VADC10 (VC) pins are
single-ended and their common return is the V3P3A pin. See Figure 23, Figure 24, Figure 25 and Figure
26 for detailed connections for each type of sensor.
Pins IADC0-IADC1 can be programmed individually to be differential or single-ended as determined by
the DIFF0_E (I/O RAM 0x210C[4]) control bit. However, for most applications, IADC0-IADC1 are
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Data Sheet 71M6545/H
PDS_6545_009
configured as a differential input to work with a resistive shunt or CT directly interfaced to the IADC0IADC1 differential input with the appropriate external signal conditioning components.
The performance of the IADC0-IADC1 pins can be enhanced by enabling a pre-amplifier with a fixed gain
of 8, using the I/O RAM control bit PRE_E (I/O RAM 0x2704[5]). When PRE_E = 1, IADC0-IADC1 become
the inputs to the 8x pre-amplifier, and the output of this amplifier is supplied to the multiplexer. The 8x
amplification is useful when current sensors with low sensitivity, such as shunt resistors, are used. With
PRE_E set, the IADC0-IADC1 input signal amplitude is restricted to 31.25 mV peak. When PRE_E = 0
(Gain = 1), the IADC0-IADC1 input signal is restricted to 250 mV peak.
For the 71M6545/H application utilizing shunt resistor sensors (Figure 2), the IADC0-IADC1 pins are
configured for differential mode to interface to a local shunt by setting the DIFF0_E control bit. Meanwhile,
the IADC2-IADC3 , IADC4-IADC5 and IADC6-IADC7 pins are re-configured as digital remote sensor
interface designed to communicate with a Teridian 71M6xx3 isolated sensor by setting the RMTx_E control
bits (I/O RAM 0x2709[5:3]). The 71M6xx3 communicates with the 71M6545/H using a bi-directional digital
data stream through an isolating low-cost pulse transformer. The 71M6545/H also supplies power to the
71M6xx3 through the isolating transformer. This type of interface is further described at the end of this
chapter. See 2.2.8 71M6xx3 Isolated Sensor Interface.
For use with Current Transformers (CTs), as shown in Figure 3, the RMTx_E control bits are reset, so that
IADC2-IADC3, IADC4-IADC5 and IADC6-IADC7 are configured as local analog inputs. The IADC0-IADC1
pins cannot be configured as a remote sensor interface.
2.2.2
Input Multiplexer
When operating with locally connected sensors, the input multiplexer sequentially applies the input signals
from the analog input pins to the input of the ADC (see Figure 3), according to the sampling sequence
determined by the eleven MUXn_SEL[3:0] control fields. One complete sampling sequence is called a
multiplexer frame. The multiplexer of the 71M6545/H can select up to eleven input signals when the current
sensor inputs are configured for single-ended mode. When the current sensor inputs are configured in
differential mode (recommended for best performance), the number of input signals is seven (i.e., IADC0IADC1, IADC2-IADC3, IADC4-IADC5, IADC6-IADC7, VADC8, VADC9 and VADC10) per multiplexer frame.
The number of slots in the multiplexer frame is controlled by the I/O RAM control field MUX_DIV[3:0] (I/O
RAM 0x2100[7:4]) (see Figure 4). The multiplexer always starts at state 0 and proceeds until the number
of sensor channels determined by the MUX_DIV[3:0] field setting have been converted.
The 71M6545/H requires a unique CE code that is written for the specific meter configuration.
Moreover, each CE code requires specific AFE and MUX settings in order to function properly. Table 1
provides the CE code and settings corresponding to the 1-Local / 3-Remote sensor configuration
shown in Figure 2. Table 2 provides the CE code and settings corresponding to the CT configuration
shown in Figure 3.
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© 2008–2011 Teridian Semiconductor Corporation
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Data Sheet 71M6545/H
Table 1. Required CE Code and Settings for 1-Local / 3-Remotes
I/O RAM
I/O RAM
I/O RAM Setting
Comments
Mnemonic
Location
FIR_LEN[1:0]
210C[2:1]
1
288 cycles
ADC_DIV
2200[5]
0
Fast
PLL_FAST
2200[4]
1
19.66 MHz
MUX_DIV[3:0]
2100[7:4]
6
See note 1
MUX0_SEL[3:0]
Slot 0 is IADC0-IADC1
2105[3:0]
0
(IN)
MUX1_SEL[3:0]
2105[7:4]
1
Unused (See note 2)
MUX2_SEL[3:0]
2104[3:0]
1
Unused (See note 2)
MUX3_SEL[3:0]
Slot 3 is VADC8
2104[7:4]
8
(VA)
MUX4_SEL[3:0]
Slot 4 is VADC9
2103[3:0]
9
(VB)
MUX5_SEL[3:0]
Slot 5 is VADC10
2103[7:4]
A
(VC)
MUX6_SEL[3:0]
2102[3:0]
0
MUX7_SEL[3:0]
2102[7:4]
0
MUX8_SEL[3:0]
2101[3:0]
0
Slots not enabled
MUX9_SEL[3:0]
2101[7:4]
0
MUX10_SEL[3:0]
2100[3:0]
0
RMT2_E
2709[3]
1
Enable Remote IADC2-IADC3
(IA)
RMT4_E
2709[4]
1
Enable Remote IADC4-IADC5
(IB)
RMT6_E
2709[5]
1
Enable Remote IADC6-IADC7
(IC)
DIFF0_E
210C[4]
1
Differential IADC0-IADC1
(IN)
DIFF2_E
210C[5]
0
See note 3
DIFF4_E
210C[6]
0
See note 3
DIFF6_E
210C[7]
0
See note 3
PRE_E
2704[5]
1
IADC0-IADC1 Gain = 8
EQU[2:0]
2106[7:5]
5
IA*VA + IB*VB + IC*VC
ce43b016603 (use with 71M6603)
CE Codes
ce43b016103 (use with 71M6103)
(See note 4)
ce43b016113 (use with 71M6113)
ce43b016203 (use with 71M6203)
Equation(s)
5
Current Sensor Type
1 Local Shunt and 3 Remote Shunts
Applicable Figures
Figure 2 and Figure 27
Notes:
1. MUX_DIV[3:0] should be set to 0 while writing the other values in this table, and then set
to the indicated value before writing the MUXn_SEL[3:0] fields.
2. Each unused slot must be assigned to a valid (0 to A), but unused ADC handle
3. This channel is remote (71M6xx3), hence DIFFx_E is irrelevant
4. Must use the CE code that corresponds to the specific 71M6xx3 device used
TERIDIAN updates the CE code periodically. Please contact your local TERIDIAN
representative to obtain the latest CE code and the associated settings.
v1.0
© 2008–2011 Teridian Semiconductor Corporation
15
Data Sheet 71M6545/H
PDS_6545_009
Table 2. Required CE Code and Settings for CT Sensors
I/O RAM
I/O RAM
I/O RAM Setting
Comments
Mnemonic
Location
(Hex)
FIR_LEN[1:0]
210C[2:1]
1
288 cycles
ADC_DIV
2200[5]
0
Fast
PLL_FAST
2200[4]
1
19.66 MHz
MUX_DIV[3:0]
2100[7:4]
7
See note 1
MUX0_SEL[3:0]
Slot 0 is IADC2-IADC3
2105[3:0]
2
(IA)
MUX1_SEL[3:0]
Slot 1 is VADC8
2105[7:4]
8
(VA)
MUX2_SEL[3:0]
Slot 2 is IADC4-IADC5
2104[3:0]
4
(IB)
MUX3_SEL[3:0]
Slot 3 is VADC9
2104[7:4]
9
(VB)
MUX4_SEL[3:0]
Slot 4 is IADC6-IADC7
2103[3:0]
6
(IC)
MUX5_SEL[3:0]
Slot 5 is VADC10
2103[7:4]
A
(VC)
MUX6_SEL[3:0]
2102[3:0]
0
Slot 6 is IADC0-IADC1
(IN – See note 2)
MUX7_SEL[3:0]
2102[7:4]
0
MUX8_SEL[3:0]
2101[3:0]
0
Slots not enabled
MUX9_SEL[3:0]
2101[7:4]
0
MUX10_SEL[3:0]
2100[3:0]
0
RMT2_E
2709[3]
0
Local Sensor IADC2-IADC3
RMT4_E
2709[4]
0
Local Sensor IADC4-IADC5
RMT6_E
2709[5]
0
Local Sensor IADC6-IADC7
DIFF0_E
210C[4]
1
Differential IADC0-IADC1
DIFF2_E
210C[5]
1
Differential IADC2-IADC3
DIFF4_E
210C[6]
1
Differential IADC4-IADC5
DIFF6_E
210C[7]
1
Differential IADC6-IADC7
PRE_E
2704[5]
0
IADC0-IADC1 Gain = 1
EQU[2:0]
2106[7:5]
5
IA*VA + IB*VB + IC*VC
CE Code
ce43a02
Equation(s)
5
Current Sensor Type
4 Current Transformers (CTs)
Applicable Figures
Figure 3 and Figure 28
Notes:
1. MUX_DIV[3:0] should be set to 0 while writing the other values in this table, and then set to
the indicated value before writing the MUXn_SEL[3:0] fields.
2. IN is the optional Neutral Current
TERIDIAN updates the CE code periodically. Please contact your local TERIDIAN representative
to obtain the latest CE code and the associated settings.
Using settings for the I/O RAM Mnemonics listed in Table 1 and Table 2 that do not match
those required by the corresponding CE code being used may result in undesirable side
effects and must not be selected by the MPU. Consult your local TERIDIAN representative to
obtain the correct CE code and AFE / MUX settings corresponding to the application.
For a poly-phase configuration with neutral current sensing using shunt resistor current sensors and the
71M6xx3 isolated sensors, as shown in Figure 2, the IADC0-IADC1 input must be configured as a
differential input, to be connected to a local shunt (see Figure 26 for the shunt connection details). The
local shunt connected to the IADC0-IADC1 input is used to sense the Neutral current. The voltage
sensors (VADC8, VADC9 and VADC10) are also directly connected to the 71M6545/H (see Figure 23 for
16
© 2008–2011 Teridian Semiconductor Corporation
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Data Sheet 71M6545/H
the connection details) and are also routed though the multiplexer, as seen in Figure 2. Meanwhile, the
IADC2-IADC3, IADC4-IADC5 and IADC6-IADC7 current inputs are configured as remote sensor digital
interfaces and the corresponding samples are not routed through the multiplexer. For this configuration,
the multiplexer sequence is as shown in Figure 4.
For a poly-phase configuration with optional neutral current sensing using Current Transformer (CTs)
sensors, as shown in Figure 3, all four current sensor inputs must be configured as a differential inputs,
to be connected to their corresponding CTs (see Figure 25 for the differential CT connection details). The
IADC0-IADC1 current sensor input is optionally used to sense the Neutral current for anti-tampering
purposes. The voltage sensors (VADC8, VADC9 and VADC10) are directly connected to the 71M6545/H
(see Figure 23 for the voltage sensor connection details). No 71M6xx3 isolated sensors are used in this
configuration and all sensors are routed through the multiplexer, as seen in Figure 3. For this
configuration, the multiplexer sequence is as shown in Figure 5.
The multiplexer sequence shown in Figure 4, covers the shunt configuration shown in Figure 2. The
frame duration is 13 CK32 cycles (where CK32 = 32,768 Hz), therefore, the resulting sample rate is
32,768 Hz / 13 = 2,520.6 Hz. Note that Figure 4 only shows the currents that pass through the
71M6545/H multiplexer, and does not show the currents that are copied directly into CE RAM from the
remote sensors (see Figure 2), which are sampled during the second half of the multiplexer frame. The
two unused conversion slots shown are necessary to produce the desired 2,520.6 Hz sample rate.
Multiplexer Frame
MUX_DIV[3:0] = 6 Conversions
Settle
CK32
MUX STATE
S
1 Local / 3 Remotes:
0
1
2
3
IN
Unused
Unused
VA
4
VB
5
S
VC
CROSS
MUX_SYNC
Figure 4: States in a Multiplexer Frame (MUX_DIV[3:0] = 6)
The multiplexer sequence shown in Figure 5 corresponds to the CT configuration shown in Figure 3.
Since in this case all current sensors are locally connected to the 71M6545/H, all currents are routed
through the multiplexer, as seen in Figure 3. For this multiplexer sequence, the frame duration is 15 CK32
cycles (where CK32 = 32,768 Hz), therefore, the resulting sample rate is 32,768 Hz / 15 = 2,184.5 Hz.
Multiplexer Frame
Settle
MUX_DIV[3:0] = 7 Conversions
CK32
MUX STATE
S
0
IA
1
VA
2
IB
3
VB
4
IC
5
VC
6
IN
S
CROSS
MUX_SYNC
Figure 5: States in a Multiplexer Frame (MUX_DIV[3:0] = 7)
Multiplexer advance, FIR initiation and chopping of the ADC reference voltage (using the internal CROSS
signal, see 2.2.7 Voltage References) are controlled by the internal MUX_CTRL circuit. Additionally,
MUX_CTRL launches each pass of the CE through its code. Conceptually, MUX_CTRL is clocked by
CK32, the 32768 Hz clock from the PLL block. The behavior of the MUX_CTRL circuit is governed by:
v1.0
© 2008–2011 Teridian Semiconductor Corporation
17
Data Sheet 71M6545/H
•
•
•
•
PDS_6545_009
CHOP_E[1:0] (I/O RAM 0x2106[3:2])
MUX_DIV[3:0] (I/O RAM 0x2100[7:4])
FIR_LEN[1:0] (I/O RAM 0x210C[2:1])
ADC_DIV (I/O RAM 0x2200[5])
The duration of each multiplexer state depends on the number of ADC samples processed by the FIR as
determined by the FIR_LEN[1:0] (I/O RAM 0x210C[2:1] control field. Each multiplexer state starts on the
rising edge of CK32, the 32-kHz clock.
It is recommended that MUX_DIV[3:0] (I/O RAM 0x2200[2:0]) be set to zero while changing the ADC
configuration. Although not required, it minimizes system transients that might be caused by momentary
shorts between the ADC inputs, especially when changing the DIFFn_E control bits (I/O RAM 0x210C[5:4]).
After the configuration bits are set, MUX_DIV[3:0] should be set to the required value.
The duration of each time slot in CK32 cycles depends on FIR_LEN[1:0], ADC_DIV and PLL_FAST:
Time_Slot_Duration (PLL_FAST = 1) = (FIR_LEN[1:0]+1) * (ADC_DIV+1)
Time_Slot_Duration (PLL_FAST = 0) = 3*(FIR_LEN[1:0]+1) * (ADC_DIV+1)
The duration of a multiplexer frame in CK32 cycles is:
MUX_Frame_Duration = 3-2*PLL_FAST + Time_Slot_Duration * MUX_DIV[3:0]
The duration of a multiplexer frame in CK_FIR cycles is:
MUX frame duration (CK_FIR cycles) =
[3-2*PLL_FAST + Time_Slot_Duration * MUX_DIV] * (48+PLL_FAST*102)
The ADC conversion sequence is programmable through the MUXn_SEL control fields (I/O RAM 0x2100
to 0x2105). As stated above, there are up to eleven ADC time slots in the 71M6545/H, as set by
MUX_DIV[3:0] (I/O RAM 0x2100[7:4]). In the expression MUXn_SEL[3:0] = x, ‘n’ refers to the multiplexer
frame time slot number and ‘x’ refers to the desired ADC input number or ADC handle (i.e., IADC0 to VADC10,
or simply 0 to 10 decimal). Thus, there are a total of 11 valid ADC handles in the 71M6545/H devices. For
example, if MUX0_SEL[3:0] = 0, then IADC0, corresponding to the sample from the IADC0-IADC1 input
(configured as a differential input), is positioned in the multiplexer frame during time slot 0. See Table 1 and
Table 2 for the appropriate MUXn_SEL[3:0] settings and other settings applicable to a particular meter
configuration and CE code.
Note that when the remote sensor interface is enabled, the samples corresponding to the remote
sensor currents do not pass through the 71M6545/H multiplexer. The sampling of the remote current
sensors occurs in the second half of the multiplexer frame. The VA, VB and VC voltages are assigned
the last three slots in the frame. With this slot assignment for VA, VB and VC, the sampling of the
corresponding remote sensor currents bears a precise timing relationship to their corresponding phase
voltages, and delay compensation is accurately performed (see 2.2.3 Delay Compensation on page 19).
Also when using remote sensors, it is necessary to introduce unused slots to realize the number of
slots specified by the MUX_DIV[3:0] (I/O RAM 0x2100[7:4]) field setting (see Figure 4 and Figure 5). The
MUXn_SEL[3:0] control fields for these unused (“dummy”) slots must be written with a valid ADC handle
(i.e., 0 to 10 decimal) that is not otherwise being used. In this manner, the unused ADC handle, is used
as a “dummy” place holder in the multiplexer frame, and the correct duration multiplexer frame
sequence is generated and also the desired sample rate. The resulting sample data stored in the CE
RAM location corresponding to the “dummy” ADC handle is ignored by the CE code. Meanwhile, the
digital isolation interface takes care of automatically storing the samples for the remote current sensors
in the appropriate CE RAM locations.
Delay compensation and other functions in the CE code require the settings for MUX_DIV[3:0],
MUXn_SEL[3:0], RMT_E, FIR_LEN[1:0], ADC_DIV and PLL_FAST to be fixed for a given CE code.
Refer to Table 1 and Table 2 for the settings that are applicable to the 71M6545/H.
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© 2008–2011 Teridian Semiconductor Corporation
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Data Sheet 71M6545/H
Table 3 summarizes the I/O RAM registers used for configuring the multiplexer, signals pins, and ADC.
All listed registers are 0 after reset and wake from SLP mode, and are readable and writable.
Table 3: Multiplexer and ADC Configuration Bits
Name
Location
Description
MUX0_SEL[3:0]
MUX1_SEL[3:0]
MUX2_SEL[3:0]
MUX3_SEL[3:0]
MUX4_SEL[3:0]
MUX5_SEL[3:0]
MUX6_SEL[3:0]
MUX7_SEL[3:0]
MUX8_SEL[3:0]
MUX9_SEL[3:0]
MUX10_SEL[3:0]
ADC_DIV
MUX_DIV[3:0]
PLL_FAST
FIR_LEN[1:0]
DIFF0_E
DIFF2_E
DIFF4_E
DIFF6_E
2105[3:0]
2105[7:4]
2104[3:0]
2104[7:4]
2103[3:0]
2103[7:4]
2102[3:0]
2102[7:0]
2101[3:0]
2101[7:0]
2100[3:0]
2200[5]
2100[7:4]
2200[4]
210C[2:1]
210C[4]
210C[5]
210C[6]
210C[7]
Selects the ADC input converted during time slot 0.
Selects the ADC input converted during time slot 1.
Selects the ADC input converted during time slot 2.
Selects the ADC input converted during time slot 3.
Selects the ADC input converted during time slot 4.
Selects the ADC input converted during time slot 5.
Selects the ADC input converted during time slot 6.
Selects the ADC input converted during time slot 7.
Selects the ADC input converted during time slot 8.
Selects the ADC input converted during time slot 9.
Selects the ADC input converted during time slot 10.
Controls the rate of the ADC and FIR clocks.
The number of ADC time slots in each multiplexer frame (maximum = 11).
Controls the speed of the PLL and MCK.
Determines the number of ADC cycles in the ADC decimation FIR filter.
Enables the differential configuration for analog input pins IADC0-IADC1 .
Enables the differential configuration for analog input pins IADC2-IADC3 .
Enables the differential configuration for analog input pins IADC4-IADC5 .
Enables the differential configuration for analog input pins IADC6-IADC7 .
Enables the remote sensor interface transforming pins IADC2-IADC3 into a digital
RMT2_E
2709[3]
interface for communications with a 71M6xx3 sensor.
Enables the remote sensor interface transforming pins IADC4-IADC5 into a digital
RMT4_E
2709[4]
interface for communications with a 71M6xx3 sensor.
Enables the remote sensor interface transforming pins IADC6-IADC7 into a digital
RMT6_E
2709[5]
interface for communications with a 71M6xx3 sensor.
PRE_E
2704[5]
Enables the 8x pre-amplifier.
Refer to Table 61 starting on page 88 for more complete details about these I/O RAM locations.
2.2.3
Delay Compensation
When measuring the energy of a phase (i.e., Wh and VARh) in a service, the voltage and current for that
phase must be sampled at the same instant. Otherwise, the phase difference, Ф, introduces errors.
φ=
t delay
T
⋅ 360 o = t delay ⋅ f ⋅ 360 o
Where f is the frequency of the input signal, T = 1/f and tdelay is the sampling delay between current and
voltage.
Traditionally, sampling is accomplished by using two A/D converters per phase (one for voltage and the
other one for current) controlled to sample simultaneously. Teridian’s Single-Converter Technology®,
however, exploits the 32-bit signal processing capability of its CE to implement “constant delay” all-pass
filters. The all-pass filter corrects for the conversion time difference between the voltage and the
corresponding current samples that are obtained with a single multiplexed A/D converter.
o
The “constant delay” all-pass filter provides a broad-band delay 360 - θ, that is precisely matched to the
difference in sample time between the voltage and the current of a given phase. This digital filter does
not affect the amplitude of the signal, but provides a precisely controlled phase response.
The recommended ADC multiplexer sequence samples the current first, immediately followed by
sampling of the corresponding phase voltage, thus the voltage is delayed by a phase angle Ф relative to
the current. The delay compensation implemented in the CE aligns the voltage samples with their
corresponding current samples by first delaying the current samples by one full sample interval (i.e.,
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Data Sheet 71M6545/H
PDS_6545_009
360o), then routing the voltage samples through the all-pass filter, thus delaying the voltage samples by
360o - θ, resulting in the residual phase error between the current and its corresponding voltage of θ – Ф.
The residual phase error is negligible, and is typically less than ±1.5 milli-degrees at 100Hz, thus it does
not contribute to errors in the energy measurements.
When using remote sensors, the CE performs the same delay compensation described above to align
each voltage sample with its corresponding current sample. Even though the remote current samples do
not pass through the 71M6545/H multiplexer, their timing relationship to their corresponding voltages is
fixed and precisely known, provided that the MUXn_SEL[3:0] slot assignment fields are programmed as
shown in Table 1. Note that these slot assignments result in VA, VB and VC occupying multiplexer slots
3, 4 and 5, respectively (see Figure 4).
2.2.4
ADC Pre-Amplifier
The ADC pre-amplifier is a low-noise differential amplifier with a fixed gain of 8 available only on the
IADC0-IADC1 sensor input pins. A gain of 8 is enabled by setting PRE_E = 1 (I/O RAM 0x2704[5]). When
disabled, the supply current of the pre-amplifier is <10 nA and the gain is unity. With proper settings of
the PRE_E and DIFF0_E (I/O RAM 0x210C[4]) bits, the pre-amplifier can be used whether differential
mode is selected or not. For best performance, the differential mode is recommended. In order to save
power, the bias current of the pre-amplifier and ADC is adjusted according to the ADC_DIV control bit (I/O
RAM 0x2200[5]).
2.2.5
A/D Converter (ADC)
A single 2nd order sigma-delta A/D converter digitizes the voltage and current inputs to the device. The
resolution of the ADC, including the sign bit, is 21 bits (FIR_LEN[1:0] = 01, I/O RAM 0x210C[2:1]), or 22
bits (FIR_LEN[1:0] = 10). The ADC is clocked by CKADC.
Initiation of each ADC conversion is controlled by the internal MUX_CTRL circuit as described earlier. At
the end of each ADC conversion, the FIR filter output data is stored into the CE RAM location determined by
the multiplexer selection.
2.2.6
FIR Filter
The finite impulse response filter is an integral part of the ADC and it is optimized for use with the multiplexer.
The purpose of the FIR filter is to decimate the ADC output to the desired resolution. At the end of each
ADC conversion, the output data is stored into the fixed CE RAM location determined by the multiplexer
selection stored in the MUXn_SEL[3:0] fields. FIR data is stored LSB-justified, but shifted left by 9 bits.
2.2.7
Voltage References
A bandgap circuit provides the reference voltage to the ADC. The amplifier within the reference is chopper
stabilized, i.e., the chopper circuit can be enabled or disabled by the MPU using the I/O RAM control field
CHOP_E[1:0] (I/O RAM 0x2106[3:2]). The two bits in the CHOP_E[1:0] field enable the MPU to operate the
chopper circuit in regular or inverted operation, or in toggling modes (recommended). When the
chopper circuit is toggled in between multiplexer cycles, dc offsets on VREF are automatically averaged
out, therefore the chopper circuit should always be configured for one of the toggling modes.
Since the VREF band-gap amplifier is chopper-stabilized, the dc offset voltage, which is the most
significant long-term drift mechanism in the voltage references (VREF), is automatically removed by the
chopper circuit. Both the 71M6545/H and the 71M6xx3 feature chopper circuits for their respective VREF
voltage reference.
The general topology of a chopped amplifier is shown in Figure 6. The CROSS signal is an internal onchip signal and is not accessible on any pin or register.
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Data Sheet 71M6545/H
A
Vinp
B
A
Vinn
A
+
G
-
B
Voutp
B
A
Voutn
B
CROSS
Figure 6: General Topology of a Chopped Amplifier
It is assumed that an offset voltage Voff appears at the positive amplifier input. With all switches, as
controlled by CROSS (an internal signal), in the A position, the output voltage is:
Voutp – Voutn = G (Vinp + Voff – Vinn) = G (Vinp – Vinn) + G Voff
With all switches set to the B position by applying the inverted CROSS signal, the output voltage is:
Voutn – Voutp = G (Vinn – Vinp + Voff) = G (Vinn – Vinp) + G Voff, or
Voutp – Voutn = G (Vinp – Vinn) - G Voff
Thus, when CROSS is toggled, e.g., after each multiplexer cycle, the offset alternately appears on the
output as positive and negative, which results in the offset effectively being eliminated, regardless of its
polarity or magnitude.
When CROSS is high, the connection of the amplifier input devices is reversed. This preserves the overall
polarity of that amplifier gain; it inverts its input offset. By alternately reversing the connection, the amplifier’s
offset is averaged to zero. This removes the most significant long-term drift mechanism in the voltage
reference. The CHOP_E[1:0] (I/O RAM 0x2106[3:2]) control field controls the behavior of CROSS. On the
first CK32 rising edge after the last multiplexer state of its sequence, the multiplexer waits one additional
CK32 cycle before beginning a new frame. At the beginning of this cycle, the value of CROSS is updated
according to the CHOP_E[1:0] field. The extra CK32 cycle allows time for the chopped VREF to settle.
During this cycle, MUXSYNC is held high. The leading edge of MUXSYNC initiates a pass through the CE
program sequence.
CHOP_E[1:0] has four states: positive, reverse, and two toggle states. In the positive state, CHOP_E[1:0]
= 01, CROSS is held low. In the reverse state, CHOP_E[1:0] = 10, CROSS is held high. The two
automatic toggling states are selected by setting CHOP_E=11 or CHOP_E=00.
Figure 7: CROSS Signal with CHOP_E = 00
Figure 7 shows CROSS over two accumulation intervals when CHOP_E[1:0] = 00: At the end of the
first interval, CROSS is high, at the end of the second interval, CROSS is low. Operation with
CHOP_E[1:0] = 00 does not require control of the chopping mechanism by the MPU.
In the second toggle state, CHOP_E[1:0] = 11, CROSS does not toggle at the end of the last multiplexer
cycle in an accumulation interval.
2.2.8
71M6xx3 Isolated Sensor Interface
2.2.8.1 General Description
Non-isolating sensors, such as shunt resistors, can be connected to the inputs of the 71M6545/H via a
combination of a pulse transformer and a 71M6xx3 IC (a top-level block diagram of this sensor interface
is shown in Figure 27). The 71M6xx3 receives power directly from the 71M6545/H via a pulse
transformer and does not require a dedicated power supply circuit. The 71M6xx3 establishes 2-way
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Data Sheet 71M6545/H
PDS_6545_009
communication with the 71M6545/H, supplying current samples and auxiliary information such as sensor
temperature via a serial data stream.
Up to three 71M6xx3 Isolated Sensors can be supported by the 71M6545/H. When a remote sensor
interface is enabled, the two analog current inputs become re-configured and a digital remote sensor
interface. For example, when control bit RMT2_E = 1, the IADC2-IADC3 analog pins are re-configured as
the digital interface pins to the remote sensor.
Each 71M6xx3 Isolated Sensor consists of the following building blocks:
•
•
•
•
•
•
Power supply that derives power from pulses received from the 71M6545/H
Bi-directional digital communications interface
Shunt signal pre-amplifier
22-bit 2nd Order Sigma-Delta ADC Converter with precision bandgap reference (chopping amplifier)
Temperature sensor (for digitally compensating VREF)
Fuse system containing part-specific information
During an ordinary multiplexer cycle, the 71M6545/H internally determines which other channels are
enabled with MUX_DIV[3:0] (I/O RAM 0x2100[7:4]). At the same time, it decimates the modulator output
from the 71M6xx3 Isolated Sensors. Each result is written to CE RAM during one of its CE access time
slots.
2.2.8.2 Communication between 71M6545/H and 71M6xx3 Isolated Sensor
The ADC of the 71M6xx3 derives its timing from the power pulses generated by the 71M6545/H and as a
result, operates its ADC slaved to the frequency of the power pulses. The generation of power pulses, as
well as the communication protocol between the 71M6545/H and 71M6xx3 Isolated Sensor, is automatic and
transparent to the user. Details are not covered in this data sheet.
2.2.8.3 Control of the 71M6xx3 Isolated Sensor
The 71M6545/H can read or write certain types of information from each 71M6xx3 remote sensor.
The data to be read is selected by a combination of the RCMD[4:0] and TMUXRn[2:0]. To perform a read
transaction from one of the 71M6xx3 devices, the MPU first writes the TMUXRn[2:0] field (where n = 2, 4, 6,
located at I/O RAM 0x270A[2:0], 0x270A[6:4] and 0x2709[2:0], respectively). Next, the MPU writes
RCMD[4:0] (SFR 0xFC[4:0]) with the desired command and phase selection. When the RCMD[4:2] bits
have cleared to zero, the transaction has been completed and the requested data is available in
RMT_RD[15:0] (I/O RAM 0x2602[7:0] is the MSB and 0x2603[7:0] is the LSB). The read parity error bit,
PERR_RD (SFR 0xFC[6]) is also updated during the transaction. If the MPU writes to RCMD[4:0] before a
previously initiated read transaction is completed, the command is ignored. Therefore, the MPU must wait
for RCMD[4:2]=0 before proceeding to issue the next remote sensor read command.
The RCMD[4:0] field is divided into two sub-fields, COMMAND=RCMD[4:2] and PHASE=RCMD[1:0], as
shown in Table 4.
Table 4. RCMD[4:0] Bits
Command
Phase Selector
Associated TMUXRn
RCMD[4:2]
RCMD[1:0]
Control Field
--000
Invalid
00
Invalid
IADC2-IADC3
001
Command 1
01
TMUXR2[2:0]
IADC4-IADC5
010
Command 2
10
TMUXR4[2:0]
IADC6-IADC7
011
Reserved
11
TMUXR6[2:0]
100
Reserved
101
Invalid
110
Reserved
111
Reserved
Notes:
1. Only two codes of RCMD[4:2] (SFR 0xFC[4:2]) are relevant for normal
operation. These are RCMD[4:2] = 001 and 010. Codes 000 and 101
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Data Sheet 71M6545/H
are invalid and will be ignored if used. The remaining codes are
reserved and must not be used.
2. For the RCMD[1:0] control field, codes 01, 10 and 11 are valid and 00
is invalid and must not be used.
3. The specific phase (A, B or C) associated with each TMUXRn[2:0]
field, is determined by how the IADCn input pins are connected in the
meter design.
Table 5 shows the allowable combinations of values in RCMD[4:2] and TMUXRn[2:0], and the
corresponding data type and format sent back by the 71M6xx3 remote sensor and how the data is stored
in RMT_RD[15:8] and RMT_RD[7:0]. The MPU selects which of the three phases is read by asserting the
proper code in the RCMD[1:0] field, as shown in Table 4.
Table 5: Remote Interface Read Commands
RCMD[4:2]
TMUXRn[2:0]
001
00X
Read Operation
TRIMT[7:0]
001
11X
TRIMBGB[7:0] and
TRIMBGD[7:0]
(trim fuse for all 71M6xx3)
RMT_RD [15:8]
RMT_RD [7:0]
TRIMT[7]=RMT_RD[8]
TRIMT[6:0]=RMT_RD[7:1]
TRIMBGB[7:0]
TRIMBGD[7:0]
STEMP[10:8]=RMT_RD[10:8]
STEMP[7:0]
(additional trim fuses for
71M6113 and 71M6203 only)
010
00X
STEMP[10:0]
010
01X
VSENSE[7:0]
010
10X
VERSION[7:0]
(sensed 71M6xx3 temperature)
(sensed 71M6xx3 supply voltage)
(chip version)
(RMT_RD[15:11] are sign extended)
All zeros
VSENSE[7:0]
VERSION[7:0]
All zeros
Notes:
1. TRIMT[7:0] is the VREF trim value for all 71M6xx3 devices. Note that the TRIMT[7:0] 8-bit value is formed
by RMT_RD[8] and RMT_RD[7:1]. See the 71M6xxx Data Sheet for the equations related to TRIMT[7:0]
and the corresponding temperature coefficient.
2. TRIMBGB[7:0] and TRIMBGD[7:0] are trim values used for characterizing the 71M6113 (0.5%) and 71M6203
(0.1%) over temperature. See the 71M6xxx Data sheet for the equations related to TRIMBGB[7:0] and
TRIMBGD[7:0] and the corresponding temperature coefficients.
3. See 2.5.6 71M6xx3 Temperature Sensor on page 54.
4. See 2.5.8 71M6xx3 VCC Monitor on page 55.
With hardware and trim-related information on each connected 71M6xx3 Isolated Sensor available to the
71M6545/H, the MPU can implement temperature compensation of the energy measurement based on the
individual temperature characteristics of the 71M6xx3 Isolated Sensors. See 4.5 Metrology Temperature
Compensation for details.
Table 6 shows all I/O RAM registers used for control of the external 71M6xx3 Isolated Sensors. See the
71M6xx3 Data Sheet for additional details.
Table 6: I/O RAM Control Bits for Isolated Sensor
Name
Address
RST
WAKE
Default Default
RCMD[4:0]
SFR
FC[4:0]
0
0
PERR_RD
PERR_WR
SFR FC[6]
SFR FC[5]
0
0
v1.0
R/W Description
When the MPU writes a non-zero value to RCMD,
the 71M6545/H issues a command to the corresponding isolated sensor selected with
R/W
RCMD[1:0]. When the command is complete, the
71M6545/H clears RCMD[4:2]. The command
code itself is in RCMD[4:2].
The 71M6545/H sets these bits to indicate that a
parity error on the isolated sensor has been deR/W
tected. Once set, the bits are remembered until
they are cleared by the MPU.
© 2008–2011 Teridian Semiconductor Corporation
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Data Sheet 71M6545/H
Name
PDS_6545_009
WAKE
RST
Default Default
Address
R/W Description
CHOPR[1:0]
2709[7:6]
00
00
R/W
TMUXR2[2:0]
TMUXR4[2:0]
TMUXR6[2:0]
RMT_RD[15:8]
RMT_RD[7:0]
270A[2:0]
270A[6:4]
2709[2:0]
2602[7:0]
2603[7:0]
000
000
000
000
000
000
R/W
R/W
R/W
0
0
R
The CHOP settings for the isolated sensors.
00 – Auto chop. Change every multiplexer frame.
01 – Positive
10 – Negative
11 – Same as 00
The TMUX bits for control of the isolated sensor.
The TMUX bits for control of the isolated sensor.
The TMUX bits for control of the isolated sensor.
The read buffer for 71M6xx3 read operations.
Controls how the 71M6545/H drives the 71M6xx3
power pulse. When set, the power pulse is driven
RFLY_DIS
210C[3]
0
0
R/W
high and low. When cleared, it is driven high
followed by an open circuit flyback interval.
Enables the isolated remote sensor interface and
RMT2_E
2709[3]
0
0
R/W re-configures pins IADC2-IADC3 as a balanced
pair digital remote interface.
Enables the isolated remote sensor interface and
RMT4_E
2709[4]
0
0
R/W re-configures pins IADC4-IADC5 as a balanced
pair digital remote interface.
Enables the isolated remote sensor interface and
RMT6_E
2709[5]
0
0
R/W re-configures pins IADC6-IADC7 as a balanced
pair digital remote interface.
Refer to Table 61 starting on page 88 for more complete details about these I/O RAM locations.
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2.3
Data Sheet 71M6545/H
Digital Computation Engine (CE)
The CE, a dedicated 32-bit signal processor, performs the precision computations necessary to accurately
measure energy. The CE calculations and processes include:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Multiplication of each current sample with its associated voltage sample to obtain the energy per
sample (when multiplied by the constant sample time).
Frequency-insensitive delay cancellation on all channels (to compensate for the delay between
samples caused by the multiplexing scheme).
90° phase shifter (for VAR calculations).
Pulse generation.
Monitoring of the input signal frequency (for frequency and phase information).
Monitoring of the input signal amplitude (for sag detection).
Scaling of the processed samples based on calibration coefficients.
Scaling of samples based on temperature compensation information.
2.3.1
CE Program Memory
The CE program resides in flash memory. Common access to flash memory by the CE and MPU is
controlled by a memory share circuit. Each CE instruction word is two bytes long. Allocated flash space
for the CE program cannot exceed 4096 16-bit words (8 KB). The CE program counter begins a pass
through the CE code each time multiplexer state 0 begins. The code pass ends when a HALT instruction
is executed. For proper operation, the code pass must be completed before the multiplexer cycle ends.
The CE program must begin on a 1 KB boundary of the flash address. The I/O RAM control field
CE_LCTN[5:0] (I/O RAM 0x2109[5:0]) defines which 1 KB boundary contains the CE code. Thus, the first
CE instruction is located at 1024*CE_LCTN[5:0].
2.3.2
CE Data Memory
The CE and MPU share data memory (RAM). Common access to XRAM by the CE and MPU is controlled
by a memory share circuit. The CE can access up to 3 KB of the 5 KB data RAM (XRAM), i.e. from RAM
address 0x0000 to 0x0C00.
The XRAM can be accessed by the FIR filter block, the RTM circuit, the CE, and the MPU. Assigned time
slots are reserved for FIR and MPU, respectively, to prevent bus contention for XRAM data access by the CE.
The MPU reads and writes the XRAM shared between the CE and MPU as the primary means of data
communication between the two processors.
The CE is aided by support hardware to facilitate implementation of equations, pulse counters, and
accumulators. This hardware is controlled through I/O RAM field EQU[2:0] (equation assist, I/O RAM
0x2106[7:5]), bit DIO_PV (I/O RAM 0x2457[6]), bit DIO_PW (pulse count assist, I/O RAM 0x2457[7]), and
SUM_SAMPS[12:0] (accumulation assist, I/O RAM 0x2107[4:0] and 0x2108[7:0]).
The integration time for each energy output, when using standard CE code, is SUM_SAMPS[12:0] /2184.53
(with MUX_DIV[3:0] = 7, I/O RAM 0x2100[7:4] ). CE hardware issues the XFER_BUSY interrupt when the
accumulation is complete.
2.3.3
CE Communication with the MPU
The CE outputs six signals to the MPU: CE_BUSY, XFER_BUSY, XPULSE, YPULSE, WPULSE and
VPULSE. These are connected to the MPU interrupt service. CE_BUSY indicates that the CE is actively
processing data. CE_BUSY occurs once every multiplexer frame. XFER_BUSY indicates that the CE is
updating to the output region of the CE RAM, which occurs whenever an accumulation cycle has been
completed. Both, CE_BUSY and XFER_BUSY are cleared when the CE executes a HALT instruction.
XPULSE and YPULSE can be configured to interrupt the MPU and indicate sag failures, zero crossings of
the mains voltage, or other significant events. Additionally, these signals can be connected directly to DIO
pins to provide direct outputs from the CE. Interrupts associated with these signals always occur on the
leading edge.
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Data Sheet 71M6545/H
2.3.4
PDS_6545_009
Meter Equations
The 71M6545/H provides hardware assistance to the CE in order to support various meter equations.
This assistance is controlled through I/O RAM field EQU[2:0] (equation assist, I/O RAM 0x2106[7:5]). The
Compute Engine (CE) firmware for industrial configurations can implement the equations listed in Table 7.
EQU[2:0] specifies the equation to be used based on the meter configuration and on the number of phases
used for metering.
Table 7: Inputs Selected in Multiplexer Cycles
Wh and VARh formula
Element 0
Element 1
Element 2
Recommended
Multiplexer Sequence
2-element, 3-W, 3φ Delta
VA ∙ IA
VB ∙ IB
N/A
IA VA IB VB
3
2-element, 4-W, 3φ Delta
VA(IA-IB)/2
VC ∙IC
N/A
IA VA IB VB IC VC
4
2-element, 4-W, 3φ Wye
VA(IA-IB)/2 VB(IC-IB)/2
N/A
IA VA IB VB IC VC
EQU[2:0]*
Description
2
5
VA ∙ IA
VB ∙ IB
VC ∙ IC
IA VA IB VB IC VC (ID)
3-element, 4-W, 3φ Wye
Note:
* Only EQU[2:0] = 5 is supported by the currently available CE code versions for the 71M6545/H.
Contact your local Teridian representative for CE codes that support equations 2, 3 and 4.
2.3.5
Real-Time Monitor (RTM)
The CE contains a Real-Time Monitor (RTM), which can be programmed to monitor four selectable XRAM
locations at full sample rate. The data from the four monitored locations are serially output to the TMUXOUT
pin via the digital output multiplexer at the beginning of each CE code pass. The RTM can be enabled and
disabled with RTM_E (I/O RAM 0x2106[1]). The RTM output clock is available on the TMUX2OUT pin.
Each RTM word is clocked out in 35 cycles and contains a leading flag bit. See Figure 8 for the RTM output
format. RTM is low when not in use.
CK32
MUX_SYNC
MUX_STATE
S
CKTEST
31
0
FLAG
1
30
31
0
FLAG
1
30
31
SIG
N
30
LSB
1
SIG
N
0
FLAG
LSB
31
SIG
N
30
LSB
RTM DATA0 (32 bits)
RTM DATA1 (32 bits)
RTM DATA2 (32 bits)
RTM DATA3 (32 bits)
1
LSB
0
FLAG
SIG
N
RTM
Figure 8: RTM Timing
2.3.6
Pulse Generators
The 71M6545/H provides four pulse generators, VPULSE, WPULSE, XPULSE and YPULSE, as well as
hardware support for the VPULSE and WPULSE pulse generators. The XPULSE and YPULSE generators
are used by standard CE code to output CE status indicators, for example the status of the sag detection,
to DIO pins. All pulses can be configured to generate interrupts to the MPU.
The polarity of the pulses may be inverted with PLS_INV (I/O RAM 0x210C[0]). When this bit is set, the
pulses are active high, rather than the more usual active low. PLS_INV inverts all the pulse outputs.
The function of each pulse generator is determined by the CE code and the MPU code must configure the
corresponding pulse outputs in agreement with the CE code. For example, standard CE code produces a
mains zero-crossing pulse on XPULSE and a SAG pulse on YPULSE.
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A common use of the zero-crossing pulses is to generate interrupts in order to drive real-time clock
software in places where the mains frequency is sufficiently accurate to do so and also to adjust for
crystal aging. A common use for the SAG pulse is to generate an interrupt that alerts the MPU when mains
power is about to fail, so that the MPU code can store accumulated energy and other data to EEPROM
before the V3P3SYS supply voltage actually drops.
2.3.6.1 XPULSE and YPULSE
Pulses generated by the CE may be exported to the XPULSE and YPULSE pulse output pins. Pins DIO6
and DIO7 are used for these pulses, respectively. Generally, the XPULSE and YPULSE outputs can be
updated once on each pass of the CE code.
See 5.4 CE Interface Description on page 100 for details.
2.3.6.2 VPULSE and WPULSE
Referring to Figure 9, during each CE code pass the hardware stores exported WPULSE and VPULSE sign
bits in an 8-bit FIFO and outputs them at a specified interval. This permits the CE code to calculate the
VPULSE and WPULSE outputs at the beginning of its code pass and to rely on hardware to spread them
over the multiplexer frame. As seen in Figure 9, the FIFO is reset at the beginning of each multiplexer
frame. As also seen in Figure 9, the I/O RAM register PLS_INTERVAL[7:0] (I/O RAM 0x210B[7:0]) controls
the delay to the first pulse update and the interval between subsequent updates. The LSB of the
PLS_INTERVAL[7:0] register is equivalent to 4 CK_FIR cycles (CK_FIR is typically 4.9152MHz if PLL_FAST=1
and ADC_DIV=0, but other CK_FIR frequencies are possible; see the ADC_DIV definition in Table 61.) If
PLS_INTERVAL[7:0]=0, the FIFO is deactivated and the pulse outputs are updated immediately.
The MUX frame duration in units of CK_FIR clock cycles is given by:
If PLL_FAST=1:
MUX frame duration in CK_FIR cycles = [1 + (FIR_LEN+1) * (ADC_DIV+1) * (MUX_DIV)] * [150 / (ADC_DIV+1)]
If PLL_FAST=0:
MUX frame duration in CK_FIR cycles = [3 + 3*(FIR_LEN+1) * (ADC_DIV+1) * (MUX_DIV)] * [48 / (ADC_DIV+1)]
PLS_INTERVAL[7:0] in units of CK_FIR clock cycles is calculated by:
PLS_INTERVAL[7:0] = floor ( Mux frame duration in CK_FIR cycles / CE pulse updates per Mux frame / 4 )
Since the FIFO resets at the beginning of each multiplexer frame, the user must specify
PLS_INTERVAL[7:0] so that all of the possible pulse updates occurring in one CE execution are output
before the multiplexer frame completes. For instance, the 71M6545/H CE code outputs six updates per
multiplexer interval, and if the multiplexer interval is 1950 CK_FIR clock cycles long, the ideal value for
the interval is 1950/6/4 = 81.25. However, if PLS_INTERVAL[7:0] = 82, the sixth output occurs too late and
would be lost. In this case, the proper value for PLS_INTERVAL[7:0] is 81 (i.e., round down the result).
Since one LSB of PLS_INTERVAL[7:0] is equal to 4 CK_FIR clock cycles, the pulse time interval TI in units of
CK_FIR clock cycles is:
TI = 4*PLS_INTERVAL[7:0]
If the FIFO is enabled (i.e., PLS_INTERVAL[7:0] ≠ 0), hardware also provides a maximum pulse width feature
in control register PLS_MAXWIDTH[7:0] (I/O RAM 0x210A) . By default, WPULSE and VPULSE are negative
pulses (i.e., low level pulses, designed to sink current through an LED). PLS_MAXWIDTH[7:0] determines the
maximum negative pulse width TMAX in units of CK_FIR clock cycles based on the pulse interval TI
according to the formula:
TMAX = (2 * PLS_MAXWIDTH[7:0] + 1) * TI
If PLS_MAXWIDTH = 255 or PLS_INTERVAL=0, no pulse width checking is performed, and the pulses
default to 50% duty cycle.
The polarity of the pulses may be inverted with the control bit PLS_INV (I/O RAM 0x210C[0]). When
PLS_INV is set, the pulses are active high. The default value for PLS_INV is zero, which selects active low
pulses.
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© 2008–2011 Teridian Semiconductor Corporation
27
Data Sheet 71M6545/H
PDS_6545_009
The WPULSE and VPULSE pulse generator outputs are available on pins DIO0/WPULSE and
DIO1/VPULSE, respectively (pins 45 and 44). The pulses can also be output on OPT_TX pin 53 (see
OPT_TXE[1:0], I/O RAM 0x2456[3:2] for details).
ADC MUX Frame
MUX_DIV Conversions (MUX_DIV=4 is shown)
Settle
CK32
150
MUX_SYNC
CE CODE
S0
S1
S2
S3
S4
S5
W_FIFO
RST
WPULSE
S0
S1
S0
4*PLS_INTERVAL
4*PLS_INTERVAL
S2
S1
4*PLS_INTERVAL
S3
S3
S2
4*PLS_INTERVAL
S5
S4
4*PLS_INTERVAL
S4
S5
4*PLS_INTERVAL
1. This example shows how the FIFO distributes 6 pulse generator updates over one MUX frame.
2. If WPULSE is low longer than (2*PLS_MAXWIDTH+1) updates, WPULSE will be raised until the next
low-going pulse begins.
3. Only the WPULSE circuit is shown. The VARPULSE circuit behaves identically.
4. All dimensions are in CK_FIR cycles (4.92MHz).
5. If PLS_INTERVAL=0, FIFO does not perform delay.
Figure 9. Pulse Generator FIFO Timing
2.3.7
CE Functional Overview
The ADC processes one sample per channel per multiplexer cycle. Figure 10 shows the timing of the
samples taken during one multiplexer cycle with MUX_DIV[3:0] = 7 (I/O RAM 0x2100[7:4]).
The number of samples processed during one accumulation cycle is controlled by the I/O RAM register
SUM_SAMPS[12:0] (0x2107[4:0] and 0x2108[7:0]). The integration time for each energy output is:
SUM_SAMPS[12:0] / 2184.53, where 2184.53 is the sample rate in Hz
For example, SUM_SAMPS[12:0] = 2184 establishes 2184 multiplexer cycles per accumulation cycle or
2184/2184.53 = 0.9998 seconds. After an accumulation cycle is completed, the XFER_BUSY interrupt
signals to the MPU that accumulated data are available. The slight difference between the nominal
length of the accumulation interval (1000 ms) and the actual length of 999.8 ms (0.025%) is accounted for
in the CE code and is of no practical consequence.
28
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Data Sheet 71M6545/H
VB
IB
IC
VA
VC
ID
IA
30.5 µs
61.04 µs
61.04 µs
61.04 µs
61.04 µs
Multiplexer Frame (15 x 30.518 µs = 457.8 µs)
MUX_DIV = 7 Conversions
Settle
CK32
(32768 Hz)
MUX
STATE
S
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
S
Figure 10: Samples from Multiplexer Cycle (Frame)
The end of each multiplexer cycle is signaled to the MPU by the CE_BUSY interrupt. At the end of each
multiplexer cycle, status information, such as sag data and the digitized input signal, is available to the MPU.
833ms
20ms
XFER_BUSY
Interrupt to MPU
Figure 11: Accumulation Interval
Figure 11 shows the accumulation interval resulting from SUM_SAMPS[12:0] = 1819 (I/O RAM
0x2107[4:0] and 0x2108[7:0]), consisting of 1819 samples of 457.8 µs each, followed by the XFER_BUSY
interrupt. The sampling in this example is applied to a 50 Hz signal. There is no correlation between the
line signal frequency and the choice of SUM_SAMPS[12:0]. Furthermore, sampling does not have to start
when the line voltage crosses the zero line, and the length of the accumulation interval need not be an
integer multiple of the signal cycles.
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© 2008–2011 Teridian Semiconductor Corporation
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Data Sheet 71M6545/H
PDS_6545_009
2.4
80515 MPU Core
2.4.1
MPU Setup Code
For the proper operation of the 71M6545/H, it is necessary to have a small MPU program in flash
memory. In a typical application, the external host processor performs all post-processing and monitors
and controls the 71M6545/H over its SPI slave interface. The following is a brief description of the tasks
performed by the required setup code. The setup code correctly configures the 71M6545/H to act as an
SPI Slave to a host processor, providing powerful AFE and 32-bit Metrology Processor functionality.
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
The main objective of the setup code is to keep the MPU code execution confined to a small area
of Flash memory.
Most of the Flash memory space is empty, except for the small setup program and the CE code.
When ac power failure occurs, the MPU sets the SLEEP bit (I/O RAM 0x28B2[7]) bit) to force the
device to SLP mode (see 3.2 SLP Mode (Sleep Mode) on page 67).
SFR (Special Function Registers) access is needed for configuring and controlling the DIO0DIO14 pins. The SFRs of the MPU cannot be accessed directly over the SPI Slave interface. If
the host requires control of DIO0-DIO14, a small amount of code in the MPU provides the needed
SFR access.
Triggering the WDT reset.
Controlling the 71M6xx3 Remote Sensor Interfaces, if used (temperature data for CE).
To speed up the start-up process and to offload the host processor, the small MPU program can
implement the following optional steps at start-up:
- Copy CE data from flash to XRAM (default settings).
- Initialize the interrupt vector table.
- Initialize the pointer to the CE code location.
- Initialize the environmental settings for the CE code (multiplexer and filter settings, etc.)
- Start the ADC and CE.
It is also recommended that the small MPU program maintains a counter that is incremented with
each XFER_BUSY interrupt. By reading this counter, the external host processor can determine if
any accumulated metrology data were missed and if the 71M6545/H code is executing as
expected.
Sample MPU code that performs these simple tasks is available from Teridian.
During normal operation, the host processor needs to trigger the watchdog reset periodically in order to
avoid watchdog resets, if this is not done by the MPU program inside the 71M6545/H.
The remainder of this section provides detailed information concerning the MPU, and may be
ignored if the application does not require the use of the MPU beyond the simple setup code tasks
described.
2.4.2
80515 MPU Overview
The 71M6545/H includes an 80515 MPU (8-bit, 8051-compatible) that processes most instructions in one
clock cycle. Using a 4.9 MHz clock results in a processing throughput of 4.9 MIPS. The 80515 architecture
eliminates redundant bus states and implements parallel execution of fetch and execution phases. Normally, a
machine cycle is aligned with a memory fetch, therefore, most of the 1-byte instructions are performed in a
single machine cycle (MPU clock cycle). This leads to an 8x average performance improvement (in terms of
MIPS) over the Intel 8051 device running at the same clock frequency.
Table 8 shows the CKMPU frequency as a function of the MCK clock (19.6608 MHz) divided by the MPU
clock divider MPU_DIV[2:0] (I/O RAM 0x2200[2:0]). Actual processor clocking speed can be adjusted to
the total processing demand of the application (metering calculations, AMR management, memory
management and I/O management) using MPU_DIV[2:0], as shown in Table 8.
Table 8: CKMPU Clock Frequencies
30
MPU_DIV [2:0]
CKMPU Frequency
000
001
4.9152 MHz
2.4576 MHz
© 2008–2011 Teridian Semiconductor Corporation
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Data Sheet 71M6545/H
MPU_DIV [2:0]
010
011
100
101
110
111
CKMPU Frequency
1.2288 MHz
614.4 kHz
307.2 kHz
Typical measurement and metering functions based on the results provided by the internal 32-bit compute
engine (CE) are available for the MPU as part of the Teridian demonstration code, which is provided to
help reduce the product design cycle.
2.4.3
Memory Organization and Addressing
The 80515 MPU core incorporates the Harvard architecture with separate code and data spaces. Memory
organization in the 80515 is similar to that of the industry standard 8051. There are three memory areas:
Program memory (Flash, shared by MPU and CE), external RAM (Data RAM, shared by the CE and MPU,
Configuration or I/O RAM), and internal data memory (Internal RAM). Table 9 shows the memory map.
Program Memory
The 80515 can address up to 64 KB of program memory space (0x0000 to 0xFFFF). Program memory is
read when the MPU fetches instructions or performs a MOVC operation.
After reset, the MPU starts program execution from program memory location 0x0000. The lower part of
the program memory includes reset and interrupt vectors. The interrupt vectors are spaced at 8-byte
intervals, starting from 0x0003.
MPU External Data Memory (XRAM)
Both internal and external memory is physically located on the 71M6545/H device. The external memory
referred to in this documentation is only external to the 80515 MPU core.
5 KB of RAM starting at address 0x0000 is shared by the CE and MPU. The CE normally uses the first
1 KB, leaving 4 KB for the MPU. Different versions of the CE code use varying amounts. Consult the
documentation for the specific code version being used for the exact limit.
If the MPU overwrites the CE’s working RAM, the CE’s output may be corrupted. If the CE is
disabled, the first 0x40 bytes of RAM are still unusable while MUX_DIV[3:0] ≠ 0 (I/O RAM
0x2100[7:3]), because the 71M6545/H ADC writes to these locations. Writing MUX_DIV[3:0] = 0
disables the ADC output, preventing the CE from writing the first 0x40 bytes of RAM.
In addition, MUXn_SEL[3:0] values must be written only after writing MUX_DIV[3:0].
The 80515 writes into external data memory when the MPU executes a MOVX @Ri,A or MOVX
@DPTR,A instruction. The MPU reads external data memory by executing a MOVX A,@Ri or MOVX
A,@DPTR instruction (PDATA, SFR 0xBF, provides the upper 8 bytes for the MOVX A,@Ri instruction).
Internal and External Memory Map
Table 9 shows the address, type, use and size of the various memory components.
Table 9: Memory Map
Address
(hex)
0000-FFFF
v1.0
Memory
Technology
Flash Memory
Memory
Type
Name
Typical Usage
MPU Program and
Non-volatile Program memory non-volatile data
CE program
© 2008–2011 Teridian Semiconductor Corporation
Memory Size
(bytes)
64 KB
3 KB max.
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Data Sheet 71M6545/H
PDS_6545_009
0000-13FF
Static RAM
Volatile
2000-27FF
Static RAM
Volatile
2800-287F
Static RAM
0000-00FF
Static RAM
Non-volatile
(battery)
Volatile
External RAM
(XRAM)
Configuration
RAM (I/O RAM)
Configuration
RAM (I/O RAM)
Internal RAM
(on 1 KB boundary)
Shared by CE and
MPU
Hardware control
Battery-buffered
memory
Part of 80515 Core
5 KB
2 KB
128
256
MOVX Addressing
There are two types of instructions differing in whether they provide an 8-bit or 16-bit indirect address to
the external data RAM.
In the first type, MOVX A,@Ri, the contents of R0 or R1 in the current register bank provide the eight
lower-ordered bits of address. The eight high-ordered bits of the address are specified with the PDATA
SFR. This method allows the user paged access (256 pages of 256 bytes each) to all ranges of the
external data RAM.
In the second type of MOVX instruction, MOVX A,@DPTR, the data pointer generates a 16-bit address.
This form is faster and more efficient when accessing very large data arrays (up to 64 KB), since no
additional instructions are needed to set up the eight high ordered bits of the address.
It is possible to mix the two MOVX types. This provides the user with four separate data pointers, two
with direct access and two with paged access, to the entire 64 KB of external memory range.
Dual Data Pointer
The Dual Data Pointer accelerates the block moves of data. The standard DPTR is a 16-bit register that
is used to address external memory or peripherals. In the 80515 core, the standard data pointer is called
DPTR, the second data pointer is called DPTR1. The data pointer select bit, located in the LSB of the DPS
register (DPS[0], SFR 0x92), chooses the active pointer. DPTR is selected when DPS[0] = 0 and DPTR1 is
selected when DPS[0] = 1.
The user switches between pointers by toggling the LSB of the DPS register. The values in the data pointers
are not affected by the LSB of the DPS register. All DPTR related instructions use the currently selected
DPTR for any activity.
The second data pointer may not be supported by certain compilers.
DPTR1 is useful for copy routines, where it can make the inner loop of the routine two instructions faster
compared to the reloading of DPTR from registers. Any interrupt routine using DPTR1 must save and
restore DPS, DPTR and DPTR1, which increases stack usage and slows down interrupt latency.
By selecting the Evatronics R80515 core in the Keil compiler project settings and by using the compiler
directive “MODC2”, dual data pointers are enabled in certain library routines.
An alternative data pointer is available in the form of the PDATA register (SFR 0xBF), sometimes referred
to as USR2). It defines the high byte of a 16-bit address when reading or writing XDATA with the instruction
MOVX A,@Ri or MOVX @Ri,A.
Internal Data Memory Map and Access
The Internal data memory provides 256 bytes (0x00 to 0xFF) of data memory. The internal data memory
address is always 1 byte wide. Table 10 shows the internal data memory map.
The Special Function Registers (SFR) occupy the upper 128 bytes. The SFR area of internal data memory
is available only by direct addressing. Indirect addressing of this area accesses the upper 128 bytes of
Internal RAM. The lower 128 bytes contain working registers and bit addressable memory. The lower 32
bytes form four banks of eight registers (R0-R7). Two bits on the program memory status word (PSW, SFR
0xD0 ) select which bank is in use. The next 16 bytes form a block of bit addressable memory space
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Data Sheet 71M6545/H
at addresses 0x00-0x7F. All of the bytes in the lower 128 bytes are accessible through direct or indirect
addressing.
Table 10: Internal Data Memory Map
Address Range
2.4.4
Direct Addressing
Indirect Addressing
Special Function Registers (SFRs)
RAM
0x80
0xFF
0x30
0x7F
Byte addressable area
0x20
0x00
0x2F
0x1F
Bit addressable area
Register banks R0…R7
Special Function Registers (SFRs)
A map of the Special Function Registers is shown in Table 11.
Only a few addresses in the SFR memory space are occupied, the others are not implemented. A read
access to unimplemented addresses returns undefined data, while a write access has no effect. SFRs
specific to the 71M6545/H are shown in bold print on a gray field. The registers at 0x80, 0x88, 0x90,
etc., are bit addressable, all others are byte addressable.
Table 11: Special Function Register Map
Bit
Hex/ Addressable
Bin
X000
F8
F0
E8
E0
D8
D0
C8
C0
B8
B0
A8
A0
98
90
88
80
2.4.5
INTBITS
B
IFLAGS
A
WDCON
PSW
T2CON
IRCON
IEN1
P3
IEN0
P2
S0CON
P1
TCON
P0
Byte Addressable
X001
X010
X011
VSTAT
IP1
IP0
DIR2
S0BUF
DIR1
TMOD
SP
X100
X101
X110
X111
RCMD SPI_CMD
S0RELH S1RELH
FLSHCTL
S0RELL
DIR0
IEN2
S1CON
DPS
TL0
TL1
DPL
DPH
PDATA
PGADR
S1BUF
ERASE
TH0
DPL1
S1RELL
EEDATA
TH1
DPH1
CKCON
EECTRL
PCON
Bin/
Hex
FF
F7
EF
E7
DF
D7
CF
C7
BF
B7
AF
A7
9F
97
8F
87
Generic 80515 Special Function Registers
Table 12 shows the location, description and reset or power-up value of the generic 80515 SFRs. Additional
descriptions of the registers can be found at the page numbers listed in the table.
Table 12: Generic 80515 SFRs - Location and Reset Values
Name
P0
SP
DPL
v1.0
Address
(Hex)
0x80
0x81
0x82
Reset value
(Hex)
0xFF
0x07
0x00
Description
Port 0
Stack Pointer
Data Pointer Low 0
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Data Sheet 71M6545/H
Name
DPH
DPL1
DPH1
PCON
TCON
TMOD
TL0
TL1
TH0
TH1
CKCON
P1
DPS
S0CON
S0BUF
IEN2
S1CON
S1BUF
S1RELL
P2
IEN0
IP0
S0RELL
P3
IEN1
IP1
S0RELH
S1RELH
PDATA
IRCON
T2CON
PSW
WDCON
A
B
Address
(Hex)
0x83
0x84
0x85
0x87
0x88
0x89
0x8A
0x8B
0x8C
0x8D
0x8E
0x90
0x92
0x98
0x99
0x9A
0x9B
0x9C
0x9D
0xA0
0xA8
0xA9
0xAA
0xB0
0xB8
0xB9
0xBA
0xBB
0xBF
0xC0
0xC8
0xD0
0xD8
0xE0
0xF0
PDS_6545_009
Reset value
Description
(Hex)
0x00
Data Pointer High 0
0x00
Data Pointer Low 1
0x00
Data Pointer High 1
0x00
UART Speed Control
0x00
Timer/Counter Control
0x00
Timer Mode Control
0x00
Timer 0, low byte
0x00
Timer 1, high byte
0x00
Timer 0, low byte
0x00
Timer 1, high byte
0x01
Clock Control (Stretch=1)
0xFF
Port 1
0x00
Data Pointer select Register
0x00
Serial Port 0, Control Register
0x00
Serial Port 0, Data Buffer
0x00
Interrupt Enable Register 2
0x00
Serial Port 1, Control Register
0x00
Serial Port 1, Data Buffer
0x00
Serial Port 1, Reload Register, low byte
0xFF
Port 2
0x00
Interrupt Enable Register 0
0x00
Interrupt Priority Register 0
0xD9
Serial Port 0, Reload Register, low byte
0xFF
Port 3
0x00
Interrupt Enable Register 1
0x00
Interrupt Priority Register 1
0x03
Serial Port 0, Reload Register, high byte
0x03
Serial Port 1, Reload Register, high byte
High address byte for MOVX@Ri - also called USR2
0x00
0x00
Interrupt Request Control Register
0x00
Polarity for INT2 and INT3
0x00
Program Status Word
0x00
Baud Rate Control Register (only WDCON[7] bit used)
0x00
Accumulator
0x00
B Register
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43
36
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Accumulator (ACC, A, SFR 0x E0):
ACC is the accumulator register. Most instructions use the accumulator to hold the operand. The mnemonics
for accumulator-specific instructions refer to accumulator as A, not ACC.
B Register (SFR 0xF0):
The B register is used during multiply and divide instructions. It can also be used as a scratch-pad register to
hold temporary data.
Program Status Word (PSW, SFR 0xD0):
This register contains various flags and control bits for the selection of the register banks (see Table 13).
34
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Data Sheet 71M6545/H
Table 13: PSW Bit Functions (SFR 0xD0)
PSW Bit
Symbol
7
6
5
CV
AC
F0
Carry flag.
Auxiliary Carry flag for BCD operations.
General purpose Flag 0 available for user.
F0 is not to be confused with the F0 flag in the CESTATUS register.
4
RS1
Register bank select control bits. The contents of RS1 and RS0 select the
working register bank:
3
RS0
2
1
0
OV
–
P
Function
Bank selected
Location
RS1/RS0
00
Bank 0
0x00 – 0x07
01
Bank 1
0x08 – 0x0F
10
Bank 2
0x10 – 0x17
11
Bank 3
0x18 – 0x1F
Overflow flag.
User defined flag.
Parity flag, affected by hardware to indicate odd or even number of one bits in
the Accumulator, i.e. even parity.
Stack Pointer (SP, SFR 0x81):
The stack pointer is a 1-byte register initialized to 0x07 after reset. This register is incremented before
PUSH and CALL instructions, causing the stack to begin at location 0x08.
Data Pointer:
The data pointers (DPTR and DPRT1) are 2 bytes wide. The lower part is DPL (SFR 0x82) and DPL1 (SFR
0x84), respectively. The highest is DPH (SFR 0x83) and DPH1 (SFR 0x85), respectively. The data pointers
can be loaded as two registers (e.g. MOV DPL,#data8). They are generally used to access external code
or data space (e.g. MOVC A,@A+DPTR or MOVX A,@DPTR respectively).
Program Counter:
The program counter (PC) is 2 bytes wide and initialized to 0x0000 after reset. This register is incremented
when fetching operation code or when operating on data from program memory.
Port Registers:
DIO0 through DIO14 are controlled by Special Function Registers P0, P1, P2, and P3 as shown in Table
14. Above DIO14, the DIOn[ ] registers in I/O RAM are used. Since the direction bits are contained in the
upper nibble of each SFR Pn register and the DIO bits are contained in the lower nibble, it is possible to
configure the direction of a given DIO pin and set its output value with a single write operation, thus
facilitating the implementation of bit-banged interfaces. Writing a 1 to a DIO_DIR bit configures the
corresponding DIO as an output, while writing a 0 configures it as an input. Writing a 1 to a DIO bit
causes the corresponding pin to be at high level (V3P3), while writing a 0 causes the corresponding pin to
be held at a low level (GND).
Table 14: Port Registers (DIO0-14)
SFR
Name
P0
P1
P2
P3
SFR
Address
80
90
A0
B0
D7
D6
D5
D4
D3
DIO_DIR[3:0]
DIO_DIR[7:4]
DIO_DIR[11:8]
DIO_DIR[14:12]
D2
D1
D0
DIO[3:0]
DIO[7:4]
DIO[11:8]
DIO[14:11]
All DIO ports on the chip are bi-directional. Each of them consists of a latch (SFR P0 to P3), an output
driver and an input buffer, therefore the MPU can output or read data through any of these ports. Even if
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© 2008–2011 Teridian Semiconductor Corporation
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Data Sheet 71M6545/H
PDS_6545_009
a DIO pin is configured as an output, the state of the pin can still be read by the MPU, for example when
counting pulses issued via DIO pins that are under CE control.
At power-up DIO0-14 are configured as inputs. It is necessary to write PORT_E = 1 (I/O RAM
0x270C[5]) to enable DIO0-DIO14. The default PORT_E = 0 blocks any momentary output
transient pulses that would otherwise occur when DIO0-14 are reset on power-up.
Clock Stretching (CKCON[2:0], SFR 0x8E)
The CKCON[2:0] field defines the stretch memory cycles that are used for MOVX instructions when
accessing external peripherals. The practical value of this register for the 71M6545/H is to guarantee
access to XRAM between CE, MPU, and SPI. The default setting of CKCON[2:0] (001) should not be
changed.
Table 15 shows how the signals of the External Memory Interface change when stretch values are set
from 0 to 7. The widths of the signals are counted in MPU clock cycles. The post-reset state of the
CKCON[2:0] field (001), which is shown in bold in the table, performs the MOVX instructions with a
stretch value equal to 1.
Table 15: Stretch Memory Cycle Width
2.4.6
Read Signal Width
Write Signal Width
CKCON[2:0]
Stretch
Value
memaddr
memrd
memaddr
memwr
000
001
010
011
100
101
110
111
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
1
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Instruction Set
All instructions of the generic 8051 microcontroller are supported. A complete list of the instruction set
and of the associated op-codes is contained in the 71M654x Software User’s Guide (SUG).
2.4.7
UARTs
The 71M6545/H includes a UART (UART0) that can be programmed to communicate with a variety of
AMR modules and other external devices.
The UART is a dedicated 2-wire serial interface, which can communicate with an external host processor at
up to 38,400 bits/s (with MPU clock = 1.2288 MHz). The operation of the RX and TX UART0 pins is as
follows:
•
•
UART0 RX: Serial input data are applied at this pin. Conforming to RS-232 standard, the bytes are
input LSB first.
UART0 TX: This pin is used to output the serial data. The bytes are output LSB first.
The 71M6545/H has several UART-related registers for the control and buffering of serial data.
A single SFR register serves as both the transmit buffer and receive buffer (S0BUF, SFR 0x99 for UART0).
When written by the MPU, SxBUF acts as the transmit buffer, and when read by the MPU, it acts as the
receive buffer. Writing data to the transmit buffer starts the transmission by the UART. Received data are
available by reading from the receive buffer. The UART can simultaneously transmit and receive data.
36
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WDCON[7] (SFR 0xD8) selects whether timer 1 or the internal baud rate generator is used. All UART
transfers are programmable for parity enable, parity, 2 stop bits/1 stop bit and XON/XOFF options for
variable communication baud rates from 300 to 38400 bps. Table 16 shows how the baud rates are
calculated. Table 17 shows the selectable UART operation modes.
Table 16: Baud Rate Generation
Using Timer 1
(WDCON[7] = 0)
smod
UART0
2
UART1
N/A
* f CKMPU/ (384 * (256-TH1))
Using Internal Baud Rate Generator
(WDCON[7] = 1)
smod
2
10
* f CKMPU/(64 * (2 -S0REL))
fCKMPU/(32 * (210-S1REL))
S0REL and S1REL are 10-bit values derived by combining bits from the respective timer reload registers.
(S0RELL, S0RELH, S1RELL, S1RELH are SFR 0xAA, SFR 0xBA, SFR 0x9D and SFR 0xBB, respectively) SMOD
is the SMOD bit in the SFR PCON register (SFR 0x87). TH1 (SFR 0x8D) is the high byte of timer 1.
Table 17: UART Modes
UART 0
Mode 0
Mode 1
Mode 2
Mode 3
UART 1
Start bit, 8 data bits, parity, stop bit, variable
baud rate (internal baud rate generator)
N/A
Start bit, 8 data bits, stop bit, variable
baud rate (internal baud rate generator
or timer 1)
Start bit, 8 data bits, parity, stop bit,
fixed baud rate 1/32 or 1/64 of fCKMPU
Start bit, 8 data bits, parity, stop bit,
variable baud rate (internal baud rate
generator or timer 1)
Start bit, 8 data bits, stop bit, variable baud
rate (internal baud rate generator)
N/A
N/A
Parity of serial data is available through the P flag of the accumulator. 7-bit serial modes with
parity, such as those used by the FLAG protocol, can be simulated by setting and reading bit 7 of
8-bit output data. 7-bit serial modes without parity can be simulated by setting bit 7 to a constant 1.
8-bit serial modes with parity can be simulated by setting and reading the 9th bit, using the control
bits TB80 (S0CON[3]) and TB81 (S1CON[3]) in the S0CON (SFR 0x98) and S1CON (SFR 0x9B) registers
for transmit and RB81 (S1CON[2]) for receive operations.
All supported operation modes use oversampling for the incoming bit stream when receiving data. Each
bit is sampled three times at the projected middle of the bit duration. This technique allows for deviations
of the received baud rate from nominal of up to 3.5%.
The feature of receiving 9 bits (Mode 3 for UART0) can be used as handshake signals for inter-processor
communication in multi-processor systems. In this case, the slave processors have bit SM20 (S0CON[5])
for UART0, set to 1. When the master processor outputs the slave’s address, it sets the 9th bit to 1, causing a
serial port receive interrupt in all the slaves. The slave processors compare the received byte with their
address. If there is a match, the addressed slave clears SM20 or SM21 and receive the rest of the message.
The rest of the slaves ignore the message. After addressing the slave, the host outputs the rest of the
message with the 9th bit set to 0, so no additional serial port receive interrupts is generated.
UART Control Registers:
The functions of UART0 depend on the setting of the Serial Port Control Register S0CON shown in Table
18, and the PCON register shown in Table 19.
Since the TI0 and RI0 bits are in an SFR bit addressable byte, common practice would be to
clear them with a bit operation, but this must be avoided. The hardware implements bit
operations as a byte wide read-modify-write hardware macro. If an interrupt occurs after the
read, but before the write, its flag is cleared unintentionally.
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The proper way to clear these flag bits is to write a byte mask consisting of all ones except
for a zero in the location of the bit to be cleared. The flag bits are configured in hardware to
ignore ones written to them.
Table 18: The S0CON (UART0) Register (SFR 0x98)
Bit
S0CON[7]
Symbol
Function
The SM0 and SM1 bits set the UART0 mode:
SM0
S0CON[6]
SM1
S0CON[5]
S0CON[4]
S0CON[3]
SM20
REN0
TB80
S0CON[2]
RB80
S0CON[1]
TI0
S0CON[0]
RI0
Mode
0
1
2
3
Description
N/A
8-bit UART
9-bit UART
9-bit UART
SM0
0
0
1
1
SM1
0
1
0
1
Enables the inter-processor communication feature.
If set, enables serial reception. Cleared by software to disable reception.
The 9th transmitted data bit in Modes 2 and 3. Set or cleared by the MPU,
depending on the function it performs (parity check, multiprocessor
communication etc.)
In Modes 2 and 3 it is the 9th data bit received. In Mode 1, SM20 is 0, RB80 is the
stop bit. In mode 0, this bit is not used. Must be cleared by software.
Transmit interrupt flag; set by hardware after completion of a serial transfer. Must
be cleared by software (see Caution above).
Receive interrupt flag; set by hardware after completion of a serial reception. Must
be cleared by software (see Caution above).
Table 19: PCON Register Bit Description (SFR 0x87)
Bit
PCON[7]
2.4.8
Symbol
Function
The SMOD bit doubles the baud rate when set
SMOD
Timers and Counters
The 80515 has two 16-bit timer/counter registers: Timer 0 and Timer 1. These registers can be configured
for counter or timer operations.
In timer mode, the register is incremented every machine cycle, i.e., it counts up once for every 12 periods of
the MPU clock. In counter mode, the register is incremented when the falling edge is observed at the
corresponding input signal T0 or T1 (T0 and T1 are the timer gating inputs derived from certain DIO pins.
Since it takes 2 machine cycles to recognize a 1-to-0 event, the maximum input count rate is 1/2 of the clock
frequency (CKMPU). There are no restrictions on the duty cycle, however to ensure proper recognition of the
0 or 1 state, an input should be stable for at least 1 machine cycle.
Four operating modes can be selected for Timer 0 and Timer 1, as shown in Table 20 and Table 21. The
TMOD (SFR 0x89) register, shown in
Table 22, is used to select the appropriate mode. The timer/counter operation is controlled by the TCON
(SFR 0x88) register, which is shown in Table 23. Bits TR1 (TCON[6]) and TR0 (TCON[4]) in the TCON
register start their associated timers when set.
Table 20: Timers/Counters Mode Description
38
M1
M0
Mode
0
0
Mode 0
0
1
Mode 1
Function
13-bit Counter/Timer mode with 5 lower bits in the TL0 or TL1 (SFR
0x8A or SFR 0x8B) register and the remaining 8 bits in the TH0 or TH1
(SFR 0x8C or SFR 0x8D) register (for Timer 0 and Timer 1, respectively).
The 3 high order bits of TL0 and TL1 are held at zero.
16-bit Counter/Timer mode.
© 2008–2011 Teridian Semiconductor Corporation
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Data Sheet 71M6545/H
1
0
Mode 2
1
1
Mode 3
8-bit auto-reload Counter/Timer. The reload value is kept in TH0 or
TH1, while TL0 or TL1 is incremented every machine cycle. When
TL(x) overflows, a value from TH(x) is copied to TL(x) (where x is 0 for
counter/timer 0 or 1 for counter/timer 1.
If Timer 1 M1 and M0 bits are set to 1, Timer 1 stops.
If Timer 0 M1 and M0 bits are set to 1, Timer 0 acts as two independent
8-bit Timer/Counters.
In Mode 3, TL0 is affected by TR0 and gate control bits, and sets the TF0 flag on overflow, while TH0
is affected by the TR1 bit, and the TF1 flag is set on overflow. Table 21 specifies the combinations of
operation modes allowed for Timer 0 and Timer 1.
Table 21: Allowed Timer/Counter Mode Combinations
Timer 1
Timer 0 - mode 0
Timer 0 - mode 1
Timer 0 - mode 2
Mode 0
Mode 1
Mode 2
Yes
Yes
Not allowed
Yes
Yes
Not allowed
Yes
Yes
Yes
Table 22: TMOD Register Bit Description (SFR 0x89)
Bit
Symbol
Timer/Counter 0:
TMOD[7]
Gate
TMOD[6]
C/T
TMOD[5:4]
M1:M0
Timer/Counter 1
TMOD[3]
Gate
TMOD[2]
C/T
TMOD[1:0]
M1:M0
Function
If TMOD[7] is set, external input signal control is enabled for Counter 0. The
TR0 bit in the TCON register (SFR 0x88) must also be set in order for Counter
0 to increment. With these settings, Counter 0 increments on every falling
edge of the logic signal applied to one or more of the DIO2-11 pins, as
specified by the contents of the DIO_R2 through DIO_R11 registers. See
Table 47.
Selects timer or counter operation. When set to 1, a counter operation is
performed. When cleared to 0, the corresponding register functions as a timer.
Selects the mode for Timer/Counter 0 as shown in Table 20.
If TMOD[3] is set, external input signal control is enabled for Counter 1.
The TR1 bit in the TCON register (SFR 0x88) must also be set in order for
Counter 1 to increment. With these settings, Counter 1 increments on every
falling edge of the logic signal applied to one or more of the DIO2-11 pins,
as specified by the contents of the DIO_R2 through DIO_R11 registers. See
Table 47.
Selects timer or counter operation. When set to 1, a counter operation is
performed. When cleared to 0, the corresponding register functions as a
timer.
Selects the mode for Timer/Counter 1, as shown in Table 20.
Table 23: The TCON Register Bit Functions (SFR 0x88)
Bit
TCON[7]
Symbol
TF1
TCON[6]
TCON[5]
TR1
TF0
v1.0
Function
The Timer 1 overflow flag is set by hardware when Timer 1 overflows.
This flag can be cleared by software and is automatically cleared when an
interrupt is processed.
Timer 1 run control bit. If cleared, Timer 1 stops.
Timer 0 overflow flag set by hardware when Timer 0 overflows. This flag
can be cleared by software and is automatically cleared when an interrupt
is processed.
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PDS_6545_009
Bit
TCON[4]
TCON[3]
Symbol
TR0
IE1
TCON[2]
IT1
TCON[1]
IE0
TCON[0]
IT0
2.4.9
Function
Timer 0 Run control bit. If cleared, Timer 0 stops.
Interrupt 1 edge flag is set by hardware when the falling edge on external
pin int1 is observed. Cleared when an interrupt is processed.
Interrupt 1 type control bit. Selects either the falling edge or low level on
input pin to cause an interrupt.
Interrupt 0 edge flag is set by hardware when the falling edge on external
pin int0 is observed. Cleared when an interrupt is processed.
Interrupt 0 type control bit. Selects either the falling edge or low level on
input pin to cause interrupt.
WD Timer (Software Watchdog Timer)
There is no internal software watchdog timer. Use the standard hardware watchdog timer instead (see
2.5.13 Hardware Watchdog Timer).
2.4.10 Interrupts
The 80515 provides 11 interrupt sources with four priority levels. Each source has its own interrupt request
flag(s) located in a special function register (TCON, IRCON, and SCON). Each interrupt requested by the
corresponding flag can be individually enabled or disabled by the enable bits in IEN0 (SFR 0xA8), IEN1
(SFR 0xB8), and IEN2 (SFR 0x9A). Figure 12 shows the device interrupt structure.
Referring to Figure 12, interrupt sources can originate from within the 80515 MPU core (referred to as
Internal Sources) or can originate from other parts of the 71M6545/H Metrology Processor (referred to as
External Sources). There are seven external interrupt sources, as seen in the leftmost part of Figure 12,
and in Table 24 and Table 25 (i.e., EX0-EX6).
Interrupt Overview
When an interrupt occurs, the MPU vectors to the predetermined address as shown in Table 36. Once
the interrupt service has begun, it can be interrupted only by a higher priority interrupt. The interrupt service
is terminated by a return from instruction, RETI. When an RETI is performed, the processor returns to the
instruction that would have been next when the interrupt occurred.
When the interrupt condition occurs, the processor also indicates this by setting a flag bit. This bit is set
regardless of whether the interrupt is enabled or disabled. Each interrupt flag is sampled once per
machine cycle, then samples are polled by the hardware. If the sample indicates a pending interrupt when
the interrupt is enabled, then the interrupt request flag is set. On the next instruction cycle, the interrupt is
acknowledged by hardware forcing an LCALL to the appropriate vector address, if the following conditions
are met:
•
•
•
No interrupt of equal or higher priority is already in progress.
An instruction is currently being executed and is not completed.
The instruction in progress is not RETI or any write access to the registers IEN0, IEN1, IEN2, IP0 or IP1.
Special Function Registers for Interrupts
The following SFR registers control the interrupt functions:
•
•
•
•
The interrupt enable registers: IEN0, IEN1 and IEN2 (see Table 24, Table 25 and Table 26).
The Timer/Counter control registers, TCON and T2CON (see Table 27 and Table 28).
The interrupt request register, IRCON (see Table 29).
The interrupt priority registers: IP0 and IP1 (see Table 34).
Table 24: The IEN0 Bit Functions (SFR 0xA8)
40
Bit
Symbol
IEN0[7]
IEN0[6]
EAL
WDT
Function
EAL = 0 disables all interrupts.
Not used for interrupt control.
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IEN0[5]
IEN0[4]
IEN0[3]
IEN0[2]
IEN0[1]
IEN0[0]
Data Sheet 71M6545/H
–
ES0
ET1
EX1
ET0
EX0
Not Used.
ES0 = 0 disables serial channel 0 interrupt.
ET1 = 0 disables timer 1 overflow interrupt.
EX1 = 0 disables external interrupt 1.
ET0 = 0 disables timer 0 overflow interrupt.
EX0 = 0 disables external interrupt 0.
Table 25: The IEN1 Bit Functions (SFR 0xB8)
Bit
Symbol
IEN1[7]
IEN1[6]
IEN1[5]
IEN1[4]
IEN1[3]
IEN1[2]
IEN1[1]
IEN1[0]
–
–
EX6
EX5
EX4
EX3
EX2
–
Function
Not used.
Not used.
EX6 = 0 disables external interrupt 6.
EX5 = 0 disables external interrupt 5.
EX4 = 0 disables external interrupt 4.
EX3 = 0 disables external interrupt 3.
EX2 = 0 disables external interrupt 2.
Not Used.
Table 26: The IEN2 Bit Functions (SFR 0x9A)
Bit
Symbol
IEN2[0]
ES1
Function
ES1 = 0 disables the serial channel 1 interrupt.
Table 27: TCON Bit Functions (SFR 0x88)
Bit
Symbol
TCON[7]
TCON[6]
TCON[5]
TCON[4]
TCON[3]
TCON[2]
TF1
TR1
TF0
TR0
IE1
IT1
TCON[1]
TCON[0]
IE0
IT0
Function
Timer 1 overflow flag.
Not used for interrupt control.
Timer 0 overflow flag.
Not used for interrupt control.
External interrupt 1 flag.
External interrupt 1 type control bit:
0 = interrupt on low level.
1 = interrupt on falling edge.
External interrupt 0 flag
External interrupt 0 type control bit:
0 = interrupt on low level.
1 = interrupt on falling edge.
Table 28: The T2CON Bit Functions (SFR 0xC8)
Bit
T2CON[7]
T2CON[6]
Symbol
T2CON[5]
I2FR
v1.0
–
I3FR
Function
Not used.
Polarity control for INT3:
0 = falling edge.
1 = rising edge.
Polarity control for INT2:
0 = falling edge.
1 = rising edge.
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Data Sheet 71M6545/H
Bit
T2CON[4:0]
PDS_6545_009
Symbol
–
Function
Not used.
Table 29: The IRCON Bit Functions (SFR 0xC0)
Bit
IRCON[7]
Symbol
–
Function
Not used
IRCON[6]
–
Not used
IRCON[5]
IRCON[4]
IRCON[3]
IRCON[2]
IRCON[1]
IRCON[0]
IEX6
IEX5
IEX4
IEX3
IEX2
–
1 = External interrupt 6 occurred and has not been cleared.
1 = External interrupt 5 occurred and has not been cleared.
1 = External interrupt 4 occurred and has not been cleared.
1 = External interrupt 3 occurred and has not been cleared.
1 = External interrupt 2 occurred and has not been cleared.
Not used.
TF0 and TF1 (Timer 0 and Timer 1 overflow flags) is automatically cleared by hardware when the
service routine is called (Signals T0ACK and T1ACK – port ISR – active high when the service
routine is called).
External MPU Interrupts
The seven external interrupts are the interrupts external to the 80515 core, i.e. signals that originate in
other parts of the 71M6545/H, for example the CE, DIO, RTC, or EEPROM interface.
The external interrupts are connected as shown in Table 30. The polarity of interrupts 2 and 3 is
programmable in the MPU via the I3FR and I2FR bits in T2CON (SFR 0xC8). Interrupts 2 and 3 should
be programmed for falling sensitivity (I3FR = I2FR = 0). The generic 8051 MPU literature states that
interrupts 4 through 6 are defined as rising-edge sensitive. Thus, the hardware signals attached to
interrupts 5 and 6 are inverted to achieve the edge polarity shown in Table 30.
Table 30: External MPU Interrupts
External
Interrupt
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
Connection
Digital I/O
Digital I/O
CE_PULSE
CE_BUSY
VSTAT (VSTAT[2:0] changed)
EEPROM busy (falling), SPI (rising)
XFER_BUSY (falling), RTC_1SEC, RTC_1MIN, RTC_T
Polarity
rising
falling
rising
falling
Flag Reset
automatic
automatic
automatic
automatic
automatic
automatic
manual
External interrupt 0 and 1 can be mapped to pins on the device using DIO resource maps.
SFR enable bits must be set to permit any of these interrupts to occur. Likewise, each interrupt has its own
flag bit, which is set by the interrupt hardware, and reset by the MPU interrupt handler. XFER_BUSY,
RTC_1SEC, RTC_1MIN, RTC_T, SPI, PLLRISE and PLLFALL have their own enable and flag bits in
addition to the interrupt 6, 4 and enable and flag bits (see Table 31: Interrupt Enable and Flag Bits).
IE0 through IEX6 are cleared automatically when the hardware vectors to the interrupt handler.
The other flags, IE_XFER through IE_PB, are cleared by writing a zero to them.
Since these bits are in an SFR bit addressable byte, common practice would be to clear them
with a bit operation, but this must be avoided. The hardware implements bit operations as a
byte wide read-modify-write hardware macro. If an interrupt occurs after the read, but before
the write, its flag is cleared unintentionally.
42
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Data Sheet 71M6545/H
The proper way to clear the flag bits is to write a byte mask consisting of all ones except for a
zero in the location of the bit to be cleared. The flag bits are configured in hardware to ignore
ones written to them.
Table 31: Interrupt Enable and Flag Bits
Interrupt Enable
Interrupt Flag
Name
Location
Name
Location
EX0
EX1
EX2
EX3
EX4
EX5
EX6
EX_XFER
EX_RTC1S
EX_RTC1M
EX_RTCT
EX_SPI
EX_EEX
EX_XPULSE
EX_YPULSE
EX_WPULSE
EX_VPULSE
SFR A8[[0]
SFR A8[2]
SFR B8[1]
SFR B8[2]
SFR B8[3]
SFR B8[4]
SFR B8[5]
2700[0]
2700[1]
2700[2]
2700[4]
2701[7]
2700[7]
2700[6]
2700[5]
2701[6]
2701[5]
IE0
IE1
IEX2
IEX3
IEX4
IEX5
IEX6
IE_XFER
IE_RTC1S
IE_RTC1M
IE_RTCT
IE_SPI
IE_EEX
IE_XPULSE
IE_YPULSE
IE_WPULSE
IE_VPULSE
SFR 88[1]
SFR 88[3]
SFR C0[1]
SFR C0[2]
SFR C0[3]
SFR C0[4]
SFR C0[5]
SFR E8[0]
SFR E8[1]
SFR E8[2]
SFR E8[4]
SFR F8[7]
SFR E8[7]
SFR E8[6]
SFR E8[5]
SFR F8[4]
SFR F8[3]
Interrupt Description
External interrupt 0
External interrupt 1
External interrupt 2
External interrupt 3
External interrupt 4
External interrupt 5
External interrupt 6
XFER_BUSY interrupt (int 6)
RTC_1SEC interrupt (int 6)
RTC_1MIN interrupt (int 6)
RTC_T interrupt (int 6)
SPI interrupt
EEPROM interrupt
CE_Xpulse interrupt (int 2)
CE_Ypulse interrupt (int 2)
CE_Wpulse interrupt (int 2)
CE_Vpulse interrupt (int 2)
Interrupt Priority Level Structure
All interrupt sources are combined in groups, as shown in Table 32.
Table 32: Interrupt Priority Level Groups
Group
0
1
2
3
4
5
Group Members
External interrupt 0
Timer 0 interrupt
External interrupt 1
Timer 1 interrupt
Serial channel 0 interrupt
–
Serial channel 1 interrupt
–
–
–
–
–
–
External interrupt 2
External interrupt 3
External interrupt 4
External interrupt 5
External interrupt 6
Each group of interrupt sources can be programmed individually to one of four priority levels (as shown in
Table 33) by setting or clearing one bit in the SFR interrupt priority register IP0 (SFR 0xA9) and one in
IP1(SFR 0xB9) (Table 34). If requests of the same priority level are received simultaneously, an internal
polling sequence as shown in Table 35 determines which request is serviced first.
Changing interrupt priorities while interrupts are enabled can easily cause software defects. It is best
to set the interrupt priority registers only once during initialization before interrupts are enabled.
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Table 33: Interrupt Priority Levels
IP1[x]
IP0[x]
0
0
1
1
0
1
0
1
Priority Level
Level 0 (lowest)
Level 1
Level 2
Level 3 (highest)
Table 34: Interrupt Priority Registers (IP0 and IP1)
Register
Address
IP0
SFR 0xA9
Bit 7
(MSB)
–
IP1
SFR 0xB9
–
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
–
IP0[5]
IP0[4]
IP0[3]
IP0[2]
IP0[1]
Bit 0
(LSB)
IP0[0]
–
IP1[5]
IP1[4]
IP1[3]
IP1[2]
IP1[1]
IP1[0]
External interrupt 0
Serial channel 1 interrupt
Timer 0 interrupt
External interrupt 2
External interrupt 1
External interrupt 3
Timer 1 interrupt
External interrupt 4
Serial channel 0 interrupt
External interrupt 5
External interrupt 6
Polling sequence
Table 35: Interrupt Polling Sequence
Interrupt Sources and Vectors
Table 36 shows the interrupts with their associated flags and vector addresses.
Table 36: Interrupt Vectors
Interrupt
Request Flag
IE0
TF0
IE1
TF1
RI0/TI0
RI1/TI1
IEX2
IEX3
IEX4
IEX5
IEX6
44
Description
External interrupt 0
Timer 0 interrupt
External interrupt 1
Timer 1 interrupt
Serial channel 0 interrupt
Serial channel 1 interrupt
External interrupt 2
External interrupt 3
External interrupt 4
External interrupt 5
External interrupt 6
Interrupt Vector
Address
0x0003
0x000B
0x0013
0x001B
0x0023
0x0083
0x004B
0x0053
0x005B
0x0063
0x006B
© 2008–2011 Teridian Semiconductor Corporation
v1.0
PDS_6545_0099
0
External
Source
Internal
Source
Individual
Enable Bits
Individual Flags
DIO
DIO status
changed
DIO_Rn
TCON.1 (IE0)
byte received
UART1
(optical)
Logic and Polarity
Selection
Interrupt
Flags
Interrupt Enable
IEN0.7
(EAL)
IEN0.0
(EX0)
Priority
Assignment
IT0
IEN2.0
(ES1)
S1CON.0 (RI1)
IP1.0/
IP0.0
>=1
byte transmitted
S1CON.1 (TI1)
IEN0.1
(ET0)
Timer 0
XPULSE
YPULSE
2
1
3
overflow occurred
CE detected zero
crossing
CE detected sag
EX_XPULSE
TCON.5 (TF0)
EX_YPULSE
IE_YPULSE
WPULSE
Wh pulse
EX_WPULSE
IE_WPULSE
VPULSE
VARh pulse
EX_VPULSE
IE_VPULSE
DIO_Rn
TCON.3 (IE1)
DIO
CE_BUSY
DIO status
changed
IEN1.1
(EX2)
IE_XPULSE
>=1
I3FR
overflow occurred
VSTAT
IEN0.3
(ET1)
TCON.7 (TF1)
>=1
byte transmitted
5
6
command
received
XFER_BUSY
accumulation
cycle completed
RTC_1M
RTC_T
EX_EEX
S0CON.0 (TI0)
IEN1.4
(EX5)
IE_EEX
>=1
SPI
RTC_1S
IEN0.4
(ES0)
S0CON.0 (RI0)
UART0
BUSY fell
every second
every minute
alarm clock
IP1.3/
IP0.3
IRCON.3
(IEX4)
Supply status changed
byte received
EEPROM
IP1.2/
IP0.2
IRCON.2
(IEX3)
IEN1.3
(EX4)
4
IP1.1/
IP0.1
IEN0.2
(EX1)
IEN1.2
(EX3)
CE completed code run and
has new status information
Timer 1
I2FR
IRCON.1
(IEX2)
Polling Sequence
No.
Data Sheet 71M6545/H5/H
EX_SPI
IP1.4/
IP0.4
IRCON.4
(IEX5)
IE_SPI
EX_XFER
IE_XFER
EX_RTC1S
IE_RTC1S
EX_RTC1M
IE_RTC1M
IEN1.5
(EX6)
IP1.5/
IP0.5
IRCON.5
(IEX6)
>=1
EX_RTCT
IE_RTCT
Flag=1
means that
an interrupt
has occurred
and has not
been cleared
EX0 – EX6 are cleared
automaticallywhen the
hardware vectors to the
interrupt handler
Interrupt
Vector
3/19/2010
Figure 12: Interrupt Structure
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© 2008–2011 Teridian Semiconductor Corporation
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PDS_6545_009
Data Sheet 71M6545/H
2.5
On-Chip Resources
2.5.1
Physical Memory
2.5.1.1 Flash Memory
The 71M6545/H includes 64 KB of on-chip flash memory. The flash memory primarily contains MPU and
CE program code. It also contains images of the CE RAM and I/O RAM. On power-up, before enabling
the CE, the MPU copies these images to their respective locations.
Flash space allocated for the CE program is limited to 4096 16-bit words (8 KB). The CE program must
begin on a 1-KB boundary of the flash address space. The CE_LCTN[5:0] (I/O RAM 0x2109[5:0]) field
defines which 1-KB boundary contains the CE code. Thus, the first CE instruction is located at
1024*CE_LCTN[5:0].
Flash memory can be accessed by the MPU, the CE, and by the SPI interface (R/W).
Table 37: Flash Memory Access
Access by
MPU
CE
SPI
Access
Type
R/W/E
R
R/W/E
Condition
W/E only if CE is disabled.
Access only when SFM is invoked (MPU halted).
Flash Write Procedures
If the FLSH_UNLOCK[3:0] (I/O RAM 0x2702[7:4]) key is correctly programmed, the MPU may write to the
flash memory. This is one of the non-volatile storage options available to the user in addition to external
EEPROM.
The flash program write enable bit, FLSH_PSTWR (SFR 0xB2[0]), differentiates 80515 data store instructions
(MOVX@DPTR,A) between Flash and XRAM writes. This bit is automatically cleared by hardware after
each byte write operation. Write operations to this bit are inhibited when interrupts are enabled.
If the CE is enabled (CE_E = 1, I/O RAM 0x2106[0]), flash write operations must not be attempted unless
FLSH_PSTWR is set. This bit enables the “posted flash write” capability. FLSH_PSTWR has no effect when
CE_E = 0). When CE_E = 1, however, FLSH_PSTWR delays a flash write until the time interval between
the CE code passes. During this delay time, the FLSH_PEND (SFR 0xB2[3]) bit is high, and the MPU
continues to execute commands. When the CE code pass ends (CE_BUSY falls), the FLSH_PEND bit
falls and the write operation occurs. The MPU can query the FLSH_PEND bit to determine when the
write operation has been completed. While FLSH_PEND = 1, further flash write requests are ignored.
Updating Individual Bytes in Flash Memory
The original state of a flash byte is 0xFF (all bits are 1). Once a value other than 0xFF is written to a flash
memory cell, overwriting with a different value usually requires that the cell be erased first. Since cells
cannot be erased individually, the page has to be first copied to RAM, followed by a page erase. After
this, the page can be updated in RAM and then written back to the flash memory.
Flash Erase Procedures
Flash erasure is initiated by writing a specific data pattern to specific SFR registers in the proper sequence.
These special pattern/sequence requirements prevent inadvertent erasure of the flash memory.
The mass erase sequence is:
•
•
Write 1 to the FLSH_MEEN bit (SFR 0xB2[1]).
Write the pattern 0xAA to the FLSH_ERASE (SFR 0x94) register.
The mass erase cycle can only be initiated when the ICE port is enabled.
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© 2008–2011 Teridian Semiconductor Corporation
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PDS_6545_009
Data Sheet 71M6545/H
The page erase sequence is:
•
•
Write the page address to FLSH_PGADR[6:0] (SFR 0xB7[7:1]).
Write the pattern 0x55 to the FLSH_ERASE register (SFR 0x94).
Program Security
When enabled, the security feature limits the ICE to global flash erase operations only. All other ICE
operations, such as reading via the SPI or ICE port, are blocked. This guarantees the security of the user’s
MPU and CE program code. Security is enabled by MPU code that is executed in a 64 CKMPU cycle
pre-boot interval before the primary boot sequence begins. Once security is enabled, the only way to
disable it is to perform a global erase of the flash, followed by a chip reset.
The first 60 cycles of the MPU boot code are called the pre-boot phase because during this phase the
ICE is inhibited. A read-only status bit, PREBOOT (SFR 0xB2[7]), identifies these cycles to the MPU.
Upon completion of pre-boot, the ICE can be enabled and is permitted to take control of the MPU.
The security enable bit, SECURE (SFR 0xB2[6]), is reset whenever the chip is reset. Hardware associated
with the bit allows only ones to be written to it. Thus, pre-boot code may set SECURE to enable the security
feature but may not reset it. Once SECURE is set, the pre-boot and CE code are protected from erasure,
and no external read of program code is possible.
Specifically, when the SECURE bit is set, the following applies:
•
•
•
The ICE is limited to bulk flash erase only.
Page zero of flash memory, the preferred location for the user’s pre-boot code, may not be
page-erased by either MPU or ICE. Page zero may only be erased with global flash erase.
Write operations to page zero, whether by MPU or ICE are inhibited.
The 71M6545/H also includes hardware to protect against unintentional Flash write and erase. To enable
flash write and erase operations, a 4-bit hardware key that must be written to the FLSH_UNLOCK[3:0] field.
The key is the binary number ‘0010’. If FLSH_UNLOCK[3:0] is not ‘0010’, the Flash erase and write operation
is inhibited by hardware. Proper operation of this security key requires that there be no firmware function that
writes ‘0010’ to FLSH_UNLOCK[3:0]. The key should be written by the external SPI master, in the case of
SPI flash programming (SFM mode), or through the ICE interface in the case of ICE flash programming.
When a boot loader is used, the key should be sent to the boot load code which then writes it to
FLSH_UNLOCK[3:0]. FLSH_UNLOCK[3:0] is not automatically reset. It should be cleared when the SPI or
ICE has finished changing the Flash. Table 38 summarizes the I/O RAM registers used for flash security.
Table 38: Flash Security
Name
FLSH_UNLOCK[3:0]
Location
Rst
Wk
Dir
Description
2702[7:4]
0
0
R/W
SECURE
SFR B2[6]
0
0
R/W
Must be a 2 to enable any flash modification.
See the description of Flash security for
more details.
Inhibits erasure of page 0 and flash addresses
above the beginning of CE code as defined
by CE_LCTN[5:0](I/O RAM 0x2109[5:0]).
Also inhibits the read of flash via the ICE
and SPI ports.
SPI Flash Mode
In normal operation, the SPI slave interface cannot read or write the flash memory. However, the
71M6545/H contains a Special Flash Mode (SFM) that facilitates initial (production) programming of the
flash memory. When the 71M6545/H is in SFM mode, the SPI interface can erase, read, and write the
flash. Other memory elements such as XRAM and I/O RAM are not accessible to the SPI in this mode.
In order to protect the flash contents, several operations are required before the SFM mode is successfully
invoked.
Details on the SFM can be found in 2.5.12 SPI Slave Port.
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© 2008–2011 Teridian Semiconductor Corporation
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Data Sheet 71M6545/H
PDS_6545_009
2.5.1.2 MPU/CE RAM
The 71M6545/H includes 5 KB of static RAM memory on-chip (XRAM) plus 256 bytes of internal RAM in
the MPU core. The 5KB of static RAM are used for data storage by both MPU and CE and for the
communication between MPU and CE.
2.5.1.3 I/O RAM (Configuration RAM)
The I/O RAM can be seen as a series of hardware registers that control basic hardware functions. I/O
RAM address space starts at 0x2000. The registers of the I/O RAM are listed in Table 59.
The 71M6545/H includes 128 bytes non-volatile RAM memory on-chip in the I/O RAM address space
(addresses 0x2800 to 0x287F). This memory section is supported by the voltage applied at VBAT_RTC,
and the data in it are preserved in SLP mode provided that the voltage at the VBAT_RTC pin is within
specification.
2.5.2
Oscillator
The 71M6545/H oscillator drives a standard 32.768 kHz watch crystal. This type of crystal is accurate and
does not require a high-current oscillator circuit. The oscillator has been designed specifically to handle
watch crystals and is compatible with their high impedance and limited power handling capability. The
oscillator power dissipation is very low to maximize the lifetime of any battery attached to VBAT_RTC.
Oscillator calibration can improve the accuracy of both the RTC and metering. Refer to 2.5.4, Real-Time
Clock (RTC) for more information.
The oscillator is powered from the V3P3SYS pin or from the VBAT_RTC pin, depending on the V3OK
internal bit (i.e., V3OK = 1 if V3P3SYS ≥ 2.8 VDC and V3OK = 0 if V3P3SYS < 2.8 VDC). The oscillator
requires approximately 100 nA, which is negligible compared to the internal leakage of a battery.
If VBAT_RTC is connected to a drained battery or disconnected, a battery test that sets
TEMP_BAT may drain the supply connected to VBAT_RTC and cause the oscillator to stop. A
stopped oscillator may force the device to reset. Therefore, an unexpected reset during a battery
test should be interpreted as a battery failure.
2.5.3
PLL and Internal Clocks
Timing for the device is derived from the 32.768 kHz crystal oscillator output that is multiplied by a PLL by
600 to obtain 19.660800 MHz, the master clock (MCK). All on-chip timing, except for the RTC clock, is
derived from MCK. Table 39 provides a summary of the clock functions and their controls.
The two general-purpose counter/timers contained in the MPU are controlled by CKMPU (see 2.4.8
Timers and Counters).
The master clock can be boosted to 19.66 MHz by setting the PLL_FAST bit = 1 (I/O RAM 0x2200[4]) and
can be reduced to 6.29 MHz by PLL_FAST = 0. The MPU clock frequency CKMPU is determined by
another divider controlled by the I/O RAM control field MPU_DIV[2:0] (I/O RAM 0x2200[2:0]) and can be
-(MPU_DIV+2)
where MPU_DIV[2:0] may vary from 0 to 4. When the ICE_E pin is high, the
set to MCK*2
circuit also generates the 9.83 MHz clock for use by the emulator.
When the part is waking up from SLP mode, the PLL is turned on in 6.29 MHz mode, and the PLL
frequency is not be accurate until the PLL_OK (SFR 0xF9[4]) flag rises. Due to potential overshoot, the MPU
should not change the value of PLL_FAST until PLL_OK is true.
48
© 2008–2011 Teridian Semiconductor Corporation
v1.0
PDS_6545_009
Data Sheet 71M6545/H
Table 39: Clock System Summary
Clock
OSC
Crystal
MCK
Crystal/PLL
CKCE
MCK
CKADC
MCK
CKMPU
MCK
CKICE
MCK
CKOPTMOD
MCK
CK32
MCK
2.5.4
Fixed Frequency or Range
Derived
From
PLL_FAST=1
PLL_FAST=0
Controlled by
Function
32.768 kHz
–
Crystal clock
19.660800 MHz
6.291456 MHz
PLL_FAST
Master clock
(600*CK32)
(192*CK32)
4.9152 MHz
1.5728 MHz
–
CE clock
1.572864 MHz,
4.9152 MHz,
ADC_DIV
ADC clock
2.4576 MHz
0.786432 MHz
4.9152 MHz … 1.572864 MHz…
MPU_DIV[2:0] MPU clock
307.2 kHz
98.304 kHz
9.8304 MHz… 3.145728 MHz …
MPU_DIV[2:0]
ICE clock
196.608 kHz
614.4 kHz
Optical
UART
38.40 kHz
38.6 kHz
–
Modulation
32.768 kHz
–
32 kHz clock
Real-Time Clock (RTC)
2.5.4.1 RTC General Description
The RTC is driven directly by the crystal oscillator and is powered by either the V3P3SYS pin or the
VBAT_RTC pin, depending on the V3OK internal bit. The RTC consists of a counter chain and output
registers. The counter chain consists of registers for seconds, minutes, hours, day of week, day of month,
month, and year. The chain registers are supported by a shadow register that facilitates read and write
operations.
Table 40 shows the I/O RAM registers for accessing the RTC.
2.5.4.2 Accessing the RTC
Two bits, RTC_RD (I/O RAM 0x2890[6]) and RTC_WR (I/O RAM 0x2890[7]), control the behavior of the
shadow register.
When RTC_RD is low, the shadow register is updated by the RTC after each two milliseconds. When
RTC_RD is high, this update is halted and the shadow register contents become stationary and are suitable
to be read by the MPU. Thus, when the MPU wishes to read the RTC, it freezes the shadow register by
setting the RTC_RD bit, reads the shadow register, and then lowers the RTC_RD bit to let updates to the
shadow register resume. Since the RTC clock is only 500 Hz, there may be a delay of approximately
2 ms from when the RTC_RD bit is lowered until the shadow register receives its first update. Reads to
RTC_RD continues to return a one until the first shadow update occurs.
When RTC_WR is high, the update of the shadow register is also inhibited. During this time, the MPU may
overwrite the contents of the shadow register. When RTC_WR is lowered, the shadow register is written into
the RTC counter on the next 500Hz RTC clock. A ‘change’ bit is included for each word in the shadow
register to ensure that only programmed words are updated when the MPU writes a zero to RTC_WR.
Reads of RTC_WR returns one until the counter has actually been updated by the register.
The sub-second register of the RTC, RTC_SBSC (I/O RAM 0x2892), can be read by the MPU after the one
second interrupt and before reaching the next one second boundary. RTC_SBSC contains the count since
the last full second, in 1/128 second nominal clock periods, until the next one-second boundary. When the
RST_SUBSEC bit is written, the SUBSEC counter is restarted, counting from 0 to 127. Reading and resetting
the sub-second counter can be used as part of an algorithm to accurately set the RTC.
The RTC is capable of processing leap years. Each counter has its own output register. The RTC chain
registers are not be affected by the reset pin, watchdog timer resets, or by transitions between the SLP
mode and mission mode.
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© 2008–2011 Teridian Semiconductor Corporation
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Data Sheet 71M6545/H
PDS_6545_009
Table 40: RTC Control Registers
Name
Location
Rst
Wk
Dir
Description
RTCA_ADJ[6:0]
RTC_P[16:14]
RTC_P[13:6]
RTC_P[5:0]
RTC_Q[1:0]
2504[6:0]
289B[2:0]
289C[7:0]
289D[7:2]
289D[1:0]
40
4
0
0
0
-4
0
0
0
R/W
R/W
Register for analog RTC frequency adjustment.
R/W
RTC_RD
2890[6]
0
0
R/W
RTC_WR
2890[7]
0
0
R/W
RTC_FAIL
2890[4]
0
0
R/W
Register for digital RTC adjustment.
Freezes the RTC shadow register so it is suitable for
MPU reads. When RTC_RD is read, it returns the
status of the shadow register: 0 = up to date, 1 =
frozen.
Freezes the RTC shadow register so it is suitable for
MPU write operations. When RTC_WR is cleared, the
contents of the shadow register are written to the RTC
counter on the next RTC clock (~1 kHz). When
RTC_WR is read, it returns 1 as long as RTC_WR is
set, and continues to return one until the RTC counter
is updated.
Indicates that a count error has occurred in the RTC
and that the time is not trustworthy. This bit can be
cleared by writing a 0.
Time remaining since the last 1 second boundary.
LSB = 1/128 second.
RTC_SBSC[7:0]
2892[7:0]
R
Registers for digital RTC adjustment.
0x0FFBF ≤ RTC_P ≤ 0x10040
2.5.4.3 RTC Rate Control
The 71M6545/H has two rate adjustment mechanisms:
•
•
The first rate adjustment mechanism is an analog rate adjustment, using the I/O RAM register
RTCA_ADJ[6:0], that trims the crystal load capacitance.
The second rate adjustment mechanism is a digital rate adjust that affects the way the clock frequency
is processed in the RTC.
Setting RTCA_ADJ[6:0] to 00 minimizes the load capacitance, maximizing the oscillator frequency. Setting
RTCA_ADJ[6:0] to 0x7F maximizes the load capacitance, minimizing the oscillator frequency. The adjustable
capacitance is approximately:
C ADJ =
RTCA _ ADJ
⋅ 16.5 pF
128
The precise amount of adjustment depends on the crystal properties, the PCB layout and the value of the
external crystal capacitors. The adjustment may occur at any time, and the resulting clock frequency should
be measured over a one-second interval.
The second rate adjustment is digital, and can be used to adjust the clock rate up to ±988ppm, with a
resolution of 3.8 ppm (±1.9 ppm). The rate adjustment is implemented starting at the next secondboundary following the adjustment. Since the LSB results in an adjustment every four seconds, the
frequency should be measured over an interval that is a multiple of four seconds.
The clock rate is adjusted by writing the appropriate values to RTC_P[16:0] (I/O RAM 0x289B[2:0], 0x289C,
0x289D[7:2]) and RTC_Q[1:0] (I/O RAM 0x289D[1:0]). Updates to RTC rate adjust registers, RTC_P and
RTC_Q, are done through the shadow register described above. The new values are loaded into the
counters when RTC_WR (I/O RAM 0x2890[7]) is lowered.
The default frequency is 32,768 RTCLK cycles per second. To shift the clock frequency by ∆ ppm,
RTC_P and RTC_Q are calculated using the following equation:
50
© 2008–2011 Teridian Semiconductor Corporation
v1.0
PDS_6545_009
Data Sheet 71M6545/H
 32768 ⋅ 8

+ 0.5 
4 ⋅ RTC_P + RTC_Q = floor 
−6
 1 + ∆ ⋅10

Conversely, the amount of ppm shift for a given value of 4RTC_P+RTC_Q is:


32768 ⋅ 8
− 1 ⋅ 106
∆ ( ppm) = 

 4 ⋅ RTCP + RTCQ


For example, for a shift of -988 ppm, 4 ⋅ RTC_P + RTC_Q = 262403 = 0x40103. RTC_P[16:0] = 0x10040,
(I/O RAM 0x289B[2:0], 0x289C, 0x289D[7:2]) and RTC_Q[1:0] = 0x03 (I/O RAM 0x289D[1:0]. The default
values of RTC_P[16:0] and RTC_Q[1:0], corresponding to zero adjustment, are 0x10000 and 0x0, respectively.
Two settings for the TMUX2OUT test pin, PULSE_1S and PULSE_4S, are available for measuring and
calibrating the RTC clock frequency. These are waveforms of approximately 25% duty cycle with 1s or 4s
period.
Default values for RTCA_ADJ[6:0], RTC_P[16:0] and RTC_Q[1:0] should be nominal values, at
the center of the adjustment range. Uncalibrated extreme values (zero, for example) can cause
incorrect operation.
If the crystal temperature coefficient is known, the MPU can integrate temperature and correct the RTC
time as necessary. Alternatively, the characteristics can be loaded into an NV RAM and the OSC_COMP
(I/O RAM 0x28A0[5]) bit may be set. In this case, the oscillator is adjusted automatically, even in SLP
mode. See 2.5.4.4 RTC Temperature Compensation for details.
2.5.4.4 RTC Temperature Compensation
The 71M6545/H can be configured to regularly measure die temperature, including in SLP mode,
provided that the VBAT_RTC pin is supplied with a voltage within specification provided by a battery. If
enabled by OSC_COMP, this temperature information is automatically used to correct for the temperature
variation of the crystal. A table lookup method is used.
Table 41 shows I/O RAM registers involved in automatic RTC temperature compensation.
Table 41: I/O RAM Registers for RTC Temperature Compensation
Name
Location
Rst
Wk
Dir
OSC_COMP
28A0[5]
0
0
R/W
STEMP[10:3]
STEMP[2:0]
2881[7:0]
2882[7:5]
–
–
R
LKPADDR[6:0]
2887[6:0]
0
0
R/W
2887[7]
0
0
R/W
2888[7:0]
0
0
R/W
2889[1]
2889[0]
0
0
0
0
R/W
R/W
LKPAUTOI
LKPDAT[7:0]
LKP_RD
LKP_WR
Description
Enables the automatic update of RTC_P[16:0] and
RTC_Q[1:0] every time the temperature is measured.
The result of the temperature measurement (10-bits
of magnitude data plus a sign bit).
The address for reading and writing the RTC lookup
RAM.
Auto-increment flag. When set, LKPADDR[6:0] auto
increments every time LKP_RD or LKP_WR is pulsed.
The incremented address can be read at
LKPADDR[6:0].
The data for reading and writing the RTC lookup
RAM.
Strobe bits for the RTC lookup RAM read and write.
When set, the LKPADDR[6:0] and LKPDAT registers
are used in a read or write operation. When a strobe is
set, it stays set until the operation completes, at which
time the strobe is cleared and LKPADDR[6:0] is
incremented if LKPAUTOI is set.
Referring to Figure 13 the table lookup method uses the 10-bits plus sign-bit value in STEMP[10:0]
right-shifted by two bits to obtain an 8-bit plus sign value (i.e., NV RAM Address = STEMP[10:0]/4). A
limiter ensures that the resulting look-up address is in the 6-bit plus sign range of -64 to +63 (decimal).
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Data Sheet 71M6545/H
PDS_6545_009
The 8-bit NV RAM content pointed to by the address is added as a 2’s complement value to 0x40000,
the nominal value of 4*RTC_P[16:0] + RTC_Q[1:0].
Refer to 2.5.4.3 RTC Rate Control for information on the rate adjustments performed by registers
RTC_P[16:0] and RTC_Q[1:0]. The 8-bit values loaded in to NV RAM must be scaled correctly to produce
rate adjustments that are consistent with the equations given in 2.5.4.3 RTC Rate Control for RTC_P[16:0]
and RTC_Q[1:0]. Note that the sum of the looked-up 8-bit 2’s complement value and 0x40000 form a 19bit value, which is equal to 4*RTC_P[16:0] + RTC_Q[1:0], as shown in Figure 13. The output of the
Temperature Compensation is automatically loaded into the RTC_P[16:0] and RTC_Q[1:0] locations after
each look-up and summation operation.
LIMIT
STEMP
10+S
>>2
8+S
Look Up
RAM
63
ADDR
-256
-64
63
255
6+S
-64
Q
Σ
7+S
19
4*RTC_P+RTC_Q
19
0x40000
Figure 13: Automatic Temperature Compensation
As mentioned above, the STEMP[10:0] digital temperature values are scaled such that the
corresponding NV RAM addresses are equal to STEMP[10:0]/4 (limited in the range of -64 to +63). See
2.5.5 71M6545/H Temperature Sensor on page 53 for the equations to calculate temperature in degrees °C
from the STEMP[10:0] reading.
For proper operation, the MPU has to load the lookup table with values that reflect the crystal properties
with respect to temperature, which is typically done once during initialization. Since the lookup table is
not directly addressable, the MPU uses the following procedure to load the NV RAM table:
1. Set the LKPAUTOI bit (I/O RAM 0x2887[7]) to enable address auto-increment.
2. Write zero into the I/O RAM register LKPADDR[6:0] (I/O RAM 0x2887[6:0]).
3. Write the 8-bit datum into I/O RAM register LKPDAT (I/O RAM 0x2888).
4. Set the LKP_WR bit (I/O RAM 0x2889[0]) to write the 8-bit datum into NV_RAM
5. Wait for LKP_WR to clear (LKP_WR auto-clears when the data has been copied to NV RAM).
6. Repeat steps 3 through 5 until all data has been written to NV RAM.
The NV RAM table can also be read by writing a 1 into the LKP_RD bit (I/O RAM 0x2889[1]). The process
of reading from and writing to the NV RAM is accelerated by setting the LKPAUTOI bit (I/O RAM 0x2887[7]).
When LKPAUTOI is set, LKPADDR[6:0] (I/O RAM 0x2887[6:0]) auto-increments every time LKP_RD or
LKP_WR is pulsed. It is also possible to perform random access of the NV RAM by writing a 0 to the
LKPAUTOI bit and loading the desired address into LKPADDR[6:0].
If the oscillator temperature compensation feature is not being used, it is possible to use the NV
RAM storage area as ordinary battery-backed NV storage space using the procedure described
above to read and write NV RAM data. In this case, the OSC_COMP bit (I/O RAM 0x28A0[5]) is
reset to disable the automatic oscillator temperature compensation feature.
2.5.4.5 RTC Interrupts
The RTC generates interrupts each second and each minute. These interrupts are called RTC_1SEC
and RTC_1MIN. In addition, the RTC functions as an alarm clock by generating an interrupt when the
minutes and hours registers both equal their respective target counts. The alarm clock interrupt is called
RTC_T. All three interrupts appear in the MPU’s external interrupt 6. See Table 31 in the interrupt section
for the enable bits and flags for these interrupts.
The minute and hour target registers are listed in Table 42.
Table 42: I/O RAM Registers for RTC Interrupts
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Name
Location Rst
RTC_TMIN[5:0] 289E[5:0] 0
RTC_THR[4:0]
2.5.5
289F[4:0]
0
Wk
0
0
Dir
Description
R/W The target minutes register. See below.
The target hours register. The RTC_T interrupt occurs
R/W when RTC_MIN[5:0] becomes equal to RTC_TMIN[5:0]
and RTC_HR[4:0] becomes equal to RTC_THR[4:0].
71M6545/H Temperature Sensor
The 71M6545/H includes an on-chip temperature sensor for determining the temperature of its
bandgap reference. The primary use of the temperature data is to determine the magnitude of
compensation required to offset the thermal drift in the system for the compensation of current, voltage
and energy measurement and the RTC. See 4.5 Metrology Temperature Compensation on page 74. Also
see 2.5.4.4 RTC Temperature Compensation on page 51.
The temperature sensor can be used to compensate for the frequency variation of the crystal, during ac
power outages, provided the VBAT_RTC voltage is within specification (supplied by a battery). See
2.5.4.4 RTC Temperature Compensation on page 51.
In MSN mode, the temperature sensor is awakened on command from the MPU by setting the
TEMP_START (I/O RAM 0x28B4[6]) control bit. During power outages and while operating from
VBAT_RTC power, it is awakened at a regular rate set by TEMP_PER[2:0] (I/O RAM 0x28A0[2:0]).
The result of the temperature measurement can be read from the two I/O RAM locations STEMP[10:3]
(I/O RAM 0x2881) and STEMP[2:0] (I/O RAM 0x2882[7:5]). Note that both of these I/O RAM locations must
be read and properly combined to form the STEMP[10:0] 11-bit value (see STEMP in Table 43). The
resulting 11-bit value is in 2’s complement form and ranges from -1024 to +1023 (decimal). The equations
below are used to calculate the sensed temperature from the 11-bit STEMP[10:0] reading.
For the 71M6545 in MSN Mode (with TEMP_PWR = 1):
Temp( o C ) = 0.325 ⋅ STEMP + 22
For the temperature sensors in the 71M6545H:
If STEMP ≤ 0:
(℃) = 0.325 ∙  + 0.00218 ∙  2 − 0.609 ∙  + 64.4
If STEMP > 0:
(℃) =
63 ∙ 
+ 0.00218 ∙ 2 − 0.609 ∙  + 64.4
_85
The TEMP_85[10:0] trim fuses are read from the Info Page. See 5.3 Reading the Info Page (71M6545H
only) on page 98 for information on how to read the 71M6545H trim fuses.
Table 43 shows the I/O RAM registers used for temperature and battery measurement.
If TEMP_PWR selects VBAT_RTC when the battery is nearly discharged, the temperature
measurement may not finish. In this case, firmware may complete the measurement by selecting
V3P3D (TEMP_PWR = 1).
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PDS_6545_009
Table 43: I/O RAM Registers for Temperature and Battery Measurement
Name
TBYTE_BUSY
TEMP_PER[2:0]
Location
Rst
Wk
Dir
28A0[3]
0
0
R
28A0[2:0]
0
–
R/W
Description
Indicates that hardware is still writing the 0x28A0
byte. Additional writes to this byte are locked out
while it is one. Write duration could be as long as 6 ms.
Sets the period between temperature measurements.
Automatic measurements can be enabled in any
mode (MSN and during ac power outages if the
VBAT_RTC voltage is within specification, as
supplied by a battery).
TEMP_PER
0
1-6
7
TEMP_BAT
28A0[4]
0
–
TEMP_START
28B4[6]
0
–
TEMP_PWR
28A0[6]
0
–
Reserved
28A0[7]
0
–
0
–
TEMP_TEST[1:0] 2500[1:0]
Causes the VBAT_RTC pin to be measured
whenever a temperature measurement is performed.
TEMP_PER[2:0] must be zero in order for TEMP_START
to function. If TEMP_PER[2:0] = 0, then setting
TEMP_START starts a temperature measurement.
R/W
This bit is ignored in SLP mode. Hardware clears
TEMP_START when the temperature measurement is
complete.
Selects the power source for the temperature sensor:
1 = V3P3D, 0 = VBAT_RTC. This bit is ignored in
R/W
SLP mode, where the temperature sensor is always
powered by VBAT_RTC.
R/W Must always be zero.
Test bits for the temperature monitor VCO.
TEMP_TEST must be 00 in regular operation. Any
other value causes the VCO to run continuously with
the control voltage described below.
R/W TEMP_TEST Function
R/W
00
01
1X
STEMP[10:3]
STEMP[2:0]
2881[7:0]
2882[7:5]
BSENSE[7:0]
2885[7:0]
–
–
2704[3]
0
0
BCURR
2.5.6
Time
Manual updates (see TEMP_START)
2 ^ (3+TEMP_PER) (seconds)
Continuous
Normal operation
Reserved for factory test
Reserved for factory test
R
R
The result of the temperature measurement.
The STEMP[10:0] value may be obtained in C with a
single 16-bit read and divide by 32 operation as
follows:
volatile int16_t xdata STEMP _at_0x2881;
fa = (float)(STEMP/32);
R The result of the battery measurement.
Connects a 100 µA load to the battery (VBAT_RTC
R/W
pin).
71M6xx3 Temperature Sensor
The 71M6xx3 includes an on-chip temperature sensor for determining the temperature of its bandgap
reference. The primary use of the temperature data is to determine the magnitude of compensation
required to offset the thermal drift in the system for the compensation of the current measurement
performed by the71M6xx3. See the 71M6xxx Data Sheet for the equation to calculate temperature from the
71M6xx3 STEMP[10:0] reading. Also, see 4.5 Metrology Temperature Compensation on page 74.
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See 2.2.8.3 Control of the 71M6xx3 Isolated Sensor on page 22 for information on how to read the
STEMP[10:0] information from the 71M6xx3.
2.5.7
71M6545/H Battery Monitor
The 71M6545/H temperature measurement circuit can also monitor the battery at the VBAT_RTC pin.
When TEMP_BAT (I/O RAM 0x28A0[4]) is set, a battery measurement is performed as part of each
temperature measurement. The value of the battery reading is stored in register BSENSE[7:0] (I/O RAM
0x2885). The following equations are used to calculate the voltage measured on the VBAT_RTC pin from
the BSENSE[7:0] and STEMP[10:0] values. The result of the equation below is in volts. In MSN mode,
TEMP_PWR = 1 use:
VBAT _ RTC = 3.3V + ( BSENSE − 142) ⋅ 0.0246V + STEMP ⋅ 0.000297V
In MSN mode, a 100 µA de-passivation load can be applied to the battery by setting the BCURR (I/O RAM
0x2704[3]) bit. Battery impedance can be measured by taking a battery measurement with and without
BCURR. Regardless of the BCURR bit setting, the battery load is never applied in SLP mode.
2.5.8
71M6xx3 VCC Monitor
The 71M6xx3 monitors its VCC pin voltage. The voltage of the VCC pin can be obtained by the 71M6545/H
by issuing a read command to the 71M6xx3. The 71M6545/H must request both the VSENSE[7:0] and
STEMP[10:0] values from the 71M6xx3. See the 71M6xxx Data Sheet for the equation to calculate the
71M6xx3 VCC pin voltage from the VSENSE[7:0] and STEMP[10:0] values read from the 71M6xx3.
See 2.2.8.3 Control of the 71M6xx3 Isolated Sensor on page 22 for information on how to read
VSENSE[7:0] and STEMP[10:0] from the 71M6xx3 remote sensors.
2.5.9
UART Interface
The 71M6545/H provides an asynchronous interface (UART). The UART can be used to connect to AMR
modules, user interfaces, etc., and also support a mechanism for programming the on-chip flash memory.
2.5.10 DIO Pins
On reset or power-up, all DIO pins are DIO inputs until they are configured for the desired configuration under
MPU control.
After reset or power up, pins DIO0 through DIO14 are initially DIO outputs, but are disabled by
PORT_E = 0 (I/O RAM 0x270C[5]) to avoid unwanted pulses. After configuring pins DIO0 through
DIO14 the host enables the pins by setting PORT_E = 1.
DIO pins can be configured independently as an input or output. For DIO0 to DIO14, this is done with the
SFR registers P0 (SFR 0x80), P1 (SFR 0x90), P2 (SFR 0xA0) and P3 (SFR 0xB0) as shown in Table 44.
Example: DIO12 (pin 19, gray fields in Table 44) is configured as a DIO output pin with a value of 1 (high)
by writing 1 to both P3[4]and P3[0].
Table 44: Data/Direction Registers and Internal Resources for DIO0 to DIO14
DIO
Pin #
DIO Data Register
Direction Register:
0 = input, 1 = output
Internal Resources
Configurable
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
31
30
29
28
27
26
25
22
21
20
19
18
17
24
23
1
2
3
P0 (SFR80)
4
5
6
7
P0 (SFR80)
1
2
3
P1 (SFR90)
4
5
6
7
P1 (SFR90)
0
1
2
3
P2 (SFRA0)
4
5
6
7
P2 (SFRA0)
0
1
2
P3 (SFRB0)
4
5
6
P3 (SFRB0)
--
Y
Y
–
0
--
--
--
0
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
–
–
The configuration for pins DIO19 to DIO25, DIO28 and DIO29 are shown in Table 45
The configuration for pins DIO55 is shown in Table 46.
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PDS_6545_009
Table 45: Data/Direction Registers for DIO19-25 and DIO28-29
DIO
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
28
29
Pin #
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
19
20
21
28
29
19
20
28
29
DIO Data Register
Direction Register:
0 = input, 1 = output
22 23 24 25
DIO16[0] to DIO31[0]
(I/O RAM 0x2420[0] to 0x242F[0])
21 22 23 24 25
DIO16[1] to DIO31[1]
(I/O RAM 0x2420[1] to 0x242F[1])
Table 46: Data/Direction Registers for DIO55
DIO
–
–
–
–
55
–
–
–
Pin #
–
–
–
–
32
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
55
–
–
DIO51[0] to DIO55[0]
(I/O RAM 0x2443[0] to 0x2447[0])
–
–
–
55
–
–
DIO51[1] to DIO55[1]
(I/O RAM 0x2443[1] to 0x2447[1])
–
DIO Data Register
Direction Register:
0 = input, 1 = output
–
–
The PB pin is a dedicated digital input and is not part of the DIO system.
The CE features pulse counting registers and the CE pulse outputs are directly routed to the
pulse interrupt input. Thus, no routing of pulse signals to external pins is required in order to
generate pulse interrupts.
A 3-bit configuration word, I/O RAM register DIO_Rn[2:0] (I/O RAM 0x2009[2:0] through 0x200E[6:4]) can
be used for pins DIO2 through DIO11 (when configured as DIO) and PB to individually assign an internal
resource such as an interrupt or a timer control (DIO_RPB[2:0], I/O RAM 0x2450[2:0], configures the PB
pin). This way, DIO pins can be tracked even if they are configured as outputs. Table 47 lists the
internal resources which can be assigned using DIO_R2[2:0] (also called DIO_RPB[2:0]) through
DIO_R11[2:0] and DIO_RPB[2:0]. If more than one input is connected to the same resource, the resources
are combined using a logical OR.
Table 47: Selectable Resources using the DIO_Rn[2:0] Bits
Value in DIO_Rn[2:0]
0
1
2
3
4
5
Resource Selected for DIOn or PB Pin
None
Reserved
T0 (counter0 clock)
T1 (counter1 clock)
High priority I/O interrupt (INT0)
Low priority I/O interrupt (INT1)
When driving LEDs, relay coils etc., the DIO pins should sink the current into GNDD (as shown
in Figure 14, right), not source it from V3P3D (as shown in Figure 14, left). This is due to the
resistance of the internal switch that connects V3P3D to V3P3SYS.
Sourcing current in or out of DIO pins other than those dedicated for wake functions, for example
with pull-up or pull-down resistors, should be avoided. Violating this rule leads to increased
quiescent current from a battery connected to the VBAT_RTC pin during SLP mode.
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V3P3SYS
MISSION
MISSION
V3P3SYS
SLEEP
SLEEP
V3P3D
HIGH
HIGH-Z
LOW
V3P3D
HIGH
HIGH-Z
LOW
DIO
DIO
GNDD
Not recommended
GNDD
Recommended
Figure 14: Connecting an External Load to DIO Pins
2.5.11 EEPROM Interface
The 71M6545/H provides hardware support for either a two-pin or a three-wire (µ-wire) type of EEPROM
interface. The interfaces use the EECTRL (SFR 0x9F) and EEDATA (SFR 0x9E) registers for communication.
Two-pin EEPROM Interface
The dedicated 2-pin serial interface communicates with external EEPROM devices. The interface is
multiplexed onto the DIO2 (SDCK) and DIO3 (SDATA) pins and is selected by setting DIO_EEX[1:0] = 01
(I/O RAM 0x2456[7:6]). The MPU communicates with the interface through the SFR registers EEDATA
and EECTRL. If the MPU wishes to write a byte of data to the EEPROM, it places the data in EEDATA and
then writes the Transmit code to EECTRL. This initiates the transmit operation which is finished when the
BUSY bit falls. INT5 is also asserted when BUSY falls. The MPU can then check the RX_ACK bit to see if
the EEPROM acknowledged the transmission.
A byte is read by writing the Receive command to EECTRL and waiting for the BUSY bit to fall. Upon
completion, the received data is in EEDATA. The serial transmit and receive clock is 78 kHz during each
transmission, and then holds in a high state until the next transmission. The EECTRL bits when the two-pin
interface is selected are shown in Table 48.
Table 48: EECTRL Bits for 2-pin Interface
Status
Bit
Name
Read/
Write
Reset
State
Polarity
Description
7
6
5
ERROR
BUSY
RX_ACK
R
R
R
0
0
1
Positive
Positive
Positive
4
TX_ACK
R
1
Positive
1 when an illegal command is received.
1 when serial data bus is busy.
1 indicates that the EEPROM sent an ACK bit.
1 indicates when an ACK bit has been sent to the
EEPROM.
CMD[3:0]
0000
3:0
CMD[3:0]
W
0000
Positive
0010
0011
0101
v1.0
Operation
No-op command. Stops the I2C clock
(SDCK). If not issued, SDCK keeps
toggling.
Receive a byte from the EEPROM and
send ACK.
Transmit a byte to the EEPROM.
Issue a STOP sequence.
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Data Sheet 71M6545/H
Status
Bit
Name
PDS_6545_009
Read/
Write
Reset
State
Polarity
Description
Receive the last byte from the
EEPROM and do not send ACK.
Issue a START sequence.
No operation, set the ERROR bit.
0110
1001
Others
The EEPROM interface can also be operated by controlling the DIO2 and DIO3 pins directly. The
direction of the DIO line can be changed from input to output and an output value can be written
with a single write operation, thus avoiding collisions (see Table 14 Port Registers (DIO0-14)).
Therefore, no resistor is required in series SDATA to protect against collisions.
Three-Wire (µ-Wire) EEPROM Interface with Single Data Pin
A 500 kHz three-wire interface, using SDATA, SDCK, and a DIO pin for CS is available. The interface is
selected by setting DIO_EEX[1:0] = 10. The EECTRL bits when the three-wire interface is selected are
shown in Table 49. When EECTRL is written, up to 8 bits from EEDATA are either written to the EEPROM
or read from the EEPROM, depending on the values of the EECTRL bits.
Three-Wire (µ-Wire/SPI) EEPROM Interface with Separate Di/DO Pins
If DIO_EEX[1:0] = 11, the 71M6545/H three-wire interface is the same as above, except DI and DO are
separate pins. In this case, DIO3 becomes DO and DIO8 becomes DI. The timing diagrams are the
same as for DIO_EEX[1:0] = 10 except that all output data appears on DO and all input data is expected
on DI. In this mode, DI is ignored while data is being received on DO. This mode is compatible with SPI
modes 0,0 and 1,1 where data is shifted out on the falling edge of the clock and is strobed in on the rising
edge of the clock.
Table 49: EECTRL Bits for the 3-wire Interface
Control
Bit
Name
Read/
Write
7
WFR
W
6
BUSY
R
5
HiZ
W
4
RD
W
3:0
CNT[3:0]
W
Description
Wait for Ready. If this bit is set, the trailing edge of BUSY is delayed until
a rising edge is seen on the data line. This bit can be used during the
last byte of a Write command to cause the INT5 interrupt to occur when
the EEPROM has finished its internal write sequence. This bit is
ignored if HiZ=0.
Asserted while the serial data bus is busy. When the BUSY bit falls, an
INT5 interrupt occurs.
Indicates that the SD signal is to be floated to high impedance immediately
after the last SDCK rising edge.
Indicates that EEDATA (SFR 0x9E) is to be filled with data from EEPROM.
Specifies the number of clocks to be issued. Allowed values are 0
through 8. If RD = 1, CNT bits of data are read MSB first, and right
justified into the low order bits of EEDATA. If RD = 0, CNT bits are sent
MSB first to the EEPROM, shifted out of the MSB of EEDATA. If
CNT[3:0] is zero, SDATA simply obeys the HiZ bit.
The timing diagrams in Figure 15 through Figure 19 describe the 3-wire EEPROM interface behavior. All
commands begin when the EECTRL register is written. Transactions start by first raising the DIO pin that
is connected to CS. Multiple 8-bit or less commands such as those shown in Figure 15 through Figure 19
are then sent via EECTRL and EEDATA.
When the transaction is finished, CS must be lowered. At the end of a Read transaction, the EEPROM
drives SDATA, but transitions to HiZ (high impedance) when CS falls. The firmware should then
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immediately issue a write command with CNT=0 and HiZ=0 to take control of SDATA and force it to a
low-Z state.
EECTRL Byte Written
INT5
CNT Cycles (6 shown)
Write -- No HiZ
SCLK (output)
SDATA (output)
D7
D6
D5
SDATA output Z
D4
D3
D2
(LoZ)
BUSY (bit)
Figure 15: 3-wire Interface. Write Command, HiZ=0.
EECTRL Byte Written
INT5
CNT Cycles (6 shown)
Write -- With HiZ
SCLK (output)
SDATA (output)
D7
D6
D5
SDATA output Z
D4
D3
D2
(LoZ)
(HiZ)
BUSY (bit)
Figure 16: 3-wire Interface. Write Command, HiZ=1
EECTRL Byte Written
INT5
CNT Cycles (8 shown)
READ
SCLK (output)
SDATA (input)
D7
SDATA output Z
D6
D5
D4
D3
D2
D1
D0
(HiZ)
BUSY (bit)
Figure 17: 3-wire Interface. Read Command.
EECTRL Byte Written
Write -- No HiZ
INT5 not issued
CNT Cycles (0 shown)
SDATA output Z
BUSY (bit)
Write -- HiZ
INT5 not issued
CNT Cycles (0 shown)
SCLK (output)
SCLK (output)
SDATA (output)
EECTRL Byte Written
SDATA (output)
D7
(LoZ)
SDATA output Z
(HiZ)
BUSY (bit)
Figure 18: 3-Wire Interface. Write Command when CNT=0
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EECTRL Byte Written
INT5
CNT Cycles (6 shown)
Write -- With HiZ and WFR
SCLK (output)
SDATA (out/in)
D7
D6
D5
D4
D3
D2
(From 6520)
SDATA output Z
(LoZ)
BUSY
READY
(From EEPROM)
(HiZ)
BUSY (bit)
Figure 19: 3-wire Interface. Write Command when HiZ=1 and WFR=1.
2.5.12 SPI Slave Port
The slave SPI port communicates directly with the MPU data bus and is able to read and write Data RAM
and Configuration RAM (I/O RAM) locations. It is also able to send commands to the MPU. The interface
to the slave port consists of the SPI_CSZ, SPI_CKI, SPI_DI and SPI_DO pins.
Additionally, the SPI interface allows flash memory to be read and to be programmed. To facilitate flash
programming, cycling power or asserting RESET causes the SPI port pins to default to SPI mode. The
SPI port is disabled by clearing the SPI_E bit (I/O RAM 0x270C[4]).
Possible applications for the SPI interface are:
1) An external host reads data from CE locations to obtain metering information. This can be used in
applications where the 71M6545/H function as a smart front-end with preprocessing capability. Since the
addresses are in 16-bit format, any type of XRAM data can be accessed: CE, MPU, I/O RAM, but not
SFRs or the 80515-internal register bank.
2) A communication link can be established via the SPI interface: By writing into MPU memory locations,
the external host can initiate and control processes in the 71M6545/H MPU. Writing to a CE or MPU
location normally generates an interrupt, a function that can be used to signal to the MPU that the
byte that had just been written by the external host must be read and processed. Data can also be
inserted by the external host without generating an interrupt.
3) An external DSP can access front-end data generated by the ADC. This mode of operation uses the
71M6545/H as an analog front-end (AFE).
4) Flash programming by the external host (SPI Flash Mode).
SPI Transactions
A typical SPI transaction is as follows. While SPI_CSZ is high, the port is held in an initialized/reset state.
During this state, SPI_DO is held in high impedance state and all transitions on SPI_CLK and SPI_DI are
ignored. When SPI_CSZ falls, the port begins the transaction on the first rising edge of SPI_CLK. As
shown in Table 50, a transaction consists of an optional 16 bit address, an 8 bit command, an 8 bit status
byte, followed by one or more bytes of data. The transaction ends when SPI_CSZ is raised. Some
transactions may consist of a command only.
When SPI_CSZ rises, SPI command bytes that are not of the form x0000000 cause the SPI_CMD (SFR
0xFD) register to be updated and then cause an interrupt to be issued to the MPU. The exception is if the
transaction was a single byte. In this case, the SPI_CMD byte is always updated and the interrupt issued.
SPI_CMD is not cleared when SPI_CSZ is high.
The SPI port supports data transfers up to 10 Mb/s. A serial read or write operation requires at least 8
clocks per byte, guaranteeing SPI access to the RAM is no faster than 1.25 MHz, thus ensuring that SPI
access to DRAM is always possible.
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Table 50: SPI Transaction Fields
Field
Name
Required
Address
Yes, except
single byte
transaction
Size
Description
(bytes)
16-bit address. The address field is not required if the transaction
is a simple SPI command.
2
Command
Yes
1
Status
Yes, if transaction
includes DATA
1
Data
Yes, if transaction
includes DATA
1 or
more
8-bit command. This byte can be used as a command to the
MPU. In multi-byte transactions, the MSB is the R/W bit. Unless
the transaction is multi-byte and SPI_CMD is exactly 0x80 or
0x00, the SPI_CMD register is updated and an SPI interrupt is
issued. Otherwise, the SPI_CMD register is unchanged and the
interrupt is not issued.
8-bit status field, indicating the status of the previous transaction.
This byte is also available in the MPU memory map as
SPI_STAT (I/O RAM 0x2708). See Table 52 for the contents.
The read or write data. Address is auto incremented for each
new byte.
The SPI_STAT byte is output on every SPI transaction and indicates the parity of the previous transaction
and the error status of the previous transaction. Potential error sources are:
•
•
71M6545/H not ready
Transaction not ending on a byte boundary.
SPI Safe Mode
Sometimes it is desirable to prevent the SPI interface from writing to arbitrary RAM locations and thus
disturbing MPU and CE operation. This is especially true in AFE applications. For this reason, the SPI
SAFE mode was created. In SPI SAFE mode, SPI write operations are disabled except for a 16 byte
transfer region at address 0x400 to 0x40F. If the SPI host needs to write to other addresses, it must use
the SPI_CMD register to request the write operation from the MPU. SPI SAFE mode is enabled by the
SPI_SAFE bit (I/O RAM 0x270C[3]).
Single-Byte Transaction
If a transaction is a single byte, the byte is interpreted as SPI_CMD. Regardless of the byte value,
single-byte transactions always update the SPI_CMD register and cause an SPI interrupt to be generated.
Multi-Byte Transaction
As shown in Figure 20, multi-byte operations consist of a 16 bit address field, an 8 bit CMD, a status byte,
and a sequence of data bytes. A multi byte transaction is three or more bytes.
SERIAL READ
16 bit Address
Status Byte
8 bit CMD
DATA[ADDR]
DATA[ADDR+1]
(From Host) SPI_CSZ
Extended Read . . .
0
15
16
A0
C7
23
31
24
32
39
40
D0
D7
47
(From Host) SPI_CK
A15
(From Host) SPI_DI
A14
A1
C6
C5
C0
HI Z
(From 6545) SPI_DO
SERIAL WRITE
x
ST7
16 bit Address
ST6
ST5
ST0
D7
D1
DATA[ADDR]
Status Byte
8 bit CMD
D6
D6
D1
D0
DATA[ADDR+1]
Extended Write . . .
(From Host) SPI_CSZ
0
15
16
A0
C7
23
31
24
32
39
40
D0
D7
47
(From Host) SPI_CK
(From Host) SPI_DI
(From 6545) SPI_DO
x
A15
A14
A1
HI Z
C6
C5
C0
D7
ST7
ST6
ST5
D6
D1
D6
D1
D0
x
ST0
Figure 20: SPI Slave Port - Typical Multi-Byte Read and Write operations
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Table 51: SPI Command Sequences
Command Sequence
ADDR 1xxx xxxx STATUS
Byte0 ... ByteN
0xxx xxxx ADDR Byte0 ...
ByteN
Description
Read data starting at ADDR. ADDR is auto-incremented until SPI_CSZ
is raised. Upon completion, SPI_CMD (SFR 0xFD) is updated to 1xxx xxxx
and an SPI interrupt is generated. The exception is if the command
byte is 1000 0000. In this case, no MPU interrupt is generated and
SPI_CMD is not updated.
Write data starting at ADDR. ADDR is auto-incremented until SPI_CSZ is
raised. Upon completion, SPI_CMD is updated to 0xxx xxxx and an SPI
interrupt is generated. The exception is if the command byte is 0000
0000. In this case, no MPU interrupt is generated and SPI_CMD is not
updated.
Table 52: SPI Registers
Name
Location
Rst
Wk
Dir
Description
2701[7]
SFR FD[7:0]
0
–
0
–
R/W
R
SPI_E
270C[4]
1
1
R/W
IE_SPI
SFR F8[7]
0
0
R/W
270C[3]
0
0
R/W
SPI interrupt enable bit.
SPI command. The 8-bit command from the bus master.
SPI port enable bit. It enables the SPI interface on pins
SPI_DI, SPI_DO, SPI_CSZ and SPI_CKI.
SPI interrupt flag. Set by hardware, cleared by writing a 0.
Limits SPI writes to SPI_CMD and a 16 byte region in
DRAM when set. No other write operations are permitted.
SPI_STAT contains the status results from the previous
SPI transaction
EX_SPI
SPI_CMD
SPI_SAFE
SPI_STAT
2708[7:0]
0
0
R
Bit 7 - 71M6545/H ready error: the 71M6545/H was not
ready to read or write as directed by the previous
command.
Bit 6 - Read data parity: This bit is the parity of all bytes
read from the 71M6545/H in the previous command.
Does not include the SPI_STAT byte.
Bit 5 - Write data parity: This bit is the overall parity of
the bytes written to the 71M6545/H in the previous
command. It includes CMD and ADDR bytes.
Bit 4:2 - Bottom 3 bits of the byte count. Does not
include ADDR and CMD bytes. One, two, and three
byte instructions return 111.
Bit 1 - SPI FLASH mode: This bit is zero when the
TEST pin is zero.
Bit 0 - SPI FLASH mode ready: Used in SPI FLASH
mode. Indicates that the flash is ready to receive
another write instruction.
SPI Flash Mode (SFM)
In normal operation, the SPI slave interface cannot read or write the flash memory. However, the
71M6545/H supports a special flash mode (SFM) which facilitates initial programming of the flash memory.
When the 71M6545/H is in this mode, the SPI can erase, read, and write the flash memory. Other
memory elements such as XRAM and IO RAM are not accessible in this mode. In order to protect the
flash contents, several operations are required before the SFM mode is successfully invoked.
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In SFM mode, the 71M6545/H supports n byte reads and dual-byte writes to flash memory. See the SPI
Transaction description on Page 60 for the format of read and write commands. Since the flash write
operation is always based on a two-byte word, the initial address must always be even. Data is written to
the 16-bit flash memory bus after the odd word is written.
In SFM mode, the MPU is completely halted. For this reason, the interrupt feature described in the SPI
Transaction section above is not available in SFM mode. The 71M6545/H must be reset by the WD timer or
by the RESET pin in order to exit SFM mode.
Invoking SFM
The following conditions must be met prior to invoking SFM:
•
•
•
•
•
ICE_E = 1. This disables the watchdog and adds another layer of protection against inadvertent
Flash corruption.
The external power source (V3P3SYS, V3P3A) is at the proper level (> 3.0 VDC).
PREBOOT = 0 (SFR 0xB2[7]). This validates the state of the SECURE bit (SFR 0xB2[6]).
SECURE = 0. This I/O RAM register indicates that SPI secure mode is not enabled. Operations are
limited to SFM Mass Erase mode if the SECURE bit = 1 (Flash read back is not allowed in Secure mode).
FLSH_UNLOCK[3:0] = 0010 (I/O RAM 0x2702[7:4]).
The I/O RAM registers SFMM (I/O RAM 0x2080) and SFMS (I/O RAM 0x2081) are used to invoke SFM. Only
the SPI interface has access to these two registers. This eliminates an indirect path from the MPU for
disabling the watchdog. SFMM and SFMS need to be written to in sequence in order to invoke SFM. This
sequential write process prevents inadvertent entering of SFM. The sequence for invoking SFM is:
•
First, write to SFMM (I/O RAM 0x2080) register. The value written to this register defines the SFM mode.
o 0xD1: Mass Erase mode. A Flash Mass erase cycle is invoked upon entering SFM.
o 0x2E: Flash Read back mode. SFM is entered for Flash read back purposes. Flash writes
are blocked and it is up to the user to guarantee that only previously unwritten locations are
written. This mode is not accessible when SPI secure mode is set.
o SFM is not invoked if any other pattern is written to the SFMM register.
•
Next, write 0x96 to the SFMS (I/O RAM 0x2081) register. This write invokes SFM provided that the
previous write operation to SFMM met the requirements. Writing any other pattern to this register
does not invoke SFM. Additionally, any write operations to this register automatically reset the
previously written SFMM register values to zero.
SFM Details
The following occurs upon entering SFM.
•
•
•
•
•
The CE is disabled.
The MPU is halted. Once the MPU is halted it can only be restarted with a reset. This reset can be
accomplished with the RESET pin, a watchdog reset, or by cycling power.
The Flash control logic is reset in case the MPU was in the middle of a Flash write operation or Erase
cycle.
Mass erase is invoked if specified in the SFMM (I/O RAM 0x2080) register (see Invoking SFM, above).
The SECURE bit (SFR 0xB2[6]) is cleared at the end of this and all Mass Erase cycles.
All SPI read and write operations now refer to Flash instead of XRAM space.
The SPI host can access the current state of the pending multi-cycle Flash access by performing a 4-byte
SPI write of any address and checking the status field.
All SPI write operations in SFM mode must be 6-byte write transactions that write two bytes to an even
address. The write transactions must contain a command byte of 0x00 which is the form that does not
create an MPU interrupt. Auto incrementing is disabled for write operations.
SPI read transactions can make use of auto increment and may access single bytes. The command byte
must always be 0x80 in SFM read transactions.
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SPI commands in SFM
Interrupts are not generated in SFM since the MPU is halted. The format of the commands is shown in the
SPI Transactions description on Page 60.SPI Transactions
2.5.13 Hardware Watchdog Timer
An independent, robust, fixed-duration, watchdog timer (WDT) is included in the 71M6545/H. It uses the
RTC crystal oscillator as its time base and must be refreshed by the MPU firmware at least every
1.5 seconds. When not refreshed on time, the WDT overflows and the part is reset as if the RESET pin
were pulled high, except that the I/O RAM bits are in the same state as after a wake-up from SLP mode
(see the I/O RAM description in 5.2 for a list of I/O RAM bit states after RESET and wake-up). Four
thousand, one hundred CK32 cycles (or 125 ms) after the WDT overflow, the MPU is launched from
program address 0x0000.
The watchdog timer is also reset when the internal signal WAKE=0. The WDT is disabled when the
ICE_E pin is pulled high.
2.5.14 Test Ports (TMUXOUT and TMUX2OUT Pins)
Two independent multiplexers allow the selection of internal analog and digital signals for the TMUXOUT
and TMUX2OUT pins.
One of the digital or analog signals listed in Table 53 can be selected to be output on the TMUXOUT pin.
The function of the multiplexer is controlled with the I/O RAM register TMUX[4:0] (I/O RAM 0x2502[4:0], as
shown in Table 53.
One of the digital or analog signals listed in Table 54 can be selected to be output on the TMUX2OUT pin.
The function of the multiplexer is controlled with the I/O RAM register TMUX2[4:0] (I/O RAM 0x2503[4:0]), as
shown in Table 54.
The TMUX and TMUX2 I/O RAM locations are non-volatile and their contents are preserved by
battery power and across resets.
The TMUXOUT and TMUX2OUT pins may be used for diagnosis purposes or in production test. The
RTC 1-second output may be used to calibrate the crystal oscillator. The RTC 4-second output provides
even higher precision.
Table 53: TMUX[4:0] Selections
Signal Name
Description
1
RTCLK
9
WD_RST
A
CKMPU
D
V3AOK bit
E
V3OK bit
32.768 kHz clock waveform
Indicates when the MPU has reset the watchdog timer. Can be
monitored to determine spare time in the watchdog timer.
MPU clock – see Table 8
Indicates that the V3P3A pin voltage is≥ 3.0 V. The V3P3A and
V3P3SYS pins are expected to be tied together at the PCB level.
The 71M6545/H monitors the V3P3A pin voltage only.
Indicates that the V3P3A pin voltage is≥ 2.8 V. The V3P3A and
V3P3SYS pins are expected to be tied together at the PCB level.
The 71M654 monitors the V3P3A pin voltage only.
1B
MUX_SYNC
1C
1D
1F
CE_BUSY interrupt
CE_XFER interrupt
RTM output from CE
TMUX[5:0]
Internal multiplexer frame SYNC signal. See Figure 4
Figure 5.
and
See 2.3.3 on page 25 and Figure 12 on page 45
See 2.3.5 on page 26
Note:
All TMUX[5:0] values which are not shown are reserved.
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Table 54: TMUX2[4:0] Selections
Signal Name
Description
0
WD_OVF
1
PULSE_1S
2
PULSE_4S
3
A
RTCLK
SPARE[1] bit – I/O RAM
0x2704[1]
SPARE[2] bit – I/O RAM
0x2704[2]
WAKE
B
MUX_SYNC
C
E
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
1F
MCK
GNDD
INT0 – DIG I/O
INT1 – DIG I/O
INT2 – CE_PULSE
INT3 – CE_BUSY
INT4 - VSTAT
INT5 – EEPROM/SPI
INT6 – XFER, RTC
RTM_CK (flash)
Indicates when the watchdog timer has expired (overflowed).
One second pulse with 25% Duty Cycle. This signal can be used
to measure the deviation of the RTC from an ideal 1 second
interval. Multiple cycles should be averaged together to filter out
jitter.
Four second pulse with 25% Duty Cycle. This signal can be used
to measure the deviation of the RTC from an ideal 4 second
interval. Multiple cycles should be averaged together to filter out
jitter. The 4 second pulse provides a more precise measurement
than the 1 second pulse.
32.768 kHz clock waveform
Copies the value of the bit stored in 0x2704[1]. For general
purpose use.
Copies the value of the bit stored in 0x2704[2]. For general
purpose use.
Indicates when a WAKE event has occurred.
Internal multiplexer frame SYNC signal. See Figure 4 and Figure
5.
See 2.5.3 on page 48.
Digital GND. Use this signal to make the TMUX2OUT pin static.
TMUX2[4:0]
8
9
Interrupt 0. See 2.4.8 on page 38. Also see Figure 12 on page 45.
See 2.3.5 on page 26.
Note:
All TMUX2[4:0] values which are not shown are reserved.
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3
FUNCTIONAL DESCRIPTION
3.1
Theory of Operation
The energy delivered by a power source into a load can be expressed as:
t
E = ∫ V (t ) I (t )dt
0
Assuming phase angles are constant, the following formulae apply:


P = Real Energy [Wh] = V * A * cos φ* t

S = Apparent Energy [VAh] =
Q = Reactive Energy [VARh] = V * A * sin φ * t
P2 + Q2
For a practical meter, not only voltage and current amplitudes, but also phase angles and harmonic
content may change constantly. Thus, simple RMS measurements are inherently inaccurate. A modern
solid-state electricity meter IC such as the Teridian 71M6545/H functions by emulating the integral
operation above, i.e. it processes current and voltage samples through an ADC at a constant frequency.
As long as the ADC resolution is high enough and the sample frequency is beyond the harmonic range of
interest, the current and voltage samples, multiplied with the time period of sampling yields an accurate
quantity for the momentary energy. Summing-up the momentary energy quantities over time results in
accumulated energy.
500
400
300
200
100
0
0
5
10
15
20
-100
-200
Current [A]
-300
Voltage [V]
Energy per Interval [Ws]
-400
Accumulated Energy [Ws]
-500
Figure 21: Voltage, Current, Momentary and Accumulated Energy
Figure 21 shows the shapes of V(t), I(t), the momentary power and the accumulated power, resulting from
50 samples of the voltage and current signals over a period of 20 ms. The application of 240 VAC and
100 A results in an accumulation of 480 Ws (= 0.133 Wh) over the 20 ms period, as indicated by the
accumulated power curve. The described sampling method works reliably, even in the presence of dynamic
phase shift and harmonic distortion.
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SLP Mode (Sleep Mode)
Shortly after system power (V3P3SYS) is applied, the part will be in mission mode (MSN mode). MSN
mode means that the part is operating with system power and that the internal PLL is stable. This mode
is the normal operation mode where the part is capable of measuring energy.
When system power is not available, the 71M6545/H will be in SLP mode, if a battery is attached to the
VBAT_RTC pin.
Shortly after system power is removed (V3P3SYS < 3.0 VDC), VSTAT[2:0] will assume the value 001,
issuing a warning to the MPU. The IC can still operate in this state, however, the analog functions are not
considered accurate. Assuming that the recommended MPU setup code is resident in flash memory (see
2.4.1 MPU Setup Code on page 30), at V3P3SYS < 2.8 VDC, the 71M6545/H will be forced to SLP mode
by the MPU setting the SLEEP bit (I/O RAM 0x28B2[7]).
When system power is restored, the 71M6545/H will automatically transition from SLP mode back to MSN
mode.
Table 55: Available Circuit Functions
System Power Battery Power
MSN
SLP
CE
Yes
-FIR
Yes
-ADC, VREF
Yes
-PLL
Yes
Battery measurement
Yes
Temperature sensor
Yes
Yes
4.92MHz
Maximum MPU clock rate
-(from PLL)
MPU_DIV clock divider
Yes
-ICE
Yes
-DIO Pins
Yes
-Watchdog Timer
Yes
-V3P3D Pin
Yes
-VDD Pin
Yes
-EEPROM Interface (2-wire)
Yes
-EEPROM Interface (3-wire)
Yes
-UART (full speed)
Yes
-SPI slave port
Yes
-SPI Special Flash Mode
Yes
-Optical TX modulation
Yes
-Flash Read
Yes
-Flash Page Erase
Yes
-Flash Write
Yes
-RAM Read and Write
Yes
-OSC and RTC
Yes
Yes
RAM data preservation
Yes
-NV RAM data preservation
Yes
Yes
– indicates not active
The SLP mode may be commanded by the MPU whenever main system power is absent by asserting the
SLEEP bit. The purpose of the SLP mode is to consume the least power while still maintaining the RTC,
temperature compensation of the RTC, and the non-volatile portions of the I/O RAM.
Circuit Function
In SLP mode, the V3P3D pin is disconnected, removing all sources of leakage from V3P3SYS. The nonvolatile memory domain and the basic functions, such as temperature sensor, oscillator, and RTC, are
powered by the VBAT_RTC input. In this mode, the I/O configuration bits and NV RAM values are
preserved and RTC and oscillator continue to run. This mode can be exited only by system power up.
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If the SLEEP bit is asserted when system power is present, the 71M6545/H will still enter SLP mode. It
will drop WAKE, and then will begin the standard wake from sleep procedure.
After the transition from SLP mode to MSN mode the PC will be at 0x0000, the XRAM is in an undefined
state, and the I/O RAM is only partially preserved (see the description of I/O RAM states in 5.2). The nonvolatile sections of the I/O RAM are preserved unless RESET goes high.
The 71M6545/H features a temperature sensor and automatic digital temperature compensation circuitry
that can operate from a battery connected to the VBAT_RTC pin, in the event of ac power loss. When ac
power loss occurs, the 71M6545/H crystal oscillator, temperature sensor and digital temperature
compensation circuitry automatically obtain power from the VBAT_RTC pin. See 2.5.4 Real-Time Clock
(RTC) on page 49.
3.3
Fault and Reset Behavior
3.3.1
Events at Power-Down
Power fault detection is performed by internal comparators that monitor the voltage at the V3P3A pin and
also monitor the internally generated VDD pin voltage (2.5 VDC). The V3P3SYS and V3P3A pins must be
tied together at the PCB level, so that the comparators, which are internally connected only to the V3P3A
pin, are able to simultaneously monitor the common V3P3SYS and V3P3A pin voltage. The following
discussion assumes that the V3P3A and V3P3SYS pins are tied together at the PCB level.
During a power failure, as V3P3A falls, two thresholds are detected:
•
The first threshold, at 3.0 VDC (VSTAT[2:0] = 001, SFR 0xF9[2:0]), warns the MPU that the analog
modules are no longer accurate. Other than warning the MPU, the hardware takes no action when
this threshold is crossed. This comparison produces an internal bit named V3OKA.
The second threshold, at 2.8 VDC, causes the 71M6545/H to switch to battery power. This switching
happens while the FLASH and RAM systems are still able to read and write. This comparison
produces an internal bit named V3OK.
•
The power quality is reflected by the VSTAT[2:0] register in I/O RAM space, as shown in Table 56. The
VSTAT[2:0] register is located at SFR address F9 and occupies bits 2:0. The VSTAT[2:0] field can only be
read.
In addition to the state of the main power, the VSTAT[2:0] register provides information about the internal
VDD voltage under battery power. Note that if system power (V3P3A) is above 2.8 VDC, the 71M6545/H
always switches from battery to system power.
Table 56: VSTAT[2:0] (SFR 0xF9[2:0])
VSTAT[2:0]
000
001
010
011
101
Description
System Power OK. V3P3A > 3.0 VDC. Analog modules are functional and accurate.
System Power is low. 2.8 VDC < V3P3A < 3.0 VDC. Analog modules not accurate.
VDD is OK. VDD > 2.25 VDC. The IC has full digital functionality.
2.25 VDC > VDD > 2.0 VDC. Flash write operations are inhibited.
VDD < 2.0, which means that the MPU is nearly out of voltage. A reset occurs in 4
cycles of the crystal clock CK32.
The response to a system power fault is almost entirely controlled by firmware. During a power failure,
system power slowly falls. An interrupt notifies the MPU whenever VSTAT[2:0] changes. It is the MPU’s
responsibility to reduce power, when necessary, by slowing the clock rate, disabling the PLL, etc.
Precision analog components such as the bandgap reference, the bandgap buffer, and the ADC are
powered only by the V3P3A pin and become inaccurate and ultimately unavailable as the V3P3A pin
voltage continues to drop (i.e., circuits powered by the V3P3A pin are not backed by the VBAT_RTC
pin). When the V3P3A pin falls below 2.8 VDC, the ADC clocks are halted and the amplifiers are
unbiased. Meanwhile, control bits such as ADC_E bit (I/O RAM 0x2704[4]) are not affected, since their I/O
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RAM storage is powered from the VDD pin (2.5 VDC). The VDD pin is supplied with power through an
internal 2.5 VDC regulator that is connected to the V3P3D pin. Note that the V3P3SYS and V3P3A pins
are typically tied together at the PCB level.
3.3.2
Reset Sequence
When the RESET pin is pulled high, all digital activity in the chip stops, with the exception of the oscillator
and RTC. Additionally, all I/O RAM bits are forced to their RST state. A reliable reset does not occur until
RESET has been high at least for 2 µs. Note that TMUX and the RTC are not reset unless the TEST pin
is pulled high while RESET is high.
The RESET control bit (I/O RAM 0x 2200[3]) performs an identical reset to the RESET pin except that a
significantly shorter reset timer is used.
Once initiated, the reset sequence waits until the reset timer times out. The time out occurs in 4100
CE32 cycles (125 ms), at which time the MPU begins executing its pre-boot and boot sequences from
address 0x0000. See 2.5.1.1 for a detailed description of the pre-boot and boot sequences.
A softer form of reset is initiated when the E_RST pin of the ICE interface is pulled low. This event causes
the MPU and other registers in the MPU core to be reset but does not reset the remainder of the
71M6545/H. It does not trigger the reset sequence. This type of reset is intended to reset the MPU
program, but not to make other changes to the chip’s state.
3.4
Data Flow and Host Communication
The data flow between the Compute Engine (CE) and the host is shown in Figure 22. In a typical
application, the 32-bit CE sequentially processes the samples from the voltage inputs on pins IADC0IADC1, VADC8 (VA), IADC2-IADC3, etc., performing calculations to measure active power (Wh),
2
2
reactive power (VARh), A h, and V h for four-quadrant metering. These measurements are then
accessed by the host via the SPI interface, processed further and stored and/or displayed. For example,
to obtain the RMS current value in phase A, the host reads the I0SQSUM_X register of the CE, scales it
with VMAX, IMAX, and the LSB, as given in the CE Interface description (see 5.4 CE Interface
Description on page 100), and then performs a square-root operation. Similarly, momentary real power
and reactive power available via the WSUM_X and VARSUM_X registers only have to be scaled by the
host, while the apparent power has to be post-processed as follows:
S = P2 + Q2
Figure 22 illustrates the CE-to-host data flow.
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TMUX
Pulses
XFER_BUSY
XPULSE
YPULSE
VPULSE
WPULSE
CE_BUSY
Samples
Sag Warning
Data Ready
DIO1/interrupt
DIO2/interrupt
Interrupt
Host
MUX
CE
Control
Control
MPU
XRAM
Control
SPI
I/O RAM (Configuration RAM)
10/7/2010
Figure 22: Data Flow
In addition to the four pulse interrupts XPULSE, YPULSE, VPULSE, and WPULSE, the CE outputs two
interrupt signals: CE_BUSY and XFER_BUSY. XFER_BUSY signals the end of an accumulation interval
where data are ready for the host. This will occur whenever the CE has finished generating a sum by
completing an accumulation interval as determined by the number of samples given in SUM_SAMPS.
XFER_BUSY can be provided to the host via the test multiplexer output (TMUXOUT) to support
synchronization. The YPULSE output can be used to signal a sag event to the host.
Refer to 5.4 CE Interface Description on page 100 for additional information on setting up the device by
the host.
For several reasons, it is necessary to have a small MPU program in flash memory, even when the host
takes over all post-processing:
•
•
The MPU has to be prevented from executing code. With the flash mostly empty, the MPU will
execute 0xFF op-codes until it runs into the CE code image. Executing the CE code image could
have undesired results, e.g., changes to core I/O RAM settings, and must therefore be avoided.
The host cannot access the SFRs of the MPU directly. However, SFR access is required for
accessing the DIO pins. A small “driver” must exist to support SFR access, if the host needs to
control the DIO pins.
Sample MPU code that performs the tasks described above is available from Teridian.
During operation, the host needs to trigger the watchdog reset periodically in order to avoid watchdog
resets.
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4
APPLICATION INFORMATION
4.1
Connecting 5 V Devices
All digital input pins of the 71M6545/H are compatible with external 5 V devices. I/O pins configured as
inputs do not require current-limiting resistors when they are connected to external 5 V devices.
4.2
Directly Connected Sensors
Figure 23 through Figure 26 show voltage-sensing resistive dividers, current-sensing current transformers
(CTs) and current-sensing resistive shunts and how they are connected to the voltage and current inputs
of the 71M6545/H. All input signals to the 71M6545/H sensor inputs are voltage signals providing a
scaled representation of either a sensed voltage or current.
The analog input pins of the 71M6545/H are designed for sensors with low source impedance.
RC filters with resistance values higher than those implemented in the Teridian Demo Boards
must not be used. Please refer to the Demo Board schematics for complete sensor input
circuits and corresponding component values.
VADCn
(n = 8, 9 or 10)
VIN
ROUT
V3P3A
Figure 23: Resistive Voltage Divider (Voltage Sensing)
IIN
IOUT
IADCn
(n = 0,1,...7)
CT
RBURDEN
VOUT
V3P3A
Noise Filter
1:N
Figure 24. CT with Single-Ended Input Connection (Current Sensing)
IIN
IOUT
IADCn
(n = 0, 2, 4 or 6)
V3P3A
CT
RBURDEN
VOUT
IADCn+1
Bias Network and Noise Filter
1:N
Figure 25: CT with Differential Input Connection (Current Sensing)
IIN
IADCn
(n = 2, 4 or 6)
V3P3A
RSHUNT
VOUT
IADCn+1
Bias Network and Noise Filter
Figure 26: Differential Resistive Shunt Connections (Current Sensing)
v1.0
© 2008–2011 Teridian Semiconductor Corporation
71
Data Sheet 71M6545/H
4.3
PDS_6545_009
Systems Using 71M6xx3 Isolated Sensors and Current Shunts
Figure 27 shows a typical connection for current shunt sensors; using the 71M6xx3 (poly-phase) isolated
sensors. Note that one shunt current sensor is connected without isolation, which is the neutral current
sensor in this example (connected to pins IADC0-IADC1). Each 71M6xx3 device is electrically isolated
by a low-cost pulse transformer. The 71M6545/H current sensor inputs must be configured for remote
sensor communications, as described in 2.2.8. Flexible remapping using the I/O RAM registers
MUXn_SEL[3:0] allows the sequence of analog input pins to be different from the standard configuration
(a corresponding CE code must be used). See Figure 2 for the AFE configuration corresponding to Figure
27.
C
Shunt Resistor Sensors
NEUTRAL
B
LOAD
A
71M6xx3
71M6xx3
71M6xx3
POWER SUPPLY
This system is referenced to Neutral
NEUTRAL
Resistor Dividers
Pulse Transformers
C
B
A
MUX and ADC
IADC0
} IN*
IADC1
VADC10 (VC)
IADC6
IADC7 } IC
VADC9 (VB)
IADC4
} IB
IADC5
VADC8(VA)
IADC2
} IA
IADC3
V3P3A V3P3SYS GNDA GNDD
PWR MODE
CONTROL
TERIDIAN
71M6545/H
PB
REGULATOR
VBAT_RTC
TEMPERATURE
SENSOR
BATTERY
MONITOR
RAM
OSCILLATOR/
PLL XIN
VREF
RTC
BATTERY
32 kHz
SERIAL PORT
XOUT
RX
TX
MPU
FLASH
MEMORY
RTC
TIMERS
DIO, PULSES,
LEDs
DIO
V3P3D
ICE
HOST
SPI_CKI
SPI_DI
SPI_DO
SPI_CSZ
SPI INTERFACE
T
M COMPUTE
U
ENGINE
X
XFER_BUSY
SAG
24
DIO
I2C or µWire
EEPROM
WPULSE
XPULSE
RPULSE
YPULSE
10/7/2010
PULSES
3.3 VDC
*IN = Optional Neutral Current
Figure 27: System Using Three-Remotes and One-Local (Neutral) Sensor
72
© 2008–2011 Teridian Semiconductor Corporation
v1.0
PDS_6545_009
4.4
Data Sheet 71M6545/H
System Using Current Transformers
Figure 28 shows a poly-phase system using four current transformers to support optional Neutral current
sensing for anti-tamper purposes. The Neutral current sensing CT can be omitted if Neutral current
sensing is not required. The system is referenced to Neutral (i.e., the Neutral rail is tied to V3P3A and
V3P3SYS).
PHASE A
Current Transformers
LOAD
NEUTRAL
PHASE B
PHASE C
POWER SUPPLY
This system is referenced to Neutral
Resistor Dividers
NEUTRAL
MUX and ADC
IADC0
} IA
IADC1
VADC8 (VA)
V3P3A V3P3SYS GNDA GNDD
IADC2
} IB
IADC3
VADC9 (VB)
IADC4
} IC
IADC5
TERIDIAN
71M6545/H
VADC10 (VC)
IADC6
} *IN
IADC7
PWR MODE
CONTROL
PB
REGULATOR
VBAT_RTC
TEMPERATURE
SENSOR
BATTERY
MONITOR
RAM
OSCILLATOR/
PLL XIN
VREF
RTC
BATTERY
32 kHz
SERIAL PORT
XOUT
RX
TX
MPU
FLASH
MEMORY
DIO, PULSES,
LEDs
RTC
TIMERS
DIO
V3P3D
ICE
HOST
SPI_CKI
SPI_DI
SPI_DO
SPI_CSZ
T
M COMPUTE
SPI INTERFACE
U
ENGINE
X
XFER_BUSY
SAG
24
DIO
I2C or µWire
EEPROM
WPULSE
XPULSE
RPULSE
YPULSE
10/7/2010
PULSES
3.3 VDC
*IN = Optional Neutral Current
Figure 28. System Using Current Transformers
v1.0
© 2008–2011 Teridian Semiconductor Corporation
73
Data Sheet 71M6545/H
PDS_6545_009
4.5
Metrology Temperature Compensation
4.5.1
Distinction Between Standard and High-Precision Parts
Since the VREF band-gap amplifier is chopper-stabilized, as set by the CHOP_E[1:0] (I/O RAM 0x2106[3:2])
control field, the dc offset voltage, which is the most significant long-term drift mechanism in the voltage
references (VREF), is automatically removed by the chopper circuit. Both the 71M6545/H and the
71M6xx3 feature chopper circuits for their respective VREF voltage reference.
Since the variation in the bandgap reference voltage (VREF) is the major contributor to measurement
error across temperatures, Teridian implements a two step procedure to trim and characterize the
VREF voltage reference during the device manufacturing process.
The first step in the process is applied to both the 71M6545 and 71M6545H parts. In this first step, the
reference voltage (VREF) is trimmed to a target value of 1.195V. During this trimming process, the
TRIMT[7:0] (I/O RAM 0x2309) value is stored in non-volatile fuses. TRIMT[7:0] is trimmed to a value that
results in minimum VREF variation with temperature.
For the 71M6545 device (±0.5% energy accuracy), the TRIMT[7:0] value can be read by the MPU
during initialization in order to calculate parabolic temperature compensation coefficients suitable for
each individual 71M6545 device. The resulting temperature coefficient for VREF in the 71M6545 is ±40
ppm/°C.
Considering the factory calibration temperature of VREF to be +22°C and the industrial temperature
range (-40°C to +85°C), the VREF error at the temperature extremes for the 71M6545 device can be
calculated as:
(85o C − 22 o C ) ⋅ 40 ppm / oC = +2520 ppm = +0.252%
and
(−40 o C − 22 o C ) ⋅ 40 ppm / oC = −2480 ppm = −0.248%
The above calculation implies that both the voltage and the current measurements are individually
subject to a theoretical maximum error of approximately ±0.25%. When the voltage sample and current
sample are multiplied together to obtain the energy per sample, the voltage error and current error
combine resulting in approximately ±0.5% maximum energy measurement error. However, this
theoretical ±0.5% error considers only the voltage reference (VREF) as an error source. In practice,
other error sources exist in the system. The principal remaining error sources are the current sensors
(shunts or CTs) and their corresponding signal conditioning circuits, and the resistor voltage divider
used to measure the voltage. The 71M6545 0.5% grade device should be used in Class 1% designs, to
allow margin for the other error sources in the system.
The 71M6545H device (±0.1% energy accuracy) goes through an additional process of characterization
during production which makes it suitable to high-accuracy applications. The additional process is the
characterization of the voltage reference (VREF) over temperature. The coefficients for the voltage
reference are stored in additional non-volatile trim fuses. The MPU can read these trim fuses during
initialization and calculate parabolic temperature compensation coefficients suitable for each individual
71M6545H device. The resulting temperature coefficient for VREF in the 71M6545H is ±10 ppm/°C.
The VREF error at the temperature extremes for the 71M6545H device can be calculated as:
(85o C − 22 o C ) ⋅ 10 ppm / oC = +630 ppm = +0.063%
and
(−40 o C − 22 o C ) ⋅ 10 ppm / oC = −620 ppm = −0.062%
When the voltage sample and current sample are multiplied together to obtain the energy per sample,
the voltage error and current error combine resulting in approximately ±0.126% maximum energy
measurement error. The 71M6545H 0.1% grade device should be used in Class 0.2% and Class 0.5%
designs, to allow margin for the other error sources in the system.
74
© 2008–2011 Teridian Semiconductor Corporation
v1.0
PDS_6545_009
Data Sheet 71M6545/H
The preceding discussion in this section also applies to the71M6603 (0.5%), 71M6113 (0.5%) and
71M6203 (0.1%) remote sensors.
4.5.2
Temperature Coefficients for the 71M6545
The equations provided below for calculating TC1 and TC2 apply to the 71M6545 (0.5% energy accuracy). In
order to obtain TC1 and TC2, the MPU reads TRIMT[7:0] (I/O RAM 0x2309) and uses the TC1 and TC2
equations provided. PPMC and PPMC2 are then calculated from TC1 and TC2, as shown. The resulting
tracking of the reference voltage (VREF) is within ±40 ppm/°C, corresponding to a ±0.5% energy
measurement accuracy. See 4.5.1 Distinction Between Standard and High-Precision Parts.
TC1( µV / °C ) = 275 − 4.95 ⋅ TRIMT
TC 2( µV / °C 2 ) = −0.557 + 0.00028 ⋅ TRIMT
PPMC = 22.4632 ⋅ TC1
PPMC 2 = 1150.116 ⋅ TC 2
See 4.5.5 and 4.5.6 below for further temperature compensation details.
4.5.3
Temperature Coefficients for the 71M6545H
For the 71M6545H, undergoes a two-pass factory trimming process which stores additional trim fuse
values. The additional trim fuse values characterize the device’s VREF behavior at various temperatures.
The values for TC1 and TC2 are calculated from the values read from the TRIMT[7:0] (I/O RAM 0x2309),
TRIMBGB[15:0] (Info Page 0x92 and 0x93) and TRIMBGD[7:0] (Info Page 0x94) non-volatile on-chip
fuses using the equations provided. The resulting tracking of the reference voltage is within ±10 ppm/°C,
corresponding to a ±0.126% energy measurement accuracy. The equations for deriving PPCM and PPMC2
from TC1 and TC2 are also provided. See 4.5.1 Distinction Between Standard and High-Precision Parts.
TC1(µV/℃)=35.091+0.01764∙TRIMT+1.587∙( − )
TC 2( µV / °C 2 ) = −0.557 − 0.00028 ⋅ TRIMT
PPMC = 22.4632 ⋅ TC1
PPMC 2 = 1150.116 ⋅ TC 2
TRIMT[7:0] trims the VREF voltage for minimum variation with temperature. The TRIMT[7:0] fuses are
read by the MPU directly at I/O RAM address 0x2309[7:0].
During the second pass trim for the 71M6545H, VREF is further characterized at 85°C and 22°C, and the
resulting fuse trim values are stored in TRIMBGB[15:0] and TRIMBGD[7:0], respectively. TRIMBGB[15:0]
and TRIMBGD[7:0] cannot be read directly by the MPU. See 5.3 Reading the Info Page (71M6545H only)
on page 98 for information on how to read the Info Page trim fuses.
See 4.5.5 and 4.5.6 below for further temperature compensation details.
4.5.4
Temperature Coefficients for the 71M6603 and 71M6103 (1% Energy Accuracy)
Refer to the 71M6xxx Data sheet for the equations that are applicable to each 71M6xx3 part number and
the corresponding temperature coefficients.
4.5.5
Temperature Compensation for VREF and Shunt Sensors
This section discusses metrology temperature compensation for the meter designs where current shunt
sensors are used in conjunction with Teridian’s 71M6xx3 remote isolated sensors, as shown in Figure 27.
Sensors that are directly connected to the 71M6545/H are affected by the voltage variation in the
71M6545/H VREF due to temperature. On the other hand, shunt sensors that are connected to 71M6xx3
remote sensor are affected by the VREF in the 71M6xx3. The VREF in both the 71M6545/H and
71M6xx3 can be compensated digitally using a second-order polynomial function of temperature. The
71M6545/H and 71M6xx3 feature temperature sensors for the purposes of temperature compensating
their corresponding VREF. The compensation computations must be implemented in MPU firmware.
v1.0
© 2008–2011 Teridian Semiconductor Corporation
75
Data Sheet 71M6545/H
PDS_6545_009
Referring to Figure 27, the VADC8 (VA), VADC9 (VB) and VADC10 (VC) voltage sensors are always
directly connected to the 71M6545/H. Thus, the precision of the voltage sensors is primarily affected by
VREF in the 71M6545/H. The temperature coefficient of the resistors used to implement the voltage dividers
for the voltage sensors (see Figure 23) determine the behavior of the voltage division ratio with respect to
temperature. It is recommended to use resistors with low temperature coefficients, while forming the entire
voltage divider using resistors belonging to the same technology family, in order to minimize the temperature
dependency of the voltage division ratio. The resistors must also have suitable voltage ratings.
The 71M6545/H also may have one local current shunt sensor that is connected directly to it via the IADC0IADC1 input pins, and therefore this local current sensor is also affected by the VREF in the 71M6545/H.
The shunt current sensor resistance has a temperature dependency, which also may require
compensation, depending on the required accuracy class.
The IADC2-IADC3, IADC4-IADC5 and IADC6-IADC7 current sensors are isolated by the 71M6xx3 and
depend on the VREF of the 71M6xx3, plus the variation of the corresponding remote shunt current sensor
with temperature.
The MPU has the responsibility of computing the necessary sample gain compensation values required for
each sensor channel based on the sensed temperature. Teridian provides demonstration code that
implements the GAIN_ADJx compensation equation shown below. The resulting GAIN_ADJx values are
stored by the MPU in five CE RAM locations GAIN_ADJ0-GAIN_ADJ5 (CE RAM 0x40-0x44). The
demonstration code thus provides a suitable implementation of temperature compensation, but other
methods are possible in MPU firmware by utilizing the on-chip temperature sensors while storing the
sample gain adjustment results in the CE RAM GAIN_ADJx storage locations for use by the CE. The
demonstration code maintains five separate sets of PPMC and PPMC2 coefficients and computes five
separate GAIN_ADJx values based on the sensed temperature using the equation below:
GAIN _ ADJx = 16385 +
10 ⋅ TEMP _ X ⋅ PPMC 100 ⋅ TEMP _ X 2 ⋅ PPMC 2
+
214
2 23
The GAIN_ADJx values stored by the MPU in CE RAM are used by the CE to gain adjust (i.e., multiply)
the sample in each corresponding sensor channel. A GAIN_ADJx value of 16,384 (i.e., 214)corresponds to
unity gain, while values less than 16,384 attenuate the samples and values greater than 16,384 amplify
the samples.
In the above equation, TEMP_X is the deviation from nominal or calibration temperature expressed in
multiples of 0.1 °C. The 10x and 100x factors seen in the above equation are due to 0.1 oC scaling of
TEMP_X. For example, if the calibration (reference) temperature is 22 oC and the measured temperature
is 27 oC, then 10*TEMP_X = (27-22) x 10 = 50 (decimal), which represents a +5 oC deviation from 22 oC.
In the demonstration code, TEMP_X is calculated in the MPU from the STEMP[10:0] temperature sensor
reading using the equation provided below and is scaled in 0.1°C units. See 2.5.5 71M6545/H
Temperature Sensor on page 53 for the equation to calculate temperature in degrees °C from the
STEMP[10:0] value.
Table 57 shows the five GAIN_ADJx equation output storage locations and the voltage or current sensor
channels for which they compensate for the 1 Local / 3 Remote configuration shown in Figure 27.
Table 57: GAIN_ADJn Compensation Channels (Figure 2, Figure 27, Table 1)
76
Gain Adjustment Output
CE RAM Address
GAIN_ADJ0
0x40
GAIN_ADJ1
0x41
GAIN_ADJ2
0x42
GAIN_ADJ3
0x43
GAIN_ADJ4
0x44
Sensor Channel(s)
(pin names)
VADC8 (VA)
VADC9 (VB)
VADC10 (VC)
IADC0-IADC1
IADC2-IADC3
IADC4-IADC5
IADC6-IADC7
Compensation For:
VREF in 71M6545/H and Voltage Divider
Resistors
VREF in 71M6545/H and Shunt
(Neutral Current)
VREF in 71M6xx3 and Shunt
(Phase A)
VREF in 71M6xx3 and Shunt
(Phase B)
VREF in 71M6xx3 and Shunt
© 2008–2011 Teridian Semiconductor Corporation
v1.0
PDS_6545_009
Data Sheet 71M6545/H
(Phase C)
In the demonstration code, the shape of the temperature compensation second-order parabolic curve is
determined by the values stored in the PPMC (1st order coefficient) and PPMC2 (2nd order coefficient),
which are typically setup by the MPU at initialization time from values that are stored in EEPROM.
To disable temperature compensation in the demonstration code, PPMC and PPMC2 are both set to zero
for each of the five GAIN_ADJx channels. To enable temperature compensation, the PPMC and PPMC2
coefficients are set with values that match the expected temperature variation of the shunt current sensor
(if required) and the corresponding VREF voltage reference (summed together).
The shunt sensor requires a second order polynomial compensation which is determined by the PPMC
and PPMC2 coefficients for the corresponding current measurement channel. The corresponding VREF
voltage reference also requires the PPMC and PPMC2 coefficients to match the second order
temperature behavior of the voltage reference. The PPMC and PPMC2 values associated with the shunt
and with the corresponding VREF are summed together to obtain the compensation coefficients for a
st
nd
given current-sensing channel (i.e., the 1 order PPMC coefficients are summed together, and the 2
order PPMC2 coefficients are summed together).
In the 71M6545, the required VREF compensation coefficients PPMC and PPMC2 are calculated from
readable on-chip non-volatile fuses (see 4.5.2 Temperature Coefficients for the 71M6545). These
coefficients are designed to achieve ±40 ppm/°C for VREF in the 71M6545. PPMC and PPMC2
coefficients are similarly calculated for the 71M6xx3 remote sensor (see 4.5.4).
For the 71M6545H (±0.1% energy accuracy), coefficients specific to each individual device can be
calculated from values read from additional on-chip fuses that characterize the VREF behavior of each
individual part across industrial temperatures (see 4.5.3 Temperature Coefficients for the 71M6545H).
The resulting tracking of the reference VREF voltage is within ±10 ppm/°C.
For the current channels, to determine the PPMC and PPMC2 coefficients for the shunt current
sensors, the designer must either know the average temperature curve of the shunt from its
manufacturer’s data sheet or obtain these coefficients by laboratory characterization of the shunt used
in the design.
4.5.6
Temperature Compensation of VREF and Current Transformers
This section discusses metrology temperature compensation for meter designs where Current
Transformer (CT) sensors are used, as shown in Figure 28.
Sensors that are directly connected to the 71M6545/H are affected by the voltage variation in the
71M6545/H VREF due to temperature. The VREF in the 71M6545/H can be compensated digitally using
a second-order polynomial function of temperature. The 71M6545/H features a temperature sensor for
the purposes of temperature compensating its VREF. The compensation computations must be
implemented in MPU firmware and written to the corresponding GAIN_ADJx CE RAM location.
Referring to Figure 28, the VADC8 (VA), VADC9 (VB) and VADC10 (VC) voltage sensors are directly
connected to the 71M6545/H. Thus, the precision of the voltage sensors is primarily affected by VREF in
the 71M6545/H. The temperature coefficient of the resistors used to implement the voltage dividers for the
voltage sensors (see Figure 23) determine the behavior of the voltage division ratio with respect to
temperature. It is recommended to use resistors with low temperature coefficients, while forming the entire
voltage divider using resistors belonging to the same technology family, in order to minimize the temperature
dependency of the voltage division ratio. The resistors must also have suitable voltage ratings.
The Current Transformers are directly connected to the 71M6545/H and are therefore primarily affected by
the VREF temperature dependency in the 71M6545/H. For best performance, it is recommended to use the
differential signal conditioning circuit, as shown in Figure 25, to connect the CTs to the 71M6545/H. Current
transformers may also require temperature compensation. The copper wire winding in the CT has dc
resistance with a temperature coefficient, which makes the voltage delivered to the burden resistor
temperature dependent, and the burden resistor also has a temperature coefficient. Thus, each CT sensor
channel needs to compensate for the 71M6545/H VREF, and optionally for the temperature dependency of
the CT and its burden resistor depending on the required accuracy class.
The MPU has the responsibility of computing the necessary sample gain compensation values required for
each sensor channel based on the sensed temperature. Teridian provides demonstration code that
implements the GAIN_ADJx compensation equation shown below. The resulting GAIN_ADJx values are
v1.0
© 2008–2011 Teridian Semiconductor Corporation
77
Data Sheet 71M6545/H
PDS_6545_009
stored by the MPU in five CE RAM locations GAIN_ADJ0-GAIN_ADJ5 (CE RAM 0x40-0x44). The
demonstration code thus provides a suitable implementation of temperature compensation, but other
methods are possible in MPU firmware by utilizing the on-chip temperature sensor while storing the sample
gain adjustment results in the CE RAM GAIN_ADJn storage locations. The demonstration code maintains
five separate sets of PPMC and PPMC2 coefficients and computes five separate GAIN_ADJn values
based on the sensed temperature using the equation below:
10 ⋅ TEMP _ X ⋅ PPMC 100 ⋅ TEMP _ X 2 ⋅ PPMC 2
GAIN _ ADJx = 16385 +
+
214
2 23
The GAIN_ADJn values stored by the MPU in CE RAM are used by the CE to gain adjust (i.e., multiply)
the sample in each corresponding sensor channel. A GAIN_ADJx value of 16,384 (i.e., 214)corresponds to
unity gain, while values less than 16,384 attenuate the samples and values greater than 16,384 amplify
the samples.
In the above equation, TEMP_X is the deviation from nominal or calibration temperature expressed in
o
multiples of 0.1 °C. The 10x and 100x factors seen in the above equation are due to 0.1 C scaling of
TEMP_X. For example, if the calibration (reference) temperature is 22 °C and the measured temperature
is 27 °C, then 10*TEMP_X = (27-22) x 10 = 50 (decimal), which represents a +5 °C deviation from 22 °C.
In the demonstration code, TEMP_X is calculated in the MPU from the STEMP[10:0] temperature sensor
reading using the equation provided below and is scaled in 0.1°C units. See 2.5.5 71M6545/H
Temperature Sensor on page 53 for the equation to calculate temperature in °C from the STEMP[10:0]
reading.
Table 58 shows the five GAIN_ADJx equation output storage locations and the voltage or current
measurements for which they compensate.
Table 58: GAIN_ADJx Compensation Channels (Figure 3, Figure 28, Table 2)
Gain Adjustment Output
CE RAM Address
GAIN_ADJ0
0x40
GAIN_ADJ1
0x41
GAIN_ADJ2
0x42
GAIN_ADJ3
0x43
GAIN_ADJ4
0x44
Sensor Channel(s)
(pin names)
VADC8 (VA)
VADC9 (VB)
VADC10 (VC)
IADC0-IADC1
Compensation For:
VREF in 71M6545/H and Voltage
Divider Resistors
VREF in 71M6545/H, CT and Burden
Resistor (Neutral Current)
IADC2-IADC3
VREF in 71M6545/H, CT and Burden
Resistor (Phase A)
IADC4-IADC5
VREF in 71M6545/H, CT and Burden
Resistor (Phase B)
IADC6-IADC7
VREF in 71M6545/H, CT and Burden
Resistor (Phase C)
In the demonstration code, the shape of the temperature compensation second-order parabolic curve is
determined by the values stored in the PPMC (1st order coefficient) and PPMC2 (2nd order coefficient),
which are typically setup by the MPU at initialization time from values that are stored in EEPROM.
To disable temperature compensation in the demonstration code, PPMC and PPMC2 are both set to zero
for each of the five GAIN_ADJx channels. To enable temperature compensation, the PPMC and PPMC2
coefficients are set with values that match the expected VREF temperature variation and optionally the
corresponding sensor circuit (i.e., the CT and burden resistor for current channels or the resistor divider
network for the voltage channels).
In the 71M6545 (±0.5% energy accuracy), the required VREF compensation coefficients PPMC and
PPMC2 are calculated from readable on-chip non-volatile fuses (see 4.5.2Temperature Coefficients for
the 71M6545). These coefficients are designed to achieve ±40 ppm/°C for VREF.
78
© 2008–2011 Teridian Semiconductor Corporation
v1.0
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Data Sheet 71M6545/H
For the 71M6545H (±0.1% energy accuracy), coefficients specific to each individual device can be
calculated from values read from additional on-chip fuses that characterize the VREF behavior of each
individual part across industrial temperatures (see 4.5.3 Temperature Coefficients for the 71M6545H).
The resulting tracking of the reference VREF voltage is within ±10 ppm/°C.
4.6
Connecting I2C EEPROMs
I2C EEPROMs or other I2C compatible devices should be connected to the DIO pins DIO2 and DIO3, as
shown in Figure 29.
Pull-up resistors of roughly 10 kΩ to V3P3D should be used for both SDCK and SDATA signals. The
DIO_EEX (I/O RAM 0x2456[7:6]) field must be set to 01 in order to convert the DIO pins DIO2 and DIO3 to
I2C pins SCL and SDATA.
10 kΩ
V3P3D
10 kΩ
EEPROM
DIO2
SDCK
DIO3
SDATA
71M6545/H
2
Figure 29: I C EEPROM Connection
4.7
Connecting Three-Wire EEPROMs
µWire EEPROMs and other compatible devices should be connected to the DIO pins DIO2 and DIO3, as
described in 2.5.11 EEPROM Interface on page 57.
4.8
UART (TX/RX)
The UART0 RX pin should be pulled down by a 10 kΩ resistor and additionally protected by a 100 pF
ceramic capacitor, as shown in Figure 30.
71M6545/H
RX
TX
100 pF 10 k Ω
RX
TX
Figure 30: Connections for the UART
4.9
Connecting the Reset Pin
Even though a functional meter does not necessarily need a reset switch, it is useful to have a reset
pushbutton for prototyping as shown in Figure 31, left side. The RESET signal may be sourced from
V3P3SYS.
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© 2008–2011 Teridian Semiconductor Corporation
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Data Sheet 71M6545/H
PDS_6545_009
For a production meter, the RESET pin should be protected by the external components shown in
Figure 31, right side. R1 should be in the range of 100Ω and mounted as closely as possible to the IC.
Since the 71M6545/H generates its own power-on reset, a reset button or circuitry, as shown in Figure
31, is only required for test units and prototypes.
V3P3D
V3P3D
R2
71M6533
71M6545/H
71M6545/H
1k Ω
Reset
Switch
RESET
RESET
100Ω
R1
10k Ω
R1
0.1µF
DGND
GNDD
Figure 31: External Components for the RESET Pin: Push-Button (Left), Production Circuit (Right)
4.10
Connecting the Emulator Port Pins
Even when the emulator is not used, small shunt capacitors to ground (22 pF) should be used for protection
from EMI as illustrated in Figure 32. Production boards should have the ICE_E pin connected to ground.
71M6545/H
V3P3D
ICE_E
62 Ω
E_RST
62 Ω
E_RXT
E_TCLK
62 Ω
22 pF 22 pF 22 pF
Figure 32: External Components for the Emulator Interface
4.11
Flash Programming
4.11.1 Flash Programming via the ICE Port
Operational or test code can be programmed into the flash memory using either an in-circuit emulator or
the Flash Programmer Module (TFP-2) available from Teridian. The flash programming procedure uses
the E_RST, E_RXTX, and E_TCLK pins.
4.11.2 Flash Programming via the SPI Port
It is possible to erase, read and program the flash memory of the 71M6545/H via the SPI port. See
2.5.12 for a detailed description.
80
© 2008–2011 Teridian Semiconductor Corporation
v1.0
PDS_6545_009
4.12
Data Sheet 71M6545/H
MPU Demonstration Code
All application-specific MPU functions mentioned in 4 Application Information are featured in the
demonstration C source code supplied by Teridian. The code is available as part of the Demonstration Kit
for the 71M6545/H. The Demonstration Kits come with the 71M6545/H preprogrammed with demonstration
firmware and mounted on a functional sample meter Demo Board. The Demo Boards allow for quick and
efficient evaluation of the IC without having to write firmware or having to supply an in-circuit emulator
(ICE).
4.13
Crystal Oscillator
The oscillator of the 71M6545/H drives a standard 32.768 kHz watch crystal. The oscillator has been
designed specifically to handle these crystals and is compatible with their high impedance and limited
power handling capability. The oscillator power dissipation is very low to maximize the lifetime of any
battery backup device attached to the VBAT_RTC pin.
Board layouts with minimum capacitance from XIN to XOUT require less battery current. Good layouts
have XIN and XOUT shielded from each other and also keep the XIN and XOUT traces short and away
from digital signals.
Since the oscillator is self-biasing, an external resistor must not be connected across the crystal.
4.14
Meter Calibration
Once the Teridian 71M6545/H energy meter device has been installed in a meter system, it must be
calibrated. A complete calibration includes the following:
•
•
•
Establishment of the reference temperature for factory calibration (e.g., typically 22 °C).
Calibration of the metrology section, i.e., calibration for errors of the current sensors, voltage
dividers and signal conditioning components as well as of the internal reference voltage (VREF) at
the reference temperature (e.g., typically 22 °C).
Calibration of the oscillator frequency using the RTCA_ADJ register (I/O RAM 0x2504).
The metrology section can be calibrated using the gain and phase adjustment factors accessible to the
CE. The gain adjustment is used to compensate for tolerances of components used for signal conditioning,
especially the resistive components. Phase adjustment is provided to compensate for phase shifts introduced
by the current sensors or by the effects of reactive power supplies.
Due to the flexibility of the MPU firmware, any calibration method, such as calibration based on energy, or
current and voltage can be implemented. It is also possible to implement segment-wise calibration
(depending on current range).
The 71M6545/H supports common industry standard calibration techniques, such as single-point
(energy-only), multi-point (energy, Vrms, Irms), and auto-calibration.
Teridian provides a calibration spreadsheet file to facilitate the calibration process. Contact your Teridian
representative to obtain a copy of the latest calibration spreadsheet file for the 71M6545/H.
v1.0
© 2008–2011 Teridian Semiconductor Corporation
81
Data Sheet 71M6545/H
PDS_6545_009
5
FIRMWARE INTERFACE
5.1
I/O RAM Map –Functional Order
In Table 59 and Table 60, unimplemented (U) and reserved (R) bits are shaded in light gray. Unimplemented bits are identified with a ‘U’.
Unimplemented bits have no memory storage, writing them has no effect, and reading them always returns zero. Reserved bits are identified with
an ‘R’, and must always be written with a zero. Writing values other than zero to reserved bits may have undesirable side effects and must be
avoided. Non-volatile bits are shaded in dark gray. Non-volatile bits are backed-up during power failures if the system includes a battery connected
to the VBAT_RTC pin and the pin voltage is within specification.
The I/O RAM locations listed in Table 59 have sequential addresses to facilitate reading by the MPU (e.g., in order to verify their contents). These
I/O RAM locations are usually modified only at boot-up. The addresses shown in Table 59 are an alternative sequential address to the addresses
from Table 60 which are used throughout this document. For instance, EQU[2:0] can be accessed at I/O RAM 0x2000[7:5] or at I/O RAM
0x2106[7:5].
Table 59: I/O RAM Map – Functional Order, Basic Configuration
82
Name
Addr
CE6
CE5
CE4
CE3
CE2
CE1
CE0
RCE0
RTMUX
FOVRD
MUX5
MUX4
MUX3
MUX2
MUX1
MUX0
TEMP
DIO_R5
DIO_R4
DIO_R3
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
200A
200B
200C
200D
200E
200F
2010
201B
201C
201D
Bit 7
Bit 6
EQU[2:0]
U
U
U
Bit 5
DIFF6_E
DIFF4_E
DIFF2_E
CHOPR[1:0]
RMT6_E
U
TMUXR4[2:0]
U
U
R
MUX_DIV[3:0]
MUX9_SEL
MUX7_SEL
MUX5_SEL
MUX3_SEL
MUX1_SEL
R
TEMP_PWR
OSC_COMP
U
U
U
U
DIO_R11[2:0]
U
DIO_R9[2:0]
Bit 4
U
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
CHOP_E[1:0]
RTM_E
SUM_SAMPS[12:8]
SUM_SAMPS[7:0]
CE_LCTN[5:0]
PLS_MAXWIDTH[7:0]
PLS_INTERVAL[7:0]
DIFF0_E
RFLY_DIS
FIR_LEN[1:0]
RMT4_E
RMT2_E
TMUXR6[2:0]
U
TMUXR2[2:0]
U
U
U
U
MUX10_SEL
MUX8_SEL
MUX6_SEL
MUX4_SEL
MUX2_SEL
MUX0_SEL
TEMP_BAT
U
TEMP_PER[2:0]
U
U
DIO_RPB[2:0]
U
DIO_R10[2:0]
U
DIO_R8[2:0]
© 2008–2011 Teridian Semiconductor Corporation
Bit 0
CE_E
PLS_INV
U
v1.0
PDS_6545_009
Name
Data Sheet 71M6545/H
Addr
Bit 7
Bit 6
U
U
U
DIO_EEX[1:0]
DIO_PW
DIO_PV
DIO_PX
DIO_PY
EX_EEX
EX_XPULSE
EX_SPI
EX_WPULSE
Bit 5
DIO_R7[2:0]
DIO_R5[2:0]
DIO_R3[2:0]
U
R
U
EX_YPULSE
EX_VPULSE
Bit 4
Bit 3
U
U
U
R
U
U
U
Bit 2
DIO_R2
201E
DIO_R1
201F
DIO_R0
2020
U
R
DIO0
2021
R
R
DIO1
2022
U
U
DIO2
2023
EX_RTCT
EX_RTC1M
INT1_E
2024
INT2_E
2025
R
R
R
Reserved
2026
SFMM[7:0]*
SFMM
2080
SFMS[7:0]*
SFMS
2081
Notes:
*SFMM and SFMS are accessible only through the SPI slave port. See 2.5.1.1 Flash Memory for details.
v1.0
© 2008–2011 Teridian Semiconductor Corporation
Bit 1
DIO_R6[2:0]
DIO_R4[2:0]
DIO_R2[2:0]
R
R
U
EX_RTC1S
Bit 0
R
R
U
EX_XFER
R
R
83
Data Sheet 71M6545/H
PDS_6545_009
Table 60 lists bits and registers that may have to be accessed on a frequent basis. Reserved bits have lighter gray background, and non-volatile
bits have a darker gray background.
Table 60: I/O RAM Map – Functional Order
Name
Addr
Bit 7
CE and ADC
MUX5
2100
MUX4
2101
MUX3
2102
MUX2
2103
MUX1
2104
MUX0
2105
CE6
2106
CE5
2107
CE4
2108
U
CE3
2109
CE2
210A
CE1
210B
DIFF6_E
CE0
210C
U
RTM0
210D
RTM0
210E
RTM1
210F
RTM2
2110
RTM3
2111
CLOCK GENERATION
U
CKGN
2200
VREF TRIM FUSES
TRIMT
2309
DIO
U
DIO16
2420
U
…
…
U
DIO32
243D
U
…
…
U
DIO38
2443
U
…
…
U
DIO42
2447
84
Bit 6
Bit 5
MUX_DIV[3:0]
MUX9_SEL[3:0]
MUX7_SEL[3:0]
MUX5_SEL[3:0]
MUX3_SEL[3:0]
MUX1_SEL[3:0]
EQU[2:0]
U
U
DIFF4_E
U
DIFF2_E
U
U
ADC_DIV
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
MUX10_SEL[3:0]
MUX8_SEL[3:0]
MUX6_SEL[3:0]
MUX4_SEL[3:0]
MUX2_SEL[3:0]
MUX0_SEL[3:0]
U
CHOP_E[1:0]
RTM_E
CE_E
SUM_SAMPS[12:8]
SUM_SAMPS[7:0]
CE_LCTN[5:0]
PLS_MAXWIDTH[7:0]
PLS_INTERVAL[7:0]
DIFF0_E
RFLY_DIS
FIR_LEN[1:0]
PLS_INV
U
U
U
RTM0[9:8]
RTM0[7:0]
RTM1[7:0]
RTM2[7:0]
RTM3[7:0]
PLL_FAST
RESET
MPU_DIV[2:0]
TRIMT[7:0]
U
U
U
U
U
U
U
DIO16[5:0]
…
DIO45[5:0]
…
DIO51[5:0]
…
DIO55[5:0]
© 2008–2011 Teridian Semiconductor Corporation
v1.0
PDS_6545_009
Name
Addr
DIO_R5
2450
DIO_R4
2451
DIO_R3
2452
DIO_R2
2453
DIO_R1
2454
DIO_R0
2455
DIO0
2456
DIO1
2457
DIO2
2458
NV BITS
SPARENV 2500
FOVRD
2501
TMUX
2502
TMUX2
2503
RTC1
2504
71M6xx3 Interface
REMOTE2 2602
REMOTE1 2603
RBITS
INT1_E
2700
INT2_E
2701
SECURE
2702
Analog0
2704
VERSION 2706
INTBITS
2707
FLAG0 SFR E8
FLAG1 SFR F8
STAT
SFR F9
REMOTE0 SFR FC
SPI1
SFR FD
SPI0
2708
RCE0
2709
RTMUX
270A
v1.0
Data Sheet 71M6545/H
Bit 7
Bit 6
U
R
U
U
U
U
U
DIO_EEX[1:0]
DIO_PW
DIO_PV
DIO_PX
DIO_PY
U
U
U
U
U
U
U
U
U
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
R
DIO_R11[2:0]
DIO_R9[2:0]
DIO_R7[2:0]
DIO_R5[2:0]
DIO_R3[2:0]
U
R
U
R
U
R
U
U
U
U
U
U
U
R
U
U
R
R
U
DIO_RPB[2:0]
DIO_R10[2:0]
DIO_R8[2:0]
DIO_R6[2:0]
DIO_R4[2:0]
DIO_R2[2:0]
R
R
U
R
R
U
U
R
U
U
U
U
U
U
EX_RTC1M
U
FLSH_RDE
EX_RTC1S
U
FLSH_WRE
SPARE[2:0]
EX_XFER
U
R
INT2
IE_RTC1M
U
INT1
IE_RTC1S
U
VSTAT[2:0]
INT0
IE_XFER
PB_STATE
R
TMUX[5:0]
TMUX2[4:0]
RTCA_ADJ[6:0]
U
RMT_RD[15:8]
RMT_RD[7:0]
EX_EEX
EX_SPI
VREF_CAL
U
IE_EEX
IE_SPI
U
U
EX_XPULSE
EX_YPULSE
EX_WPULSE EX_VPULSE
FLSH_UNLOCK[3:0]
VREF_DIS
PRE_E
INT6
IE_XPULSE
IE_WPULSE
U
PERR_RD
CHOPR[1:0]
U
INT5
IE_YPULSE
IE_VPULSE
U
PERR_WR
RMT6_E
TMUXR4[2:0]
EX_RTCT
U
U
U
R
ADC_E
BCURR
VERSION[7:0]
INT4
INT3
IE_RTCT
U
U
U
PLL_OK
U
RCMD[4:0]
SPI_CMD[7:0]
SPI_STAT[7:0]
RMT4_E
RMT2_E
U
© 2008–2011 Teridian Semiconductor Corporation
TMUXR6[2:0]
TMUXR2[2:0]
85
Data Sheet 71M6545/H
Name
Addr
INFO_PG 270B
DIO3
270C
NV RAM and RTC
2800NVRAMxx
287F
WAKE
2880
STEMP1
2881
STEMP0
2882
BSENSE
2885
LKPADDR 2887
LKPDATA 2888
LKPCTRL 2889
RTC0
2890
RTC2
2892
RTC3
2893
RTC4
2894
RTC5
2895
RTC6
2896
RTC7
2897
RTC8
2898
RTC9
2899
RTC10
289B
RTC11
289C
RTC12
289D
RTC13
289E
RTC14
289F
TEMP
28A0
Reserved 28B0
Reserved 28B1
MISC
28B2
Reserved 28B3
WDRST
28B4
MPU PORTS
86
PDS_6545_009
Bit 7
U
U
Bit 6
U
U
Bit 5
U
PORT_E
Bit 4
U
SPI_E
Bit 3
U
SPI_SAFE
Bit 2
U
U
Bit 1
U
U
Bit 0
INFO_PG
U
NVRAM[0] – NVRAM[7F] – Direct Access
STEMP[2:0]
LKPAUTOI
U
RTC_WR
U
RTC_RD
U
U
U
U
U
U
U
U
U
U
U
U
U
U
U
U
R
R
U
SLEEP
U
WD_RST
U
U
TEMP_PWR
R
U
R
U
TEMP_START
WAKE_TMR[7:0]
STEMP[10:3]
U
U
U
U
U
BSENSE[7:0]
LKPADDR[6:0]
LKPDAT[7:0]
U
U
U
U
LKP_RD
LKP_WR
U
RTC_FAIL
U
U
U
U
RTC_SBSC[7:0]
RTC_SEC[5:0]
RTC_MIN[5:0]
U
RTC_HR[4:0]
U
U
U
RTC_DAY[2:0]
U
RTC_DATE[4:0]
U
U
RTC_MO[3:0]
RTC_YR[7:0]
U
U
U
RTC_P[16:14]
RTC_P[13:6]
RTC_P[5:0]
RTC_Q[1:0]
RTC_TMIN[5:0]
U
RTC_THR[4:0]
OSC_COMP
TEMP_BAT
TBYTE_BUSY
TEMP_PER[2:0]
R
R
R
R
U
U
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
U
U
U
U
U
U
R
R
R
R
R
U
U
U
U
U
U
© 2008–2011 Teridian Semiconductor Corporation
v1.0
PDS_6545_009
Name
Addr
PORT3
PORT2
PORT1
PORT0
FLASH
ERASE
FLSHCTL
PGADR
I2C
EEDATA
EECTRL
SFR B0
SFR A0
SFR 90
SFR 80
v1.0
SFR 94
SFR B2
SFR B7
SFR 9E
SFR 9F
Data Sheet 71M6545/H
Bit 7
PREBOOT
Bit 6
Bit 5
DIO_DIR[15:12]
DIO_DIR[11:8]
DIO_DIR[7:4]
DIO_DIR[3:0]
SECURE
U
Bit 4
Bit 3
FLSH_ERASE[7:0]
U
FLSH_PEND
FLSH_PGADR[6:0]
Bit 2
Bit 1
DIO[15:12]
DIO[11:8]
DIO[7:4]
DIO[3:0]
FLSH_PSTWR
FLSH_MEEN
Bit 0
FLSH_PWE
U
EEDATA[7:0]
EECTRL[7:0]
© 2008–2011 Teridian Semiconductor Corporation
87
Data Sheet 71M6545/H
5.2
PDS_6545_009
I/O RAM Map – Alphabetical Order
Table 61 lists I/O RAM bits and registers in alphabetical order.
Bits with a write direction (W in column Dir) are written by the MPU into configuration RAM. Typically, they are initially stored in flash memory and
copied to the configuration RAM by the MPU. Some of the more frequently programmed bits are mapped to the MPU SFR memory space. The
remaining bits are mapped to the address space 0x2XXX. Bits with R (read) direction can be read by the MPU. Columns labeled Rst and Wk
describe the bit values upon reset and wake, respectively. No entry in one of these columns means the bit is either read-only or is powered by the
NV supply and is not initialized. Write-only bits return zero when they are read.
Locations that are shaded in grey are non-volatile (i.e., battery-backed).
Table 61: I/O RAM Map – Alphabetical Order
Name
ADC_E
2704[4]
Rst Wk Dir
0 0 R/W
ADC_DIV
2200[5]
0
0
R/W
BCURR
2704[3]
0
0
R/W
BSENSE[7:0]
2885[7:0]
–
–
R
CE_E
CE_LCTN[5:0]
CHIP_ID[15:8]
CHIP_ID[7:0]
2106[0]
2109[5:0]
2300[7:0]
2301[7:0]
0 0 R/W
31 31 R/W
0 0
R
0 0
R
CHOP_E[1:0]
88
Location
2106[3:2]
0
0
R/W
Description
Enables ADC and VREF. When disabled, reduces bias current.
ADC_DIV controls the rate of the ADC and FIR clocks.
The ADC_DIV setting determines whether MCK is divided by 4 or 8:
0 = MCK/4
1 = MCK/8
The resulting ADC and FIR clock is as shown below.
PLL_FAST = 0
PLL_FAST = 1
MCK
6.291456 MHz
19.660800 MHz
ADC_DIV = 0
1.572864 MHz
4.9152 MHz
ADC_DIV = 1
0.786432 MHz
2.4576 MHz
Connects a 100 µA load to the battery (VBAT_RTC pin).
The result of the VBAT_RTC pin measurement. See 2.5.7 71M6545/H Battery Monitor
on page 55.
CE enable.
CE program location. The starting address for the CE program is 1024*CE_LCTN.
These bytes contain the chip identification.
Chop enable for the reference bandgap circuit. The value of CHOP changes on the
rising edge of the internal MUXSYNC signal according to the value in CHOP_E[1:0]:
00 = toggle1 01 = positive 10 = reversed 11 = toggle
1
except at the mux sync edge at the end of an accumulation interval.
© 2008–2011 Teridian Semiconductor Corporation
v1.0
PDS_6545_009
Name
CHOPR[1:0]
DIFF0_E
DIFF2_E
DIFF4_E
DIFF6_E
DIO_R2[2:0]
DIO_R3[2:0]
DIO_R4[2:0]
DIO_R5[2:0]
DIO_R6[2:0]
DIO_R7[2:0]
DIO_R8[2:0]
DIO_R9[2:0]
DIO_R10[2:0]
DIO_R11[2:0]
DIO_RPB[2:0]
DIO_DIR[14:12]
DIO_DIR[11:8]
DIO_DIR[7:4]
DIO_DIR[3:0]
DIO[14:12]
DIO[11:8]
DIO[7:4]
DIO[3:0]
DIO_EEX[1:0]
v1.0
Data Sheet 71M6545/H
Location
2709[7:6]
Rst Wk Dir
00 00 R/W
210C[4]
210C[5]
210C[6]
210C[7]
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
2455[2:0]
2455[6:4]
2454[2:0]
2454[6:4]
2453[2:0]
2453[6:4]
2452[2:0]
2452[6:4]
2451[2:0]
2451[6:4]
2450[2:0]
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
–
R/W
F
F
R/W
F
F
R/W
SFR B0[6:4]
SFR A0[7:4]
SFR 90[7:4]
SFR 80[7:4]
SFR B0[3:0]
SFR A0[3:0]
SFR 90[3:0]
SFR 80[3:0]
2456[7:6]
0
–
R/W
Description
The CHOP settings for the remote sensor.
00 = Auto chop. Change every MUX frame.
01 = Positive
10 = Negative
11 = Auto chop (same as 00)
Enables IADC0-IADC1 differential configuration.
Enables IADC2-IADC3 differential configuration.
Enables IADC4-IADC5 differential configuration.
Enables IADC6-IADC7 differential configuration.
Connects PB and dedicated I/O pins DIO2 through DIO11 to internal resources. If
more than one input is connected to the same resource, the MULTIPLE column below
specifies how they are combined.
MULTIPLE
DIO_Rx Resource
0
NONE
–
1
Reserved
OR
2
T0 (Timer0 clock or gate)
OR
3
T1 (Timer1 clock or gate)
OR
4
IO interrupt (int0)
OR
5
IO interrupt (int1)
OR
Programs the direction of the first 15 DIO pins. 1 indicates output. See DIO_PV and
DIO_PW for special option for DIO0 and DIO1 outputs. See DIO_EEX[1:0] for special
option for DIO2 and DIO3. Note that the direction of DIO pins above 14 is set by
DIOx[1]. See PORT_E to avoid power up spikes.
The value on the first 15 DIO pins. When written, changes data on pins configured
as outputs. Pins as input ignore writes. Note that the data for DIO pins above 14 is
set by DIOx[0].
When set, converts DIO3 and DIO2 to interface with external EEPROM. DIO2
becomes SDCK and DIO3 becomes bi-directional SDATA.
DIO_EEX[1:0] Function
00
Disable EEPROM interface
01
2-Wire EEPROM interface
10
3-Wire EEPROM interface
3-Wire EEPROM interface with separate DO (DIO3) and DI (DIO8)
11
pins.
© 2008–2011 Teridian Semiconductor Corporation
89
Data Sheet 71M6545/H
Name
DIO_PV
DIO_PW
DIO_PX
DIO_PY
EEDATA[7:0]
EECTRL[7:0]
PDS_6545_009
Location
2457[6]
2457[7]
2458[7]
2458[6]
SFR 9E
SFR 9F
Rst
0
0
0
0
0
0
Wk
–
–
–
–
0
0
Dir
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Description
Causes VPULSE to be output on DIO1.
Causes WPULSE to be output on DIO0.
Causes XPULSE to be output on DIO6.
Causes YPULSE to be output on DIO7.
Serial EEPROM interface data.
Serial EEPROM interface control.
Status
Name
Bit
ERROR
7
BUSY
6
5
RX_ACK
Read/
Write
R
R
R
Reset
Polarity Description
State
0
Positive 1 when an illegal command is received.
0
Positive 1 when serial data bus is busy.
1 indicates that the EEPROM sent an
1
Positive
ACK bit.
Specifies the power equation.
EQU[2:0]
3
EQU[2:0]
2106[7:5]
0
0
R/W
4
5*
Description
2 element, 4W,
3φ ela
2 element, 4W,
3φ We
3 element, 4W,
3φ ye
Element
0
Element
1
Element
2
Recommended
MUX Sequence
VA(-IB)/
0
VC IC
IAVA IB B C
VC
A(IA-IB)/2
VB(IC-IB)/2
0
IA VA IB V I C
VA IA
VB B
VC C
A AIBVB
ICV
Note:
*The available CE codes implements only equation 5. Contact your local Teridian representative to
obtain CE code for equations 3 and4.
EX_XFER
EX_RTC1S
EX_RTC1M
EX_RTCT
EX_SPI
EX_EEX
EX_XPULSE
EX_YPULSE
EX_WPULSE
EX_VPULSE
90
2700[0]
2700[1]
2700[2]
2700[3]
2701[7]
2700[7]
2700[6]
2700[5]
2701[6]
2701[5]
0
0
R/W
Interrupt enable bits. These bits enable the XFER_BUSY, the RTC_1SEC, etc. The
bits are set by hardware and cannot be set by writing a 1. The bits are reset by writing
0. Note that if one of these interrupts is to enabled, its corresponding 8051 EX enable
bit must also be set. See 2.4.10 Interrupts, for details.
© 2008–2011 Teridian Semiconductor Corporation
v1.0
PDS_6545_009
Data Sheet 71M6545/H
Name
Location
FIR_LEN[1:0]
210C[2:1]
0
0
R/W
SFR 94[7:0]
0
0
W
FLSH_MEEN
SFR B2[1]
0
0
W
FLSH_PEND
SFR B2[3]
0
0
R
SFR B7[7:1]
0
0
W
SFR B2[2]
0
0
R/W
FLSH_ERASE[7:0]
FLSH_PGADR[6:0]
FLSH_PSTWR
v1.0
Rst Wk Dir
Description
Determines the number of ADC cycles in the ADC decimation FIR filter.
PLL_FAST = 1:
FIR_LEN[1:0]
ADC Cycles
00
141
01
288
10
384
PLL_FAST = 0:
FIR_LEN[1:0]
ADC Cycles
00
135
01
276
10
Not Allowed
The ADC LSB size and full-scale values depend on the FIR_LEN[1:0] setting. Refer to
Table 73 on page 106 and Table 91 on page 122 for details.
Flash Erase Initiate
FLSH_ERASE is used to initiate either the Flash Mass Erase cycle or the Flash Page
Erase cycle. Specific patterns are expected for FLSH_ERASE in order to initiate the
appropriate Erase cycle. (default = 0x00).
0x55 – Initiate Flash Page Erase cycle. Must be proceeded by a write to
FLSH_PGADR[6:0] (SFR 0xB7).
0xAA – Initiate Flash Mass Erase cycle. Must be proceeded by a write to
FLSH_MEEN (SFR 0xB2) and the debug (CC) port must be enabled.
Any other pattern written to FLSH_ERASE has no effect.
Mass Erase Enable
0 = Mass Erase disabled (default).
1 = Mass Erase enabled.
Must be re-written for each new Mass Erase cycle.
Indicates that a posted flash write is pending. If another flash write is attempted, it is
ignored.
Flash Page Erase Address
Flash Page Address (page 0 thru 63) that is erased during the Page Erase cycle.
(default = 0x00).
Must be re-written for each new Page Erase cycle.
Enables posted flash writes. When 1, and if CE_E = 1, flash write requests are stored
in a one element deep FIFO and are executed when CE_BUSY falls. FLSH_PEND can
be read to determine the status of the FIFO. If FLSH_PSTWR = 0 or if CE_E = 0, flash
writes are immediate.
© 2008–2011 Teridian Semiconductor Corporation
91
Data Sheet 71M6545/H
Name
Location
Rst Wk Dir
FLSH_PWE
SFR B2[0]
0
0
R/W
FLSH_RDE
2702[2]
–
–
R
FLSH_UNLOCK[3:0]
2702[7:4]
0
0
R/W
FLSH_WRE
IE_XFER
IE_RTC1S
IE_RTC1M
IE_RTCT
IE_SPI
IE_EEX
IE_XPULSE
IE_YPULSE
IE_WPULSE
IE_VPULSE
2702[1]
SFR E8[0]
SFR E8[1]
SFR E8[2]
SFR E8[3]
SFR F8[7]
SFR E8[7]
SFR E8[6]
SFR E8[5]
SFR F8[4]
SFR F8[3]
–
–
R
0
0
R/W
INTBITS
2707[6:0]
–
–
R
LKPADDR[6:0]
2887[6:0]
0
0
R/W
2887[7]
0
0
R/W
2888[7:0]
0
0
R/W
2889[1]
2889[0]
0
0
0
0
R/W
R/W
MPU_DIV[2:0]
2200[2:0]
0
0
R/W
MUX0_SEL[3:0]
MUX1_SEL[3:0]
2105[3:0]
2105[7:4]
0
0
0
0
R/W
R/W
LKPAUTOI
LKPDAT[7:0]
LKP_RD
LKP_WR
92
PDS_6545_009
Description
Program Write Enable
0 = MOVX commands refer to External RAM Space, normal operation (default).
1 = MOVX @DPTR,A moves A to External Program Space (Flash) @ DPTR.
This bit is automatically reset after each byte written to flash. Writes to this bit are
inhibited when interrupts are enabled.
Indicates that the flash may be read by ICE or SPI slave. FLSH_RDE = (!SECURE)
Must be a 2 to enable any flash modification. See the description of Flash security
for more details.
Indicates that the flash may be written through ICE or SPI slave ports.
Interrupt flags for external interrupts 2 and 6. These flags monitor the source of the
int6 and int2 interrupts (external interrupts to the MPU core). These flags are set by
hardware and must be cleared by the software interrupt handler. The IEX2 (SFR
0xC0[1]) and IEX6 (SFR 0xC0[5]) interrupt flags are automatically cleared by the MPU
core when it vectors to the interrupt handler. IEX2 and IEX6 must be cleared by writing
zero to their corresponding bit positions in SFR 0xC0, while writing ones to the other
bit positions that are not being cleared.
Interrupt inputs. The MPU may read these bits to see the input to external interrupts
INT0, INT1, up to INT6. These bits do not have any memory and are primarily
intended for debug use.
The address for reading and writing the RTC lookup RAM.
Auto-increment flag. When set, LKPADDR[6:0] auto increments every time LKP_RD
or LKP_WR is pulsed. The incremented address can be read at LKPADDR.
The data for reading and writing the RTC lookup RAM.
Strobe bits for the RTC lookup RAM read and write. When set, the LKPADDR[6:0]
and LKPDAT registers is used in a read or write operation. When a strobe is set, it
stays set until the operation completes, at which time the strobe is cleared and
LKPADDR[6:0] is incremented if LKPAUTOI is set.
MPU clock rate is:
MPU Rate = MCK Rate * 2-(2+MPU_DIV[2:0]).
The maximum value for MPU_DIV[2:0] is 4. Based on the default values of the
PLL_FAST bit and MPU_DIV[2:0], the power up MPU rate is 4.92MHz * ¼ = 1.23 MHz.
The minimum MPU clock rate is 38.4 kHz when PLL_FAST = 1.
Selects which ADC input is to be converted during time slot 0.
Selects which ADC input is to be converted during time slot 1.
© 2008–2011 Teridian Semiconductor Corporation
v1.0
PDS_6545_009
Data Sheet 71M6545/H
Name
MUX2_SEL[3:0]
MUX3_SEL[3:0]
MUX4_SEL[3:0]
MUX5_SEL[3:0]
MUX6_SEL[3:0]
MUX7_SEL[3:0]
MUX8_SEL[3:0]
MUX9_SEL[3:0]
MUX10_SEL[3:0]
Location
2104[3:0]
2104[7:4]
2103[3:0]
2103[7:4]
2102[3:0]
2102[7:4]
2101[3:0]
2101[7:4]
2100[3:0]
Rst
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Wk
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Dir
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
MUX_DIV[3:0]
2100[7:4]
0
0
R/W
Reserved
Reserved
2457[0]
2457[5:4]
0
00
–
–
R/W
R/W
2457[2]
0
–
R/W
0 –
0000 –
R/W
R/W
DIO55_EN
Reserved
Reserved
2457[1]
2456[3:0]
28A0[5]
0
–
R/W
PB_STATE
PERR_RD
PERR_WR
PLL_OK
SFR F8[0]
SFR FC[6]
SFR FC[5]
SFR F9[4]
0
0
R
0
0
R/W
0
0
R
PLL_FAST
2200[4]
0
0
R/W
OSC_COMP
PLS_MAXWIDTH[7:0]
v1.0
210A[7:0]
FF FF R/W
Description
Selects which ADC input is to be converted during time slot 2.
Selects which ADC input is to be converted during time slot 3.
Selects which ADC input is to be converted during time slot 4.
Selects which ADC input is to be converted during time slot 5.
Selects which ADC input is to be converted during time slot 6.
Selects which ADC input is to be converted during time slot 7.
Selects which ADC input is to be converted during time slot 8.
Selects which ADC input is to be converted during time slot 9.
Selects which ADC input is to be converted during time slot 10.
MUX_DIV[3:0] is the number of ADC time slots in each MUX frame. The maximum
number of time slots is 11.
Reserved. Must be 0.
Reserved. Must be 00.
Enables DIO55
DIO55_EN = 0: DIO55 is disabled
DIO55_EN = 1: DIO55 is enabled
Reserved. Must be 0.
Reserved. Must be 0000.
Enables the automatic update of RTC_P[16:0] and RTC_Q [1:0]every time the
temperature is measured.
The de-bounced state of the PB pin.
The 71M6545/H sets these bits to indicate that a parity error on the remote sensor has
been detected. Once set, the bits are remembered until they are cleared by the MPU.
Indicates that the clock generation PLL is settled.
Controls the speed of the PLL and MCK.
1 = 19.66 MHz (XTAL * 600)
0 = 6.29 MHz (XTAL * 192)
Determines the maximum width of the pulse (low-going pulse).
Maximum pulse width is (2*PLS_MAXWIDTH + 1)*TI. Where TI is PLS_INTERVAL. If
PLS_INTERVAL = 0 or PLS_MAXWIDTH=255, no width checking is performed and the
output pulses have 50% duty cycle.
© 2008–2011 Teridian Semiconductor Corporation
93
Data Sheet 71M6545/H
Name
Location
PLS_INTERVAL[7:0]
210B[7:0]
0
0
R/W
PLS_INV
210C[0]
0
0
R/W
PORT_E
270C[5]
0
0
R/W
PRE_E
PREBOOT
2704[5]
SFRB2[7]
0
–
0
–
R/W
R
RCMD[4:0]
SFR FC[4:0]
0
0
R/W
RESET
2200[3]
0
0
W
RFLY_DIS
210C[3]
0
0
R/W
Rst Wk Dir
0
0
R/W
2709[3]
2709[4]
2709[5]
2602[7:0]
2603[7:0]
2504[6:0]
0
0
R
40
–
R/W
2890[4]
0
0
R/W
RTC_P[16:14]
RTC_P[13:6]
RTC_P[5:0]
289B[2:0]
289C[7:0]
289D[7:2]
4
0
0
4
0
0
R/W
RTC_Q[1:0]
289D[1:0]
0
0
R/W
2890[6]
0
0
R/W
RMT2_E
RMT4_E
RMT6_E
RMT_RD[15:8]
RMT_RD[7:0]
RTCA_ADJ[6:0]
RTC_FAIL
RTC_RD
94
PDS_6545_009
Description
Determines the Interval time. The time between FIFO outputs is
PLS_INTERVAL[7:0]*4*203ns. If PLS_INTERVAL[7:0] = 0, the FIFO is not used and
pulses are output as soon as the CE issues them. Assuming a that the CE code is
written to generate 6 pulses in one integration interval, when the FIFO is enabled (i.e.,
PLS_INTERVAL[7:0] ≠ 0) and SUM_SAMPS = 2520, PLS_INTERVAL[7:0] must be
written with 81 so that the six pulses are evenly spaced in time over the integration
interval and the last pulse is issued just prior to the end of the interval.
Inverts the polarity of WPULSE and VARPULSE. Normally, these pulses are active
low. When inverted, they become active high. PLS_INV has no effect on XPULSE or
YPULSE.
Enables outputs from the DIO0-DIO14 pins. PORT_E = 0 blocks the momentary output
pulse that occurs when DIO0-DIO14 are reset on power up.
Enables the 8x pre-amplifier.
Indicates that pre-boot sequence is active.
When the MPU writes a non-zero value to RCMD, the 71M6545/H issues a command
to the appropriate remote sensor. When the command is complete, the 71M6545/H
clears RCMD.
When set, causes a reset.
Controls how the 71M6545/H drives the power pulse for the 71M6xxx. When set, the
power pulse is driven high and low. When cleared, it is driven high followed by an
open circuit flyback interval.
Enables the remote interface.
Response from remote read request.
Register for analog RTC frequency adjustment.
Indicates that a count error has occurred in the RTC and that the time is not
trustworthy. This bit can be cleared by writing a 0.
RTC adjust. See 2.5.4 Real-Time Clock (RTC).
0x0FFBF ≤ RTC_P ≤ 0x10040
Note: RTC_P[16:0] and RTC_Q[1:0] form a single 19-bit RTC adjustment value.
RTC adjust. See 2.5.4 Real-Time Clock (RTC).
Note: RTC_P[16:0] and RTC_Q[1:0] form a single 19-bit RTC adjustment value.
Freezes the RTC shadow register so it is suitable for MPU reads. When RTC_RD is
read, it returns the status of the shadow register:
0 = up to date, 1 = frozen.
© 2008–2011 Teridian Semiconductor Corporation
v1.0
PDS_6545_009
Data Sheet 71M6545/H
Name
RTC_SBSC[7:0]
RTC_TMIN[5:0]
Location
2892[7:0]
289E[5:0]
RTC_THR[4:0]
289F[4:0]
0
–
R/W
2890[7]
0
0
R/W
RTC_SEC[5:0]
RTC_MIN[5:0]
RTC_HR[4:0]
RTC_DAY[2:0]
RTC_DATE[4:0]
RTC_MO[3:0]
RTC_YR[7:0]
2893[5:0]
2894[5:0]
2895[4:0]
2896[2:0]
2897[4:0]
2898[3:0]
2899[7:0]
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
R/W
RTM_E
RTM0[9:8]
RTM0[7:0]
RTM1[7:0]
RTM2[7:0]
RTM3[7:0]
2106[1]
210D[1:0]
210E[7:0]
210F[7:0]
2110[7:0]
2111[7:0]
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
R/W
SECURE
SFR B2[6]
0
0
R/W
28B2[7]
0
0
W
SFR FD[7:0]
–
–
R
SPI_E
270C[4]
1
1
R/W
SPI_SAFE
270C[3]
0
0
R/W
RTC_WR
SLEEP
SPI_CMD
v1.0
Rst Wk Dir
– –
R
0 – R/W
R/W
Description
Time remaining since the last 1 second boundary. LSB=1/128 second.
The target minutes register. See RTC_THR below.
The target hours register. The RTC_T interrupt occurs when RTC_MIN [5:0] becomes
equal to RTC_TMIN[5:0] and RTC_HR[4:0] becomes equal to RTC_THR[4:0].
Freezes the RTC shadow register so it is suitable for MPU writes. When RTC_WR is
cleared, the contents of the shadow register are written to the RTC counter on the
next RTC clock (~1 kHz). When RTC_WR is read, it returns 1 as long as RTC_WR is
set. It continues to return one until the RTC counter actually updates.
The RTC interface. These are the year, month, day, hour, minute and second
parameters for the RTC. The RTC is set by writing to these registers. Year 00 and all
others divisible by 4 are defined as a leap year.
SEC 00 to 59
MIN 00 to 59
HR 00 to 23 (00=Midnight)
DAY 01 to 07 (01=Sunday)
DATE 01 to 31
MO 01 to 12
YR
00 to 99
Each write operation to one of these registers must be preceded by a write to 0x20A0.
Real Time Monitor enable. When 0, the RTM output is low.
Four RTM probes. Before each CE code pass, the values of these registers are
serially output on the RTM pin. The RTM registers are ignored when RTM_E = 0.
Note that RTM0 is 10 bits wide. The others assume the upper two bits are 00.
Inhibits erasure of page 0 and flash memory addresses above the beginning of CE code
as defined by CE_LCTN[5:0]. Also inhibits the reading of flash memory by external
devices (SPI or ICE port).
Puts the 71M6545/H to sleep. Ignored if system power is present. The 71M6545/H
wakes when the Wake timer times out, when push button is pushed, or when system
power returns.
SPI command. 8-bit command from the bus master.
SPI port enable. Enables the SPI interface on pins SPI_DI, SPI_DO, SPI_CSZ and
SPI_CKI.
Limits SPI writes to SPI_CMD and a 16 byte region in DRAM. No other writes are
permitted.
© 2008–2011 Teridian Semiconductor Corporation
95
Data Sheet 71M6545/H
Name
PDS_6545_009
Location
Rst Wk Dir
Description
SPI_STAT contains the status results from the previous SPI transaction
SPI_STAT
2708[7:0]
0
0
R
Bit 7 - 71M6545/H ready error: the 71M6545/H was not ready to read or write as
directed by the previous command.
Bit 6 - Read data parity: This bit is the parity of all bytes read from the 71M6545/H in
the previous command. Does not include the SPI_STAT byte.
Bit 5 - Write data parity: This bit is the overall parity of the bytes written to the
71M6545/H in the previous command. It includes CMD and ADDR bytes.
Bit 4:2 - Bottom 3 bits of the byte count. Does not include ADDR and CMD bytes.
One, two, and three byte instructions return 111.
Bit 1 - SPI FLASH mode: This bit is zero when the TEST pin is zero.
Bit 0 - SPI FLASH mode ready: Used in SPI FLASH mode. Indicates that the flash is ready to
receive another write instruction.
2881[7:0]
2882[7:5]
2107[4:0]
2108[7:0]
–
–
–
–
R
R
0
0
R/W
28A0[3]
0
0
R
230A[2:0]
230B[7:0]
0
–
R
TEMP_BAT
28A0[4]
0
–
R/W
Reserved
28A0[7]
0
–
R/W
28A0[2:0]
0
–
R/W
STEMP[10:3]
STEMP[2:0]
SUM_SAMPS[12:8]
SUM_SAMPS[7:0]
TBYTE_BUSY
TEMP_22[10:8]
TEMP_22[7:0]
TEMP_PER[2:0]
TEMP_PWR
96
28A0[6]
0
–
R/W
The result of the temperature measurement.
The number of multiplexer cycles (frames) per XFER_BUSY interrupt. Maximum value
is 8191 cycles.
Indicates that hardware is still writing the 0x28A0 byte. Additional writes to this byte
are locked out while it is one. Write duration could be as long as 6 ms.
Storage location for STEMP[10:0] at 22C. STEMP[10:0] is an 11 bit word.
Causes VBAT_RTC to be measured whenever a temperature measurement is
performed.
Reserved. Must always be zero.
Sets the period between temperature measurements. Automatic measurements can be
enabled in any mode (MSN or SLP). TEMP_PER = 0 disables automatic temperature
updates, in which case TEMP_START may be used by the MPU to initiate a one-shot
temperature measurement.
TEMP_PER
0
Time (seconds)
No temperature updates
1-6
2 (3 + TEMP _ PER )
7
Continuous updates
Selects the power source for the temp sensor:
1 = V3P3D, 0 = VBAT_RTC.
This bit is ignored in SLP mode, where the temp sensor is always powered by
VBAT_RTC.
© 2008–2011 Teridian Semiconductor Corporation
v1.0
PDS_6545_009
Name
Data Sheet 71M6545/H
Location
Rst Wk Dir
TEMP_START
28B4[6]
0
0
R/W
TMUX[5:0]
TMUX2[4:0]
TMUXR2[2:0]
TMUXR4[2:0]
TMUXR6[2:0]
2502[5:0]
2503[4:0]
270A[2:0]
270A[6:4]
2709[2:0]
–
–
–
–
R/W
R/W
000 000 R/W
2706[7:0]
–
–
R
VREF_CAL
2704[7]
0
0
R/W
VREF_DIS
2704[6]
0
1
R/W
VERSION[7:0]
Description
When TEMP_PER = 0 automatic temperature measurements are disabled, and
TEMP_START may be set by the MPU to initiate a one-shot temperature
measurement. TEMP_START is ignored in SLP mode. Hardware clears TEMP_START
when the temperature measurement is complete.
Selects one of 32 signals for TMUXOUT. See 2.5.14 for details.
Selects one of 32 signals for TMUX2OUT. See 2.5.14 for details.
The TMUX setting for the remote isolated sensors (71M6xx3).
The silicon version index. This word may be read by firmware to determine the silicon
version.
VERSION[7:0] Silicon Version
0001 0001
A01
0001 0011
A03
0001 0011
B01
Brings the ADC reference voltage out to the VREF pin. This feature is disabled when
VREF_DIS=1.
Disables the internal ADC voltage reference.
This word describes the source of power and the status of the VDD.
VSTAT[2:0]
000
001
VSTAT[2:0]
SFR F9[2:0]
–
–
R
010
011
101
WAKE_TMR
WD_RST
v1.0
2880[7:0]
0
–
R/W
28B4[7]
0
0
W
Description
System Power OK. V3P3A>3.0v. Analog modules are functional and
accurate. [V3AOK,V3OK]=11
System Power Low. 2.8v<V3P3A<3.0v. Analog modules not
accurate. [V3AOK,V3OK]=01
VDD OK. VDD>2.25v. Full digital functionality.
[V3AOK,V3OK]=00, [VDDOK,VDDgt2]=11
VDD>2.0. Flash writes are inhibited. If the TRIMVDD[5] fuse is
blown, PLL_FAST is cleared.
[V3AOK,V3OK]=00, [VDDOK,VDDgt2]=01
VDD<2.0. When VSTAT=101, processor is nearly out of voltage.
Processor failure is imminent.
[V3AOK,V3OK]=00, [VDDOK,VDDgt2]=00
Timer duration is WAKE_TMR+1 seconds.
Reset the WD timer. The WD is reset when a 1 is written to this bit. Writing a one
clears and restarts the watch dog timer.
© 2008–2011 Teridian Semiconductor Corporation
97
Data Sheet 71M6545/H
5.3
PDS_6545_009
Reading the Info Page (71M6545H only)
High precision trim fuse values provided in the 71M6545H device cannot be directly accessed through the
I/O RAM space. These trim fuses reside in a special area termed the “Info Page”. The MPU gains access
to the Info Page by setting the INFO_PG (I/O RAM 0x270B[0]) control bit. Once the INFO_PG bit is set, Info
Page contents are accessible in program memory space based at the address specified by the contents
of CE_LCTN[5:0] (I/O RAM 0x2109[5:0]). CE_LCTN[5:0] specifies a base address at a 1KB address
boundary. Thus, the base address for the Info Page is at 1024*CE_LCTN[5:0]. Table 62 provides a list of
the available 71M6545H trim fuses and their corresponding offsets relative to the Info Page base
address. After reading the desired Info Page information, the MPU must reset the INFO_PG bit.
Trim Fuse
Table 62. Info Page Trim Fuses
Object Size
Address Offset
TEMP_85[10:8]
TEMP_85[7:0]
(11-bits)
8-bits
8-bits
0x90
0x91
TRIMBGB[15:8]
TRIMBGB[7:0]
(16-bits)
8-bits
8-bits
0x92
0x93
TRIMBGD[7:0]
(8-bits)
8-bits
0x94
Comments
TEMP_85[10:0] holds the
STEMP[10:0] reading at 85°C.
2’s complement format
TRIMBGB[15:0] holds the
deviation of VREF from its ideal
value (1.195V) at 85°C.
LSB = 0.1 mV
2’s complement format
TRIMBGD[7:0] holds the
deviation of VREF from its ideal
value (1.195V) at 22°C.
LSB = 0.1 mV
2’s complement format
Figure 33. Trim Fuse Bit Mapping
Offset
0x90
0x91
0x92
0x93
0x94
Name
TEMP_85[10:0]
TRIMBGB[15:0]
TRIMBGD[7:0]
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
TEMP_85[10:8]
TEMP_85[7:0]
TRIMBGB[15:8]
TRIMBGB[7:0]
TRIMBGD[7:0]
The code below provides an example for reading Info Page fuse trims. In this code example, the address,
"px" is a pointer to the MPU’s code space. In assembly language, the Info Page data objects, which are
read-only, must be accessed with the MOVC 8051 instruction.
In C, Info Page trim fuses must be fetched with a pointer of the correct width, depending whether an 8-bit
or a 16-bit data object is to be fetched. The case statements in the code example below perform casts to
obtain a pointer of the correct size for each object, as needed.
In assembly language, the MPU has to form 11-bit or 16-bit values from two separate 8-bit fetches,
depending on the object being fetched.
The byte values containing less than 8 valid bits are LSB justified. For example Info Page offset 0x90 is
an 8-bit object, whose three LSBs are bits [10:8] of the complete TEMP_85[10:0] 11-bit object. The Info
Page data objects are 2’s complement format and should be sign extended when read into a 16-bit data
type (see case _TEMP85 in the code example).
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#if HIGH_PRECISION_METER
int16_t read_trim (enum eTRIMSEL select) {
uint8r_t *px;
int16_t x;
px = ((uint16_t)select) + ((uint8r_t *)(CE3 << 10));
switch (select)
{
default:
case _TRIMBGD:
INFO_PG = 1;
x = *px;
INFO_PG = 0;
break;
case _TRIMBGB:
INFO_PG = 1;
x = *(uint16r_t*)px;
INFO_PG = 0;
break;
case _TEMP85:
INFO_PG = 1;
x = *(uint16r_t*)px;
INFO_PG = 0;
if (x & 0x800)
x |= 0xF800;
break;
}
return (x);
}
#endif //#if HIGH_PRECISION_METER
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5.4
CE Interface Description
5.4.1
CE Program
The CE performs the precision computations necessary to accurately measure power. These computations
include offset cancellation, phase compensation, product smoothing, product summation, frequency
detection, VAR calculation, sag detection and voltage phase measurement. All data computed by the CE
is dependent on the selected meter equation as given by EQU[2:0] (I/O RAM 0x2106[7:5]).
The standard CE program is supplied by Teridian as a data image that can be merged with the MPU
operational code for meter applications. Typically, this CE program covers most applications and does
not need to be modified. Other variations of CE code may be available from Teridian. The description in
this section applies to CE code revision CE43A01A.
5.4.2
CE Data Format
All CE words are 4 bytes. Unless specified otherwise, they are in 32-bit two’s complement format
(-1 = 0xFFFFFFFF). Calibration parameters are defined in flash memory (or external EEPROM) and
must be copied to CE data memory by the MPU before enabling the CE. Internal variables are used in
internal CE calculations. Input variables allow the MPU to control the behavior of the CE code. Output
variables are outputs of the CE calculations. The corresponding MPU address for the most significant
byte is given by 0x0000 + 4 x CE_address and by 0x0003 + 4 x CE_address for the least significant byte.
5.4.3
Constants
Constants used in the CE Data Memory tables are:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Sampling Frequency: FS = 32768 Hz/15 = 2184.53 Hz.
F0 is the fundamental frequency of the mains phases.
IMAX is the external rms current corresponding to 250 mV pk at each IADC input.
VMAX is the external rms voltage corresponding to 250 mV pk at each VADC input.
NACC, the accumulation count for energy measurements is SUM_SAMPS[12:0] (I/O RAM 0x2107[4:0],
0x2108[7:0]). This value also resides in SUM_PRE (CE RAM 0x23) where it is used for phase angle
measurement.
The duration of the accumulation interval for energy measurements is SUM_SAMPS[12:0] /FS.
X is a gain constant of the pulse generators. Its value is determined by PULSE_FAST and PULSE_SLOW
(see Table 68).
-9
Voltage LSB = VMAX * 7.879810 V.
VMAX = 600 V, IMAX = 208 A, and kH = 3.2 Wh/pulse are assumed as default settings.
The system constants IMAX and VMAX are used by the MPU to convert internal digital quantities (as
used by the CE) to external, i.e. metering quantities. Their values are determined by the scaling of the
voltage and current sensors used in an actual meter. The LSB values used in this document relate digital
quantities at the CE or MPU interface to external meter input quantities. For example, if a SAG threshold
of 80 V peak is desired at the meter input, the digital value that should be programmed into SAG_THR (CE
RAM 0x24) would be 80 V/SAG_THRLSB, where SAG_THRLSB is the LSB value in the description of
SAG_THR (Table 69).
The parameters EQU[2:0], CE_E, and SUM_SAMPS[12:0] , essential to the function of the CE are stored in
I/O RAM (see 5.2 for details).
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Environment
Before starting the CE using the CE_E bit (I/O RAM 0x2106[0]), the MPU has to establish the proper
environment for the CE by implementing the following steps:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Locate the CE code in Flash memory using CE_LCTN[5:0] (I/O RAM 0x2109[5:0])
Load the CE data into RAM.
Establish the equation to be applied in EQU[2:0] (I/O RAM 0x2106[7:5]).
Establish the accumulation period and number of samples in SUM_SAMPS[12:0] (I/O RAM
0x2107[4:0], 0x2108[7:0]).
Establish the number of cycles per ADC multiplexer frame (MUX_DIV[3:0] (I/O RAM 0x2100[7:4])).
Apply proper values to MUXn_SEL, as well as proper selections for DIFFn_E (I/O RAM 0x210C[ ]) and
RMTn_E (I/O RAM 0x2709[ ] in order to configure the analog inputs.
Initialize any MPU interrupts, such as CE_BUSY, XFER_BUSY, or the power-failure detection interrupt.
When different CE codes are used, a different set of environment parameters need to be established.
The exact values for these parameters are listed in the Application Notes and other documentation which
accompanies the CE code.
Operating CE codes with environment parameters deviating from the values specified by Teridian
leads to unpredictable results.
Typically, there are fifteen 32768 Hz cycles per ADC multiplexer frame (see 2.2.2). This means that the
product of the number of cycles per frame and the number of conversions per frame must be 14 (allowing
for one settling cycle). The default configuration is FIR_LEN = 01, I/O RAM 0x210C[1] (two cycles per
conversion) and MUX_DIV[3:0] = 7 (7 conversions per multiplexer cycle).
Sample configurations can be copied from Demo Code provided by Teridian with the Demo Kits.
5.4.5
CE Calculations
Referring to Table 63, The MPU selects the desired equation by writing the EQU[2:0] (I/O RAM
0x2106[7:5]).
Table 63: CE EQU[2:0] Equations and Element Input Mapping
EQU
[2:0]*
2
3
4
5
Watt & VAR Formula
(WSUM/VARSUM)
W0SUM/
VAR0SUM
W1SUM/
VAR1SUM
VA*IA + VB*IB
VA * IA
VB * IB
(2-element, 3-W, 3φ
Delta)
VA*(IA-IB)/2 + VC*IC
VA*(IA-IB)/2
–
(2 element, 4W 3φ Delta)
VA*(IA-IB)/2 + VB*(IC-IB)/2
VA*(IA-IB)/2 VB*(IC-IB)/2
(2 element, 4W 3φ Wye)
VA*IA + VB*IB + VC*IC
VA*IA
VB*IB
(3 element, 4W 3φ Wye)
W2SUM/
VAR2SUM
I0SQ
SUM
I1SQ
SUM
I2SQ
SUM
N/A
IA
IB
–
VC*IC
IA-IB
IB
IC
–
IA-IB
IC-IB
IC
VC*IC
IA
IB
IC
Note:
* Only EQU[2:0] = 5 is supported by the currently available CE code versions for the 71M6545/H.
Contact your local Teridian representative for CE codes that support equations 2, 3 and 4.
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5.4.6
PDS_6545_009
CE Front End Data (Raw Data)
Access to the raw data provided by the AFE is possible by reading CE RAM addresses 0 through A, as
shown in Table 64. In the expression MUXn_SEL[3:0] = x, ‘n’ refers to the multiplexer frame time slot number
and ‘x’ refers to the desired ADC input number or ADC handle (i.e., IADC0 to VADC10, or simply 0 to 10
decimal).
The 71M6545/H can support up to eleven sensor inputs, when all the current sensors are configured as
single-ended inputs. If all the current sensor inputs are configured as differential (recommended for
best performance), the number of input sensor channels is reduced to seven (i.e., IADC0-1, IADC2-3,
IADC4-5, IADC6-7, VADC8, VADC9 and VADC10). The MUXn_SEL[3:0] column in Table 64 shows the
MUXn_SEL handles for the various sensor input pins. For example, if differential mode is enabled via
control bit DIFF0_E = 1 (I/O RAM 0x210C[4]), then the IADC0-IADC1 input pins are combined together to
form a single differential input and the corresponding MUXn_SEL handle is 0 (i.e., handle 1 is then unused).
Similarly, the CE RAM location column provides the CE RAM address where the corresponding sample data
is stored. Continuing with the same example, if DIFF0_E = 1, the corresponding CE RAM location where the
samples for the IADC0-IADC1 differential input are stored is CE RAM 0.
The IADC2-3, IADC4-5 and IADC6-7 inputs can be configured as direct-connected sensors (i.e., directly
connected to the 71M6545/H) or as remote sensors (i.e., using a 71M6xx3 Isolated Sensor). For example, if
the IADC2-3 remote sensor is disabled by RMT2_E = 0 (I/O RAM 0x2007[3]) and differential mode is enabled
by DIFF2_E = 1 (I/O RAM 0x210C[4]), then IADC2-IADC3 form a differential input with a MUXn_SEL handle
of 2 (i.e., handle 3 is then unused), and the corresponding samples are stored in CE RAM location 2. If the
remote sensor enable bit RMT2_E = 1, DIFF2_E = x (don’t care), then the MUXn_SEL handle is not required
(i.e., the sensor is not connected to the 71M6545/H multiplexer, so MUXn_SEL does not apply), and the
samples corresponding to this remote differential IADC2-IADC3 input are stored in CE RAM location 2
directly by the digital isolation interface (see Figure 2).
The voltage sensor inputs (VADC8, VADC9 and VADC10) are always single-ended inputs and cannot be
configured as remotes, so they do not have any associated configuration bits. VADC8 (VA) has a
MUXn_SEL handle value of 8, and its samples are stored in CE RAM location 8. VADC9 (VB) has a
MUXn_SEL handle value of 9 and its samples are stored in CE RAM location 9. VADC10 (VC) has a
MUXn_SEL handle value of 10 and its samples are stored in CE RAM location 10.
Table 64: CE Raw Data Access Locations
Pin
MUXn_SEL Handle
CE RAM Location
IADC4
IADC5
DIFF0_E
0
1
0
0
1
RMT2_E, DIFF2_E
0,0
0,1
1,0
1,1
2
2
3
RMT4_E, DIFF4_E
0,0
0,1
1,0
1,1
4
4
5
DIFF0_E
0
1
0
0
1
RMT2_E, DIFF2_E
0,0
0,1
1,0
1,1
2
2
2*
2*
3
RMT4_E, DIFF4_E
0,0
0,1
1,0
1,1
4
4
4*
4*
5
IADC6
IADC7
0,0
6
7
VADC8 (VA)
VADC9 (VB)
VADC10 (VC)
8
9
10
IADC0
IADC1
IADC2
IADC3
RMT6_E, DIFF6_E
0,1
1,0
1,1
RMT6_E, DIFF6_E
0,0
0,1
1,0
1,1
6
6
6
6*
6*
7
There are no configuration bits for VADC8, 9, 10
8
9
10
*Remote interface data
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5.4.7
Data Sheet 71M6545/H
CE Status and Control
The CE Status Word is useful for generating early warnings to the MPU (Table 65). It contains sag warnings
for phase A, B, and C, as well as F0, the derived clock operating at the fundamental input frequency. The
MPU can read the CE status word at every CE_BUSY interrupt. Since the CE_BUSY interrupt occurs at
the sample rate (i.e., 2520.6 Hz for MUX_DIV[3:0]=6 or 2184.5 Hz for MUX_DIV[3:0]=7), it is desirable to
minimize the computation required in the interrupt handler of the MPU.
Table 65: CESTATUS Register
CE Address
0x80
Name
CESTATUS
Description
See description of CESTATUS bits in Table 66.
CESTATUS provides information about the status of voltage and input AC signal frequency, which are useful
for generating an early power fail warning to initiate necessary data storage. CESTATUS represents the
status flags for the preceding CE code pass (CE_BUSY interrupt). The significance of the bits in
CESTATUS is shown in Table 66.
Table 66: CESTATUS Bit Definitions
CESTATUS
bit
Name
31:4
3
Not Used
F0
2
SAG_C
1
SAG_B
0
SAG_A
Description
These unused bits are always zero.
F0 is a square wave at the exact fundamental input frequency.
Normally zero. Becomes one when VADC10 (VC) remains below SAG_THR
(CE RAM 0x24) for SAGCNT samples. Does not return to zero until VADC10
(VC) rises above SAG_THR.
Normally zero. Becomes one when VADC9 (VB) remains below SAG_THR
for SAG_CNT samples. Does not return to zero until VADC9 (VB) rises above
SAG_THR.
Normally zero. Becomes one when VADC8 (VA) remains below SAG_THR
for SAG_CNT samples. Does not return to zero until VADC8 (VA) rises above
SAG_THR.
The CE is initialized by the MPU using CECONFIG (Table 67). This register contains in packed form
SAG_CNT, FREQSEL0, FREQSEL1, EXT_PULSE, PULSE_SLOW, and PULSE_FAST. The CECONFIG bit
definitions are given in Table 68.
Table 67: CECONFIG Register
CE Address
Name
Data
0x20
CECONFIG
0x0030DA20
Description
See description of the CECONFIG bits in Table 68.
The EXT_TEMP bit enables temperature compensation by the MPU, when set to 1. When 0, internal (CE)
temperature compensation is enabled.
The CE pulse generator can be controlled by either the MPU (external) or CE (internal) variables. Control is by
the MPU if EXT_PULSE = 1. In this case, the MPU controls the pulse rate by placing values into APULSEW and
APULSER (CE RAM 0x44 and 0x48). By setting EXT_PULSE = 0, the CE controls the pulse rate based on
WSUM_X (CE RAM 0x84) and VARSUM_X (CE RAM 0x88).
The 71M6545/H Demo Code creep function halts both internal and external pulse generation.
Table 68: CECONFIG Bit Definitions (CE RAM 0x20)
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CECONFIG
bit
23
Name
Default
Reserved
0
22
EXT_TEMP
0
21
EDGE_INT
1
20
SAG_INT
1
19:8
SAG_CNT
218
(0xDA)
7:6
FREQSEL[1:0]
0
5
EXT_PULSE
1
4:2
Reserved
0
1
PULSE_FAST
0
0
PULSE_SLOW
0
Description
Reserved.
When 1, the MPU controls temperature compensation via the
GAIN_ADJn (CE RAM 0x40-0x42), when 0, the CE is in control.
When 1, XPULSE produces a pulse for each zero-crossing of
the mains phase selected by FREQSEL[1:0] , which can be used
to interrupt the MPU.
When 1, activates the YPULSE/DIO7 output when a sag is
detected on the phase selected with FREQSEL[1:0].
The number of consecutive voltage samples below SAG_THR
(CE RAM 0x24) before a sag alarm is declared. The default value
is equivalent to 100 ms.
FREQSEL[1:0] selects the phase to be used for the frequency
monitor, sag detection, the phase-to-phase lag calculation and
for the zero crossing counter (MAINEDGE_X, CE RAM 0x83).
Phase
Phases Selected
FREQ SEL[1:0]
Selected
PH_AtoB_X
PH_AtoC_X
0
0
A
A-B
A-C
0
1
B
B-C
B-A
1
0
C
C-A
C-B
1
1
Not allowed
When zero, causes the pulse generators to respond to internal
data. WPULSE = WSUM_X (CE RAM 0x84), VPULSE = VARSUM_X
(CE RAM 0x88.) Otherwise, the generators respond to values the
MPU places in APULSEW and APULSER (CE RAM 0x44 and 0x48)
Reserved.
When PULSE_FAST = 1, the pulse generator input is increased
16x. When PULSE_SLOW = 1, the pulse generator input is
reduced by a factor of 64. These two parameters control the
pulse gain factor X (see table below). Allowed values are either
1 or 0. Default is 0 for both (X = 6).
PULSE_FAST PULSE_SLOW
0
0
0
1
1
0
1
1
X
1.5 * 22 = 6
-4
1.5 * 2 = 0.09375
1.5 * 26 = 96
Do not use
The FREQSEL[1:0] field in CECONFIG (CE RAM 0x20[7:6]) selects the phase that is utilized to generate a sag
interrupt. Thus, a SAG_INT event occurs when the selected phase has satisfied the sag event criteria as
set by the SAG_THR (CE RAM 0x24) register and the SAG_CNT field in CECONFIG (CE RAM 0x20[19:8]).
When the SAG_INT bit (CE RAM 0x20[20]) is set to 1, a sag event generates a transition on the YPULSE
output. After a sag interrupt, the MPU should change the FREQSEL[1:0] setting to select the other phase,
if it is powered. Even though a sag interrupt is only generated on the selected phase, all three phases
are simultaneously checked for sag. The presence of power on a given phase can be sensed by directly
checking the SAG_A, SAG_B and SAG_C bits in CESTATUS (CE RAM 0x80[0:1]).
The EXT_TEMP bit enables temperature compensation by the MPU, when set to 1. When 0, internal (CE)
temperature compensation is enabled.
The CE pulse generator can be controlled by either the MPU (external) or CE (internal) variables. Control is by
the MPU if the EXT_PULSE bit = 1 (CE RAM 0x20[5]). In this case, the MPU controls the pulse rate (external
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pulse generation) by placing values into APULSEW and APULSER (CE RAM 0x45 and 0x49). By setting
EXT_PULSE = 0, the CE controls the pulse rate based on WSUM_X (CE RAM 0x84) and VARSUM_X (CE
RAM 0x88).
Table 69: Sag Threshold, Phase Measurement, and Gain Adjust Control
CE
Address
Name
Default
0x24
SAG_THR
2.39*10
0x40
0x41
0x42
0x43
GAIN_ADJ0
GAIN_ADJ1
GAIN_ADJ2
GAIN_ADJ3
16384
16384
16384
16384
0x44
GAIN_ADJ4
16384
5.4.8
7
Description
The voltage threshold for sag warnings. The default value is
equivalent to 80 V RMS if VMAX = 600 V.
The assignments of these gain adjustments depends on the
meter design. See 4.5.5 Temperature Compensation for VREF
and Shunt Sensors on page 75 or 4.5.6 Temperature
Compensation of VREF and Current Transformers on page 77.
The default value of 16384 corresponds to unity gain.
CE Transfer Variables
When the MPU receives the XFER_BUSY interrupt, it knows that fresh data is available in the transfer
variables. CE transfer variables are modified during the CE code pass that ends with an XFER_BUSY
interrupt. They remain constant throughout each accumulation interval. In this data sheet, the names of
CE transfer variables always end with _X. The transfer variables can be categorized as:
•
•
•
Fundamental energy measurement variables
Instantaneous (RMS) values
Other measurement parameters
Fundamental Energy Measurement Variables
Table 70 describes each transfer variable for fundamental energy measurement. All variables are signed
32-bit integers. Accumulated variables such as WSUM are internally scaled so they have at least 2x
margin before overflow when the integration time is one second. Additionally, the hardware does not permit
output values to fold back upon overflow.
Table 70: CE Transfer Variables (with Shunts)
CE
Address
Name
0x84
0x85
0x86
0x87
0x88
WSUM_X
W0SUM_X
W1SUM_X
W2SUM_X
VARSUM_X
The signed sum: W0SUM_X+W1SUM_X+W2SUM_X.
0x89
0x8A
0x8B
VAR0SUM_X
VAR1SUM_X
VAR2SUM_X
The sum of VARh samples from each wattmeter
element.
-13
LSBW = 7.7562*10 VMAX * IMAX VARh.
Description
Configuration
The sum of Wh samples from each wattmeter
element.
LSBW = 7.7562*10-13 VMAX * IMAX Wh.
The signed sum:
VAR0SUM_X+VAR1SUM_X+VAR2SUM_X.
Figure 27 (page 72)
Table 71: CE Transfer Variables (with CTs)
CE
Address
Name
0x84
0x85
0x86
WSUM_X
W0SUM_X
W1SUM_X
v1.0
Description
Configuration
The signed sum: W0SUM_X+W1SUM_X+W2SUM_X.
The sum of Wh samples from each wattmeter
element.
© 2008–2011 Teridian Semiconductor Corporation
Figure 28 (page 73)
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Data Sheet 71M6545/H
PDS_6545_009
0x87
0x88
W2SUM_X
VARSUM_X
LSBW = 1.0856*10-12 VMAX IMAX Wh.
The signed sum:
VAR0SUM_X+VAR1SUM_X+VAR2SUM_X.
0x89
0x8A
0x8B
VAR0SUM_X
VAR1SUM_X
VAR2SUM_X
The sum of VARh samples from each wattmeter
element.
LSBW = 1.0856*10-12 VMAX IMAX VARh.
WSUM_X and VARSUM_X are the signed sum of Phase-A, Phase-B and Phase-C Wh or VARh values
according to the metering equation specified in the control field EQU[2:0] (I/O RAM 0x2106[7:5]).
WnSUM_X is the Wh value accumulated for phase n in the last accumulation interval and can be computed
based on the specified LSB value.
For example, with VMAX = 600 V and IMAX = 208 A, the LSB for WnSUM_X is 0.135 µWh.
5.4.8.1 Instantaneous Energy Measurement Variables
InSQSUM_X and VnSQSUM are the squared current and voltage samples acquired during the last accumulation
interval. INSQSUM_X can be used for computing the neutral current.
Table 72: CE Energy Measurement Variables (with Shunts)
CE
Address
Name
Description
0x8C
I0SQSUM_X
Neutral Current:
LSBI = 9.9045*10-13 * IMAX2 A2h (PRE_E=0)
LSBI = 6.1903125*10-14 * IMAX2 A2h (PRE_E=1)
0x8D
I1SQSUM_X
0x8E
I2SQSUM_X
0x8F
I3SQSUM_X
0x90
V0SQSUM_X
0x91
V1SQSUM_X
0x92
V2SQSUM_X
Configuration
LSBI = 6.3968*10-13 * (IMAX2) A2h
Figure 27 (page 72)
LSBV = 9.4045*10-13*VMAX2 V2h
Table 73: CE Energy Measurement Variables (with CTs)
CE
Address
Name
0x8C
I0SQSUM_X
0x8D
I1SQSUM_X
0x8E
I2SQSUM_X
0x8F
I3SQSUM_X
0x90
V0SQSUM_X
0x91
V1SQSUM_X
Description
Configuration
LSBI = 1.0856*10-12 * (IMAX2) A2h
Figure 28 (page 73)
LSBV = 1.0856*10-12 * VMAX2 V2h
V2SQSUM_X
0x92
The RMS values can be computed by the MPU from the squared current and voltage samples as follows:
Ix RMS =
106
IxSQSUM ⋅ LSBI ⋅ 3600 ⋅ FS
N ACC
VxRMS =
VxSQSUM ⋅ LSBV ⋅ 3600 ⋅ FS
N ACC
© 2008–2011 Teridian Semiconductor Corporation
v1.0
PDS_6545_009
Data Sheet 71M6545/H
Other transfer variables include those available for frequency and phase measurement, and those reflecting
the count of the zero-crossings of the mains voltage and the battery voltage. These transfer variables are
listed in Table 74.
MAINEDGE_X reflects the number of half-cycles accounted for in the last accumulated interval for the AC
signal of the phase specified in the FREQSEL[1 :0] field of the CECONFIG register (CE RAM 0x20[7:6]) .
MAINEDGE_X is useful for implementing a real-time clock based on the input AC signal.
Table 74: Other Transfer Variables
CE
Address
Name
Description
2184 Hz
≈ 0.509 ⋅10 −6 Hz(for CT)
232
2520 Hz
LSB ≡
≈ 0.587 ⋅10 −6 Hz(for Shunt)
2 32
Fundamental frequency: LSB ≡
0x82
FREQ_X
0x83
MAINEDGE_X
0x94
PH_AtoB_X
0x95
PH_AtoC_X
The number of edge crossings of the selected voltage in the previous
accumulation interval. Edge crossings are either direction and are
de-bounced.
Voltage phase lag. The selection of the reference phase is based on
FREQSEL[1:0] in the CECONFIG register:
If FREQSEL[1:0] selects phase A: Phase lag from A to B.
If FREQSEL[1:0] selects phase B: Phase lag from B to C.
If FREQSEL[1:0] selects phase C: Phase lag from C to A.
Angle in degrees is (0 to 360): PH_AtoB_X * 360/NACC + 2.4*15/13 (for CT)
Angle in degrees is (0 to 360): PH_AtoB_X * 360/NACC + 2.4 (for Shunt)
If FREQSEL[1:0] selects phase A: Phase lag from A to C.
If FREQSEL[1:0] selects phase B: Phase lag from B to A.
If FREQSEL[1:0] selects phase C: Phase lag from C to B.
Angle in degrees is (0 to 360): PH_AtoC_X * 360/NACC + 4.8*15/13 (for CT)
Angle in degrees is (0 to 360): PH_AtoC_X * 360/NACC + 4.8*15/13 (for Shunt)
Phase angle measurement accuracy can be increased by writing values > 1 into V_ANG_CNT (see
Table 69).
5.4.9
Pulse Generation
Table 75 describes the CE pulse generation parameters.
The combination of the CECONFIG PULSE_SLOW (CE RAM 0x20[0]) and PULSE_FAST (CE RAM 0x20[1])
bits controls the speed of the pulse rate. The default values of 0 and 0 maintain the original pulse rate
given by the Kh equation.
WRATE (CE RAM 0x21) controls the number of pulses that are generated per measured Wh and VARh
quantities. The lower WRATE is the slower the pulse rate for measured energy quantity. The metering
constant Kh is derived from WRATE as the amount of energy measured for each pulse. That is, if Kh =
1Wh/pulse, a power applied to the meter of 120 V and 30 A results in one pulse per second. If the load is
240 V at 150 A, ten pulses per second are generated.
Control is transferred to the MPU for pulse generation if EXT_PULSE = 1 (CE RAM 0x20[5]). In this case,
the pulse rate is determined by APULSEW and APULSER (CE RAM 0x44 and 0x48). The MPU has to load
the source for pulse generation in APULSEW and APULSER to generate pulses. Irrespective of the
EXT_PULSE status, the output pulse rate controlled by APULSEW and APULSER is implemented by the CE
only. By setting EXT_PULSE = 1, the MPU is providing the source for pulse generation. If EXT_PULSE is 0,
W0SUM_X and VAR0SUM_X are the default pulse generation sources. In this case, creep cannot be
controlled since it is an MPU function.
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107
Data Sheet 71M6545/H
PDS_6545_009
The maximum pulse rate is 3*FS = 7.5 kHz.
See 2.3.6.2 VPULSE and WPULSE (page 27) for details on how to adjust the timing of the output pulses.
The maximum time jitter is 1/6 of the multiplexer cycle period (nominally 67 µs) and is independent of the
number of pulses measured. Thus, if the pulse generator is monitored for one second, the peak jitter is
67 ppm. After 10 seconds, the peak jitter is 6.7 ppm. The average jitter is always zero. If it is attempted
to drive either pulse generator faster than its maximum rate, it simply outputs at its maximum rate without
exhibiting any rollover characteristics. The actual pulse rate, using WSUM as an example, is:
RATE =
WRATE ⋅ WSUM ⋅ FS ⋅ X
Hz ,
2 46
where FS = sampling frequency (2184.53 Hz), X = Pulse speed factor derived from the CE variables
PULSE_SLOW (CE RAM 0x20[0]) and PULSE_FAST (CE RAM 0x20[1]).
Table 75: CE Pulse Generation Parameters
CE
Address
Name
Default
0x21
WRATE
227
0x22
KVAR
6444
0x23
SUM_PRE
2184
0x45
APULSEW
0
0x46
WPULSE_CTR
0
0x47
WPULSE_ FRAC
0
0x48
0x49
0x4A
WSUM_ ACCUM
APULSER
VPULSE_CTR
0
0
0
0x4B
VPULSE_ FRAC
0
0x4C
VSUM_ACCUM
0
Description
Kh = VMAX*IMAX*K / (WRATE*NACC*X) Wh/pulse
where:
K = 76.3594 when used with local sensors (CT or shunt)
K = 54.5793 when used with 71M6xx3 remote sensors
Scale factor for VAR measurement.
Number of samples per accumulation interval, as specified in
SUM_SAMPS[12:0], I/O RAM 0x2107[4:0], 0x2108[7:0] (NACC).
Wh pulse (WPULSE) generator input to be updated by the MPU
when using external pulse generation. The output pulse rate is:
APULSEW * FS * 2-32 * WRATE * X * 2-14.
This input is buffered and can be updated by the MPU during a
conversion interval. The change takes effect at the beginning of
the next interval.
Counter for WPULSE output.
Unsigned numerator, containing a fraction of a pulse. The value
in this register always counts up towards the next pulse.
Roll-over accumulator for WPULSE.
VARh (VPULSE) pulse generator input.
Counter for VPULSE output.
Unsigned numerator, containing a fraction of a pulse. The value
in this register always counts up towards the next pulse.
Roll-over accumulator for VPULSE.
Other CE Parameters
Table 76 shows the QUANT CE parameters used for suppression of noise due to scaling and truncation
effects. The equations for calculating the LSB weight of each QUANT parameter are provided at the
bottom of Table 76.
108
© 2008–2011 Teridian Semiconductor Corporation
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Data Sheet 71M6545/H
Table 76: CE Parameters for Noise Suppression and Code Version
CE
Address
0x26
0x27
0x28
0x2A
0x2B
0x2C
0x2E
0x2F
0x30
Name
Default
QUANT_IA
QUANT_WA
QUANT_VARA
QUANT_IB
QUANT_WB
QUANT_VARB
QUANT_IC
QUANT_WC
QUANT_VARC
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Description
Compensation factors for truncation and noise in current, real
energy and reactive energy for phase A.
Compensation factors for truncation and noise in current, real
energy and reactive energy for phase B.
Compensation factors for truncation and noise in current, real
energy and reactive energy for phase C.
Compensation factors for truncation and noise in current for
phase D.
LSB weights for use with the 71M6xx3 isolated sensors:
0x31
QUANT_ID
0
QUANT _ Ix _ LSB = 5.20864 ⋅ 10 −10 ⋅ IMAX 2 ( Amps 2 )
QUANT _ Wx _ LSB = 8.59147 ⋅ 10 −10 ⋅ VMAX ⋅ IMAX (Watts)
QUANT _ VARx _ LSB = 8.59147 ⋅ 10 −10 ⋅ VMAX ⋅ IMAX (Vars)
LSB weights for use with Current Transformers (CTs):
QUANT _ Ix _ LSB = 5.08656 ⋅ 10 −13 ⋅ IMAX 2 ( Amps 2 )
QUANT _ Wx _ LSB = 1.04173 ⋅ 10 −9 ⋅ VMAX ⋅ IMAX (Watts)
QUANT _ VARx _ LSB = 1.04173 ⋅ 10 −9 ⋅ VMAX ⋅ IMAX (Vars)
v1.0
© 2008–2011 Teridian Semiconductor Corporation
109
Data Sheet 71M6545/H
PDS_6545_009
5.4.10 CE Calibration Parameters
Table 77 lists the parameters that are typically entered to effect calibration of meter accuracy.
Table 77: CE Calibration Parameters
CE
Address
Name
Defau
lt
Description
0x10
0x11
0x13
0x14
0x16
0x17
0x19
CAL_IA
CAL_VA
CAL_IB
CAL_VB
CAL_IC
CAL_VC
CAL_ID
16384
16384
16384
16384
16384
16384
16384
These constants control the gain of their respective channels. The
14
nominal value for each parameter is 2 = 16384. The gain of each
channel is directly proportional to its CAL parameter. Thus, if the
gain of a channel is 1% low, CAL should be increased by 1%.
0x12
PHADJ_A
0
0x15
PHADJ_B
0
0x18
PHADJ_C
0
0x12
DLYADJ_A
0
These constants control the CT phase compensation. No
compensation occurs when PHADJ_X = 0. As PHADJ_X is increased,
more compensation (lag) is introduced. The range is ± 215 – 1. If it
is desired to delay the current by the angle Φ, the equations are:
0.029615TANΦ
at 60Hz
PHADJ _ X = 2 20
0.1714 − 0.0168 ⋅ TANΦ
PHADJ _ X = 2 20
0.0206 ⋅ TANΦ
at 50Hz
0.1430 − 0.01226 ⋅ TANΦ
The shunt delay compensation is obtained using the equation
provided below:
 2πf 
 2πf
 + 2ab cos
a 2 cos 2 
2π
 fs 
 fs
DLYADJ _ X = ∆ deg rees (1 + 0.1∆ deg rees )214
360
 2πf 

 + b


c sin 
 fs 
where:
a = 2A
0x15
0x18
DLYADJ_B
DLYADJ_C
0
0
b = A2 + 1
 2πf 
+2
c = 2 A2 + 4 A cos

 fs 
The table below provides the value of A for each channel:
Value of A
Channel
(decimal)
DLYADJ_A
13840
DLYADJ_B
11693
DLYADJ_C
9359
f is the mains frequency.
fs is the sampling frequency.
Note:
The current sensor inputs are not assigned to the A, B and C phases in a fixed manner. The
assignments of phases A, B and C depends on how the IADC0-1, IADC2-3, IADC4-5, IADC6-7 current
sensing inputs are connected in the meter design. The CE code must be aware of these connections.
See Figure 27 and Figure 28 for typical meter configurations. VADC8, VADC9 and VADC10 are
assigned to voltage phases VA, VB and VC in a fixed manner, respectively.
The CE addresses listed in this table are assigned to phases A, B and C as indicated by their names.
110
© 2008–2011 Teridian Semiconductor Corporation
v1.0
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Data Sheet 71M6545/H
5.4.11 CE Flow Diagrams
Figure 34 through Figure 36 show the data flow through the CE in simplified form. Functions not shown
include delay compensation, sample interpolation, scaling and the processing of meter equations.
multiplexer
IA
VA
IB
VB
IC
VC
VREF
∆∑
mod
de-multiplexer
IA_RAW
VA_RAW
IB_RAW
VB_RAW
IC_RAW
VC_RAW
ID_RAW
Decimator
ID
FS= 2184 Hz
FS= 2184 Hz
Figure 34: CE Data Flow: Multiplexer and ADC
Figure 35: CE Data Flow: Scaling, Gain Control, Intermediate Variables for one Phase
v1.0
© 2008–2011 Teridian Semiconductor Corporation
111
Data Sheet 71M6545/H
PDS_6545_009
SUM
WA
WB
WC
VARA
VARB
VARC
WASUM_X
WBSUM_X
WCSUM_X
VARASUM_X
VARBSUM_X
VARCSUM_X
Σ
Σ
I2
V2
IASQ
IBSQ
ICSQ
VASQ
VBSQ
VCSQ
IDSQ
F0
SUM
Σ
v
SQUARE
IA
IB
IC
VA
VB
VC
ID
Σ
MPU
SUM_SAMPS = 2184
IASQSUM_X
IBSQSUM_X
ICSQSUM_X
VASQSUM_X
VBSQSUM_X
VCSQSUM_X
IDSQSUM_X
F0
Figure 36: CE Data Flow: Squaring and Summation Stages
112
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6
Data Sheet 71M6545/H
71M6545/H SPECIFICATIONS
This section provides the electrical specifications for the 71M6545/H. Please refer to the 71M6xxx Data
Sheet for the 71M6xx3 electrical specifications, pin-out and package mechanical data.
6.1
Absolute Maximum Ratings
Table 78 shows the absolute maximum ranges for the device. Stresses beyond Absolute Maximum Ratings
may cause permanent damage to the device. These are stress ratings only and functional operation at
these or any other conditions beyond those indicated under recommended operating conditions (See 6.3)
is not implied. Exposure to absolute-maximum-rated conditions for extended periods may affect device
reliability. All voltages are with respect to GNDA.
Table 78: Absolute Maximum Ratings
Voltage and Current
Supplies and Ground Pins
V3P3SYS, V3P3A
VBAT_RTC
GNDD
Analog Output Pins
−0.5 V to +4.6 V
-0.5 V to +4.6 V
-0.1 V to +0.1 V
-10 mA to +10 mA,
-0.5 V to V3P3A+0.5 V
-10 mA to +10 mA,
-0.5 to +3.0 V
-10 mA to +10 mA,
-0.5 V to +4.6 V
VREF
VDD
V3P3D
Analog Input Pins
IADC0, IADC1, IADC2, IADC3, IADC4, IADC5, IADC6, IADC7, VADC8,
VADC9 and VADC10
XIN, XOUT
-10 mA to +10 mA
-0.5 V to V3P3A+0.5 V
-10 mA to +10 mA
-0.5 V to +3.0 V
DIO Pins
Configured as Digital Inputs
Configured as Digital Outputs
-10 mA to +10 mA,
-0.5 V to +6 V
-10 mA to +10 mA,
-0.5 V to V3P3D+0.5 V
Digital Pins
Inputs (PB, RESET, RX, ICE_E, TEST)
Outputs (TX)
Temperature and ESD Stress
Operating junction temperature (peak, 100ms)
Operating junction temperature (continuous)
Storage temperature
Solder temperature – 10 second duration
v1.0
© 2008–2011 Teridian Semiconductor Corporation
-10 mA to +10 mA,
-0.5 to 6 V
-10 mA to +10 mA,
-0.5 V to V3P3D+0.5 V
140 °C
125 °C
−45 °C to +165 °C
250 °C
113
Data Sheet 71M6545/H
6.2
PDS_6545_009
Recommended External Components
Table 79: Recommended External Components
Name
From
To
C1
C2
CSYS
CVDD
V3P3A
V3P3D
V3P3SYS
VDD
GNDA
GNDD
GNDD
GNDD
XTAL
XIN
XOUT
CXS
XIN
GNDA
CXL
XOUT
GNDA
6.3
Function
Value
Unit
Bypass capacitor for 3.3 V supply
Bypass capacitor for 3.3 V output
≥0.1 ±20%
0.1 ±20%
µF
µF
Bypass capacitor for V3P3SYS
Bypass capacitor for VDD
≥1.0 ±30%
0.1 ±20%
µF
µF
32.768
kHz
15 ±10%
pF
10 ±10%
pF
32.768 kHz crystal – electrically
equivalent to ECS .327-12.5-17X or
Vishay XT26T, load capacitance 12.5 pF
Load capacitor values for crystal depend
on crystal specifications and board
parasitics. Nominal values are based on
4 pF board capacitance and include an
allowance for chip capacitance.
Recommended Operating Conditions
Unless otherwise specified, all parameters listed under 6.4 Performance Specifications and 6.5 Timing
Specifications are valid over the Recommended Operating Conditions provided in Table 80 below.
Table 80: Recommended Operating Conditions
Parameter
Condition
V3P3SYS and V3P3A Supply Voltage for precision VBAT_RTC =0 V to
metering operation (MSN mode). Voltage at
3.8 V
VBAT_RTC need not be present.
VBAT_RTC Voltage. VBAT_RTC is not needed to
support the RTC and non-volatile memory unless V3P3SYS<2.0 V
V3P3SYS<2.0 V
Operating Temperature
Notes:
1. GNDA and GNDD must be connected together.
2. V3P3SYS and V3P3A must be connected together.
114
Min
Max
Unit
3.0
3.6
V
2.0
3.8
V
-40
+85
ºC
© 2008–2011 Teridian Semiconductor Corporation
Typ
v1.0
PDS_6545_009
Data Sheet 71M6545/H
6.4
Performance Specifications
6.4.1
Input Logic Levels
Table 81: Input Logic Levels
Parameter
Condition
Min
Digital high-level input voltage, VIH
Digital low-level input voltage, VIL
Input pull-up current, IIL
E_RXTX, E_RST, E_TCLK
SPI_CSZ (DIO36)
Other digital inputs
Input pull down current, IIH
ICE_E, RESET, TEST
Other digital inputs
6.4.2
Typ
Max
Unit
0.8
V
V
µA
µA
µA
2
VIN=0 V,
ICE_E=3.3 V
10
10
-1
0
100
100
1
10
-1
0
100
1
µA
µA
Typ
Max
Unit
VIN=V3P3D
Output Logic Levels
Table 82: Output Logic Levels
Parameter
Condition
Digital high-level output voltage
VOH
Digital low-level output voltage
VOL
ILOAD = 1 mA
ILOAD = 15 mA
(see notes 1, 2)
ILOAD = 1 mA
ILOAD = 15 mA
(see note 1)
Min
V3P3D–0.4
V3P3D-0.6
0
0
V
V
0.4
0.8
V
V
Note:
1. Guaranteed by design; not production tested.
2. Caution: The sum of all pull up currents must be compatible with the on-resistance of the
internal V3P3D switch. See 6.4.6 V3P3D Switch on page 118.
v1.0
© 2008–2011 Teridian Semiconductor Corporation
115
Data Sheet 71M6545/H
6.4.3
PDS_6545_009
Battery Monitor
Table 83: Battery Monitor Performance Specifications (TEMP_BAT = 1)
Parameter
Condition
BV: Battery Voltage
(definition)
MSN mode, TEMP_PWR = 1
Measurement Error


BV
100 ⋅ 
− 1
 VBAT _ RTC 
VBAT_RTC =
2.0 V
2.5 V
3.0 V
4.0 V
Input impedance in
continuous measurement,
MSN mode.
V(VBAT_RTC)/I(VBAT_RTC)
Load applied with BCURR
IBAT(BCURR=1) - IBAT(BCURR=0)
116
V3P3 = 3.3 V,
0x28A0[7] = 0,
TEMP_PER = 111,
VBAT_RTC = 3.6 V,
V3P3 = 3.3 V
Min
Typ
Max
 = 3.3 + ( − 142) ∙ 0.0246 +  ∙ 297
-7.5
-5
-3
-3
7.5
5
3
5
1
50
Unit
V
%
%
%
%
MΩ
100
© 2008–2011 Teridian Semiconductor Corporation
140
µA
v1.0
PDS_6545_009
6.4.4
Data Sheet 71M6545/H
Temperature Monitor
Table 84. Temperature Monitor
Parameter
Condition
Temperature Measurement
Equation for 71M6545
(see notes 2 and 4)
Temperature Measurement
Equation for 71M6545H
(see notes 3 and 4)
In MSN, TEMP_PWR=1:
VBAT_RTC charge per
measurement
Max
Unit
In MSN, TEMP_PWR=1:
If STEMP ≤ 0:
°C
 = 0.325 ∙  + 22
 =
TA = 22⁰C
63 ∙ 
+ 22
_85
0x28A0[7] = 0,
TEMP_PWR=0,
SLP Mode,
VBAT_RTC = 3.6 V
Duration of temperature
measurement after setting
TEMP_START
(see note 1)
Notes:
1. Guaranteed by design; not production tested.
2. For the 71M6545, TEMP_85 fuses read 0.
3. For the 71M6545H, TEMP_85 fuses ≠ 0.
4. The coefficients provided in these equations are typical.
v1.0
Typ
 = 0.325 ∙  + 22
If STEMP > 0:
Temperature Error (71M6545/H)
Min
-2
2
16
15
© 2008–2011 Teridian Semiconductor Corporation
°C
µC
60
ms
117
Data Sheet 71M6545/H
6.4.5
PDS_6545_009
Supply Current
The supply currents provided in below in Table 85 include only the current consumed by the 71M6545/H.
Refer to the 71M6xxx Data Sheet for additional current required when using a 71M6x03 remote sensor.
Table 85: Supply Current Performance Specifications
Parameter
Condition
I1a:
V3P3A + V3P3SYS current,
Normal Operation
Typ
Max
Unit
Polyphase: 4 Currents, 3 Voltages
V3P3A = V3P3SYS = 3.3 V,
MPU_DIV [2:0]= 3 (614 kHz MPU clock),
No Flash memory write,
RTM_E=0, PRE_E=0, CE_E=1, ADC_E=1,
ADC_DIV=0, MUX_DIV[3:0]=7,
FIR_LEN[1:0]=1, PLL_FAST=1
7.2
8.5
mA
Same as I1a, except PLL_FAST=0
2.9
3.8
mA
I1c:
V3P3A + V3P3SYS current,
Normal Operation
PRE_E=1
Same as I1a, except PRE_E=1
7.3
8.7
mA
I1d:
V3P3A + V3P3SYS current,
Normal Operation
PRE_E=1, ADC_DIV=1,
FIR_LEN=0.
(see note 1)
Same as I1a, except PRE_E=1, ADC_DIV=1,
FIR_LEN=0.
6.5
7.5
mA
I1e:
V3P3A + V3P3SYS current,
Normal Operation
PLL_FAST=0, PRE_E=1.
(see note 1)
Same as I1a, except PRE_E=1, PLL_FAST=0.
3.0
3.9
mA
0.4
0.6
mA/
MHz
0
0.7
1.5
300
1.7
3.2
nA
µA
µA
7.1
8.7
mA
I1b:
V3P3A + V3P3SYS current,
Normal Operation
PLL_FAST=0
I2:
V3P3A + V3P3SYS dynamic
current
Min
Same as I1a, except with variation of
MPU_DIV[2:0].
I MPU_DIV = 0 - I MPU_DIV = 3
4.3
VBAT_RTC current
I3a: MSN
I3b: SLP Mode
I3c: SLP Mode (see note 1)
I4:
V3P3A + V3P3SYS current,
Write Flash with ICE
-300
TA ≤ 25 °C
TA = 85 °C
Same as I1, except write Flash at maximum rate,
CE_E=0, ADC_E=0.
Note:
1. Guaranteed by design; not production tested.
6.4.6
V3P3D Switch
Table 86: V3P3D Switch Performance Specifications
Parameter
Condition
On resistance – V3P3SYS to V3P3D
V3P3D IOH, MSN
| IV3P3D | ≤ 1 mA
V3P3SYS = 3V
V3P3D = 2.9V
118
Min
10
© 2008–2011 Teridian Semiconductor Corporation
Typ
Max
Unit
10
Ω
mA
v1.0
PDS_6545_009
6.4.7
Data Sheet 71M6545/H
Internal Power Fault Comparators
Parameter
Condition
Overall response time
100mV overdrive, falling
100mV overdrive, rising
Falling Threshold
3.0 V Comparator
2.8 V Comparator
Difference 3.0V and 2.8V Comparators
Falling Threshold
2.25 V Comparator
2.0 V Comparator
Difference 2.25V and 2.0V Comparators
Hysteresis,
(Rising Threshold - Falling Threshold)
3.0 V Comparator
2.8 V Comparator
2.25 V Comparator
2.0 V Comparator
6.4.8
Min
V3P3 falling
VDD falling
Typ
20
Max
Unit
200
200
µs
µs
2.83
2.75
50
2.93
2.81
136
3.03
2.87
220
V
V
mV
2.2
1.90
0.15
2.25
2.00
0.25
2.5
2.20
0.35
V
V
V
22
25
10
10
45
42
33
28
65
60
60
60
mV
mV
mV
mV
TA = 22 °C
2.5 V Voltage Regulator – System Power
Table 87: 2.5 V Voltage Regulator Performance Specifications (VDD pin)
Parameter
Condition
V2P5
V2P5 load regulation
Voltage overhead V3P3SYS-V2P5
6.4.9
V3P3 = 3.0 V - 3.8 V
ILOAD = 0 mA
V3P3 = 3.3 V
ILOAD = 0 mA to 5 mA
ILOAD = 5 mA,
Reduce V3P3D until V2P5
drops 200 mV
Min
Typ
Max
Unit
2.55
2.65
2.75
V
40
mV
440
mV
Crystal Oscillator
Measurement conditions: Crystal disconnected, test load of 200 pF/100 kΩ between XOUT and GNDD.
Table 88: Crystal Oscillator Performance Specifications
Parameter
Condition
Maximum Output Power to Crystal
XIN to XOUT Capacitance
(see note 1)
Crystal connected, see note 1
Capacitance change on XOUT
Min
RTC_ADJ = 7F to 0,
Bias voltage = unbiased
Vpp = 0.1 V
Typ
15
Max
Unit
1
μW
3
pF
pF
Note:
1. Guaranteed by design; not production tested.
v1.0
© 2008–2011 Teridian Semiconductor Corporation
119
Data Sheet 71M6545/H
PDS_6545_009
6.4.10 Phase-Locked Loop (PLL)
Table 89: PLL Performance Specifications
PARAMETER
PLL Power-up Settling Time
PLL_FAST settling time
PLL_FAST rise
PLL_FAST fall
PLL SLP to MSN Settling Time
120
CONDITION
PLL_FAST =0,
V3P3 = 0 to 3.3 V step
Measured from first edge of MCK
(TMUX2OUT pin)
V3P3=0
MIN
TYP
PLL_FAST =0
© 2008–2011 Teridian Semiconductor Corporation
MAX
UNIT
3
ms
3
3
3
ms
ms
ms
v1.0
PDS_6545_009
Data Sheet 71M6545/H
6.4.11 71M6545/H VREF
Table 90 shows the performance specifications for the 71M6545/H ADC reference voltage (VREF).
Table 90: 71M6545/H VREF Performance Specifications
Parameter
Condition
VREF output voltage,
VREF(22)
VREF output voltage,
VREF(22)
TA = 22 ºC
Min
Typ
Max
Unit
1.193
1.195
1.197
V
PLL_FAST=0
1.195
V
VREF chop step, trimmed
VREF(CHOP=01) −
VREF(CHOP=10)
-10
10
mV
VREF power supply sensitivity
ΔVREF / ΔV3P3A
V3P3A = 3.0 to 3.6 V
-1.5
1.5
mV/V
VREF_DIS = 1,
VREF = 1.3 V to 1.7 V
VREF_CAL = 1,
ILOAD = 10 µA, -10 µA
VREF input impedance
VREF output impedance
VNOM definition (see note 2)
kΩ
100
VNOM (T ) = VREF (22) + (T − 22)TC1 + (T − 22) 2 TC 2
If temperature characterization trim information is available (71M6545H, 0.1%)
VNOM temperature
coefficients:
35.091+0.01764∙TRIMT+1.587∙(TRIMBGB − TRIMBGD)
TC1 =
TC2 =
VREF(T) deviation from
VNOM(T) (see note 1):
VREF (T ) − VNOM (T ) 106
62
VNOM (T )
kΩ
3.2
−0.557 − 2.8 ∙ 10−4 ∙ 
-10
+10
If temperature characterization trim information is not available (71M6545H , 0.5%)
VNOM temperature
coefficients:
TC1 =
275 − 4.95 ⋅ TRIMT
TC2 =
−0.557 + 0.00028 ⋅ TRIMT
V
µV/°C
µV/°C2
ppm/°C
µV/°C
µV/°C2
VREF(T) deviation from
VNOM(T) (see note 1):
VREF (T ) − VNOM (T ) 106
VNOM (T )
62
-40
+40
ppm/°C
±25
VREF aging
ppm/
year
Notes:
1. Guaranteed by design; not production tested.
2. This relationship describes the nominal behavior of VREF at different temperatures, as
st
nd
governed by a second order polynomial of 1 and 2 order coefficients TC1 and TC2.
3. For the parameters in this table, unless otherwise specified, VREF_DIS = 0, PLL_FAST=1
v1.0
© 2008–2011 Teridian Semiconductor Corporation
121
Data Sheet 71M6545/H
PDS_6545_009
6.4.12 ADC Converter (71M6545/H)
Table 91: ADC Converter Performance Specifications
Parameter
Condition
Recommended Input Range
(Vin - V3P3A)
Voltage to Current Crosstalk
6
10 *Vcrosstalk
cos(∠Vin − ∠Vcrosstalk )
Vin
(see note 1)
Input Impedance, no pre-amp
ADC Gain Error vs %Power Supply
Variation
10 6 ∆Nout PK 357 nV / VIN
100 ∆V 3P3 A / 3.3
Input Offset
IADC0=IADC1=V3P3A
IADC0=V3P3A
THD @ 250mVpk
Name
FIR_LEN
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
J
ADC_DIV
0
1
0
1
2
0
0
1
2
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
PLL_FAST
0
0
1
1
1
0
1
1
1
MUX_DIV
3
2
11
6
4
2
6
3
2
FIR_LEN
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
J
ADC_DIV
0
1
0
1
2
0
0
1
2
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
PLL_FAST
0
0
1
1
1
0
1
1
1
MUX_DIV
3
2
11
6
4
2
6
3
2
Typ
Max
Unit
-250
250
mV
peak
-10
10
μV/V
40
90
kΩ
50
ppm / %
10
10
mV
mV
Vin=200 mV pk, 65 Hz
V3P3A=3.0 V, 3.6 V
DIFF0_E=1, PRE_E=0
DIFF0_E=0, PRE_E=0
THD @ 20mVpk
Name
Vin = 200 mV peak,
65 Hz, on VADC8 (VA) or
VADC9 (VB) or VADC10
(VC).
Vcrosstalk = largest
measurement on IADC0-1
or IADC2-3 or IADC4-5 or
IADC6-7
Vin=65 Hz
Min
-10
-10
VIN = 65Hz, 250mVpk,
64kpts FFT, Blackman Harris
Window.
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
J
VIN = 65Hz, 20mVpk,
64kpts FFT, Blackman Harris
Window.
-82
-84
-83
-86
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
J
-75
-75
-75
-75
-75
-75
-75
-75
-75
dB
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
J
-85
-91
-85
-91
-93
-85
-85
-91
-93
dB
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
J
3470
406
3040
357
151
3470
3040
357
151
nV
LSB Size:
Name
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
J
FIR_LEN
ADC_DIV
0
1
0
1
2
0
0
1
2
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
PLL_FAST
0
0
1
1
1
0
1
1
1
MUX_DIV
3
2
11
6
4
2
6
3
2
Digital Full-Scale:
Name
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
J
122
FIR_LEN
0
1
0
1
2
0
0
1
2
ADC_DIV
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
PLL_FAST
0
0
1
1
1
0
1
1
1
MUX_DIV
3
2
11
6
4
2
6
3
2
Vin=65Hz, 20mVpk,
64kpts FFT, BlackmanHarris window
A: ±91125
B: ±778688
C: ±103823
D: ±884736
E: ±2097152
F: ±91125
G: ±103823
H: ±884736
J: ±2097152
© 2008–2011 Teridian Semiconductor Corporation
LSB
v1.0
PDS_6545_009
Data Sheet 71M6545/H
Note:
1. Guaranteed by design; not production tested.
2. Unless stated otherwise, the following test conditions apply to all the parameters provided in
this table: FIR_LEN[1:0]=1, VREF_DIS=0, PLL_FAST=1, ADC_DIV=0, MUX_DIV=6, LSB values
do not include the 9-bit left shift at CE input.
6.4.13 Pre-Amplifier for IADC0-IADC1
Table 92: Pre-Amplifier Performance Specifications
PARAMETER
Differential Gain
Vin=30mV differential
Vin=15mV differential (see note 1)
Gain Variation vs V3P3
Vin=30mV differential (see note 1)
Gain Variation vs Temp
Vin=30mV differential (see note 1)
Phase Shift,
Vin=30mV differential (see note 1)
Preamp input current
IADC0
IADC1
Preamp+ADC THD
Vin=30mV differential
Vin=15mV differential
CONDITION
TA= 5⁰C,
V3P3=3.3 V,
PRE_E=1,
FIR_LEN=2,
DIFF0_E=1,
2520Hz sample rate
V3P3 =
2.97 V, 3.63 V
TA = -40⁰C, 85⁰C
TA=25⁰C,
V3P3=3.3 V
PRE_E=1,
FIR_LEN=10,
DIFF0_E=1
2520Hz sample rate,
IADC0=IADC1=V3P3
TA=25⁰C,
V3P3=3.3 V,
PRE_E=1,
FIR_LEN=2,
DIFF0_E=1,
2520Hz sample rate.
TA=25⁰C,
V3P3=3.3 V,
PRE_E=1,
FIR_LEN=10,
DIFF0_E=1,
2520Hz sample rate
Preamp Offset
IADC0=IADC1=V3P3+30mV
IADC0=IADC1= V3P3+15mV
IADC0=IADC1= V3P3
IADC0=IADC1= V3P3-15mV
IADC0=IADC1= V3P3-30mV
Note:
1. Guaranteed by design; not production tested.
v1.0
MIN
TYP
MAX
UNIT
7.8
7.8
7.92
7.92
8.0
8.0
V/V
V/V
100
ppm/%
-80
ppm/C
6
mº
16
16
uA
uA
-100
10
-25
-6
4
4
9
9
-82
-86
dB
dB
-0.63
-0.57
-0.56
-0.56
-0.55
mV
mV
mV
mV
mV
© 2008–2011 Teridian Semiconductor Corporation
123
Data Sheet 71M6545/H
PDS_6545_009
6.5
Timing Specifications
6.5.1
Flash Memory
Table 93: Flash Memory Timing Specifications
Parameter
Condition
Flash write cycles
Flash data retention
-40 °C to +85 °C
25 °C
85 °C
Min
Typ
Max
20,000
100
10
Cycles
Years
Flash byte writes between page or
mass erase operations
Write Time per Byte
Page Erase (1024 bytes)
Mass Erase
6.5.2
Unit
2
Cycles
21
21
21
µs
ms
ms
SPI Slave
Table 94. SPI Slave Timing Specifications
Parameter
SPI Setup Time
SPI Hold Time
SPI Output Delay
SPI Recovery Time
SPI Removal Time
SPI Clock High
SPI Clock Low
SPI Clock Freq
SPI Transaction Space
6.5.3
Condition
SPI_DI to SPI_CK rise
SPI_CK rise to SPI_DI
SPI_CK fall to SPI_D0
SPI_CSZ fall to SPI_CK
SPI_CK to SPI_CSZ rise
SPI Freq/MPU Freq
SPI_CSZ rise to SPI_CSZ fall
Min
10
10
Typ
Max
40
10
15
40
40
2.0
4.5
Unit
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
MHz/MHz
MPU Cycles
EEPROM Interface
Table 95: EEPROM Interface Timing
Parameter
Condition
2
Write Clock frequency (I C)
Write Clock frequency (3-wire)
124
Min
CKMPU = 4.9 MHz,
Using interrupts
CKMPU = 4.9 MHz,
bit-banging DIO2/3
PLL_FAST = 0
CKMPU = 4.9 MHz
PLL_FAST = 0
PLL_FAST = 1
© 2008–2011 Teridian Semiconductor Corporation
Typ
Max
Unit
310
kHz
100
kHz
160
500
kHz
v1.0
PDS_6545_009
6.5.4
Data Sheet 71M6545/H
RESET Pin
Table 96: RESET Pin Timing
Parameter
Condition
Reset pulse width
Reset pulse fall time (see note 1)
Note:
1. Guaranteed by design; not production tested.
6.5.5
Min
Typ
Max
Unit
1
µs
µs
Max
2255
Unit
year
5
Real-Time Clock (RTC)
Table 97: RTC Range for Date
Parameter
Range for date
v1.0
Condition
Min
2000
© 2008–2011 Teridian Semiconductor Corporation
Typ
−
125
Data Sheet 71M6545/H
6.6
PDS_6545_009
64-Pin LQFP Package Outline Drawing
Controlling dimensions are in mm.
11.7
12.3
11.7
+
12.3
PIN No. 1 Indicator
9.8
10.2
0.50 Typ.
0.60 Typ.
0.00
0.20
0.14
0.28
1.40
1.60
Figure 37: 64-pin LQFP Package Outline
126
© 2008–2011 Teridian Semiconductor Corporation
v1.0
PDS_6545_009
71M6545/H Pinout
64
63
62
61
60
59
58
57
56
55
54
53
52
51
50
49
SPI_CKI
TMUX2OUT
TMUXOUT
RESET
PB
NC
VREF
IADC0
IADC1
V3P3A
VADC8 (VA)
VADC9 (VB)
VADC10 (VC)
TEST
GNDA
XOUT
6.7
Data Sheet 71M6545/H
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
Teridian
71M6545/H
48
47
46
45
44
43
42
41
40
39
38
37
36
35
34
33
XIN
GNDA
VBAT_RTC
V3P3SYS
IADC2
IADC3
IADC4
IADC5
IADC6
IADC7
GNDD
ICE_E
E_RXTX
E_TCLK
E_RST
RX
DIO14
DIO13
DIO12
DIO11
DIO10
DIO9
DIO8/DI
DIO7/YPULSE
DIO6/XPULSE
DIO5
DIO4
DIO3/SDATA
DIO2/SDCK
DIO1/VPULSE
DIO0/WPULSE
DIO55
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
SPI_DI
SPI_DO
SPI_CSZ
VDD
V3P3D
DIO29
DIO28
DIO25
DIO24
DIO23
DIO22
DIO21
DIO20
DIO19
TX
GNDD
10/7/2010
Figure 38: Pinout for the LQFP-64 Package
v1.0
© 2008–2011 Teridian Semiconductor Corporation
127
Data Sheet 71M6545/H
PDS_6545_009
6.8
71M6545/H Pin Descriptions
6.8.1
71M6545/H Power and Ground Pins
Table 98 lists the power and ground pins. Pin types: P = Power, O = Output.
The circuit number denotes the equivalent circuit, as specified under 6.8.4.
Table 98: 71M6545/H Power and Ground Pins
Pin No.
Name
Type
Circuit
47, 50
GNDA
P
–
16, 38
GNDD
P
–
55
V3P3A
P
–
45
V3P3SYS
P
–
5
V3P3D
O
13
4
VDD
O
10
46
VBAT_RTC
P
12
128
Description
Analog ground: This pin should be connected directly to the
ground plane.
Digital ground: This pin is connected directly to the ground
plane.
Analog power supply: A 3.3 V power supply is connected to
this pin. V3P3A must be the same voltage as V3P3SYS.
System 3.3 V supply. This pin is connected to a 3.3 V power
supply.
Auxiliary voltage output of the chip. In mission mode, this pin
is connected to V3P3SYS by the internal selection switch. A
bypass capacitor to ground must not exceed 0.1 µF.
The output of the 2.5V regulator. This pin is powered in MSN
mode. A 0.1 µF bypass capacitor to ground must be
connected to this pin.
RTC and oscillator power supply. A battery may be optionally
connected between VBAT_RTC and GNDD. If no battery is
used, connect VBAT_RTC to V3P3SYS.
© 2008–2011 Teridian Semiconductor Corporation
v1.0
PDS_6545_009
6.8.2
Data Sheet 71M6545/H
71M6545/H Analog Pins
Table 99 lists the analog pins. Pin types: O = Output, I = Input. The circuit number denotes the
equivalent circuit, as specified in 6.8.4.
Table 99: 71M6545/H Analog Pins
Pin
No.
Name
Type
Circuit
Differential or single-ended Analog Line Current Sense Inputs:
These pins are voltage inputs to the internal A/D converter.
Typically, they are connected to the outputs of current
sensors. Unused pins must be tied to V3P3A.
57
56
IADC0
IADC1
44
43
IADC2
IADC3
42
41
IADC4
IADC5
40
39
IADC6
IADC7
54
53
52
VADC8 (VA)
VADC9 (VB)
VADC10 (VC)
I
6
58
VREF
O
9
48
49
XIN
XOUT
I
O
8
I
v1.0
Description
6
When configured as differential inputs (i.e., by setting the
DIFFx_E control bits, where x=0, 2, 4, 6), pins are paired to form
differential inputs pairs: IADC0-IADC1, IADC2-IADC3, IADC4IADC5, and IADC6-IADC7.
IADC2-IADC3, IADC4-IADC5 and IADC6-IADC7 may be
configured for communication with the 71M6xx3 remote
isolated sensor interface (i.e., by setting the RMTx_E control
bits, where x=2, 4, 6). When configured as remote sensor
interfaces, these pins form balanced digital pairs for bidirectional digital communications with a 71M6xx3 remote
isolated sensor.
Line Voltage Sense Inputs: These pins are voltage inputs to
the internal A/D converter. Typically, they are connected to
the outputs of resistor dividers. Unused pins must be tied to
V3P3A.
Voltage Reference for the ADC. This pin must be left
unconnected (floating). The VREF pin must be kept turned off
for normal operation (see VREF_CAL, I/O RAM 0x2704[7]).
Crystal Inputs: A 32 kHz crystal should be connected across
these pins. Typically, a 15 pF capacitor is also connected
from XIN to GNDA and a 10 pF capacitor is connected from
XOUT to GNDA. It is important to minimize the capacitance
between these pins. See the crystal manufacturer datasheet for
details. If an external clock is used, a 150 mV (p-p) clock
signal should be applied to XIN, and XOUT should be left
unconnected.
© 2008–2011 Teridian Semiconductor Corporation
129
Data Sheet 71M6545/H
6.8.3
PDS_6545_009
71M6545/H Digital Pins
Table 100 lists the digital pins. Pin types: O = Output, I = Input, I/O = Input/Output, N/C = no connect.
The circuit number denotes the equivalent circuit, as specified in 6.8.4.
Table 100: 71M6545/H Digital Pins
Pin
No.
Name
31
DIO0/WPULSE
30
DIO1/VPULSE
29
DIO2/SDCK
28
DIO3/SDATA
27
DIO4
26
DIO5
25
DIO6/XPULSE
24
DIO7/YPULSE
23
DIO8/DI
Type
I/O
Circuit
3, 4
17–22 DIO[14:9]
Description
Multiple-Use Pins. Configurable as DIO or its alternate
function. Alternate functions with proper selection of
associated I/O RAM registers are:
DIO0 = WPULSE (31)
DIO1 = VPULSE (30)
DIO2 = SDCK (29)
DIO3 = SDATA (28)
DIO6 = XPULSE (25)
DIO7 = YPULSE (24)
DIO8 = DI (23)
Unused pins must be configured as outputs or
terminated to V3P3/GNDD.
8–14
DIO[25:19]
6–7
DIO[29:28]
32
DIO55
3
2
1
64
36
34
35
SPI_CSZ
SPI_DO
SPI_DI
SPI_CKI
E_RXTX
E_RST
E_TCLK
37
ICE_E
I
2
ICE enable. For production units, this pin should be
pulled to GND to disable the emulator port.
62
63
TMUXOUT
TMUX2OUT
O
4
Multiplexer/clock output pins.
I
O
I
I
I/O
I/O
O
3, 4
1, 4
4
61
RESET
I
2
33
RX
I
3
15
TX
O
4
51
TEST
I
7
60
PB
I
3
59
NC
N/C
--
130
SPI interface pins.
Emulator port pins. These pins are activated when the
ICE_E pin is pulled high.
Chip reset: This input pin is used to reset the chip into a
known state. For normal operation, this pin is pulled low.
To reset the chip, this pin is pulled high. This pin has an
internal 30 μA (nominal) current source pull-down. No
external reset circuitry is necessary.
UART0 input. If this pin is unused it must be
terminated to V3P3D or GNDD.
UART0 output.
Enables Production Test.
This pin must be grounded in normal operation.
Push button input. This pin must be at GNDD when not
active or unused. PB does not have an internal pull-up or
pull-down resistor.
Do not connect this pin.
© 2008–2011 Teridian Semiconductor Corporation
v1.0
PDS_6545_009
6.8.4
Data Sheet 71M6545/H
I/O Equivalent Circuits
V3P3D
V3P3A
V3P3D
V3P3A
110K
Digital
Input
Pin
CMOS
Input
GND
D
Analog
Input
Pin
from
internal
reference
To
MUX
VREF
Pin
GNDA
GNDA
Digital Input Equivalent Circuit
Type 1:
Standard Digital Input or
pin configured as DIO Input
with Internal Pull-Up
VREF Equivalent Circuit
Type 9:
VREF
Analog Input Equivalent Circuit
Type 6:
ADC Input
V3P3D
V3P3A
Digital
Input
Pin
CMOS
Input
GND
D
110K
GND
D
Comparator
Input
Pin
V3P3D
from
internal
reference
To
Comparator
V2P5
Pin
GND
D
GNDA
Digital Input
Type 2:
Pin configured as DIO Input
with Internal Pull-Down
V2P5 Equivalent Circuit
Type 10:
V2P5
Comparator Input Equivalent Circuit
Type 7:
Comparator Input
V3P3D
V3P3D
VBAT_RTC
Pin
Digital
Input
Pin
CMOS
Input
GND
D
Oscillator
Pin
GNDD
To
Oscillator
VBAT_RTC Equivalent
Circuit Type 12:
VBAT_RTC Power
GNDD
Digital Input Type 3:
Standard Digital Input or
pin configured as DIO Input
Power Down
Circuits
Oscillator Equivalent Circuit
Type 8:
Oscillator I/O
10
from
V3P3SYS
V3P3D
V3P3D
Pin
V3P3D
Digital
Output
Pin
CMOS
Output
V3P3D Equivalent Circuit
Type 13:
V3P3D
GND
D
GND
D
Digital Output Equivalent Circuit
Type 4:
Standard Digital Output or
pin configured as DIO Output
Figure 39: I/O Equivalent Circuits
v1.0
© 2008–2011 Teridian Semiconductor Corporation
131
Data Sheet 71M6545/H
PDS_6545_009
7
Ordering Information
7.1
71M6545/H Ordering Guide
Refer to the 71M6xxx Data Sheet for the 71M6xx3 ordering guide information.
Table 101. 71M6545/H Ordering Guide
Part Description
(Package, accuracy)
Part
Flash / RAM
Size
Packaging
Order Number
Package Marking
71M6545-IGT/F
71M6545-IGT
71M6545
64-pin LQFP Lead(Pb)-Free, 0.5%
32 KB / 3 KB
Bulk
71M6545
64-pin LQFP Lead(Pb)-Free, 0.5%
32 KB / 3 KB
Tape and Reel
71M6545-IGTR/F
71M6545-IGT
71M6545H*
64-pin LQFP Lead(Pb)-Free, 0.1%
64 KB / 5 KB
Bulk
71M6545H-IGT/F
71M6545H-IGT
71M6545H*
64-pin LQFP Lead(Pb)-Free, 0.1%
64 KB / 5 KB
Tape and Reel
71M6545H-IGTR/F
71M6545H-IGT
*Future product—contact factory for availability.
8
Related Information
The following documents related to the 71M6545/H and 71M6xx3 are available from Teridian Semiconductor
Corporation:
•
•
•
71M6545/H Data Sheet (this document)
71M6xxx Data Sheet
71M654x Software User’s Guide (SUG)
9
Contact Information
For technical support or more information about Maxim products, contact technical support at
www.maxim-ic.com/support.
132
© 2008–2011 Teridian Semiconductor Corporation
v1.0
PDS_6545_009
Data Sheet 71M6545/H
Appendix A: Acronyms
AFE
AMR
ANSI
CE
DIO
DSP
FIR
I2C
ICE
IEC
MPU
PLL
RMS
SFR
SPI
TOU
UART
v1.0
Analog Front End
Automatic Meter Reading
American National Standards Institute
Compute Engine
Digital I /O
Digital Signal Processor
Finite Impulse Response
Inter-IC Bus
In-Circuit Emulator
International Electrotechnical Commission
Microprocessor Unit (CPU)
Phase-locked loop
Root Mean Square
Special Function Register
Serial Peripheral Interface
Time of Use
Universal Asynchronous Receiver/Transmitter
© 2008–2011 Teridian Semiconductor Corporation
133
Data Sheet 71M6545/H
PDS_6545_009
Appendix B: Revision History
REVISION
NUMBER
1.0
REVISION
DATE
4/11
DESCRIPTION
Initial release
PAGES
CHANGED
—
Maxim cannot assume responsibility for use of any circuitry other than circuitry entirely embodied in a Maxim product. No circuit
patent licenses are implied. Maxim reserves the right to change the circuitry and specifications without notice at any time.
M a x i m I n t e g r a t e d P r o d u c t s , 1 2 0 S a n G a b r i e l D r iv e , S u n n y v a le , C A 9 4 0 8 6 4 0 8- 7 3 7 - 7 6 0 0
 2011 Maxim Integrated Products
Maxim is a registered trademark of Maxim Integrated Products.