202132A.pdf

DATA SHEET
AAT3122
High Efficiency 1X/1.5X Fractional Charge Pump for White LED Applications
General Description
Features
The AAT3122 is a low noise, constant frequency charge
pump DC/DC converter that uses a dual mode load
switch (1X) and fractional (1.5X) conversion to increase
efficiency in white LED applications. With input voltages
ranging from 2.7V to 5.5V, the device can produce an
output current of up to 120mA. A low external parts
count (two 1µF flying capacitors and two small bypass
capacitors at VIN and OUT) makes the AAT3122 ideally
suited for small battery-powered applications.
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Skyworks' Simple Serial Control™ (S2Cwire™) interface
is used to enable, disable, and set the LED drive current
with a 32-level logarithmic scale LED brightness control.
The AAT3122 has a thermal management system to protect the device in the event of a short-circuit condition
on any of the output pins. Built-in soft-start circuitry
prevents excessive inrush current during start-up. High
switching frequency enables the use of small external
capacitors. A low shutdown current feature disconnects
the load from VIN and reduces quiescent current to less
than 1µA. The AAT3122 provides a single current source
output that can be used to drive up to six LEDs at 20mA
each. The AAT3122 is available in a Pb-free TSOPJW-12
package.
VIN Range: 2.7V to 5.5V
<1µA of Shutdown Current
1MHz Switching Frequency
Dual Mode 1X and 1.5X Charge Pump for Maximum
Efficiency
Only Four External Components
Simple Serial Control (S2Cwire) Interface
Low Noise Constant Frequency Operation
33% Less Input Current Than Doubler Charge Pumps
Small Application Circuit
Regulated Output Current
Automatic Soft Start
No Inductors
TSOPJW-12 Package
-40°C to +85°C Temperature Range
Applications
• Programmable Current Source
• White LED Backlighting
Typical Application
VIN
C1+
C1
1µF
AAT3122
C1C2+
VOUT
VBATTERY
CIN
1µF
COUT
1µF
C2
1µF
C2-
EN/SET
EN/SET
GND
D
D1
D2
D3
D4
D5
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202132A • Skyworks Proprietary Information • Products and Product Information are Subject to Change Without Notice. • July 4, 2012
D6
1
DATA SHEET
AAT3122
High Efficiency 1X/1.5X Fractional Charge Pump for White LED Applications
Pin Descriptions
Pin #
Symbol
1
2
3
4
5, 6, 7, 8
C2+
OUT
C1C1+
D
9
EN/SET
10
11
12
IN
GND
C2-
Function
Flying capacitor 2 positive terminal. Connect a 1µF capacitor between C2+ and C2-.
Charge pump output. Requires 1µF bypass capacitor to ground.
Flying capacitor 1 negative terminal.
Flying capacitor 1 positive terminal. Connect a 1µF capacitor between C1+ and C1-.
Output current source with drive capability of up to 120mA.
Input control pin. Serial data interface that controls the level of output current. See the Application
Information section of this datasheet for more details.
Input power supply. Requires 1µF bypass capacitor to ground.
Ground.
Flying capacitor 2 negative terminal.
Pin Configuration
TSOPJW-12
(Top View)
C2+
OUT
C1C1+
D
D
2
1
12
2
11
3
10
4
9
5
8
6
7
C2GND
IN
EN/SET
D
D
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202132A • Skyworks Proprietary Information • Products and Product Information are Subject to Change Without Notice. • July 4, 2012
DATA SHEET
AAT3122
High Efficiency 1X/1.5X Fractional Charge Pump for White LED Applications
Absolute Maximum Ratings1
Symbol
VIN
VOUT
VEN/SET
VEN/SET(MAX)
IOUT2
TJ
Description
Input Voltage
Charge Pump Output
EN/SET to GND Voltage
Maximum EN/SET to Input Voltage
Maximum DC Output Current
Operating Junction Temperature Range
Value
Units
-0.3 to 6.0
-0.3 to 6.0
-0.3 to 6.0
0.3
150
-40 to 150
V
V
V
V
mA
°C
Value
Units
160
625
°C/W
mW
Thermal Information3
Symbol
QJA
PD
Description
Thermal Resistance
Maximum Power Dissipation (TA = 25°C)4
1. Stresses above those listed in Absolute Maximum Ratings may cause permanent damage to the device. Functional operation at conditions other than the operating conditions
specified is not implied. Only one Absolute Maximum Rating should be applied at any one time.
2. Based on long-term current density limitation.
3. Mounted on an FR4 board.
4. Derate 6.25mW/°C above 25°C.
Skyworks Solutions, Inc. • Phone [781] 376-3000 • Fax [781] 376-3100 • sales@skyworksinc.com • www.skyworksinc.com
202132A • Skyworks Proprietary Information • Products and Product Information are Subject to Change Without Notice. • July 4, 2012
3
DATA SHEET
AAT3122
High Efficiency 1X/1.5X Fractional Charge Pump for White LED Applications
Electrical Characteristics1
VIN = 3.5V; CIN = COUT = C1 = C2 = 1.0µF; TA = -40°C to +85°C. Unless otherwise noted, typical values are TA = 25°C.
Symbol
Description
Input Power Supply
VIN
Operation Range
Icc
Operating Current
ISHDN
Shutdown Current
ID
Maximum Output Current
Charge Pump
TSS
Soft-Start Time
FCLK
Clock Frequency
hCP
Charge Pump Efficiency
EN/SET
VEN(L)
Enable Threshold Low
VEN(H)
Enable Threshold High
TLO
EN/SET Low Time
THI
Minimum EN/SET High Time
TOFF
EN/SET Off Timeout
Input Current EN/SET Input Leakage
Conditions
Min
Typ
Max
Units
5.5
3.5
1.0
132
V
mA
µA
mA
2.7
3.0 ≤ VIN ≤ 5.5, Active, No Load Current
EN = 0
VIN = 3.5V; Code = 32
1.8
108
200
1000
93
VIN = 3.6V, IOUT(Total) = 120mA; Measured from IN to OUT
VIN = 2.7V to 5.5V
VIN = 2.7V to 5.5V
120
µs
kHz
%
0.5
1.4
0.3
75
50
-1.0
500
1.0
V
V
µs
ns
µs
µA
1. The AAT3122 is guaranteed to meet performance specifications over the -40°C to +85°C operating temperature range and is assured by design, characterization, and correlation with statistical process controls.
4
Skyworks Solutions, Inc. • Phone [781] 376-3000 • Fax [781] 376-3100 • sales@skyworksinc.com • www.skyworksinc.com
202132A • Skyworks Proprietary Information • Products and Product Information are Subject to Change Without Notice. • July 4, 2012
DATA SHEET
AAT3122
High Efficiency 1X/1.5X Fractional Charge Pump for White LED Applications
Typical Characteristics
Unless otherwise noted, VIN = 3.6V, CIN = COUT = C1 = C2 = 1µF, TA = 25°C.
IDIODE vs. VIN
Efficiency vs. VIN
100
90
95
85
90
VDIODE = 3.3V
80
85
VDIODE = 3.4V
75
IDIODE (mA)
Efficiency (%)
(ID = 80mA)
80
75
VDIODE = 3.5V
70
65
VDIODE = 3.6V
60
65
55
50
45
40
3.1
3.3
3.5
3.7
3.9
4.1 4.3
4.5
4.7 4.9
5.1
2.7
2.9
3.1
3.3
3.5
3.7
VIN (V)
Quiescent Current (mA)
3.9
4.1
4.3
4.5
4.7
4.9
5.1
VIN (V)
Quiescent Current vs. VIN
2.4
2.2
2.0
1.8
1.6
1.4
1.2
1.0
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0.0
2.50
VDIODE = 3.5V
VDIODE = 3.6V
60
50
2.9
VDIODE = 3.4V
70
55
2.7
VDIODE = 3.3V
VIH and VIL vs. VIN
0.850
0.825
0.800
0.775
VIH
0.750
VDIODE = 3.3V
0.725
VDIODE = 3.4V
VIL
0.700
VDIODE = 3.5V
0.675
VDIODE = 3.6V
0.650
0.625
0.600
3.00
3.50
4.00
4.50
5.00
5.50
2.5
3.0
VIN (V)
Turn-On to Full-Scale Charge Pump
4.0
4.5
5.0
5.5
VIN (V)
Turn-On to Full-Scale Load Switch
ENSET
(1V/div)
ENSET
(1V/div)
OUT
(2V/div)
OUT
(2V/div)
VDIODE
(1V/div)
VDIODE
(2V/div)
IIN
(200mA/div)
IIN
(100mA/div)
Time (50µs/div)
3.5
Time (50µs/div)
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5
DATA SHEET
AAT3122
High Efficiency 1X/1.5X Fractional Charge Pump for White LED Applications
Typical Characteristics
Unless otherwise noted, VIN = 3.6V, CIN = COUT = C1 = C2 = 1µF, TA = 25°C.
Charge Pump to Load Switch (80mA)
Load Switch to Charge Pump (80mA)
VIN
(10mV/div)
VIN
(20mV/div)
OUT
(2V/div)
OUT
(1V/div)
VDIODE
(2V/div)
VDIODE
(1V/div)
IIN
(100mA/div)
IIN
(200mV/div)
Time (50µs/div)
Time (50µs/div)
80mA Load Characteristics
Turn-Off
VIN
20mV/div
ENSET
(1V/div)
VDIODE
(2V/div)
OUT
IIN
(100mA/div)
VDIODE
Time (200µs/div)
Time (1µs/div)
6
Skyworks Solutions, Inc. • Phone [781] 376-3000 • Fax [781] 376-3100 • sales@skyworksinc.com • www.skyworksinc.com
202132A • Skyworks Proprietary Information • Products and Product Information are Subject to Change Without Notice. • July 4, 2012
DATA SHEET
AAT3122
High Efficiency 1X/1.5X Fractional Charge Pump for White LED Applications
Functional Block Diagram
VIN
Soft Start
1.5X
Charge
Pump
1MHz
Oscillator
Voltage
Reference
EN/SET
S2Cwire
Interface
5
32x8 bit
ROM
8
Current
Mode
DAC
C1+
C1C2+
C2OUT
D
GND
Functional Description
The AAT3122 is a dual mode load switch (1X) and high
efficiency (1.5X) fractional charge pump device intended
for white LED backlight applications. The fractional
charge pump consists of a low dropout linear voltage
regulator followed by a 1.5X charge pump. To maximize
power conversion efficiency, an internal feedback control
sensing circuit monitors the voltage required on the constant current source output. This control circuit then sets
the load switch and charge pump functions based upon
the input voltage level versus the output voltage level
needed. This function significantly enhances overall
device efficiency when the input voltage level is greater
than the voltage required at the constant current source
output. Switchover between the 1.5X (charge pump)
operating mode and the 1X (load switch) mode occurs
automatically (as a function of input and output voltages)
and does not require user intervention to maintain maximum efficiency.
The AAT3122 requires only four external components:
two 1µF ceramic capacitors for the charge pump flying
capacitors (C1 and C2), one 1µF ceramic capacitor for CIN,
and one 0.33µF to 1µF ceramic capacitor for COUT. The
LDO/1.5X charge pump output is converted into a constant current output capable of driving up to six individual LEDs with a maximum of 20mA each. The current
source output magnitude is controlled by the EN/SET
serial data S2Cwire interface. The interface records rising
edges of the EN/SET pin and decodes them into 32 individual current level settings each 1dB apart. This is summarized in Figure 1 and Table 1. Code 32 is full scale,
and Code 1 is full scale attenuated by 31dB. The modulo 32 interface wraps states back to State 1 after the
32nd clock.
Skyworks Solutions, Inc. • Phone [781] 376-3000 • Fax [781] 376-3100 • sales@skyworksinc.com • www.skyworksinc.com
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7
DATA SHEET
AAT3122
High Efficiency 1X/1.5X Fractional Charge Pump for White LED Applications
Applications Information
EN/SET Serial Interface
Current Level Settings
LED current level is set via the serial interface according
to a logarithmic scale, where each code is 1dB greater
than the previous code. In this manner, the LED brightness appears linear with each increasing code. Table 1
depicts the relationship between each rising edge of the
EN/SET and the output current in mA.
Code
IOUT (mA)
Code
IOUT (mA)
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
3.3
3.8
4.2
4.7
5.2
6.1
6.6
7.5
8.5
9.4
10.8
11.8
13.6
15.1
16.9
18.8
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
21.2
24.0
26.8
30.1
33.9
38.1
42.4
47.5
53.6
60.2
67.3
75.8
84.7
95.1
106.8
120.0
Table 1: Current Level Settings.
The current source output magnitude is controlled by the
EN/SET serial interface. The interface records rising
edges of the EN/SET pin and decodes them into 32 individual current level settings each 1dB apart. Code 32 is
full scale, and Code 1 is full scale attenuated by 31dB.
The modulo 32 interface wraps states back to State 1
after the 32nd clock, so 1dB of attenuation is achieved
by clocking the EN/SET pin 31 times. The counter can be
clocked at speeds up to 1MHz, so intermediate states are
not visible. The first rising edge of EN/SET enables the
IC and initially sets the output LED current to 3.3mA, the
lowest setting. Once the final clock cycle is input for the
desired brightness level, the EN/SET pin is held high to
maintain the device output current at the programmed
level. The device is disabled 500µs after the EN/SET pin
transitions to a logic low state.
The EN/SET timing is designed to accommodate a wide
range of data rates. After the first rising edge of EN/SET,
the charge pump is enabled and reaches full capacity
after the soft-start time (TSS). During the soft-start time,
multiple clock pulses may be entered on the EN/SET pin
to set the final output current level with a single burst of
clocks. Alternatively, the EN/SET clock pulses may be
entered one at a time to gradually increase the LED
brightness over any desired time period. A constant current is sourced as long as EN/SET remains in a logic high
state. The current source outputs are switched off after
EN/SET has remained in a low state for at least the TOFF
timeout period.
Normalized Current Level Settings
Normalized Current to Full Scale
1.0
0.9
0.8
0.7
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0.0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32
Code
Figure 1: Normalized Current Level Settings.
8
Skyworks Solutions, Inc. • Phone [781] 376-3000 • Fax [781] 376-3100 • sales@skyworksinc.com • www.skyworksinc.com
202132A • Skyworks Proprietary Information • Products and Product Information are Subject to Change Without Notice. • July 4, 2012
DATA SHEET
AAT3122
High Efficiency 1X/1.5X Fractional Charge Pump for White LED Applications
EN/SET Timing Diagram
tLO
tHI
tOFF
EN/SET
Code
OFF
1
LED Selection
The AAT3122 is specifically intended for driving white
LEDs. However, the device design will allow the AAT3122
to drive most types of LEDs with forward voltage specifications ranging from 2.0V to 4.3V. LED applications
may include main and sub-LCD display backlighting,
camera photo-flash applications, color (RGB) LEDs,
infrared (IR) diodes for remotes, and other loads benefiting from a controlled output current generated from a
varying input voltage.
Device Switching Noise Performance
The AAT3122 operates at a fixed frequency of approximately 1MHz to control noise and limit harmonics that
can interfere with the RF operation of cellular telephone
handsets or other communication devices. Back-injected
noise appearing on the input pin of the charge pump is
20mV peak-to-peak, typically ten times less than inductor-based DC/DC boost converter white LED backlight
solutions. The AAT3122 soft-start feature prevents noise
transient effects associated with inrush currents during
start-up of the charge pump circuit.
Power Efficiency and Device Evaluation
Due to the unique charge pump circuit architecture and
design of the AAT3122, it is very difficult to measure
efficiency in terms of a percent value comparing input
power over output power.
Since the AAT3122 output is purely a constant current
source, it is difficult to measure the output voltage to
derive an overall output power measurement. For any
given application, white LED forward voltage levels can
2
3
OFF
differ, yet the output drive current will be maintained as
a constant.
This makes quantifying output power a difficult task
when taken in the context of comparing to other white
LED driver circuit topologies. A better way to quantify
total device efficiency is to observe the total input power
to the device for a given LED current drive level. The
best white LED driver for a given application should be
based on trade-offs of size, external component count,
reliability, operating range, and total energy usage...not
just % efficiency.
Charge Pump Efficiency
The AAT3122 is a fractional charge pump. The efficiency
(h) can be simply defined as a linear voltage regulator
with an effective output voltage that is equal to one and
a half times the input voltage. Efficiency (h) for an ideal
1.5X charge pump can typically be expressed as the
output power divided by the input power.
η=
POUT
PIN
In addition, with an ideal 1.5X charge pump, the output
current may be expressed as 2/3 of the input current.
The expression to define the ideal efficiency (h) can be
rewritten as:
η=
POUT
VOUT · IOUT
VOUT
=
=
PIN
VIN · 1.5IOUT 1.5VIN
η(%) = 100
VOUT
1.5VIN
Skyworks Solutions, Inc. • Phone [781] 376-3000 • Fax [781] 376-3100 • sales@skyworksinc.com • www.skyworksinc.com
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9
DATA SHEET
AAT3122
High Efficiency 1X/1.5X Fractional Charge Pump for White LED Applications
For a charge pump with an output of 5V and a nominal
input of 3.5V, the theoretical efficiency is 95%. Due to
internal switching losses and IC quiescent current consumption, the actual efficiency can be measured at 93%.
These figures are in close agreement for output load
conditions from 3.0mA to 120mA. Efficiency will decrease
as load current drops below 0.05mA or when the level of
VIN approaches VOUT. Refer to the Typical Characteristics
section of this datasheet for measured plots of efficiency
versus input voltage and output load current for the
given charge pump output voltage options.
Capacitor Selection
Careful selection of the four external capacitors CIN, C1,
C2, and COUT is important because they will affect turn-on
time, output ripple, and transient performance. Optimum
performance will be obtained when low ESR ceramic
capacitors are used. In general, low ESR may be defined
as less than 100mW. When choosing the four capacitors,
a capacitor value of 1µF is a good starting point. If the
LED current sources are only programmed for light current levels, then the capacitor size may be decreased.
Capacitor Characteristics
Ceramic composition capacitors are highly recommended over all other types of capacitors for use with the
AAT3122. Ceramic capacitors offer many advantages
over their tantalum and aluminum electrolytic counterparts. A ceramic capacitor typically has very low ESR, is
lowest cost, has a smaller PCB footprint, and is nonpolarized. Low ESR ceramic capacitors help maximize
charge pump transient response. Since ceramic capaci-
10
tors are non-polarized, they are not prone to incorrect
connection damage.
Equivalent Series Resistance: ESR is an important
characteristic to consider when selecting a capacitor. ESR
is a resistance internal to a capacitor that is caused by
the leads, internal connections, size or area, material
composition, and ambient temperature. Capacitor ESR is
typically measured in milliohms for ceramic capacitors
and can range to more than several ohms for tantalum
or aluminum electrolytic capacitors.
Ceramic Capacitor Materials: Ceramic capacitors less
than 0.1µF are typically made from NPO or C0G materials. NPO and C0G materials typically have tight tolerance
and are stable over temperature. Large capacitor values
are typically composed of X7R, X5R, Z5U, or Y5V dielectric materials. Large ceramic capacitors, typically greater
than 2.2µF, are often available in low-cost Y5V and Z5U
dielectrics, but large capacitors are not required in the
AAT3122 application.
Capacitor area is another contributor to ESR. Capacitors
that are physically large will have a lower ESR when compared to an equivalent material smaller capacitor. These
larger devices can improve circuit transient response
when compared to an equal value capacitor in a smaller
package size.
Thermal Protection
The AAT3122 has a thermal protection circuit that will
shut down the charge pump and current outputs if the die
temperature rises above the thermal limit due to shortcircuit conditions.
Skyworks Solutions, Inc. • Phone [781] 376-3000 • Fax [781] 376-3100 • sales@skyworksinc.com • www.skyworksinc.com
202132A • Skyworks Proprietary Information • Products and Product Information are Subject to Change Without Notice. • July 4, 2012
DATA SHEET
AAT3122
High Efficiency 1X/1.5X Fractional Charge Pump for White LED Applications
Additional Application Circuit
VIN
C1+
C1
1µF
C1C2+
VOUT
VBATTERY
CIN
COUT
1µF
1µF
C2
1µF
AAT3122
D1
D2
D3
D4
D5
D6
RB*
R B*
R B*
R B*
RB*
R B*
C2D1
EN/SET
EN/SET
GND
*In some applications, white LED forward voltages (VF) can vary significantly. Ballast resistors between the LED cathodes and ground are recommended
for balancing the forward voltage differences. The ballast resistor value may be approximated by the following equation:
RB =
VSOURCE - VF
IF
* In some applications, white LED forward voltages (VF) can vary significantly. Ballast resistors between the LED cathodes and ground are recommended for balancing the forward
voltage differences. The ballast resistor value may be approximated by the following equation:
RB = (VIN(MIN))1.5 - (VF(MAX) + 250mV)
IF(MAX)
VF(MAX) = Maximum expected LED forward voltage at the given maximum forward current level. Refer to the LED manufacturers’ datasheet for maximum VF specifications.
IF(MAX) = Maximum forward current used to drive an individual LED.
VIN(MIN) = Minimum input supply voltage for the application.
RB = Ballast resistor value in ohms.
Skyworks Solutions, Inc. • Phone [781] 376-3000 • Fax [781] 376-3100 • sales@skyworksinc.com • www.skyworksinc.com
202132A • Skyworks Proprietary Information • Products and Product Information are Subject to Change Without Notice. • July 4, 2012
11
DATA SHEET
AAT3122
High Efficiency 1X/1.5X Fractional Charge Pump for White LED Applications
Ordering Information
Package
Marking1
Part Number (Tape and Reel)2
TSOPJW-12
JEXYY
AAT3122ITP-T1
Skyworks Green™ products are compliant with
all applicable legislation and are halogen-free.
For additional information, refer to Skyworks
Definition of Green™, document number
SQ04-0074.
Package Information
TSOPJW-12
2.85 ± 0.20
2.40 ± 0.10
0.20 + 0.10
- 0.05
0.50 BSC 0.50 BSC 0.50 BSC 0.50 BSC 0.50 BSC
7° NOM
0.055 ± 0.045
0.04 REF
0.15 ± 0.05
+ 0.10
1.00 - 0.065
0.9625 ± 0.0375
3.00 ± 0.10
4° ± 4°
0.45 ± 0.15
0.010
2.75 ± 0.25
All dimensions in millimeters.
1. XYY = assembly and date code.
2. Sample stock is generally held on part numbers listed in BOLD.
Copyright © 2012 Skyworks Solutions, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
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NOT WARRANT THE ACCURACY OR COMPLETENESS OF THE INFORMATION, TEXT, GRAPHICS OR OTHER ITEMS CONTAINED WITHIN THESE MATERIALS. SKYWORKS SHALL NOT BE LIABLE FOR ANY DAMAGES, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO ANY SPECIAL, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, STATUTORY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES, INCLUDING WITHOUT LIMITATION, LOST REVENUES OR LOST PROFITS THAT MAY RESULT FROM
THE USE OF THE MATERIALS OR INFORMATION, WHETHER OR NOT THE RECIPIENT OF MATERIALS HAS BEEN ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE.
Skyworks products are not intended for use in medical, lifesaving or life-sustaining applications, or other equipment in which the failure of the Skyworks products could lead to personal injury, death, physical or environmental damage. Skyworks customers using or selling Skyworks products for use in such applications do so at their own risk and agree to fully indemnify Skyworks for any damages resulting from such improper
use or sale.
Customers are responsible for their products and applications using Skyworks products, which may deviate from published specifications as a result of design defects, errors, or operation of products outside of published parameters or design specifications. Customers should include design and operating safeguards to minimize these and other risks. Skyworks assumes no liability for applications assistance, customer product
design, or damage to any equipment resulting from the use of Skyworks products outside of stated published specifications or parameters.
Skyworks, the Skyworks symbol, and “Breakthrough Simplicity” are trademarks or registered trademarks of Skyworks Solutions, Inc., in the United States and other countries. Third-party brands and names are for
identification purposes only, and are the property of their respective owners. Additional information, including relevant terms and conditions, posted at www.skyworksinc.com, are incorporated by reference.
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Skyworks Solutions, Inc. • Phone [781] 376-3000 • Fax [781] 376-3100 • sales@skyworksinc.com • www.skyworksinc.com
202132A • Skyworks Proprietary Information • Products and Product Information are Subject to Change Without Notice. • July 4, 2012