AP0101CS D

AP0101CS HDR: Image Signal Processor (ISP)
Features
AP0101CS High-Dynamic Range (HDR)
Image Signal Processor (ISP)
AP0101CS Datasheet, Rev. 7
For the latest product datasheet, please visit www.onsemi.com
Features
Table 1:
• Supports ON Semiconductor sensors with up to
1.2 Mp (1280x960)
• 45 fps at 1.2 Mp, 60 fps at 720p
• Optimized for operation with HDR sensors
• Color and gamma correction
• Auto exposure, auto white balance, 50/60 Hz flicker
avoidance
• Adaptive Local Tone Mapping (ALTM)
• Test Pattern Generator
• Two-wire serial programming interface
• Interface to low-cost Flash or EPROM through SPI
bus (to configure and load patches)
• High-level host command interface
• Standalone operation supported
• Up to 5 GPIO
• Fail-safe IO
• Multi-Camera synchronization support
• Dual Band IR filter support
Parameter
Key Performance Parameters
Primary camera
interface
Primary camera input
format
Output interface
Output format
Maximum resolution
Input clock range2
Maximum frame rate3
Maximum output clock
frequency
VDDIO_S
VDDIO_H
Supply
voltage VDD_REG
VDDIO_OTPM
Operating temperature
(ambient - TA)
Typical power
consumption4
Applications
• SMPTE296 HDCCTV cameras
• Surveillance network IP cameras
Value
Parallel
RAW12 Linear/Companded Bayer
data
Up to 20-bit Parallel1
YUV422 8-bit,10-bit, and
SMPTE296M
10-, 12-bit tone-mapped Bayer
1280x960 (1.2 Mp)
6-30 MHz
45 fps at 1.2 Mp, 60 fps at 720p
Parallel clock up to 84 MHz
1.8 or 2.8 V nominal
2.5 or 3.3 V nominal
1.8V nominal
2.5 or 3.3 V nominal
–30°C to +70°C
130 mW
Notes: 1. 20-bit in one pixel clock format is only available in
SMPTE mode with the use of 4 GPIOs.
2. With input clock below 10 MHz, the two wire
serial interface is supported only up to 100 KHz
3. Maximum frame rate depends on output interface and data format configuration used.
4. 720p HDR 60 fps 74.25 MHz YCbCr_422_16
AP0101CS/D Rev. 7, 1/16 EN
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©Semiconductor Components Industries, LLC 2016,
AP0101CS HDR: Image Signal Processor (ISP)
Ordering Information
Ordering Information
Table 2:
Available Part Numbers
Part Number
Product Description
Orderable Product Attribute Description
AP0101CS2L00SPGA0-DR1
1Mp Co-Processor, 100-ball VFBGA
Drypack
AP0101CS2L00SPGAD3-GEVK
AP0101CS Demo Kit
AP0101CS2L00SPGAH-GEVB
AP0101CS Head Board
See the ON Semiconductor Device Nomenclature document (TND310/D) for a full
description of the naming convention used for image sensors. For reference documentation, including information on evaluation kits, please visit our web site at
www.onsemi.com.
AP0101CS/D Rev. 7, 1/16 EN
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©Semiconductor Components Industries, LLC,2016.
AP0101CS HDR: Image Signal Processor (ISP)
Table of Contents
Table of Contents
Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1
Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1
Ordering Information. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2
General Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4
Functional Overview. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4
System Interfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4
Multi-Camera Synchronization Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14
Image Flow Processor. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15
Camera Control and Auto Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21
AE Track Driver . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21
Auto White Balance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .22
Dual Band IRCF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .22
Exposure and White Balance Modes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .22
Flicker Avoidance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .23
Output Formatting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .23
Sensor Embedded Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .28
Slave Two-Wire Serial Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .28
Protocol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .28
Usage Modes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .33
Host Command Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .34
Electrical Specifications. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .35
Two-Wire Serial Register Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .39
Package and Die Options. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .41
AP0101CS/D Rev. 7, 1/16 EN
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©Semiconductor Components Industries, LLC,2016.
AP0101CS HDR: Image Signal Processor (ISP)
General Description
General Description
The ON Semiconductor AP0101CS is a high-performance, ultra-low power in-line,
digital image processor optimized for use with High Dynamic Range (HDR) sensors. The
AP0101CS provides full auto-functions support (AWB and AE) and Adaptive Local Tone
Mapping (ALTM) to enhance HDR images and advanced noise reduction which enables
excellent low-light performance.
Functional Overview
Figure 1 shows the typical configuration of the AP0101CS in a camera system. On the
host side, a two-wire serial interface is used to control the operation of the AP0101CS,
and image data is transferred using the parallel bus between the AP0101CS and the host.
The AP0101CS interface to the sensor also uses a parallel interface.
Figure 1:
AP0101CS Connectivity
1.2Mp HDR Sensor
12-bit parallel
Two-wire serial I/F (Master)
Up to 20-bit parallel
Host
Two-wire serial IF (Slave)
System Interfaces
Figure 2 on page 5 shows typical AP0101CS device connections.
All power supply rails must be decoupled from ground using capacitors as close as
possible to the package.
The AP0101CS signals to the sensor and host interfaces can be at different supply voltage
levels to optimize power consumption and maximize flexibility. Table 4 on page 7
provides the signal descriptions for the AP0101CS.
AP0101CS/D Rev. 7, 1/16 EN
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©Semiconductor Components Industries, LLC,2016.
AP0101CS HDR: Image Signal Processor (ISP)
System Interfaces
Figure 2:
Typical Configuration
1.8V
S ensor IO (R egulator
pow er
IP )
1.2V (R egulator OP)
P ower up C ore and
P LL
H ost IO
OTPM
P ow er pow er
V DDIO _S
V DD _REG FB _SENSE LDO_O P V DD _PLL V DD
M_S CLK
M_S DATA
EXTCLK_OUT
RESET_BAR_OUT
FV_IN
LV_IN
PIXCLK _IN
DIN [11:0]
V DDIO_OTPM
RPULL-UP2
RPULL-UP2
V DDIO _H
S CLK
RESET_BAR3
S DATA
S ADDR
FRAME_SYNC
EXTCLK
Oscillator
XTAL
STANDBY
FV_OUT
LV_OUT
PIXCLK_OUT
D OUT [15:0]
TRIGGER_OUT
SPI_CS_BAR
SPI_CLK
SPI_SDO
SPI_SDI
GPIO_1
GPIO_2
GPIO_3
GPIO_4
GPIO_5
TRST_BAR5
G ND_REG
VDDIO_S6 VDD_REG4
Notes:
AP0101CS/D Rev. 7, 1/16 EN
G ND
LDO_OP4
VDDIO_OTPM
VDDIO_H6
1. This typical configuration shows only one scenario out of multiple possible variations for this sensor.
2. ON Semiconductor recommends a 1.5kresistor value for the two-wire serial interface RPULL-UP;
however, greater values may be used for slower transmission speed.
3. RESET_BAR has an internal pull-up resistor and can be left floating if not used.
4. The decoupling capacitors for the regulator input and output should have a value of 1.0uF. The
capacitors should be ceramic and need to have X5R or X7R dielectric.
5. TRST_BAR connects to GND for normal operation.
6. ON Semiconductor recommends that 0.1F and 1F decoupling capacitors for each power supply
are mounted as close as possible to the pin. Actual values and numbers may vary depending on layout and design consideration
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©Semiconductor Components Industries, LLC,2016.
AP0101CS HDR: Image Signal Processor (ISP)
System Interfaces
The following table summarizes the key signals when using the internal regulator. (The
internal regulator has to be used for AP0101AT.)
Table 3:
AP0101CS/D Rev. 7, 1/16 EN
Key Signals When Using the Regulator
Signal Name
Internal Regulator
VDD_REG
FB_SENSE
LDO_OP
1.8V
1.2V (input)
1.2V (output)
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©Semiconductor Components Industries, LLC,2016.
AP0101CS HDR: Image Signal Processor (ISP)
System Interfaces
Crystal Usage
As an alternative to using an external oscillator, a crystal may be connected between
EXTCLK and XTAL. Two small loading capacitors and a feedback resistor should be
added, as shown in Figure 3.
Figure 3:
Using a Crystal Instead of an External Oscillator
AP0101
C1
EXTCLK
Rf=1MΩ
XTAL
C2
Rf represents the feedback resistor, an Rf value of 1M would be sufficient for AP0101CS.
C1 and C2 are decided according to the crystal or resonator CL specification. In the
steady state of oscillation, CL is defined as (C1 x C2)/(C1+C2). In fact, the I/O ports, the
bond pad, package pin and PCB traces all contribute the parasitic capacitance to C1 and
C2. Therefore, CL can be rewritten to be (C1* x C2*)/(C1*+C2*), where C1*=(C1+Cin,
stray) and C2*=(C2+Cout, stray). The stray capacitance for the IO ports, bond pad and
package pin are known which means the formulas can be rewritten as
C1*=(C1+1.5pF+Cin, PCB) and C2*=(C2+1.3pF+Cout, PCB).
Table 4:
Pin Descriptions
Name
Type
Description
EXTCLK
Input
Master input clock. This can either be a square-wave generated from an oscillator (in
which case the XTAL input must be left unconnected) or direct connection to a crystal.
XTAL
Output
RESET_BAR
Input/PU
SCLK
Input
Two-wire serial interface clock (host interface).
Two-wire serial interface data (host interface).
If EXTCLK is connected to one pin of a crystal, the other pin of the crystal is connected to
XTAL pin; otherwise this signal must be left unconnected.
Master reset signal, active LOW. This signal has an internal pull up.
SDATA
I/O
SADDR
Input
Selects device address for the two-wire slave serial interface. When connected to GND
the device ID is 0x90. When wired to VDDIO_H, a device ID of 0xBA is selected.
FRAME_SYNC
Input
This input can be used to set the output timing of the AP0101CS. This signal should be
connected to GND if not used.
STANDBY
Input
Standby mode control, active HIGH.
SPI_SCLK
Output
AP0101CS/D Rev. 7, 1/16 EN
Clock output for interfacing to an external SPI flash or EEPROM memory.
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©Semiconductor Components Industries, LLC,2016.
AP0101CS HDR: Image Signal Processor (ISP)
System Interfaces
Table 4:
Pin Descriptions (Continued)
Name
Type
Description
SPI_SDI
Input
Data in from SPI flash or EEPROM memory. When no SPI device is fitted, this signal is
used to determine whether the AP0101CS should auto-configure:
0: Do not auto-configure; two-wire interface will be used to configure the device (hostconfig mode)
1: Auto-configure.
This signal has an internal pull-up resistor.
SPI_SDO
Output
Data out to SPI flash or EEPROM memory.
SPI_CS_BAR
Output
Chip select out to SPI flash or EEPROM memory.
FV_OUT
Output
Host frame valid output (synchronous to PIXCLK_OUT)
LV_OUT
Output
Host line valid output (synchronous to PIXCLK_OUT)
PIXCLK_OUT
Output
Host pixel clock output.
DOUT[15:0]
Output
Host pixel data output (synchronous to PIXCLK_OUT) DOUT[15:0].
Note 20-bit output (SMPTE) also uses GPIO[5:2].
GPIO [5:1]
I/O
TRST_BAR
Input
EXT_CLK_OUT
Output
General purpose digital I/O.
Note: 20-bit output (SMPTE) also uses GPIO[5:2]
Must be tied to GND in normal operation.
Clock to external sensor.
RESET_BAR_OUT
Output
Reset signal to external sensor.
M_SCLK
Output
Two-wire serial interface clock (Master).
M_SDATA
I/O
Two-wire serial interface clock (Master).
FV_IN
Input
Sensor frame valid input.
LV_IN
Input
Sensor line valid input.
PIXCLK_IN
Input
Sensor pixel clock input.
DIN[11:0]
Input
Sensor pixel data input DIN[11:0]
TRIGGER_OUT
Output
Trigger signal for external sensor.
VDDIO_S
Supply
Sensor I/O power supply.
GND
Supply
Ground for sensor IO, host IO, PLL, VDDIO_OTPM, and VDD.
VDD_REG
Supply
Input to on-chip 1.8V to 1.2V regulator.
LDO_OP
Output
Output from on-chip 1.8V to 1.2V regulator.
Note: The regulator on the AP0101CS must be used.
FB_SENSE
Input
On-chip regulator sense signal.
GND_REG
Supply
Ground for on-chip regulator
VDD_PLL
Supply
PLL supply.
VDD
Supply
Core supply.
VDDIO_OTPM
Supply
OTPM power supply.
VDDIO_H
Supply
Host I/O power supply.
AP0101CS/D Rev. 7, 1/16 EN
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©Semiconductor Components Industries, LLC,2016.
AP0101CS HDR: Image Signal Processor (ISP)
System Interfaces
Table 5:
Package Pinout
1
2
A
EXTCLK
B
VDD
4
5
6
7
8
9
SCLK
SPI_SDO
DOUT[15]
DOUT[13]
DOUT[10]
DOUT[9]
DOUT[8]
VDDIO_H SDATA
SPI_SDI
DOUT[14]
DOUT[12]
DOUT[11]
DOUT[7]
DOUT[6]
VDDIO_S
SADDR
SPI_CS_BA
R
GND
PIXCLK_OUT FV_OUT
DOUT[5]
DOUT[4]
GND
SPI_SCLK
GND
TRST_BAR
LV_OUT
DOUT[3]
DOUT[2]
XTAL
EXT_CLK_OUT
C
D
3
RESET_BAR_OUT VDD
E
DIN[3]
DIN[7]
GND
FB_SENSE
GND
GND
VDD_PLL
DOUT[1]
DOUT[0]
F
DIN[11]
DIN[2]
LDO_OP
GND_REG
GND
GND
VDD_PLL
VDD_PLL
VDDIO_OTPM
G
DIN[6]
DIN[1]
DIN[4]
VDD_REG
VDDIO_S
VDD
RESET_BAR
GPIO[4]
GPIO[5]
H
DIN[10]
DIN[0]
DIN[8]
FV_IN
M_SDATA
VDDIO_H
FRAME_SYNC GPIO[2]
GPIO[3]
J
DIN[5]
DIN[9]
PIXCLK_IN LV_IN
M_SCLK
VDD
STANDBY
TRIGGER_OUT GPIO[1]
Power-Up and Down Sequence
Powering up and down the AP0101CS requires voltages to be applied in a particular
order, as seen in Figure 4. The timing requirements are shown in Table 6. The AP0101CS
includes a power-on reset feature that initiates a reset upon power up of the AP0101CS.
Figure 4:
Power-Up and Power-Down Sequence
dv/dt
V DDIO_H
t1
t7
dv/dt
VDDIO_S, VDDIO_OTPM
t2
t6
dv/dt
V DD_REG
t3
t5
EXTCLK
SCLK
t4
SDATA
RESET
AP0101CS/D Rev. 7, 1/16 EN
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AP0101CS HDR: Image Signal Processor (ISP)
System Interfaces
Table 6:
Power-Up and Power-Down Signal Timing
Symbol Parameter
t1
Delay from VDDIO_H to VDDIO_S, VDDIO_OTPM
t2
Delay from VDDIO_H to VDD_REG
t3
EXTCLK activation
Min
Typ
Max
Unit
0
–
50
ms
0
–
50
ms
t2 + 1
–
–
ms
t4
First serial command
100
–
–
EXTCLK cycles
t5
EXTCLK cutoff
t6
–
–
ms
t6
Delay from VDD_REG to VDDIO_H
0
–
50
ms
Delay from VDDIO_S, VDDIO_OTPM to VDDIO_H
0
–
50
ms
Power supply ramp time (slew rate)
–
–
0.1
V/s
t7
dv/dt
Note:
If the system cannot support this power supply slew rate, then power supplies must be designed
to overcome inrush currents in Table 24, “Inrush Current,” on page 38.
Reset
The AP0101CS has 3 types of reset available:
• A hard reset is issued by toggling the RESET_BAR signal
• A soft reset is issued by writing commands through the two-wire serial interface
• An internal power-on reset
Table 7 shows the output states when the part is in various states.
Table 7:
Output States
Hardware States
Name
EXTCLK
Reset State
(clock
running or
stopped)
Firmware States
Default State Hard Standby
Soft Standby
Streaming
(clock
running)
(clock running (clock
or stopped)
running)
(clock
running)
Idle
Notes
(clock
running)
Input
XTAL
n/a
n/a
n/a
n/a
n/a
n/a
Input
RESET_BAR
(asserted)
(negated)
(negated)
(negated)
(negated)
(negated)
Input
SCLK
n/a
n/a
Input. Must always
(clock running (clock running (clock running (clock running
be driven to a valid
or stopped)
or stopped)
or stopped)
or stopped)
logic level
SDATA
Highimpedance
Highimpedance
Highimpedance
Highimpedance
Highimpedance
Highimpedance
Input/Output. A
valid logic level
should be
established by pullup
SADDR
n/a
n/a
n/a
n/a
n/a
n/a
Input. Must always
be driven to a valid
logic level
FRAME_SYNC
n/a
n/a
n/a
n/a
n/a
n/a
Input. Must always
be driven to a valid
logic level
STANDBY
n/a
(negated)
(asserted)
(negated)
(negated)
(negated)
Input. Must always
be driven to a valid
logic level
AP0101CS/D Rev. 7, 1/16 EN
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AP0101CS HDR: Image Signal Processor (ISP)
System Interfaces
Table 7:
Output States
Hardware States
Name
Reset State
Firmware States
Default State Hard Standby
Soft Standby
Streaming
Idle
Notes
SPI_SCLK
Highimpedance
SPI_SDI
Internal pull- Internal pullup enabled
up enabled
SPI_SDO
Highimpedance
driven, logic 0 driven, logic 0 driven, logic 0
Output
SPI_CS_BAR
Highimpedance
driven, logic 1 driven, logic 1 driven, logic 1
Output
EXT_CLK_OUT
driven, logic
0
driven, logic 0 driven, logic 0 driven, logic 0
Output
RESET_BAR_O driven, logic
UT
0
driven, logic 0 driven, logic 1 driven, logic 1
Output. Firmware
will release sensor
reset
Highimpedance
Highimpedance
Input/Output. A
valid logic level
should be
established by pullup
Input/Output. A
valid logic level
should be
established by pullup
M_SCLK
Highimpedance
driven, logic 0 driven, logic 0 driven, logic 0
Internal pullup enabled
Highimpedance
Output
Input. Internal pullup permanently
enabled.
internal pullup enabled
M_SDATA
Highimpedance
Highimpedance
Highimpedance
Highimpedance
FV_IN ,LV_IN,
PIXCLK_IN,
DIN[11:0]
n/a
n/a
n/a
n/a
FV_OUT,
LV_OUT,
PIXCLK_OUT,
DOUT[15:0]
Highimpedance
Varied
Output. Default
Driven if used Driven if used Driven if used Driven if used state dependent on
configuration
GPIO[5:2]
Highimpedance
Input, then
highimpedance
Input/Output. After
reset these pins are
Driven if used Driven if used Driven if used Driven if used sampled as inputs as
part of autoconfiguration.
GPIO1
Highimpedance
Highimpedance
Highimpedance
TRIGGER_OUT
Highimpedance
Highimpedance
Driven if used Driven if used Driven if used Driven if used
TRST_BAR
n/a
n/a
(negated)
AP0101CS/D Rev. 7, 1/16 EN
Highimpedance
(negated)
11
Input. Must always
be driven to a valid
logic level
n/a
Highimpedance
(negated)
Highimpedance
(negated)
Input. Must always
be driven to a valid
logic level.
©Semiconductor Components Industries, LLC,2016.
AP0101CS HDR: Image Signal Processor (ISP)
System Interfaces
Hard Reset
The AP0101CS enters the reset state when the external RESET_BAR signal is asserted
LOW, as shown in Figure 5. All the output signals will be in High-Z state.
Figure 5:
Hard Reset Operation
t4
t1
t3
t2
EXTCLK
RESET_BAR
SDATA
All Outputs
Data Active
Data Active
Mode
Reset
Note:
Table 8:
Symbol
Enter streaming mode
Internal Initialization Time
This assumes auto-config.
Hard Reset
Definition
Min
Typ
Max
t1
RESET_BAR pulse width
50
–
–
t2
Active EXTCLK required after RESET_BAR asserted
10
–
–
t3
Active EXTCLK required before RESET_BAR deasserted
10
–
–
t4
First two-wire serial interface communication after
RESET_BAR is HIGH
100
–
–
Unit
EXTCLK
cycles
Soft Reset
A soft reset sequence to the AP0101CS can be activated by writing to a register through
the two-wire serial interface.
Hard Standby Mode
The AP0101CS can enter hard standby mode by using the external STANDBY signal, as
shown in Figure 6.
Entering Standby Mode
1. Assert STANDBY signal HIGH.
Exiting Standby Mode
1. De-assert STANDBY signal LOW.
AP0101CS/D Rev. 7, 1/16 EN
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AP0101CS HDR: Image Signal Processor (ISP)
System Interfaces
Figure 6:
Hard Standby Operation
t1
t2
t3
EXTCLK
STANDBY
Mode
Table 9:
Symbol
t1
t2
t3
STANDBY
Asserted
STANDBY
Mode
EXTCLK Disabled
EXTCLK Enabled
Hard Standby Signal Timing
Parameter
Min
Typ
Max
Standby entry complete
–
–
2 Frames
Lines
Active EXTCLK required after going into STANDBY
mode
10
–
–
EXTCLKs
Active EXTCLK required before STANDBY
de-asserted
10
–
–
EXTCLKs
AP0101CS/D Rev. 7, 1/16 EN
13
Unit
©Semiconductor Components Industries, LLC,2016.
AP0101CS HDR: Image Signal Processor (ISP)
Multi-Camera Synchronization Support
Multi-Camera Synchronization Support
The AP0101CS supports multi-camera synchronization via the FRAME_SYNC pin. The
host (or controlling entity) 'broadcasts' a sync-pulse to all cameras within the system
that triggers streaming start. The AP0101CS will propagate the signal to the TRIGGER_OUT pin to the sensor's TRIGGER pin.
The AP0101CSsupports two different trigger modes. The first mode supported is 'singleshot'; this is when the trigger pulse will cause one frame to be output from the image
sensor and AP0101CS (see Figure 7).
Figure 7:
Single-Shot Mode
Table 10:
Trigger Timing
Parameter
Name
FRAME_SYNC to FV_OUT
tFRMSYNC_FVH
FRAME_SYNC to
TRIGGER_OUT
tFRAME_SYNC
AP0101CS/D Rev. 7, 1/16 EN
Conditions
Min
Typ
Max
Unit
–
–
Lines
tTRIGGER_PROP
8 lines+ exposure
time + sensor delay
–
–
9
ns
tFRAMESYNC
3
–
–
EXTCLK cycles
14
©Semiconductor Components Industries, LLC,2016.
AP0101CS HDR: Image Signal Processor (ISP)
Image Flow Processor
The second mode supported is called 'continuous'; this is when a trigger pulse will cause
the part to continuously output frames, see Figure 8. This mode would be especially
useful for applications which have multiple sensors and need to have their video
streams synchronized (for example, surround view or panoramic view applications).
Figure 8:
Continuous Mode
FRAME_SYNC
TRIGGER_OUT
FV_OUT
Note:
This diagram is not to scale.
When two or more cameras have a signal applied to the FRAME_SYNC input at the same
time, the respective FV_OUT signals would be synchronized within 5 PIXCLK_OUT
cycles. This assumes that all cameras have the same configuration settings and that the
exposure time is the same.
Image Flow Processor
Image and color processing in the AP0101CS is implemented as an image flow processor
(IFP) coded in hardware logic. During normal operation, the embedded microcontroller
will automatically adjust the operating parameters. For normal operation of the
AP0101CS, a stream of raw image data from the attached image sensor is fed into the
color pipeline. The user also has the option to select a number of test patterns to be
input instead of sensor data. The test pattern is fed to the IFP for testing the image pipeline without sensor operation.
The test patterns can be selected by programming variables. To select enter test pattern
mode, set R0xC88F to 0x02 and issue a Change- Config request; to exit this mode, set
R0xC88F to 0x00.
AP0101CS/D Rev. 7, 1/16 EN
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AP0101CS HDR: Image Signal Processor (ISP)
Image Flow Processor
Figure 9:
AP0101CS IFP
RAW 12- or 20-bit Bayer
AE, FD and ALTM
stats
12-bit ALTM Bayer
linear or
com panded data
RX
decompanding
D efect correction,
N oise reduction
Black level
subtraction
,
D igital gain
control, PGA
ALTM
C olor
Interpolation
C olor
Correction
Aperture
Correction
C rop
Gamma
R GB 2YU V
C olor Kill
YU V
filters
Scaler
Progressive parallel or SMPTE
(YCbCr or
Bayer)
AW B stats
Progressive
Test pattern
generator
RAW Bayer
ALTM Bayer
RGB
YCbCr
AP0101CS/D Rev. 7, 1/16 EN
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©Semiconductor Components Industries, LLC,2016.
AP0101CS HDR: Image Signal Processor (ISP)
Image Flow Processor
Test Patterns
Figure 10:
Color Bar Test Pattern
Example
Test Pattern
FLAT FIELD
FIELD_WR= CAM_MODE_SELECT, 0x02
FIELD_WR= CAM_MODE_TEST_PATTERN_SELECT, 0x01
FIELD_WR= CAM_MODE_TEST_PATTERN_RED, 0x000FFFFF
FIELD_WR= CAM_MODE_TEST_PATTERN_GREEN, 0x000FFFFF
FIELD_WR= CAM_MODE_TEST_PATTERN_BLUE, 0x000FFFFF
Load = Change-Config
Changing the values in R0xC890-R0xC898 will change the color of the
test pattern.
100% Color Bar
FIELD_WR= CAM_MODE_SELECT, 0x02
FIELD_WR= CAM_MODE_TEST_PATTERN_SELECT, 0x02
Load = Change-Config
Pseudo-Random
FIELD_WR= CAM_MODE_SELECT, 0x02
FIELD_WR= CAM_MODE_TEST_PATTERN_SELECT, 0x05
Load = Change-Config
Fade-to-Gray
FIELD_WR= CAM_MODE_SELECT, 0x02
FIELD_WR= CAM_MODE_TEST_PATTERN_SELECT, 0x08
Load = Change-Config
Linear Ramp
FIELD_WR= CAM_MODE_SELECT, 0x02
FIELD_WR= CAM_MODE_TEST_PATTERN_SELECT, 0x09
Load = Change-Config
AP0101CS/D Rev. 7, 1/16 EN
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AP0101CS HDR: Image Signal Processor (ISP)
Image Flow Processor
Defect Correction
After data decompanding the image stream processing starts with defect correction.
To obtain defect free images, the pixels marked defective during sensor readout and the
pixels determined defective by the defect correction algorithms are replaced with values
derived from the non-defective neighboring pixels. This image processing technique is
called defect correction.
AdaCD (Adaptive Color Difference)
Automotive applications require good performance in extremely low light, even at high
temperature conditions. In these stringent conditions the image sensor is prone to
higher noise levels, and so efficient noise reduction techniques are required to circumvent this sensor limitation and deliver a high quality image to the user.
The AdaCD Noise Reduction Filter is able to adapt its noise filtering process to local
image structure and noise level, removing most objectionable color noise while
preserving edge details.
Black Level Subtraction and Digital Gain
After noise reduction, the pixel data goes through black level subtraction and multiplication of all pixel values by a programmable digital gain. Independent color channel digital
gain can be adjusted with registers. Black level subtract (to compensate for sensor data
pedestal) is a single value applied to all color channels. If the black level subtraction
produces a negative result for a particular pixel, the value of this pixel is set to 0.
Positional Gain Adjustments (PGA)
Lenses tend to produce images whose brightness is significantly attenuated near the
edges. There are also other factors causing fixed pattern signal gradients in images
captured by image sensors. The cumulative result of all these factors is known as image
shading. The AP0101CS has an embedded shading correction module that can be
programmed to counter the shading effects on each individual R, Gb, Gr, and B color
signal.
The Correction Function
The correction functions can then be applied to each pixel value to equalize the
response across the image as follows:
P corrected  row, col  = P sensor  row, col   f(row, col)
(EQ 1)
where P are the pixel values and f is the color dependent correction functions for each
color channel.
AP0101CS/D Rev. 7, 1/16 EN
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AP0101CS HDR: Image Signal Processor (ISP)
Image Flow Processor
Adaptive Local Tone Mapping (ALTM)
Real world scenes often have very high dynamic range (HDR) that far exceeds the electrical dynamic range of the imager. Dynamic range is defined as the luminance ratio
between the brightest and the darkest object in a scene. In recent years many technologies have been developed to capture the full dynamic range of real world scenes. For
example, the multiple exposure method is a widely adopted method for capturing high
dynamic range images, which combines a series of low dynamic range images of the
same scene taken under different exposure times into a single HDR image.
Even though the new digital imaging technology enables the capture of the full dynamic
range, low dynamic range display devices are the limiting factor. Today’s typical LCD
monitor has contrast ratio around 1,000:1; however, it is not atypical for an HDR image
having contrast ratio around 250,000:1. Therefore, in order to reproduce HDR images on
a low dynamic range display device, the captured high dynamic range must be
compressed to the available range of the display device. This is commonly called tone
mapping.
Tone mapping methods can be classified into global tone mapping and local tone
mapping. Global tone mapping methods apply the same mapping function to all pixels.
While global tone mapping methods provide computationally simple and easy to use
solutions, they often cause loss of contrast and detail. A local tone mapping is thus
necessary in addition to global tone mapping for the reproduction of visually more
appealing images that also reveal scene details that are important for automotive safety
and surveillance applications. Local tone mapping methods use a spatially varying
mapping function determined by the neighborhood of a pixel, which allows it to
increase the local contrast and the visibility of some details of the image. Local methods
usually yield more pleasing results because they exploit the fact that human vision is
more sensitive to local contrast.
ON Semiconductor’s ALTM solution significantly improves the performance over global
tone mapping. ALTM is directly applied to the Bayer domain to compress the dynamic
range from 20-bit to 12-bit. This allows the regular color pipeline to be used for HDR
image rendering.
Color Interpolation
In the raw data stream fed by the sensor core to the IFP, each pixel is represented by a 20or 12-bit integer number, which can be considered proportional to the pixel's response
to a one-color light stimulus, red, green, or blue, depending on the pixel's position under
the color filter array. Initial data processing steps, up to and including ALTM, preserve
the one-color-per-pixel nature of the data stream, but after ALTM it must be converted
to a three-colors-per-pixel stream appropriate for standard color processing. The
conversion is done by an edge-sensitive color interpolation module. The module pads
the incomplete color information available for each pixel with information extracted
from an appropriate set of neighboring pixels. The algorithm used to select this set and
extract the information seeks the best compromise between preserving edges and
filtering out high frequency noise in flat field areas. The edge threshold can be set
through register settings.
Color Correction and Aperture Correction
To achieve good color fidelity of the IFP output, interpolated RGB values of all pixels are
subjected to color correction. The IFP multiplies each vector of three pixel colors by a 3 x
3 color correction matrix. The three components of the resulting color vector are all
sums of three 10-bit numbers. The color correction matrix can be either programmed by
AP0101CS/D Rev. 7, 1/16 EN
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AP0101CS HDR: Image Signal Processor (ISP)
Image Flow Processor
the user or automatically selected by the auto white balance (AWB) algorithm implemented in the IFP. Color correction should ideally produce output colors that are
corrected for the spectral sensitivity and color crosstalk characteristics of the image
sensor. The optimal values of the color correction matrix elements depend on those
sensor characteristics and on the spectrum of light incident on the sensor. The color
correction variables can be adjusted through register settings.
To increase image sharpness, a programmable 2D aperture correction (sharpening filter)
is applied to color-corrected image data. The gain and threshold for 2D correction can
be defined through register settings.
Gamma Correction
The gamma correction curve is implemented as a piecewise linear function with 33 knee
points, taking 12-bit arguments and mapping them to 10-bit output. The abscissas of the
knee points are fixed at 0, 8, 16, 24, 32, 40, 48, 56, 64, 80, 96, 112, 128, 160, 192, 224, 256,
320, 384, 448, 512, 640, 768, 896, 1024, 1280, 1536, 1792, 2048, 2560, 3072, 3584, and 4096.
The 10-bit ordinates are programmable through variables.
The AP0101CS has the ability to calculate the 33-point knee points based on the tuning
of cam_ll_gamma and cam_ll_contrast_gradient_bright. The other method is for the
host to program the 33 knee point curve themselves.
Also included in this block is a Fade-to Black curve which sets all knee points to zero and
causes the image to go black in extreme low light conditions.
Color Kill
To remove high-or low-light color artifacts, a color kill circuit is included. It affects only
pixels whose luminance exceeds a certain preprogrammed threshold. The U and V
values of those pixels are attenuated proportionally to the difference between their luminance and the threshold.
YUV Color Filter
As an optional processing step, noise suppression by one-dimensional low-pass filtering
of Y and/or UV signals is possible. A 3- or 5-tap filter can be selected for each signal.
AP0101CS/D Rev. 7, 1/16 EN
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AP0101CS HDR: Image Signal Processor (ISP)
Camera Control and Auto Functions
Camera Control and Auto Functions
Auto Exposure
The auto exposure algorithm optimizes scene exposure to minimize clipping and saturation in critical areas of the image. This is achieved by controlling exposure time and
analog gains of the sensor core as well as digital gains applied to the image.
The auto exposure module analyzes image statistics collected by the exposure measurement engine, makes a decision, and programs the sensor and color pipeline to achieve
the desired exposure. The measurement engine subdivides the image into 25 windows
organized as a 5 x 5 grid.
Figure 11:
5 x 5 Grid
AE Track Driver
Other algorithm features include the rejection of fast fluctuations in illumination (time
averaging), control of speed of response, and control of the sensitivity to small changes.
While the default settings are adequate in most situations, the user can program target
brightness, measurement window, and other parameters described above.
The driver changes AE parameters (integration time, gains, and so on) to drive scene
brightness to the programmable target.
To avoid unwanted reaction of AE on small fluctuations of scene brightness or momentary scene changes, the AE track driver uses a temporal filter for luma and a threshold
around the AE luma target. The driver changes AE parameters only if the difference
between the AE luma target and the filtered luma is larger than the AE target step and
pushes the luma beyond the threshold.
AP0101CS/D Rev. 7, 1/16 EN
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AP0101CS HDR: Image Signal Processor (ISP)
Auto White Balance
Auto White Balance
The AP0101CS has a built-in AWB algorithm designed to compensate for the effects of
changing spectra of the scene illumination on the quality of the color rendition. The
algorithm consists of two major parts: a measurement engine performing statistical
analysis of the image and a driver performing the selection of the optimal color correction matrix and IFP digital gain. While default settings of these algorithms are adequate
in most situations, the user can reprogram base color correction matrices, place limits
on color channel gains, and control the speed of both matrix and gain adjustments. The
AP0101CS AWB displays the current AWB position in color temperature, the range of
which will be defined when programming the CCM matrixes.
The region of interest can be controlled through the combination of an inclusion
window and an exclusion window.
Dual Band IRCF
For some applications a day/night filter would be switched in/out, this option is an
additional cost to the camera system. The AP0101CS supports the use of dual band IRCF,
which removes the need for the switching day/night filter. Tuning support is provided
for this usage case. Refer to the AP0101CS developer guide for details.
Exposure and White Balance Modes
AP0101CS supports auto and manual exposure and white balance modes. In addition, it
will operate within synchronized multi-camera systems. In this use case, one camera
within the system will be the 'master', and the others 'slaves'. The master is used to
calculate the appropriate exposure and white balance. This is then applied to all slaves
concurrently under host control.
Auto Mode
In Auto Exposure mode the AE algorithm is responsible for calculating the appropriate
exposure to keep the desired scene brightness, and for applying the exposure to the
underlying hardware. In Auto White Balance mode the AWB algorithm is responsible for
calculating the color temperature of the scene and applying the appropriate red and
blue gains.
Triggered Auto mode
The Triggered Auto Exposure and Triggered Auto White Balance modes are intended for
the multi-camera use cases, where a host is controlling the exposure and white balance
of a number of cameras. The idea is that one camera is in triggered-auto mode (the
master), and the others in host-controlled mode (slaves). The master camera must
calculate the exposure and gains, the host then copies this to the slaves, and all changes
are then applied at the same time.
Manual Mode
Manual mode is intended to allow simple manual exposure and white balance control
by the host. The host needs to set the CAM_AET_EXPOSURE_TIME_MS, CAM_AET_EXPOSURE_GAIN and CAM_AWB_COLOR_TEMPERATURE controls, the camera will
calculate the appropriate integration times and gains.
AP0101CS/D Rev. 7, 1/16 EN
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AP0101CS HDR: Image Signal Processor (ISP)
Flicker Avoidance
Host Controlled
The Host Controlled mode is intended to give the host full control over exposure and
gains.
Flicker Avoidance
Flicker occurs when the integration time is not an integer multiple of the period of the
light intensity. The AP0101CS can be programmed to avoid flicker for 50 or 60 Hertz. For
integration times less than the light intensity period (10ms for 50Hz environment),
flicker cannot be avoided. The AP0101CS supports an indoor AE mode, that will ensure
flicker-free operation.
Output Formatting
The AP0101CS can output pixel data as an 8 or 10 bit word, over one or two clocks per
pixel. AP0101AT supports parallel output & SMPTE modes.
Uncompressed YCbCr Data Ordering
The AP0101CS supports swapping YCbCr mode, as illustrated in Table 11.
Table 11:
YCbCr Output Data Ordering
Mode
Data Sequence
Default (no swap)
Cbi
Swapped CrCb
Swapped YC
Swapped CrCb, YC
Yi
Cri
Yi+1
Cri
Yi
Cbi
Yi+1
Yi
Cbi
Yi+1
Cri
Yi
Cri
Yi+1
Cbi
The data ordering for the YCbCr output modes for AP0101CS are shown in Table 12 and
Table 13:
Table 12:
YCbCr Output Modes (cam_port_parallel_msb_align=0x1, cam_port_parallel_swap_bytes = 0,
cam_output_format_yuv_swap_red_blue = 0)
Mode
YCbCr_422_8_8
YCbCr_422_10_10
YCbCr_422_16
Byte
Pixel i
Pixel i+1
Notes
Odd (DOUT [15:8])
Cbi
Cri
Data range of 0-255 (Y=16-235 and C=16-240)
Even (DOUT [15:8])
Yi
Yi+1
Odd (DOUT [15:6])
Cbi
Cri
Even (DOUT [15:6])
Yi
Yi+1
Single (DOUT [15:0])
Cbi_Yi
Cri_Yi+1
Note:
Table 13:
Data range of 0-1023 (Y=64-940 and C=64960)
Data range of 0-255 (Y=16-235 and C=16-240)
Odd means first cycle; even means second cycle.
YCbCr Output Modes (cam_port_parallel_msb_align=0x0, cam_port_parallel_swap_bytes = 0,
cam_output_format_yuv_swap_red_blue = 0)
Mode
YCbCr_422_8_8
AP0101CS/D Rev. 7, 1/16 EN
Byte
Pixel i
Pixel i+1
Notes
Odd (DOUT[7 :0])
Cbi
Cri
Data range of 0-255 (Y=16-235 and C=16-240)
Even (DOUT [7:0]
Yi
Yi+1
23
©Semiconductor Components Industries, LLC,2016.
AP0101CS HDR: Image Signal Processor (ISP)
Output Formatting
Table 13:
YCbCr Output Modes (cam_port_parallel_msb_align=0x0, cam_port_parallel_swap_bytes = 0,
cam_output_format_yuv_swap_red_blue = 0)
Mode
YCbCr_422_10_10
YCbCr_422_16
Figure 12:
Byte
Pixel i
Pixel i+1
Notes
Odd (DOUT [9:0])
Cbi
Cri
Data range of 0-1023 (Y=64-940 and C=64-960)"
Even (DOUT [9:0])
Yi
Yi+1
Single (DOUT [15:0])
Cbi_Yi
Cri_Yi+1
Data range of 0-255 (Y=16-235 and C=16-240)
8- bit YCbCr Output (YCbCr_422_8_8)
P ix el C loc k
F ram e V alid
Porch – 0-255 cycles
Line V alid
Data[15:8]
00
Cr
Data[7:0]
Y Cb Y Cr
H Blank
Y Cb Y Cr
Y Cb Y Cr
Im age
H Blank
Y Cb Y Cr
Im age
H Blank
P ix el C loc k
F ram e V alid
Porch – 0-255 cycles
Line V alid
Data[15:8]
00
Data[7:0]
Cr
H Blank
Y Cb Y C r
Y Cb Y Cr
Y Cb Y Cr
Im age
H Blank
Y Cb Y Cr
Im age
H Blank
Active Video
P ix el C loc k
F ram e V alid
Porch – 0-255 cycles
Line V alid
Data[15:8]
Data[7:0]
00
Y Cb Y Cr
Im age
Vblank
P ix el C loc k
F ram e V alid
Porch – 0-255 cycles
Line V alid
Data[15:8]
00
Data[7:0]
Cr
Vblank
Y Cb Y Cr
Im age
Vertical Blanking
Note:
AP0101CS/D Rev. 7, 1/16 EN
cam_port_parallel_msb_align = 0
cam_port_parallel_swap_bytes = 1
cam_output_format_yuv_swap_red_blue = 0
24
©Semiconductor Components Industries, LLC,2016.
AP0101CS HDR: Image Signal Processor (ISP)
Output Formatting
Figure 13:
10-bit YCbCr Output (YCbCr_422_10_10)
P ix el C loc k
F ram e V alid
Porch – 0-255 cycles
Line V alid
00
Data[5:0]
Y Cb Y Cr
Cr
Data[15:6]
H Blank
Y Cb Y Cr
Y Cb Y Cr
Im age
H Blank
Y Cb Y C r
Im age
H Blank
P ix el C loc k
F ram e V alid
Porch – 0-255 cycles
Line V alid
Data[5:0]
00
Data[15:6]
Cr
Y Cb Y Cr
H Blank
Y Cb Y C r
Y Cb Y Cr
Im age
H Blank
Y Cb Y C r
Im age
H Blank
Active Video
P ix el C loc k
F ram e V alid
Porch – 0-255 cycles
Line V alid
Data[5:0]
Data[15:6]
00
Y Cb Y C r
Im age
Vblank
P ix el C loc k
F ram e V alid
Porch – 0-255 cycles
Line V alid
Data[5:0]
00
Data[15:6]
Cr
Vblank
Y Cb Y Cr
Im age
Vertical Blanking
Note:
AP0101CS/D Rev. 7, 1/16 EN
cam_port_parallel_msb_align = 1
cam_port_parallel_swap_bytes = 1
cam_output_format_yuv_swap_red_blue = 0
25
©Semiconductor Components Industries, LLC,2016.
AP0101CS HDR: Image Signal Processor (ISP)
Output Formatting
Figure 14:
16-bit YCbCr Output (YCbCr_422_16)
Pixel Clock
Frame Valid
Porch – 0-255 cycles
Line Valid
Data[7:0]
Data[15:8]
Y
Y Y Y Y
Cr
Cb Cr Cb C r
H Blank
Y Y Y Y
Y Y Y Y
Cb Cr Cb C r
Y Y Y Y
Cb Cr Cb Cr
Im age
H Blank
Cb Cr Cb C r
Im age
H Blank
Pixel Clock
Frame Valid
Porch – 0-255 cycles
Line Valid
Data[7:0]
Data[15:8]
Y
Y Y Y Y
Cr
Cb Cr Cb Cr
H Blank
Y Y Y Y
Y Y Y Y
Cb Cr Cb C r
Y Y Y Y
Cb Cr Cb C r
Im age
H Blank
Cb Cr Cb C r
Im age
H Blank
Active Video
Pixel Clock
Frame Valid
Porch – 0-255 cycles
Line Valid
Data[7:0]
Data[15:8]
Y Y Y Y
Cb Cr Cb Cr
Im age
Vblank
Pixel Clock
Frame Valid
Porch – 0-255 cycles
Line Valid
Data[7:0]
Data[15:0]
Y
Y Y Y Y
Cr
Cb Cr Cb Cr
Vblank
Im age
Vertical Blanking
Note:
AP0101CS/D Rev. 7, 1/16 EN
cam_port_parallel_swap_bytes = 0
cam_output_format_yuv_swap_red_blue = 0
26
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AP0101CS HDR: Image Signal Processor (ISP)
Output Formatting
SMPTE Output
The data ordering for the SMPTE output mode for AP0101AT is shown in Table 14:
Table 14:
SMPTE Output Mode
Mode
Byte
SMPTE
Single{Dout[15:8],GPIO[5:4]}-->Cb/Cr
{Dout[7:0],GPIO[3:2]} --->Y
Figure 15:
Pixel i
Cbi_Yi
Pixel i+1
Notes
Cri_Yi+1
Data range of 4-1019 (Y=64-940 and C=64960)
SMPTE296M Output
P ix el C loc k
Data[7:0]
GPIO3, GPIO2
Data[15:8]
GPIO5, GPIO4
040
3F F 000 000 200
200
3F F 000 000 200 C b
Blanking
H Blank
Y
Y
Y
Y
Cr
Cb
Cr
SAV
Y
Y
Y
Y
Cb
Cr
Cb
C r 3F F 000 000 274
Im age
3F F 000 000 274
EAV
040
3F F 000 000 200
200
3F F 000 000 200 C b
Blanking
H Blank
Y
Y
Y
Y
Cr
Cb
Cr
SAV
Y
Y
Y
Cb
Cr
Cb
Y
3F F 000 000 274
040
C r 3F F 000 000 274
Im age
200
EAV
Blanking
H Blank
P ix el C loc k
Data[7:0]
GPIO3, GPIO2
Data[15:8]
GPIO5, GPIO4
040
3FF 000 000 200 Y
200
3FF 000 000 200 C b C r C b C r
Blanking
SAV
H Blank
Y
Y
Y
3FF 000 000 274
040
3FF 000 000 2AC
040
3FF 000 000 2D8
C b C r C b C r 3FF 000 000 274
200
3FF 000 000 2AC
200
3FF 000 000 2D8
Y
Im age
Y
Y
Y
EAV
Blanking
H Blank
VBlank
SAV Blank
040
200
Blanking
H Blank
EAV blank
Active Video
P ix el C loc k
Data[7:0]
GPIO3, GPIO2
Data[15:8]
GPIO5, GPIO4
040
3FF 000 000 2AC
040
3FF 000 000 2D8
040
3FF 000 000 2AC
040
3FF 000 000 2D8
040
200
3FF 000 000 2AC
200
3FF 000 000 2D8
200
3FF 000 000 2AC
200
3FF 000 000 2D8
200
Blanking
SAV Blank
H Blank
VBlank
EAV Blank
Blanking
H Blank
VBlank
SAV Blank
Blanking
H Blank
EAV Blank
P ix el C loc k
Data[7:0]
GPIO3, GPIO2
Data[15:8]
GPIO5, GPIO4
040
3F F 000 000 2AC
200
3F F 000 000 2AC
Blanking
SAV Blank
H Blank
040
200
VBlank
3F F 000 000 2D8
3F F 000 000 2D8
EAV Blank
040
3F F 000 000 200
200
3F F 000 000 200 C b
Blanking
H Blank
SAV
Y
Y
Y
Y
Cr
Cb
Cr
Y
Y
Y
Cb
Cr
Cb
Im age
Y
3F F 000 000 274
C r 3F F 000 000 274
EAV
040
200
Blanking
H Blank
Blanking
AP0101CS/D Rev. 7, 1/16 EN
27
©Semiconductor Components Industries, LLC,2016.
AP0101CS HDR: Image Signal Processor (ISP)
Sensor Embedded Data
ALTM Bayer Output
The data ordering for the ALTM Bayer output modes for AP0101CS are shown in
Table 15. ALTM Bayer modes are selected by setting cam_mode_select = 7 (ALTM Bayer
12) or 8 (ALTM Bayer 10).
Table 15:
ALTM Bayer Output Modes
Mode
Byte
ALTM_Bayer_10
ALTM_Bayer_12
Single
Single
D15 D14 D13 D12
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
D11
D10
D9
D8
D7
D6
D5
D4
D3
D2
D1
D0
0
D11
0
D10
D9
D9
D8
D8
D7
D7
D6
D6
D5
D5
D4
D4
D3
D3
D2
D2
D1
D1
D0
D0
Table 15 and Table 16 show LSB aligned data; it is possible by using a register setting to
obtain MSB aligned data.
The data ordering for the Bayer output modes for AP0101CS are shown in Table 16.
Table 16:
Bayer Output Modes
Mode
Byte
D15
D14
D13
D12
D11
D10
D9
D8
D7
D6
D5
D4
D3
D2
D1
D0
Raw_Bayer_1
2
Single
0
0
0
0
D11
D10
D9
D8
D7
D6
D5
D4
D3
D2
D1
D0
Note:
Raw Bayer mode can be selected by setting cam_mode_select = 0x4.
Sensor Embedded Data
The AP0101CS is capable of passing sensor embedded data in Bayer output mode only.
The AP0101CS Statistics are available through the serial interface. Refer to the Developer
Guide for details.
Slave Two-Wire Serial Interface
The two-wire slave serial interface bus enables read/write access to control and status
registers within the AP0101CS.
The interface protocol uses a master/slave model in which a master controls one or
more slave devices.
Protocol
Data transfers on the two-wire serial interface bus are performed by a sequence of
low-level protocol elements, as follows:
• a start or restart condition
• a slave address/data direction byte
• a 16-bit register address
• an acknowledge or a no-acknowledge bit
• data bytes
• a stop condition
The bus is idle when both SCLK and SDATA are HIGH. Control of the bus is initiated with a
start condition, and the bus is released with a stop condition. Only the master can
generate the start and stop conditions.
AP0101CS/D Rev. 7, 1/16 EN
28
©Semiconductor Components Industries, LLC,2016.
AP0101CS HDR: Image Signal Processor (ISP)
Protocol
The SADDR pin is used to select between two different addresses in case of conflict with
another device. If SADDR is LOW, the slave address is 0x90; if SADDR is HIGH, the slave
address is 0xBA. See Table 17 below. The user can change the slave address by changing a
register value.
Table 17:
Two-Wire Interface ID Address Switching
SADDR
Two-Wire Interface Address ID
0
1
0x90
0xBA
Start Condition
A start condition is defined as a HIGH-to-LOW transition on SDATA while SCLK is HIGH.
At the end of a transfer, the master can generate a start condition without previously
generating a stop condition; this is known as a “repeated start” or “restart” condition.
Data Transfer
Data is transferred serially, 8 bits at a time, with the MSB transmitted first. Each byte of
data is followed by an acknowledge bit or a no-acknowledge bit. This data transfer
mechanism is used for the slave address/data direction byte and for message bytes. One
data bit is transferred during each SCLK clock period. SDATA can change when SCLK is low
and must be stable while SCLK is HIGH.
Slave Address/Data Direction Byte
Bits [7:1] of this byte represent the device slave address and bit [0] indicates the data
transfer direction. A “0” in bit [0] indicates a write, and a “1” indicates a read. The default
slave addresses used by the AP0101CS are 0x90 (write address) and 0x91 (read address).
Alternate slave addresses of 0xBA (write address) and 0xBB (read address) can be
selected by asserting the SADDR input signal.
Message Byte
Message bytes are used for sending register addresses and register write data to the slave
device and for retrieving register read data. The protocol used is outside the scope of the
two-wire serial interface specification.
Acknowledge Bit
Each 8-bit data transfer is followed by an acknowledge bit or a no-acknowledge bit in the
SCLK clock period following the data transfer. The transmitter (which is the master when
writing, or the slave when reading) releases SDATA. The receiver indicates an acknowledge bit by driving SDATA LOW. As for data transfers, SDATA can change when SCLK is
LOW and must be stable while SCLK is HIGH.
No-Acknowledge Bit
The no-acknowledge bit is generated when the receiver does not drive SDATA low during
the SCLK clock period following a data transfer. A no-acknowledge bit is used to terminate a read sequence.
AP0101CS/D Rev. 7, 1/16 EN
29
©Semiconductor Components Industries, LLC,2016.
AP0101CS HDR: Image Signal Processor (ISP)
Protocol
Stop Condition
A stop condition is defined as a LOW-to-HIGH transition on SDATA while SCLK is HIGH.
Typical Operation
A typical READ or WRITE sequence begins by the master generating a start condition on
the bus. After the start condition, the master sends the 8-bit slave address/data direction
byte. The last bit indicates whether the request is for a READ or a WRITE, where a “0”
indicates a WRITE and a “1” indicates a READ. If the address matches the address of the
slave device, the slave device acknowledges receipt of the address by generating an
acknowledge bit on the bus.
If the request was a WRITE, the master then transfers the 16-bit register address to which
a WRITE will take place. This transfer takes place as two 8-bit sequences and the slave
sends an acknowledge bit after each sequence to indicate that the byte has been
received. The master will then transfer the 8-bit or 16-bit data, as one or two 8-bit
sequences and the slave sends an acknowledge bit after each sequence to indicate that
the byte has been received. The master stops writing by generating a (re)start or stop
condition. If the request was a READ, the master sends the 8-bit write slave address/data
direction byte and 16-bit register address, just as in the write request. The master then
generates a (re)start condition and the 8-bit read slave address/data direction byte, and
clocks out the register data, 8 bits at a time. The master generates an acknowledge bit
after each 8-bit transfer. The data transfer is stopped when the master sends a noacknowledge bit.
Single READ from Random Location
Figure 16 shows the typical READ cycle of the host to the AP0101CS. The first two bytes
sent by the host are an internal 16-bit register address. The following 2-byte READ cycle
sends the contents of the registers to host.
Figure 16:
Single READ from Random Location
Previous Reg Address, N
S
Slave Address
S = start condition
P = stop condition
Sr = restart condition
A = acknowledge
A = no-acknowledge
AP0101CS/D Rev. 7, 1/16 EN
0 A Reg Address[15:8]
A
M+1
Reg Address, M
Reg Address[7:0]
A Sr
Slave Address
1 A
Read Data
Read Data
A
A
[15:8]
[7:0]
P
slave to master
master to slave
30
©Semiconductor Components Industries, LLC,2016.
AP0101CS HDR: Image Signal Processor (ISP)
Protocol
Single READ from Current Location
Figure 17 shows the single READ cycle without writing the address. The internal address
will use the previous address value written to the register.
Figure 17:
Single Read from Current Location
Previous Reg Address, N
S
Slave Address
Reg Address, N+1
1 A
Read Data
Read Data
A
A
[7:0]
[15:8]
P
S
Slave Address
N+2
1 A
Read Data
Read Data
A P
A
[15:8]
[7:0]
Sequential READ, Start from Random Location
This sequence (Figure 18) starts in the same way as the single READ from random location (Figure 16 on page 30). Instead of generating a no-acknowledge bit after the first
byte of data has been transferred, the master generates an acknowledge bit and
continues to perform byte READs until “L” bytes have been read.
Figure 18:
Sequential READ, Start from Random Location
Previous Reg Address, N
S
Slave Address
0 A Reg Address[15:8] A
M+1
Read Data
(15:8)
A
M+2
Read Data
(7:0)
A
A
Read Data
(15:8)
AA
Read Data
(7:0)
Reg Address, M
Reg Address[7:0] A Sr
M+L-2
M+3
Read Data
(15:8)
A
A
AA
1 A
Slave Address
M+1
Read Data
M+L-1
Read Data
(7:0)
A
A
Read Data
(15:8)
AA
A
M+L
Read Data
(7:0)
A P
Sequential READ, Start from Current Location
This sequence (Figure 19) starts in the same way as the single READ from current location (Figure 17). Instead of generating a no-acknowledge bit after the first byte of data
has been transferred, the master generates an acknowledge bit and continues to
perform byte reads until “L” bytes have been read.
Figure 19:
Sequential READ, Start from Current Location
Previous Reg Address, N
S
Slave Address
AP0101CS/D Rev. 7, 1/16 EN
1 A
Read Data
Read Data
ReadA Data
(15:8)
(7:0)
N+1
A
A
N+2
Read Data
Read Data
Read
AA Data
(15:8)
(7:0)
31
AA
Read Data
Read Data
Read
AA Data
(15:8)
(7:0)
N+L-1
A
A
Read Data
Read Data
Data
A Read
A
(15:8)
(7:0)
N+L
A P
©Semiconductor Components Industries, LLC,2016.
AP0101CS HDR: Image Signal Processor (ISP)
Protocol
Single Write to Random Location
Figure 20 shows the typical WRITE cycle from the host to the AP0101CS.The first 2 bytes
indicate a 16-bit address of the internal registers with most-significant byte first. The
following 2 bytes indicate the 16-bit data.
Figure 20:
Single WRITE to Random Location
Previous Reg Address, N
S
Slave Address
0 A Reg Address[15:8]
A
Reg Address, M
Reg Address[7:0]
A
M+1
A P
A
Write Data
Sequential WRITE, Start at Random Location
This sequence (Figure 21) starts in the same way as the single WRITE to random location
(Figure 20). Instead of generating a no-acknowledge bit after the first byte of data has
been transferred, the master generates an acknowledge bit and continues to perform
byte writes until “L” bytes have been written. The WRITE is terminated by the master
generating a stop condition.
Figure 21:
Sequential WRITE, Start at Random Location
Previous Reg Address, N
S
Slave Address
0 A Reg Address[15:8]
M+1
Write Data
(15:8)
AP0101CS/D Rev. 7, 1/16 EN
A
M+2
Write Data
(7:0)
A
Write Data
Write Data
WriteAData
(15:8)
(7:0)
A
Reg Address, M
Reg Address[7:0]
A
Write Data
M+L-2
M+3
Write Data
Write Data
WriteAData
(15:8)
(7:0)
A
A
32
M+1
A
M+L-1
A
A
Write Data
Write Data
WriteAData
(15:8)
(7:0)
M+L
A
P
A
©Semiconductor Components Industries, LLC,2016.
AP0101CS HDR: Image Signal Processor (ISP)
Usage Modes
Device Configuration and Usage Modes
After power is applied and the device is out of reset (either the power on reset, hard or
soft reset), it will enter a boot sequence to configure its operating mode. There are essentially three configuration modes: Flash/EEPROM Config, Auto Config, and Host Config.
The AP0101CS firmware supports a System Configuration phase at start-up. This
consists of four sub-phases of execution:
1. Flash detection, then one of:
a. Flash Config
b. Auto Config
c. Host Config
The System Configuration phase is entered immediately following power-up or reset.
Then the firmware performs Flash Detection.
Flash Detection attempts to detect the presence of an SPI Flash or EEPROM device:
• If no device is detected, the firmware then samples the SPI_SDI pin state to determine
the next mode:
– If SPI_SDI is low, then it enters the Host-Config mode.
– If SPI_SDI is high, then it enters the Auto-Config mode.
• If a device is detected, the firmware switches to the Flash-Config mode.
In the Flash-Config mode, the firmware interrogates the device to determine if it
contains valid configuration records:
• If no records are detected, then the firmware enters the Auto-Config mode.
• If records are detected, the firmware processes them. By default, when all Flash
records are processed the firmware switches to the Host-Config mode. However, the
records encoded into the Flash can optionally be used to instruct the firmware to
proceed to auto-config, or to start streaming (via a Change-Config).
In the Host-Config mode, the firmware performs no configuration, and remains idle
waiting for configuration and commands from the host. The System Configuration
phase is effectively complete and the AP0101CS will take no actions until the host issues
commands.
In the Auto-Config mode, the part will start streaming with the default settings.
Usage Modes
How a camera based on the AP0101CSwill be configured depends on what features are
used. In the simplest case, an AP0101AT operating in Auto-Config mode with no customized settings might be sufficient.
In the simplest case no EEPROM or Flash memory or µC is required, as shown in
Figure 22.
Figure 22:
Auto-Config Mode
AP0101CS + image sensor
Auto-Config Mode
Digital Out
AP0101CS/D Rev. 7, 1/16 EN
33
©Semiconductor Components Industries, LLC,2016.
AP0101CS HDR: Image Signal Processor (ISP)
Host Command Interface
The AP0101CScan be configured by a serial EEPROM or Flash through the SPI Interface.
Figure 23:
Flash Mode
AP0101CS
+ image sensor
Serial
EEPROM/Flash
SPI
Figure 24:
Host Mode with Flash
AP0101CS
+ image sensor
8/16bit μC
System Bus
two-wire
Serial
EEPROM/Flash
SPI
In this configuration all settings are communicated to the AP0101CS and sensor through
the microcontroller.
Figure 25:
Host Mode
8/16bit μC
System Bus
AP0101CS
+ image sensor
two-wire
Supported NVM Devices
The AP0101AT supports a variety of SPI NVM devices. Refer to the Flash/EEPROM
programming section of the Developer Guide for details.
Host Command Interface
The AP0101CS has a mechanism to execute higher level commands, the Host Command
Interface (HCI). Once a command has been written through the HCI, it will be executed
by on-chip firmware and the results are reported back. EEPROM or Flash memory is also
available to store commands for later execution. For details on the host command interface and host commands, refer to the Host Command Interface document.
AP0101CS/D Rev. 7, 1/16 EN
34
©Semiconductor Components Industries, LLC,2016.
AP0101CS HDR: Image Signal Processor (ISP)
Electrical Specifications
Electrical Specifications
Caution
Table 18:
Stresses greater than those listed in Table 18 may cause permanent damage to the device.
This is a stress rating only, and functional operation of the device at these or any other conditions above those indicated in the operational sections of this specification is not implied.
Exposure to absolute maximum rating conditions for extended periods may affect reliability.
Absolute Maximum Ratings
Rating
Table 19:
Symbol
Parameter
Min
Max
Unit
VDD_REG
VDDIO_H
VDDIO_S
VDD
VDD_PLL
VDDIO_OTPM
VIN
VOUT
TSTG
Digital power (1.8V)
Host I/O power (2.5V,3.3V)
Sensor I/O power (1.8V, 2.8V)
Digital core power
PLL power
OTPM power
DC Input Voltage
DC Output Voltage
Storage temperature
-0.3
2.25
1.7
1.1
1.1
2.25
-0.3
-0.3
-50
4.95
5.4
5.4
2.5
2.5
5.4
VDDIO_*+0.3
VDDIO_*+0.3
150
V
V
V
V
V
V
V
V
°C
Electrical Characteristics and Operating Conditions
Parameter
Condition
Min
Typ
Max
Unit
Supply input to on-chip regulator (VDD_REG)
1.62
1.8
1.98
V
Host IO voltage (VDDIO_H)
2.25
2.5/3.3
3.6
V
Sensor IO voltage (VDDIO_S)
1.7
1.8/2.8
3.1
V
Core voltage (VDD)
1.08
1.2
1.32
V
PLL voltage (VDD_PLL)
1.08
1.2
1.32
V
OTPM power supply (VDDIO_OTPM)
2.25
2.5/3.3
3.6
V
Functional operating temperature (ambient - TA)
-30
70
°C
Storage temperature
-55
150
°C
AP0101CS/D Rev. 7, 1/16 EN
35
©Semiconductor Components Industries, LLC,2016.
AP0101CS HDR: Image Signal Processor (ISP)
Electrical Specifications
Figure 26:
Table 20:
Parallel Digital Output I/O Timing
AC Electrical Characteristics (Referring to Figure 26)
Default Setup Conditions: fEXTCLK= 27 MHz, fPIXCLK = 74.125 MHz or fPIXCLK = 84 MHz, VDDIO_H = VDD_OTPM = 2.8V,
VDD_REG = VDDIO_S = 1.8V, TA = 25°C unless otherwise stated
Symbol
Parameter
fEXTCLK
External clock frequency
tR
External input clock rise time
10%-90% VDDIO_H
tF
External input clock fall time
90%-10% VDDIO_H
DEXTCLK
External input clock duty cycle
tJITTER
fPIXCLK
Conditions
Min
Typ
6
–
2
Max
Unit
Notes
30
MHz
1
5
ns
2
2
–
2
5
ns
40
50
60
%
External input clock jitter
–
500
Pixel clock frequency (one-clock/pixel)
6
Pixel clock frequency (two-clocks/pixel)
6
–
ps
74.25
MHz
84
MHz
5
ns
tRPIXCLK
Pixel clock rise time (10 - 90%)
CLOAD=35pf
–
3
tFPIXCLK
Pixel clock fall time (10 - 90%)
CLOAD=35pf
–
3
5
ns
tPD
PIXCLK to data valid
–
3
5
ns
tPFH
PIXCLK to FV HIGH
–
3
5
ns
tPLH
PIXCLK to LV HIGH
–
3
5
ns
tPFL
PIXCLK to FV LOW
–
3
5
ns
tPLL
PIXCLK to LV LOW
–
3
5
ns
Notes:
AP0101CS/D Rev. 7, 1/16 EN
1. VIH/VIL restrictions apply.
2. This is applicable only a when the PLL is bypassed. When the PLL is being used then the user should
ensure that VIH/VIL is met.
36
©Semiconductor Components Industries, LLC,2016.
AP0101CS HDR: Image Signal Processor (ISP)
Electrical Specifications
Table 21:
DC Electrical Characteristics
Symbol
Parameter
VIH
Input HIGH voltage
VIL
Input LOW voltage
IIN
Input leakage current
VOH
Output HIGH voltage
VOL
Output LOW voltage
Notes:
Table 22:
Condition
Min
Max
Unit
Notes
VDDIO_H or VDDIO_S *
0.8
–
–
V
1
VDDIO_H or VDDIO_S *
0.2
10
V
1
A
2
–
V
VDDIO_H or VDDIO_S *
0.2
V
VIN= 0V or VIN = VDDIO_H
or VDDIO_S
VDDIO_H or VDDIO_S*
0.80
–
1. VIL and VIH have min/max limitations specified by absolute ratings.
2. Excludes pins that have internal PU resistors.
Operating Current Consumption
Default Setup Conditions: fEXTCLK = 27 MHz, fPIXCLK = as below, VDD_REG=1.8V; VDDIO_H not included in measurement
VDDIO_S= 2.8V, VDDIO_OTPM=3.3V, TA =50°C unless otherwise stated
Symbol
Conditions
Min
1.62
1.8
1.98
V
VDDIO_H=2.5V
2.25
2.5
2.75
V
VDD_REG
VDDIO_H
VDDIO_S
VDDIO_OTPM
IDD_REG
IDDIO_S
IDDIO_OTPM
AP0101CS/D Rev. 7, 1/16 EN
Typ
Max
Unit
VDDIO_H=3.3V
3
3.3
3.6
V
VDDIO_S=1.8V
1.7
1.8
1.9
V
VDDIO_S=2.8V
2.5
2.8
3.1
V
VDDIO_OTPM=2.5V
2.25
2.5
2.75
V
VDDIO_OTPM=3.3V
3
3.3
3.6
V
960p HDR 30 fps 37.125MHz YCbCr_422_16
42
mA
800p HDR 30 fps 84 MHz YCbCr_422_10_10 or YCbCr_422_8_8
36
mA
720p HDR 60 fps 74.25MHz YCbCr_422_16
64
mA
720p HDR 30 fps 37.125MHz YCbCr_422_16
33
mA
720p HDR 30 fps 74.25 MHz YCbCr_422_10_10 or YCbCr_422_8_8
33
mA
960p HDR 30 fps 37.125 MHz YCbCr_422_16
4.4
mA
800p HDR 30 fps 84 MHz YCbCr_422_10_10 or YCbCr_422_8_8
4.3
mA
720p HDR 60 fps74.25 MHz YCbCr_422_16
4.5
mA
720p HDR 30 fps 37.125 MHz YCbCr_422_16
4.3
mA
720p HDR 30 fps 74.25 MHz YCbCr_422_10_10 or YCbCr_422_8_8
4.3
mA
960p HDR 30 fps 37.125 MHz YCbCr_422_16
0.25
mA
800p HDR 30 fps 84 MHz YCbCr_422_10_10 or YCbCr_422_8_8
0.25
mA
720p HDR 60 fps 74.25 MHz YCbCr_422_16
0.25
mA
720p HDR 30 fps 37.125 MHz YCbCr_422_16
0.25
mA
720p HDR 30 fps 74.25 MHz YCbCr_422_10_10 or YCbCr_422_8_8
0.25
mA
37
©Semiconductor Components Industries, LLC,2016.
AP0101CS HDR: Image Signal Processor (ISP)
Electrical Specifications
Table 22:
Operating Current Consumption (Continued)
Default Setup Conditions: fEXTCLK = 27 MHz, fPIXCLK = as below, VDD_REG=1.8V; VDDIO_H not included in measurement
VDDIO_S= 2.8V, VDDIO_OTPM=3.3V, TA =50°C unless otherwise stated
Symbol
Conditions
Total power
consumption1
Table 23:
Min
960p HDR 30 fps 37.125 MHz YCbCr_422_16
Typ
Max
89
Unit
mW
800p HDR 30 fps 84 MHz YCbCr_422_10_10 or YCbCr_422_8_8
77
mW
720p HDR 60 fps 74.25 MHz YCbCr_422_16
129
mW
720p HDR 30 fps 37.125 MHz YCbCr_422_16
72
mW
720p HDR 30 fps 74.25 MHz YCbCr_422_10_10 or YCbCr_422_8_8
71
mW
Standby Current Consumption
fEXTCLK = 27 MHz, VDD_REG =1.8V, VDDIO_S=1.8V,VDDIO_OTPM=VDDIO_H=3.3V, TA = 50°C, excludes VDDIO_H current
Symbol
Parameter
Condition
Hard standby
Total standby current when asserting the
STANDBY signal
1.6
Standby power
Soft standby (clock on)
Total standby current
fEXTCLK = 27 MHz
Standby power
Table 24:
AP0101CS/D Rev. 7, 1/16 EN
Typ
Max
Unit
mA
2.9
mW
2.1
mA
3.8
mW
Inrush Current
Supply
Max. Current
VDD_REG (1.8V)
VDDIO_H (2.5/3.3V)
VDDIO_S (2.8V/1.8V)
VDDIO_OTPM (2.5/3.3V)
150mA
80mA
110mA
170mA
38
©Semiconductor Components Industries, LLC,2016.
AP0101CS HDR: Image Signal Processor (ISP)
Two-Wire Serial Register Interface
Two-Wire Serial Register Interface
The electrical characteristics of the slave two-wire serial register interface (SCLK,
SDATA) are shown in Figure 27 and Table 25.
Figure 27:
Slave Two-Wire Serial Bus Timing Parameters (CCIS)
SDATA
tLOW
tf
tSU;DAT
tr
tf
tHD;STA
tr
tBUF
SCLK
tHD;STA
S
Table 25:
tHD;DAT
tSU;STA
tHIGH
tSU;STO
Sr
P
S
Slave Two-Wire Serial Bus Characteristics (CCIS)
Default Setup Conditions: fEXTCLK = 27 MHz, fPIXCLK = 74.125 MHz, VDDIO_H = VDD_OTPM = 2.8V, VDD_REG = VDDIO_S =
1.8V, Tj = 25°C unless otherwise stated
Standard-Mode
Parameter
Fast-Mode
Symbol
Min
Max
Min
Max
Unit
fSCL
0
100
0
400
KHz
tHD;STA
4.0
-
0.6
-
s
LOW period of the SCLK clock
tLOW
4.7
-
1.3
-
s
HIGH period of the SCLK clock
tHIGH
4.0
-
0.6
-
s
Set-up time for a repeated START condition
tSU;STA
4.7
-
0.6
-
s
Data hold time
tHD;DAT
02
3.453
0
0.93
s
Data set-up time
SCLK Clock Frequency
Hold time (repeated) START condition.
After this period, the first clock pulse is generated
tSU;DAT
250
-
100
-
ns
Rise time of both SDATA and SCLK signals
tr
-
1000
20 + 0.1Cb4
300
ns
Fall time of both SDATA and SCLK signals
tf
-
300
20 + 0.1Cb4
300
ns
tSU;STO
4.0
-
0.6
-
s
tBUF
4.7
-
1.3
-
s
Cb
-
400
-
400
pF
CIN_SI
-
3.3
-
3.3
pF
Set-up time for STOP condition
Bus free time between a STOP and START
condition
Capacitive load for each bus line
Serial interface input pin capacitance
SDATA max load capacitance
SDATA pull-up resistor
Notes:
CLOAD_SD
-
30
-
30
pF
RSD
1.5
4.7
1.5
4.7
K
1. All values referred to VIHmin = 0.9 VDD and VILmax = 0.1VDD levels. Sensor EXCLK = 27 MHz.
2. A device must internally provide a hold time of at least 300 ns for the SDATA signal to bridge the
undefined region of the falling edge of SCLK.
3. The maximum tHD;DAT has only to be met if the device does not stretch the LOW period (tLOW) of
the SCLK signal.
4. Cb = total capacitance of one bus line in pF.
The electrical characteristics of the master two-wire serial register interface (M_SCLK,
M_SDATA) are shown in Figure 28 and Table 26.
AP0101CS/D Rev. 7, 1/16 EN
39
©Semiconductor Components Industries, LLC,2016.
AP0101CS HDR: Image Signal Processor (ISP)
Two-Wire Serial Register Interface
Figure 28:
Master Two-Wire Serial Bus Timing Parameters (CCIM)
SDATA
tLOW
tf
tSU;DAT
tr
tf
tHD;STA
tr
tBUF
SCLK
S
Table 26:
tHD;STA
tHD;DAT
tSU;STA
tHIGH
tSU;STO
Sr
P
S
Master Two-Wire Serial Bus Characteristics (CCIM)
Default Setup Conditions: fEXTCLK = 27 MHz, fPIXCLK = 74.125 MHz, VDDIO_H = VDD_OTPM = 2.8V, VDD_REG = VDDIO_S =
1.8V, Tj = 25°C unless otherwise stated
Standard-Mode
Parameter
Fast-Mode
Symbol
Min
Max
Min
Max
Unit
fSCL
0
100
0
400
KHz
tHD;STA
4.0
-
0.6
-
s
LOW period of the M_SCLK clock
tLOW
4.7
-
1.2
-
s
HIGH period of the M_SCLK clock
tHIGH
4.0
-
0.6
-
s
Set-up time for a repeated START condition
tSU;STA
4.7
-
0.6
-
s
Data hold time
tHD;DAT
02
3.453
0
0.93
s
Data set-up time
M_SCLK Clock Frequency
Hold time (repeated) START condition.
After this period, the first clock pulse is generated
tSU;DAT
250
-
100
-
ns
Rise time of both M_SDATA and M_SCLK signals
tr
-
1000
20 + 0.1Cb4
300
ns
Fall time of both M_SDATA and M_SCLK signals
tf
-
300
20 + 0.1Cb4
300
ns
tSU;STO
4.0
-
0.6
-
s
Bus free time between a STOP and START
condition
tBUF
4.7
-
1.3
-
s
Capacitive load for each bus line
Cb
-
400
-
400
pF
Set-up time for STOP condition
Serial interface input pin capacitance
M_SDATA max load capacitance
M_SDATA pull-up resistor
Notes:
AP0101CS/D Rev. 7, 1/16 EN
CIN_SI
-
3.3
-
3.3
pF
CLOAD_SD
-
30
-
30
pF
RSD
1.5
4.7
1.5
4.7
K
1. All values referred to VIHmin = 0.9 VDD and VILmax = 0.1VDD levels. Sensor EXCLK = 27 MHz.
2. A device must internally provide a hold time of at least 300 ns for the M_SDATA signal to bridge the
undefined region of the falling edge of M_SCLK.
3. The maximum tHD;DAT has only to be met if the device does not stretch the LOW period (tLOW) of
the M_SCLK signal.
4. Cb = total capacitance of one bus line in pF.
40
©Semiconductor Components Industries, LLC,2016.
AP0101CS HDR: Image Signal Processor (ISP)
Package and Die Options
Package and Die Options
Figure 29:
Package Diagram
VFBGA81 6.5x6.5
CASE 138AG
ISSUE O
DATE 30 DEC 2014
AP0101CS/D Rev. 7, 1/16 EN
41
©Semiconductor Components Industries, LLC,2016.
AP0101CS HDR: Image Signal Processor (ISP)
Package and Die Options
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AP0101CS/D Rev. 7, 1/16 EN
42
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