A4900 Datasheet

A4900
High Voltage Three Phase Gate Driver
Features and Benefits
Description
• High voltage 3-phase gate drive
• Floating high-side gate drive to 550 VDC supply
• Tolerant to high voltage slew rates
• Cross-conduction protection with fixed dead time
• 15 V gate drive supply voltage
• TTL compatible logic inputs
• Undervoltage detection
• Overcurrent detection with integrated fault blanking
• Overtemperature shutdown
• Matched propagation delays
• Detailed fault reporting
The A4900 is a high-voltage, high-speed, power IGBT or
MOSFET driver providing three independent half-bridge
channels for three-phase applications.
A bootstrap capacitor is used to provide the above battery
supply voltage required for N-channel MOSFETs or IGBTs
used as high current switches. Direct control over all six gate
drives in the 3-phase bridge is provided, allowing motors to
be driven with block commutation or sinusoidal excitation.
The power switches are protected from cross-conduction
by integrated crossover control and fixed dead time.
Integrated diagnostics provide indication of undervoltage,
overtemperature, and power bridge faults. They can be
configured to protect the power switches under most short
circuit conditions. Detailed diagnostics are available as a serial
data word output.
Package: 44-pin QSOP (suffix LQ)
The A4900 is provided in a 44-pin QSOP package (suffix LQ)
that is lead (Pb) free, with 100% matte tin leadframe plating.
Not to scale
Typical Application Diagram
VCC
VM
Control
A4900
Diagnostics
A4900-DS
3-Phase
Motor
A4900
High Voltage Three Phase Gate Driver
Selection Guide
Part Number
Operating Ambient
Temperature Range
TA, (°C)
Package
Packing
A4900KLQTR-T
–40 to 125
44-pin QSOP
1000 pieces per
13-in. reel
Absolute Maximum Ratings with respect to GND
Characteristic
Drive Supply Voltage
Symbol
Notes
Rating
Unit
–0.3 to 20
V
–0.3 to 6.5
V
Pins BCA, BCB, BCC
–0.3 to Sx+20
V
Pins GHA, GHB, GHC
Sx – 0.3 to
BCx + 0.3
V
–VCC to 600
V
VCC
Pins AHI, ALO, BHI, BLO, CHI, CLO, COASTn,
RESETn, ESF, FF1, and FF2
Logic Input and Output Voltage
Other Pins Input and Output Voltage
Pins SA, SB, SC
Pins GLA, GLB, GLC
Clamp Current
Maximum Voltage Slew Rate on Sx
IDCL
–0.3 to VCC + 0.3
V
1
mA
50
V/ns
–40 to 125
°C
150
°C
175
°C
–55 to 150
°C
Pins DHA, DHB, DHC, DLA, DLB, DLC
dvSx/dt
Ambient Operating Temperature
Range
TA
Maximum Continuous Junction
Temperature
TJ(max)
Transient Junction Temperature
TtJ
Storage Temperature Range
Tstg
Temperature Range K
Overtemperature event not exceeding
10 s, lifetime duration not exceeding 10 h;
characterized by design
Thermal Characteristics may require derating at maximum conditions, see application information
Characteristic
Package Thermal Resistance
Symbol
RθJA
Test Conditions*
On 4-layer PCB based on JEDEC standard
Value
Unit
35
ºC/W
*Additional thermal information available on the Allegro website.
Table of Contents
Pin-Out Diagram
3
Terminal List Table
3
Functional Block Diagram
4
Timing Diagrams
7
Phase Control and Fault Tables
9
Functional Description
Terminal Functions
Power Supply
Gate Drive
High-side gate drive
Bootstrap capacitors
Low-side gate drive
10
10
10
11
11
11
11
Logic Control Inputs
Phase control
Sleep mode and reset
Diagnostics
Fault States
Overtemperature
VCC undervoltage
Bootstrap undervoltage
VDD undervoltage
VDS overvoltage
Fault Register Serial Access
Serial access method
Package Outline Drawing
11
11
12
12
12
12
13
13
13
13
14
14
15
Allegro MicroSystems, LLC
115 Northeast Cutoff
Worcester, Massachusetts 01615-0036 U.S.A.
1.508.853.5000; www.allegromicro.com
2
A4900
High Voltage Three Phase Gate Driver
Pin-out Diagram
SC
1
44
GLA
GHC
2
43
GLB
DHC
3
42
GND
BCC
4
41
GLC
NC
5
40
GND
NC
6
39
VCC
NC
7
38
DLA
NC
8
37
DLB
NC
9
36
DLC
SB 10
35
COASTn
GHB 11
34
CHI
DHB 12
33
CLO
BCB 13
32
BLO
NC 14
31
BHI
NC 15
30
TMUX
NC 16
29
TENA
NC 17
28
AHI
NC 18
27
ALO
SA 19
26
FF1
GHA 20
25
FF2
DHA 21
24
ESF
BCA 22
23
RESETn
Terminal List Table
Name
Number
Function
Name
Number
Function
AHI
28
Phase A high-side control logic input
ESF
24
Fail mode action control logic input
ALO
27
Phase A low-side control logic input
FF1
26
Fault flag 1 open drain output
BCA
22
Phase A high-side bootstrap supply
capacitor (HVA)
BCB
13
Phase B high-side bootstrap supply
capacitor (HVB)
BCC
4
Phase C high-side bootstrap supply
capacitor (HVC)
BHI
31
Phase B high-side control logic input
FF2
25
Fault flag 2 open drain output
GHA
20
Phase A high-side FET gate drive (HVA)
GHB
11
Phase B high-side FET gate drive (HVB)
GHC
2
Phase C high-side FET gate drive (HVC)
GLA
44
Phase A low-side FET gate drive
GLB
43
Phase B low-side FET gate drive
Phase C low-side FET gate drive
BLO
32
Phase B low-side control logic input
GLC
41
CHI
34
Phase C high-side control logic input
GND
40, 42
CLO
33
Phase C low-side control logic input
COASTn
35
Motor coast logic input, active low
DHA
21
Phase A high-side drain voltage monitor
input (HVA)
DHB
12
DHC
NC
Ground
5, 6, 7, 8,
9, 14, 15, Do not connect
16, 17, 18
RESETn
23
Reset and shutdown logic input, active low
Phase B high-side drain voltage monitor
input (HVB)
SA
19
Phase A high-side FET source and motor
phase (HVA)
3
Phase C high-side drain voltage monitor
input (HVC)
SB
10
Phase B high-side FET source and motor
phase (HVB)
DLA
38
Phase A low-side drain voltage monitor input
SC
1
Phase C high-side FET source and motor
phase (HVC)
DLB
37
Phase B low-side drain voltage monitor input
TEST
29, 30
Connect to GND
DLC
36
Phase C low-side drain voltage monitor input
VCC
39
Gate drive supply
Allegro MicroSystems, LLC
115 Northeast Cutoff
Worcester, Massachusetts 01615-0036 U.S.A.
1.508.853.5000; www.allegromicro.com
3
A4900
High Voltage Three Phase Gate Driver
Functional Block Diagram
VCC
Motor Supply +
VCC
VM
A4900
COASTn
Phase A
DHA
VDS
Monitor
BCA
Phase A of
3 phases shown
AHI
High-Side
Drive
ALO
BHI
RGHA
Control
Logic
SA
BLO
VDS
Monitor
CHI
RESETn
MOSFET
or IGBT
CBOOTA
DLA
VCC
CLO
ESF
FF1
FF2
GHA
Low-Side
Drive
Phase B
GLA
RGLA
MOSFET
or IGBT
Phase C
Diagnostics and Protection
UVLO, OTF
Short to Supply
Short to GND
GND
Allegro MicroSystems, LLC
115 Northeast Cutoff
Worcester, Massachusetts 01615-0036 U.S.A.
1.508.853.5000; www.allegromicro.com
4
A4900
High Voltage Three Phase Gate Driver
ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS Valid at TJ = –40°C to 150°C, VCC = 15 V; unless otherwise specified
Characteristic
Symbol
Test Conditions
Min.
Typ.
Max.
Unit
Supply
VCC Supply Voltage
VCC Quiescent Current
High-Side Driver Current
VCC
13.5
15
16.5
V
IVCCQ
RESETn = high, outputs = low
–
8
10
mA
IVCCS
RESETn = low, sleep mode
–
–
80
μA
IBCxS
Each phase
–
–
200
μA
Gate Output Drive
Pull-Up On-Resistance
RDS(on)UP
TJ = 25°C, IGHx = –100 mA
–
–
70
Ω
Pull-Down On-Resistance
RDS(on)DN
TJ = 25°C, IGLx = 100 mA
–
–
35
Ω
Output High Short Circuit Pulsed
Current
IOH
VO = 0 V, short pulse width (<10 μs)
–
210
–
mA
Output Low Short Circuit Pulsed
Current
IOL
VO = 15 V short pulse width (<10 μs)
–
420
–
mA
GHx Output High Voltage
VGHH
VBCx – 0.2
–
–
V
GHx Output Low Voltage
VGHL
–
–
VSx + 0.1
V
GLx Output High Voltage
VGLH
VCC – 0.2
–
–
V
GLx Output Low Voltage
VGLL
–
–
0.1
V
Turn-On Rise Time
tr
CLOAD = 1 nF, 20% to 80%
–
90
150
ns
Turn-Off Fall Time
tf
CLOAD = 1 nF, 80% to 20%
Turn-Off Propagation Delay
Turn-On Propagation Delay
tP(off)
tP(on)
–
40
85
ns
Phase input change to unloaded gate output
change (see figure 1)
250
300
500
ns
COASTn low to unloaded gate output change
370
420
570
ns
RESETn low to unloaded gate output change
250
300
500
ns
Phase input change to unloaded gate output
change (see figure 1)
250
300
500
ns
COASTn high to unloaded gate output change
0.8
1
1.3
μs
Phase-to-Phase Propagation Delay
Matching
ΔtPP
Same phase change
–
50
–
ns
On-to-Off Propagation Delay Matching
ΔtOO
Single phase
–
50
–
ns
High-Side Passive Pull-Down
RPDH
–
800
–
kΩ
Low-Side Passive Pull-Down
RPDL
–
800
–
kΩ
130
200
330
ns
Dead
Time2
tDEAD
Delay from turn-off to turn-on, single phase
Logic Inputs and Outputs
FFx Fault Output (Open Drain)
VOL
IOL = 1 mA, fault not present
–
–
0.4
V
Fault Output Leakage Current*
IOH
VO = 5 V, fault present
–1
–
1
μA
Input Low Voltage
VIL
–
–
0.7
V
Input High Voltage
Input Hysteresis
VIH
2.2
–
–
V
VIhys
150
300
–
mV
Continued on the next page…
Allegro MicroSystems, LLC
115 Northeast Cutoff
Worcester, Massachusetts 01615-0036 U.S.A.
1.508.853.5000; www.allegromicro.com
5
A4900
High Voltage Three Phase Gate Driver
ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS (continued) Valid at TJ = –40°C to 150°C, VCC = 15 V; unless otherwise specified
Characteristic
Symbol
Test Conditions
Min.
Typ.
Max.
Unit
Logic Inputs and Outputs (continued)
Input Pull-Down Resistor
RPD
–
50
–
kΩ
RESETn Shutdown Time
tRSD
All digital inputs
10
–
–
μs
RESETn Start-up Time
tRSU
–
15
20
μs
Reset Hold-Off Delay Time
tRHD
–
5
–
μs
RESETn Pulse Time
tRES
0.3
–
3.5
μs
RESETn Pulse Filter Time
tRF
–
–
200
ns
Protection
VCC Undervoltage Threshold
VCC Undervoltage Hysteresis
Bootstrap Undervoltage Threshold
Bootstrap Undervoltage Hysteresis
VDS Threshold
VCCUVoff
VCC falling
9
10
11
V
VCCUVon
VCC rising
10
11
12
V
–
1
–
V
VBCUVoff
BCx with respect to Sx, VBCx falling
9
10
11
V
VBCUVon
BCx with respect to Sx, VBCx rising
10
11
12
V
–
1
–
V
1.8
2.0
2.2
V
–
–
100
nA
VCCUVhys
VBCUVHys
VDSTH
VDM = 2.2 V (either VDM = VDHx – VSx , or
VDM = VDLx )
Drain Monitor Input Current
IDMH
Drain Monitor Clamp Voltage
VDMC
–
5
–
V
tBL
2
3
4.5
μs
Drain Monitor Blank Time
Overtemperature Flag
Overtemperature Hysteresis
TJF
Temperature increasing
155
170
–
ºC
TJHyst
Recovery = TJF – TJHyst
–
15
–
ºC
*For input and output current specifications, negative current is defined as coming out of (sourcing) the specified device pin.
Allegro MicroSystems, LLC
115 Northeast Cutoff
Worcester, Massachusetts 01615-0036 U.S.A.
1.508.853.5000; www.allegromicro.com
6
A4900
High Voltage Three Phase Gate Driver
Timing Diagrams
(1a) Phase Inputs
xHI
xHI
xHI
xLO
xLO
xLO
GHx-Sx
GHx-Sx
tP(off)
tDEAD
GLx
tDEAD
tP(on)
GHx-Sx
tP(off)
GLx
GLx
tP(on)
tP(off)
tP(off)
Synchronous Rectification
High-Side PWM
COASTn
COASTn
(1b) COASTn Input
Low-Side PWM
t P(on)
GHx-Sx
GHx-Sx
tP(off)
tP(on)
GLx
GLx
tP(off)
xHI = 1, xLO = 0
xHI = 0, xLO = 1
Figure 1. Gate Drive Timing
Monitor State
(2a) High Side
Disabled
Active
Disabled
Active
xHI
GHx-Sx
tBL
Monitor State Active
(2b) Low Side
tBL
Disabled
Active
Disabled
xLO
GLx
tBL
Figure 2. VDS Overvoltage Internal Monitor Timing
Allegro MicroSystems, LLC
115 Northeast Cutoff
Worcester, Massachusetts 01615-0036 U.S.A.
1.508.853.5000; www.allegromicro.com
7
A4900
High Voltage Three Phase Gate Driver
(3a) High Side
Fault
Present
No
Fault
Fault State
Fault
Present
No
Fault
xHI
GHx-Sx
tBL
Fault State
No
Fault
Fault
Present
Fault
Present
No
Fault
No
Fault
xLI
(3b) Low Side
GLx
tBL
FF2
Figure 3. VDS Overvoltage Fault Timing
VDS fault detected on phase B
FF2 pulled u p by resistor
Controller pulls FF2 Low
(4a) VDS Fault
(MOSFET or IGBT short)
FF2
Serial Read
POR
AL
BL
CL
Fault register reset
FF1 and FF2 pulled low by A4900
VC
(Fault register bits)
FF1
Fault register output on FF1 by A4900
(1 bit on each falling edge of FF2)
FF2
(4b) Overtemperature Fault
FF1
Overtemperature condition present
VCC undervoltage detected
FF1 and FF2 pulled up by resistor
Controller pulls FF2 Low
(4c) VCC Undervoltage Fault
Serial Read
POR
AL
BL
CL
Fault register reset
FF1 and FF2 pulled low by A4900
VC
(Fault register bits)
FF2
FF1
Figure 4. General Faults FFx Timing
Fault register output on FF1 by A4900
(1 bit on each falling edge of FF2)
Allegro MicroSystems, LLC
115 Northeast Cutoff
Worcester, Massachusetts 01615-0036 U.S.A.
1.508.853.5000; www.allegromicro.com
8
A4900
High Voltage Three Phase Gate Driver
Table 1. Phase Control Truth Table
Inputs
RESETn
COASTn
Outputs
xHI
xLO
Phase*
GHx
GLx
Comment
Sx
0
x
x
x
L→ Z
L→ Z
Z
Low power shutdown
1
0
x
x
L→ Z
L
Z
Coast
1
x
0
0
L
L
Z
Phase disabled
1
1
0
1
L
H
LO
Phase sinking
1
1
1
0
H
L
HI
Phase sourcing
1
x
1
1
L
L
Z
Phase disabled
Note: x = don’t care, Z = high impedance, both switches off
*Phase HI = high-side switch (MOSFET or IGBT) active, Phase LO = low-side switch active
Table 2: Fault Definition
Fault Flags
Fault
Action Taken*
FF1
FF2
0
0
No fault
No action
0
0
Bootstrap undervoltage
Disable switch
0
0
High-side VDS overvoltage
Disable switch
0
1
Low-side VDS overvoltage
Disable switch
1
0
Overtemperature
ESF = 0, No action
ESF = 1, Disable all
1
1
Internal VDD undervoltage
Disable all
1
1
VCC undervoltage
Disable all
*Disable Switch = turn off active power switching device (MOSFET or IGBT),
Disable All = turn off all power switching devices
Table 3: Fault Register Bit Definition
Bit
Sequence
Function
POR
1
Power-on-reset since last read
AL
2
VDS exceeded on A phase low-side switch
BL
3
VDS exceeded on B phase low-side switch
CL
4
VDS exceeded on C phase low-side switch
VC
5
Undervoltage detected on VCC
Allegro MicroSystems, LLC
115 Northeast Cutoff
Worcester, Massachusetts 01615-0036 U.S.A.
1.508.853.5000; www.allegromicro.com
9
A4900
High Voltage Three Phase Gate Driver
Functional Description
The A4900 provides six gate drives, capable of driving a wide
range of N-channel IGBT or power MOSFET switches. The
gate drives are configured as three high-voltage high-side drives
and three low-side drives. The high-side drives are isolated up
to 600 V to allow operation with high bridge (motor) supply
voltages. High-side drives use a bootstrap capacitor to provide
the necessary gate drive voltage above the motor supply voltage.
Each drive can be controlled with a TTL logic level input compatible with 3.3 V or 5 V logic systems.
A single supply input provides the gate drive supply and the
bootstrap capacitor charge source. An internal regulator from the
single supply provides the lower internal voltage for the logic
circuit. The A4900 provides internal monitors to ensure that
the gate-source voltage of both high-side and low-side external
MOSFETs or IGBTs are above 9 V when active.
The control inputs to the A4900 provide a very flexible solution
for many motor control applications. Each driver can be driven
with an independent PWM signal allowing implementation of
all motor excitation methods including trapezoidal and sinusoidal drive.
Diagnostics include short detection for the power switching
devices, undervoltage detection for the key internal and external
supplies and overtemperature detection. Two fault flags indicate
three sets of faults and specific faults can be determined by reading a serial register.
Specific functions are described more fully in the following sections.
Terminal Functions
VCC Power supply for internal regulators and gate drive circuits.
This supply also provides the charging source for the external
bootstrap diodes. It should be decoupled with ceramic capacitors
connected close to the VCC and GND terminals.
GND Power, digital, and reference ground. Low-side return path
for discharge of the capacitance on the MOSFET or IGBT gates.
DHA, DHB, DHC High-side drain voltage sense input to the high-
side VDS monitors. Typically connected to the drain via a resistor
potential divider.
BCA, BCB, BCC High-side connections for the bootstrap capaci-
tors and positive supply for high-side gate drivers.
GHA, GHB, GHC High-side, gate drive outputs for external
N-channel MOSFETs or IGBTs.
SA, SB, SC Motor phase connections that are the negative supply
connections for the floating high-side drivers and returns for the
high-side gate discharge current to the sources of the high-side
switches. They also are connected to the negative side of the
bootstrap capacitors and provide the reference offset voltage for
the high-side VDS monitors.
DLA, DLB, DLC Low-side drain voltage sense input to the low-
side VDS monitors. Typically connected to the drain via a resistor
potential divider.
GLA, GLB, GLC Low-side gate drive outputs for external
N-channel MOSFETs or IGBTs.
AHI, ALO Logic inputs for phase A gate drive control.
BHI, BLO Logic inputs for phase B gate drive control.
CHI, CLO Logic inputs for phase C gate drive control.
COASTn Active-low logic input that forces all gate drive outputs
low, and turns all external power switches off. Overrides all gate
drive control inputs.
RESETn Active low logic input that resets faults when pulsed
low. Allows low-power shutdown (sleep mode) when held low
for more than the RESETn Shutdown Time, tRSD .
FF1, FF2 Open drain fault flag outputs that indicate the presence
of fault conditions. FF2 can be used as a clock input to read a
serial register on FF1.
ESF Enable stop-on-fail logic input that determines actions to be
taken during overtemperature fault conditions.
Power Supply
All internal supplies and references are derived from a single
power supply connection to VCC at 15 V (typ). A single ground
connection provides the return path for the operating current and
the low-side gate discharge currents. The ground terminal must
have a low impedance, low inductance path to the system ground
of the main power bridge. The VCC supply must be decoupled
with ceramic capacitors connected close to the supply and ground
terminals. The supply for the internal logic is provided by an integrated linear regulator which provides the internal logic supply
voltage, VDD .
Allegro MicroSystems, LLC
115 Northeast Cutoff
Worcester, Massachusetts 01615-0036 U.S.A.
1.508.853.5000; www.allegromicro.com
10
A4900
High Voltage Three Phase Gate Driver
Gate Drive
The A4900 is designed to drive external, N-channel power
switching devices, either MOSFET or IGBT. It supplies the
transient currents necessary to quickly charge and discharge the
external gate capacitance in order to reduce dissipation in the
external power device during switching. The charge and discharge rate is controlled using an external resistor in series with
the connection to the gate of the power switching device. In the
following sections the letter x is used to represent the phase: A, B
or C.
High-side gate drive
The floating high-side gate drive outputs at the GHA, GHB, and
GHC terminals are referenced to the voltage at the respective SA,
SB, or SC terminal. An external resistor between the gate drive
output and the gate connection to the power switching device
controls the slew rate seen at the gate, thereby providing some
control of the di/dt in the bridge and the dv/dt of the Sx terminal.
GHx = 1 (high) means that the upper half of the driver is turned
on and the drain sources current to the gate of the high-side
switching device in the external bridge, turning it on. GHx = 0
(low) means that the lower half of the driver is turned on and the
drain sinks current from the gate of the external high-side switching device to the respective Sx terminal, turning it off.
When power is removed, a passive pull-down resistor between
the GHx terminal and the corresponding Sx terminal ensures that
the high-side switching device is held in the off state.
Bootstrap capacitors
The positive supply for the high-side gate driver on each phase is
provided by a bootstrap capacitor, connected between the BCA
and SA, BCB and SB, and BCC and SC terminals respectively.
An external diode between the VCC terminal and each bootstrap
capacitor is required to charge the capacitor when the associated
output Sx terminal is low. The bootstrap capacitor is charged to
approximately VCC – Vf , where VCC is the supply voltage at the
VCC terminal and Vf is the forward voltage of the external blocking diode.
When the high-side switch is turned on, the voltage at the Sx
terminal rises. This pushes the voltage at the other end of the
bootstrap capacitor above VCC and the diode stops current flowing from the bootstrap capacitor back to the VCC supply. The
diode must have a reverse breakdown rating in excess of the
bridge supply voltage because the voltage at the BCx terminal
will be above the bridge voltage when the respective high-side
switch is turned on.
After applying power or coming out of sleep mode, all three
bootstrap capacitors must be charged before turning on any highside switch. The capacitors can be charged by first turning on
the three low-side switches for a short time. This will pull the Sx
terminals low and allow the bootstrap diodes to apply a charging
voltage across the capacitors.
Low-side gate drive
The low-side gate drive outputs at the GLA, GLB, and GLC
terminals are referenced to the voltage at the GND terminal.
An external resistor between the gate drive output and the gate
connection to the power switching device controls the slew rate
seen at the gate, thereby providing some control of the di/dt in
the bridge and the dv/dt of the Sx terminal. GLx = 1 (high) means
that the upper half of the driver is turned on and the drain sources
current to the gate of the low-side power switching device in
the external power bridge, turning it on. GLx = 0 (low) means
that the lower half of the driver is turned on and the drain sinks
current from the gate of the external low-side power switching
device to the GND terminal, turning it off.
When power is removed, a passive pull-down resistor between
the GLx terminal and the GND terminal ensures that the low-side
switching device is held in the off state.
Logic Control Inputs
There are seven logic inputs that directly control the bridge. Two
additional inputs provide systems and diagnostic management.
All logic inputs are TTL compatible to allow operation with 3.3 V
and 5 V logic. All inputs have a hysteresis of 300 mV (typ) to
improve noise performance and an internal pull-down resistor
of 50 kΩ (typ) to ensure that the outputs are disabled if the input
control signals are removed.
Phase control
Each phase is controlled independently with two control inputs
for each phase. The xHI input controls the high-side drive and
the xLO input controls the low-side drive. Internal lock-out logic
ensures that the high-side output drive and low-side output drive
cannot be active simultaneously. Table 1 shows the logic truth
table.
All gate drive outputs, GHx and GLx, can be forced low together
by taking the COASTn input low. This turns all external power
switching devices off and quickly disables the bridge in the
event of a fault. COASTn does not clear any faults, so that the
fault flags can be decoded and the serial fault word can be read.
Because COASTn turns off all the external power switching
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11
A4900
High Voltage Three Phase Gate Driver
devices, it can also be used to provide fast decay PWM without
synchronous rectification. If COASTn is held low, the high-side
bootstrap capacitor may eventually become discharged and the
high-side gate drive will then stop driving low. The high-impedance passive pull-down between the gate drive output and the
corresponding source connection will then provide a discharge
path to keep the high-side switch turned off. The low-side drive
will remain active holding the low-side switch off.
Sleep mode and reset
When RESETn is held low for longer than the RESETn Shutdown Time, tRSD , all gate drive outputs will initially be driven
low. After a period of time determined by the charge state and
value of the bootstrap capacitor, the high-side gate drive will
stop driving. The high-impedance passive pull-down between the
high-side gate drive output and the corresponding source connection will then provide a discharge path to keep the high-side
switch turned off. The low-side drive will drive low for the Reset
Hold-Off Delay Time, tRHD , then stop driving. The high-impedance passive pull-down between the low-side gate drive output
and the ground connection will then provide a discharge path to
keep the low-side switch turned off.
The regulator and all internal circuitry are then disabled and the
A4900 enters sleep mode. In sleep mode the current consumption
from the VCC supply is reduced to the minimum level, and the
latched faults and corresponding fault flags are cleared. When
coming out of sleep mode the protection logic ensures that the
gate drive outputs are off until the internal regulators reach their
correct operating conditions.
When coming out of sleep mode all bootstrap capacitors must be
charged before turning on any high-side switch, by first turning
on the three low-side switches for a short time.
RESETn can also be used to clear any faults in the Fault register,
without entering sleep mode, by taking it low for the RESETn
Pulse Time, tRES .
Diagnostics
Several diagnostic features are integrated into the A4900 to
provide indication of fault conditions. In addition to system wide
faults such as undervoltage and overtemperature, the A4900
integrates individual voltage monitors for each external power
switching device. These are used to detect an overvoltage across
the switching device when it is active, and to provide short circuit
detection and protection.
Fault conditions are indicated by the states of the two open drain
output fault flags, FF1 and FF2, as shown in table 2. In the event
that two or more faults are detected simultaneously, the states of
the fault flags are determined by a logical OR of the fault state of
each flag.
When an undervoltage fault or a low-side switch overvoltage is
detected, detailed fault information can be read from the fault
outputs as a serial data word. When FF2 is high, a clock can be
applied to FF2 and detailed fault information can be read from
FF1 as a serial word. This can be used to determine on which of
the three low-side external switching devices an overvoltage has
been detected, or if a power-on reset or supply undervoltage has
occurred. Fault register serial access operation is detailed in the
Fault Register Serial Access section below.
The state of the enable stop-on-fault logic input, ESF, determines
the action taken when an overtemperature fault is detected. For
other fault conditions the action is defined by the type of fault, as
shown in table 2.
Low-side switch overvoltage faults cause the fault flags and the
relevant bit in the Fault register to be latched. For undervoltage
faults the relevant bit in the Fault register is latched, but the flags
are active only when the fault is present. For overtemperature
faults the flags are active only when the fault is present.
Fault States
In addition to temperature, there are five voltage levels monitored
in the A4900: the main supply voltage, the internally regulated
logic supply voltage, and the voltage on each of the three highside bootstrap capacitors.
Overtemperature
If the junction temperature exceeds the limit, 170°C (typ), FF1
goes high. When an overtemperature is detected, and ESF is
high, the outputs are disabled automatically. If ESF is low, then
no circuitry is disabled and the external controller must turn the
outputs off or limit the power dissipation in some way so as to
prevent overtemperature damage to the chip and unpredictable
device operation. The overtemperature fault condition and the
fault flags will be cleared only when the temperature drops below
the recovery level, defined by TJF – TJHyst . Note that an overtemperature fault does not permit access to the Fault register, because
FF2 remains low.
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12
A4900
High Voltage Three Phase Gate Driver
VCC undervoltage
VCC is the supply for the low-side gate driver and the bootstrap charge current. It is critical to ensure that the voltages are
sufficiently high before enabling any of the outputs. The undervoltage monitor circuit is active during power up. Both fault flags
are high and the motor is coasting (all gate drives low) until VCC
is greater than approximately 11 V.
When a VCC undervoltage is detected, the fault flags and the
fault register will be set and all gate drive outputs will be pulled
low. When the VCC undervoltage condition is removed, the flags
will be cleared and the outputs enabled. The VC bit in the Fault
register will remain set until cleared by a register reset (see Fault
Register Serial Access section, below).
Bootstrap undervoltage
The A4900 has three independent bootstrap voltage monitors, one
for each phase. These monitor the individual bootstrap capacitor
charge voltages to ensure sufficient high-side drive voltage. Each
phase operates independently, such that a bootstrap undervoltage
on one phase does not affect the other two phases.
Before a high-side drive can be turned on, the voltage of the corresponding bootstrap capacitor must be higher than the turn-on
voltage limit, VBCUVon. If the bootstrap capacitor voltage is not
above VBCUVon , the A4900 does not allow the high-side gate
drive output to go high.
The bootstrap voltage monitor for a phase remains active while
a high-side gate drive output for that phase is commanded to be
in the on state. If a high-side gate drive is high and the voltage of
the corresponding bootstrap capacitor drops below the turn-off
voltage, VBCUVoff , then that high-side gate drive will be turned
off. The output will remain off until an off-to-on transition is
commanded by the control logic and the bootstrap capacitor voltage is above the turn-on voltage, VBCUVon .
The bootstrap undervoltage fault state has no effect on the fault
flag outputs or the Fault register.
VDD undervoltage
The internal logic supply voltage, VDD , is monitored to ensure
correct logical operation. If an undervoltage of VDD is detected,
then the state of other reported faults might not be valid, so
all fault states, fault flags, and the Fault register are reset and
replaced by the VDD undervoltage condition, and the outputs are
disabled. When the VDD undervoltage condition is removed all
flags will be cleared and the outputs will be enabled.
VDS overvoltage
Each of the six external power switching devices is provided with
an independent overvoltage monitor, used to switch the device off
if an overvoltage is detected. For each high-side power switching
device, the monitor compares a fixed threshold voltage, VDSTH ,
to the differential voltage between the DHx terminal and the Sx
terminal. For each low-side power switching device, the monitor
compares VDSTH to the voltage between the DLx terminal and
the GND terminal. The output of the monitor comparator is high
when the monitored voltage is greater than VDSTH , but is only
valid when the associated switching device is turned on.
Power MOSFETs and IGBTs take a finite time to reach their full
conduction state, so the monitored voltage may remain above
the threshold and show a fault as the power switching device is
turned on. To overcome this and avoid false short fault detection,
the output of a comparator is ignored until one VDS fault blank
time, tBL, after the associated external switching device is turned
on. If the monitored voltage remains above VDSTH after the VDS
fault blank time, then a short fault will be detected.
The monitored voltage is derived from the actual voltage across
the power switching device using a resistor divider. This is
necessary to prevent damage to the monitor input, either DHx or
DLx, by the large differential voltage across the power switching device when the it is off. The monitor input is clamped to the
respective reference point with a 5 V clamp. For the high-side the
clamps are between the DHx and Sx terminals. For the low-side
the clamps are between the DLx and GND terminals. The values
of the resistors in the monitor voltage divider must be selected to
ensure that the current through the clamp is limited to less than
the maximum value, IDCL . For example, a motor supply of 400 V
means that the maximum voltage across the upper resistor in the
divider will be 395 V. The current through the resistor must be
less than 1 mA, so the resistor must be greater than 395 kΩ. If the
required detection voltage across the power switching device is
say 3 V, then the lower resistor in the divider must be 790 kΩ to
achieve a monitor voltage of 2 V.
A short fault on either the high-side or the low-side always turns
off the external switching device where the fault is detected,
and holds it off until the control input is switched low then high
again. This ensures that the overcurrent stress on the switching
device is limited to a few microseconds after it is switched on.
Only the low-side VDS overvoltage fault is indicated by the fault
flags and captured in the Fault register. When a low-side fault is
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13
A4900
High Voltage Three Phase Gate Driver
present, the FF2 output is high and the associated (xL) bit in the
Fault register is set. The FF2 output will remain high until reset.
There are four ways the FF2 flag can be reset, assuming that the
fault condition has been removed:
Serial access method
• Taking or pulsing RESETn low
FF1 and FF2 are monitored by the external controller. If FF2 goes
high and FF1 remains low, then a low-side VDS overvoltage has
been detected. If FF1 and FF2 go high together, then a VCC or
VDD undervoltage has been detected.
• Taking the associated control input low
In either case the A4900 response sequence will be:
• A serial read
• A power on reset
It is possible to disable the VDS overvoltage monitors by connecting the monitor input directly to its reference node (Sx or GND).
This ensures that the monitor voltage is always zero so a fault is
never detected.
Any low-side VDS overvoltage fault always is latched in the Fault
register until RESETn is low or a serial read is completed. (An
undervoltage on the internal logic supply also will completely
reset the short fault condition and the Fault register and replace it
with a VDD undervoltage fault.)
1. External controller takes any necessary additional action to
protect the external MOSFETs or IGBTs.
2. Controller pulls FF2 low. A4900 responds by outputting the
first bit of the Fault register, POR , on FF1.
3. Controller reads the fault bit and toggles FF2 high then low to
request the next bit, AL. This continues for each of the 5 bits
in the Fault register.
4. After the final bit, VC, is output on FF1, the controller takes
FF2 high then low once more. Assuming that no fault conditions are present, the A4900 resets the Fault register and pulls
FF1 and FF2 low to indicate no fault present.
5. Controller releases FF2.
Fault Register Serial Access
The fault flag outputs, FF1 and FF2, are open drain and passively
pulled high when a fault has been detected. This makes it possible
to allow one or both of these fault pins to be driven externally to
a logic low during a fault condition, when the A4900 is not pulling the fault pin low. One of these fault flags, FF2, can be used
as a clock input to shift out the status of the Fault register, bit by
bit, on the other fault flag FF1. When FF2 is pulled low by the
A4900, either when no fault has been detected or when only an
overtemperature fault is present, then no serial access is possible.
The Fault register can be accessed only when FF2 goes high.
This occurs when a low-side VDS overvoltage, or a VCC or VDD
undervoltage, fault has been detected (see table 2).
The basic sequences for the three possible states of FF1 and FF2
are shown in figure 4.
At the end of the serial transfer, on the last high to low transition
input to FF2, the Fault register and the fault flags are reset. However it is possible that one of the three unlatched fault conditions,
VCC undervoltage, VDD undervoltage, or overtemperature, is
still present. In this case the fault flags will immediately show the
fault status.
If a VDD undervoltage occurs then both fault flags will be high,
the POR bit will be set, and the remaining bits in the Fault register will be reset.
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14
A4900
High Voltage Three Phase Gate Driver
Package LQ, 44-Pin QSOP
17.93
17.73
8°
0°
44
0.60
0.32
0.23
0.80
2.20
44
7.60
7.40
A
10.51
10.11
9.50
Branded
Face
1.27
0.40
1 2
1 2
0.36
2.64
2.44
44X
0.10 C
0.51
0.28
0.80 NOM
SEATING
PLANE
C
PCB Layout Reference View
SEATING PLANE
GAGE PLANE
0.30
0.10
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
YYWW
LLLLLLLLLLLLLLL
For Reference Only; not for tooling use (QSOP, nonJEDEC standard)
Dimensions in millimeters
Dimensions exclusive of mold flash, gate burrs, and dambar protrusions
Exact case and lead configuration at supplier discretion within limits shown
A Terminal #1 mark area
B Branding scale and appearance at supplier discretion
C Reference land pattern layout (reference IPC7351 SOP80P1034X264-44M);
All pads a minimum of 0.20 mm from all adjacent pads; adjust as necessary
to meet application process requirements and PCB layout tolerances; when
mounting on a multilayer PCB, thermal vias at the exposed thermal pad land
can improve thermal dissipation (reference EIA/JEDEC Standard JESD51-5)
B
Standard Branding Reference View
N = Device part number
= Supplier emblem
Y = Last two digits of year of manufacture
W = Week of manufacture
L = Lot identifier
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15
A4900
High Voltage Three Phase Gate Driver
Copyright ©2013, Allegro MicroSystems, LLC
Allegro MicroSystems, LLC reserves the right to make, from time to time, such departures from the detail specifications as may be required to
permit improvements in the performance, reliability, or manufacturability of its products. Before placing an order, the user is cautioned to verify that
the information being relied upon is current.
Allegro’s products are not to be used in life support devices or systems, if a failure of an Allegro product can reasonably be expected to cause the
failure of that life support device or system, or to affect the safety or effectiveness of that device or system.
The information included herein is believed to be accurate and reliable. However, Allegro MicroSystems, LLC assumes no responsibility for its
use; nor for any infringement of patents or other rights of third parties which may result from its use.
For the latest version of this document, visit our website:
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16
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