A4934: Three-Phase Sensorless Fan Driver

A4934
Three-Phase Sensorless Fan Driver
Discontinued Product
This device is no longer in production. The device should not be
purchased for new design applications. Samples are no longer available.
Date of status change: October 31, 2011
Recommended Substitutions:
For existing customer transition, and for new customers or new applications, refer to the A4941.
NOTE: For detailed information on purchasing options, contact your
local Allegro field applications engineer or sales representative.
Allegro MicroSystems, Inc. reserves the right to make, from time to time, revisions to the anticipated product life cycle plan
for a product to accommodate changes in production capabilities, alternative product availabilities, or market demand. The
information included herein is believed to be accurate and reliable. However, Allegro MicroSystems, Inc. assumes no responsibility for its use; nor for any infringements of patents or other rights of third parties which may result from its use.
A4934
Three-Phase Sensorless Fan Driver
Features and Benefits
Description
• Sensorless (no Hall sensors required)
• Soft switching for reduced audible noise
• Minimal external components
• PWM speed input
• FG speed output
• Low power standby mode
• Lock detection
• Optional overcurrent protection
The A4934 three-phase motor driver incorporates BEMF
sensing to eliminate the requirement for Hall sensors in fan
applications.
A pulse wave modulated (PWM) input is provided to control
motor speed, allowing system cost savings by eliminating
external variable power supply. PWM input can also be used
as an on/off switch to disable motor operation and place the
IC into a low power standby mode.
The A4934 soft switching settings are designed for lower
inductance or lower speed motors. For higher inductance
or higher speed motors consider using the pin-compatible
A4941.
Package: 16-pin TSSOP with exposed
thermal pad (suffix LP)
The A4934 is provided in a 16-pin TSSOP package (suffix LP)
with an exposed thermal pad. It is lead (Pb) free, with 100%
matte tin leadframe plating.
Not to scale
Functional Block Diagram
12 V
0.1 μF
VCP
0.1 μF
CP1
VBB
CP2
Charge
Pump
10 μF
+VINT
OUTA
SLEW
Soft
Switch
PWM
Control
Logic
3-Phase
Half Bridges
OUTB
M
OUTC
25 kHz
OSC
SENSE
OCP
Timers
VBB
O/C
0.18 Ω
FC
TEST
10 kΩ
FG
Sequencer
(Direction)
Startup
OSC
CDCOM
GND
Adaptive
Commutation
Delay
CTAP
BEMF
Comp
FCOM
OUTA
OUTB
OUTC
A4934-DS
GND
A4934
Three-Phase Sensorless Fan Driver
Selection Guide
Part Number
Packing
A4934GLPTR-T
4000 pieces per 13-in. reel
Absolute Maximum Ratings
Characteristic
Symbol
Supply Voltage
VBB
Logic Input Voltage Range
VIN
Logic Output Voltage
VOUT
Output Current
IOUT
Rating
Unit
20
V
PWM, SLEW
–0.3 to 5.5
V
FC
–0.3 to VBB
V
FG
VBB
V
Peak (startup and lock rotor)
1.25
A
800
mA
–40 to 105
ºC
TJ(max)
150
ºC
Tstg
–55 to 150
ºC
Min.
Typ.
Max.
Unit
8
–
16
V
Operating Ambient Temperature
TA
Maximum Junction Temperature
Storage Temperature
Notes
Duty cycle = 100%
G temperature range
Recommended Operating Conditions
Characteristic
Symbol
Supply Voltage
VBB
Output Current
IOUT
Conditions
Peak (startup and lock rotor)
–
–
800
mA
Run current
–
<500
–
mA
Thermal Characteristics may require derating at maximum conditions
Characteristic
Package Thermal Resistance
Symbol
RθJA
Test Conditions*
On 4-layer PCB based on JEDEC standard
On 2-layer PCB with 1
in.2
of copper area each side
Value
Unit
34
ºC/W
52
ºC/W
*Additional thermal information available on the Allegro website
Terminal List Table
Pin-out Diagram
Name
Number
CP1
2
Charge pump
Function
CP2
3
Charge pump
CTAP
12
Motor terminal center tap
OUTC 1
16 OUTB
FC
10
Logic input
CP1 2
15 OUTA
CP2 3
14 SENSE
FG
8
Speed output signal
13 VBB
GND
5, 11
12 CTAP
OUTA
15
Motor terminal A
VCP 4
GND 5
SLEW 6
PWM 7
FG 8
PAD
11 GND
10 FC
9 TEST
Ground
OUTB
16
Motor terminal B
OUTC
1
Motor terminal C
PWM
7
Logic input
SENSE
14
Sense resistor connection
SLEW
6
Logic input
TEST
9
Test use only, leave open circuit
VBB
13
Input supply
VCP
4
Charge pump
Allegro MicroSystems, Inc.
115 Northeast Cutoff
Worcester, Massachusetts 01615-0036 U.S.A.
1.508.853.5000; www.allegromicro.com
2
A4934
Three-Phase Sensorless Fan Driver
ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS Valid at TA = 25°C, VBB = 12 V; unless otherwise noted
Characteristics
VBB Supply Current
Symbol
Test Conditions
IBB
IBBST
Min.
Typ.
Max.
Unit
–
2.5
5
mA
50
Standby mode, PWM = 0 V, SLEW = FC = O/C
–
25
I = 800 mA, TJ = 25°C
–
750
VOCL
180
200
220
mV
VIL
–
–
2
V
PWM High Level
VIH
0.8
–
–
V
Input Hysteresis
VHYS
–
300
–
mV
PWM, FC VIN = 0 V
–
–20
–
μA
Total Driver RDS(on) (Sink + Source)
Overcurrent Threshold
PWM Low Level
Logic Input Current
Output Saturation Voltage
FG Output Leakage
RDS(on)
IIN
μA
mΩ
SLEW
–
–50
–
μA
VSAT
I = 5 mA
–
–
0.3
V
IFG
V = 16 V
–
–
1
μA
ton
–
2
–
s
toff
–
5
–
s
Protection Circuitry
Lock Protection
Thermal Shutdown Temperature
TJTSD
Temperature increasing
150
165
180
°C
Thermal Shutdown Hysteresis
TJHYS
Recovery = TJTSD – ∆TJ
–
15
–
°C
VBB Undervoltage Lockout (UVLO)
VUVLO
VBB rising
–
6.3
–
V
VBB Undervoltage Lockout (UVLO)
Hysteresis
VUVLOHYS
–
0.56
–
V
Allegro MicroSystems, Inc.
115 Northeast Cutoff
Worcester, Massachusetts 01615-0036 U.S.A.
1.508.853.5000; www.allegromicro.com
3
A4934
Three-Phase Sensorless Fan Driver
Functional Description
The driver system is a three-phase, BEMF sensing motor controller and driver. Commutation is controlled by a proprietary BEMF
sensing technique.
The motor drive system consists of three half bridge NMOS
outputs, BEMF sensing circuits, adaptive commutation control,
and state sequencer. The sequencer determines which output
devices are active. The BEMF sensing circuits and adaptive commutation circuits determine when the state sequencer advances to
the next state.
A complete self-contained BEMF sensing commutation scheme is
provided. The three half-bridge outputs are controlled by a state
machine with six possible states, shown in figure 1. Motor BEMF
is sensed at the tri-stated output for each state.
BEMF sensing motor commutation relies on the accurate comparison of the voltage on the tri-stated output to the voltage at the
center tap of the motor. The BEMF zero crossing, the point where
the tri-stated motor winding voltage crosses the center tap voltage, is used as a positional reference. The zero crossing occurs
roughly halfway through one commutation cycle.
Output
State
A
B
C
D
E
Adaptive commutation circuitry and programmable timers
determine the optimal commutation points with minimal
external components. The major blocks within this system are:
the BEMF zero crossing detector, Commutation Delay timer, and
the Blank timer.
BEMF Zero Cross Detection
BEMF zero crossings are detected by comparing the voltage at
the tri-stated motor winding to the voltage at the motor center
tap. Zero crossings are indicated by the FCOM signal, which
goes high at each valid zero crossing and low at the beginning
of the next commutation. In each state, the BEMF detector looks
for the first correct polarity zero crossing and latches it until the
next state. This latching action, along with precise comparator
hysteresis, makes for a robust sensing system. At the beginning
of each commutation event, the BEMF detectors are inhibited for
a period of time set by the Blank timer. This is done so that commutation transients do not disturb the BEMF sensing system.
Commutation Event
See figure 1 for timing relationships. The commutation sequence
is started by a CDCOM pulse or a valid XCOM at startup. After
F
A
B
C
D
E
F
OUTA
OUTB
OUTC
FCOM
CDCOM
FG
Figure 1. Motor Terminal Output States
Allegro MicroSystems, Inc.
115 Northeast Cutoff
Worcester, Massachusetts 01615-0036 U.S.A.
1.508.853.5000; www.allegromicro.com
4
A4934
Three-Phase Sensorless Fan Driver
the commutation delay period, a CDCOM is asserted, starting
the Blank timer. The Blank signal disables the BEMF detector so
the comparator is not active during the commutation transients.
The next zero crossing, detected on the tri-stated output, causes
FCOM to go high. This triggers the Commutation Delay timer
and the sequence repeats.
Startup
At startup, commutations are provided by an onboard oscillator.
These commutations are part of the startup scheme, to step the
motor to generate BEMF until legitimate BEMF zero crossings
are detected and normal BEMF sensing commutation is achieved.
Until an appropriate number of FCOM pulses are achieved (96),
100% PWM will be applied to the motor windings.
Standby Mode
Driving PWM low for 500 μs causes the IC to enter a low power
standby mode.
Lock Detect
Valid FCOM signals must be detected to ensure the motor is not
stalled. If a valid FG is not detected for 2 s, the outputs will be
disabled for 5 s before an auto-restart is attempted.
FG Output
The FG output provides fan speed information to the system.
FG is an open drain output.
PWM Input
The duty cycle applied to the PWM pin is translated directly
to an average duty cycle applied across the motor windings
to control speed.
• For voltage controlled applications, where VBB controls the
speed, PWM can be left open circuit. PWM is internally pulledup to logic high level.
• PWM also can be used as a control input to start and stop the
motor.
• For PWM applications, input frequencies in the range
15 to 30 kHz are applied directly to the motor windings. If the
PWM duty cycle is very small, then the IC will apply a minimum pulse width of typically 6 μs. This minimum pulse width
effects the minimum speed. As a result of having a minimum
pulse width, the IC can startup and operate down to very short
duty cycles.
SLEW Input
Controls the level of soft switching:
SLEW Pin Connection
Soft Switch Status
GND
Less
Open
More
FC Input
This is the logic input to set force commutation time at startup, by
connection as follows:
FC Pin Connection
Startup Commutation Time
(ms)
GND
100
VBB
50
Open
200
Overcurrent Protection
If needed, a sense resistor can be installed to limit current. (See
Applications Information section for more details.) The current
limit trip point would be set by:
IOCL = 200 mV / RS .
When the trip point is reached, if the threshold voltage, VOCL , is
exceeded, the drivers will be disabled for 25 μs.
Allegro MicroSystems, Inc.
115 Northeast Cutoff
Worcester, Massachusetts 01615-0036 U.S.A.
1.508.853.5000; www.allegromicro.com
5
A4934
Three-Phase Sensorless Fan Driver
Input/Output Structures
VBB
VCP
GND
CP1
GND
CP2
GND
100 kΩ
SLEW
250 kΩ
PWM
8V
GND
8V
GND
GND
VBB
VBB
25 V
VBB
MOS
Parasitic
FC
CTAP
MOS
Parasitic
GND
GND
FG
TEST
GND
OUTA
OUTB
OUTC
GND
8V
GND
GND
Allegro MicroSystems, Inc.
115 Northeast Cutoff
Worcester, Massachusetts 01615-0036 U.S.A.
1.508.853.5000; www.allegromicro.com
6
A4934
Three-Phase Sensorless Fan Driver
Application Information
M
Name
CTAP
VBB
C3
VBB
R2
C2
1 OUTC
2 CP1
3 CP2
4 VCP
5 GND
6 SLEW
7 PWM
8 FG
A4934
PAD
OUTB 16
OUTA 15
SENSE 14
VBB 13
R1
D1
C1
CTAP 12
CTAP
GND 11
FC 10
TEST 9
Typical Value
C1
10 μF / 25 V
C2,C3
0.1 μF / 25 V
R2
10 kΩ
D1
>1.5 A rated
D2
17 V
R1
0.18 Ω / 0.25 W
D2
VBB
Typical Application Circuit; speed adjusted via VBB
Startup Oscillator Setting (FC)
Typically, the 50 ms setting is optimum for motors appropriate
for use with the A4934. If the motor does not produce a proper
BEMF signal at startup when power is applied, a longer setting
may be required.
SLEW Setting
For some motors, soft switching will reduce audible noise. The
soft switching function can result in motor stall for some motors,
specifically motors with large inductance that run at higher
speeds. For this situation, there are two potential solutions:
• Limit the motor speed by lowering the maximum demand, by
reducing either Vmotor(max) or the PWM duty applied.
• Consider the pin-to-pin compatible IC A4941 that allows disabling of the soft switching function.
Current Limiting
Use of the current limit circuit is not required. If motor resistance
(phase-to-phase) will limit the current below the rating in the
Absolute Maximum table, then simply connect the SENSE pin to
Description
VBB supply capacitor, minimum 10 μF,
electrolytic can be used
Charge pump ceramic capacitors
FG pull-up resistor, can be pulled-up to
VBB if required
Optional blocking diode for supply reverse
polarity protection
Transient voltage suppressor (TVS)
Current limiting sense resistor, required for
low resistance motors
ground. That is:
• If (VBB(max) / Rmotor ) < 1.25 A, eliminate RS.
• If (VBB(max) / Rmotor ) > IOUT (max), the choice of RS determines the current limit setting; recommended range is
167 mΩ < RS < 250 mΩ.
Note: For some motor types, use of the current limit circuit may
prevent proper startup due to the effect of the chopping on the
BEMF voltage appearing on the tri-stated winding.
Layout Notes
• Connect GND pins (5,11) to exposed pad ground area under
package.
• Add thermal vias from exposed pad to bottom side ground
plane.
• Place VBB decoupling capacitor as close to the IC as possible.
• Place sense resistor, (if used), as close to the IC as possible.
Allegro MicroSystems, Inc.
115 Northeast Cutoff
Worcester, Massachusetts 01615-0036 U.S.A.
1.508.853.5000; www.allegromicro.com
7
A4934
Three-Phase Sensorless Fan Driver
Package LP, 16-Pin TSSOP with Exposed Thermal Pad
0.45
5.00±0.10
16
0.65
16
8º
0º
0.20
0.09
1.70
B
3 NOM
4.40±0.10
3.00
6.40±0.20
6.10
0.60 ±0.15
A
1
1.00 REF
2
3 NOM
0.25 BSC
Branded Face
16X
SEATING
PLANE
0.10 C
0.30
0.19
C
3.00
C
PCB Layout Reference View
For Reference Only; not for tooling use (reference MO-153 ABT)
Dimensions in millimeters
Dimensions exclusive of mold flash, gate burrs, and dambar protrusions
Exact case and lead configuration at supplier discretion within limits shown
1.20 MAX
0.65 BSC
1 2
SEATING PLANE
GAUGE PLANE
0.15
0.00
A Terminal #1 mark area
B
Exposed thermal pad (bottom surface); dimensions may vary with device
C Reference land pattern layout (reference IPC7351
SOP65P640X110-17M);
All pads a minimum of 0.20 mm from all adjacent pads; adjust as
necessary to meet application process requirements and PCB layout
tolerances; when mounting on a multilayer PCB, thermal vias at the
exposed thermal pad land can improve thermal dissipation (reference
EIA/JEDEC Standard JESD51-5)
Copyright ©2010, Allegro MicroSystems, Inc.
Allegro MicroSystems, Inc. reserves the right to make, from time to time, such departures from the detail specifications as may be required to permit improvements in the performance, reliability, or manufacturability of its products. Before placing an order, the user is cautioned to verify that the
information being relied upon is current.
Allegro’s products are not to be used in life support devices or systems, if a failure of an Allegro product can reasonably be expected to cause the
failure of that life support device or system, or to affect the safety or effectiveness of that device or system.
The information included herein is believed to be accurate and reliable. However, Allegro MicroSystems, Inc. assumes no responsibility for its use;
nor for any infringement of patents or other rights of third parties which may result from its use.
For the latest version of this document, visit our website:
www.allegromicro.com
Allegro MicroSystems, Inc.
115 Northeast Cutoff
Worcester, Massachusetts 01615-0036 U.S.A.
1.508.853.5000; www.allegromicro.com
8
Similar pages