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Fujitsu Microelectronics Europe
Application Note
MCU-AN-300119-E-V10
F²MC-8FX FAMILY
8-BIT MICROCONTROLLER
MB95260 SERIES
ULTRASONIC DISTANCE
MEASUREMENT
APPLICATION NOTE
Ultrasonic distance measurement
Revision History
Revision History
Date
2010-02-25
Issue
V1.0, CIl, First Version
This document contains 18 pages.
MCU-AN-300119-E-V10
-2-
© Fujitsu Microelectronics Europe GmbH
Ultrasonic distance measurement
Warranty and Disclaimer
Warranty and Disclaimer
The use of the deliverables (e.g. software, application examples, target boards, evaluation boards,
starter kits, schematics, engineering samples of IC’s etc.) is subject to the conditions of Fujitsu
Microelectronics Europe GmbH (“FME”) as set out in (i) the terms of the License Agreement and/or
the Sale and Purchase Agreement under which agreements the Product has been delivered, (ii) the
technical descriptions and (iii) all accompanying written materials.
Please note that the deliverables are intended for and must only be used in an evaluation laboratory
environment.
The software deliverables are provided without charge and therefore provided on an as-is basis. The
software deliverables are to be used exclusively in connection with FME products.
Regarding hardware deliverables, FME warrants that they will be free from defects in material and
workmanship under use and service as specified in the accompanying written materials for a duration
of 1 year from the date of receipt by the customer.
Should a hardware deliverable turn out to be defect, FME’s entire liability and the customer’s
exclusive remedy shall be, at FME´s sole discretion, either return of the purchase price and the
license fee, or replacement of the hardware deliverable or parts thereof, if the deliverable is returned
to FME in original packing and without further defects resulting from the customer’s use or the
transport. However, this warranty is excluded if the defect has resulted from an accident not
attributable to FME, or abuse or misapplication attributable to the customer or any other third party not
relating to FME or to unauthorised decompiling and/or reverse engineering and/or disassembling.
FME does not warrant that the deliverables does not infringe any third party intellectual property right
(IPR). In the event that the deliverables infringe a third party IPR it is the sole responsibility of the
customer to obtain necessary licenses to continue the usage of the deliverable.
In the event the software deliverables include the use of open source components, the provisions of
the governing open source license agreement shall apply with respect to such software deliverables.
To the maximum extent permitted by applicable law FME disclaims all other warranties, whether
express or implied, in particular, but not limited to, warranties of merchantability and fitness for a
particular purpose for which the deliverables are not designated.
To the maximum extent permitted by applicable law, FME’s liability is restricted to intention and gross
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Should one of the above stipulations be or become invalid and/or unenforceable, the remaining
stipulations shall stay in full effect.
The contents of this document are subject to change without a prior notice, thus contact FME about
the latest one.
© Fujitsu Microelectronics Europe GmbH
-3-
MCU-AN-300119-E-V10
Ultrasonic distance measurement
Contents
Contents
REVISION HISTORY ............................................................................................................ 2
WARRANTY AND DISCLAIMER ......................................................................................... 3
CONTENTS .......................................................................................................................... 4
1 INTRODUCTION .............................................................................................................. 5
1.1
Features .................................................................................................................. 5
1.2
Functional principle ................................................................................................. 5
2 HARDWARE .................................................................................................................... 6
2.1
2.2
Ultrasonic and analog circuit.................................................................................... 7
2.1.1
Coupling capacitor ..................................................................................... 7
2.1.2
Non-inverting amplifiers ............................................................................. 7
2.1.3
Active low-pass filter .................................................................................. 7
2.1.4
Total gain ................................................................................................... 7
Microcontroller ......................................................................................................... 8
3 SOFTWARE ..................................................................................................................... 9
3.1
3.2
Main code.............................................................................................................. 10
USART interface ................................................................................................... 11
3.3
Flash writing .......................................................................................................... 12
3.4
Timing routines ...................................................................................................... 12
4 INTERFACE PROTOCOL .............................................................................................. 13
4.1
4.2
Packages sent by the ultrasonic module ............................................................... 13
4.1.1
Raw sample data ..................................................................................... 13
4.1.2
Evaluated measurement values ............................................................... 13
4.1.3
Reply to command ................................................................................... 13
4.1.4
Calibration saved or unknown command ................................................. 14
Commands ............................................................................................................ 14
4.2.1
Raw data mode ....................................................................................... 14
4.2.2
Pause ...................................................................................................... 14
4.2.3
Calibrate .................................................................................................. 15
4.2.4
Clear calibration ....................................................................................... 15
4.2.5
Pin data ................................................................................................... 15
4.2.6
4.2.7
Pin configuration ...................................................................................... 15
Reserved IDs ........................................................................................... 16
5 CONCLUSION ............................................................................................................... 17
6 ADDITIONAL INFORMATION ....................................................................................... 18
MCU-AN-300119-E-V10
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© Fujitsu Microelectronics Europe GmbH
Ultrasonic distance measurement
Chapter 1 Introduction
1 Introduction
This application note will show how to implement distance measurement based on ultrasonic
sensors. It will give both an example hardware and software implementation with a Fujitsu
8 bit microcontroller.
1.1
1.2
Features
•
Measure distances from about 20 to 400 cm
•
Storage of calibration data in internal Flash
•
USART as communication interface
•
Standalone operation possible
•
Single 5 V power supply
Functional principle
The distance measurement with ultrasonic modules is based on the reflection of sound
waves. An ultrasonic wave, i.e. a sound with a high frequency of normally about 40 kHz, is
generated in a speaker which is also called ultrasonic transducer. This wave is reflected by
objects. When the reflected wave reaches the ultrasonic transducer it converts the energy
back into electrical voltage which can be measured. The time between sending the signal
and receiving the reflected signal can then be used to calculate the distance of the reflecting
object based on the velocity of sound.
~2.9 ms
Total signal propagation time (t): ~5.8 ms
Object
Signal propagation time one way: ~2.9 ms
Velocity of sound (v): ~340 m/s
~2.9 ms
d=1m
© Fujitsu Microelectronics Europe GmbH
Distance d:
d = v * t = 340 m/s * 2.9 ms = 0.99 m
-5-
MCU-AN-300119-E-V10
MCU-AN-300119-E-V10
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
-6-
GND
Pin14
P06
2
GND
Pin1
X1
GND
VCC
Pin2
Q1
16 MHz
X0
GND
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
OUT
7
GND
C9
680pF/25V
R7
4.7k
R6
100k
2
3
GND
R15
1k
Pin5
PG1
MB95F284KPF
LD2
LGT679 (green)
GND
R16
1k
Pin4
PG2
16
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
OUT
Pin16
Pin15
Pin14
Pin13
Pin12
Pin11
Pin10
Pin9
R1
4.7k
VCC
LM324
IN-
IN+
U2A
LD3
LGT679 (green)
X0/PF0
P12/EC0/DBG
X1/PF1
P07/INT07
Vss
P06/INT06/TO01
X1A/PG2 P05/INT05/AN05/TO00/HCLK2
X0A/PG1 P04/INT04/AN04/SIN/HCLK1/EC0
Vcc
P03/INT03/AN03/SOT
RST/PF2
P01/AN01
C
P02/INT02/AN02/SCK
U1
LM324
IN-
IN+
C1
22nF/25V
Pin8
C
Pin1
Pin2
GND
Pin4
Pin5
VCC
Pin7
Pin8
6
5
100k
R5
U2B
10k
C8
10nF/25V
R4
Pin14 P06
C2
100nF/25V
DBG Pin16
GND
C3
100nF/25V
xRST Pin7
R2
10k
C6
22uF/16V
GND
VCC
VCC
Pin15
P07
1
VCC
15pF/25V
C5
15pF/25V
C4
BGMA IF
X1
2
1
UltrasonicTransducer
US1
GND
Pin11
Pin12
Pin9
Pin10
Pin4
Pin5
1N4148
D3
SOT
SIN
P02
P01
PG2
PG1
C10
680pF/25V
R9
2.7k
R8
100k
Pin13 AN05
1
GND
100k
R13
R12
68k
GND
100nF/25V
C12
R11
100k
VCC
GND
10nF/25V
C11
R10
100k
VCC
9
10
OUT
680pF/25V
C13
100k
R14
LM324
IN-
IN+
U2C
8
Ultrasonic distance measurement
Chapter 2 Hardware
2 Hardware
© Fujitsu Microelectronics Europe GmbH
Ultrasonic distance measurement
Chapter 2 Hardware
The schematic consists of two functional blocks:
•
Ultrasonic and analog circuit
•
Microcontroller circuit
2.1
Ultrasonic and analog circuit
The pins of the ultrasonic transducer US1 are attached to two IO pins of the microcontroller.
Sending the ultrasonic bursts is done by setting one pin to high while the other is low and
vice versa. This way a +/- 5 V square wave signal is generated. When sending is done one
pin of the ultrasonic transducer, connected to P07 (pin 15) of the microcontroller, is set to
ground so the received power from the ultrasonic signal can be measured as a voltage on
the second pin. The connected microcontroller IO P06 (pin 14) is set to high impedance so
the signal can be amplified through the operational amplifier circuit. It consists of four blocks:
•
Coupling capacitor
•
Non-inverting amplifier 1
•
Non-inverting amplifier 2
•
Active low-pass filter
The amplified signal is measured by the analog input AN05 (pin 13) of the microcontroller.
2.1.1 Coupling capacitor
The coupling capacitor (C8) is used to couple the AC signal from the ultrasonic transducer
on a 2 V DC voltage generated by the voltage divider R11/R12. This is needed to be able to
use the single-supply operational amplifiers.
2.1.2 Non-inverting amplifiers
The first amplifier stage consists of U2B, R6, R7 and C9, the second one of U2A, R8, R9
and C10.
Their amplification can be calculated as:
v1 = 1 + R6 / R7 = 1 + (100 kJ) / (4.7 kJ) K 22.3
v2 = 1 + R8 / R9 = 1 + (100 kJ) / (2.7 kJ) K 38.0
C9 and C10 are required to reduce DC amplification of the operational amplifiers.
2.1.3 Active low-pass filter
The low-pass filter is used to smooth the half-wave signal coming from D3 after being
amplified by U2A. Its amplification is:
v3 = - (R14 / R13) * 1 / (1 + j * L * C13 * R14) =
- (R14 / R13) * 1 / (1 + j * 2 * M * f * C13 * R14) =
- (100 kJ / 100 kJ) * 1 / (1 + j * 2 M * 40 kHz * 680 pF * 100 kJ) K 0.06
The cutoff frequency of the filter is:
fc = 1 / (2 * M * R14 * C13) = 1 / (2 * M * 100 kJ * 680 pF) K 2341 Hz
2.1.4 Total gain
Total gain of the amplification circuit is calculated by:
vt = v1 * v2 * v3 = 22.3 * 38.0 * 0.06 = 49.6
© Fujitsu Microelectronics Europe GmbH
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MCU-AN-300119-E-V10
Ultrasonic distance measurement
Chapter 2 Hardware
2.2
Microcontroller
The microcontroller (U1) is a Fujitsu MB95F284K 8 bit microcontroller. It is used to generate
the 40 kHz ultrasonic bursts and to measure the time until the echo is received.
The clock is provided by a 16 MHz crystal oscillator resulting in 8 MHz CPU clock which
allows a measurement resolution of 128 Os or about 2 cm. LEDs are attached to pins PG1
and PG2 which can be either controlled through the USART interface or for standalone
operation by enhancing the software. Pins P01, P02, PG1 and PG2 can be used as GPIOs,
SIN and SOT provide the control interface. Connector X1 provides the debug interface for
the BGM-Adapter MB2146-08-E.
MCU-AN-300119-E-V10
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© Fujitsu Microelectronics Europe GmbH
Ultrasonic distance measurement
Chapter 3 Software
3 Software
The firmware on the ultrasonic module (95280_adc_ultrasonic) samples the echo of the
ultrasonic transmission and provides an evaluated output of that data which gives the
distance to a detected object.
Reset
Initialization
(MCU_Initialization)
Load calibration
(loadCalibration)
Command
received?
(usart_getChar)
Yes
Handle command
(handle_rx)
Yes
Save calibration
(saveCalibration)
No
Ultrasonic measure
(ultrasonic_measure)
Transmit data
Calibration
done?
No
Wait
(waitTimer)
Figure 1: Flowchart of ultrasonic module firmware
The measurement routine first sends 13 ultrasonic bursts. Then it converts 8 samples of the
returned signal which are averaged in each of 250 timeslots. From the averaged value the
stored calibration value is subtracted. The timeslots are 128 Os each which results in about
2 cm of additional distance per timeslot until a peak is detected.
© Fujitsu Microelectronics Europe GmbH
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MCU-AN-300119-E-V10
Ultrasonic distance measurement
Chapter 3 Software
The code is split into four modules:
•
Main code including protocol handler and ultrasonic measurement (main.c)
•
USART interface (usart.c)
•
Flash writing (flash.c)
•
Timing routine (util.c)
3.1
Main code
Main code first initializes the used hardware macros (routine MCU_Initialization):
•
Selecting the external crystal as main clock source
•
Set Timebase Timer to 128 Os interval
•
Analog/digital converter (AN05)
•
USART interface
•
Pins for the ultrasonic transducer output (P06, P07)
•
User I/O pins (P01, P02, PG1, PG2)
Next step is to load the calibration data from the lower Flash bank (loadCalibration).
At this point the CPU enters the infinite loop which does the following:
•
Check whether a command was received via USART (usart_getChar)
o
•
If so try to handle the received byte (handle_rx)
Do one measurement run (ultrasonic_measure)
o
Send the ultrasonic burst (sendUSburst)
o
Get 250 samples from the analog converter in 128 Os interval
o
Return the index of the first detected peak
•
Save calibration data if a calibration was just finished (saveCalibration)
•
Wait for a configurable multiple of 50 ms (see 4.2.2 - Pause)
MCU-AN-300119-E-V10
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© Fujitsu Microelectronics Europe GmbH
Ultrasonic distance measurement
Chapter 3 Software
Signal output to
US transducer
Stored calibration data
(no object)
Signal received
by US transducer
(with object)
Evaluated signal
Detected peak
Figure 2: Ultrasonic measurement process
3.2
USART interface
This module (usart.c) provides methods to initialize the USART, send bytes, decimal values
and strings and receive bytes.
• usart_init
initializes the USART to asynchronous 8N1 with 1 MBaud
• usart_putChar
sends a single byte
• usart_putString sends a null-terminated string
• usart_putDec
sends a decimal value between 000 and 999
• usart_putDecInt sends a decimal value between 00000 and 65535
• usart_getChar
gets a single byte if USART receive register is not empty
Since the interface is running at 1 MBaud it is not usable with a normal RS232 interface of a
PC. It can be used through USB to serial adapters though. The baudrate is set to 1 MBaud
in order to reduce the time needed to transfer the data while measuring.
© Fujitsu Microelectronics Europe GmbH
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MCU-AN-300119-E-V10
Ultrasonic distance measurement
Chapter 3 Software
3.3
Flash writing
This module (flash.c) is used to erase the first sector of lower flash bank (SA0, starting at
B000H) and write bytes to it.
• flash_erase
erases the sector containing the specified address. Used to remove
stored calibration data in clearCalibration.
• flash_write
writes a single byte to a Flash address. Writing to flash is used by
saveCalibration to permanently store calibration data.
Flash bank
Sector name
SA0
Lower flash bank
SA1
Upper flash bank
3.4
SA2
Start/end address
B000H
B7FFH
B800H
BFFFH
C000H
FFFFH
Timing routines
This module (util.c) provides timing routines to precisely control execution of measurement
operations.
• timer_init
initializes the Timebase Timer for 128 Os ticks
• waitTimer
waits the specified amount of ticks
• wait10times
inserts 10 NOP instructions
• timer_delay
waits the specified times multiplied by 50 ms
The sourcecode of the methods waitTimer and wait10times are not included in util.c but in
main.c because they are inlined in other methods to remove function call overhead.
MCU-AN-300119-E-V10
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© Fujitsu Microelectronics Europe GmbH
Ultrasonic distance measurement
Chapter 4 Interface protocol
4 Interface protocol
The firmware features a small command protocol to control the behavior of the ultrasonic
module. This protocol will be explained in this chapter.
4.1
Packages sent by the ultrasonic module
Data sent from the module is fit into packages. Each package is prefixed with a 0 value byte
whereas no other 0 value will be in the data bytes of the package. The second byte in a
package determines the type of the package.
Byte 0
0x00
Byte 1
Type of package
Byte 2..n
Data; length depending on type of package
Table 1: Ultrasonic module package structure
The following types of packages are defined and will be described in the following chapters:
Type value
0x01
0x02
0x03
0x04
Data length n
250
3
1
1
Description
Raw sample data
Evaluated measurement values
Reply to command
Calibration saved or unknown command
Table 2: Ultrasonic module package types
4.1.1 Raw sample data
This package is sent during each measurement run if the raw data mode is enabled (see
4.2.1 - Raw data mode). It represents the averaged sample values of the analog to digital
converter per timeslot. Each of the bytes is one average value.
Byte 0
Byte 1
Byte 2..251
0x00
0x01
Averaged AD sample values
The first value is for timeslot 0 which starts at about 581 us. The value for timeslot 0 is
always 1.
4.1.2 Evaluated measurement values
This package is sent after each measurement run if raw mode is disabled. It contains the
timeslot index and the distance in cm where an object was detected.
Byte 0 Byte 1 Byte 2
Byte 3
Byte 4
0x00
0x02
Index of timeslot Upper 7 bits of distance Lower 7 bits of distance
The bytes for the distance in cm are OR’ed with 0x80 and the lower 7 bits of each byte
contain the actual value. Thus the distance in cm can be taken from bytes 3 and 4 by:
Distance [cm] = ((Byte3 and 0x7f) << 7) or (Byte4 and 0x7f)
4.1.3 Reply to command
If a command was received and could be handled correctly a reply will be generated. This
reply contains the original command. If the command was a read command the value fields
will be filled by the current internal values of the running software.
Byte 0
0x00
Byte 1
0x03
Byte 2
Handled command
© Fujitsu Microelectronics Europe GmbH
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MCU-AN-300119-E-V10
Ultrasonic distance measurement
Chapter 4 Interface protocol
4.1.4 Calibration saved or unknown command
When a calibrate command was received and calibration is done or when an unknown
command was received this package will be sent.
Byte 0
0x00
4.2
Byte 1
0x04
Byte 2
0x10 – Calibration done
0x11 – Unknown command
Commands
Commands are single bytes sent to the ultrasonic module. Since only one command is
handled after each measurement run only one command may be sent until the reply is
received. Alternatively a wait time may be used to make sure that the command has been
processed.
Commands have the following format:
Bit 7..4
Parameter data
Bit 3 Bit 2..0
Read (0) / Write (1) Command id
Table 3: Structure of ultrasonic commands
The commands defined are as following:
Command id
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Description
Raw data mode
Pause between measurement runs in units of 50 ms
Calibrate to current measurement values
Clear calibration
Pin data (PDR register)
Pin configuration (DDR and PUL registers)
Reserved
Reserved
Remarks
Write only
Write only
Table 4: Ultrasonic commands
4.2.1 Raw data mode
This command allows selection of raw data mode or evaluated data mode.
Bit
7
1
6
-
5
-
4
Mode
3
R/W
2
0
1
0
0
0
1
0
0
1
Mode bit Mode description
0 Evaluated data mode
1 Raw data mode
4.2.2 Pause
A pause between each measurement run can be set from 0 to 750 ms.
Bit
7
6
5
Number of 50 ms pause states
Default value is 0 ms delay.
MCU-AN-300119-E-V10
4
3
R/W
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2
0
© Fujitsu Microelectronics Europe GmbH
Ultrasonic distance measurement
Chapter 4 Interface protocol
4.2.3 Calibrate
Stores the current measurement values as calibration data in the Flash of the 8 bit controller.
These values are subtracted from the measured values in measurements after this
command has finished.
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
When calibration has finished a “calibration saved” package (see 4.1.4) is sent by the
ultrasonic module.
Note: Calibration should be issued while the ultrasonic transducers are directed at an
empty room so a good null measurement value can be taken.
4.2.4 Clear calibration
This command clears stored calibration data setting every value to 0. This way the sampled
data can be received in an unaltered way in raw data mode.
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
0
1
1
0
1
0
1
1
Note: After this command was issued evaluated data mode will not return useful data.
4.2.5 Pin data
This command is used to write to or read from the PDR registers of the unused IO pins of
the microcontroller.
Bit
7
-
6
Value
Pin1..0 bits
00
01
10
11
5
Pin1
4
Pin0
3
R/W
2
1
1
0
0
0
Pin
PG1
PG2
P01
P02
4.2.6 Pin configuration
With this command the DDR (data direction) and PUL (pull-up enable) registers can be
accessed.
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
Register Value
Pin1
Pin0
R/W
1
Pin1..0 are the same values as for the pin data command.
1
0
0
1
Register bit Register
0 DDR
1 PUL
Value bit DDR register meaning
0 Input pin
1 Output pin
© Fujitsu Microelectronics Europe GmbH
- 15 -
PUL register meaning
Pull-up disabled
Pull-up enabled
MCU-AN-300119-E-V10
Ultrasonic distance measurement
Chapter 4 Interface protocol
4.2.7 Reserved IDs
These two command ids are reserved for future extensions.
Bit
7
-
6
-
MCU-AN-300119-E-V10
5
-
4
-
3
-
- 16 -
2
1
1
1
1
1
0
0
1
© Fujitsu Microelectronics Europe GmbH
Ultrasonic distance measurement
Chapter 5 Conclusion
5 Conclusion
This application note describes a functional but basic implementation for distance
measurement based on ultrasonic modules. Improvements could be:
•
Completely standalone operation without the need of another controller reading out
distance values
•
Increased resolution of measurement
•
Increased maximum measurable distance
•
Improved echo peak detection algorithm
© Fujitsu Microelectronics Europe GmbH
- 17 -
MCU-AN-300119-E-V10
Ultrasonic distance measurement
Chapter 6 Additional information
6 Additional information
Information about Fujitsu microcontrollers can be found on the following internet page:
http://mcu.emea.fujitsu.com/
This application note and its accompanying software examples can be found on:
http://mcu.emea.fujitsu.com/mcu_product/mcu_all_appnotes.htm
The software example of this application note is:
•
95280_adc_ultrasonic
It can be found on the following internet page:
http://mcu.emea.fujitsu.com/mcu_product/mcu_all_software.htm
MCU-AN-300119-E-V10
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© Fujitsu Microelectronics Europe GmbH
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