an1357

ISL9216EVAL1Z (Rev D) User Guide
Application Note
October 10, 2007
AN1357.0
Description
Battery/Power Supply Connection
This document is intended for use by individuals engaged in
the development of hardware and software for an 8 to 12
series Li-ion battery pack hardware using the
ISL9216EVAL1Z (Rev D) board. This board contains the
ISL9216 and ISL9217 chipset.
When connecting battery packs or power supplies, use the
connections of Figures 1 and 2. If individual power supplies
are being used to replace battery cells, then connect the
power supplies identically to the battery connections (see
Figure 1). Also, make sure that the individual power supply
voltages do not exceed the ISL9216/ISL9217 maximum
input voltage differential of 5V per cell.
The evaluation kit consists of the main
ISL9216EVAL1Z (Rev D) PCB, and a power supply cable for
connecting to the board to a battery or or other power supply.
Operation of the kit requires the use of a USB to I2C
interface and cables, which is available by ordering the
“ISLI2C-KIT” kit from Intersil. This interface kit allows a PC to
talk to the ISL9216EVAL1Z (Rev D) board. An optional link
between a PC USB port and the microcontroller BKGD
connector is available from NXP (formerly Freescale) for
monitoring and debugging the microcontroller code.
First Steps
• If not already available, aquire the DeVaSys USB to I2C
board, USB interface, and I2C cable. These are available
from Intersil in the ISLI2C-KIT.
If using a string of resistors to emulate the battery cells, then
use the connection in Figures 2 and 2. In this case, limit the
supply voltages so that the resistor divider outputs do not
exceed the ISL9216/ISL9217 input maximum ratings.
It is recommended that the series power supply resistors be
20 maximum and 2W minimum. Resistors with higher
resistance can be used, but when activating the
ISL9216/ISL9217 cell balance outputs, the 39 cell balance
resistor on the board will lower the voltage across that series
power supply resistor while raising the voltage on all of the
other series resistors. Turning on multiple cell balance
outputs could then result in one or more of the VCELLN input
voltages, exceeding their maximum specified limit.
• Download the software from the Intersil website on the
ISL9216 page. This is a zip file titled: “ISL92xx Eval Kit
Software Release”.
• Unzip the software files to a directory of your choice.
• Prior to powering the ISL9216 board, install the USB to
I2C board software and connect the DeVaSys board to the
PC (see Appendix 1). However, don’t connect the
DeVaSys board to the ISL9216EVAL1Z (Rev D) board yet.
This is just preparation for the test set-up. With these
pieces in place, the PC interface can then quickly be used
to monitor the operation of the board once power is
applied.
• If changes to the microcontroller code are desired, then it
will be necessary to order a programming/debug module
from NXP (formerly Freescale) (part number
USBMULTILINKBDME). This kit also contains the Code
Warrior development tools. To get the source code,
contact Intersil and sign the license agreement.
• Set-up a power supply for the board. The power supply
should consist of a string of 8 to 12 batteries (see
Figure 1), or a string of 8 to 12 resistors and three power
supplies, or 8 to 12 individual power supplies (see
Figure 1 or Figure 2).
1
CAUTION: These devices are sensitive to electrostatic discharge; follow proper IC Handling Procedures.
1-888-INTERSIL or 1-888-468-3774 | Intersil (and design) is a trademark of Intersil Americas LLC.
Copyright Intersil Americas LLC. 2007. All Rights Reserved
All other trademarks mentioned are the property of their respective owners.
Application Note 1357
12 POWER SUPPLIES
12-CELLS
30
29
28
27
26
25
24
23
22
21
20
19
18
17
16
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
VCELL7
CB7
VCELL6
V
30
29
CB6
VCELL5
V
28
27
CB5
VCELL4
V
26
25
CB4
VCELL3
V
24
23
V
22
21
CB2
VCELL1
V
20
19
CB1
VSS AO
V
18
17
CB3
VCELL2
11-CELLS
VCELL7
30
29
CB7
VCELL6
20
19
CB2
VCELL1
18
17
CB1
VSS AO
22
21
CB3
VCELL2
20
19
CB2
VCELL1
24
23
CB4
VCELL3
22
21
CB3
VCELL2
26
25
CB5
VCELL4
24
23
CB4
VCELL3
28
27
CB6
VCELL5
26
25
CB5
VCELL4
30
29
CB7
VCELL6
28
27
CB6
VCELL5
10-CELLS
VCELL7
18
17
CB1
VSS AO
9-CELLS
VCELL7
VCELL7
30
29
CB7
VCELL6
CB7
VCELL6
28
27
CB6
VCELL5
CB6
VCELL5
26
25
CB5
VCELL4
CB5
VCELL4
24
23
CB4
VCELL3
CB4
VCELL3
22
21
CB3
VCELL2
CB3
VCELL2
20
19
CB2
VCELL1
CB2
VCELL1
18
17
CB1
VSS AO
CB1
VSS AO
8-CELLS
30
29
28
27
26
25
24
23
22
21
20
19
18
17
VCELL7
CB7
VCELL6
CB6
VCELL5
CB5
VCELL4
CB4
VCELL3
CB3
VCELL2
CB2
VCELL1
CB1
VSS AO
VCELL7
VCELL7
VCELL7
VCELL7
VCELL7
VCELL7
VCELL6
VCELL6
VCELL6
VCELL6
VCELL6
VCELL6
VCELL5
V
16
15
V
14
13
V
12
11
CB2
VCELL1
V
10
9
CB1
VSS
V
8
7
CB5
VCELL4
CB4
VCELL3
CB3
VCELL2
VCELL5
10
9
CB2
VCELL1
8
7
CB1
VSS
12
11
CB3
VCELL2
10
9
CB2
VCELL1
14
13
CB4
VCELL3
12
11
CB3
VCELL2
16
15
CB5
VCELL4
14
13
CB4
VCELL3
6
5
VCELL5
16
15
CB5
VCELL4
8
7
CB1
VSS
6
5
6
5
VCELL5
VCELL5
16
15
CB5
VCELL4
CB5
VCELL4
14
13
CB4
VCELL3
CB4
VCELL3
12
11
CB3
VCELL2
CB3
VCELL2
10
9
CB2
VCELL1
CB2
VCELL1
8
7
CB1
VSS
CB1
VSS
6
5
16
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
VCELL5
CB5
VCELL4
CB4
VCELL3
CB3
VCELL2
CB2
VCELL1
CB1
VSS
Note: Multiple cells can be connected in parallel
6
5
8
7
CB2
VCELL1
CB1
VSS
V
10
9
12
11
10V TO 21V
CB3
VCELL2
14
13
CB4
VCELL3
16
15
CB5
VCELL4
VCELL6
VCELL7
VCELL5
V
4V TO 8.6V
18
17
CB1
AO VSS
20
19
CB2
VCELL1
22
21
CB3
VCELL2
24
23
CB4
VCELL3
26
25
10V TO 21V
CB5
VCELL4
28
27
CB6
VCELL5
CB7
VCELL6
VCELL7
30
29
V
FIGURE 1. BATTERY CONNECTION OPTIONS
NOTES:
1. For the battery simulation resistors, use 20/5W units. If the resistors are more than 100, then turning on the cell
balance resistors cause fluctuations in the cell input voltages that can violate the ISL9216 max specifications.
2. Switch the power supplies on at the same time, or if this cannot be guaranteed, turn them on from bottom to top.
3. This connection (using 3 power supplies) is required for proper inter-IC communication.
FIGURE 2. USING A STRING OF RESISTORS AND THREE POWER SUPPLIES TO EMULATE A STRING OF BATTERIES
2
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October 10, 2007
Application Note 1357
ALTERNATE CONNECTION WITH 11- CELLS
12 CELLS
TO
LOAD +
TO
LOAD +
3M CONNECTOR
(TOP VIEW)
MALE
CONNECTOR
ON BOARD
1
PACK-
1
OPTIONAL
THERMISTOR
(IF USED, REMOVE
THERMISTOR ON
BOARD)
PACK-
3M CONNECTOR
(TOP VIEW)
MALE
CONNECTOR
ON BOARD
BATTERY-
B+/PACK+
BATTERY-
B+/PACK+
TO
LOAD -
TO
LOAD -
FIGURE 2. BATTERY CONNECTIONS TO THE ISL9216EVAL1Z (REV D) BOARD
Initial Testing
RECOMMENDATION:
20/2
ALL RESISTORS = 20/2
20V
POWER
SUPPLY
3M CONNECTOR
(TOP VIEW)
8V
POWER
SUPPLY
Setup
• For initial testing, set the I2C jumpers (SCL and SDA) to
the PC position. This configures the board such that the
PC communicates directly with the ISL9216.
• Before connecting the PC to the ISL9216EVAL1Z (Rev D)
board (through the USB to I2C interface), connect the
power supply to the ISL9216EVAL1Z (Rev D) board.
• The power supply should consist of a string of 8 to 12
batteries, or a string of 8 to 12 resistors with three power
supplies, or 12 individual power supplies (see Figures 2 or
Figure 3).
20V
POWER
SUPPLY
1
OPTIONAL
THERMISTOR
(IF USED, REMOVE
THERMISTOR ON
BOARD)
• Once power is turned on (or Li-ion cells are connected to
the ISL9216EVAL1Z (Rev D) cell inputs, the RGO and
RGO2 LEDs should light. Use meter 1 and meter 2 (as
shown in Figure 4) to measure the RGO voltages. They
should each read about 3.3V.
FIGURE 3. POWER SUPPLY/RESISTOR CONNECTION TO
ISL9216 PCB
3
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Application Note 1357
RGO LED JMPR
RGO2 LED JMPR
WAKE-UP JMPR
7VS/6C5
7C7
DeVaSys:
USB TO I2C
To PC:
I2C
USBLINK:
USB TO BKGD
(OPTIONAL)
TO PC:
A2DIN
SCL JUMPER
SDA JUMPER
I2C JUMPERS
GND
RGO
To Battery/Power Supply
UPRAO
RGO2
I2C GND JMPR
RGO (ISL9216)
A2DIN (ISL9216)
IC GND JMPR
RGO (ISL9217)
UPRAO (ISL9217)
METER
METER
E-LOAD
3.3V
3.3V
(60V/1A)
FIGURE 4. ISL9216EVAL1Z (Rev D) BOARD CONNECTION
USB to I2C Interface
• Connect the I2C cable from the interface board to the
ISL9216EVAL1Z (Rev D), as in Figure 5.
DeVaSys BOARD
ISL9216EVAL1Z
USB
J29
1
J2
I2C
• Once the power supply connections are verified,
power-down the ISL9216EVAL1Z (Rev D) boards and
make the PC connection. Before making this connection,
make sure that the USB to I2C interface software is
installed (see software installation guide).
1
5-PIN TO 4-PIN
ISLI2C-CABLE2
SDA
GND
NC
SCL
FETs
J11
FIGURE 5. I2C CONNECTION TO ISL9216 PCB
4
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October 10, 2007
Application Note 1357
Testing Without the Microcontroller
Cell Voltage Monitor Accuracy Check
• For this test, make sure the SCL and SDA jumpers are set
to the PC position. In this case, the PC has full control of
the board and the microcontroller function is disabled.
(See Figure 6). Except for the ISL9216 automatic
response to and over-temperature, all other actions of the
board are manual and controlled through the GUI.
PC I2C
INTERFACE
ISL9216
PC
SCL
J43
SDA
SCL
µCONTROLLER
J51
SDA
SCL1
SDA1
µC
SCL2
SDA2
FIGURE 6. PC OR µC CONNECTION TO THE ISL9216
• Make the I2C port connection to the PC.
• Power-up the board and re-check the RGO voltages.
Since RGO is the voltage reference for the on-board A/D
converter, this voltage may be needed in the accuracy
calculations.
• Start the GUI. Execute the program BATTERYPACK.EXE
from the Software directory.
• The GUI should power-up with some color. That is, the
FET controls should be red and the indicators should be
green or red. If the GUI is all gray, then there is a
communication problem. If there is a communication
problem; see the troubleshooting guide in “Appendix 2” on
page 18.
• Use the GUI to read register 0 from both the ISL9216 and
ISL9217. The ISL9216 should return the value 50H and
the ISL9217 should return 80H. This verifies
communication to both devices.
• Next, move to the “MONITOR” tab of the GUI.
• Set the ISL9216 to monitor the VCELL1 input by selecting
the ISL9216 radio button and choosing VCELL1 in the
Monitor drop down box. Execute this command by clicking
“refresh.” This operation connects the VCELL1 input to the
AO output (through a level shifter and divider). Any
changes on VCELL1 appear on AO.
• Using a meter, measure the CELL1 voltage (from test
point 6C1 to GND) and measure the ISL9216 analog
output voltage (test point AO to GND). The AO voltage,
(x 2), should equal the VCELL1 voltage. Any errors in this
measurement are due to the ISL9216. (Note: make sure
5
that all of the cell balance outputs are off because cell
balance current will cause inaccurate measurements).
• Also, read the GUI value for CELL1. In this configuration
(without the µC) the cell voltage is converted to digital
using a 15-bit A/D converter. Its output is determined by
Equation 1:
DigValue D
-------------------------------  3.3 = A2DIN
32768
(EQ. 1)
Since, the reference for the A/D converter is supplied by
the ISL9216 RGO voltage, any difference in the RGO
voltage and 3.3V turns up as an accuracy error.
• Proceed, in sequence, to read the AO voltage for each cell
connected to the ISL9216.
• To monitor the voltages of the cells connected to the
ISL9217, first set the ISL9216 to read VCELL6. Then, set
the ISL9217 to read VCELL1. In this case, the ISL9216
AO voltage is a reflection of the ISL9217 VCELL1 voltage.
The VCELL1 voltage is shifted within the ISL9217, divided
by 2, and applied to the ISL9217 AO pin. The ISL9217 AO
pin connects to the ISL9216 VCELL6 pin and the voltage
is level shifted again to ground reference. It is not divided
within the ISL9216. The voltage at AO, times 2, should
equal the ISL9217:CELL1 voltage. Any errors are due to
the inaccuracies in the ISL9216 and ISL9217 devices.
• Monitor the remaining cells connected to the ISL9217, by
selecting (with the GUI) the individual ISL9217 cells. (keep
the ISL9216 set to monitor VCELL6).
Discharge Overcurrent Testing
• With the output off, connect an electronic load between Test
Point 7C7 (Battery + terminal) and P- (Pack - terminal). The
E-load should be able to handle up to 60V and sink 1A
minimum.
• Use the GUI “CONFIGURATION” screen to set the
desired discharge and short circuit levels and time delays.
Remember, the evaluation board comes with a 0.5
sense resistor. As such, a 0.1V setting will cause an
shutdown at 200mA. If higher range of current is desired,
change the sense resistor.
• To test, a pulse load or a continuous load can be used. A
continuous load has the advantage of showing the load
monitor operation.
• Set the e-load current such that it will exceed the expected
overcurrent threshold.
• Turn on both FETs by clicking on the FET buttons in the
GUI. When they are on, they will indicate green.
Periodically click on the “Status Refresh” button on the
lower right of the screen to make sure that the GUI reflects
the latest status of the device. (An automatic scan can
also be started that updates all parameters every 1s, 5s,
10s, or 30s, however, this might cause an update when
not expected).
• Turn on the load. This should cause the FETs to turn off
(see Figure 7).
AN1357.0
October 10, 2007
Application Note 1357
Periodically click on the “Status Refresh” button on the
lower right of the screen to make sure that the GUI reflects
the latest status of the device.
DFET/
CFET
VDSNS
ILOAD
FIGURE 7. DISCHARGE OVERCURRENT TEST
(0.1V THRESHOLD, 160ms TIME DELAY, 0.5
SENSE RESISTOR)
• Do a refresh of the GUI and the FET buttons should have
gone to red. Also, the “Discharge Overcurrent” indicator
should now be red.
• Leave the load on and click on the “Enable Load Monitor”
button in the lower right corner of the screen. This turns on
the load monitor output.
• Click on the “Status Refresh” button. In this case, the
“Load Fail” indicator should now also be red.
• Turn off or remove the load and again click on “Status
Refresh”. The “Load Fail” indicator should go to green.
Click on the “Reset Overcurrent” button to reset the
“Discharge Overcurrent” indicator. It should also go to
green. If the indicators are still red, it is because the
remaining resistance on the load keeps the voltage on the
ISL9216 load monitor (VMON) pin above its input
threshold. Try disconnecting the load.
• Note: In the GUI, the discharge overcurrent, discharge
short circuit and charge overcurrent indicators are latched
by the GUI. Internal to the ISL9216, the bit is reset by a
read operation (if the condition has been resolved). The
GUI latch is provided because the overcurrent condition
goes away as soon as the FETs turn off and the bits in the
ISL9216 are reset by reading the registers. Therefore,
without the latch, the indicator would not stay on long
enough for the user to monitor. Reset the latch by clicking
on the “Clear Overcurrent” button.
• Use another power supply for charge emulation. With the
output off and not connected to the board, set the output to
just over the chosen overcurrent detect voltage threshold.
(This supply should have a 1.5A limit, but will only need to
provide 0.2V maximum).
• Connect the charge emulation power supply positive
terminal to the board GND pin and the charge emulation
power supply negative terminal connected to the board
P- pin. See Figure 8. A current probe can be used to
monitor the overcurrent details.
ISL9216
P-
GND
+
V
A
FIGURE 8. CHARGE OVERCURRENT TEST CONNECTION
• Turn the charge emulation power supply output on. This
causes the ISL9216 to detect an overcurrent condition,
which turns the FETs off. Figure 9 shows a charge
overcurrent condition where the charger turns on with
current too high.
DFET/
CFET
VCSNS
ILOAD
Charge Overcurrent Testing
• Turn off the power to the board.
• Remove any load on the board Pack+ and Pack- pins.
• Turn on the ISL9216 board power supply (or connect the
Li-ion cells to the pack).
• Use the GUI “CONFIGURATION” screen to set the
desired charge overcurrent level and time delay.
• Turn on both FETs by clicking on the FET buttons in the
GUI. When they are on, they will indicate green.
6
FIGURE 9. CHARGE OVERCURRENT TEST (0.1V
THRESHOLD, 160ms TIME DELAY, 0.5 SENSE
RESISTOR)
• The charge emulation power supply could have been
connected across the Pack output pins - as in a “real world”
operation. However, both the load and input power supplies
need to sink current, the output supply would need to be
floating when turned off (not shorted), and the load supply
would need to handle a higher voltage than the input.
AN1357.0
October 10, 2007
Application Note 1357
Sleep/Wake Testing (Default Setting - WKPOL = 0)
The ISL9216EVAL1Z (Rev D) board can be put to sleep via
commands from the PC. This sequence is described in the
following paragraphs.
• Use the Register Access window of the GUI to write the
value 80H to register 4 of the ISL9217. This sets the
ISL9217 sleep bit.
• Note that the RGO2 LED goes off. This indicates that
ISL9217 has gone to sleep and turned off its output
regulator.
• Next, click on the ISL9208/ISL9216 Cell Balance CB6 box.
This sets the ISL9216 WKUPR output low. This wakes-up
the ISL9217 causing the regulator to turn on, lighting the
RGO2 LED. Click on the ISL9208/ISL9216 CB6 box again
to turn off the WKUPR signal.
• To put the ISL9216 into the sleep mode, write an 80H to
the ISL9216 register 4. This turns off the ISL9216 RGO
output and LED.
• To wake up the ISL9216 requires that the ISL9216 WKUP
pin go below its wake-up threshold. Normally, in a pack, a
charger would be connected to the pack terminals. The
higher voltage on the charger would pull the WKUP pin
low, causing the part to wake-up. However, in a test setup,
it is not always advisable to connect the charger. Another
way to do this is to connect a jumper from GND to the
WKUP pin. When using this technique, don’t leave the
jumper in place.
• When the WKUP pin is pulled low, the ISL9216 wakes up
and turns on its RGO output. This turns on the RGO LED.
Sleep/Wake Testing (WKPOL = 1)
• This section only applies to the ISL9216. DON’T set the
ISL9217 WKPOL bit to “1”, or the device will not wake-up
once placed into the sleep mode. (Power cycling would be
required to wake it up).
• Set the WKUP jumper to the active high position (shunt on
the side closest to the push-button switch).
• Use the GUI to set the “WKUP Pin Active High” in the
Configure Tab, feature set window.
• Put the ISL9216 in sleep mode as before.
• This time, the device can be waken by the press of the
WKUP button on the board.
Testing with the Microcontroller
• To operate the board using the microcontroller,
power-down the board.
• Set the I2C jumpers to the µC position.
• Power-up the board and restart the GUI. Now, the PC will
be communicating with the microcontroller and the
microcontroller will be communicating with the ISL9216.
a communication problem. If there is a communication
problem, see the troubleshooting guide in “Appendix 2” on
page 18.
• If the FET indicators are red, then it is likely that at least
one input voltage is out of range.
With the microcontroller in place, the board performs a
number of automatic functions. These are:
1. The cell inputs are monitored for too high or too low
voltage. If any of the cell voltages go too high, the charge
FET is turned off. If any of the cell voltages go too low, the
discharge FET turns off. When the voltage recovers from
these excursions, back into the normal range, the FETs
automatically turn on.
2. After an overcurrent condition, the microcontroller
monitors the load and turns the FETs back on when the
load is released.
3. The microcontroller monitors the temperature and turns
off the cell balance if the temperature is too high or low.
4. The microcontroller performs cell balancing (once it is
enabled through the GUI).
5. The microcontroller monitors the cell voltages and reports
these voltages to the GUI. The microcontroller A/D
converter accuracy is only 10-bits, so the voltage reading
are not as accurate as when using only the PC interface.
• Test the overvoltage and undervoltage conditions by:
– If Li-ion cells are being used, discharge the pack until
one or more of the cells reach the undervoltage limit
and the discharge FET turns off. Then, charge the
pack until the FETs turn on again and continue
charging until a cell overvoltage condition is reached.
– If one of the three power supplies with resistor string is
being used, lower the voltage on one of the power
supplies until one or more of the cells reach the
undervoltage limit and the discharge FET turns off.
Then, increase the voltage until the FETs turn on again
and continue increasing the voltage until a cell
overvoltage condition is reached.
– If twelve power supplies are used, then simply
decrease or increase each individual supply until the
thresholds are reached and the FET turns off (or on).
• Test the overcurrent in the same way as before, but this time,
when the load is removed the FETs should automatically turn
back on. In this case, with the microcontroller operating, the
status indicators in the GUI may not prove to be very useful,
because the microcontroller is often doing things too quickly
to display on the screen.
• Testing the cell balance operation requires the use of Li-ion
cells or the replacement of the cell balance resistors with
lower resistance devices. With the suggested resistor string,
turning on one cell balance output will likely drop the voltage
on that cell to less than the 2.5V sleep threshold and the
microcontroller will put the ISL9216 and ISL9217 (and the
board) to sleep.
• The GUI should power-up with some color. In this case,
the FET controls should be green and the indicators
should be green or red. If the GUI is all gray, then there is
7
AN1357.0
October 10, 2007
Application Note 1357
• Start the cell balance test by first observing if the cell with
the maximum voltage exceeds the cell with the minimum
voltage by more than 30mV. If so, note the cell number of
the maximum voltage cell.
• Next, select “CB Max #” to be “1”. This limits the balancing
to only one cell (the one with the maximum voltage).
• Use the CB refresh button (or start auto update) to update
the indicators to see which cell is being balanced (it should
be the maximum voltage cell). Be patient, because the
microcontroller will balance for 10s, then turn off balancing
for 2s, then balance again. Also, if the maximum voltage
cell is very close to the next highest voltage cell, or if there
are many cells within a narrow voltage range, then any of
these cells could be balanced, due to the limited accuracy
of the microcontroller A/D converter.
• Next, select “CB Max #” to be “2”. This limits the balancing
to two cells - the highest two voltage cells. Again refresh
the CB screen periodically to see the operation of the cell
balance code.
• Open the pack tab in the GUI and change some of the
settings for overvoltage, undervoltage, or cell balance and
re-test. Remember to click on “Write” to send the new
parameters to the microcontroller.
Further tests on the board will likely follow the lines of battery
pack testing, so it can become quite involved and be very
specific to the application. Thus, before setting up the tests,
see the “GUI user Manual” for information on using the
interface and see the “Microcode Reference Guide” for
information about how the software works.
Other Board Features/Options
Sense Resistor
The ISL9216EVAL1Z (Rev D) board has three basic sense
resistor “footprints” for different types of sense resistors. The
basic footprint is a standard 2512 surface mount. The board
uses a 0.5 resistor in this form factor as the default.
A second footprint is for an axial lead sense resistor. In this
case, remove the resistor that was shipped with the board.
The third footprint is for a 4-terminal sense resistor with
Kelvin connections. These are higher precision sense
resistor devices, but are more costly.
Additional FETs
The board has extra pads on the top of the board to handle
additional power FETs. As shown in the schematic, these
parallel the ones provided with the board. While this can be
used to test very high discharge current applications, the
primary purpose of adding these optional FETs to the PCB
was to test the performance of the FET drive circuitry in
applications where higher capacitance FETs or multiple
FETs are used.
If the FETs are added to the board, monitor the FET gate
drive voltage during FET turn on and turn off to determine if
the response times are suitable for the application.
No tests have been made to determine if the board traces
can handle the amount of current or power dissipation
supported by the FETs on the board. Additional heat sinking
for the power FETS is recommended if a large current
current is being tested.
Microcontroller Options
The BKGD connection on the ISL9216 board allows
development of new or modified code for the NXP (formerly
Freescale) MC9S08QG8 microcontroller, which is supplied
on the board.
The PCB provides optional connections for an external
crystal for the microcontroller and brings all microcontroller
terminals out for use in other application modes.
The external, 15-bit, A/D converter is not used by the
microcontroller, but it could be, if changes are made to the
microcontroller code. To use this, refer to the Texas
Instruments ADS1100 data sheet. The version of the A/D
converter used on the ISL9208 board is the ADS1100A2,
which has an I2C address of “1001 010x.”
Use with an External Microcontroller
The ISL9216 board can be used as a platform for developing
code for a microcontroller other than the NXP (formerly
Freescale) microcontroller on the board. To do this, set the
I2C jumpers in the PC mode and use the I2C interface for
communication with the external microcontroller.
– SMV-R005-1.0
To get good communication between the external
microcontroller and the ISL9216, connect the “I2C GND
jumper” to the GND position. However, in this case, make
sure that the external microcontroller is isolated from earth
ground before connecting a load or charger to the pack. This
is because the board GND terminal and the P- terminal are
not the same when the FETs are off.
– SMR-R005-1.0
Charge Detection
– LMSR005-5.0
The ISL9216EVAL1Z (Rev D) board has an optional circuit
to detect a charge condition. The voltage is monitored on the
ChgSens test point. This voltage should drop as charge
current is applied. This signal connects to one of the
microcontroller A/D inputs, however, the initial release
microcontroller software does not make use of this signal.
In summary, in addition to a standard 2512 footprint, the
board is laid out to handle the following resistors:
Isotek:
– BVS-A-R004-1.0
TT electronics (IRC):
– OAR-5 0.005 5% LF (Mouser 66-OAR5R005JLF)
8
AN1357.0
October 10, 2007
Application Note 1357
EEPROM
For applications that require non-volatile storage or require
calibration and the microcontroller flash is no longer
available, the ISL9216EVAL1Z (Rev D) board provides a
serial EEPROM connection to the microcontroller. An
example EEPROM device is the AT24C16 from Atmel. This
is not populated as shipped and there is no code in the
microcontroller to support this device.
9
AN1357.0
October 10, 2007
AFE Schematic
1
2
3
4
5
6
J116 SCLHV
1
R34
1k
uCSCL
uCSDA
1
J27 J28
SCL SDA
B1
J24
1
R3
510
J64 SDAIHV
R6
39
C7
.01uF
J42
R7
39
R8
39
R22
4.7k
R31
C1
1uF
100k
J43
JMP3
R43
1M
GND
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
J16
CFET
DFET
1
CSns
15V
R44
1M
0
0
BANANA
Notes:
1) Keep wide traces as short as possible
2) Wide trace widths should be 0.4 inches wide or more
3) Use RoHS compliant materials
4) Use Immersion Gold for Plating
5) All components used are to be RoHS compliant
0
3
J30
R30
0.51Ohm or 0.005/3W
GND
100
D12
1
VMON
15V
D6
R45
1M
J117
GND
U3
3
2
1
J37
AO
22
R13
15V
100k
D3
DIODE
4
5
6
B
GND
C10
1000pF
J39
A2DIN
A/D Converter
The A/D converter is optional
and is used if there is no
microcontroller
GND
442k
J38
Pack-
AO
B4
3
Q2
IRFS2807
Q3
IRFS2807
BANANA
J34
1
1
DGate
CGate
3
22
A
3
Title
ISL9216EVAL1Z AFE
R46
1k
Q12
IRF2807
Q13
IRF2807
C2
CHGSens
1uF
1
J70
JMP3
ADS1100
SCL SDA
GNDVDD
VIN+VIN-
R39
100
4 HEADER
D5
3.6
C9
4.7uF
R37 511
R36
R9
B3
C20
0.01uF
9216 VCELL5/9217 VSS
~2.5mA
D7
LED
R40 511
1
R35
R33
J36
RGO LED
J35
D4
1M
J31
R32
D10
4.7V
Th1
10k Therm
D11
J63
C8
.01uF
Therm
O.T. = 55degC
TH1=3.535k
J33
R10
1M
1
1
1M
R27
LEDs for test only.
R38
46.4k
1
1
DSns
R26
R25 4.7k
J32
1
1
2
R24 4.7k
1
2
3
4
100
RGO
1
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
GND
J26
WKUP
J29
100
Q1
FMMT619
1
1
1
1
1
1
C22
4.7uF
1
CB8 CB7 CB6 CB5 CB4 CB3 CB2 CB1
9217 VCELL1
C16
0.01uF
GND
J19 J20
1
9216 VCELL1
J4 J18
1
J118
CON2
0.005Ohm application/0.5Ohm test
Sized for 1/100 scale S.C. current
S.C. current = .7A @0.35V setting
O.C. = .2A @0.1V setting
R rated at 5x power for 5sec.
Layout allows 2512, SMR, SMV, axial R
J5
J25
RGO
J22
TMPI
1
GND
1
J49 J50 J6
1
1
GND
J17
1
J15
1
J14
1
J12
J13
1
1
J1
R20 39
1
R28
R29
1
9216 VCELL1
J23
RGC
32
31
30
29
28
27
26
25
SDAOHV
SCLHV
SCL
SDA
WKUP
RGC
RGO
Temp3V
DSREF
DSense
CSense
DFET
CFET
VMON
AO
TempI
R19 39
CB4
VCELL3
CB3
VCELL2
CB2
VCELL1
CB1
VSS
PAD
1
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
0
R18 39
C
PACKSCL
PACKSDA
TMP3V
1
R17 39
WKUP invert
WKUPR
1
VCELL4
CB5
VCELL5
WKUPR
VCELL6
SDAIHV
VC7/VCC
HV12C
R16 39
D2
J21
TEMP3V
ISL9216Z SDAOHV
U1
J41 J40
PSDA
PSCL
2
3
4
5
Size
A
Number
ISL9216EVAL1Z
Date:
File:
July 17, 2007
ISL9216EVAL1Z_REVD
Revision
D
Sheet
2 of
Drawn by: CEM
6
4
Application Note 1357
R15 39
9216 VCELL5/9217 VSS
DIODE
J51
JMP3
1
1
R14 39
9217 VCELL1
R23
59k
GND
D8
LED
J69
B
A
1
UPRAO
R2
1.8M
D1
DIODE
WKUP Non-invert
R21
511
J65
7VS/6C5 6C4 6C3 6C2 6C1
C21
4.7uF
J68
39
0
13
14
15
16
17
18
39
R5
GND
1
C
R4
J8
JMP3
D9
15V
1
CB9
9217 VC7/VCC
9217 CB7
9217 VCELL6
9217 CB6
9217 VCELL5
9217 CB5
9217 VCELL4
9217 CB4
9217 VCELL3
9217 CB3
9217 VCELL2/9216 VCC
9217 CB2
9217 VCELL1
9217 CB1
9216 VCELL5/9217 VSS
9216 CB5
9216 VCELL4
9216 CB4
9216 VCELL3
9216 CB3
9216 VCELL2
9216 CB2
9216 VCELL1
9216 CB1
GND
1
FMMT619
C17
1
1
SW-PB
R1
412k
Q4
J67
RGO2
PAD
CB1
VSS
NC
AO
SDAI
RGO
CB10
J48
S1
24
23
22
21
20
19
V7/VCC
NC
SCL
SDAO
WKUP
RGC
BANANA
PACK+
SCL
SDA
1
1
CB4
VCELL3
CB3
VCELL2
CB2
VCELL1
D
BAT+
J66
RGC2
R12
4.7k
VCELL4
CB5
VCELL5
CB6
VCELL6
CB7
7C6
7C7
1
7C5
7C4
7C3
7C2/6VC
7
8
9
10
11
12
1
CB11
J47
J44
1
J11
1
J10
1
J9
1
J7
7C1
1
1
J3
10
J2
ISL9217Z
RGO2
U4
1
CB12
J46
RGO2LED
J45
.01uF
D
1
6
5
4
3
2
1
1
AN1357.0
October 10, 2007
Microcontroller Schematic
11
J52
1
JP1
5
3
1
BKGD
6
4
2
uCp2
J53
R11
1
CHGSens
Application Note 1357
10k
uCp1
C13 C15
C14
U6
J54
0.01uF 0.1uF
RGO
GND
1
uCp5
J55
1
R41 RESIST
R42
RESIST
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
PTA5/IRQ/TCLK/RESET PTA0/KBIP0/TPMCH0/ADP0/ACMP+
PTA4/ACMPO/BKGD/MS
PTA1/KBIP1/ADP1/ACMPVDD
PTA2/KBIP2/SDA/ADP2
VSS
PTA3/KBIP3/SCL/ADP3
PTB7/SCL/EXTAL
PTB0/KBIP4/RxD/ADP4
PTB6/SDA/XTAL
PTB1/KBIP5/TxD/ADP5
PTB5/PMCH1/SS
PTB2/KBIP6/MSCK/ADP6
PTB4/MISO
PTB3/KBIP7/MOSI/ADP7
PAD
0.1uF
16
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
AO
TMP3V
PACKSDA
PACKSCL
J58 CHGSens
1
J59 WP
uCSCL
uCSDA
1
MC9S08QC8
0
uCp6
Y1
J56 uCp8
1
CRYSTAL
C11
CAPNP
J57 uCp7
C12
CAPNP
U2
1
1
2
3
SCL WP
GND
SDA VCC
5
4
EEPROM
Title
ISL9216EVAL1Z Micro
AN1357.0
October 10, 2007
1
2
3
4
5
Size
A
Number
ISL9216EVAL1Z
Date:
File:
July 17, 2007
ISL9216EVAL1Z_REVD
Rev
Sheet
3 of
Drawn by: CEM
6
Battery Connection Schematic
12
D14
4.7V
D15
4.7V
D16
4.7V
D17
4.7V
Application Note 1357
D13
4.7V
D18
4.7V
J62
9217 CB7
9217 CB6
9217 CB5
9217 CB4
9217 CB3
9217 CB2
9217 CB1
9216 CB5
9216 CB4
9216 CB3
9216 CB2
9216 CB1
29
27
25
23
21
19
17
15
13
11
9
7
5
3
1
Therm
30
28
26
24
22
20
18
16
14
12
10
8
6
4
2
9217 VC7/VCC
9217 VCELL6
9217 VCELL5
9217 VCELL4
9217 VCELL3
9217 VCELL2/9216 VCC
9217 VCELL1
9216 VCELL5/9217 VSS
9216 VCELL4
9216 VCELL3
9216 VCELL2
9216 VCELL1
GND
GND
Battery Conn
AN1357.0
October 10, 2007
Title
ISL9216EVAL1Z Ba
Application Note 1357
ISL9216EVAL1Z (Rev D) Bill of Materials
ITEM
QTY
PART TYPE
DESIGNATOR
FOOTPRINT
1
2
1µF
C1, C2
603
*
*
2
1
1000pF
C10
603
*
*
3
2
0.1µF
C13, C14
603
*
*
4
2
4.7µF
C21, C22
603
*
*
5
5
0.01µF
C7, C15, C16, C17,
C20
603
*
*
6
1
0.01µF
C8
805
*
*
7
1
4.7µF
C9
805
*
*
8
3
DIODE
D1, D2, D3
SOD-123
Digikey:
B0540WDICT ND
DIODES: Schottky diode
9
1
4.7V
D10
SOD-123
Digikey:
BZT52C4V7-FDICT-ND
*
10
1
DUAL DIODE
D12
SOT23
Digikey: 568-1624-1-ND
Philips: BAV99
11
6
4.7V
D13, D14, D15,
D16, D17, D18
SOT-363
Digikey: MMBZ5230BSFDICT-ND
DIODES: MMBZ5230BS
12
4
15V
D4, D6, D9, D11
SOD-123
Digikey:
MMSZ4702T10SCT-ND
On Semi: 15V Zener SOD-123
13
1
3.6V
D5
SOT23
Digikey: AZ23C3V6FDICT-NDD
DIODES: 3.6V Zenerdual, common anode
14
2
LED
D7, D8
LED_GW
Panasonic: LN1271RTR
*
15
1
CON2
J118
JP_2
Connector
*
*
16
3
GND
J16, J17, J117
TP SM
Connector
Digikey 5011K-ND
*
17
1
HEADER 4
J29
HEADER 4X1
*
*
18
2
RGO LED
J36, J68
JP_2
*
*
19
1
Battery
Connection
J62
HEADER
15X2 3M
*
*
20
4
JMP3
J8, J43, J51, J70
JP_3
*
*
21
1
BKGD
JP1
HEADER 3X2
*
*
22
2
FMMT619
Q1, Q4
SOT23 - NPN
Digikey:
FMMT619CT-ND
ZETEX: NPN 50V
hfe = 100min
23
2
IRFS2807
Q2, Q3
D2PAK
*
*
24
1
412k
R1
805
*
*
25
6
1M
R10, R26, R27,
R43, R44, R45
603
*
*
26
1
10k
R11
603
*
*
27
4
4.7k
R12, R22, R24, R25
603
*
*
28
1
100k
R13
805
*
*
29
1
1.8M
R2
805
*
*
30
1
59k
R23
805
*
*
31
4
100
R28, R29, R35, R36
603
*
*
32
4
511
R3, R21, R37, R40
603
*
*
33
1
0.51
R30
2512
Digikey: PT.51YCT-ND
Panasonic: ERJ1TRQF.51U
13
DESCRIPTION
PART FIELD 1
PART FIELD 2
AN1357.0
October 10, 2007
Application Note 1357
ISL9216EVAL1Z (Rev D) Bill of Materials (Continued)
ITEM
QTY
PART TYPE
DESIGNATOR
FOOTPRINT
34
1
100k
R31
603
*
*
35
2
1k
R34, R46
603
*
*
36
1
46.4k
R38
805
*
*
37
1
442k
R39
805
*
*
38
12
39
R4, R5, R6, R7, R8,
R14, R15, R16,
R17, R18, R19, R20
2512
*
*
39
3
0
R9, R32, R33
603
*
*
40
1
SW-PB
S1
B3WN-6002
*
*
41
1
10k Therm
Th1
603
*
MuRata: NCPxxXH103F
42
1
ISL9216Z
U1
QFN32
*
*
43
1
ADS1100
U3
SOT23-6
*
*
44
1
ISL9217Z
U4
QFN24
*
*
45
1
MC9S08QC8
U6
QFN16
*
*
46
30
6C1
J15
TP
Digikey 5000K-ND
*
6C2
J14
6C3
J13
6C4
J12
7C1
J2
7C2/6VC
J3
7C3
J7
7C4
J9
7C5
J10
7C6
J11
7C7
J44
7VS/6C5
J1
A2DIN
J39
AO
J37
BAT+
J24
CFET
J32
CSns
J63
DFET
J31
DSns
J33
Pack-
J38
RGO
J25
SCL
J27
SDA
J28
TEMP3V
J21
TMPI
J22
UPRAO
J42
14
DESCRIPTION
Test Point
PART FIELD 1
PART FIELD 2
AN1357.0
October 10, 2007
Application Note 1357
ISL9216EVAL1Z (Rev D) Bill of Materials (Continued)
ITEM
QTY
PART TYPE
DESIGNATOR
VMON
J35
WKUP
J26
WKUPR
J69
RGO2
J67
FOOTPRINT
DESCRIPTION
PART FIELD 1
PART FIELD 2
129
1
1
BANANA RED
B1
BANANA
*DNP
*
2
2
BANANA
BLACK
B3, B4
BANANA
*DNP
*
3
2
CAPNP
C11, C12
603
*DNP
*
4
2
IRFS2807
Q12, Q13
D2PAK
*DNP
*
5
2
RESIST
R41, R42
603
*DNP
*
6
1
EEPROM
U2
SOT23-5
*DNP
AT24C16
7
1
CRYSTAL
Y1
32k XTAL
Crystal
*DNP
*
8
28
SCLHV
J116
TP
Test Point
*DNP
*
CB3
J18
*DNP
CB2
J19
*DNP
CB1
J20
*DNP
RGC
J23
*DNP
CGate
J34
*DNP
DGate
J30
*DNP
CB4
J4
*DNP
PSCL
J40
*DNP
PSDA
J41
*DNP
CB12
J45
*DNP
CB11
J46
*DNP
CB10
J47
*DNP
CB9
J48
*DNP
CB8
J49
*DNP
CB5
J5
*DNP
CB7
J50
*DNP
µCp2
J52
*DNP
µCp1
J53
*DNP
µCp5
J54
*DNP
µCp6
J55
*DNP
µCp8
J56
*DNP
15
AN1357.0
October 10, 2007
Application Note 1357
ISL9216EVAL1Z (Rev D) Bill of Materials (Continued)
ITEM
QTY
PART TYPE
DESIGNATOR
FOOTPRINT
DESCRIPTION
PART FIELD 1
µCp7
J57
*DNP
CHGSens
J58
*DNP
WP
J59
*DNP
CB6
J6
*DNP
SDAIHV
J64
*DNP
SDAOHV
J65
*DNP
RGC2
J66
*DNP
PART FIELD 2
*DNP
39
16
AN1357.0
October 10, 2007
Application Note 1357
A screen like the following will come up:
Appendix 1
Installing the DeVaSys USB to I2C board software
Copy and extract the files from the “PC_software.zip” to the
PC at whatever location is desired.
Disconnect the DeVaSys board from the ISL9208/ISL9216
board.
Then, plug in the DeVaSys board into the USB port.
The following screen should pop up:.
Browse for the “Software” directory in the “ISL9208_16 Eval
Kit SW and docs” folder then click “Next”.
This should install the software, eventually bringing up the
following screen:
Select “Yes, this time only” and click “Next”.
Then, the following screen will come up:
Click “Finish” and you’re done.
Select “Install from a list or specific location” and click “Next”.
17
AN1357.0
October 10, 2007
Application Note 1357
Appendix 2
Communication Troubleshooting
IF THE GUI STARTS UP WITH ALL ITEMS “GRAYED
OUT”
1. Check that the I2C cable is connected properly.
2. Check that the board is powered-up and that the RGO
voltages are 3.3V (relative to their device VSS pins).
3. If the RGO voltages are not powered to the right voltage,
move to the “Power Supply Troubleshooting” on page 18.
IF THE AO VOLTAGES ARE READING INCORRECTLY
ON THE GUI
1. Check that the RGO output is 3.3V. GUI and
microcontroller calculations assume the RGO voltage is
3.3V. Any variation translates directly into errors in the
GUI screen value.
2. Power down the board and stop the GUI. power-up the
board and restart the GUI. This should clear any
communication problems.
3. If operating with the I2C Jumpers in the µC position, make
sure that the “Partition” setting in the Pack Tab matches
the battery connection on the board.
4. Make sure that the board drivers are installed correctly.
When using the DeVaSys USB to I2C interface board,
there should be one red LED and one green LED lit.
Excessive Current Troubleshooting
5. Use a scope to see that the I2C communication is correct
INPUT “PROTECTION” DIODES
at the board. Monitor the SCL and the SDA lines while
initiating a read of the ISL9216 status register. Set the
scope to single trigger on the falling edge of SCL.
6. If the I2C communication is correct at the SCL and SDA
pins, check that the communication is correct at the
ISL9217. Connect the scope to the SCL terminal and the
SCLHV terminal. The SCLHV terminal should follow the
SCL voltage, but be shifted to ~3.3V above the ISL9217
VSS terminal (and be slightly delayed). Also check the
SDA and SDAOHV test points. SDAOHV should follow
SDA, but be shifted in voltage and slightly delayed.
7. Check that the SDA and SCL jumpers (J51 and J43) have
shunts on the “PC” side.
8. Check to see that the “I2C GND” jumper is in place in the
“GND” position.
9. Check that the “IC GND” jumper (J118) is in place.
Power Supply Troubleshooting
IF RGO OR RGO2 DO NOT HAVE THE CORRECT
VOLTAGE
1. Check that the voltage on each of the input terminals are
correct.
2. Check that all cell balance outputs are off.
3. Check that there is no unexpected load on the RGO
outputs.
ISL9216/ISL9217 Troubleshooting
IF THE AO VOLTAGES ARE READING INCORRECTLY
AT THE AO PIN
1. Make sure that the I2C jumpers are in the “PC” position.
2. Check that all cell balance outputs are off.
3. Make sure that there is no series resistance between the
battery and the input of the ISL9216 and ISL9217 and
that the input voltage on each cell is between 2.3V and
4.3V.
18
Input protection zener diodes are added to the evaluation
board to minimize the chance of exceeding the input voltage
range of the ISL9216 and ISL9217 cell monitoring inputs
during experimentation (especially during testing of the cell
balance operation) when using a string of resistors to
simulate the batteries. In an actual application, however,
when the board is connected to a string of batteries, these
zener diodes “leak” at higher cell voltages. This may not be a
big problem as the currents are less than 20µA, but over
time it could lead to reduced pack life.
There is excessive current flowing into the ISL9216
VCELL3 input when both FETs are on and no cells are
being monitored.
When ISL9216 turns both FETs on, there is a current path
from the CFET gate to VSS through the charge FET pull-up
resistor R13. This 100k resistor and a 12V gate voltage
results in about 120µA of current into the VCELL3 input
when no cells are being monitored. This can be reduced by
increasing the value of R13, but this slows down the charge
FET turn off. The pack can also be designed without the
charge FET. This removes the charge FET current.
Alternatively, when there is no current flow into or out of the
pack, the charge FET can be turned off, removing this
CELL3 current.
There is excessive current flowing into the ISL9216
VCELL1 input when the discharge FET is off, the charge
FET is on, and no cells are being monitored.
When the discharge FET is off and the charge FET is on,
and the pack voltage is sufficiently high, a voltage greater
than the CFET ouput is applied to the CFET pin. This causes
some circuit elements inside the ISL9216 to turn on causing
current to flow into the VCELL1 input. This current is on the
order of 120µA. The current can be stopped by turning on
the VMON output. This pulls the CFET voltage low enough
that the internal circuits do not turn on. Alternatively, a
schottky diode can be added in series with the CFET output
as shown in Figure 10. When this diode is added, the zener
diode D14 and diode D3 can be removed as they have no
functionality.
AN1357.0
October 10, 2007
Application Note 1357
CFET
DFET
CSENSE
DSENSE
DSREF
VSS
ISL9208
D14
VSS
D (NEW)
100
100k
REMOVE
D6
D3
FIGURE 10. BLOCKING CELL1 CURRENT WHEN DFET IS
OFF AND CFET IS ON
There is about 10µA of current flowing into the ISL9216
VCELL1 input when the both FETs are on and no cells
are being monitored.
When the wake-up voltage is below the falling edge
threshold, the WKUP input turns on some ISL9208 internal
circuits that draw current through the VCELL1 input. This
current can be eliminated by increasing the value of R23 to
113k (7-cell operation). This sets the voltage on the WKUP
pin above the falling edge threshold). The consequence of
doing this is that when the cells are fully charged to 50.4V, a
charger with a voltage of 52.3V or more is required to wake
the pack.
There is about 12µA of current into the ISL9216 VCELL3
when the discharge FET is on and the charge FET is off
and no cells are being monitored.
This current is caused by the current monitor circuit
consisting of R44, R45, and D12. Disconnect R44 to
eliminate this current. Of course this also disables the
current monitor feature.
Intersil Corporation reserves the right to make changes in circuit design, software and/or specifications at any time without notice. Accordingly, the reader is cautioned to
verify that the Application Note or Technical Brief is current before proceeding.
For information regarding Intersil Corporation and its products, see www.intersil.com
19
AN1357.0
October 10, 2007
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