Download (2.34 MB)

Hollow Cathode Lamps
Overview
Atomic absorption spectroscopy (or AAS) in its modern form came from principles developed by Australian physicist Dr. A. Walsh in 1955.
Atomic absorption spectroscopy is ideal for analyzing minute quantities of metallic elements because its operating principle and analysis method
offer relatively simple measurement with high accuracy.
Hamamatsu provides a full line of hollow cathode lamps developed by our discharge tube manufacturing technology accumulated over long years
of experience. These lamps provide the sharp, high-purity spectral lines essential for high accuracy measurement.
■Type of hollow cathode lamps
■Applications
• Atomic absorption spectrophotometers
• Atomic fluorescence spectrophotometers
• Multi-element analyzers
• Environmental analytical instruments
Hollow cathode lamps consist of single-element lamps and multi-element
lamps. Single-element lamps are usually superior to multi-element lamps in
absorption sensitivity and analytical line radiant intensity. Although multielement lamps offer the advantage of simultaneous determination of multiple
elements, their cathode composition must be determined by taking the properties of the metals to combine fully into account, so fabricating cathodes
from an optional combination of elements is not possible.
Construction
As shown in Figure 1, a hollow cathode lamp is constructed with a bulb having a window (4 in Figure 1) made of quartz or UV-transmitting glass
or borosilicate glass for spectral line emission, and into which a hollow cylindrical cathode (2 in Figure 1) and a ring-shaped anode (1 in Figure
1) are assembled. Noble gas is also sealed inside at a pressure of several hundred pascals. The cathode is made of a single element or alloy of the
element to be analyzed to ensure sharp analytical spectral lines with an absolute minimum of interfering spectral components.
Figure 1: Construction of hollow cathode lamp
Figure 2: Transmittance of window glass materials
hv
100
4
5
7
1
2
6
3
1Anode
2Cathode (hollow cathode)
3Base
4Faceplate (window)
5Bulb
6Stem
7Getter
8Graded glass seal
TRANSMITTANCE (%)
80 SYNTHETIC
8
QUARTZ
UV-TRANSMITTING
GLASS
(UV GLASS)
60
40
BOROSILICATE GLASS
20
0
160
200
240
280
320
360
400
440
WAVELENGTH (nm)
Operating Principle
The hollow cathode lamp is a type of glow discharge tube that uses a hollow cathode to enhance the emission intensity. Compared to parallel plate
electrodes, using a hollow cathode increases the current density by more than 10 times and this is accompanied by a significant increase in light intensity and a lower voltage drop in the lamp. This is known as the hollow cathode effect (or hollow effect).
When a voltage is applied across the electrodes of a hollow cathode lamp to cause a discharge in the lamp, electrons pass from the interior of the
cathode to the cathode-fall region and flow through the negative glow region toward the anode. This causes ionization of the gas within the lamp
through inelastic collisions with the gas atoms. Positive ions generated by the gas ionization are accelerated by the electric field and collide with
the cathode surface. The kinetic energy of ion impact causes the cathode materials to sputter (or fly) away from the cathode surface in the form of
an atomic vapor. This metallic vapor consists primarily of single atoms in the ground state and they are thermally dispersed within the hollow
cathode.
Meanwhile an electron bunch or cluster is accelerated by the electric field toward the anode. The accelerated electrons collide with the groundstate metallic atoms being diffused and excite the metallic atoms. The excited metallic atoms return to the ground state again in an extremely short
transition time of about 10-8 seconds. At this point, monochromatic light characteristic of those atoms is emitted at an energy corresponding to the
energy difference between the excited state and the ground state.
This transition of electrons occurs not only in the target element for quantitative analysis but also in other elements of the cathode materials, causing a variety of energy transitions to occur. So, in a wide spectral range, many spectral lines of those elements and the filler gas can be observed.
Transition metal elements such as Ni, Co and Fe in particular result in an extremely large number of spectral lines.
2
For conventional atomic absorption spectroscopy
Lineup of Hollow Cathode Lamps
●L233 series (38 mm diameter): Single-element hollow cathode lamps (66 lamps) 1
Element
Maximum
Atomic Type No. Analytical Line Operating
Current Current
(nm)
Number (suffix)
(mA)
(mA)
328.07 *
10
20
47 -47NB
338.28
Ag
Silver
Al
Aluminium
13
-13NB
As
Arsenic
33
-33NQ
Re
Rhenium
309.27 *
396.15
193.70 *
197.20
242.80 *
267.59
249.68 *
249.77
553.55 *
10
20
Rh
Rhodium
45
-45NB
343.49 *
10
20
10
12
Ru
Ruthenium
44
-44NB
349.89 *
20
25
217.58 *
231.15
390.74
391.18 *
196.03 *
10
15
10
15
20
25
251.61 *
288.16
429.67 *
484.17
224.61 *
286.33
460.73 *
10
20
15
20
20
20
10
20
271.47 *
275.83
431.88
432.64 *
214.27 *
10
20
15
15
10
15
364.27 *
365.35
276.78 *
377.57
371.79 *
410.58
306.64
318.40 *
255.14 *
400.87
410.23 *
412.83
346.43
398.79 *
213.86 *
307.59
360.12 *
468.78
240.00
(peak value)
10
20
7
10
10
15
10
20
10
25
15
15
10
10
7
15
20
20
30
35
16
Sb
Antimony
51
-51NQ
10
20
Sc
Scandium
21
-21NB
10
20
Se
Selenium
34
-34NQ
234.86 *
10
20
Si
Silicon
14
-14NU
223.06 *
306.77
422.67 *
10
12
Sm
Samarium
62
-62NB
10
18
Sn
Tin
50
-50NQ
-48NQ
228.80 *
5
12
Sr
Strontium
38
-38NB
27
-27NU
10
20
Ta
Tantalum
73
-73NU
Chromium
24
-24NB
10
20
Tb
Terbium
65
-65NB
Caesium
55
-55NB
240.73 *
346.58
357.87 *
425.44
852.11 *
10
20
Te
Tellurium
52
-52NQ
Gold
79
-79NQ
B
Boron
5
-5NQ
Ba
Barium
56
-56NB
Be
Beryllium
4
-4NQ
Bi
Bismuth
83
-83NQ
Ca
Calcium
20
-20NU
Cd
Cadmium
48
Co
Cobalt
Cr
Cs
Cu
Copper
29
-29NB
Dy
Dysprosium
66
-66NB
Er
Erbium
68
-68NB
Eu
Europium
63
-63NB
Fe
Iron
26
-26NU
Ga
Gallium
31
-31NU
Gd
Gadolinium
64
-64NB
Ge
Germanium
32
-32NU
Hf
Hafnium
72
-72NU
Hg
Mercury
80
-80NU
Ho
Holmium
67
-67NB
In
Indium
49
-49NB
Ir
Iridium
77
-77NQ
K
Potassium
19
-19NB
La
Lanthanum
57
-57NB
Li
Lithium
3
-3NB
Mg
Maximum
Atomic Type No. Analytical Line Operating
Current Current
(nm)
Number (suffix)
(mA)
(mA)
346.05 *
25
20
75 -75NB
346.47
10
Au
Lu
Element
Lutetium
Magnesium
71
12
-71NB
-12NU
Mn
Manganese
25
-25NU
Mo
Molybdenum
42
-42NB
Na
Sodium
11
-11NB
Nb
Niobium
41
-41NB
Nd
Neodymium
60
-60NB
Ni
Nickel
28
-28NQ
Os
Osmium
76
-76NU
Pb
Lead
82
-82NQ
Pd
Palladium
46
-46NQ
Pr
Praseodymium
59
-59NB
Pt
Platinum
78
-78NU
Rb
Rubidium
37
-37NB
324.75 *
327.40
404.59 *
421.17
400.79 *
415.11
459.40 *
462.72
248.33 *
371.99
287.42
294.36 *
407.87
422.58 *
265.16 *
10
20
Ti
Titanium
22
-22NB
15
15
Tl
Thallium
81
-81NU
15
15
Tm
Thulium
69
-69NB
15
15
V
Vanadium
23
-23NB
10
20
W
Tungsten
74
-74NU
4
6
Y
Yttrium
39
-39NB
12
12
Yb
Ytterbium
70
-70NB
10
20
Zn
Zinc
30
-30NQ
286.64 *
307.29
253.65 *
20
25
Zr
Zirconium
40
-40NB
4
6
D2
Hydrogen
1
-1DQ
410.38 *
416.30
303.94 *
325.61
208.88 *
266.47
766.49 *
769.90
357.44
550.13 *
610.36
670.78 *
328.17
331.21 *
285.21 *
15
20
10
15
20
20
10
15
Na-K
10
20
Ca-Mg
10
20
Si-Al
15
Fe-Ni
18
Sr-Ba
279.48 *
403.08
313.26 *
320.88
589.00 *
589.59
334.91 *
405.89
463.42
492.45 *
232.00 *
341.48
290.90 *
305.86
217.00 *
283.30
244.79 *
247.64
495.13 *
513.34
265.95 *
299.80
780.02 *
794.76
15
10
10
20
10
20
10
15
20
30
15
15
10
20
15
15
10
15
10
20
15
15
10
20
10
20
●L733 series (38 mm diameter): Multi-element hollow cathode lamps (11 lamps) 1
Element
Al-Ca-Mg
Ca-Mg-Zn
Cu-MoCo-Zn
Cd-CuPb-Zn
Cu-FeMn-Zn
Co-Cr-CuFe-Mn-Ni
Sodium
Potassium
Calcium
Magnesium
Silicon
Aluminium
Iron
Nickel
Strontium
Barium
Aluminium
Calcium
Magnesium
Calcium
Magnesium
Zinc
Copper
Molybdenum
Cobalt
Zinc
Cadmium
Copper
Lead
Zinc
Copper
Iron
Manganese
Zinc
Cobalt
Chromium
Copper
Iron
Manganese
Nickel
Maximum
Atomic Type No. Analytical Line Operating
Current Current
Number (suffix)
(nm)
(mA)
(mA)
11
589.00 *
-201NB Na
15
10
K 766.49 *
19
20
12
14
13
26
28
38
56
13
20
12
20
12
30
29
42
27
30
48
29
82
30
29
26
25
30
27
24
29
26
25
28
422.67 *
-202NU Ca
Mg 285.21 *
Si
*
-203NU Al 251.61
309.27 *
10
18
10
20
248.33 *
-204NQ Fe
Ni 232.00 *
460.73 *
-205NB Sr
Ba 553.55 *
10
20
10
20
-321NU
10
18
10
15
10
15
10
15
8
15
10
20
-322NQ
-401NQ
-402NQ
-405NQ
-601NQ
Al
Ca
Mg
Ca
Mg
Zn
Cu
Mo
Co
Zn
Cd
Cu
Pb
Zn
Cu
Fe
Mn
Zn
Co
Cr
Cu
Fe
Mn
Ni
309.27 *
422.67 *
285.21 *
422.67 *
285.21 *
213.86 *
324.75 *
313.26 *
240.73 *
213.86 *
228.80 *
324.75 *
217.00 *
213.86 *
324.75 *
248.33 *
279.48 *
213.86 *
240.73 *
357.87 *
324.75 *
248.33 *
279.48 *
232.00 *
Analytical lines marked with an asterisk (*) indicate the maximum absorption wavelength of each element. Since each element has two or more
spectral emission lines, select the spectral line that best suits the sample concentration.
NOTE: 1The guaranteed lifetime is defined by the product of the operating current and the accumulated operating time and is specified as 5000
mA·hrs except for the guaranteed lifetimes of As, Ga and Hg which are specified as 3000 mA·hrs.
Note on the L233 and L733 series current values
Pulse-lighting lamp current waveform
Peak value
Current
The operating current and maximum current values listed above are specified as a peak
current value. However, instruments using a pulse lighting system may indicate the lamp
current value as the mean value. So, when using such an instrument, verify which current
value (mean or peak) it indicates and use the specified current value to operate lamps
correctly.
Mean value
Time
3
For atomic absorption spectroscopy using the S-H method background correction
Lineup of Giant-pulse Hollow Cathode Lamps
●L2433 series (38 mm diameter): Single-element hollow cathode lamps (46 lamps)
Silver
47
-47NB
Al
Aluminium
13
-13NB
As
Arsenic
33
-33NQ
Au
Gold
79
-79NQ
B
Boron
5
-5NQ
Ba
Barium
56
-56NB
Be
Beryllium
4
-4NQ
328.07 *
338.28
309.27 *
396.15
193.70 *
197.20
242.80 *
267.59
249.68 *
249.77
553.55 *
234.86 *
Bi
Bismuth
83
-83NQ
Ca
Calcium
20
-20NU
Cd
Cadmium
48
-48NQ
Co
Cobalt
27
-27NU
Cr
Chromium
24
-24NB
Cu
Copper
29
-29NB
Dy
Dysprosium
66
-66NB
Er
Erbium
68
-68NB
Eu
Europium
63
-63NB
Fe
Iron
26
-26NU
Ga
Gallium
31
-31NU
Ge
Germanium
32
-32NU
2
Hafnium
72
-72NU
Hg
Mercury
80
-80NU
Ho
Holmium
67
-67NB
K
Potassium
19
-19NB
La
Lanthanum
57
-57NB
Li
Lithium
3
-3NB
Magnesium
12
-12NU
Mg
Analytical
Line
(nm)
Mn
Manganese
25
-25NU
Mo
Molybdenum
42
-42NB
Na
Sodium
11
-11NB
Ni
Nickel
28
-28NQ
Pb
Lead
82
-82NQ
Pd
Palladium
46
-46NQ
Pt
Platinum
78
-78NU
Ru
Ruthenium
44
-44NB
Sb
Antimony
51
-51NQ
Se
Selenium
34
-34NQ
Si
Silicon
14
-14NU
Sm
Samarium
62
-62NB
Sn
Tin
50
-50NQ
Sr
Strontium
38
-38NB
Te
Tellurium
52
-52NQ
Ti
Titanium
22
-22NB
V
Vanadium
23
-23NB
Y
Yttrium
39
-39NB
Yb
Ytterbium
70
-70NB
Zn
Zinc
30
-30NQ
223.06 *
306.77
422.67 *
228.80 *
240.73 *
346.58
357.87 *
425.44
324.75 *
327.40
404.59 *
421.17
400.79 *
415.11
459.40 *
462.72
248.33 *
371.99
287.42
294.36 *
265.16 *
286.64 *
307.29
253.65 *
410.38 *
416.30
766.49 *
769.90
357.44
550.13 *
610.36
670.78 *
285.21 *
279.48 *
403.08
313.26 *
320.88
589.00 *
589.59
232.00 *
341.48
217.00 *
283.30
244.79 *
247.64
265.95 *
299.80
349.89 *
217.58 *
231.15
196.03 *
251.61 *
288.16
429.67 *
484.17
224.61 *
286.33
460.73 *
214.27 *
364.27 *
365.35
306.64
318.40 *
410.23 *
412.83
346.43
398.79 *
213.86 *
307.59
Low 1 High 1 Accumulated 2 Operating 2
Current Current Lifetime
Lifetime
(mA) (mA) (mA·ms·h)
(h)
10
400
20 000
500
10
600
30 000
500
12
500
7500
150
10
400
20 000
500
10
500
5000
100
15
600
30 000
500
10
600
6000
100
10
300
6000
200
15
600
30 000
500
8
100
5000
500
15
400
20 000
500
10
600
12 000
200
10
500
25 000
500
15
600
6000
100
15
500
5000
100
10
600
6000
100
12
400
20 000
500
4
400
4000
100
20
500
5000
100
20
600
6000
100
12
400
4000
100
10
600
6000
100
10
600
30 000
500
20
600
9000
150
15
500
25 000
500
10
500
25 000
500
10
600
30 000
500
10
600
9000
150
10
600
12 000
200
10
400
20 000
500
10
300
15 000
500
10
300
3000
100
10
300
3000
100
20
600
6000
100
15
500
7500
150
15
300
4500
150
10
500
10 000
200
15
600
6000
100
20
500
25 000
500
10
500
25 000
500
15
400
4000
100
10
600
12 000
200
10
700
7000
100
15
600
6000
100
5
200
2000
100
10
300
15 000
500
Analytical lines marked with an asterisk (*) indicate
the maximum absorption wavelength of each element. Since each element has two or more spectral emission lines, select the spectral line that best
suits the sample concentration.
NOTE:
1Maximum discharge current: Peak current (See
the current waveform charts for the low current
and high current waveform specifications.)
2 · When lamps are operated at a current less
than the maximum discharge current specified
for each element:
The accumulated lifetime(mA·ms·h) is defined
by the operating time including the lamp preheat
time multiplied by the product of the low current
and its time width or the product of the high current and its time width, whichever is larger.
· When lamps are operated at the maximum discharge current specified for each element:
The guaranteed lifetime (operating lifetime) is
defined by the accumulated operating time including the lamp preheat time.
The guaranteed lifetime is specified by either of
the above definitions.
Note on L2433 series
current values
●Low current operation
Absorption of the target element occurs
when a lamp is operated at a low current.
While making sure not to exceed the low
current value listed for the lamp, set the
current at which the best analytical
sensitivity is obtained.
Current waveform chart
(low current operation)
Current
Ag
Hf
4
Atomic Type No.
Number (suffix)
10 ms Min. (100 Hz Max.)
1 ms Max.
Low current
value
Time
●High current operation
When a lamp is operated at a high current,
a self-reversal effect occurs in the lamp to
absorb the background. As in low current
operation, set the current while making
sure not to exceed the high current value
listed for the lamp.
Current waveform chart
(high current operation)
10 ms Min. (100 Hz Max.)
Current
Element
0.1 ms Max.
High current
value
Time
●Time width
Do not operate the lamps in a state where
the time width of the discharge current
waveform exceeds the maximum time
width shown in the above charts.
Lamp Current and Absorption Sensitivity
The ideal analytical line profile of the light emitted by a hollow cathode lamp should exhibit no spectral line broadening other than natural
broadening. In actual operation, however, the spectral lines are emitted along with a certain broadening. The causes of such broadening include
Doppler broadening, self-absorption line width distortion, Lorentz broadening (pressure broadening), Holtzmark broadening (resonance broadening), Zeeman effect broadening, and Stark effect broadening. Among these, Doppler broadening and self-absorption line width distortion are
major factors in broadening so that broadening related to other causes is usually small enough to be ignored.
Doppler broadening depends on the random thermal motion of the light-emitting atoms, which is affected by the temperature of the gas.
Spectral line broadening does not occur as long as the thermal motion of the atoms is within a plane perpendicular to a line connecting the observation point and the light source. However, if the thermal motion of the atoms is parallel to that line (forward and back motion as seen from
the observation point), the frequency at the emitted light observation point will increase (shift to shorter wavelength side) during motion toward
the observation point and decrease (shift to longer wavelength side) during motion away from the observation point. This phenomenon is the socalled Doppler effect. Light-emitting atoms in a hollow cathode have a random thermal motion that causes the spectral lines to broaden. The
width λ0 of this Doppler broadening can be expressed by the following equation:
∆λD=1.67 ×
λ0
c
2RT
Ma
where c is the velocity of light, R is the gas constant, T is the absolute temperature of the gas, and Ma is the atomic weight.
Self-absorption occurs when there is a temperature gradient within the atomic vapor layer inside the cathode hollow, in other words, it occurs
when the atomic vapor within the cathode hollow is flowing out of the hollow. In this state, atoms in the higher-temperature atomic vapor layer
within the hollow are more excited than those in the lower-temperature atomic vapor layer outside the hollow, and so cause light emission.
When the emitted light passes through the relatively low temperature atomic vapor layer outside the hollow, it is absorbed by the atoms in the
ground state. This phenomenon is termed self-absorption and just as with the Doppler effect results in broadening of analytical line width and a
loss of absorption sensitivity.
As stated above, deterioration in the analytical line profile depends on the lamp current, so care must be taken since increasing the lamp current
may cause an excessive increase in atomic vapor. In actual measurement, it is essential to operate the lamp at an optimal current that takes into
account both the analytical line output intensity and absorption sensitivity.
The self-absorption effect is large for high-vaporization-pressure elements such as Cd (Cadmium) and small for low-vaporization-pressure elements such as Mo (Molybdenum). The typical operating current for the former is usually specified as a low value.
Figure 3: Lamp current vs. absorption sensitivity (typical example)
●L233-48NQ (Cd)
●L233-42NB (Mo)
0.6
0.6
ANALYTICAL LINE WAVELENGTH
228.80 nm *
ANALYTICAL LINE WAVELENGTH
313.26 nm *
0.5
0.4
1.6 µg/ml
0.3
1.2 µg/ml
0.2
0.8 µg/ml
0.1
RELATIVE ABSORBANCE
RELATIVE ABSORBANCE
0.5
140 µg/ml
0.4
0.3
0.2
70 µg/ml
0.1
0
0
0
2
4
6
8
10
LAMP CURRENT (mAdc)
12
14
0
10
20
LAMP CURRENT (mAdc)
* Maximum absorption wavelength
5
Spectral Bandwidth (S.B.W.) and Absorption Sensitivity
In the vicinity of an analytical line, the presence of other spectral lines from the same element or a different element will cause the absorption sensitivity to drop. (These spectral lines in the vicinity of the analytical line are known as proximity lines.) When these proximity lines are present,
the spectral bandwidth (SBW) should be narrowed to reduce the effect of proximity lines by narrowing the slit width of the spectrophotometer.
Figure 4: Spectral bandwidth and absorption sensitivity (typical example)
SBW 0.08 nm
0.3
ANALYTICAL LINE WAVELENGTH
232.00 nm *
RELATIVE ABSORBANCE
Ni 341.48 nm
Ni 232.00 nm
SBW 0.08 nm
●L233-28NQ (Ni)
0.2
4 µg/ml
0.1
2 µg/ml
0
-2
0
+2
-2
0
+2
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
(RADIANT SPECTRA)
SPECTRAL BANDWIDTH (nm)
* Maximum absorption wavelength
Time Stability of Analytical Line Radiant Intensity
As described in the section dealing with the emission process of spectral lines, sputtered metal atoms are thermally diffused during repeated inelastic collisions with electrons. In this process, during the period required for the metal atom density to reach equilibrium, the radiant intensity of the
analytical lines varies. This variation usually occurs in the direction of increased intensity for 10 to 20 minutes after the lamp has started, although
it will vary depending on the element and operating current. After reaching equilibrium, the radiant output intensity at the analytical line wavelength is extremely stable.
In high-vapor-pressure element lamps, operation at excessive current levels causes excessively vaporized metal atoms to flow out of the hollow
cathode space in the direction of the optical axis. This causes a temperature gradient to occur and might lower the analytical line output intensity
due to phenomena such as self-absorption.
After a lamp has been left unused for a long period of time, some amount of time may be required for analytical line output intensity to reach initial stabilization, which results from changes in the cathode surface over time and depends on the element (especially alkaline element). Even in
such cases, once the lamp is operated, it will light up normally from the next time.
Figure 5: Time stability of analytical line output intensity (typical example)
RELATIVE ANALYTICAL LINE OUTPUT INTENSITY (%)
●L233-42NB (Mo)
120
100
80
60
LAMP CURRENT: 10 mAdc
S.B.W.: 0.16 nm
ANALYTICAL LINE: 313.26 nm *
AMBIENT TEMPERATURE: 25 °C
40
20
0
0
15
30
45
60
TIME (min)
* Maximum absorption wavelength
6
75
90
105
Life
The life of a hollow cathode lamp is greatly affected by the operating current. This is due to the increase in the energy of positive ions colliding
with the cathode surface which causes violent sputtering. During pulse operation as well, there is no change in the energy of the ions colliding
with the cathode surface at each pulse, so lamp life is determined by the peak current and the pulse width (time width).
The following phenomena may be observed when a lamp has reached its life end:
(1) Discharge does not occur at the hollow cathode and the current does not vary even if the current control knob is changed. The analytical line
output is not detectable.
(2) Extreme variations occur in analytical line intensity and the lamp current may also vary in some cases.
(3) The analytical line intensity weakens significantly and the signal-to-noise ratio deteriorates.
The major cause of these phenomena is a drop in gas pressure within the lamp. This drop in gas pressure is caused by the "gas clean-up" phenomenon in which cathode metal atoms sputtered during discharging attracts gases while being scattered and these adhere together to the bulb
wall and electrodes at a lower temperature.
As the lamp is used, the cathode hollow shape is gradually worn away and deformed by sputtering from the discharge. These characteristics will
vary depending upon the element and will exhibit small differences even for lamps of the same element.
Dimensional Outlines (Unit: mm)
●L233 / L733 series
2-PIN OCTAL BASE
61.0 ± 1.5
A
CATHODE
CATHODE
ANODE
25.5 ± 1.3
39 MAX.
44.0 MAX.
EMISSION POINT
147 ± 3
165 MAX.
●L2433 series
2-PIN OCTAL BASE
61.0 ± 1.5
A
Positional tolerance of emission point
±1.5 mm with relative to A
CATHODE
CATHODE
147 ± 3
165 MAX.
25.5 ± 1.3
ANODE
39 MAX.
44.0 MAX.
EMISSION POINT
Positional tolerance of emission point
±1.5 mm with relative to A
Related Products
Deuterium lamps (L2D2 lamps)
L2D2 lamps are deuterium lamps developed for spectrophotometry for chemical analysis.
These L2D2 lamps offer long service life, high stability, and the high output needed for light sources
used in spectrophotometry. L2D2 lamps can also be used for background correction in atomic absorption
spectrophotometers.
Photomultiplier tubes
Among the many light sensors currently available, photomultiplier tubes are the most sensitive and photodetectors with high speed response.
Photomultiplier tubes are designed and manufactured to provide stable operation even when detecting
changes in weak light or its on/off, or even when the supply voltage is varied. These features make photomultiplier tubes useful as a photodetectors that ensure accurate measurements in atomic absorption
spectroscopy.
7
Precautions and Warranty
■Precautions
1. Long-term storage
Please note that the lamps should be used shortly after delivery. If the lamps are left unused for a long period of 6 months or more, take the
following precautions:
· Store the lamps in low humidity and at room temperature in locations where no corrosive gases are present and temperature fluctuations are
minimal.
· We recommend operating the lamp for approximately 3 hours once every 3 months at half the normal operating current specified for the
lamp in order to stabilize the lamp characteristics.
2. Handling
· High voltage is supplied to the lamp to start operation. Take precautions to avoid electrical shock.
· Ultraviolet rays harmful to the eyes and skin are emitted from the lamp faceplate (window) during operation. Do not look directly at the operating lamp.
· Disposal of hollow cathode lamps
The cathode of some hollow cathode lamps contains elements that are defined as hazardous substances under waste disposal laws. When disposing of the lamps using such as the cathode, entrust proper disposal to an industrial waste disposal company licensed to perform intermediate
treatment and final disposal of hazardous substances. Lamps using a cathode that does not contain the following elements may be disposed of as
normal industrial waste (like glass and ceramic waste). Even in such cases, be sure to comply with local regulations to ensure correct disposal.
Elements of hazardous substance: As, Be, Cd, Cr, Cs, Cu, Hg, In, K, Na, Ni, Pb, Rb, Se, V, Zn, Na-K
· Do not touch the lamp faceplate window with bare hands. Grime from the hands adhering to the faceplate will cause a drop in the analytical
line output intensity. If there is grime, wipe the faceplate using gauze or oil-free cotton moistened with high-purity alcohol and wrung out
thoroughly. Note that the volatile vaporization of organic solvents will absorb analytical lines of As, Se, etc. So use caution when handling
such solvents near the measurement site.
· The bulb wall or electrodes of some lamps might appear in a blackened state when delivered. This is caused by the spattering of cathode
materials and this condition will differ depending on the particular element. This condition is especially noticeable on lamps with high vapor pressure elements such as As, Se, Cd, Zn, Na and K. This condition occurs during the manufacturing process and does not affect the
lamp operating characteristics.
· The major analytical lines used in atomic absorption spectroscopy are present in the UV wavelength range from 200 nm to 300 nm. Since
mirrors, lenses and other optical components generally have low reflection or transmission efficiency in this wavelength region, alternately
fine-adjust the spectrophotometer wavelength dial and the lamp position so that the output meter indicates the maximum while checking the
wavelength dial scale to achieve the correct analytical line wavelength. Failure to make this analytical line wavelength adjustment correctly
may prevent obtaining high measurement accuracy.
· If a high current is passed through the lamp suddenly at the beginning of discharge or the power supply is cut off suddenly during discharge, surge currents or other abnormal currents will flow in the lamp, causing unnecessary lamp deterioration. When lighting the lamp,
gradually increase the lamp current to the specified value and when turning off the lamp, also gradually decrease the current to ensure a
long lamp life with stable operation.
· The maximum current shown on the lamp is the absolute maximum value (which is broadly viewed as the guaranteed current at which no damage
is caused to the lamp). In lamps based on elements having high vapor pressure (e.g., Hg, Cd and Zn), the maximum current shown on the lamp is
set to a low current value. If this type of lamp is operated at a current higher than this value, the resulting Joule heat might melt the cathode.
■Warranty
Warranty period
Hamamatsu hollow cathode lamps are warranted for a period of one year after the date of delivery.
Warranty coverage
The warranty is limited to repair or replacement of defective lamps free of charge.
Cases not covered by warranty
The warrant shall not apply to the following cases even if within the warranty period.
· Lamp operation has exceeded the guaranteed life time.
· Lamp failure was caused by incorrect usage that did not meet the product specifications or by careless handling or modifications made by
the user.
· Lamp failure was caused or induced by unavoidable accidents such as natural disasters.
Subject to local technical requirements and regulations, availability of products included in this promotional material may vary. Please consult with our sales office.
Information furnished by HAMAMATSU is believed to be reliable. However, no responsibility is assumed for possible inaccuracies or omissions. Specifications are
subject to change without notice. No patent rights are granted to any of the circuits described herein. ©2013 Hamamatsu Photonics K.K.
HAMAMATSU PHOTONICS K.K.
www.hamamatsu.com
HAMAMATSU PHOTONICS K.K., Electron Tube Division
314-5, Shimokanzo, Iwata City, Shizuoka Pref., 438-0193, Japan, Telephone: (81)539/62-5248, Fax: (81)539/62-2205
U.S.A.: Hamamatsu Corporation: 360 Foothill Road, P. O. Box 6910, Bridgewater. N.J. 08807-0910, U.S.A., Telephone: (1)908-231-0960, Fax: (1)908-231-1218 E-mail: [email protected]
Germany: Hamamatsu Photonics Deutschland GmbH: Arzbergerstr. 10, D-82211 Herrsching am Ammersee, Germany, Telephone: (49)8152-375-0, Fax: (49)8152-2658 E-mail: [email protected]
France: Hamamatsu Photonics France S.A.R.L.: 19, Rue du Saule Trapu, Parc du Moulin de Massy, 91882 Massy Cedex, France, Telephone: (33)1 69 53 71 00, Fax: (33)1 69 53 71 10 E-mail: [email protected]
United Kingdom: Hamamatsu Photonics UK Limited: 2 Howard Court, 10 Tewin Road Welwyn Garden City Hertfordshire AL7 1BW, United Kingdom, Telephone: 44-(0)1707-294888, Fax: 44(0)1707-325777 E-mail: [email protected]
North Europe: Hamamatsu Photonics Norden AB: Thorshamnsgatan 35 SE-164 40 Kista, Sweden, Telephone: (46)8-509-031-00, Fax: (46)8-509-031-01 E-mail: [email protected]
TLS 1014E01
Italy: Hamamatsu Photonics Italia: S.R.L.: Strada della Moia, 1/E, 20020 Arese, (Milano), Italy, Telephone: (39)02-935 81 733, Fax: (39)02-935 81 741 E-mail: [email protected]
China: Hamamatsu Photonics (China) Co., Ltd.: 1201 Tower B, Jiaming Center, 27 Dongsanhuan Road North, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100020, China, Telephone: (86)10-6586-6006, Fax: (86)10-6586-2866 E-mail: [email protected]
OCT. 2013 IP
Similar pages