IPM L1/S1-series APPLICATION NOTE Sep. 2008 Mitsubishi IPM L1/S1-Series Application Note Table of Contents Index 1. Product Line-up …… 3 2. Internal circuit …… 4 3. Package Outline …… 5 4. Applications of IPM to General purpose Inverter (reference) …… 8 5. Term Explanation …… 9 6. Numbering System …… 10 7. Structure …… 11 8. Correct and Safety Use of Power Module …… 15 9. Reliability …… 17 10. Installation of power Module …… 17 10-1. Installing Capacitor …… 17 10-2. Installation Hints …… 17 10-3. Thermal Impedance Considerations & Chip Layout …… 18 10-4. Coating Method of Thermal Grease (Example) …… 20 10-5. Connecting the Interface circuit …… 21 10-6. Terminal of IPM …… 22 …… 24 11-1. Instruction of the symbol of a terminal of IPM …… 24 11-2. Function of the IPM …… 26 11-3. Area of Safe Operation for Intelligent Power Modules …… 27 11-4. Fault Signal of IPM …… 28 11-5. Interface Circuit Requirements …… 31 11-6. Control Power supply of IPM …… 32 11-7. Applications of IPM L1/S1-series to Motor drive …… 33 11-8. Interface of control side of IPM …… 34 11-9. Other notice of using IPM …… 37 11-10. The circuit current of control power supply of IPM …… 38 11-11. Fo Circuit …… 40 12. Power Loss and Junction Temperature …… 41 13. Average Power Loss Simplified Calculation …… 45 14. Notice for safe Designs and when Using This Specification …… 47 11. Using IPM 2 Sep. 2008 Mitsubishi IPM L1/S1-Series Application Note Product Line-up 1.Product Line-up L1-series IPM 7pack (Inverter+ Brake) 600V (AC200) Screw type PM50RL1A060 PM75RL1A060 PM100RL1A060 PM150RL1A060 PM200RL1A060 PM300RL1A060 6pack (Inverter) 600V (AC200) Screw type PM50CL1A060 PM75CL1A060 PM100CL1A060 PM150CL1A060 PM200CL1A060 PM300CL1A060 1200V (AC400V) Screw type Pin type PM50RL1C060 PM50RL1B060 PM75RL1B060 PM100RL1B060 PM150RL1B060 PM25RL1A120 PM50RL1A120 PM75RL1A120 PM100RL1A120 PM150RL1A120 1200V (AC400V) Screw type PM25CL1A120 PM50CL1A120 PM75CL1A120 PM100CL1A120 PM150CL1A120 Pin type PM50CL1B060 PM75CL1B060 PM100CL1B060 PM150CL1B060 S1-series IPM 6pack (Inverter) 600V (AC200) Screw type PM50CS1D060 PM75CS1D060 PM100CS1D060 PM150CS1D060 PM200CS1D060 Package IPM L1-series Mini-package Small pin type package Pin type PM25RL1C120 PM25RL1B120 PM50RL1B120 PM75RL1B120 Pin type PM25CL1B120 PM50CL1B120 PM75CL1B120 1200V (AC400V) Screw type PM25CS1D120 PM50CS1D120 PM75CS1D120 PM100CS1D120 IPM L1-series Small-package Screw type package IPM L1-series Medium-package Pin type package IPM S1-series package Screw type package Screw type package 3 Sep. 2008 Mitsubishi IPM L1/S1-Series Application Note Internal circuit 2.Internal circuit 㩷 7pack (Inverter+ Brake) 㩷 6pack (Inverter) L1-series Ex.) 7in1 type VWPC WP W Fo VWP1 VVPC VP VFo VVP1 VUPC UP UFo VUP1 㪈㪅㪌㫂 UN 㪈㪅㪌㫂 VN 㪈㪅㪌㫂 VN1 㪈㪅㪌㫂 VNC W N Br Fo Gnd In Fo Vcc Gnd In Fo Vcc Gnd In Fo Vcc Gnd In Fo Vcc Gnd In Fo Vcc Gnd In Fo Vcc Gnd In Fo Vcc Gnd Si Out OT Gnd Si Out OT Gnd Si Out OT Gnd Si Out OT Gnd Si Out OT Gnd Si Out OT Gnd Si Out OT N W V U B P S1-series V N1 VN UN VWPC WP VWP1 V VPC VP V VP1 VUPC UP VUP1 㪈㪅㪌㫂 V NC W N Fo Gnd In Fo Vcc Gnd In Fo Vcc Gnd In Fo Vcc Gnd In Fo Vcc Gnd In Fo Vcc Gnd In Fo Vcc Gnd Si Out OT Gnd Si Out OT Gnd Si Out OT Gnd Si Out OT Gnd Si Out OT Gnd Si Out OT N W V U 4 P Sep. 2008 Mitsubishi IPM L1/S1-Series Application Note Package Outline 3.Package Outline IPM L1-series Mini-package 90 14.6 80 222 10 222 10 6.7 222222 10 0.5 222 10 0.3 19- 5 9 13 20.5 5 23 2-φ4.3 MOUNTING HOLES 0.5 25 50 1 B P N U V W 2 12 12 12 12 14.2 12 16.5 13 (8) 25 2.5±0.5 10 L A B E L (55) 17.5±0.5 IPM L1-series Small-package (Screw type) L A B E L 11 120 106 7 19.75 3.25 66.5 16 3-2 16 3-2 16 3-2 1 5 9 16 2-φ5.5 MOUNTING HOLES 15.25 6-2 3 2-φ2.5 19 14.5 V W 11.75 6-M5 NUTS U (13.5) B 32 13 27.5 P 17.5 55 N 17.5 12 (19.75) 10.75 12 32.75 23 23 23 22 +– 10.5 3.15 13 (7) (SCREWING DEPTH) 12 19-■ ■0.5 5 Sep. 2008 Mitsubishi IPM L1/S1-Series Application Note Package Outline IPM L1-series Small-package (Pin type) L A B E L 120 7 106 ±0.25 66.5 16 3.25 17 16 3-2 1 5 15.25 3-2 16 3 1.5 6-2 35 2-φ2.5 55 N 25.75 4 4 1 3-2 16 1.5 19.75 2-φ5.5 19 25 13 4 4 4φ2 .5 MOUNTING HOLES 4 4 P 9 U V W 1 B 4 4 2.5 4 4 4 4 19.5 22 23 23 7.75 9.5 23 98.25 27.5 9.5 11.5 19-■0.5 IPM L1-series Medium-package 135 122.1 11.7 40.5 V 6.05 18 W U 18.7 26 (13) 26 (SCREWING DEPTH) 13 6.05 110±0.5 6-M5 NUTS 66.5 9 19- 5 1 30.15 0.5 L A B E L 6 11 4 34.7 2-φ2.5 13 33.6 19 10 3-2 10 3-2 10 3-2 24.1 +1 -0.5 11 4-φ5.5 MOUNTING HOLES 6-2 90.1 71.5 3.25 110 21.5 20 20 78±0.5 N P B 10.5 Sep. 2008 Mitsubishi IPM L1/S1-Series Application Note Package Outline IPM S1-series package 7 Sep. 2008 Mitsubishi IPM L1/S1-Series Application Note Applications of IPM to General purpose Inverter (reference) 4.Applications of IPM to General purpose Inverter (reference) عAC220V Line Motor Ratings (kW) 3.7 5.5/7.5 11.0 15.0/18.5 22.0 30.0 عAC440V Line Motor Ratings (kW) 5.5 7.5 11.0/15.0 18.5/22.0 30.0 For Inverter Module For Converter Diode L1-series PM50RL1A060,PM50RL1B060 PM50CL1A060,PM50CL1B060 PM50RL1C060 PM75RL1A060,PM75RL1B060 PM75CL1A060,PM75CL1B060 PM100RL1A060,PM100RL1B060 PM100CL1A060,PM100CL1B060 PM150RL1A060,PM150RL1B060 PM150CL1A060,PM150CL1B060 PM200RL1A060,PM200CL1A060 PM300RL1A060,PM300CL1A060 RM30TA-H RM30TA-H RM50TC-H RM75TC-H RM75TC-H PM100DZ-H 3 For Inverter Module For Converter Diode L1-series PM25RL1A120,PM25RL1B120 PM25CL1A120,PM25CL1B120 PM25RL1C120 PM50RL1A120,PM50RL1B120 PM50CL1A120,PM50CL1B120 PM75RL1A120,PM75RL1B120 PM75CL1A120,PM75CL1B120 PM100RL1A120,PM100CL1A120 PM150RL1A120,PM150CL1A120 RM20TA-2H RM50TC-2H RM50TC-2H RM50TC-2H PM60DZ-2H 3 Applications of IPM to Servo Motor Controls (reference) عAC220V Line Motor Ratings (kW) ~1.5 ~2.0 ~3.5 ~6.0 ~7.5 عAC440V Line Motor Ratings (kW) ~1.5 ~3.0 ~5.0 ~6.0 For Inverter Module S1-series For Converter Diode PM50CS1D060 PM75CS1D060 PM100CS1D060 PM150CS1D060 PM200CS1D060 RM30TA-H RM30TA-H RM50TC-H RM75TC-H RM75TC-H For Inverter Module S1-series For Converter Diode PM25CS1D120 PM50CS1D120 PM75CS1D120 PM100CS1D120 RM20TA-2H RM50TC-2H RM50TC-2H RM50TC-2H The above-mentioned tables are examples of the reference. It is necessary to select the power-module (IPM) from the power-loss and the heat calculation result in the voltage, the current, and use conditions. 8 Sep. 2008 Mitsubishi IPM L1/S1-Series Application Note Term Explanation 5. Term Explanation General 1 Symbol IGBT FWDi IPM tdead IPM Motor CMR CMH CML CTR General 2 Symbol Ta Tc Definition Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor Free Wheeling Diode Intelligent Power Module Dead Time Interior Permanent Magnet Motor Common Mode Noise Reduction Current Transfer Ratio Parameter Ambient Temperature Case Temperature Absolute maximum Ratings Symbol Parameter VCES Collector-Emitter Blocking Voltage IC Continuous Collector Current ICP Peak Collector Current Repetitive PC Power Dissipation Tj Junction Temperature Tstg Storage Temperature Viso Isolation Voltage - Mounting Torque anti-parallel to the IGBT Low side turn-off to high Side turn-on & High Side turn-off to low side turn-on The maximum rise ratio of common mode voltage The maximum rise ratio of common mode voltage at the specific high level The maximum rise ratio of common mode voltage at the specific low level the ratio of the output current to the input current Definition Atmosphere temperature without being subject to thermal source Case temperature measured at specified point Definition Maximum Off-state collector-emitter voltage at applied control input off signal Maximum collector current – DC Peak collector current, Tjd150°C Maximum power dissipation, per device, TC=25°C Allowable range of IGBT junction temperature during operation Allowable range of temperature within which the module may be stored or transported without being subject to electrical load. Minimum RMS isolation voltage capability applied electric terminal to base plate, 1 minute duration Allowable tightening torque for terminal and mounting screws ̪IE and IF are using by the difference of the connection and so on like the following figure. Electrical Characteristics Symbol Parameter Collector-Emitter Leakage ICES Current Collector-Emitter Saturation VCE(sat) Voltage Turn-on Crossover Time tc(on) tc(off) Turn-off Crossover Time Eon Turn-on Switching loss Eoff Turn-off Switching loss trr Diode Reverse Recovery Time VEC Forward Voltage Drop of Diode Rth Thermal Resistance Rth(j-c) Rth(c-f) Thermal Resistance, Junction to Case Thermal Resistance, Case to Fin Definition IC at VCE = VCES, VCIN = 15V VCE at IC = rated IC and VD = 15V Time from IC=10% to VCE=10% of final value Time from VCE=10% to IC=10% of final value Energy dissipated inside the IGBT during the turn-on of a single collector current pulse. Integral time starts from the 10% rise point of the collector current and ends at the 10% of the collector-emitter voltage point. Energy dissipated inside the IGBT during the turn-off of a single collector current pulse. Integral time starts from the 10% rise point of the collector-emitter voltage and ends at the 10% of the collector current point. Time from IC=0A to projection of zero IC from Irr and 0.5Irr points with IE = rated IC. VEC at -IC = rated Ic The rise of junction temperature per unit of power applied for a given time period IC conducting to establish thermal equilibrium IC conducting to establish thermal equilibrium lubricated 9 Sep. 2008 Mitsubishi IPM L1/S1-Series Application Note Numbering System 6. Numbering System Label) L1-series Mini-package ,L1-series Small-package, S1-series PM100RL1A060 L1-series Medium-package PM300RL1A060 㩷 㩷 Type Name) 䌐䌍㩷 㩷 䋵䋰㩷 䌒㩷 䌌 㪈 䌁㩷 䋰䋶䋰㩷 䋭㩷 䋳䋰䋰㩷 㩷 㩷 㩷 㩷 㩷 㩷 㩷 㩷 㩷 Specification Number (Not printed on the label) Voltage Class 㩷 㩷 060: 600V ,120: 1200V Package L1: L1-series 㩷 㩷 L1A: Main terminal Screw type 㩷 㩷 L1B: Main terminal Pin type 㩷 㩷 L1C: Main terminal Pin type (mini package) S1: S1-series Connection1 㩷 㩷 R: 7pack (Inverter+ Brake) C:6pack (Inverter) Collector Current rating 㩷 㩷 50: Ic=50A ,75: Ic=75A PM: Intelligent power Module(IPM) 㩷 㪣㫆㫋㩷㪥㫌㫄㪹㪼㫉㪀㩷 㩷 䌅㩷 㩷 䋰㩷 㩷 䋹㩷 㩷 䌁䌁䋳㩷 㩷 㪞㩷 㩷 㩷 㩷 㩷 Manufacturing month (Jan~ Sept.: 1 ~ 9, Oct.: O, Nov.: N, Dec.: D) Manufacturing year (the last digit of year, 5=2005 6=2006 ..) UL ID code (UL certified products only) 㩷 㩷 RoHS Compliant Symbol Manufacturing lot management number 㩷 㩷 10 Sep. 2008 Mitsubishi IPM L1/S1-Series Application Note Structure 7. Structure ex.) L1-series Small package Screw type 1.Main electrode 2.Control input terminal 11.Internal connection terminal 3.Resin 5.Case 9.Control PCB 6.Wire 1 2 Part Main electrode Control input terminal 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Resin Gel Case Wire Chip Base plate Control PCB Insulated substrate Internal connection terminal 4.Gel 8.Base plate 7.Chip 10.Insulated substrate Quality of the material Copper plated with nickel Brass plated with gold PBT resin Epoxy Silicone PPS resin Aluminum Silicon Copper Glass epoxy Ceramic Copper plated with nickel UL Flame class UL 94-V0 UL 94-V0 UL 94-V0 UL 94-V0 Note of Insulated substrate IPM has UL(Underwriters Laboratories Inc) Yellow Card #80276 (file. #80271). 11 Sep. 2008 Mitsubishi IPM L1/S1-Series Application Note Structure ex.) L1-series Mini package Screw type 1.Main electrode 10.Internal connection terminal 2.Control input terminal 8.Control PCB 3.Gel 4.Case 5.Wire 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Part Main electrode Control input terminal Gel Case Wire Chip Base plate Control PCB Insulated substrate Internal connection terminal 7.Base plate 6.Chip 9.Insulated substrate Quality of the material Copper plated with nickel Brass plated with tin Silicone PPS resin Aluminum Silicon Copper Glass epoxy Ceramic Copper plated with nickel UL Flame class UL 94-V0 UL 94-V0 Note of Insulated substrate IPM has UL(Underwriters Laboratories Inc) Yellow Card #80276 (file. #80271). 12 Sep. 2008 Mitsubishi IPM L1/S1-Series Application Note Structure ex.) L1-series Medium package 1.Main electrode 4.Case 2.Control input terminal 5.Cover 9.Control PCB 6.Wire 3.Gel 7.Chip 8.Base plate 10.Insulated substrate 1 2 Part Main electrode Control input terminal 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Gel Case Cover Wire Chip Base plate Control PCB Insulated substrate Internal connection terminal Quality of the material Copper plated with nickel Brass plated with gold PBT resin Silicone PPS resin PPS resin Aluminum Silicon Copper Glass epoxy Ceramic Copper plated with nickel 11.Internal connection terminal UL Flame class UL 94-V0 UL 94-V0 UL 94-V0 UL 94-V0 Note of Insulated substrate IPM has UL(Underwriters Laboratories Inc) Yellow Card #80276 (file. #80271). 13 Sep. 2008 Mitsubishi IPM L1/S1-Series Application Note Structure ex.) S1-series package 6.Cover 1.Main electrode 2.Control input terminal 10.Control PCB 4.Resin 7.Wire 9.Base plate 8.Chip 5.Case 3.Gel 12.Internal connection terminal 11.Insulated substrate 1 2 Part Main electrode Control input terminal 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Gel Resin Case Cover Wire Chip Base plate Control PCB Insulated substrate Internal connection terminal Quality of the material Copper plated with nickel Brass plated with gold PBT resin Silicone Epoxy PPS resin PPS resin Aluminum Silicon Copper Glass epoxy Ceramic Copper plated with nickel UL Flame class UL 94-V0 UL 94-V0 UL 94-V0 UL 94-V0 UL 94-V0 Note of Insulated substrate IPM has UL(Underwriters Laboratories Inc) Yellow Card #80276 (file. #80271). 14 Sep. 2008 Mitsubishi IPM L1/S1-Series Application Note Correct and Safety Use of Power Module 8. Correct and Safety Use of Power Module Unsuitable operation (such as electrical, mechanical stress and so on) may lead to damage of power modules. Please pay attention to the following descriptions and use Mitsubishi Electric's IGBT modules according to the guidance. Cautions During Transit Storage Prolonged Storage Operating Environment Flame Resistance Anti-electrostatic Measures Anti-electrostatic Measures x Keep sipping cartons right side up. If stress is applied by either placing a carton upside down or by leaning a box against something, terminals can be bent and/or resin packages can be damaged. x Tossing or dropping of a carton may damage devices inside. x If a device gets wet with water, malfunctioning and failure may result. Special care should be taken during rain or snow to prevent the devices from getting wet. x The temperature and humidity of the storage place should be 5a35qC and 45a75 respectively. The performance and reliability of devices may be jeopardized if devices are stored in an environment far above or below the range indicated above. x When storing devices more than one year, dehumidifying measures should be provided for the storage place. When using devices after a long period of storage, make sure to check the exterior of the devices is free from scratches, dirt, rust, and so on. x Devices should not be exposed to water, organic solvents, corrosive gases, explosive gases, fine particles, or corrosive agents, since any of those can lead to a serious accident. x Although the epoxy resin and case materials are in conformity with UL 94-V0 standards, it should be noted that those are not non-flammable. (1) Precautions against the device rupture caused by static electricity Static electricity of human bodies and cartons and/or excessive voltage applied across the gate to emitter may damage and rupture devices. The basis of anti-electro static build-up and quick dissipation of the charged electricity. * Containers that are susceptible to static electricity should not be used for transit nor for storage. * Gate to emitter should be always shorted with a carbon cloth or the like until right before a module is used. Never touch the gate terminals with bare hands. * Always ground the equipment and your body during installation (after removing a carbon cloth or the like. It is advisable to cover the workstation and it's surrounding floor with conductive mats and ground them. * It should be noted that devices may get damaged by the static electricity charged to a printed circuit board if the gate to emitter of the circuit board is open. * Use soldering irons with grounded tips. (2) Precautions when the gate to emitter is open * Voltage should not be applied across the collector to emitter when the gate to emitter is open. * The gate to emitter should be shorted before removing a device from a unit. 15 Sep. 2008 Mitsubishi IPM L1/S1-Series Application Note Correct and Safety Use of Power Module Cautions Mounting When mounting a module on a heat sink, a device could get damage or degrade if a sudden torque ("one side tightening ") is applied at only one mounting terminal, since stress is applied on a ceramic plate and silicon chips inside the module. Shown in following figure is the recommended torquing order for mounting screws. Ԝ ԙ Ԙ Ԛ ԛ Ԟ ԙ Ԙ a) Two point mounting type Temporary tightening :Ԙψԙ Final tightening :ԙψԘ Ԙ Ԛ b) four point mounting type ԘψԙψԚψԛ ԛψԚψԙψԘ ԝ ԛ ԙ ԟ c) eight point mounting type ԘψԙψԚψԛψԜψԝψԞψԟ ԘψԙψԚψԛψԜψԝψԞψԟ The recommended torquing order for mounting screws *:Temporary tightening torque should be set at 20a30 of maximum rating. Also, care must be taken to achieve maximum contact (i.e. minimum contact thermal resistance) for the best heat dissipation.) The flatness of a heat sink where a module is mounted (ref. following figure) should be as follows. Also, the surface finish should be less than Rz12s. Copper base plate module:100Pma100Pm Thermal compound with good thermal conductivity should be applied evenly about Aluminum base plate modules:100Pma200Pm on the contact surface of a module and a heat sink. Heat sink flatness: Less than ± 20 micrometers on a length of 100mm /Less than 10 micrometers of roughness Thermal grease thickness: +50a100Pm Grease on the contact surface prevents the corrosion of the contact surface. However, use the kind of grease that has a stable characteristic over the whole operating temperature range and does not change its properties for several years. A torque wrench shall be used in tightening mounting screws and tighten screws to the specified torque. Excessive torquing may result in damage or degradation of a device. Grease applied area Power Module Convex The edge line of base plate Concave Specified range of heat sink flatness Heat Sink Flatness 16 Sep. 2008 Mitsubishi IPM L1/S1-Series Application Note Reliability, Installation of power Module 9.Reliability Please refer to the URL of our web site. “http://www.mitsubishichips.com/Global/index.html” 10. Installation of power Module 10-1. Installing Capacitor During switching, voltage is induced in power circuit stray inductance by the high di/dt of the main current. This voltage can appear on the IPM and cause damage. In order to avoid this problem, guidelines that should be followed in designing the circuit layout are: Ԙ ԙ Ԛ ԛ Ԝ Located the smoothing capacitor as close as possible to the IPM Use ceramic capacitor near the IPM to bypass high frequency current Adopt low impedance electrolytic capacitor as smoothing capacitor Use snubber circuit to absorb surge voltage Decrease switching speed in order to lower di/dt. ԙ and Ԝ are the most effective to reduce surge voltage. The stray inductance of snubber circuit generally is not considered to avoid complicating the circuit. In addition, combination of ԙ, ԛ, Ԝ is needed since there is a limit on the length of wiring. The bypass capacitor of approach ԙ act as a snubber when oscillation is occurring. L1 L3 L2 small Smoothing Smoothing Load L2 L3 C L2 large vce Snubber Snubber L1 L2 L1 : Stray inductance between the electrolytic capacitor and the IPM. L2 : Stray inductance between the filter capacitor and the driver. L3 : Stray inductance between the load and the power circuit's output stage 10-2. Installation Hints When mounting IPM on a heat-sink, uneven mounting can cause the modules ceramic isolation to crack. To achieve the best thermal radiation effect, the bigger the contact area is, the smaller the thermal resistance is. Heat-sink should have a surface finish in range of Rz6 ~ Rz12, curvature within 100ȝm. Uniform coating of thermal grease between the module and heat-sink can prevent corrosion of contact parts. Select a compound, which has stable characteristics over the whole operating temperature range and does not change its properties over the life of the equipment. Use a uniform coating of thermal interface compound. The thickness of thermal grease should be ranked in 100~200ȝm according to the surface finish. Mounting screws should be tightened by using a torque wrench to the prescribed torque in progressive stages in a cross pattern. As mentioned before, over torque terminal or mounting screws may result in damage of IPM. When an electric driver is used, thermal grease with low viscosity is recommended and extra grease must be extruded before final tightening screws. * For the recommended torque order for mounting screws referring to "Installation Method" in the section of "Correct and Safety Use of Power Module" Note) Maximum torque specifications are provided in device data sheets. The type and quantity of thermal compounds having an effect on the thermal resistance are determined by consideration of both thermal grease and heat-sink. Typical value given in datasheet is measured by using thermal grease produced by Shin-Etsu Chemical Co.,Ltd. (G-746, which has not issued in Shin-Etsu's publications, is almost the same as G-747.) 17 Sep. 2008 Mitsubishi IPM L1/S1-Series Application Note Installation of power Module 10-3. Thermal Impedance Considerations & Chip Layout The junction to case thermal resistance Rth(j-c) and the case to heat-sink thermal resistance Rth(c-f) are given in datasheet. The case temperature has been measured at the just under the chip. The chip location is given with a data sheet. Chip Chip 㪫㪿㪼㫉㫄㫆㩷㪺㫆㫌㫇㫃㪼㩷㪘㩷 㪫㪺㩿㫁㫌㫊㫋㩷㫌㫅㪻㪼㫉㩷㫋㪿㪼㩷㪺㪿㫀㫇㪀 plate Base plate Heat-sink Heat-sink 㪫㪿㪼㫉㫄㫆㩷㪺㫆㫌㫇㫃㪼㩷㪙㩷 㪫㪽 Processes aa ditch ditch Processes 㨯Note *The thermal impedance depends on the material, area and thickness of heat-sink. The smaller the area and the thinner the heat-sink is, the lower the impedance is for the same material. *The type and quantity of thermal compounds can affect the thermal resistance. 㩷 Thermal resistance of IPM L1-series Thermal resistance 600V type Type Name PM50RL1C060 PM50RL1A060, PM50RL1B060 PM50CL1A060, PM50CL1B060 PM75RL1A060, PM75RL1B060 PM75CL1A060, PM75CL1B060 PM100RL1A060, PM100RL1B060 PM100CL1A060, PM100CL1B060 PM150RL1A060, PM150RL1B060 PM150CL1A060, PM150CL1B060 PM200RL1A060 PM200CL1A060 PM300RL1A060 PM300CL1A060 Inverter part Just under the chip IGBT-chip FWDi-chip Rth(j-c)Q Rth(j-c) 0.74 1.28 0.44 0.75 0.44 0.75 0.37 0.63 0.37 0.63 0.32 0.52 0.32 0.52 0.25 0.41 0.25 0.41 0.20 0.30 0.20 0.30 0.15 0.23 0.15 0.23 18 Brake part Just under the chip IGBT-chip FWDi(P)-chip Rth(j-c)Q Rth(j-c) 0.74 1.28 0.44 0.75 0.44 0.75 0.44 0.75 0.38 0.64 0.32 0.53 0.24 0.39 - contact thermal resistance Rth(c-f) 0.085 0.038 0.038 0.038 0.038 0.038 0.038 0.038 0.038 0.023 0.023 0.023 0.023 Sep. 2008 Mitsubishi IPM L1/S1-Series Application Note Installation of power Module 㩷 Thermal resistance 1200V type Type Name PM25RL1C120 PM25RL1A120,PM25RL1B120 PM25CL1A120,PM25CL1B120 PM50RL1A120,PM50RL1B120 PM50CL1A120,PM50CL1B120 PM75RL1A120,PM75RL1B120 PM75CL1A120,PM75CL1B120 PM100RL1A120 PM100CL1A120 PM150RL1A120 PM150CL1A120 Inverter part Just under the chip IGBT-chip FWDi-chip Rth(j-c)Q Rth(j-c) 0.70 1.18 0.97 1.60 0.97 1.60 0.27 0.47 0.27 0.47 0.21 0.36 0.21 0.36 0.19 0.31 0.19 0.31 0.15 0.23 0.15 0.23 Brake part Just under the chip IGBT-chip FWDi(P)-chip Rth(j-c)Q Rth(j-c) 0.70 1.18 0.97 1.60 0.39 0.67 0.27 0.47 0.28 0.48 0.21 0.36 - Inverter part Just under the chip IGBT-chip FWDi-chip Rth(j-c)Q Rth(j-c) 0.40 0.68 0.33 0.55 0.28 0.46 0.21 0.35 0.18 0.27 contact thermal resistance Inverter part Just under the chip IGBT-chip FWDi-chip Rth(j-c)Q Rth(j-c) 0.37 0.59 0.25 0.41 0.20 0.32 0.18 0.27 contact thermal resistance contact thermal resistance Rth(c-f) 0.085 0.038 0.038 0.038 0.038 0.038 0.038 0.023 0.023 0.023 0.023 Thermal resistance of IPM S1-series Thermal resistance 600V type Type Name PM50CS1D060 PM75CS1D060 PM100CS1D060 PM150CS1D060 PM200CS1D060 Rth(c-f) 0.046 0.046 0.046 0.046 0.046 Thermal resistance 1200V type Type Name PM25CS1D120 PM50CS1D120 PM75CS1D120 PM100CS1D120 Rth(c-f) 0.046 0.046 0.046 0.046 㩷 19 Sep. 2008 Mitsubishi IPM L1/S1-Series Application Note Installation of power Module 10-4. Coating Method of Thermal Grease (Example) The coating method of thermal grease is introduced in this section. The thermal grease is called as grease in the following. Ԙ Preparations: power module, grease, scraper or roller, electronic mass meter and gloves ԙ Relationship between the coating amount and thickness is, Thickness of grease㧩 amount of grease 䌛g䌝 base area of module 䌛cm 2䌝u density of grease䌛g/cm 3䌝 The recommended thickness of grease is 100ȝm~200ȝm. The amount of grease can be obtained as the following example. For example : For case with size of 11089(PM100CSD060), the amount of Shin-Etsu Chemical Co.,Ltd. grease G-746 can be calculated through the equation below. 100㨪200ȝm㧩 amount of grease䌛g䌝 97.9䌛cm 2 䌝 u 2.66䌛g/cm 3 䌝 ѕThe amount needed isѳ2.6~5.2㨇g㨉 Ԛ ԛ Ԝ ԝ Measure the mass of module Measure the grease with the same amount as calculated Coating the module base uniformly by using scraper or roller Mask print of grease. Finally it is fulfilled to uniformly cover thermal grease on the module base with specified thickness. Thermal Compounds Manufacturer Shin-Etsu Chemical Co., Ltd. Momentive Performance Materials Type KS-613, G-747, else YG6260, YG6260V UNIVERSAL ALCAN JOINTING-COMPOUND For more information, please refer to manufacturers. Note For non-insulation type ALCAN UNIVERSAL JOINTING-COMPOUND is grease for the aluminum conductor connection. The purpose of grease is electricity and a contact resistance decline by the contact-ability improvement and the corrosion control of the aluminum surface. It seems that there is long-range use experience but because we are not the one of the purpose to improve a heat conduction at the contacted part, the contact thermal resistance reductional effect cannot look forward to it too much. When employing these, the more enough radiation design becomes necessary. 20 Sep. 2008 Mitsubishi IPM L1/S1-Series Application Note Installation of power Module 10-5. Connecting the Interface circuit The input pins of Mitsubishi Intelligent Power Modules are design to be connected directly to a printed circuit board. Noise pick up can be minimized by building the interface circuit on the PCB near the input pins of the module. L1B,L1C type modules have tin plated control and power pins that are designed to be soldered directly to the PCB. L1A, S1D type modules have gold plated pins that are design to be connected to the PCB using an inverse mounted header receptacle. It is the special connector of IPM which secured an electrical clearance among the terminals (U-V, V-W, W-U of P-side and N). The terminal with gold plate is recommended from the viewpoint of contact reliability. IPM type PM50RL1C060 PM25RL1C120 Connection method and type name of connector Main terminal Connect by solder. PM50RL1B060, PM50CL1B060 PM75RL1B060, PM75CL1B060 PM100RL1B060, PM100CL1B060 PM150RL1B060, PM150CL1B060 Control terminal Connect by solder. PM25RL1B120, PM25CL1B120 PM50RL1B120, PM50CL1B120 PM75RL1B120, PM75CL1B120 PM50RL1A060, PM50CL1A060 PM75RL1A060, PM75CL1A060 PM100RL1A060, PM100CL1A060 PM150RL1A060, PM150CL1A060 PM200RL1A060, PM200CL1A060 PM300RL1A060, PM300CL1A060 PM25RL1A120, PM25CL1A120 PM50RL1A120, PM50CL1A120 PM75RL1A120, PM75CL1A120 PM100RL1A120, PM100CL1A120 PM150RL1A120, PM150CL1A120 PM50CS1D060, PM75CS1D060 PM100CS1D060, PM150CS1D060 PM200CS1D060 PM25CS1D120, PM50CS1D120 PM75CS1D120, PM100CS1D120 Main terminal Connect by screw (screw:M5). Control terminal Connect by connector. DF10-31S-2DSA(68), or DF10-31S-2DSA(62) (HIROSE ELECTRIC CO., LTD) Main terminal Connect by screw (screw:M4). Control terminal Connect by connector. MDF7-25S-2.54DSA(31), or MDF7-25S-2.54DSA(32) (HIROSE ELECTRIC CO., LTD) 21 Sep. 2008 Mitsubishi IPM L1/S1-Series Application Note Installation of power Module 10-6. Terminal of IPM (1) The material of control terminal of IPM (L1-series RL1A, CL1A type /S1-series) As a reference of the connector selection, the material and the metal finishing of the control terminal on the side of IPM are shown below. Main material Brass The specification Substrate of the plating Surface Nickel (Ni) thickness= 1 ~ 5 um Gold (Au) thickness= 0.05 ~ 0.2 um (2) The material of control terminal of IPM (L1-series RL1B, CL1B type) As a reference of the connector selection, the material and the metal finishing of the control terminal on the side of IPM are shown below. Main material Brass The specification Substrate of the plating Surface Nickel (Ni) thickness= 1 ~ 6 um Tin (Sn) thickness= 4 ~ 10 um (3) The material of control terminal of IPM (L1-series RL1C type) As a reference of the connector selection, the material and the metal finishing of the control terminal on the side of IPM are shown below. Main material Brass The specification Substrate of the plating Surface Nickel (Ni) thickness= 0.5 ~ 1 um Tin (Sn) thickness= 2 ~ 6 um (4) The material of main terminal of IPM As a reference of the connector selection, the material and the metal finishing of the main terminal on the side of IPM are shown below. Main material Copper The specification Surface of the plating Nickel (Ni) thickness= 2 ~ 6 um 22 Sep. 2008 Mitsubishi IPM L1/S1-Series Application Note Installation of power Module (5) The main terminal of IPM The structure of main terminal of IPM are shown bellow. Screw Bus (output) Wiring IPM Nut C Main terminal of IPM B A Screw Deepness of Screw Hole Mark A (mm) Thickness of IPM Nut Mark B (mm) Thickness of Main Terminal Mark C (mm) L1-series RL1A/CL1A M5 Typ. 9.5/ min. 9.0 Typ. 4.0 Typ. 0.8 S1-series M4 Typ. 6.5/ min. 6.0 Typ. 3.3 Typ. 0.8 Package (6) The guide pin of IPM The guide pin on both sides of the control terminal of IPM is metal. The guide pin is molded by plastic, and isolated. 23 Sep. 2008 Mitsubishi IPM L1/S1-Series Application Note Using IPM 11. Using IPM 11-1. Instruction of the symbol of a terminal of IPM No Name Symbol Equivalent Circuit 1 Power VD -supply VUP1 Control IC V*P1 VVP1 VWP1 + Operation (description) P U,V,W VN1 + N 2 Ground VNC Control IC U,V,W VNC VUPC VVPC VWPC N Control IC P V*PC 3 Control -signal UP VP WP UN VN WN PC U,V,W Input terminals for controlling IPM switching operation. Operates by voltage input signals. Internally connected to comparator. In usual applications, external pull-up resistor is connected to control power supply, and external opto-coupler for insulation purpose is also connected. As these terminals are susceptive of noise, design a shortest route in pattern layout and also take care for wiring. Connect a capacitor having good frequency characteristics between power supply and GND. This terminal is used with RXX series. The purpose of this terminal is to prevent increase in P-N voltage, which is caused by regenerative current produced when AC motor decelerates. In usual applications, external pull-up resistor is connected to control power supply, and external opto-coupler for insulation purpose is also connected. This terminal has the same structure as control signal terminals, accordingly are susceptive of noise. Take similar measures. VCIN GND 4 Brake Control -signal Br PC Power supply terminals for control IC and driving IGBT. Supply power commonly to lower arms and individual, insulated power to upper arms. For 6in1 and 7in1 types, 4 independent power supplies are required; three to upper arms and one to lower arm. UV lock-out functions if power is 12.5VDC or lower. Control signals are not effective for operation under this condition. Fo signal is output. If power is 16.5VDC or higher, operation is not guaranteed under short circuit condition. This is due to IGBT gate characteristics. Typical value is 15VDC. In order to prevent malfunction caused by noise and ripples in supply voltage, connect a smoothing capacitor of favorable frequency characteristics very close to IC terminals. Ground for reference power supply for lower arms. This ground is common to each of three phase for 6- or 7-element types. This is also the ground of control power supply. Bus line current should not be allowed to flow through this terminal to avoid noise influences. PCB pattern should not be such that connects this terminal and N. This terminal is internally connected to inverter ground N. Difference in electric potential between N and VNC may occur in practical operation. Grounds for reference power supply for upper arm of each phase. Lower power supply impedance as much as possible for greater resistance to noise. Insulate each phase of U, V and W. VCIN GND 24 Sep. 2008 Mitsubishi IPM L1/S1-Series Application Note Using IPM 5 Fault -output FO This is the output indicating faulty state of IPM. Faulty modes are classified into overheat, load (arm) short circuit, control power supply under voltage protection. This output does not make distinction of these modes, however. The terminal is an open collector with resistor connected in series. It is possible to directly insert a opto-coupler (or LED) between this terminal and VD. Power supply terminal to inverter. In usual applications, connect this terminal to positive (+) line after rectifying AC line. Internally connected to collector of upper arm IGBT. In order to suppress surge voltage caused by inductance component of PCB pattern, connect a smoothing capacitor very close to P and N terminals. It is also effective to add a film capacitor of good frequency characteristics. VD PC + 1.5k FO GND 6 Inverter Power -supply P P U,V,W N 7 Inverter -ground N Power supply ground of inverter. In usual applications, connect this terminal to ground (-) line after rectifying AC line. Make connection so that bus line current flows through this terminal. Internally connected to emitter of lower arm IGBT. This terminal is also connected to reference control ground VNC. Difference in electric potential between VNC and N may occur in practical operation due to IPM’s internal parasitic inductance. P U,V,W VNC N 8 Output U V W Inverter output terminal. A load such as AC motor is connected in usual applications. Take care for generation of surge voltage. Internally connected to mid point of IGBT modules (IPM) of half-bridge configuration. P U,V,W N 9 Brake -output B P B N 25 This terminal is used with RXX series. The purpose of this terminal is to prevent increase in P-N voltage, which is caused by regenerative current produced when AC motor decelerates. In usual applications, power dissipating resistor (brake resistor) is connected between this terminal and upper arm. Since this terminal is designed taking into account regenerative current produced when AC motor is decelerates, the current rating of this terminal is about 50% of that of IGBT chip used for U, V, and W. This terminal cannot endure use involving special control that allows a large current to flow. Sep. 2008 Mitsubishi IPM L1/S1-Series Application Note Using IPM 11-2. Function of the IPM Function Drive Symbol - Short circuit Current Protection SC Over Temperature Protection OT Under-Voltage Lockout Protection UV Controlled Shutdown Fault Output FO Description · Off-level input signal (VCIN >VCIN(off) ) drives IGBT off, and on-level input signal (VCIN <VCIN(on) ) drives IGBT on. · IPM monitors forward collector current of each IGBT by current sensor built in IGBT chip. If the current exceeds SC trip level, IPM identifies it as short circuit and off the IGBT performing soft shutdown. · In case that an IGBT on lower arm have short-circuit, IPM turn off all lower IGBTs (UN,VN,WN and Br) performing controlled shutdown. · IPM submits fault output if IGBT has short-circuit. The fault signal is output for the duration of tFO when IPM detecting a short circuit state, reduces the gate voltage to halfway. · If there is no more short-circuit state while the input signal (VCIN) is at off level, IPM resets itself from the short-circuit protection condition with the falling edge of the next input signal, and then the IGBT switching operation resets. · IPM monitors each IGBT chip surface temperature. If the temperature exceeds SC trip level, IPM identifies it as short circuit and off the IGBT performing soft shutdown. · IPM identified to be in over temperature state when the base plate temperature exceeds OT lever until it drops OT reset level. · IPM submits and holds on fault output of over temperature when OT trip level is exceeded and until the temperature falls to OT reset level. · If there is no more over temperature state with IGBT while the input signal (VCIN) is at off level, IPM reset itself from the over temperature protection with the falling edge of the next input signal, and then the IGBT switching operation restarts. · IPM monitors control power supply voltage of each arm. If the control power supply exceeds UV trip level and continues with it for a certain duration, IPM turns off IGBT, performing soft shutdown as long as the under voltage condition lasts. · In case of lower arm’s UV operation, IPM turns off all lower arm’s IGBTs (UN, VN, WN and B), performing soft shutdown. · IPM identified to be in under voltage state when the control power supply voltage drops UV trip level until it goes up to UV reset level. · IPM submits and holds on fault output of under voltage after tdUV until supply voltage returns to UV reset level. · If there is no more under voltage state with IGBT while the input signal (VCIN) is at off level, IPM reset itself from the under voltage protection with the falling edge of the next input signal, and then the IGBT switching operation restarts. · In all case of protective turn off operation, IPM reduces the IGBT’s gate voltage gradually to final off level in order to reduce the turn-off surge voltage at large current-off. · Fo terminal conducts to VNC terminal over 1ms when SC,OT or UV protection of lower arm is enabled. A resistor (1.5k) is connected inside IPM in series. Dead time (tdead) In order to prevent arm shoot through a dead time between high and low side input ON signals is required to be included in the system control logic. The tdead measured directly on the IPM input terminals IPM’ input signal VCIN (Upper Arm) IPM’ input signal VCIN (Lower Arm) 0V 2V 1.5V 0V 2V 1.5V 1.5V tdead tdead 2V tdead t t 1.5V: Input on threshold voltage Vth(on) typical value, 2V: Input off threshold voltage Vth(off) typical value 26 Sep. 2008 Mitsubishi IPM L1/S1-Series Application Note Using IPM 11-3. Area of Safe Operation for Intelligent Power Modules The IPMs built-in gate drive and protection circuits protect it from many of the operating modes that would violate the Safe Operation Area (SOA) of non-intelligent IGBT modules. A conventional SOA definition that characterizes all possible combinations of voltage, cur-rent, and time that would cause power device failure is not required. In order to define the SOA for IPMs, the power device capability and control circuit operation must both be considered. The resulting easy to use short circuit and switching SOA definitions for Intelligent Power Modules are summarized in this section. (1) Switching SOA Switching or turn-off SOA is normally defined in terms of the maximum allowable simultaneous volt-age and current during repetitive turn-off switching operations. In the case of the IPM the built-in gate drive eliminates many of the dangerous combinations of voltage and current that are caused by improper gate drive. In addition, the maximum operating current is limited by the over current protection circuit. Given these constraints the switching SOA can be defined using the waveform shown in following figure. This waveform shows that the IPM will operate safely as long as the DC bus voltage is below the data sheet VCC(prot) specification, the turn-off transient voltage across C-E terminals of each IPM switch is maintained below the VCES specification, Tj is less than 125°C, and the control power supply voltage is between 13.5V and 16.5V. In this waveform IOC is the maximum cur-rent that the IPM will allow without causing an Over Current (OC) fault to occur. In other words, it is just below the OC trip level. This waveform defines the worst case for hard turn-off operations because the IPM will initiate a controlled slow shutdown for currents higher than the OC trip level. Switching SOA (2) Short Circuit SOA The waveform in following figure depicts typical short circuit operation. The standard test condition uses a minimum impedance short-circuit which causes the maximum short circuit current to flow in the device. In this test, the short circuit current (ISC) is limited only by the device characteristics. The IPM is guaranteed to survive non-repetitive short circuit and over current conditions as long as the initial DC bus volt-age is less than the VCC(prot)specification, all transient voltages across C-E terminals of each IPM switch are maintained less than the VCES specification, Tj is less than125°C, and the control supply volt-age is between 13.5V and 16.5V.The waveform shown depicts the controlled slow shutdown that is used by the IPM in order to help minimize transient voltages. Note: The condition VCE, VCES has to be carefully checked for each IPM switch. For easing the design an-other rating is given on the datasheets, VCC(surge), i.e., the maximum allowable switching surge voltage applied between the P and N terminals. SC SOA 27 Sep. 2008 Mitsubishi IPM L1/S1-Series Application Note Using IPM (3) Active Region SOA Like most IGBTs, the IGBTs used in the IPM are not suitable for linear or active region operation. Normally device capabilities in this mode of operation are described in terms of FBSOA (Forward Biased Safe Operating Area). The IPM’s internal gate drive forces the IGBT to operate with a gate voltage of either zero for the off state or the control supply voltage (VD) for the on state. The IPMs under-voltage lock out prevents any possibility of active or linear operation by automatically turning the power device off if VD drops to a level that could cause desaturation of the IGBT. 11-4. Fault Signal of IPM IPM (Intelligent Power Modules) have sophisticated built-in protection circuits that prevent the power devices from being damaged should the system malfunction or be over stressed. Control supply under-voltage(UV), over temperature(OT), and short-circuit(SC) protection are all provided by the IPM's internal gate control circuits. A fault output signal is provided to alert the system controller if any of the protection circuits are activated. Following Fig9.7 is a block diagram showing the IPMs internally integrated functions. UV protection OT protection SC protection UVr UVt VD Signal input Fo output Fo Fo Fo 16 Fo OTr Tj VGE SCt Ic Fig.9.7 Timing chart of Control and protection of IPM Control Supply Under-Voltage (UV) The IPM’s internal control circuits operate from an isolated 15V DC supply. If, for any reason, the voltage of this supply drops below the specified under-voltage trip level (UVt), the power devices will be turned off and a fault signal will be generated. Small glitches less than the specified tdUV(<10us) in length will not affect the operation of the control circuitry and will be ignored by the under voltage protection circuit. In order for normal operation to resume, the supply voltage must exceed the under voltage reset level (UVr). Operation of the under-voltage protection circuit will also occur during power up and power down of the control supply. This operation is normal and the system controller's program should take the fault output delay (tFo) into account. Note) 1. Application of the main bus voltage at a rate greater than 20V/ms before the control power supply is on and stabilized may cause destruction of the power devices. 2. Voltage ripple on the control power supply with dv/dt in excess of 5V/us may cause a false trip of the UV lockout. 28 Sep. 2008 Mitsubishi IPM L1/S1-Series Application Note Using IPM Over Temperature (OT) The IPM has a temperature sensor mounted on surface of IGBT chips. If the temperature of the IGBT chips exceeds the over temperature trip level (OT) the IPMs internal control circuit will protect the power devices by disabling the gate drive and ignoring the control input signal until the over temperature condition has subsided. The fault output will remain as long as the over temperature condition exists. When the temperature falls below the over temperature reset level (OTr), and the control input is high (off-state) the power device will be enabled and normal operation will resume at the next low (on) input signal. Note) 1. Tripping of the over-temperature protection is an indication of stressful operation. Repetitive tripping should be avoided. Short Circuit (SC) If a load short circuit occurs or the system controller malfunctions causing a shoot through, the IPMs built in short circuit protection will prevent the IGBTs from being damaged. When the current, through the IGBT exceeds the short circuit trip level (SC), an immediate controlled shutdown is initiated and a fault output is generated. Note) 1. Tripping of the over current and short circuit protection indicates stressful operation of the IGBT. Repetitive tripping should be avoided. 2. High surge voltages may occur during emergency shutdown. Low inductance bus-work and snubbers are recommended. The operating-sequence of the UV protection a1 : The normal operation=IGBT ON a2 : The decline of control power supply voltage (UVt) a3 : IGBT OFF (Even if the input signal is in on state) a4 : The rise of control power supply (UVr) a5 : The normal operation=IGBT ON input signal (Low=on)㩷 Condition of protection circuit㩷 Control power supply voltage㩷 SET a4 UVr V D㩷 UVt a1 Output current 㩷 RESE T a2 a5 a3 I(A )㩷 Fo signal 㩷 29 Sep. 2008 Mitsubishi IPM L1/S1-Series Application Note Using IPM The operating-sequence of the OT protection a1 : The normal operation=IGBT ON a2 : The overheating detection (OTt) a3 : IGBT OFF (Even if it makes an input signal to be on) a4 : The overheating detection reset (OTr) a5 : The normal operation=IGBT ON input signal (Low=ON) Condition of protection circuit RESET SET OT Junction temperature Tj a2 OTr a4 a3 a1 a5 Output current I(A) Fo signal The operating-sequence of the SC protection a1 : The normal operation=IGBT ON a2 : Short current detection (SCt) a3 : IGBT gate is blocked softly. a4 : IGBT turn off gradually. a5 : Fo timer start (tFo=1.8ms typ.) a6 : Input signal “H”=OFF a7 : Input signal “L”=ON a8 : IGBT maintains off. (When a6~a7 occurs at the time which is shorter than tA) input signal Low=ON a6 Condition of protection circuit a7 SET RESET Gate of IGBT a3 a2 a1 SC a4 Output current a8 I(A) Fo signal a5 tA Although IPM has internal protection circuit, it is recommended to ensure the stress which exceeds a maximum rating does not happen repeatedly. Therefore, if received Fo signal, please stop the control signal and stop the operation of IPM. Because IPM doesn't exclude extraordinary cause, it has to be stopped by the system. 30 Sep. 2008 Mitsubishi IPM L1/S1-Series Application Note Using IPM 11-5. Interface Circuit Requirements The IGBT power switches in the IPM are controlled by a low level input signal. The active low control input will keep the power devices off when it is held high. Typically the input pin of the IPM is pulled high with a resistor connected to the positive side of the control power supply. An on signal is then generated by pulling the control input low. The fault output is an open collector with its maximum sink cur-rent internally limited. When a fault condition occurs the open collector device turns on allowing the fault output to sink current from the positive side of the control supply. Fault and on/off control signals are usually transferred to and from the sys-tem controller using isolating inter-face circuits. Isolating interfaces allow high and low side control signals to be referenced to a common logic level. The isolation is usually provided by opto-couplers. However, fiber optics, pulse transformers, or level shifting circuits could be used. The most important consideration in interface circuit design is layout. Shielding and careful routing of printed circuit wiring is necessary in order to avoid coupling of dv/dt noise into control circuits. Parasitic capacitance between high side interface circuits, high and low side interface circuits, or primary and secondary sides of the isolating de-vices can cause noise problems. Careful layout of control power supply and isolating circuit wiring is necessary. The following is a list of guidelines that should be followed when designing interface circuits. Interface Circuit layout Guidelines a) Maintain maximum interface isolation. Avoid routing printed circuit board traces from primary and secondary sides of the isolation device near to or above and below each other. Any layout that increases the primary to secondary capacitance of the isolating interface can cause noise problems. b) Maintain maximum control power supply isolation. Avoid routing printed circuit board traces from UP, VP, WP, and N-side supplies near to each other. High dv/dts exist between these supplies and noise will be coupled through parasitic capacitances. If isolated power supplies are derived from a common trans-former inter winding capacitance should be minimized. c) Keep printed circuit board traces between the interface circuit and IPM short. Long traces have a tendency to pickup noise from other parts of the circuit. d) Use recommended decoupling capacitors for power supplies and opto-couplers. Fast switching IGBT power circuits generate dv/dt and di/dt noise. Every precaution should be taken to protect the control circuits from coupled noise. e) Use shielding. Printed circuit board shield layers are helpful for controlling coupled dv/dt noise. f) High speed opto-couplers with high common mode rejection (CMR) should be used for signal input: tPLH, tPHL < 0.8us CMR > 10kV/s @ VCM = 1500V Appropriate opto-coupler types are TLP-559(IGM), TLP-759(IGM) (TOSHIBA), HCPL-4506(AVAGO) and PS9613(NEC). Usually high-speed opto couple require a “0.1F” decoupling capacitor close to the opto coupler. g) Select the control input pull up resistor with a low enough value to avoid noise pick-up by the high impedance IPM input and with a high enough value that the high speed opto transistor can still pull the IPM safely below the recommended maximum VCIN(on). h) If some IPM switches are not used in actual application their control power supply must still be applied. The related signal input terminals should be pull up by resistors to the control power supply (VD) to keep the unused switches safely in off-state. i) Unused fault outputs must be tied high in order to avoid noise pick up and unwanted activation of internal protection circuits. Unused fault outputs should be connected directly to the +15V of local isolated control power supply. 31 Sep. 2008 Mitsubishi IPM L1/S1-Series Application Note Using IPM 11-6. Control Power supply of IPM (1) The control power supply The control supply voltage range should be within the limits shown in the specifications. Control supply voltage VD(V) 0~4.0 Operation behavior It is almost the same as no power supply. External noise may cause IPM malfunction (turns ON). Supply under-voltage protection will not operate and no Fo signal will be asserted. 4.0~12.5 Even if control input signals are applied, IGBT does not work Supply under-voltage protection starts operation and outputs Fo signals. 12.5~13.5 Switching operation works. However, this value is below the recommended one, VCE(sat) and switching time will be out of the specified values, it may increase collector dissipation and junction temperature. 13.5~16.5 Recommended values. 16.5~20 20.0~ Switching operation works. This range, however, is over the recommended value, thus, too fast switching speed might cause the chips to be damaged The control circuit will be destroyed. Specifications for Ripple Noise High frequency noise super imposed on the control IC supply line might cause IC malfunction and cause an Fo signal output, and results IPM stop (interrupt gates). To avoid such malfunction, the supply circuit should be designed such that the noise fluctuation is smaller than +/- 5V/us, and the ripple voltage is less than 2V. Specification: dv d r5V / us , Vripple d 2Vp p dt When the noise on the power supply line is a high frequency (pulse-width<about 50ns,pulse-vibration<about 5V) which does not cause an Fo output from IPM, the noise can be ignored. The power supply should be a low impedance, be careful of the pattern layout. Connect a bypass condenser with good frequency response and a smoothing condenser close to the terminals of IPM. It is effective for the prevention of the malfunction. Control Supply Starting up and Shutting Down Sequence Control supply VD should be started up prior to the main supply (P-N supply). Control supply VD should be shut down after the main supply (P-N supply). If the main supply had been started up before the control supply, or if the main supply remains after control supply was shut down, external noise might cause the IPM malfunction. As for the P-side, use the control power supply which was insulated in each of all of the 2 aspects. As for the N-side , because the GND in 2 aspects and the converter part is common, a common power can be used for the three control sources in amount. 32 Sep. 2008 Mitsubishi IPM L1/S1-Series Application Note Using IPM 11-7. Applications of IPM L1/S1-series to Motor drive (ex. 7in1 PM**RL1A060, PM**RL1A120) P 20k ≥10μ VUP1 → VD UFo IF 1.5k Vcc Fo UP OT OUT VUPC + – Si In U GND GND ≥0.1μ VVP1 VFo VD 1.5k OT OUT Fo VP Si In VVPC V GND GND VWP1 WFo Vcc 1.5k Vcc OT OUT Fo VD WP Si In VWPC W GND GND 20k → OUT Si Fo UN In GND GND ≥0.1μ 20k → OT Vcc ≥10μ IF M N OT Vcc ≥10μ IF Fo VN OUT Si In GND GND ≥0.1μ 20k → VD VN1 IF IF 5V In GND GND VNC 4.7k → Fo Fo In 1.5k B OT Vcc Br 1k OUT Si Fo WN ≥0.1μ OT Vcc ≥10μ OUT Si GND GND : Interface which is the same as the U-phase Notes for stable and safe operation; ٨ Design the PCB pattern to minimize wiring length between opto-coupler and IPM's input terminal, and also to minimize the stray capacity between the input and output wirings of opto -coupler. ٨ Connect low impedance capacitor between the Vcc and GND terminal of each fast switching opto -coupler. ٨ Fast switching opto -couplers : tpLH, tpHL҇0.8 us, Use High CMR type. ٨ Slow switching opto -coupler : CTR㧪100% ٨ Use 3 isolated control power supplies ( VD ). Also, care should be taken to minimize the instantaneous voltage charge of the power supply. ٨ Make inductance of DC bus line as small as possible, and minimize surge voltage using snubber capacitor between P and N terminal. ٨ Use line noise filter capacitor ( ex. 4.7nF) between each input AC line and ground to reject common -mode noise from AC line and improve noise immunity of the system. 33 Sep. 2008 Mitsubishi IPM L1/S1-Series Application Note Using IPM 11-8. Interface of control side of IPM IPM (Intelligent Power Modules) is easy to operate. The integrated drive and protection circuits require only an isolated power supply and a low level on/off control signal. A fault output is provided for monitoring the operation of the module internal protection circuits. (1) Circuit and circuit constant of the IPM interface circuit The parts of connecting IPM and controller (CPU) are required to use following parts. • Input terminal (1) High speed opto-coupler, (2) Pull-up resistor (3) Condenser (Ceramic condenser for the ripple removal and electrolytic condenser for the power stabilization) • Fo terminal (4) Low(high) speed opto-coupler • Control power supply (5) The mutually insulated stabilized power source of +15 V (The negative power as it uses in IGBT-MOD is unnecessary.) Example of constant value of the IPM interface circuit Symbol Name Recommend Value Note Rin Pull-up resistor 20kȍ All input terminal (include Br) C1 Smoothing capacitor < 10uF It is necessary that the charge and discharge electric current and the dv/dt electric current to IPM(IGBT Cp Bypass condenser < 0.1 ~ 1uF gate) can be sufficiently absorbed. PC Opto-coupler High CMR, CTR ex.) TLP-559(IGM), PS9613 etc (2) IPM Internal circuit diagram and interface circuit 15V Control power spply C1 ҈10u 4KP M IPM Vcc High speed opto-coupler Vcin Cp 0.1u~1uF 100pF GND Fo 1.5k .QYURGGFQRVQEQWRNGT (3) IPM Control terminals The IGBT power switches in the IPM are controlled by a low level input signal. The active low control input will keep the power devices off when it is held high. Typically the input pin of the IPM is pulled high with a resistor connected to the positive side of the control power supply. An ON signal is then generated by pulling the control input low. The recommended value of the pull-up resistor is 20 kȍ but it can be smaller for the noise countermeasure and so on. However, if the pull-up resistor is set too small, it will affect the lifetime of the opto-coupler, please confirm the characteristics with lifetime and so on in the opto-coupler manufacturer. The inside of the control input terminal is connected to the comparator and is with high impedance. When IPM (IGBT) is turn-off , the output impedance of the opto-coupler becomes high. Total impedance of the circuit which connect the interface circuit is equal to a resistance of about 20Kȍ. 34 Sep. 2008 Mitsubishi IPM L1/S1-Series Application Note Using IPM (4) Example of opto coupler The example of the opto-coupler recommended for IPM is shown below. High speed opto coupler High speed opto couplers are connected to the control input terminals of IPM. When choosing opto coupler, pay attention to the parameters of response time (tpLH, tpHL) and CMR. Choose the opto coupler that the value of tpLH, tPHL is less than 0.8us, and with high CMR. Especially, ensure that the phenomena such as the ringing not occur. For example) PS9613 (NEC) TLP559 (IGM), TLP759 (IGM) (Toshiba) HCPL-4503, HCPL-4504, HCPL-4506 (Avogo TECHNOLOGIES) The opto-coupler manufacturer sometimes has the IPM exclusive-goods ( another form name ) which sorted out a characteristic. Please inquire the opto-coupler of IPM compatible for the malfunction prevention when order. Low speed opto coupler Low speed opto coupler is connected Fo terminal of IPM. When choosing opto coupler, pay attention to the parameter of CTR. Choose the opto coupler that the value of CTR is equal to or more than 100 %. For example) TLP-521 (Toshiba) PS2502 (NEC) Please inquire the manufacturer that the opto-coupler has or has not problem when work under your environmental condition. 35 Sep. 2008 Mitsubishi IPM L1/S1-Series Application Note Using IPM (5) Notice of using opto coupler The opto coupler can isolate the primary side and secondary side. But, this is not correct at the high frequency. Because, opto coupler have a parasitic capacity between primary side and secondary side. When high dv/dt is impressed, the pulse electric current flows from the primary side to the secondary side via the parasitic capacity of opto coupler. This current sometimes turn on the opto coupler. Therefore, it is important to design a circuit so that the LED will not turn on erroneously by this dv/dt. When the input signal is OFF, make sure the circuit that the LED of primary side of opto coupler is with low-impedance. The LED is ON and outputs extraordinarily ON signal. IPM OFF Parastic capacity dv/dt current The example of a circuitry which is not good IPM The example of the circuit to recommend The recommended circuit doesn't make malfunction (LED of primary side of opto coupler is ON) because the dv/dt current can not turn ON the LED of primary side of opto coupler. Please consult the application-note of the opto coupler for the detailed instruction of the circuit around the opto coupler. 36 Sep. 2008 Mitsubishi IPM L1/S1-Series Application Note Using IPM 11-9. Other notice of using IPM (1) The treatment of the terminal not to use Type CL1A,CL1B have B terminal. These terminal aren’t connected to the circuit. The pattern can be connected with this terminal. However, pay attention to the wiring. When connecting a pattern with these terminals, the noise might invades IPM via the terminals. Please just leave these terminals open. If any phase of the IPM is not used, the corresponded control power supply in the circuit will not use. Please pull-up the corresponded input terminals and make IGBT off. This is to prevent the erroneous turn on of the circuit by noise. (2) The connection of the control side GND(VNC/V*PC) and output emitter GND (N or U/V/W) Do not connect the control side GND and the output emitter GND on the printed circuit board. Otherwise It will be easy to undergo influence by the noise. VNC and the N terminal are connected inside IPM. If connecting VNC and N terminal, the current which should flow through N sometimes flows to VNC. Then, the electric potential difference occurs between N and VNC by parasitic inductance inside and might cause IC malfunction. 㧵㧼㧹 㧵㧼㧹 㨂㧰㧰 㨂㧰㧰 㧵㧺 The course 㔚ᵹ⚻〝 of the current 㧵㧺 The course 㔚ᵹ⚻〝 of the current 㨂㧼㧯 㨂㧼㧯 㨂㧰㧰 㨂㧰㧰 㧵㧺 㧵㧺 㨂㧺㧯 㨂㧺㧯 ㅅ㔚ᵹߦࠃࠆࡁࠗ࠭ The noise which occurs with stray -current ࿁〝㔚ᵹߩߺࠍᵹߔࠃ߁ߦ 㪣㪸㫐㫆㫌㫋㩷㫋㫆㩷㫇㪸㫊㫊㩷㫆㫅㫃㫐㩷㪸㩷㪺㫀㫉㪺㫌㫀㫋㩷㪺㫌㫉㫉㪼㫅㫋㪅 ࡄ࠲ࡦࠍࠗࠕ࠙࠻ߔࠆ (3) The circuit structure inside The IPM is built up with IGBT chip, FWDi chip, Control IC and the other discreet parts(R, C). Gate of IGBT chip is MOS structure. However, The gate of IGBT chip doesn’t directly connect to the control terminal of IPM. VD, Input, Fo and GND terminal are connected to the control IC. It is possible to consider the terminal of IPM to be a bipolar structure. The countermeasure against static electricity like conventional IC with MOS structure is unnecessary to IPM. (The handling of IPM is equal to that of a bipolar IC.) VCC VCC IN IN C C Control IC IGBT FWDi FWDi Driver Driver Fo Fo E GND GND (4) The parallel operation The IPM is not recommended for parallel operation. Because the balance of the switching time and the current are not identical, the IPM with larger loss might be thermally damaged because it isn't possible to do the protection-coordination of each IPM. 37 Sep. 2008 Mitsubishi IPM L1/S1-Series Application Note Using IPM 11-10. The circuit current of control power supply of IPM The circuit current of control power supply of IPM is shown below. This current is average of DC and fc=20kHz. L1-series Condition : VD=15V,Tj=25°C, Unit : mA IPM L1-series 䌎-side DC 20kHz Type. Name Typ Max Typ Max PM50RL1C060 8 16 21 27 PM50RL1A/RL1B060 8 16 26 34 PM50CL1A/CL1B060 6 12 22 29 PM75RL1A/RL1B060 8 16 32 42 PM75CL1A/CL1B060 6 12 27 35 PM100RL1A060 8 16 37 48 PM100CL1A060 6 12 32 42 PM150RL1A060 8 16 51 66 PM150CL1A060 6 12 44 57 PM200RL1A060 8 16 75 98 PM200CL1A060 6 12 64 83 PM300RL1A060 8 16 99 129 PM300CL1A060 6 12 84 109 PM25RL1C120 8 16 25 33 PM25RL1A/RL1B120 8 16 32 42 PM25CL1A/CL1B120 6 12 27 35 PM50RL1A/RL1B120 8 16 50 65 PM50CL1A/CL1B120 6 12 43 56 PM75RL1A/RL1B120 8 16 70 91 PM75CL1A/CL1B120 6 12 59 77 PM100RL1A120 8 16 94 122 PM100CL1A120 6 12 80 104 PM150RL1A120 8 16 132 172 PM150CL1A120 6 12 11 5 1 5 0 Condition : VD=15V,Tj=25°C, Unit : mA IPM S1-series 䌎-side DC 20kHz Type. Name Typ Max Typ Max PM50CS1D060 6 12 20 26 PM75CS1D060 6 12 25 33 PM100CS1D060 6 12 32 42 PM150CS1D060 6 12 41 53 PM200CS1D060 6 12 52 63 PM25CS1D120 6 12 22 29 PM50CS1D120 6 12 36 47 PM75CS1D120 6 12 49 64 PM100CS1D120 6 12 65 85 P-side (1 phase) DC 20kHz Typ Max Typ Max 2 4 7 9 2 4 7 9 2 4 7 9 2 4 9 12 2 4 9 12 2 4 11 14 2 4 11 14 2 4 14 18 2 4 14 18 2 4 20 26 2 4 20 26 2 4 25 33 2 4 25 33 2 4 9 12 2 4 9 12 2 4 9 12 2 4 14 18 2 4 14 18 2 4 19 25 2 4 19 25 2 4 26 34 2 4 26 34 2 4 33 43 2 4 33 43 S1-series 38 P-side (1 phase) DC 20kHz Typ Max Typ Max 2 4 7 9 2 4 9 12 2 4 10 13 2 4 14 18 2 4 17 22 2 4 8 10 2 4 13 17 2 4 17 22 2 4 21 29 Sep. 2008 Mitsubishi IPM L1/S1-Series Application Note Using IPM The circuit current of control power supply of IPM increases with the carrier frequency. The carrier frequency dependence of the circuit current of the IPM control power supply can be approximated as a straight line like the following figure. ID (mA) Max Control input signal (Low-ON) IPM VCC Control power supply current Carrier frequency (kHz) DC 10 IN IGBT 0A Typ Gate current GND 0A CGE 20 The gate of IGBT used in IPM has an input-capacitance (Cies =CGE+CCG). The current to be charge and discharged by flowing through the gate at the timing of gate on and off. There is IPM that this current becomes 1~2 A. When IPM is turn-off, the dv/dt current from the collector of IGBT flows into the side of the control power supply. Design a control power supply in the low impedance so that this dv/dt current can be absorbed. Otherwise, The control IC of IPM might make malfunction and On signal is activated by this current resulting arm short circuit. The control power supply circuit needs a capacity that it can supply and absorb these current. Usually, such problems (maximum current, impedance) can be avoided by power supply circuit and also bypass, smoothing condenser. But, the effect of the condenser is influenced by the inductance of the wiring pattern. Determine the condenser capacity after verifying the substrate and the equipment. 39 Sep. 2008 Mitsubishi IPM L1/S1-Series Application Note Using IPM 11-11. Fo Circuit In order to keep the interface circuits simple the IPM uses a single on/off output to alert the system controller of all fault conditions. The system controller can easily determine whether the fault signal was caused by an over temperature or over current/short circuit by examining its duration. Short circuit and over current condition fault signals will be tFO (typical 1.8ms) in duration. Unused fault outputs of P-side Unused fault outputs must be properly terminated by connecting them to the “+15V” on the local control power supply. Failure to properly terminate unused fault outputs may result in unexpected tripping of the modules internal protection. When not using Fo by the P-side, protection coordination cannot be carried out to the earth fault, which goes only via the P-side. The protected operation of IPM assumes the abnormality of a non-repetition. IPM may be destroyed, if an abnormal condition is repeated and stress is added to IPM. Please make protection coordination by the system side to the abnormality caused repeatedly. 40 Sep. 2008 Mitsubishi IPM L1/S1-Series Application Note Power Loss and Junction Temperature 12. Power Loss and Junction Temperature Junction temperature can be used as an indication of IGBT module situation. This section will discuss how to calculate junction temperature and give an example based on waveform shown in Fig.12.1. Here, only power loss of IGBT part is given. The power loss of Diode can be obtained by using the same method as IGBT part. Moreover, junction temperature must never be outside of the maximum allowable value. It also has impact on the power cycle life. Fig.12.1 a㧚Power Loss In order to estimate junction temperature for thermal design, it is necessary to compute total power loss. The first step is the calculation of power loss per pulse. Two most important sources of power dissipation that must be considered are conduction losses and switching losses. (Fig.12.2) (2) Switching Losses (1) Conduction Losses The most accurate method of determining switching losses is to plot the Ic and VCE waveforms The total power dissipation during conduction is during the switching transition. Multiply the computed by multiplying the on-state saturation waveforms point by point to get an instantaneous voltage by the on-state current. power waveform. The area under the power waveform is the switching energy expressed in IC1 u VCE( sat )1 IC2 u VCE( sat )2 E( sat ) u tw1 (J) watt-seconds/pulse or J/pulse. 2 tb n Note)The above equation is a simplification of the 1 Eon IC( t ) x VCE( t )dt Pn u ( tb ta ) below one n n1 tw ' ³ E( sat ) ³ I (t ) x V C ta CE( t )dt 0 VCE(sat) VS㧚Ic characteristics at Tj=125°C is used in power loss calculation. IC VCE IC IC1 VCE ¦ n: number of partitions (divide interval between ta and tb equally into n parts, compute average power loss for each interval.) Calculation of Eoff has the same method. The total power loss of one pulse is the sum of (1) and (2). E1 E( sat ) Eon Eoff IC2 t P t Eon E (sat) tw’ tw1 Fig.12.3 Eoff Fig.12.2 41 Sep. 2008 Mitsubishi IPM L1/S1-Series Application Note Power Loss and Junction Temperature (3) Average Power Loss The average power loss per pulse is E1 (W) P1 tw 1 Fig.12.4 is approximation of Fig.12.1 by using rectangle wave. Fig.12.4 Average power loss during period of tw2 is (See Fig.12.5) E1 Pav u N (W) tw 2 N㧦pulse numbers in tw2 period Fig.12.5 Total average power loss is (See Fig.12.6) tw 2 (W) PAV Pav u T2 Fig.12.6 b. Junction Temperature Calculation Junction temperature can be calculated by using P1, Pav, and PAV that has been obtained so far. Three cases should be considered according to pulse width. (1) tw1 is short (tw1<<1ms) (2) Both of tw1 and tw2 are long(1ms<tw1<tw2<1s) (3) tw2 is longer than 1s.(tw2>1s) 42 Sep. 2008 Mitsubishi IPM L1/S1-Series Application Note Power Loss and Junction Temperature (1) tw1<<1ms In case of short on interval or low duty as in Fig.12.5, Junction temperatures rise to the highest value at the turn-off moment of tw2 while the case temperature is stationary. (See Fig.12.7) Fig.12.7 Fig.12.8 Temperature difference between junction and case can be calculated by using the following formula. ٌT(j-c)㧩Rth(j-c)PAV㧙Zth(j-c)(tw2)PAV㧗Zth(j-c)(tw2)Pav㧩Rth(j-c)PAV㧗(Pav㧙PAV)Zth(j-c)(tw2) Rth(j-c) ̖̖thermal resistance between junction and case Zth(j-c)(tw2) ̖̖thermal impedance between junction and case at tw2 moment ѕTj㧩Tc㧗ٌT(j-c) (Tc is measured by thermo-couple.) Tj(max)=150°C, therefore the allowable case temperature Tc(max) is, Tc(max)=150-ٌT(j-c). (2) 1ms<tw1<tw2<1s In this case, ripple should be considered in calculation of average power loss P1. Using approximation similar to (1) Fig.12.9 is obtained for calculation. Fig.12.9 ٌT(j-c)㧩Rth(j-c)PAV㧙Zth(tw2)PAV㧗Zth(j-c)(tw2)Pav㧙Zth(j-c)(tw1)Pav㧗Zth(j-c)(tw1)P1 㧩Rth(j-c)PAV㧗(Pav㧙PAV)Zth(j-c)(tW2)㧗(Pl㧙Pav)Zth(j-c)(tw1) Rth(j-c) ̖̖thermal resistance between junction and case ̖̖thermal impedance between junction and case at tw2 moment Zth(j-c)(tw2) Zth(j-c)(tw1) ̖̖thermal impedance between junction and case at tw1 moment ѕTj㧩Tc㧗ٌT(j-c) (Tc is measured by thermo-couple.) Tc(max)㧩150㧙ٌT(j-c) 43 Sep. 2008 Mitsubishi IPM L1/S1-Series Application Note Power Loss and Junction Temperature (3) tw2>1s In a similar way to (2), temperature change of heat-sink should be taken into consideration as well. It is necessary to know the transient heat impedance of the heat-sink. (Fig.12.9) Fig.12.9 Similarly, the temperature difference between junction and ambient can be calculated by using the following formula. ٌT(j-a)㧩Rth(j-a)PAV㧙Zth(j-a)(tw2)PAV㧗Zth(j-a)(tw2)Pav㧙Zth(j-a)(tw1)Pav㧗Zth(j-a)(tw1)P1 㧩Rth(j-a)PAV㧗(Pav㧙PAV)Zth(j-c)(tw2)㧗(P1㧙Pav)Zth(j-c)(tw1) ѕTj㧩Ta㧗ٌT(j-a) (Ta is measured by a thermometer.) c. Heat-sink Selection Fig.12.10 shows the thermal equivalent circuit when two or more modules are mounted on one heat sink. According to this equivalent circuit, the temperature of the heat sink is Tf㧩Ta㧗(PT(AV)㧗PD(AV))NxRth(f-a) Ta㧦Ambient temperature PT(AV):Average power loss of IGBT PD(AV):Average power loss of FWDi N: Arm number Rth(f-a):The heat-sink to ambient thermal resistance The case temperature Tc is, Tc㧩Tf㧗(PT(AV)㧗PD(AV))Rth(c-f) Rth(c-f)㧦The case to heat-sink thermal resistance Tc(max) can be calculated by using the below formula. ѕTc(max)㧩Ta㧗(PT(AV)㧗PD(AV))NxRth(f-a)㧗(PT(AV) 㧗PD(AV))Rth(c-f) Therefore, the heat-sink to ambient thermal resistance can be computed as TC(max) Ta (PT( AV ) PD( AV )) u Rth( c f ) Rth( f a ) (PT( AV ) PD( AV )) u N 44 Moreover, power loss of FWDi should be considered as well. In thermal design, the allowable case temperature Tc(max) is up to the smaller one of IGBT power loss and FWDi part. Fig.12.10 Thermal Calculation Model Sep. 2008 Mitsubishi IPM L1/S1-Series Application Note Average Power Loss Simplified Calculation 13. Average Power Loss Simplified Calculation (1) VVVF Inverter عApplicability Range It is applicable to total power loss calculation for selection of IGBTs used in VVVF inverters. It is not applicable in the thermal design of the device (limit design). عAssumption Condition Ԙ PWM modulation used to synthesize sinusoidal output currents in VVVF inverters ԙ PWM signal generated by comparing sinusoidal wave to triangular wave 1 D 1 D Ԛ Duty cycle of PWM among the rank of ~ (% / 100 ) D : modulation rate 2 2 ԛ Output current of ICP㨯sin x without ripple Ԝ With inductive load rate of cosǰ عCalculation Equation Duty cycle of PWM is constantly changing and its value equal to time x 1 D u sin x at the corresponding 2 moment. The output current corresponds to the output voltage change and this relationship is represented by power factor cosǰ. Therefore, the duty cycle of PWM corresponding to output current at arbitrary phase x is Output current Icp u sin x 1 D u sin( x T) PWM Duty 2 VCE(sat) and VEC at this moment are Vce(sat ) Vce(sat )(@ Icp u sin x ) Vec Vec (@( 1) u Iecp( Icp) u sin x ) Static power loss of IGBT is 1 S 1 D sin( x T) (Icp u sin x ) uVce(sat )(@ Icp u sin x ) u x dx 2S 0 2 Similarly, static power loss of FWDi is 1 2S 1 D sin( x T) (( 1) u Icp u sin x ) u ( Vec(@( 1) u Icp u sin x ) u x dx 2S S 2 On the other hand, dynamic power loss of IGBT is not dependent on the PWM duty and can be expressed as the following formula. 1 S (Psw(on)(@ Icp u sin x ) Psw(off )(@ Icp u sin x )) ufc x dx 2S 0 ³ ³ ³ As for dynamic power loss of free-wheeling diode, calculation is given by an example of ideal diode shown in Fig.13.1. 㫋㫉㫉 㪠㪼㪺 㪭㪼㪺 㫋 㪠㫉㫉 㪭㪺㪺 Fig.13.1㧚Dynamic Power Loss of FWDi 45 Sep. 2008 Mitsubishi IPM L1/S1-Series Application Note Average Power Loss Simplified Calculation Irr u Vcc u trr 4 Psw Because reverse recovery of free-wheeling diodes occurs in half cycle of the output current, the dynamic power loss of FWDi is 1 2 S Vcc u trr(@ Icp u sin x ) u fc x dx 4 1 8 ³ Irr(@ Icp u sin x) u Vcc u trr(@ Icp u sin x) u fc x dx ³ 2 S Irr(@ Icp u sin x ) u 2S S عInverter Loss Calculation Notes Divide one cycle of output current into many equal intervals, then calculate actual "PWM duty", "Output current", and "VCE(sat), VEC, and Psw responding to the current" in each interval. The power loss during one cycle is the sum of each interval. The PWM duty depends on the method of generating the signal. The output current waveform and the relationship between output current and PWM duty cycle are dependent on signal generator, load and other factors. Therefore, calculation should always be done with actual waveforms. VCE(sat) uses the value of Tj=125°C. Psw uses the value under half bridge operating case at Tj=125°C. عThermal Design Notes Ԙ It is necessary to examine the worst switching condition. ԙ Consideration of temperature variation due to current cycle should be given in thermal design. (Temperature variation rate is 30% to 35% for 60Hz case. When the output current of several Hz switches for a few seconds, it almost has equal temperature to a direct current with the same peak value continuously flowing. ) Ԛ Temperature ripple caused by switching operation should be considered especially when switching frequency is much lower than 10kHz. 46 Sep. 2008 14. 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