BL0930 FEATURES Single Phase Energy Meter IC with Integrated Oscillator DESCRIPTION High accuracy, less than 0.1% error over a The BL0930 is a low cost, high accuracy, high dynamic range of 500 : 1 stability, simple peripheral circuit electrical energy Exactly measure the real power in the positive meter IC. The meter based on the BL0930 is intended orientation and negative orientation, calculate the for using in single-phase, two-wire distribution energy in the same orientation systems. A PGA in the current channel allows using small The BL0930 adopts the oversample technology value shunt and burden resistance and digital signal processing technology. It can The low frequency outputs F1 and F2 can exactly measure the real power in the positive directly drive electromechanical counters and two orientation and negative orientation and calculate the phase stepper motors and the high frequency output energy in the same orientation. Moreover, BL0930 CF, supplies instantaneous real power, is intended for supplies the negative orientation indication on Pin12 calibration and communications (REVP). Therefore, the meter using the BL0930 has great capability to avoid fault condition. The logic outputs REVP can be used to indicate a potential orientation The BL0930 supplies average real power Low static power (typical value of 15mW). information on the low frequency outputs F1 (Pin16) The technology of SLiM (Smart–Low–current– and F2 (Pin15). These logic outputs may be used to Management ) is used. directly drive an electromechanical counter and On-Chip power supply detector two-phase stepper motors. The CF (Pin14) logic On-Chip anti-creep protection output gives instantaneous real power information. On-Chip oscillator This output is intended to be used for calibration On-Chip voltage reference of 2.5V±8% (typical purposes or interface to an MCU. temperature coefficient of 30ppm/℃)，with external The BL0930 adopts the technology of SLim and overdrive capability decreases greatly the static power. This technology also decreases the request for power supply. Single 5V supply BL0930 thinks over the stability of reading error in the process of calibration.. An internal no-load threshold ensures that the BL0930 does not exhibit Interrelated patents are pending any creep when there is no load. BLOCK DIAGRAM VREF VDD 1 16 F1 V2P 2 15 F2 V2N 3 14 CF V1N 4 13 NC V1P 5 12 REVP GND 6 11 G VREF 7 10 S0 SCF 8 9 S1 BL0930 VDD voltage reference V1P V1N current sampling internal oscillator high pass filter analog to digital BL0930 digital multiplication V2P V2N voltage sampling high pass filter analog to digital logical SCF S1 power detector low pass filter digital to frequency and output REVP CF F1 F2 control S0 G DIP 16 http://www.belling.com.cn -1Total 1 Pages 3/28/2007 Single Phase Energy Meter IC with Integrated Oscillator BL0930 PIN DESCRIPTIONS Pin Symbol DESCRIPTIONS 1 VDD Provides the supply voltage for the circuitry. It should be maintained at 5 V±5% for specified operation. 2,3 V2P,V2N Negative and Positive Inputs for Voltage Channel. These inputs provide a fully differential input pair. The maximum differential input voltage is ±165 mV for specified operation. 4,5 V1N ,V1P Inputs for Current Channel. These inputs are fully differential voltage inputs with a maximum signal level of ±660 mV 6 GND Provides the ground reference for the circuitry. 7 VREF On-Chip Voltage Reference. The on-chip reference has a nominal value of 2.5V ± 8% and a typical temperature coefficient of 30ppm/℃. An external reference source may also be connected at this pin. 8 SCF Calibration Frequency Select. This logic input is used to select the frequency on the calibration output CF. 9,10 S1,S0 Output Frequency Select. These logic inputs are used to select one of four possible frequencies for the digital-to-frequency conversion. This offers the designer greater flexibility when designing the energy meter. 11 G Gain Select. These logic inputs are used to select one of four possible gains for current channel. The possible gains are 1 and 16. Negative Indication. Logic high indicates negative power, i.e., when the phase angle 12 REVP 13 NC Reserved. 14 CF Calibration Frequency. The CF logic output gives instantaneous real power information. This output is intended to use for calibration purposes. 15,16 F2,F1 Low-Frequency. F1 and F2 supply average real power information. The logic outputs can be used to directly drive electromechanical counters and 2-phase stepper motors. between the voltage and current signals is greater that 90°. This output is not latched and will be reset when positive power is once again detected. ABSOLUTE MAXIMUM RATINGS ( T = 25 ℃ ) Parameter Symbol Value Unit Analog &Digital power Voltage VDD VDD -0.3~+7(max) V Analog Input Voltage of Channel 2 to GND V (V) VSS+0.5≤V(v)≤VDD-0.5 V Analog Input Voltage of Channel 1 to GND V (I) VSS+0.5≤V(i)≤VDD-0.5 V Operating Temperature Range Topr -40~+85 ℃ Storage Temperature Range Tstr -55~+150 ℃ 400 mW Power Dissipation（DIP16） http://www.belling.com.cn -2Total 2 Pages 3/28/2007 BL0930 Single Phase Energy Meter IC with Integrated Oscillator Electronic Characteristic Parameter (T=25℃, VDD=5V, On-Chip Oscillator ) Parameter Symb ol 1 Power Current IVDD Input High Voltage VIH Input Low Voltage VIL Input Capacitance CIN Test Condition Measure Pin Min Value Pin1 VDD=5V VDD=5V 3 Logic Output Pins F1, F2 Max Value 3.5 Unit mA 2 V 1 V 10 pF Pin16, 15 Output High Voltage VOH1 IH=10mA Output Low Voltage VOL1 IL=10mA Output Current 4.4 V 0.5 IO1 10 4 Logic Output Pins CF, REVP, V mA Pin14, 12 Output High Voltage VOH2 IH=10mA Output Low Voltage VOL2 IL=10mA 5 On-chip Reference Vref VDD=5V 6 Analog Input Pins V1P, V1N V2N, V2P Maximum Input Voltage Typical Value 4 Pin7 2.3 V 2.5 0.5 V 2.7 V ±1 V Pin 5,4, 3,2 VAIN DC Input Impedance 330 Input Capacitance Kohm 10 pF 7 Accuracy Measurement Error on Channel 1 and 2 Phase Error Channels between Channel 1 Lead 37° (PF=0.8Capacitive) Pin14 0.1 0.3 % Channel 1 Lags (PF=0.5Inductive) Pin14 0.1 0.3 % 8 Start Current ISTART Ib=5A C=3200, Pin4 0.2%Ib A cosϕ=1 Voltage Channel Inputs ±110mV Gain of Current Channel 16 9 Positive and Negative Real Power Error (%) ENP http://www.belling.com.cn Vv=±110mV,V(I) =2mV, cosϕ=1 Vv=±110mV,V(I) -3Total 3 Pages Pin14 0.4 3/28/2007 % BL0930 10 Power Supply Monitor Voltage Vdown =2mV, cosϕ=-1 Power Supply vary from 3.5V to 5V,and Current Channel with Full-Scale Signal Pin14 Single Phase Energy Meter IC with Integrated Oscillator 3.9 4 4.1 TERMINOLOGY 1) Measurement Error The error associated with the energy measurement made by the BL0930 is defined by the following formula: Pencentage Error = Energy Re gistered by the BL0930 − True Energy × 100% True Energy 2) Nonlinear Error The Nonlinear Error is defined by the following formula: eNL%＝[(Error at X-Error at Ib) / (1+Error at Ib )]*100% When V(v)= ±110mV, cosϕ=1, over the arrange of 5%Ib to 800%Ib, the nonlinear error should be less than 0.1%. 3) Positive And Negative Real Power Error When the positive real power and the negative real power is equal, and V(v) =±110mV, the test current is Ib, then the positive and negative real power error can be achieved by the following formula: eNP%=|[(eN%-eP%)/(1+eP%)]*100%| Where: eP% is the Positive Real Power Error, eN% is the Negative Real Power Error. 5) Power Supply Monitor BL0930 has the on-chip Power Supply monitoring The BL0930 will remain in a reset condition until the supply voltage on VDD reaches 4 V. If the supply falls below 4 V, the BL0930 will also be reset and no pulses will be issued on F1, F2 and CF. http://www.belling.com.cn -4Total 4 Pages 3/28/2007 V BL0930 Single Phase Energy Meter IC with Integrated Oscillator TIMING CHARACTERISTIC (VDD =5V, GND =0V, On-Chip Reference, On-Chip Oscillator , Temperature range: -40~+85°C) Parameter t1 Value 144ms t2 Comments F1 and F2 pulse-width (Logic Low). When the power is low, the t1 is equal to 144ms; when the power is high, and the output period exceeds 550ms, t1 equals to half of the output period. F1 or F2 output pulse period. t3 ½ t2 Time between F1 falling edge and F2 falling edge. t4 71ms CF pulse-width (Logic high). When the power is low, the t4 is equal to 71ms; when the power is high, and the output period exceeds 180ms, t4 equals to half of the output period. t5 t6 CF Pulse Period. See Transfer Function section. CLK/4 Minimum Time Between F1 and F2. Notes: 1) CF is not synchronous to F1 or F2 frequency outputs. 2) Sample tested during initial release and after any redesign or process change that may affect this parameter. THEORY OF OPERATION Principle of Energy Measure In energy measure, the power information varying with time is calculated by a direct multiplication of the voltage signal and the current signal. Assume that the current signal and the voltage signal are cosine functions; Umax, Imax are the peak values of the voltage signal and the current signal; ωis the angle frequency of the input signals; the phase difference between the current signal and the voltage signal is expressed asφ. Then the power is given as follows: p (t ) = U max cos( wt ) × I max cos( wt + ϕ ) If φ=0: http://www.belling.com.cn -5Total 5 Pages 3/28/2007 BL0930 p (t ) = Single Phase Energy Meter IC with Integrated Oscillator U max I max [1 + cos(2 wt )] 2 If φ≠0: p (t ) = U max cos(ωt ) × I max cos(ωt + Φ ) = U max cos(ωt ) × [I max cos(ωt ) cos(Φ ) + I max sin(ωt ) sin(Φ )] U max I max [1 + cos(2ωt )] cos(Φ ) + U max I max cos(ωt ) sin(ωt ) sin(Φ ) 2 U I U I = max max [1 + cos(2ωt )] cos(Φ ) + max max sin( 2ωt ) sin(Φ) 2 2 U I U I = max max cos(Φ) + max max [cos(2ωt ) cos(Φ ) + sin(2ωt ) sin(Φ)] 2 2 U max I max U max I max = cos(Φ) + cos(2ωt + Φ) 2 2 = P(t) is called as the instantaneous power signal. The ideal p(t) consists of the dc component and ac component whose frequency is 2ω. The dc component is called as the average active power, that is: P= U max I max cos(ϕ ) 2 The average active power is related to the cosine value of the phase difference between the voltage signal and the current signal. This cosine value is called as Power Factor (PF) of the two channel signals. Figure1. The Effect of phase When the signal phase difference between the voltage and current channels is more than 90°, the average active power is negative. It indicates the user is using the electrical energy reversely. Operation Process In BL0930, the two ADCs digitize the voltage signals from the current and voltage transducers. These ADCs are 16-bit second order sigma-delta with an oversampling rate of 900 kHz. This analog input structure greatly simplifies transducer interfacing by providing a wide dynamic range for direct connection to the transducer and also simplifying the antialiasing filter design. A programmable gain stage in the current channel further facilitates easy transducer interfacing. A high pass filter in the current channel removes any dc component from the current signal. This http://www.belling.com.cn -6Total 6 Pages 3/28/2007 BL0930 Single Phase Energy Meter IC with Integrated Oscillator eliminates any inaccuracies in the real power calculation due to offsets in the voltage or current signals. The real power calculation is derived from the instantaneous power signal. The instantaneous power signal is generated by a direct multiplication of the current and voltage signals. In order to extract the real power component (i.e., the dc component), the instantaneous power signal is low-pass filtered. Figure 2 illustrates the instantaneous real power signal and shows how the real power information can be extracted by low-pass filtering the instantaneous power signal. This scheme correctly calculates real power for nonsinusoidal current and voltage waveforms at all power factors. All signal processing is carried out in the digital domain for superior stability over temperature and time. I V current sampling voltage sampling analog to digital high pass filter analog to digital digital multiplication high pass filter low pass filter CF F1 digital to frequency F2 instantaneous real power signal instantaneous power signal p(t) V*I integral p(t)=i(t)*v(t) v(t)=V*cos(wt) i(t)=I*cos(wt) V*I 2 p(t)= V*I 2 V*I 2 [1+cos(2wt)] t t Figure 2. Signal Processing Block Diagram The low frequency output of the BL0930 is generated by accumulatingm this real power information. This low frequency inherently means a long accumulation time between output pulses. The output frequency is therefore proportional to the average real power. This average real power information can, in turn, be accumulated (e.g., by a counter) to generate real energy information. Because of its high output frequency and hence shorter integration time, the CF output is proportional to the instantaneous real power. This is useful for system calibration purposes that would take place under steady load conditions. VOLTAGE CHANNEL INPUT The output of the line voltage transducer is connected to the BL0930 at this analog input. As Figure4 shows that channel V2 is a fully differential voltage input. The maximum peak differential signal on Channel 2 is ±165mV. Figure4 illustrates the maximum signal levels that can be connected to the BL0930 Voltage Channel. http://www.belling.com.cn -7Total 7 Pages 3/28/2007 BL0930 Single Phase Energy Meter IC with Integrated Oscillator V1 +165mV Maximun input differential voltage ±165mV V2P + V1 - V2N V2 V2 Maximun input commonmode voltage 100mV -165mV AGND Figure 4. Voltage Channels Voltage Channel must be driven from a common-mode voltage, i.e., the differential voltage signal on the input must be referenced to a common mode (usually GND). The analog inputs of the BL0930 can be driven with common-mode voltages of up to 100 mV with respect to GND. However, best results are achieved using a common mode equal to GND. Figure5 shows two typical connections for Channel V2. The first option uses a PT (potential transformer) to provide complete isolation from the mains voltage. In the second option, the BL0930 is biased around the neutral wire and a resistor divider is used to provide a voltage signal that is proportional to the line voltage. Adjusting the ratio of Ra and Rb is also a convenient way of carrying out a gain calibration on the meter. RF CT V2P CF ±165mV RF AGND V2N + - CF AGND Phase Neutral AGND CF Ra Rb AGND Rv AGND ±165mV V2P Phase Neutral RF AGND V2N Ra >> RF Rb+Rv=RF Figure 5. http://www.belling.com.cn + - CF AGND AGND Typical Connections for Voltage Channels -8Total 8 Pages 3/28/2007 BL0930 Single Phase Energy Meter IC with Integrated Oscillator CURRENT CHANNEL INPUT The voltage outputs from the current transducers are connected to the BL0930 here. The maximum differential voltage on Current Channel 2 is ±660mV. The maximum common-mode voltage is ±100mV. Power Supply Monitor The BL0930 contains an on-chip power supply monitor. If the supply is less than 4V±5% then the BL0930 will go in an inactive state, i.e. no energy will be accumulated when the supply voltage is below 4V. This is useful to ensure correct device operation at power up and during power down. The power supply monitor has built-in hysteresis and filtering. This gives a high degree of immunity to false triggering due to noisy supplies. The trigger level is nominally set at 4V, and the tolerance on this trigger level is about ±5%. The power supply and decoupling for the part should be such that the ripple at VDD does not exceed 5V±5% as specified for normal operation. SLiM technology The BL0930 adopts the technology of SLiM (Smart Low current Management) to decrease the static power greatly. The static power of BL0930 is about 12mW. It is half of the previous product BL0955 (about 25mW ).This technology also decreases the request for power supply design. BL09XX series products used 0.35um CMOS process. The reliability and consistency are advanced. OPERATION MODE Transfer Function The BL0930 calculates the product of two voltage signals (on Channel 1 and Channel 2) and then low-pass filters this product to extract real power information. This real power information is then converted to a frequency. The frequency information is output on F1 and F2 in the form of active low pulses. The pulse rate at these outputs is relatively low. It means that the frequency at these outputs is generated from real power information accumulated over a relatively long period of time. The result is an output frequency that is proportional to the average real power. The average of the real power signal is implicit to the digital-to-frequency conversion. The output frequency or pulse rate is related to the input voltage signals by the following equation. Freq = 22.4 × V (v) × V (i ) × FZ × G 2 VREF Freq——Output frequency on F1 and F2 (Hz) V(v)——Differential rms voltage signal on Channel 1 (volts) V(i)——Differential rms voltage signal on Channel 2 (volts) G——1or 16, depending on the PGA gain selection, using logic inputs G http://www.belling.com.cn -9Total 9 Pages 3/28/2007 Single Phase Energy Meter IC with Integrated Oscillator BL0930 Vref——The reference voltage (2.5V±8%) (volts) Fz——One of four possible frequencies selected by using the logic inputs S0 and S1. S1 S0 Fz(Hz) XTAL/CLKIN 0 0 1.7 CLKIN/2^21 0 1 3.4 CLKIN/2^20 1 0 6.8 CLKIN/2^19 1 1 13.6 CLKIN/2^18 Gain Selection By select the digital input G voltage (5V or 0V), we can adjust the gain of current channel. We can see that while increasing the gain, the input dynamic range is decreasing.(Default G is zero) G Gain Maximum Differential Signal 1 1 ±660mV 0 16 ±41mV Frequency Output CF The pulse output CF (Calibration Frequency) is intended for use during calibration. The output pulse rate on CF can be up to 128 times the pulse rate on F1 and F2. The following Table shows how the two frequencies are related, depending on the states of the logic inputs S0, S1 and SCF. Mode SCF S1 S0 CF/F1 (or F2) 1 1 0 0 128 2 0 0 0 64 3 1 0 1 64 4 0 0 1 32 5 1 1 0 32 6 0 1 0 16 7 1 1 1 16 8 0 1 1 2048 Because of its relatively high pulse rate, the frequency at this logic output is proportional to the instantaneous real power. As is the case with F1 and F2, the frequency is derived from the output of the low-pass filter after multiplication. However, because the output frequency is high, this real power information is accumulated over a much shorter time. Hence less averaging is carried out in the digital-to-frequency conversion. With much less averaging of the real power signal, the CF output is much more responsive to power fluctuations. ANALOG INPUT RANGE The maximum peak differential signal on Voltage Channel is ± 165 mV, and the common-mode voltage is up to 100 mV with respect to GND. The analog inputs V1P and V1N have the same maximum signal level restrictions as V2P and V2N. The maximum differential voltage is ±660 mV and the maximum common-mode signal is ±100 mV. http://www.belling.com.cn - 10 3/28/2007 Total 10 Pages Single Phase Energy Meter IC with Integrated Oscillator BL0930 The corresponding Max Frequency of CF/F1/F2 is shown in the following table. SCF S1 S0 Fz Max Frequency of F1, F2 (Hz) DC CF Max Frequency (Hz) AC DC AC 1 0 0 1.7 0.72 0.36 128×F1,F2=92.16 128×F1,F2=46.08 0 0 0 1.7 0.72 0.36 64×F1,F2=46.08 64×F1,F2=23.04 1 0 1 3.4 1.44 0.72 64×F1,F2=92.16 64×F1,F2=46.08 0 0 1 3.4 1.44 0.72 32×F1,F2=46.08 32×F1,F2=23.04 1 1 0 6.8 2.88 1.44 32×F1,F2=92.16 32×F1,F2=46.08 0 1 0 6.8 2.88 1.44 16×F1,F2=46.08 16×F1,F2=23.04 1 1 1 13.6 5.76 2.88 16×F1,F2=92.16 16×F1,F2=46.08 0 1 1 13.6 5.76 2.88 2048×F1,F2=11.8K 2048×F1,F2=5.9K Package Dimensions 1、DIP16 2、SOP16 Notice： Sample tested during initial release and after any redesign or process change that may affect parameter. Specification subject to change without notice. Please ask for the newest product specification at any moment. http://www.belling.com.cn - 11 Total 11 Pages 3/28/2007

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