Addressing the Challenges of Wideband Radar Signal g Generation and Analysis Marco Vivarelli Digital Sales Specialist October 24, 2011 Agenda Challenges of Wideband Signal Generation Challenges of Wideband Signal Analysis Wideband LFM Chirp Radar Example Q Example p Wideband16QAM Summary Currently Available High-Speed AWGs SFDR 1) 80 What could you do if you had something here? R&S 70 60 50 40 0.5 1 2 1) SFDR across Nyquist range with fout = 150 MHz 2) Bandwidth of a single channel AWG output 4 8 Bandwidth B d idth (GHz) 2) 3 High-Precision AWG Example: CW Signal Single tone 555 MH MHz Fs = 7.2 GHz Spurs: < -86 dBc High-Precision AWG Example: Multi-Tone Signal Multi-tone signal with 200 tones tones, 3 GHz bandwidth Fs = 7.2 GHz with amplitude correction High-Precision AWG Example: Pulsed Radar Pulsed Radar: Linear Chirp spanning i 2 GH GHz. Pulse width: 6 μs Fs = 7.2 GHz, with amplitude correction 2 GHz High-Precision AWG Example: Fast Frequency S it hi Switching Switching between frequencies in a 2 GHz bandwidth in less than 500 ps Fs = 7.2 GHz, with amplitude correction Agilent M8190A Arbitrary Waveform Generator Precision AWG with DAC resolution of: – 14 bit up to 8 GSa/s – 12 bit up to 12 GSa/s*) Up to 2 GSa Arbitrary Waveform Memory per channel 5 GHz analog bandwidth per channel 3 selectable output paths: direct DAC, DC *) and AC*) SFDR: -75 dBc typ. yp ((fout = 100 MHz,, Fs=7.2 GHz,, 14 bit mode)) Harmonic distortion: -72 dBc typ. (fout = 100 MHz, Fs=7.2 GHz) Advanced sequencing scenarios define stepping stepping, looping looping, and conditional jumps of waveforms or waveform sequences*) 2 markers per channel* (do not reduce DAC resolution) * Not available at initial product release Agenda Challenges of Wideband Signal Generation Challenges of Wideband Signal Analysis Wideband LFM Chirp Radar Example Q Example p Wideband16QAM Summary Do You Really Know What the True Performance Is off Your Y X/Ku/KaX/K /K Band B dT Transmitter itt ??? FPGA/DSP D/A Lower Bandwidth Oscilloscope PA ??? External Down-converter Hardware External HW Can Add: • LO Phase Noise & Mixer Impairments p • ISI from RF/IF Filters • Amplifier Gain/Phase Distortions Ka- Band Transmitter ExampleSimulated Case Study with Agilent Agilent’s s SystemVue Simulated Ka-Band Transmitter Simulated Si l t d Down-Converter Error Vector Magnitude (EVM) Difference between actual measured signal g and ideal reference signal g Down-converter Phase Noise and Ka- Band Transmitter Example- Mixer Impairments EVM= 7.3% External HW Can Add: • LO Phase Noise & Mixer Impairments Is this the Transmitter’s Ka Band Performance? Ka-Band Ka- Band Transmitter Example- Down-converter Phase Noise, Mixer, and Filter Impairments EVM= 9 % External HW Can Add: • LO Phase Noise & Mixer Impairments • ISI from RF/IF Filters Or…Is this the Transmitter’s K B d Performance? Ka-Band P f ? Ka- Band Transmitter Example- Down-converter Phase Noise,, Mixer,, Filter,, and Amplifier p Impairments p EVM= 11.7 % External E t l HW Can C Add Add: • LO Phase Noise & Mixer Impairments • ISI from RF/IF Filters • Amplifier Gain/Phase Distortions Or…Is this the Transmitter’s Ka-Band Performance? Measure the True Performance of Your Transmitter Directly y with the 90000X 32 GHz Scope p 90000 X-Series 33 GHz Oscilloscope Actual Transmitter EVM= 4.8 % External HW Can Add: • LO Phase Noise & Mixer Impairments • ISI from RF/IF Filters • Amplifier A lifi G Gain/Phase i /Ph Di Distortions t ti None of the Above… Here’s the True Transmitter Performance at Ka-Band Agenda Challenges of Wideband Signal Generation Challenges of Wideband Signal Analysis Wideband LFM Chirp Radar Example Q Example p Wideband16QAM Summary Example of Radar Pulse MeasurementsTest Setup Diagram Modulation BW up to 2 GHz RF up to 44 GHz I/Q data via LAN, USB or GPIB M8190A AWG E8267D, E8267D Opt. 016, H18 Up to 12 GSa/s in 12 bit mode, 2 GSa memory Differential I/Q Signals Up to 8 Gsa/s in 14 bit mode, 1.5 Gsa memory 90000X-Series Scope Up to 33 GHz of Bandwidth and 2GSa of Memory Modulated RF/ uWave out Picture of Wideband LFM Chirp Radar Test Setup (10 GH GHz C Center t F Frequency, 2 GH GHz LFM Chi Chirp)) Generate a Multi-Tone Signal Multi-Tone Signal Before Amplitude Correction Amplitude Flatness Correction Multi-Tone Signal After Amplitude Correction Download LFM Chirp Radar Waveform Custom/Proprietary Radar Measurements with MATLAB® in the 90000X Signal Processing Path Scope Waveform Custom MATLAB Function MATLAB Applied Trace Perform Additional Scope Measurements Operate on Scope Waveform with Custom MATLAB® Function to Extract Pulsed RF Envelope Scope Waveform Custom MATLAB Function MATLAB Applied pp Trace Perform Additional Scope Measurements Custom MATLAB Function to Calculate RF Pulse Envelope with a Hilbert Transform Display the RF Pulse Envelope Scope Waveform Custom MATLAB Function RF Pulse Envelope Extracted from C t Custom MATLAB Function MATLAB Applied Trace Perform Additional Scope Measurements Perform Scope Measurements on the RF Envelope Scope Waveform Custom MATLAB Function MATLAB Applied Trace Perform Additional Scope Measurements Pre-Configured Scope Measurements: • Pulse Rise Time • Pulse Fall Time • Pulse P l Width • Overshoot Drop Pre-Configured Scope Measurements on Displayed Envelope Measure RF Pulse Width, Rise Time Time, Fall Time 90000X Wideband LFM Chirp Measurement with 89600 VSA 90000X Wideband LFM Chirp Measurement with 89600 VSA LFM Chirped Chirped Phase RF Spectrum Centered at 10 GHz 2 GHz Log Magnitude Envelope Amplitude vs. Time 1 us 2 GHz Chirped Frequency Using Segmented Memory to Optimize the Number of Radar Pulses Captured with 2 Gsa Memory X Ignore the “OFF” Part of the Radar Pulse Capture Only the “ON” ON Part of the Radar Pulse Resulting Segmented Memory to Optimize the Number of Radar Pulses Captured Segment 1 Segment 2 Segment 3 Segment 4 Segment 5 Segment 6 Segment 7 Segment 8 OSA Segmented Capture and Display: Frequency and Phase vs. Time Set Number of Segments to Capture and Acquisition Length per Capture OSA Segmented File Capture ModeTiming Measurements binary files or .csv files for each segmented are stored in this directory to analyze off-line Set Number of Segments (e.g. 200) Enable Auto-Analyze to Automatically Display Data OSA Segmented File Capture ModeFrequency Measurements Select File> Save> Save Table Data to store .csv file Frequency Excursion and Frequency D i ti Deviation of Each Pulse OSA Segmented File Capture ModeHistogram Displays Sort through and view only pulses >1 >1.8GHz 8GHz frequency deviation and >1 uSec pulse width Agenda Challenges of Wideband Signal Generation Challenges of Wideband Signal Analysis Wideband LFM Chirp Radar Example Q Example p Wideband16QAM Summary Picture of Wideband VSA Test SetupWideband 16 QAM Example with Analog IQ Modulation using Vector Signal Generator High-Precision AWG Example: Analog IQ Modulation,, Fc=10GHz Wideband digital modulation: QAM16, 1.76G Sym/s Fs = 7.2 GHz with amplitude correction EVM=1.17% High-Precision AWG Example: Digital Upconversion, p , Fc= 1GHz (without ( PSG RF Sig g Gen)) Wideband digital modulation: QAM16, 1G Sym/s Fs = 7.2 GHz with amplitude correction EVM=0.89% Analog I/Q modulation vs. digital I/Q up-conversion Conventional I/Q modulation Analog I and Q signals are generated using an AWG. An I/Q modulator generates the IF or RF signal Digital upconversion – I/Q modulation is performed digitally - either in real-time (in hardware) or up-front in software AWG Analog IQ Modulator Memory X D/A ~ 90° Memory X D/A AWG Memory ~ Memory Mixer / Multiplier / LO X 90° + D/A X ~ X Digital signal Analog signal Page 40 + New Application Notes and Web Demo Video Application Notes: http://www.agilent.com/find/powerofx Web Demo Video: http://www.youtube.com/user/AgilentAD MATLAB N6171A Software from Agilent for RADAR Signal Generation and Analysis • Generate arbitrary waveforms (multi-tone signals, i l pulsed l d radar d signals, i l and d multi-carrier lti i modulated waveforms) for the M8190A using MATLAB. • Make user-defined measurements (such as pulsed RF envelopes or custom filters) for the Infiniium oscilloscope using MATLAB. • Available as an option p with both the M8190A Arbitrary Waveform Generator and Infiniium 90000-X/90000/9000 Series oscilloscope. • MATLAB examples, instrument drivers, and product information available at www agilent com/find/n6171a. www.agilent.com/find/n6171a Page 42 Thank You !