Caution & Terms - KOA Speer Electronics

Caution & Terms
general precautions
All product specifications and data are subject to change without prior
notice. Be sure to request and confirm the latest technical specifications
before you order or use a part.
The following precautions apply to all products
• In general, refer to the EIAJ RCR-1001A safety application guide
for electronic parts, which is issue by JEITA
• Confirm application parameters before the use of products, and
please contact KOA in advance when products are to be used in
critical, high-reliability equipment such as transportation (automobiles,
airplanes, trains, boats, and ships), medical equipment, space
equipment, energy, traffic, and information facilities. Unless the
particular conditions and scope of liability is defined in mutually
accepted contract documents, KOA will not be liable for issues
arising from design or use in these applications.
• Consider sufficient fail-safe design if the products are used in highreliability applications. Ensure the safety of the whole system by using
proactive and redundant circuits to avoid unsafe operation due to
a single product failure.
Environment for Use
• Unless otherwise specified, these products are not to be used
in special environments. Examine and confirm performance and
reliability before you use KOA products in any of the following
1. Under direct sunlight, exposed to the outside or to dust.
2. In liquids such as water, oil, organic solvent, or liquid chemicals
or in areas where these liquids are used.
3. In locations where the products are exposed to salt-water breezes
or corrosive gases, including SO2, H2S, Cl2, NH3, NO2, etc.
4. In locations with high static electricity and strong
electromagnetic waves.
5. In locations subject to condensation from dew.
6. When the products or PCBs are sealed and coated by resin
or other coating materials.
7. In locations where the products are exposed to the fumes
of lubricating oil.
• Products with silver-based electrodes may increase in resistance
in atmospheres containing sulfur gases (H2S, SO2, etc.) or when
exposed to sulfide compounds. Take anti-sulfur measures in these
Anti-pulse Characteristics
• If transient overloads such as power pulse or voltage/current surges
are applied to KOA products, performance and reliability may be
degraded. Contact KOA for data on antipulse characterstics and
design help.
• Pay attention to discharges between terminations (arc-over) when
high voltages are applied.
• Store KOA products in dust-free areas and keep them away from
extreme temperatures; moisture; condensation; direct sunlight;
salt-water breezes; corrosive gases such as SO2, H2S, Cl2, NH3,
NO2, etc.; or fumes from lubricating oil. Use desiccants if necessary.
• Please contact KOA for conditions and length of storage.
Storage of the Products with Lead-free Termination
• Solderability may degrade faster for products with Pb-free terminals
than for products with Pb-bearing terminals.
• Avoid physical damage or shock to the products, which may
happen by holding them with hard tools like pliers or tweezers or
by imperfect mounting-machine alignment. This damage may affect
electrical characteristics or lead to disconnection or cracking.
• If the bottom point of the mounting nozzle is too low, a product
could be pushed onto the PCB, which may deteriorate electrical
characteristics or lead to cracking. Decelerate the nozzle just before
mounting, and mount the product after correcting PCB deformations.
• Do not use products that have fallen during mounting or that have
already been removed from a PCB.
• Contact KOA if PCBs are molded or sealed by coating material
after component mounting.
• Do not stack PCBs after mounting, because this may damage
the components.
• The electrical characteristics of film-type resistors and sensors
may be changed by electrostatic overvoltage. Keep electrostatic
discharge away from components when assembling and handling
by monitoring machines and human contact.
• Prevent or eliminate the introductino of ionic substances like salt,
salinity, or sweat, as these substances may degrade resistance
due to moisture or corrosion.
• Perform soldering within the tempreature, time, and number of cycles
specified for the product or its precautions. If a product is exposed to
high temperatures for long periods of time, its color or electrical
characterics may change or disconnection may occur.
• Prevent any external force from being applied to the products until
solder has cooled.
• Handle carefully to prevent mechanical stresses, such as from
the bending or warping of a PCB, on the solder fillet.
• Confirm that solder flux residue does not affect the product.
• Confirm that components are in place when conductive adhesive
is used in place of solder.
Precautions for Soldering with Lead-free Solder
• In Pb-free soldering, temperature may be higher than in the
use of eutectic solder. Confirm that soldering is acceptable under
actual conditions.
• Solder fillets may lift off double-sided boards with through holes.
Confirm the solder strength on actual board material before assembly.
• Confirm that solder flux residue does not remain after washing,
because it may cause deterioration of moisture and corrosion
• Confirm reliability in advance when using no-clean solder, water,
or a soluble agent.
• Since Pb-free solder may contain many ionic materials, use RMA
type solder or flux or wash sufficiently.
• Wash thoroughly after soldering to remove ionic substances like
sweat and salinity. Control the washing agent appropriately to
remove all ionic substances. Consult KOA when using a washing
agent such as acid, alkaline, or organic solvent other than alcohol.
• Ultrasonic washing may damage products due to vibration
resonance. High hydraulic pressure may also damage products.
Ask KOA in advance for washing conditions.
• Dry products thoroughly after washing.
Dispose of the Products
• Observe appropriate laws and regulations for handling
and disposal of products or packing materials.
Specifications given herein may be changed at any time without prior notice. Please confirm technical specifications before you order and/or use.
KOA Speer Electronics, Inc. • 199 Bolivar Drive • Bradford, PA 16701 • USA • 814-362-5536 • Fax: 814-362-8883 •
general precautions
The following precautions apply to surface mount devices
Precautions Related to PCB Bending Stress
• Arrange the long side of chip components parallel with the direction
of the smaller coefficient of thermal expansion in anisotropic PCBs.
• Cracking of the solder fillet may occur with thermal cycling, because
of mismatch of coefficients of thermal expansion between the board
and the component. Pad size, amount of solder, and amount of heat
radiating from the PCB must be designed carefully, especially with
large components of 5 mm x 2.5 mm or larger.
• If products are mounted near a depaneling line, the termination or
component may be damaged by large stresses during depaneling.
Mount the products as shown in the following figure to minimize
depaneling stress.
Mounting and Soldering
• Poor mounting machine adjustment may cause cracking, chipping,
or alignment errors. Check and inspect the mounting machine
in advance.
• Set backup pins in an appropriate layout to avoid damage to
components mounted on the back of the board. Do not set these
pins at nozzle positions.
• Adjust the bottom dead point of a dispenser away from the board
when you apply adhesive to avoid damage to components mounted
on the back of the board.
• Confirm that products solder properly if wave soldering is used.
• Pay close attention to amount of solder, since an improper amount
may create a large stress on the component and cause cracking
or malfunctions.
Soldering with a Soldering Iron
• Solder using a soldering iron at the temperature specified in
the technical specifications or precautions for each product.
• Perform preheating as much as possible.
• Keep the tip of the soldering iron away from the body and the
product terminal.
• Avoid physical damage or shock to components when using
hard tools like pliers and tweezers.
The following precautions apply to through-hole devices
The level of stress on terminations A>B≠C>D>E
• Use proper layouts to avoid stress from warping, bending, or deformation
of the board in order to avoid solder cracking or component damage.
Large stress
Small stress
L attention to products mounted near the edge of the board
• Pay careful
or near connectors, since stresses may happen during connection.
• Pay careful attention to layout when products are mounted near large
components, when solder solidifies, it creates a stress in directions
based on the large components, and cracking may occur.
• Design solder pads to be equal. If solder pads differ in size, they may
change electrical characteristics or cause cracking and tombstoning
when solder is cooling.
Mechanical Stress
• Play close attention to vibration resonance after mounting.
• Do not add additional bending or twisting stresses to the product.
• Fix large components firmly.
• When lead wires are to be bent, use a large radius of curvature to
avoid excessive stress on the terminal joint. Excessive stresses may
cause the lead wire to separate from the electrode cap and damage
the product.
• Do not add excessive stresses to the product body when lead wires
are cut or held by the mounting machine.
Temperature Rise
• Pay close attention to heat radiation and interaction with other
components, since large resistors general a large amount of
heat when the rated power is applied.
Higher Power Ratings
In some cases, KOA will increase the power rating for a given
component. Often, the older power rating and newer power rating are
both given on the specification, in order to create a transition period.
During this time, the new power rating will often have a note asking
for discussion with KOA.
A higher power rating is based on appropriate resistance stability,
but other ratings and parameters still require attention. For example,
voltage rating is based on a separate failure mechanism and will not
be increased in the same ratio. In mid- and high-value resistors, power
dissipation will still be kept lower than the new rating by the voltage limit.
In addition, using a resistor at a higher power than its previous rating will
create a greater rise in temperature on the surface of the component.
This temperature rise should be checked for acceptability and to make
sure that the layout does not place the resistor near a board material
or component that could be damaged by greater heat.
Specifications given herein may be changed at any time without prior notice. Please confirm technical specifications before you order and/or use.
KOA Speer Electronics, Inc. • 199 Bolivar Drive • Bradford, PA 16701 • USA • 814-362-5536 • Fax: 814-362-8883 •
Caution & Terms
Caution & Terms
derating curves
Introduction of the Derating
Curves Based on the Terminal
Part Temperature
Recent studies have led to better practices for miniaturizing highpower components in high-temperature automotive environments.
Applications that require high-temperature resistors have increased
dramatically. Recently, derating guidelines based on the resistor's
terminal temperature, such as the diagram in figure 1, have been
introduced to respond to these requirements.
Terminal part
Rated Power ratio (%)
Terminal part
Terminal part Temperatur e
Temperatur e
Figure 1. Derating curve based on the terminal part temperature
Derating by terminal temperature has already been used for
metal-plate current-sense resistors with very low resistance values
(such as the PSB and PSE series). These resistors are used to
sense large currents in inverters and converters, and nearby switching
elements or high-current conductors can lead to a local temperature
increase at the resistor terminal beyond the temperature generated
by the resistor itself. The techniques learned in designing these
applications are now being extended to general-purpose components.
Regardless of the shape of the resistor, the heat generated by its use
is dissipated through three pathways. One path is conduction through
solids such as the terminal. The second path is convection, usually
heat transfer into the air by natural convection. The third path is
radiation of infrared. Of these pathways, conduction increases with
the area of solid connected the resistor. Convection and radiation
increase with the total surface area of the resistor.
When cylindrical resistors with lead wires are mounted on lug
terminals, the lead wire is long and thin, so the thermal resistance
to conduction is high, and heat dissipation through that path is low.
On the other hand, the dissipation of heat by convection and radiation
is high, because the surface area of the resistor is large. Simulation
shows that 80% to 90% of the heat from a cylindrical, lead-wire
resistor is dissipated
directly into the ambient air. The temperature
of the resistor can be calculated by adding the temperature rise
caused by self-heating to the ambient temperature. Because the
ambient is sufficient to estimate the thermal resistance for most of
the heat dissipation, the traditional derating curve was based on it.
Heat Dissipation of Surface Mount Resistors
Figure 3 shows the main heat dissipation paths for modern surface
mount resistors. This type of resistor has only a small surface area,
so convection and radiation have proportionally less heat dissipation.
On the other hand, since the device is directly connected to the PCB
pattern by a large part of the surface area, conduction will be the
primary path for heat dissipation. In general, conduction through the
terminal to the board represents over 90% of the heat dissipation,
even when convection and radiation are presumed to be at their maximum
levels. Therefore, the terminal temperature, on the main heat pathway,
is the best location to monitor for controlling power dissipation.
Conduction Over 90%
Overview of the Establishment of the Derating Curves
Based on Ambient Temperature
The traditional derating curve, which is based on ambient temperature,
was defined by IEC and JIS during the vacuum tube era, long before
the appearance of surface-mount resistors. At the time, there were no
printed circuit boards, and cylindrical resistors with lead wires were
held above the board by lug terminals, as shown in figure 2.
Lead wire
Figure 3. Heat dissipation of surface mount resistors
Lug terminal
Lug terminal
Figure 2. Heat dissipation of cylindrical resistors
Specifications given herein may be changed at any time without prior notice. Please confirm technical specifications before you order and/or use.
KOA Speer Electronics, Inc. • 199 Bolivar Drive • Bradford, PA 16701 • USA • 814-362-5536 • Fax: 814-362-8883 •
derating curves
Derating Curve Suitable for the Surface Mount Resistor
As shown in figure 4, when a given amount of power is applied to the
resistor, any given point on the resistor's surface will have the same
temperature rise over the terminal temperature, regardless of ambient
temperature. This is because there is very little heat dissipation from
the resistor’s surface to the ambient air.
TH + T
Terminal part temperature
TH :High
TM :Medium
TM + T
TL :Low
TL + T
How to Use the Derating Curve Based
on the Terminal Part Temperature
Here are some examples on using terminal temperature derating that
lead to greater factors of safety, reduction in number of resistors, or
use of a smaller component. The conditions for these examples are:
(1) Ambient temperature of the board: 100°C
(2) Terminal temperature of the surface mount resistor: 120°C
(3) Actual power load: 0.05 W
(4) Required margin of safety below rating according to designer's
internal guidelines: 50%
Rated power ratio(%)
3. 2mm
(4)50 %
Caution & Terms
Terminal part temperature
Figure 4. Contributing factor to the temperature of the surface mount resistor
However, surface temperatures at a given power will differ between
different PCB designs, since the terminal temperature will be different.
When resistors are mounted close to each other or other heatgenerating devices, as shown in figure 5, there is a possibility that
the temperature will be higher than the 70°C ambient temperature
threshold used in the traditional JIS/IEC derating curve.
The traditional derating curve bsaed on ambient tempreature usually
uses 70°C as the ambient temperature above which parts are to be
derated. There will be no problem if resistors are used with sufficient
electrical and thermal margin, but recent trends to miniaturization,
high power density, and high-temperature use have reduced margins
on design.
Redefining derating based on terminal temperature is a way to better
represent the capabilities of the part. KOA will provide a derating
curve suitable for surface mount resistors, based on testing under
conditions where power rating is defined in terms of terminal
temperature (as seen in terms & definitions).
70°C (1)100°C
155°C Ambient temperature
Necessary rated power=(3)0.05 /0 .325 =0 .154 W
1 pie ce of 2 B size(3 21 6mm rated power 0. 25 W)
2 pie ces of 1J size(160 8mm rated power 0.1W)
Figure 6. Selection by the traditional derating curve
The required power rating for the resistor using the ambienttemperature derating curve is calculated from conditions (1), (3),
and (4). Figure 6 shows this result. For KOA's RK73B resistor series,
either a single 2B (1206) size resistor or two 1J (0603) size resistors
will be required.
However, when a resistor is selected using the terminal-temperature
derating curve, which is better suited to surface-mount parts, conditions
(2), (3), and (4) show that a single 1J (0603) size RK73B resistor
would be sufficient.
Rated power ratio(%)
(4)50 %
Will A and B become the same temperature
when the same power is applied?
Terminal part
100% until terminal part temperature is 125°C
Test board
Actual board
Figure 5. Temperature differs depending on the board
Necessary rated power=(3)0.05 /0 .5=0 .1W
1 pie ce of 1J size(160 8mm rated power 0 .1W)
F Figure 7. Selection using a terminal-temperature derating curve
As seen above, the number of resistors and the mounting area can
be reasonably reduced by using the proper derating curve based on
terminal temperature, and this will lead to cost savings.
Specifications given herein may be changed at any time without prior notice. Please confirm technical specifications before you order and/or use.
KOA Speer Electronics, Inc. • 199 Bolivar Drive • Bradford, PA 16701 • USA • 814-362-5536 • Fax: 814-362-8883 •
Caution & Terms
Refer to the precautions of common matters for all products
in the beginning of this catalog.
General in Fixed Resistors
• For basic precautions of using resistors, refer to the technical report
“EIAJ RCR-2121A Guideline of notabilia for fixed resistors for use in
electronic equipment” issued by JEITA.
• When the resistors are operated in ambient temperature above the
rated temperature, the power rating must be derated according to
the derating curve.
• Resistors in general may emit flame, fire or smoke when overload
is applied.
• Flame retardant resistors may emit smoke or appear red hot when
overload is applied but are unlikely to emit flame or fire.
• When the resistors are sealed and coated by coating materials such
as resin, deterioration of the resistor by thermal stress or resin may
affect the characteristics. Confirm with KOA for the performance
and reliability specifications in advance.
When the resin absorbs moisture, the resistance to moisture
and corrosion of the resistor may deteriorate, so be aware.
• When the resistor is coated, potted or molded by resin materials, the
curing stress could cause peeling of protective coating and cracking
of solder fillet, resulting in resistance change and disconnection.
Do not coat nor seal the flame retardant coated resistors.
• Allow enough time for cooling after mounting metal film
resistors, before washing off the flux. Residues of ionic substances
may deteriorate resistances to moisture and corrosion.
• KOA can only guarantee safety when the average power is below
the rated power, When power, exceeding the rated power, is applied
for a short duration, please contact us with the surge voltage or
current waveform for advice.
• Cylindrical film resistors have inductance due to the spiral trimming.
Please be aware when using in a high-frequency circuit.
• The flame retardant resistors are weak against mechanical stress
compared with the general resistors due to the special coating.
Please do not apply impact, vibration or pinching with pliers,
tweezers to the resistor body. Do not apply any external force to
the protective coating until drying is fully completed after washing.
Chip Resistor Array and Networks
• Misalignment of the mounting, abnormal solder amount or a loading
direction mistake in the flow soldering process could cause a solder
bridge to the neighboring terminations.
• Adhesive of ionic residuals on the resistor or board could cause
migration between the neighboring terminations.
Wirewound Type Resistors
• Wirewound type resistors have inductances and parasitic
capacitances resulting from the winding structure. Therefore,
they could resonate when used in a high frequency circuit.
Fusing Resistors
• Confirm beforehand that the overload condition of the abnormal
situations are within the fusing characteristics.
• Contact KOA in advance when excess overload above the rated
voltage is continuously applied, since there is a possibility of
damage accumulated in the resistor.
• The arc phenomenon may occur when high voltage is applied again
after fusing by over current. Make sure to use the product below
the maximum open circuit voltage.
• Contact KOA about the maximum open circuit voltage, it varies
depending on the product type and resistance.
• The fusing characteristics could change when the resistors
are coated, potted and molded by resin materials.
Terms and Definitions
Nominal Resistance
• Designed resistance value usually indicated on the resistor.
Power Rating
• Maximum allowable power at rated temperature. Some of our chip
resistor arrays and networks specify the power rating for the entire
package, as opposed to each element.
Rated Temperature
• Maximum ambient temperature at which the power rating may be
applied continuously. The rated ambient temperature refers to the
temperature around the resistor mounted inside the equipment,
not to the air temperature outside the equipment.
Derating Curve
• Plot that expresses the relation between ambient temperature
and the maximum allowable power, which is generally expressed
in percentage.
Rated Voltage
• Maximum allowable D.C. or A.C. voltage (rms), to be continuously
applied to a resistor or a resistor element.
Rated Voltage (V) = √Rated Power (W) X Nominal Resistance Value (Ω)
Rated voltage shall be the calculated value or max. working voltage,
whichever is lower.
Critical Resistance
• The maximum nominal resistance value at which the rated power
can be applied without exceeding the maximum working voltage.
The rated voltage is equal to the max. working voltage at the critical
resistance value.
Max. Working Voltage
• Maximum D.C. or A.C. voltage (rms) that can be continuously
applied to the terminations of a resistor. However, the maximum
value of the applicable voltage is the rated voltage at the critical
resistance value or lower.
Overload Voltage
• Allowable voltage which is applied for 5 sec. according to the short
time overload test. Overload voltage shall be 2.5 times of rated
voltage or max. overload voltage, whichever is lower.
Maximum Overload Voltage
• Largest value of overload voltage
Max. Overload Voltage
Voltage (V)
Precautions for the Resistors
Overload Voltage
Max. Working Voltage
Rated Voltage
Critical Resistance
Nominal Resistance (Ω)
Example of Various Voltage of RK73 2A
Dielectric Withstanding Voltage
• A.C. voltage (rms) that can be applied to a designated spot between
the electrode and the outer coating for one minute according to the
proof test.
Temperature Coefficient of Resistance (T.C.R.)
• Relative variation of resistance between two given temperatures
when temperature is changed by 1K, which is calculated by the
following formula.
T.C.R. (×10−6/K) = R−R0 × 1 × 10
R : Resistance value (Ω) at T
R0 : Resistance value (Ω) at T0
T : Measured test temperature (°C)
T0 : Measured base temperature (°C)
Specifications given herein may be changed at any time without prior notice. Please confirm technical specifications before you order and/or use.
KOA Speer Electronics, Inc. • 199 Bolivar Drive • Bradford, PA 16701 • USA • 814-362-5536 • Fax: 814-362-8883 •