Application Notes

INTEGRATED CIRCUITS
APPLICATION NOTE
AN10156
Sorting through the low voltage logic maze
Authors: Ramin Kowssari, Mike Magdaluyo
Philips
Semiconductors
2002 June 06
Philips Semiconductors
Application note
Sorting through the low voltage logic maze
AN10156
Authors: Ramin Kowssari, Mike Magdaluyo
Introduction
Digital systems are running at faster speeds, operating at lower voltages, and they are becoming more
highly integrated. Many functions can be integrated into FPGAs or ASICs, however, this does not mean
that generic standard logic has gone away. Designers may choose to design with standard logic for the
following reasons:
•
•
•
•
•
•
The need for cheap, simple fixed functions with high speed and lower power consumption
Space constraints requiring small packaging
Bus driving capability
Interfacing between mixed voltage systems
Need for hot insertion capability
Need for bus switching.
Today designers are challenged with the task of choosing among many low voltage logic families. This
paper provides information on the various families, their key features and how to choose among them,
based on the criteria listed above.
Standard Logic vs. ASICs or FPGAs
There are situations in which standard logic is more cost effective and suitable than FPGAs or ASICs. This
becomes more evident when to you realize the crucial role that standard logic plays in many systems. For
example, the design engineer may need to add a single function to an ASIC or FPGA in the final stage of
the design due to a last minute change in the system’s protocol. Rather than re-spin an ASIC or reprogram
the FPGA and reinvest the engineering time, effortlessly adding a logic device that’s close to the source of
the problem at the critical peak of the design cycle will get the system to market on time.
Furthermore, speed, high output drive, lower power consumption, space constraints, distinctive features,
and a collection of standard functions can also compel designers to utilize high-speed low voltage logic
ICs. (See Tables 1 and 2).
LV/LVX
9 ns typical tPD
6-8 mA IOH/IOL
ALVC
LVT
2 ns typical tPD
2 ns typical tPD
24 mA IOH/IOL
130 ohm line drive
VCC: 1 - 3.6 V
32/64 mA IOH/IOL
50 ohm line drive
10 µA standby current
35 ohm line drive
40 µA standby current
VCC: 1.2 - 3.6 V
Gates, MSI, bus interface
functions
1
24 mA IOH/IOL
50 ohm line drive
20 µA standby current
5 V tolerant inputs
LVC/LCX
4 ns typical tPD
190 µA standby current
VCC: 1.2 - 3.6 V
VCC: 2.7 - 3.6 V
Gates, MSI, 8/16/32 bit bus
interface functions
Gates, MSI, 8/16/32 bit bus
interface functions
Gates, MSI, 8/16/32 bit bus
interface functions
Termination resistor option
Termination resistor option
Termination resistor option
5 V tolerant I/O
5 V tolerant inputs
Supports hot swap
Bus hold feature
2
Bus hold feature
Bus hold feature
Notes:
1. Vendor dependent
2. Vendor dependent
Propagation delays are approximate typicals for a '245 function
Table 1. Low voltage standard logic families and features
2002 June 06
5 V tolerant I/O
Supports hot swap
1
Philips Semiconductors
Application note
Sorting through the low voltage logic maze
AN10156
ALVT
AVC
AUC
CBTLV
1.5 ns typical tPD
1.3 ns typical tPD
1.5 ns typical tPD
VCC: 2.3 - 3.6 V
VCC: 1.2 - 3.3 V
VCC: 0.8 - 2.7 V
Sub 0.25 ns typical tPD
VCC: 2.3 - 3.6 V
32/64 mA IOH/IOL
8 mA IOH/IOL
1
8 mA IOH/IOL
Low Ron, 5 ohms typical
90 µA standby current
20 µA standby current
10 µA standby current
10 µA ICC
35 ohm line drive
50 ohm line drive
130 ohm line drive
Precharge circuit for hot swap
5 V tolerant I/O
Optimized for 2.5 V
Optimized for 1.8 V
Termination resistor option
Termination resistor option
Termination resistor option
Supports hot swap
3.3 V tolerant I/O
3.3 V tolerant inputs
Bus hold feature
Bus hold feature
Single/dual gates, bus interface
functions
Gates,MSI,8/16/32 bit bus
interface functions
Bus interface functions
Bus switches, mutiplexers,
demultiplexers, exchangers
Notes:
1. 8 mA static drive, high dynamic drive to drive 50 ohm line
Table 2. Low voltage standard logic families and features
Miniature Packaging
A large growth area in packaging technology has been in gate functions in very small packages. Available
in single, dual, and triple gates, IC manufacturers offer a full array of low voltage common gate functions
such as OR, NOR, AND, inverters, buffers, flip-flops, multiplexers, demultiplexers, analog switches, and
even bus switches. These small devices offer multiple benefits to board designers. A quick fix with a
single gate is more cost effective than re-spinning an ASIC. Single and dual gates also offer space savings
for space constrained boards and mobile applications and allow line layout simplification (Figure 1).
ASIC
Clock Source
ASIC
Clock Source
Data Source
Data Source
CK
CK
74LVC1G79
Latched
date in
Needs latched
Data
74LVC74A
Latched
date in
Legacy ASIC
Needs 1/2
clock
freq and
inverted and
clocked data
Needs latched
Data
74LVC00A
Figure 1. Example of simplified routing using single gates
2002 June 06
2
Legacy ASIC
Needs 1/2
clock
freq and
inverted and
clocked data
Philips Semiconductors
Application note
Sorting through the low voltage logic maze
AN10156
As an example of space savings, the footprint of an SC70 single gate has 6 times the space savings
compared to a multiple gate 14-pin TSSOP package. Several packaging options are available for single,
double, and triple gates. For single and dual gates, there are 2 types of leaded 5 or 6 pin packages and 2
unleaded packages with either solder lands or solder balls shown in Figure 2:
8.1 mm 2 Footprint Area
4.8 mm 2 Footprint Area
2.9 mm
1.45 mm 2 Footprint Area
2.2 mm
1.26 mm2 Footprint Area
1.45 mm
2.8 mm
SC59
2.2 mm
SC70
1.4 mm
1.0 mm
0.9 mm
0.5 mm
0.5 mm
0.65 mm
MicroPak TM
with solder lands
0.95 mm
NanoStarTM
with solder balls
Figure 2. Footprint comparisons of single and dual gate packages
Leaded triple gate packages and some dual gate packages have 8 leads and have lead pitches of 0.5 mm and
0.65 mm as shown in Figure 3.
8.1 mm2 Footprint Area
6.2 mm2 Footprint Area
2.9 mm
2.0 mm
1.7 mm2 Footprint Area
1.9 mm
SM8
4.0 mm
3.1 mm
US8
0.9 mm
0.5 mm
NanoStarTM
with solder balls
0.65 mm
0.5 mm
Figure 3. Footprint comparisons of dual and triple gate packages
These smaller logic devices are available in different product families to fit speed or drive requirements of
different applications. Note that equivalent product families among vendors can have different naming
conventions even though parts have the same technical characteristics. Vendors offering these parts
include Philips, Toshiba, TI, Fairchild, ON, IDT, and Pericom. Table 3 shows multiple gate families with
their corresponding single, dual, and triple gate families:
Equivalent Multi-Gate Family
74LVC, 74LCX
74CBTLV
74AUC16
Single Gates
74LVC1G, TC7SZ, NC7SZ,
NL17SZ
PI74ST1G, PI74STX1G
74CBTLV1G
74AUC1G, NC7SV
Dual Gates
74LVC2G, NC7WB, NL27WZ
PI74STX2G
Triple Gates
74LVC3G, NC7NZ,
NL37WZ
PI74STX3G
74AUC2G
74AUC3G
Table 3. Low voltage logic single, dual and triple gate families
2002 June 06
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Philips Semiconductors
Application note
Sorting through the low voltage logic maze
AN10156
Mixed Voltage Systems
Legacy 5-volt systems co-exist with newer low voltage systems, and there is a need for the different
voltage systems to interface to each other. There are a number of low voltage families that have capability
to interface with 5 V devices on the inputs, outputs, or both. Also, 3.3-volt devices need the capability to
interface to either 2.5-volt or 1.8-volt devices.
When mixing logic devices from different voltage systems, the I/O pins must be able to tolerate voltages
from the higher voltage system. Some CMOS logic families have clamp diodes on the inputs that become
forward biased and create a current path to VCC when an overvoltage condition exists. Other CMOS
families remove diode paths to VCC thus providing overvoltage tolerance (Figure 4).
VCC
VCC
ESD and
Clamp
Circuit
ESD and clamp circuit
Input
i
Input
Figure 4. CMOS input circuits with and without VCC clamp diodes
On outputs, circuitry must be able to tolerate an overvoltage condition in the high impedance mode, a logic
HIGH state, or both. Many low voltage families have output protection circuitry to allow overvoltage
conditions. Table 4 summarizes the operating voltages of various low voltage families and the overvoltage
capabilities of their I/Os.
Logic Family
LV
LVC, LCX
Optimized
for 3.3 V
3
3
ALVC
LVT
3
3
ALVT
AVC
3
AUC
LVX
LPT
VCX
Operates
at 3.3 V
Optimized
for 2.5 V
Operates at Optimized for
2.5 V
1.8 V
Overvoltage Tolerant on I/Os
3
Operates at 1.8 V
or Lower
3
3
3
3
5 V on non-bus hold inputs
5V
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
Limited to V
5V
CC
5V
3.3 V
3.3 V
5 V on inputs
5V
3.3 V
Table 4. Logic Family Operating Voltages
In addition to I/Os tolerating overvoltage conditions, an output must be able to adequately drive a receiver’s
VIH and VIL levels. A 3 volt driver can easily drive a 5 volt receiver if the input levels are TTL. However,
if the input levels are 5 volt CMOS, the 3 V driver’s VOH level will not be high enough. Figure 5 shows a
comparison of CMOS versus TTL switching standards:
2002 June 06
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Philips Semiconductors
Application note
Sorting through the low voltage logic maze
AN10156
5.0 V
VCC
4.5 V
VOH
3.5 V
VIH
1.5 V
VIL
0.5 V
VOL
0
GND
5 V CMOS Device
5.0 V
VCC for 5 V TTL
3.3 V
VCC for 3.3 V TTL
2.4 V
VOH
2.0 V
VIH
0.8 V
VIL
0.4 V
0
VOL
GND
5 V or 3.3 V TTL Device
Figure 5. 5 volt CMOS vs. TTL levels
The switching levels for CMOS inputs are 70% of VCC for VIH and 30% of VCC for VIL. A 3-volt driver
must reach 3.5 V to meet the VIH level. In this case, a level shifter with dual VCC supplies is needed to
ensure a rail-to-rail 5 V signal swing. Figure 6 shows possible solutions using two types level shifters
available on the market. These level shifters are offered in the LVX, LVC, LCX, ALVC, AVC, or VCX
families: If only a few signals need to be shifted, open-drain devices like the 06 or 07 functions can be
used if the family has 5 volt tolerant outputs
3.3 V
5V
5 V Port
5V
CMOS
Receiver
3.3 V
3 V Port
3 V Port
'4245 or '164245
Level Shifting
Transceiver
Function
5V
3 V Driver
3 V Driver
5 V Port
'3245 or '163245
Level Shifting
Transceiver
Function
5V
CMOS
Receiver
Figure 6. Level shifters to interface between 3 volt and 5 volt systems
Several scenarios exist when mixing and matching mixed voltage devices. Attention must be paid to
overvoltage tolerance and meeting input switching levels. Figure 7 shows solutions how to interface
among these scenarios for different logic families:
2002 June 06
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Philips Semiconductors
Application note
Sorting through the low voltage logic maze
AN10156
3 V TTL
Driver
3 V TTL
Receiver
5 V TTL or
CMOS
Driver
Okay
ALVC
ALVT
LCX
LPT
LV
LVX
LVC
LVT
ALVT
LCX
LPT
LVX
LVC
LVT
3 V TTL
Driver
ALVC
ALVT
LCX
LPT
LV
LVX
LVC
LVT
Okay
5 V TTL
Receiver
Not
Advised
5 V CMOS
Receiver
Use Dual V CC
Level Shifter
Figure 7. Interface scenarios with 3 volt and 5 volt devices
Hot Swapping
Inserting and removing PC boards without turning off the power is increasingly a requirement for highavailability systems such as telecom equipment, real-time transaction processing, air-traffic control, and
fault-tolerant computing. Such systems can have only minimal down time. So the ability to exchange
hardware without affecting the system is important. This capability goes by the names of "live insertion,"
"hot plugging," and "hot swapping." Implementing live insertion requires careful hardware and software
design. Various logic and bus-switch families have different capabilities and design considerations when
used in live insertion applications.
A key issue during live insertion is maintaining data integrity on the system bus while preventing damage
to the components of the host system or those on the live-inserted PC board. Components must meet one
of the three levels of bus isolation:
•
First level: The construction of the components is such that, when unpowered, they will not be
damaged when connected to a live bus. Further, so that a component's input or output pins that are
connected to the interface will not load down the system bus, its outputs must remain in a high
impedance state and have a “power-off disable” feature and support partial power-down mode. Parts
will have an “IOFF“spec in the data sheet if the device has this feature.
•
Second level: Hot-swap components support partial power-down mode and include circuitry to keep
their outputs high impedance during power-up or power-down. A power-up/power-down 3-state circuit
prevents loading and conflicts on a live bus. System software must be able to detect the live-insertion
event, detect and correct any bus errors, and re-initialize the bus as needed. An IPU/IOZPD or an
IOZPU/IOZPD spec in the data sheet indicates the power-up/power-down feature.
2002 June 06
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Philips Semiconductors
Application note
Sorting through the low voltage logic maze
AN10156
•
Third level: The third level of isolation includes the previous two levels and adds circuitry to precharge
the bus of the PC board being inserted to a preset voltage level. The precharge voltage helps reduce
glitches caused by the bus's impedance and capacitance at the live-insertion interface. Devices with
this feature will have a section in the data sheet that has precharge bias voltage and current specs.
Many low voltage logic families support live insertion by providing one of the 3 levels of isolation
previously mentioned. Removing diode paths to VCC on inputs and by adding protection and precharge
bias circuitry on outputs does this. Table 5 summarizes how different logic families support hot swapping:
Logic Family
LVC, LCX, ALVC, VCX
LVCZ, LCXZ, LVT, ALVT
FBL, GTLP
CBTLV, PI3C, QS3
Supports Power-off
Disable, IOFF
3
3
3
NA
Supports Power-up/down
3-State
Has Pre-charge Bias
Circuitry
3
3
NA
3
3
Table 5. Low voltage logic families that support hot swapping
Digital Low Voltage Bus Switches
You can’t implement every logic function in an ASIC of FPGA. A bus switch function is a good example.
The bus switch is designed for the high-speed digital communication systems requirement, where buses
need to provide faster connection, bus isolation, and better protection. The low voltage digital bus switch is
designed for this type of application. These switches provide low ON resistance connections between
device and I/O ports without adding significant propagation delay (typically 0.25 ns). Furthermore, the bus
switches feature hot insertion capability and lower power consumption.
Memory Module Application:
The new microprocessor requires faster access time to memory devices. One technique to improve the
access time is to distribute the data in several memory banks. You can further improve the memory access
time by placing the digital bus switch between memory and the MPU. For example in Figure 8, the MPU
first fetches the first 16 bits of data after 25ns and then a few nanoseconds later reads the second word of
data via the second channel of the CBTLV multiplexer.
Address Line
MPU/
ASIC
Memory
Bank 0
AccT=25ns
Control Signals
Control Signals
Bus Switch
Mux/Demux
Cho
Data
CBTLV
Ch1
Memory
Bank 1
AccT=25ns
Data Line
Data
Figure 8. Multiplexing data lines in memory banks
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Philips Semiconductors
Application note
Sorting through the low voltage logic maze
AN10156
High-end Server Hot Swap Application:
As the companies transfer their critical applications onto servers, the servers are required to support hot
insertion in order to minimize downtime.
Hot insertion digital bus switches have pre-charge circuitry and fully support all levels of bus isolation.
These devices allow the PC board either to be inserted or removed from the motherboard’s slot without the
need to power down the server (Figure 9).
MPU/
ASIC
Live
Insertion
Mother
Board
Bus
CBTLV
Figure 9. Bus switch used for hot swapping
Conclusion
There are a large variety of standard low voltage families available to serve the needs of many applications
that don’t require the use of ASICs or FPGAs. Today’s logic families run at fast speeds, allow interfacing
between mixed voltage systems, support hot swapping, and have many package options to choose from,
from standard packaging to tiny single, dual, and triple gates. Logic is alive and well, and semiconductor
vendors continue to invest in new technologies and smaller packaging.
2002 June 06
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Philips Semiconductors
Application note
Sorting through the low voltage logic maze
AN10156
Definitions
Short-form specification – The data in a short-form specification is extracted from a full data sheet with the same type
number and title. For detailed information see the relevant datasheet or data handbook.
Limiting values definition – Limiting values given are in accordance with the Absolute Maximum Rating System
(IEC134). Stress above one or more of the limiting values may cause permanent damage to the device. These are stress
ratings only and operation of the device at these or at any other conditions above those given in the Characteristics
sections of the specification is not implied. Exposure to limiting values for extended periods may affect device reliability.
Application information – Applications that are described herein for any of these products are for illustrative purposes
only. Philips Semiconductors make no representation or warranty that such applications will be suitable for the specified
use without further testing or modification.
Disclaimers
Life support – These products are not designed for use in life support appliances, devices or systems where malfunction
of these products can reasonably be expected to result in personal injury. Philips Semiconductors customers using or
selling these products for use in such applications do so at their own risk and agree to fully indemnify Philips
Semiconductors for any damages resulting from such application.
Right to make changes – Philips Semiconductors reserves the right to make changes, without notice, in the products,
including circuits, standard cells, and/or software, described or contained herein in order to improve design and/or
performance. Philips Semiconductors assumes no responsibility or liability for the use of any of these products, conveys
no license or title under any patent, copyright, or mask work right to these products, and makes no representations or
warranties that these products are free from patent, copyright, or mask work right infringement, unless otherwise
specified.
 Copyright Koninklijke Philips Electronics N.V. 2002
All rights reserved. Printed in U.S.A
Contact information
For additional information please visit
http://www.semiconductors.philips.com
Date of release: 06-02
Document order number:
9397 750 10112
Fax: +31 40 27 24825
For sales offices addresses send e-mail to:
[email protected]
2002 June 06
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