COOLiR 2 - International Rectifier

Innovative CooliR2™ Packaging Platform
with Dual-Sided Cooling
Advances HEVs and EVs Progress
Jack Marcinkowski
Sr. Marketing and Applications Manager
Automotive Products Business Unit
Apr. 4, 2013
rev.1.2
COMPANY CONFIDENTIAL
1
Innovative CooliR2™ Packaging Platform
AGENDA
• HEV/EV power electronics challenges
• CooliRIGBT™, CooliRDiode™- Application specific semiconductor devices
• CooliR2™ - Paradigm shift in packaging technology
• “Building block” approach
• Electrical performance improvements
• Thermal performance improvements
• Increased reliability
• High power density
• Conclusions
COMPANY CONFIDENTIAL
2
Innovative CooliR2™ Packaging Platform
AGENDA
• HEV/EV power electronics challenges
• CooliRIGBT™, CooliRDiode™- Application specific semiconductor devices
• CooliR2™ - Paradigm shift in packaging technology
• “Building block” approach
• Electrical performance improvements
• Thermal performance improvements
• Increased reliability
• High power density
• Conclusions
COMPANY CONFIDENTIAL
3
Challenges for the HEV and EV traction inverters
General trends and requirements for HEV/EV power electronics
15
Size, volume
+54%
10
Power density, kW/L
Weight
Cost, $/kW
5
Cost
-60%
Reliability
0
2010
2015
2020
USCAR targets
R&D
Status
Targets
Change
Coolant Temperature
2010
90 oC
2015
105 oC
2020
105 oC
+ 15 oC
Cost, $/kW
Specific power, kW/kg
Power density, kW/L
<7.9
>10.8
>8.7
<5.0
>12.0
>12.0
<3.3
>14.1
>13.4
> - 60%
> +30%
> +54%
Source: The United States Council for Automotive Research LLC (USCAR)—U.S. DRIVE Electrical & Electronics Tech Team (EETT).
COMPANY CONFIDENTIAL
4
Innovative CooliR2™ Packaging Platform
AGENDA
• HEV/EV power electronics challenges
• CooliRIGBT™, CooliRDiode™- Application specific semiconductor devices
• CooliR2™ - Paradigm shift in packaging technology
• “Building block” approach
• Electrical performance improvements
• Thermal performance improvements
• Increased reliability
• High power density
• Conclusions
COMPANY CONFIDENTIAL
5
CooliRIGBT™, CooliRDiode™- Application specific semiconductor devices
A comprehensive and innovative approach
Optimized devices for inverters
is needed to address the challenges of
CooliRIGBT™ and CooliRDiode™
modern HEV/EV inverters.
International Rectifier’s CooliR™ high-power
•
Large die
•
Reduced conduction and switching losses
• Switching frequency
up to 20kHz
•
Robust
packaging platform addresses all challenges.
Typical switching waveforms
Turn-on
Turn-off
•
•
•
•
Soft, fast
recovery low
turn-on losses
No tail - low
turn-off losses
(e.g. IGBT – 12x12 mm)
680V
High breakdown voltage
Increased temperature
TjMAX = 175oC
Short circuit capability
6us
Square RBSOA
•
Wirebondless interconnection
• Solderable Front Metal (SFM)
•
Dual-sided cooling
Vdc = 400V, Ic = 400A, 100ns/div
COMPANY CONFIDENTIAL
6
Innovative CooliR2™ Packaging Platform
AGENDA
• HEV/EV power electronics challenges
• CooliRIGBT™, CooliRDiode™- Application specific semiconductor devices
• CooliR2™ - Paradigm shift in packaging technology
• “Building block” approach
• Electrical performance improvements
• Thermal performance improvements
• Increased reliability
• High power density
• Conclusions
COMPANY CONFIDENTIAL
7
COOLiR2™ Packaging Platform for HEV/EV Inverters
Objective:
Packaging
Levels:
Create an innovative power semiconductor packaging concept
• optimized for HEV/EV traction inverter applications
• maximizing the utilization of semiconductor devices
Performance objective
Design goal
High current density
High current interconnections
High power density
Effective heat removal
Max. utilization of voltage rating
Low inductance
Low losses
Fast switching speed
High operating temperature
Increased max. junction temperature
COMPANY CONFIDENTIAL
8
COOLiR2™ Packaging Platform for HEV/EV Inverters
Packaging Levels: 1. Bare DIE
2. Packaged DIE
3. Module
breakthrough
&
paradigm shift
COMPANY CONFIDENTIAL
9
Innovative CooliR2™ Packaging Platform
AGENDA
• HEV/EV power electronics challenges
• CooliRIGBT™, CooliRDiode™- Application specific semiconductor devices
• CooliR2™ - Paradigm shift in packaging technology
• “Building block” approach
• Electrical performance improvements
• Thermal performance improvements
• Increased reliability
• High power density
• Conclusions
COMPANY CONFIDENTIAL
10
COOLiR2™ Packaging Platform for HEV/EV Inverters
CooliR2Die™ - very large die “discrete” SMT component
Substrate
•
The 680V/300A CooliR2Die™ package dimensions: 12.5mm x 29mm x 1mm
•
Two types of CooliR2DIE™ developed to simplify construction of different power circuit
topologies
•
Different substrates (e.g. DBC) can be used as the carrier for the CooliR2DIE™
CooliR2DIE™ building blocks
Bridging the gap between “discretes” and modules
COMPANY CONFIDENTIAL
11
COOLiR2™ Packaging Platform for HEV/EV Inverters
Power circuit construction using CooliR2Die™
CooLiR2Bridge™
CooliR2DIE™
CooliR2DIE™
CooLiR2DIE™ Power Switch on Module Substrate
Cross-Section
2
CooliR DIE™
(Top DBC)
Module (Bottom
DBC/Substrate)
•
•
•
•
Die
Wirebonds eliminated
Parasitic R and L reduced
Compatibility with different die attach techniques including soldering or sintering
CooliR2DIE™ assemblies can be over-molded or protected by a gel-filled housing
COMPANY CONFIDENTIAL
12
COOLiR2™ Packaging Platform for HEV/EV Inverters
Power circuit construction using CooliR2Die™
Out
B-
CooliR2DIE™
CooliR2DIE™
CooliR2DIE™
CooliR2DIE™
CooliR2DIE™
CooliR2DIE™
CooliR2DIE™
CooliR2DIE™
B-
CooliR2DIE™
CooliR2DIE™
+
CooliR2DIE™
-
B+
B+
CooliR2DIE™
Input
Phase
Half-bridge, Buck or Boost
Double current rating
3-Phase Bridge
FLEXIBILITY and CONVENIENCE of CooliR2Die™
•
parallelable
 higher current rating
•
pre-packaged
 no need to handle the super-thin bare die
•
fully tested
 higher yield of final assembly
•
•
•
•
Various circuit topologies possible
High power circuits implementation without the use of power modules
Compatibility with baseplates or heatsinks
Cooled on one or two sides
COMPANY CONFIDENTIAL
13
Innovative CooliR2™ Packaging Platform
AGENDA
• HEV/EV power electronics challenges
• CooliRIGBT™, CooliRDiode™- Application specific semiconductor devices
• CooliR2™ - Paradigm shift in packaging technology
• “Building block” approach
• Electrical performance improvements
• Thermal performance improvements
• Increased reliability
• High power density
• Conclusions
COMPANY CONFIDENTIAL
14
COOLiR2™ - Electrical Performance
• Resistance of wirebonds vs. wirebond-less interconnections
Approx. 20 wires with 20mil dia. are needed to achieve the low resistance of CooliR2DIE™
(more than could be placed on the die)
12 mm
20 mil. bondwire
resistance is
approx. 2.6 mΩ ea.
20 mm
die
CooliR2Bridge™ total resistance
(incl. DBC and leadframe)
•
•
Approx. 0.5 mOhm (from DC+ to DC- terminals)
Approx. 1 mOhm for wirebonded modules
20 mm
0.3 mm
die
Copper plane
resistance is
approx. 0.13 mΩ
0.5 mΩ of additional wirebonds
resistance at 300A results in 0.15V more
voltage drop across the module
This causes 45W of additional power
dissipation per phase (approx.5%
increase of the overall inverter losses)
COMPANY CONFIDENTIAL
15
COOLiR2™ - Electrical Performance
• Inductance of wirebonds vs. wirebond-less interconnections
The inductance of Cu plane is approx. 5 to 10 times lower than the inductance of one wirebond
Paralleling multiple wirebonds doesn’t reduce the inductance proportionally due to mutual coupling effect.
480A CooliR2Bridge™
total inductance is approx. 12 nH
and can be reduced further.
12 mm
20 mm
Main inductance contributors:
•
•
die
leadframe
20 mil
bondwire
inductance is
approx. 20 nH
ea.
20 mm
0.3 mm
die
Copper plane
inductance is
approx. 2-4nH
main DBC substrate layout
Small overshoot,
reduced ringing
Effects of low stray inductance
High overshoot,
severe ringing
Effects of high stray inductance
COMPANY CONFIDENTIAL
16
Innovative CooliR2™ Packaging Platform
AGENDA
• HEV/EV power electronics challenges
• CooliRIGBT™, CooliRDiode™- Application specific semiconductor devices
• CooliR2™ - Paradigm shift in packaging technology
• “Building block” approach
• Electrical performance improvements
• Thermal performance improvements
• Increased reliability
• High power density
• Conclusions
COMPANY CONFIDENTIAL
17
COOLiR2™ - Thermal Performance
Cooling Method Flexibility
•
•
•
Traditionally, only one side of the semiconductor die is used for heat removal.
Increasing current and power density + smaller die area  high heat flux density.
Dual-sided cooling will become a necessity in modern high-power density inverters.
Cooling method flexibility in the CooliR2™ packaging platform
Bottom-side cooling
Top-side cooling
Dual-sided cooling
Dual-side cooling  Rth j-c reduced by up to 50%
•
•
Thermal mass reduces the transient thermal resistance Zth.
CooliR2™ modules can be attached to a baseplate or direct liquid cooled heatsink.
COMPANY CONFIDENTIAL
18
COOLiR2™ - Thermal Performance
Effect of standard base plate and direct liquid cooling
Estimated Rth junction-heatsink for different configurations with single sided-cooling
The best result achieved with
direct-liquid-cooled heatsink
•
Approx. 10% to 15% lower Rth j-coolant
•
The durability of the direct-liquid-cooled heatsink
is the main concern.
COMPANY CONFIDENTIAL
19
COOLiR2™ - Thermal Performance
Improving transient thermal performance
The thermal mass of CooliR2DIE™
is larger than that of a conventional
wirebonded die.
CooliR2Bridge™ provides the option to
utilize the mechanical clamp as a
thermal mass
COMPANY CONFIDENTIAL
20
COOLiR2™ - Thermal Performance
Improving performance with dual-sided cooling capability
Thermal resistance with dual-sided cooling
For
  −   =   −  
  −   −  =
  −  

The “sandwich” structure of the
CooliR2DIE™ results in
more uniform die surface temperature.
It may not be possible to achieve the same thermal
resistance on both sides.
Assuming the thermal resistance of one side is 60%
higher, the overall Rth j-coolant is still reduced by
approx. 39%.
=
  −   −  =



+
 −  .∗ − 
≈ .  ∗   −  
=
Rth j-coolant reduced by 39% 
The copper planes on both sides
help the lateral heat spreading.
The elimination of hot spots results
in safer operation and increased
current rating.
50% higher current rating.
COMPANY CONFIDENTIAL
21
Innovative CooliR2™ Packaging Platform
AGENDA
• HEV/EV power electronics challenges
• CooliRIGBT™, CooliRDiode™- Application specific semiconductor devices
• CooliR2™ - Paradigm shift in packaging technology
• “Building block” approach
• Electrical performance improvements
• Thermal performance improvements
• Increased reliability
• High power density
• Conclusions
COMPANY CONFIDENTIAL
22
COOLiR2™ - Reliability
Improving reliability by eliminating failure mechanisms
Power Cycling results
CooliR2Bridge™ modules power cycling test
conditions:
•
constant current
•
2 s on-time and 4 s off-time
•
delta Tj of 80oC
•
Tj max of 150oC
Reached
High reliability of CooliR2™ technology
achieved by elimination of
the primary failure mode – wirebonds failure
998,000 cycles
CooliR2Bridge™ is expected to reach even
higher number of cycles in the next trial.
Additional reliability improvements of CooliR2™ technology:
• increased maximum junction operating temperature (Tjmax=175oC)
• more uniform die temperature distribution
COMPANY CONFIDENTIAL
23
Innovative CooliR2™ Packaging Platform
AGENDA
• HEV/EV power electronics challenges
• CooliRIGBT™, CooliRDiode™- Application specific semiconductor devices
• CooliR2™ - Paradigm shift in packaging technology
• “Building block” approach
• Electrical performance improvements
• Thermal performance improvements
• Increased reliability
• High power density
• Conclusions
COMPANY CONFIDENTIAL
24
COOLiR2™ - High Power Density
Power density improvements
CooliR2™ technology power density improvement in comparison with conventional wirebonded and
gel-filled power module technology
Dual-sided
cooling
Tj MAX
Module size
Improvement
Effect on
Power Density
Improvement
Factor
~ 50% higher
current density
+ 50%
1.5
from 150 oC to
175 oC
+ 20%
1.2
~ 50%
+100%
2.0
> + 300%
3.6
Total:
Combined effect of
dual-sided cooling + Tjmax. increase
 approx. 80% increase of power module current rating.
COMPANY CONFIDENTIAL
25
Innovative CooliR2™ Packaging Platform
AGENDA
• HEV/EV power electronics challenges
• CooliRIGBT™, CooliRDiode™- Application specific semiconductor devices
• CooliR2™ - Paradigm shift in packaging technology
• “Building block” approach
• Electrical performance improvements
• Thermal performance improvements
• Increased reliability
• High power density
• Conclusions
COMPANY CONFIDENTIAL
26
COOLiR2™ Packaging Platform for HEV/EV Inverters
CONCLUSIONS
CooliR2™ HEV/EV Power Modules Platform
addresses all challenges posed by the demanding
HEV/EV inverter applications
ACHIEVEMENTS
Challenges
•
Improved electrical performance
•
Improved thermal performance
•
Increased reliability
Cost
•
Increased power density
Reliability
•
Reduced size and weight
•
Lower system cost
Size, volume
Weight
CooliR2™ platform has the potential to break-away from traditional
single-side cooled wirebonded power modules and revolutionize the
way automotive power converters are being build.
COMPANY CONFIDENTIAL
27
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