DATASHEET

ICL7662
T
CT
DUC
P R O PR O D U
E
T
IES
OL E
U TE
O B S U B STI T XX X SER
E S L7660
Data
Sheet
January 9, 2006
SIBL
C
PO S E R SI L I
I NT
®
FN3181.4
CMOS Voltage Converter
Features
The Intersil ICL7662 is a monolithic high-voltage CMOS
power supply circuit which offers unique performance advantages over previously available devices. The ICL7662
performs supply voltage conversion from positive to negative
for an input range of +4.5V to +20.0V, resulting in
complementary output voltages of -4.5V to -20V. Only 2
noncritical external capacitors are needed for the charge
pump and charge reservoir functions. The ICL7662 can also
function as a voltage doubler, and will generate output
voltages up to +38.6V with a +20V input.
• No External Diode Needed Over Entire Temperature
Range
Contained on chip are a series DC power supply regulator,
RC oscillator, voltage level translator, four output power
MOS switches. A unique logic element senses the most
negative voltage in the device and ensures that the output NChannel switch source-substrate junctions are not forward
biased. This assures latchup free operation.
• Wide Operating Voltage Range 4.5V to 20.0V
The oscillator, when unloaded, oscillates at a nominal
frequency of 10kHz for an input supply voltage of 15.0V.
This frequency can be lowered by the addition of an external
capacitor to the “OSC” terminal, or the oscillator may be
overdriven by an external clock.
The “LV” terminal may be tied to GROUND to bypass the
internal series regulator and improve low voltage (LV)
operation. At medium to high voltages (+10V to +20V), the
LV pin is left floating to prevent device latchup.
• Pin Compatible With ICL7660
• Simple Conversion of +15V Supply to -15V Supply
• Simple Voltage Multiplication (VOUT = (-)nVIN)
• 99.9% Typical Open Circuit Voltage Conversion
Efficiency
• 96% Typical Power Efficiency
• Easy to Use - Requires Only 2 External Non-Critical
Passive Components
• Pb-Free Plus Anneal Available (RoHS Compliant)
Applications
• On Board Negative Supply for Dynamic RAMs
• Localized µProcessor (8080 Type) Negative Supplies
• Inexpensive Negative Supplies
• Data Acquisition Systems
• Up to -20V for Op Amps
Pinouts
ICL7662CBD-0 (SOIC)
TOP VIEW
ICL7662CBD AND IBD (SOIC)
TOP VIEW
14 V+
TEST 1
13 OSC
NC 2
NC 1
14 V+
TEST 2
13 NC
CAP+ 3
12 NC
NC 3
NC 4
11 LV
CAP+ 4
11 LV
GND 5
10 NC
GND 5
10 NC
NC 6
9 NC
NC 6
9 VOUT
8 VOUT
NC 7
8 CAP-
CAP- 7
12 OSC
ICL7662 (PDIP)
TOP VIEW
1
TEST
1
8
V+
CAP+
2
7
OSC
GND
3
6
LV
CAP-
4
5
VOUT
CAUTION: These devices are sensitive to electrostatic discharge; follow proper IC Handling Procedures.
1-888-INTERSIL or 1-888-352-6832 | Intersil (and design) is a registered trademark of Intersil Americas Inc.
Copyright Intersil Americas Inc. 2002, 2005, 2006. All Rights Reserved
All other trademarks mentioned are the property of their respective owners.
ICL7662
Ordering Information
PART
NUMBER
TEMP. RANGE
(oC)
PACKAGE
PKG.
DWG. #
ICL7662CPA
0 to 70
8 Ld PDIP
E8.3
ICL7662CPAZ
(Note)
0 to 70
8 Ld PDIP*
(Pb-free)
E8.3
ICL7662CBD-0
0 to 70
14 Ld SOIC (N)
M14.15
ICL7662CBD
0 to 70
14 Ld SOIC (N)
M14.15
ICL7662IPA
-40 to 85
8 Ld PDIP
E8.3
ICL7662IBD
-40 to 85
14 Ld SOIC (N)
M14.15
*Pb-free PDIPs can be used for through hole wave solder
processing only. They are not intended for use in Reflow solder
processing. applications.
NOTE: Intersil Pb-free plus anneal products employ special Pb-free
material sets; molding compounds/die attach materials and 100%
matte tin plate termination finish, which are RoHS compliant and
compatible with both SnPb and Pb-free soldering operations.
Intersil Pb-free products are MSL classified at Pb-free peak reflow
temperatures that meet or exceed the Pb-free requirements of
IPC/JEDEC J STD-020.
Functional Block Diagram
V+
CAP+
RC
OSCILLATOR
÷2
VOLTAGE
LEVEL
TRANSLATOR
CAP-
TEST
VOUT
P
N
OSC
LV
VOLTAGE
REGULATOR
2
LOGIC
NETWORK
ICL7662
Absolute Maximum Ratings
Thermal Information
Supply Voltage. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .22V
Oscillator Input Voltage . . . . . . . . -0.3V to (V+ +0.3V) for V+ < 10V
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (Note 2) (V+ -10V) to (V+ +0.3V) for V+ > 10V
Current Into LV (Note 2). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20µA for V+ > 10V
Output Short Duration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Continuous
Thermal Resistance (Typical, Note 3)
θJA (oC/W)
θJC (oC/W)
PDIP Package* . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
150
N/A
Plastic SOIC Package . . . . . . . . . . . . .
120
N/A
Maximum Lead Temperature (Soldering, 10s) . . . . . . . . . . . .300oC
(SOIC - Lead Tips Only)
*Pb-free PDIPs can be used for through hole wave solder processing
only. They are not intended for use in Reflow solder processing.
applications.
CAUTION: Stresses above those listed in “Absolute Maximum Ratings” may cause permanent damage to the device. This is a stress only rating and operation of the
device at these or any other conditions above those indicated in the operational sections of this specification is not implied.
NOTES:
1. Connecting any terminal to voltages greater than V+ or less than GND may cause destructive latchup. It is recommended that no inputs from
sources operating from external supplies be applied prior to “power up” of ICL7660S.
2. θJA is measured with the component mounted on an evaluation PC board in free air.
V+ = 15V, TA = 25oC, COSC = 0, Unless Otherwise Specified. Refer to Figure 14.
Electrical Specifications
PARAMETER
SYMBOL
TEST CONDITIONS
MIN
TYP
MAX
UNITS
Supply Voltage Range - Lo
V+L
RL = 10kΩ, LV = GND
Min < TA < Max
4.5
-
11
V
Supply Voltage Range - Hi
V+H
RL = 10kΩ, LV = Open
Min < TA < Max
9
-
20
V
RL = ∞, LV = Open
TA = 25oC
0oC < TA < 70oC
-40oC < TA < 85oC
-55oC < TA < 125oC
TA = 25oC
0oC < TA < 70oC
-40oC < TA < 85oC
-55oC < TA < 125oC
TA = 25oC
0oC < TA < 70oC
-40oC < TA < 85oC
-55oC < TA < 125oC
TA = 25oC
-
0.25
0.60
mA
-
0.30
0.85
mA
-
0.40
1.0
mA
-
60
100
Ω
-
70
120
Ω
-
90
150
Ω
-
20
150
µA
-
25
200
µA
-
30
250
µA
-
125
200
Ω
-
150
250
Ω
-
200
350
Ω
Supply Current
I+
Output Source Resistance
RO
Supply Current
I+
Output Source Resistance
RO
Oscillator Frequency
IO = 20mA,
LV = Open
V+ = 5V, RL = ∞,
LV = GND
V+ = 5V, IO = 3mA,
LV = GND
0oC < TA < 70oC
-40oC < TA < 85oC
-55oC < TA < 125oC
FOSC
Power Efficiency
PEFF
RL = 2kΩ
-
10
-
kHz
TA = 25oC
93
96
-
%
Min < TA < Max
90
95
-
%
Min < TA < Max
97
99.9
-
%
Voltage Conversion Efficiency
VoEf
RL = ∞
Oscillator Sink or Source
Current
IOSC
V+ = 5V (VOSC = 0V to +5V)
-
0.5
-
µA
V+ = 15V (VOSC = +5V to +15V)
-
4.0
-
µA
NOTE:
3. Pin 1 is a Test pin and is not connected in normal use. When the TEST pin is connected to V+, an internal transmission gate disconnects any
external parasitic capacitance from the oscillator which would otherwise reduce the oscillator frequency from its nominal value.
3
ICL7662
Typical Performance Curves
(See Figure 14, Test Circuit)
190
190
LV = GND
150
130
110
90
70
150
130
110
90
70
LV = OPEN
30
30
2
4
6
8
10 12
V+ (V)
14
16
18
0
20
V+ = 5V
IL = 3mA
V+ = 15V
IL = 20mA
25
6
70
125
OSCILLATOR FREQUENCY (Hz)
OSCILLATOR FREQUENCY (kHz)
8
7
6
LV = GND
4
3
2
LV = OPEN
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
18
20
95
300
250
90
85
PEFF
200
RO
150
80
100
75
V+ = 5V
IL = 3mA
TA = 25oC
70
65
100
1K
10K
50
100K
V+ = 15V
TA = 25oC
RL = ∞
1K
100
10
14
16
18
20
SUPPLY VOLTAGE (V)
FIGURE 5. OSClLLATOR FREQUENCY vs SUPPLY VOLTAGE
NOTE: All typical values have been characterized but are not tested.
4
16
350
10K
COSC = 0pF
5
14
FIGURE 4. POWER CONVERSION EFFICIENCY AND
OUTPUT SOURCE RESISTANCE AS A
FUNCTION OF OSCILLATOR FREQUENCY
RL = ∞
TA = 25oC
9
12
FOSC (Hz)
FIGURE 3. OUTPUT SOURCE RESISTANCE AS A
FUNCTION OF TEMPERATURE
10
10
100
TEMPERATURE (oC)
11
8
FIGURE 2. OUTPUT SOURCE RESISTANCE AS A
FUNCTION OF SUPPLY VOLTAGE
POWER CONVERSION EFFICIENCY (%)
180
170
160
150
140
130
120
110
100
90
80
70
60
50
0
4
V+ (V)
FIGURE 1. OUTPUT SOURCE RESISTANCE AS A
FUNCTION OF SUPPLY VOLTAGE
-20
2
OUTPUT RESISTANCE (Ω)
0
OUTPUT RESISTANCE (Ω)
LV = OPEN
50
50
-55
IL = 3mA
TA = 25oC
COSC = 0pF
LV = GND
170
OUTPUT RESISTANCE (Ω)
OUTPUT RESISTANCE (Ω)
170
IL = 20mA
TA = 25oC
COSC = 0pF
1
10
100
1000
10K
COSC (pF)
FIGURE 6. FREQUENCY OF OSCILLATION AS A FUNCTION
OF EXTERNAL OSCILLATOR CAPACITANCE
ICL7662
(See Figure 14, Test Circuit) (Continued)
15K
V+ = 15V
COSC = 0pF
OUTPUT VOLTAGE VO (V)
OSCILLATOR FREQUENCY (Hz)
14K
13K
12K
11K
10K
9K
8K
7K
6K
5K
-55
-20
0
25
70
-1
-2
-3
-4
-5
-6
-7
-8
-9
-10
-11
-12
-13
-14
-15
V+ = 15V
TA = 25oC
LV = OPEN
SLOPE = 65Ω
10
125
20
TEMPERATURE (oC)
POWER CONVERSION EFFICIENCY (%)
OUTPUT VOLTAGE VO (V)
100
0
-1
-2
-3
SLOPE = 14Ω
-4
-5
60
70
80
90
100
V+ = 5V
TA = 25oC
95
40
90
PBFF
32
85
I+
80
24
75
16
70
8
65
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
LOAD CURRENT IL (mA)
16
18
20
FIGURE 9. OUTPUT VOLTAGE AS A FUNCTION
OF LOAD CURRENT
0
V+ = 15V
TA = 25oC
200
90
PBFF
85
160
I+
80
120
75
80
70
40
65
0
10
20
30 40 50 60 70 80
LOAD CURRENT IL (mA)
90
100
FIGURE 11. SUPPLY CURRENT AND POWER CONVERSION
EFFICIENCY AS A FUNCTION OF LOAD
CURRENT
5
OSCILLATOR FREQUENCY (kHz)
100
95
2
4
6
8
10 12 14 16
LOAD CURRENT IL (mA)
18
20
FIGURE 10. SUPPLY CURRENT AND POWER CONVERSION
EFFICIENCY AS A FUNCTION OF LOAD
SUPPLY CURRENT I+ (mA)
POWER CONVERSION EFFICIENCY (%)
50
FIGURE 8. OUTPUT VOLTAGE AS A FUNCTION
OF LOAD CURRENT
V+ = 5V
TA = 25oC
LV = GND
1
40
LOAD CURRENT IL (mA)
FIGURE 7. UNLOADED OSClLLATOR FREQUENCY
AS A FUNCTION OF TEMPERATURE
2
30
SUPPLY CURRENT I+ (mA)
Typical Performance Curves
RL = ∞
TA = 25oC
COSC = 0pF
LV = GND
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
LV = OPEN
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
SUPPLY VOLTAGE (V)
16
FIGURE 12. FREQUENCY OF OSCILLATION AS A
FUNCTION OF SUPPLY VOLTAGE
18
20
ICL7662
Typical Performance Curves
(See Figure 14, Test Circuit) (Continued)
SUPPLY CURRENT I+ (µA)
150
140
130
120
110
100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
10
100
1K
OSCILLATOR FREQUENCY (Hz)
10K
FIGURE 13. SUPPLY CURRENT AS A FUNCTION OF
OSCILLATOR FREQUENCY
NOTE:
4. These curves include in the supply current that current fed directly into the load RL from the V+ (See Figure 14). Thus, approximately half the
supply current goes directly to the positive side of the load, and the other half, through the ICL7662, to the negative side of the load. Ideally,
VOUT ∼ 2VIN, IS ∼ 2IL, so VIN x IS ∼ VOUT x IL.
Circuit Description
The ICL7662 contains all the necessary circuitry to complete
a negative voltage converter, with the exception of 2 external
capacitors which may be inexpensive 10µF polarized
electrolytic capacitors. The mode of operation of the device
may be best understood by considering Figure 15, which
shows an idealized negative voltage converter. Capacitor C1
is charged to a voltage, V+, for the half cycle when switches
S1 and S3 are closed. (Note: Switches S2 and S4 are open
during this half cycle.) During the second half cycle of
operation, switches S2 and S4 are closed, with S1 and S3
open, thereby shifting capacitor C1 negatively by V+ volts.
Charge is then transferred from C1 to C2 such that the
voltage on C2 is exactly V+, assuming ideal switches and no
load on C2. The lCL7662 approaches this ideal situation
more closely than existing non-mechanical circuits.
In the lCL7662, the 4 switches of Figure 15 are MOS power
switches; S1 is a P-Channel device and S2, S3 and S4 are
N-Channel devices. The main difficulty with this approach is
that in integrating the switches, the substrates of S3 and S4
must always remain reverse biased with respect to their
sources, but not so much as to degrade their “ON”
resistances. In addition, at circuit startup, and under output
short circuit conditions (VOUT = V+), the output voltage must
be sensed and the substrate bias adjusted accordingly.
Failure to accomplish this would result in high power losses
and probable device latchup.
This problem is eliminated in the ICL7662 by a logic network
which senses the output voltage (VOUT) together with the
level translators, and switches the substrates of S3 and S4 to
the correct level to maintain necessary reverse bias.
The voltage regulator portion of the ICL7662 is an integral part
of the anti-latchup circuitry, however its inherent voltage drop
can degrade operation at low voltages. Therefore, to improve
low voltage operation the “LV” pin should be connected to
GROUND, disabling the regulator. For supply voltages
greater than 10V the LV terminal must be left open to insure
latchup proof operation, and prevent device damage.
IS
1
2
C1
+
-
ICL7662
7
3
6
4
5
IL
RL
COSC
(NOTE)
-VOUT
C2 10µF +
NOTE: For large value of COSC (> 1000pF) the values of C1 and C2
should be increased to 100µF.
FIGURE 14. ICL7662 TEST CIRCUIT
6
V+
(+5V)
8
ICL7662
S1
8
C1
3
A 1N914 or similar diode placed in parallel with C2 will
prevent the device from latching up under these conditions.
(Anode pin 5, Cathode pin 3).
S2
2
VIN
3
Typical Applications
Simple Negative Voltage Converter
C2
S4
S3
VOUT = -VIN
5
4
7
The majority of applications will undoubtedly utilize the
ICL7662 for generation of negative supply voltages. Figure
16 shows typical connections to provide a negative supply
where a positive supply of +4.5V to 20.0V is available. Keep
in mind that pin 6 (LV) is tied to the supply negative (GND)
for supply voltages below 10V.
FIGURE 15. IDEALIZED NEGATIVE CONVERTER
Theoretical Power Efficiency
Considerations
In theory a voltage multiplier can approach 100% efficiency if
certain conditions are met:
1. The drive circuitry consumes minimal power.
2. The output switches have extremely low ON resistance
and virtually no offset.
3. The impedances of the pump and reservoir capacitors are
negligible at the pump frequency.
The ICL7662 approaches these conditions for negative
voltage multiplication if large values of C1 and C2 are used.
ENERGY IS LOST ONLY IN THE TRANSFER OF
CHARGE BETWEEN CAPACITORS IF A CHANGE IN
VOLTAGE OCCURS. The energy lost is defined by:
E = 1/2C1 (V12 - V22)
The output characteristics of the circuit in Figure 16A can be
approximated by an ideal voltage source in series with a
resistance as shown in Figure 16B. The voltage source has
a value of -(V+). The output impedance (RO) is a function of
the ON resistance of the internal MOS switches (shown in
Figure 2), the switching frequency, the value of C1 and C2,
and the ESR (equivalent series resistance) of C1 and C2. A
good first order approximation for RO is:
RO ≅ 2(RSW1 + RSW3 + ESRC1)
+ 2(RSW2 + RSW4 + ESRC1) +
(fPUMP =
fOSC ,
2
Do’s and Don’ts
1. Do not exceed maximum supply voltages.
2. Do not connect LV terminal to GROUND for supply voltages greater than 10V.
3. When using polarized capacitors, the + terminal of C1
must be connected to pin 2 of the ICL7662 and the + terminal of C2 must be connected to GROUND.
4. If the voltage supply driving the 7662 has a large source
impedance (25Ω - 30Ω), then a 2.2µF capacitor from pin
8 to ground may be required to limit rate of rise of input
voltage to less than 2V/µs.
5. User should insure that the output (pin 5) does not go
more positive than GND (pin 3). Device latch up will occur
under these conditions.
7
+ ESRC2
RSWX = MOSFET switch resistance)
Combining the four RSWX terms as RSW , we see that
RO ≅ 2 x RSW +
where V1 and V2 are the voltages on C1 during the pump
and transfer cycles. If the impedances of C1 and C2 are
relatively high at the pump frequency (refer to Figure 15)
compared to the value of RL , there will be a substantial
difference in the voltages V1 and V2 . Therefore it is not only
desirable to make C2 as large as possible to eliminate output
voltage ripple, but also to employ a correspondingly large
value for C1 in order to achieve maximum efficiency of
operation.
1
fPUMP x C1
1
fPUMP x C1
+ 4 x ESRC1 + ESRC2Ω
RSW , the total switch resistance, is a function of supply
voltage and temperature (See the Output Source Resistance
graphs), typically 24Ω at +25oC and 15V, and 53Ω at +25oC
and 5V. Careful selection of C1 and C2 will reduce the
remaining terms, minimizing the output impedance. High
value capacitors will reduce the 1/(fPUMP x C1) component,
and low FSR capacitors will lower the ESR term. Increasing
the oscillator frequency will reduce the 1/(fPUMP x C1) term,
but may have the side effect of a net increase in output
impedance when C1 > 10µF and there is no longer enough
time to fully charge the capacitors every cycle. In a typical
application where fOSC = 10kHz and C = C1 = C2 = 10µF:
RO ≅ 2 x 23 +
1
(5 x 103 x 10 x 10-6)
+ 4 ESRC1 + ESRC2
RO ≅ 46 + 20 + 5 x ESRCΩ
Since the ESRs of the capacitors are reflected in the output
impedance multiplied by a factor of 5, a high value could
potentially swamp out a low 1/(fPUMP x C1) term, rendering
an increase in switching frequency or filter capacitance
ineffective. Typical electrolytic capacitors may have ESRs as
high as 10Ω.
ICL7662
Again, a low ESR capacitor will result in a higher
performance output.
V+
1
10µF
2
+
C1
-
8
ICL7662
Paralleling Devices
7
3
6
4
5
RO
10µF
+
VOUT = -V+
C2
Any number of ICL7662 voltage converters may be
paralleled (Figure 18) to reduce output resistance. The
reservoir capacitor, C2, serves all devices while each device
requires its own pump capacitor, C1. The resultant output
resistance would be approximately:
VOUT
V+
+
16A.
16B.
ROUT =
FIGURE 16. SIMPLE NEGATIVE CONVERTER AND ITS
OUTPUT EQUIVALENT
ROUT (of ICL7662)
n (number of devices)
Cascading Devices
The ICL7662 may be cascaded as shown in Figure 19 to
produce larger negative multiplication of the initial supply
voltage. However, due to the finite efficiency of each device,
the practical limit is 10 devices for light loads. The output
voltage is defined by:
Output Ripple
ESR also affects the ripple voltage seen at the output. The
total ripple is determined by 2V, A and B, as shown in Figure
16. Segment A is the voltage drop across the ESR of C2 at
the instant it goes from being charged by C1 (current flowing
into C2) to being discharged through the load (current
flowing out of C2). The magnitude of this current change is 2
x IOUT , hence the total drop is 2 x IOUT x ESRC2V.
Segment B is the voltage change across C2 during time t2 ,
the half of the cycle when C2 supplies current the load. The
drop at B is IOUT x t2 /C2V. The peak-to-peak ripple voltage
is the sum of these voltage drops:
VOUT = -n(VIN),
where n is an integer representing the number of devices
cascaded. The resulting output resistance would be
approximately the weighted sum of the individual ICL7662
ROUT values.
1
V RIPPLE ≅  ----------------------------------------- + 2 ESRC 2 × I OUT
2 × f

PUMP × C 2
t1
t2
B
0
V
A
-(V+)
FIGURE 17. OUTPUT RIPPLE
V+
1
2
C1
3
4
8
ICL7662
“1”
7
1
6
5
2
C1
3
8
ICL7662
“N”
4
RL
7
6
5
C
+ 2
FIGURE 18. PARALLELING DEVICES
8
ICL7662
V+
1
8
2
10µF
+
-
7
ICL7662
“1”
3
1
6
4
2
+
5
10µF
-
3
8
7
ICL7662
“N”
6
4
5
-
10µF
+
+
VOUT
10µF
FIGURE 19. CASCADING DEVICES FOR INCREASED OUTPUT VOLTAGE
Changing the ICL7662 Oscillator Frequency
V+
It may be desirable in some applications, due to noise or other
considerations, to increase the oscillator frequency. This is
achieved by overdriving the oscillator from an external clock, as
shown in Figure 20. In order to prevent possible device latchup,
a 1kΩ resistor must be used in series with the clock output. In
the situation where the designer has generated the external
clock frequency using TTL logic, the addition of a 10kΩ pullup
resistor to V+ supply is required. Note that the pump frequency
with external clocking, as with internal clocking, will be 1/2 of
the clock frequency. Output transitions occur on the positivegoing edge of the clock.
V+
1
V+
8
1kΩ
2
+
10µF
CMOS
GATE
7
ICL7662
3
6
4
5
+
VOUT
10µF
FIGURE 20. EXTERNAL CLOCKING
It is also possible to increase the conversion efficiency of the
ICL7662 at low load levels by lowering the oscillator frequency.
This reduces the switching losses, and is achieved by
connecting an additional capacitor, COSC, as shown in Figure
21. However, lowering the oscillator frequency will cause an
undesirable increase in the impedance of the pump (C1) and
reservoir (C2) capacitors; this is overcome by increasing the
values of C1 and C2 by the same factor that the frequency has
been reduced. For example, the addition of a 100pF capacitor
between pin 7 (OSC) and V+ will lower the oscillator frequency
to 1kHz from its nominal frequency of 10kHz (a multiple of 10),
and thereby necessitate a corresponding increase in the value
of C1 and C2 (from 10mF to 100mF).
1
2
+
C1
-
8
ICL7662
COSC
7
3
6
4
5
+
VOUT
C2
FIGURE 21. LOWERING OSCILLATOR FREQUENCY
Positive Voltage Doubling
The ICL7662 may be employed to achieve positive voltage
doubling using the circuit shown in Figure 22. In this
application, the pump inverter switches of the ICL7662 are
used to charge C1 to a voltage level of V+ -VF (where V+ is
the supply voltage and VF is the forward voltage drop of
diode D1). On the transfer cycle, the voltage on C1 plus the
supply voltage (V+) is applied through diode C2 to capacitor
C2. The voltage thus created on C2 becomes (2V+) (2VF) or
twice the supply voltage minus the combined forward
voltage drops of diodes D1 and D2.
The source impedance of the output (VOUT) will depend on
the output current, but for V+ = 15V and an output current of
10mA it will be approximately 70Ω.
V+
1
2
8
ICL7662
7
3
6
4
5
D1
D2
VOUT =
(2V+) - (2VF)
+
C1
-
+
- C2
NOTE: D1 and D2 can be any suitable diode.
FIGURE 22. POSITIVE VOLTAGE DOUBLER
9
ICL7662
Regulated Negative Voltage Supply
V+
1
2
C1
+
-
VOUT =
- (nVIN - VFDX)
8
ICL7662
7
3
6
4
5
-
+
C2
D1
C
+ 3
D2
VOUT = (2V+) (VFD1) - (VFD2)
+
C
- 4
FIGURE 23. COMBINED NEGATIVE CONVERTER
AND POSITIVE DOUBLER
Combined Negative Voltage Conversion and Positive Supply Doubling
Figure 23 combines the functions shown in Figure 16 and
Figure 22 to provide negative voltage conversion and
positive voltage doubling simultaneously. This approach
would be, for example, suitable for generating +9V and -5V
from an existing +5V supply. In this instance capacitors C1
and C3 perform the pump and reservoir functions
respectively for the generation of the negative voltage, while
capacitors C2 and C4 are pump and reservoir respectively
for the doubled positive voltage. There is a penalty in this
configuration which combines both functions, however, in
that the source impedances of the generated supplies will be
somewhat higher due to the finite impedance of the common
charge pump driver at pin 2 of the device.
In some cases, the output impedance of the ICL7662 can be a
problem, particularly if the load current varies substantially. The
circuit of Figure 25 can be used to overcome this by controlling
the input voltage, via an ICL7611 low-power CMOS op amp, in
such a way as to maintain a nearly constant output voltage.
Direct feedback is inadvisable, since the ICL7662s output does
not respond instantaneously to a change in input, but only after
the switching delay. The circuit shown supplies enough delay to
accommodate the ICL7662, while maintaining adequate
feedback. An increase in pump and storage capacitors is
desirable, and the values shown provides an output impedance
of less than 5Ω to a load of 10mA.
Other Applications
Further information on the operation and use of the ICL7662
may be found in AN051 “Principles and Applications of the
ICL7660 CMOS Voltage Converter”.
V+
+
50µF
RL1
1
V+ - VVOUT =
2
50µF
8
2
+
-
RL2
ICL7662
7
3
6
4
5
+
50µF
V-
FIGURE 24. SPLITTING A SUPPLY IN HALF
Voltage Splitting
The bidirectional characteristics can also be used to split a
higher supply in half, as shown in Figure 24. The combined
load will be evenly shared between the two sides and, a high
value resistor to the LV pin ensures start-up. Because the
switches share the load in parallel, the output impedance is
much lower than in the standard circuits, and higher currents
can be drawn from the device. By using this circuit, and then
the circuit of Figure 19, +30V can be converted (via +15V,
and -15V) to a nominal -30V, although with rather high series
output resistance (~250Ω).
50K
+8V
56K
+8V
+
100Ω
50K
10µF
100K
ICL7611
+
1
2
ICL8069
100µF
+
-
800K
8
ICL7662
7
3
6
4
5
250K
VOLTAGE
ADJUST
VOUT
100µF
+
FIGURE 25. REGULATING THE OUTPUT VOLTAGE
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