DATASHEET

I GN
D ES
®
ISL6744
S
EW
OR N 4A
F
D
N DE
L674
MME E SEE IS Data Sheet
O
C
RE
AS
P LE
NOT
September 22, 2005
FN9147.8
Intermediate Bus PWM Controller
Features
The ISL6744 is a low cost, primary side, double-ended
controller intended for applications using full and half-bridge
topologies for unregulated DC/DC converters. It is a voltagemode PWM controller designed for half-bridge and fullbridge power supplies. It provides precise control of
switching frequency, adjustable soft-start, precise deadtime
control with deadtimes as low as 35ns, and overcurrent
shutdown.
• Precision Duty Cycle and Deadtime Control
Low start-up and operating currents allow for easy biasing in
both AC/DC and DC/DC applications. This advanced
BiCMOS design features low start-up and operating
currents, adjustable switching frequency up to 1MHz, 1A
FET drivers, and very low propagation delays for a fast
response to overcurrent faults.
• Internal Over Temperature Protection
• 100µA Start-up Current
• Adjustable Delayed Overcurrent Shutdown and Restart
• Adjustable Oscillator Frequency Up to 2MHz
• 1A MOSFET Gate Drivers
• Adjustable Soft-Start
• 35ns Control to Output Propagation Delay
• Small Size and Minimal External Component Count
• Input Undervoltage Protection
• Pb-Free Plus Anneal Available (RoHS Compliant)
Ordering Information
PART NUMBER
TEMP.
RANGE (°C)
PACKAGE
PKG.
DWG. #
Applications
• Telecom and Datacom Isolated Power
ISL6744AU
-40 to 105
8 Ld MSOP
M8.118
• DC Transformers
ISL6744AUZ
(Note)
-40 to 105
8 Ld MSOP
(Pb-free)
M8.118
• Bus Converters
ISL6744AB
-40 to 105
8 Ld SOIC
M8.15
Pinout
ISL6744ABZ
(Note)
-40 to 105
8 Ld SOIC
(Pb-free)
M8.15
Add “-T” suffix for tape and reel.
NOTE: Intersil Pb-free plus anneal products employ special Pb-free
material sets; molding compounds/die attach materials and 100%
matte tin plate termination finish, which are RoHS compliant and
compatible with both SnPb and Pb-free soldering operations. Intersil
Pb-free products are MSL classified at Pb-free peak reflow
temperatures that meet or exceed the Pb-free requirements of
IPC/JEDEC J STD-020.
1
ISL6744 (SOIC, MSOP)
TOP VIEW
SS 1
8 VDD
RTD 2
7 OUTB
CS 3
6 OUTA
CT 4
5 GND
CAUTION: These devices are sensitive to electrostatic discharge; follow proper IC Handling Procedures.
1-888-INTERSIL or 1-888-468-3774 | Intersil (and design) is a registered trademark of Intersil Americas Inc.
Copyright © Intersil Americas Inc. 2004-2005. All Rights Reserved
All other trademarks mentioned are the property of their respective owners.
Internal Architecture
VDD
FL
VBIAS
VBIAS
5.00 V
VDD
OUTA
Q
T
UVLO
+
BG
Q
OUTB
PWM TOGGLE
VBIAS
INTERNAL
OT SHUTDOWN
130 - 150 C
70uA
GND
2
ON
SS
VBIAS
+
-
SS CLAMP
RTD
-
2.0 V
IRTD
+
-
+
15 uA
SS CHARGED
3.9 V
4.0 V
VBIAS
160 uA
S
Q
R
Q
ISL6744
OC LATCH
ON
2.8 V
-
PEAK
+
CT
-
I DCH= 55 x IRTD
0.8 V
S
Q
R
Q
CLK
Q
RESET
DOMINANT
VALLEY
+
SS LOW
Q
50 µS
RETRIGGERABLE
ONE SHOT
0.27 V
+
SS
FAULT LATCH
SET DOMINANT
S
Q
IDCH
R
Q
S
Q
R
Q
PWM LATCH
SET
DOMINANT
ON
VBIAS
VBIAS UV
4.65V ↓ 4.80V ↑
+
BG
CS
0.6 V
OC DETECT
+
-
FN9147.8
September 22, 2005
SS COMPARATOR
CT
+
-
SS
0.8
FL
Typical Application using ISL6744 - 48V Input DC Transformer, 12V @ 8A Output
SP1
VIN+
+12V
QR1
L1
C11
QH
QR3
C2
T1
L3
R8
C9
C13
RTN
R10
TP1
C8
L2
3
C1
T2
R9
QR4
QR2
QL
R2
C14
CR3
R11
C12
CR2
C3
R1
U4
ISL6700
VDD
HB
LO
VSS
HO
HS
LI
HI
R6
R5
TP4
C10
C4
C5
TP5
U1
SS
GND
VIN-
OUTA
VDD
R7
ISL6744
OUTB
CS
CT
C18
RTD
D2
TP6
Q5
C15
FN9147.8
September 22, 2005
C16
D1
R12
C6
ISL6744
TP2
CR1
C7
ISL6744
Absolute Maximum Ratings
Thermal Information
Supply Voltage, VDD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GND - 0.3V to +20.0V
OUTA, OUTB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GND - 0.3V to VDD
Signal Pins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GND - 0.3V to 5V
Peak GATE Current . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1A
ESD Classification
Human Body Model (Per MIL-STD-883 Method 3015.7) . . .2000V
Machine Model (Per EIAJ ED-4701 Method C-111) . . . . . . . .100V
Charged Device Model (Per EOS/ESD DS5.3, 4/14/93) . . .1000V
Thermal Resistance (Typical, Note 1)
θJA (°C/W)
8 Lead MSOP. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
128
8 Lead SOIC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
98
Maximum Junction Temperature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . -55°C to 150°C
Maximum Storage Temperature Range . . . . . . . . . . . -65°C to 150°C
Maximum Lead Temperature (Soldering 10s) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 300°C
Operating Conditions
Temperature Range
ISL6744AU . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .-40°C to 105°C
Supply Voltage Range (Typical). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-16 VDC
CAUTION: Stresses above those listed in “Absolute Maximum Ratings” may cause permanent damage to the device. This is a stress only rating and operation of the
device at these or any other conditions above those indicated in the operational sections of this specification is not implied.
NOTES:
1. θJA is measured with the component mounted on a high effective thermal conductivity test board in free air. See Tech Brief TB379 for details.
2. All voltages are to be measured with respect to GND, unless otherwise specified.
Electrical Specifications
Recommended operating conditions unless otherwise noted. Refer to Block Diagram and Typical Application
schematic. 9V < VD < 16V, RTD = 51.1kΩ, CT = 470pF, TA = -40°C to 105°C (Note 4), Typical values are at
TA = 25°C
PARAMETER
TEST CONDITIONS
MIN
TYP
MAX
UNITS
SUPPLY VOLTAGE
Start-Up Current, IDD
VDD < START Threshold
-
-
175
μA
Operating Current, IDD
RLOAD, COUTA,B = 0
-
2.89
-
mA
COUTA,B = 1nF
-
5
8.5
mA
UVLO START Threshold
5.9
6.3
6.6
V
UVLO STOP Threshold
5.3
5.7
6.3
V
-
0.6
-
V
0.55
0.6
0.65
V
-
35
-
ns
CS Sink Current
8
10
-
mA
Input Bias Current
-1
-
1
μA
Hysteresis
CURRENT SENSE
Current Limit Threshold
CS to OUT Delay
(Note 4)
PULSE WIDTH MODULATOR
Minimum Duty Cycle
VERROR < CT Offset
-
-
0
%
Maximum Duty Cycle
CT = 470pF, RTD = 51.1kΩ
-
94
-
%
CT = 470pF, RTD = 1.1kΩ (Note 4)
-
99
-
%
CT to SS Comparator Input Gain
(Note 4)
-
1
-
V/V
SS to SS Comparator Input Gain
(Note 4)
-
0.8
-
V/V
4
FN9147.8
September 22, 2005
ISL6744
Electrical Specifications
Recommended operating conditions unless otherwise noted. Refer to Block Diagram and Typical Application
schematic. 9V < VD < 16V, RTD = 51.1kΩ, CT = 470pF, TA = -40°C to 105°C (Note 4), Typical values are at
TA = 25°C (Continued)
PARAMETER
TEST CONDITIONS
MIN
TYP
MAX
UNITS
143
156
170
μA
1.925
2
2.075
V
45
-
65
μA/μA
CT Valley Voltage
0.75
0.8
0.85
V
CT Peak Voltage
2.70
2.80
2.90
V
Charging Current
45
-
68
µA
SS Clamp Voltage
3.8
4.0
4.2
V
-
3.9
-
V
12
15
23
μA
0.25
0.27
0.30
V
OSCILLATOR
Charge Current
RTD Voltage
Discharge Current Gain
SOFT-START
Overcurrent Shutdown Threshold Voltage
(Note 4)
Overcurrent Discharge Current
Reset Threshold Voltage
(Note 4)
OUTPUT
High Level Output Voltage (VOH)
VDD - VOUTA or VOUTB,
IOUT = -100mA
-
0.5
2.0
V
Low Level Output Voltage (VOL)
IOUT = 100mA
-
0.5
1.0
V
Rise Time
CGATE = 1nF, VDD = 12V
-
17
60
ns
Fall Time
CGATE = 1nF, VDD = 12V
-
20
60
ns
Thermal Shutdown
(Note 4)
-
145
-
°C
Thermal Shutdown Clear
(Note 4)
-
130
-
°C
Hysteresis, Internal Protection
(Note 4)
-
15
-
°C
THERMAL PROTECTION
NOTES:
3. Specifications at -40°C are guaranteed by design, not production tested.
4. Guaranteed by design, not 100% tested in production.
5
FN9147.8
September 22, 2005
ISL6744
Typical Performance Curves
1-104
CT =
1000pF
680pF
470pF
60
1-103
DEADTIME (ns)
CT DISCHARGE CURRENT GAIN
65
55
50
CT = 270pF
CT = 100pF
100
45
40
0.01
0.02
0.03
0.04
0.05
0.06
0.07
0.08
0.09
0.1
10
10
20
30
40
RTD CURRENT (mA)
FIGURE 1. OSCILLATOR CT DISCHARGE CURRENT GAIN
80
90
100
NORMALIZED CHARGING CURRENT
1.03
500
400
300
200
100
200
300
400
500
600
CT (pF)
700
800
900
1.02
1.01
1.00
0.99
0.98
0.97
0.96
0.95
-40
1000
-25
-10
5
20
35
50
65
80
95
110
TEMPERATURE (°C)
FIGURE 3. CAPACITANCE vs OSCILLATOR FREQUENCY
(RTD = 49.9kΩ)
FIGURE 4. CHARGE CURRENT vs TEMPERATURE
1.07
1.06
NORMALIZED VOLTAGE
OSCILLATOR FREQUENCY (kHz)
70
FIGURE 2. DEADTIME vs CAPACITANCE
600
0
100
50
60
RTD (kΩ)
1.05
1.04
1.03
1.02
1.01
1.00
0.99
0.98
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
RTD (kΩ)
FIGURE 5. TIMING CAPACITOR VOLTAGE vs RTD
6
FN9147.8
September 22, 2005
ISL6744
Pin Descriptions
Functional Description
VDD - VDD is the power connection for the IC. To optimize
noise immunity, bypass VDD to GND with a ceramic
capacitor as close to the VDD and GND pins as possible.
Features
The total supply current, IDD, will be dependent on the load
applied to outputs OUTA and OUTB. Total IDD current is the
sum of the quiescent current and the average output current.
Knowing the operating frequency, Fsw, and the output
loading capacitance charge, Q, per output, the average
output current can be calculated from:
I OUT = 2 • Q • Fsw
(EQ. 1)
RTD - This is the oscillator timing capacitor discharge current
control pin. A resistor is connected between this pin and
GND. The current flowing through the resistor determines
the magnitude of the discharge current. The discharge
current is nominally 55x this current. The PWM deadtime is
determined by the timing capacitor discharge duration.
CT - The oscillator timing capacitor is connected between
this pin and GND.
CS - This is the input to the overcurrent protection comparator.
The overcurrent comparator threshold is set at 0.600V nominal.
The CS pin is shorted to GND at the end of each switching
cycle. Depending on the current sensing source impedance, a
series input resistor may be required due to the delay between
the internal clock and the external power switch.
Exceeding the overcurrent threshold will start a delayed
shutdown sequence. Once an overcurrent condition is
detected, the soft-start charge current source is disabled.
The soft-start capacitor begins discharging through a 15µA
current source, and if it discharges to less than 3.9V
(Sustained Overcurrent Threshold), a shutdown condition
occurs and the OUTA and OUTB outputs are forced low.
When the soft-start voltage reaches 0.27V (Reset
Threshold) a soft-start cycle begins.
If the overcurrent condition ceases, and then an additional
50µs period elapses before the shutdown threshold is
reached, no shutdown occurs. The SS charging current is
re-enabled and the soft-start voltage is allowed to recover.
GND - Reference and power ground for all functions on this
device. Due to high peak currents and high frequency
operation, a low impedance layout is necessary. Ground
planes and short traces are highly recommended.
OUTA and OUTB - Alternate half cycle output stages. Each
output is capable of 1A peak currents for driving power
MOSFETs or MOSFET drivers. Each output provides very
low impedance to overshoot and undershoot.
SS - Connect the soft-start timing capacitor between this pin
and GND to control the duration of soft-start. The value of the
capacitor determines the rate of increase of the duty cycle
during start-up, controls the overcurrent shutdown delay, and
the overcurrent and short circuit hiccup restart period.
7
The ISL6744 PWM is an excellent choice for low cost bridge
topologies for applications requiring accurate frequency and
deadtime control. Among its many features are 1A FET
drivers, adjustable soft-start, overcurrent protection and
internal thermal protection, allowing a highly flexible design
with minimal external components.
Oscillator
The ISL6744 has an oscillator with a frequency range to
2MHz, programmable using a resistor RTD and capacitor CT.
The switching period may be considered to be the sum of
the timing capacitor charge and discharge durations. The
charge duration is determined by CT and the internal current
source (assumed to be 160μA in the formula). The discharge
duration is determined by RTD and CT.
4
T C ≈ 1.25 ×10 • C T
s
(EQ. 2)
1
T D ≈ ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- • R TD • C T
CTDisch arg eCurrentGain
1
T OSC = T C + T D = ---------------F OSC
s
s
(EQ. 3)
(EQ. 4)
where TC and TD are the approximate charge and discharge
times, respectively, TOSC is the oscillator free running
period, and FOSC is the oscillator frequency. One output
switching cycle requires two oscillator cycles. The actual
times will be slightly longer than calculated due to internal
propagation delays of approximately 5ns/transition. This
delay adds directly to the switching duration, and also
causes overshoot of the timing capacitor peak and valley
voltage thresholds, effectively increasing the peak-to-peak
voltage on the timing capacitor. Additionally, if very low
charge and discharge currents are used, there will be an
increased error due to the input impedance at the CT pin.
The above formulae help with the estimation of the
frequency. Practically, effects like stray capacitances that
affect the overall CT capacitance, variation in RTD voltage
and charge current over temperature, etc. exist, and are best
evaluated in-circuit. Equation 2 follows from the basic
dV
capacitor current equation, i = C × . In this case, with
dt
variation in dV with RTD (Figure 5), and in charge current
(Figure 4), results from Equation 2 would differ from the
calculated frequency. The typical performance curves may
be used as a tool along with the above equations as a more
accurate tool to estimate the operating frequency more
accurately.
The maximum duty cycle, D, and deadtime, DT, can be
calculated from:
D = T C ⁄ T OSC
DT = ( 1 – D ) ⋅ T OSC
(EQ. 5)
s
(EQ. 6)
FN9147.8
September 22, 2005
ISL6744
Soft-Start Operation
Typical Application
The ISL6744 features a soft-start using an external capacitor
in conjunction with an internal current source. Soft-start
reduces stresses and surge currents during start-up.
The Typical Application Schematic features the ISL6744 in
an unregulated half-bridge DC/DC converter configuration,
often referred to as a DC Transformer or Bus Converter.
The oscillator capacitor signal, CT, is compared to the
soft-start voltage, SS, in the SS comparator which drives the
PWM latch. While the SS voltage is less than 3.5V, duty
cycle is limited. The output pulse width increases as the
soft-start capacitor voltage increases up to 3.5V. This has
the effect of increasing the duty cycle from zero to the
maximum pulse width during the soft-start period. When the
soft-start voltage exceeds 3.5V, soft-start is completed.
Soft-start occurs during start-up and after recovery from an
overcurrent shutdown. The soft-start voltage is clamped
to 4V.
The input voltage is 48V ±10% DC. The output is a nominal
12V when the input voltage is at 48V. Since this is an
unregulated topology, the output voltage will vary
proportionately with input voltage. The load regulation is a
function of resistance between the source and the converter
output. The output is rated at 8A.
Gate Drive
Circuit Elements
The converter design is comprised of the following functional
blocks:
Input Filtering: L1, C1, R1
Half-Bridge Capacitors: C2, C3
The ISL6744 is capable of sourcing and sinking 1A peak
current, and may also be used in conjunction with a
MOSFET driver such as the ISL6700 for level shifting. To
limit the peak current through the IC, an external resistor
may be placed between the totem-pole output of the IC
(OUTA or OUTB pin) and the gate of the MOSFET. This
small series resistor also damps any oscillations caused by
the resonant tank of the parasitic inductances in the traces of
the board and the FET’s input capacitance.
Overcurrent Operation
Isolation Transformer: T1
Primary Snubber: C13, R10
Start Bias Regulator: CR3, R2, R7, C6, Q5, D1
Supply Bypass Components: C15, C4
Main MOSFET Power Switch: QH, QL
Current Sense Network: T2, CR1, CR2, R5, R6, R11, C10,
C14
Overcurrent delayed shutdown is enabled once the soft-start
cycle is complete. If an overcurrent condition is detected, the
soft-start charging current source is disabled and the softstart capacitor is allowed to discharge through a 15µA
source. At the same time a 50µs retriggerable one-shot timer
is activated. It remains active for 50µs after the overcurrent
condition ceases. If the soft-start capacitor discharges to
3.9V, the output is disabled. This state continues until the
soft-start voltage reaches 270mV, at which time a new softstart cycle is initiated. If the overcurrent condition stops at
least 50µs prior to the soft-start voltage reaching 3.9V, the
soft-start charging currents revert to normal operation and
the soft-start voltage is allowed to recover.
Control Circuit: U1, C18, C16, D2
Thermal Protection
Switching Frequency, Fsw: 235kHz
Output Rectification and Filtering: QR1, QR2, QR3, QR4,
L2, C9, C8
Secondary Snubber: R8, R9, C11, C12
FET Driver: U4
Bootstrap components for driver: CR4, C5
ZVS Resonant Delay (Optional): L3, C7
Design Specifications
The following design requirements were selected for
evaluation purposes:
An internal temperature sensor protects the device should
the junction temperature exceed 145°C. There is
approximately 15°C of hysteresis.
VOUT: 12V (nominal)
Ground Plane Requirements
IOUT: 8A (steady state)
Careful layout is essential for satisfactory operation of the
device. A good ground plane must be employed. VDD should
be bypassed directly to GND with good high frequency
capacitance.
POUT: 100W
8
VIN: 48 ± 10% V
Efficiency: 95%
Ripple: 1%
FN9147.8
September 22, 2005
ISL6744
nSR
Since the converter is operating open loop at nearly 100%
duty cycle, the turns ratio, N, is simply the ratio of the input
voltage to the output voltage divided by 2.
nS
nP
nS
nSR
FIGURE 6. TRANSFORMER SCHEMATIC
Transformer Design
The design of a transformer for a half-bridge application is a
straightforward affair, although iterative. It is a process of
many compromises, and even experienced designers will
produce different designs when presented with identical
requirements. The iterative design process is not presented
here for clarity.
The abbreviated design process follows:
• Select a core geometry suitable for the application.
Constraints of height, footprint, mounting preference, and
operating environment will affect the choice.
• Determine the turns ratio.
• Select suitable core material(s).
• Select maximum flux density desired for operation.
• Select core size. Core size will be dictated by the
capability of the core structure to store the required
energy, the number of turns that have to be wound, and
the wire gauge needed. Often the window area (the space
used for the windings) and power loss determine the final
core size.
• Determine maximum desired flux density. Depending on
the frequency of operation, the core material selected, and
the operating environment, the allowed flux density must
be determined. The decision of what flux density to allow
is often difficult to determine initially. Usually the highest
flux density that produces an acceptable design is used,
but often the winding geometry dictates a larger core than
is indicated based on flux density alone.
• Determine the number of primary turns.
• Select the wire gauge for each winding.
• Determine winding order and insulation requirements.
• Verify the design.
For this application we have selected a planar structure to
achieve a low profile design. A PQ style core was selected
because of its round center leg cross section, but there are
many suitable core styles available.
V IN
48
N = ------------------------- = --------------- = 2
V OUT • 2
12 • 2
(EQ. 7)
The factor of 2 in the denominator is due to the half-bridge
topology. Only half of the input voltage is applied to the
primary of the transformer.
A PC44HPQ20/6 “E-Core” plus a PC44PQ20/3 “I-Core” from
TDK were selected for the transformer core. The ferrite
material is PC44.
The core parameter of concern for flux density is the
effective core cross-sectional area, Ae. For the PQ core
pieces selected:
Ae = 0.62cm2 or 6.2e -5m2
Using Faraday’s Law, V = N dΦ/dt, the number of primary
turns can be determined once the maximum flux density is
set. An acceptable Bmax is ultimately determined by the
allowable power dissipation in the ferrite material and is
influenced by the lossiness of the core, core geometry,
operating ambient temperature, and air flow. The TDK
datasheet for PC44 material indicates a core loss factor of
~400mW/cm3 with a ± 2000 gauss 100kHz sinusoidal
excitation. The application uses a 235kHz square wave
excitation, so no direct comparison between the application
and the data can be made. Interpolation of the data is
required. The core volume is approximately 1.6cm3, so the
estimated core loss is
f act
3
mW
200kHz
P loss ≈ ----------- • cm • --------------- = 0.4 • 1.6 • --------------------- = 1.28
3
f meas
100kHz
cm
W
(EQ. 8)
1.28W of dissipation is significant for a core of this size.
Reducing the flux density to 1200 gauss will reduce the
dissipation by about the same percentage, or 40%.
Ultimately, evaluation of the transformer’s performance in
the application will determine what is acceptable.
From Faraday’s Law and using 1200 gauss peak flux density
(ΔB = 2400 gauss or 0.24 tesla)
–6
V IN • T ON
53 • 2 • 10
N = ------------------------------ = ----------------------------------------------------- = 3.56
–5
2 • A e • ΔB
2 • 6.2 • 10 • 0.24
turns
(EQ. 9)
Rounding up yields 4 turns for the primary winding. The peak
flux density using 4 turns is ~1100 gauss. From EQ. 7, the
number of secondary turns is 2.
The volts/turn for this design ranges from 5.4V at VIN = 43V
to 6.6V at VIN = 53V. Therefore, the synchronous rectifier
(SR) windings may be set at 1 turn each with proper FET
selection. Selecting 2 turns for the synchronous rectifier
9
FN9147.8
September 22, 2005
ISL6744
windings would also be acceptable, but the gate drive losses
would increase.
The next step is to determine the equivalent wire gauge for
the planar structure. Since each secondary winding
conducts for only 50% of the period, the RMS current is
I RMS = I OUT • D = 10 • 0.5 = 7.07
A
(EQ. 10)
where D is the duty cycle. Since an FR-4 PWB planar
winding structure was selected, the width of the copper
traces is limited by the window area width, and the number
of layers is limited by the window area height. The PQ core
selected has a usable window area width of 0.165 inches.
Allowing one turn per layer and 0.020 inches clearance at
the edges allows a maximum trace width of 0.125 inches.
Using 100 circular mils(c.m.)/A as a guideline for current
density, and from EQ. 10, 707c.m. are required for each of
the secondary windings (a circular mil is the area of a circle
0.001 inches in diameter). Converting c.m. to square mils
yields 555mils2 (0.785 sq. mils/c.m.). Dividing by the trace
width results in a copper thickness of 4.44mils (0.112mm).
Using 1.3mils/oz. of copper requires a copper weight of
3.4oz. For reasons of cost, 3oz. copper was selected.
The primary windings have an RMS current of approximately
5 A (IOUT x NS/NP at ~ 100% duty cycle). The primary is
configured as 2 layers, 2 turns per layer to minimize the
winding stack height. Allowing 0.020 inches edge clearance
and 0.010 inches between turns yields a trace width of
0.0575 inches. Ignoring the terminal and lead-in resistance,
and using EQ. 11, the inner trace has a resistance of
4.25mΩ, and the outer trace has a resistance of 5.52mΩ.
The resistance of the primary then is 19.5mΩ at 20°C. The
total DC power loss for the primary at 20°C is 489mW.
Improved efficiency and thermal performance could be
achieved by selecting heavier copper weight for the
windings. Evaluation in the application will determine its
need.
The order and geometry of the windings affects the AC
resistance, winding capacitance, and leakage inductance of
the finished transformer. To mitigate these effects,
interleaving the windings is necessary. The primary winding
is sandwiched between the two secondary windings. The
winding layout appears below.
One layer of each secondary winding also contains the
synchronous rectifier winding. For this layer the secondary
trace width is reduced by 0.025 inches to 0.100 inches(0.015
inches for the SR winding trace width and 0.010 inches
spacing between the SR winding and the secondary
winding).
The choice of copper weight may be validated by calculating
the DC copper losses of the secondary winding. Ignoring the
terminal and lead-in resistance, the resistance of each layer
of the secondary may be approximated using EQ. 11.
2πρ
R = -----------------------⎛ r 2⎞
t • ln ⎜ -----⎟
⎝ r 1⎠
Ω
FIGURE 7A. TOP LAYER: 1 TURN SECONDARY AND SR
WINDINGS
(EQ. 11)
where
R = Winding resistance
ρ = Resistivity of copper = 669e-9Ω-inches at 20°C
t = Thickness of the copper (3 oz.) = 3.9e-3 inches
r2 = Outside radius of the copper trace = 0.324 or 0.299
inches
r1 = Inside radius of the copper trace = 0.199 inches
The winding without the SR winding on the same layer has a
DC resistance of 2.21mΩ. The winding that shares the layer
with the SR winding has a DC resistance of 2.65mΩ. With
the secondary configured as a 4 turn center tapped winding
(2 turns each side of the tap), the total DC power loss for the
secondary at 20°C is 486mW.
10
FIGURE 7B. INT. LAYER 1: 1 TURN SECONDARY WINDING
FN9147.8
September 22, 2005
ISL6744
∅0.689
∅0.358
0.807
0.639
0.403
0.169
0.000
FIGURE 7C. INT. LAYER 2: 2 TURNS PRIMARY WINDING
0.000 0.184
0.479
0.774
1.054
FIGURE 7G. PWB DIMENSIONS
MOSFET Selection
The criteria for selection of the primary side half-bridge FETs
and the secondary side synchronous rectifier FETs is largely
based on the current and voltage rating of the device.
However, the FET drain-source capacitance and gate
charge cannot be ignored.
FIGURE 7D. INT. LAYER 3: 2 TURNS PRIMARY WINDING
FIGURE 7E. INT. LAYER 4: 1 TURN SECONDARY WINDING
The zero voltage switch (ZVS) transition timing is dependent
on the transformer’s leakage inductance and the
capacitance at the node between the upper FET source and
the lower FET drain. The node capacitance is comprised of
the drain-source capacitance of the FETs and the
transformer parasitic capacitance. The leakage inductance
and capacitance form an LC resonant tank circuit which
determines the duration of the transition. The amount of
energy stored in the LC tank circuit determines the transition
voltage amplitude. If the leakage inductance energy is too
low, ZVS operation is not possible and near or partial ZVS
operation occurs. As the leakage energy increases, the
voltage amplitude increases until it is clamped by the FET
body diode to ground or VIN, depending on which FET
conducts. When the leakage energy exceeds the minimum
required for ZVS operation, the voltage is clamped until the
energy is transferred. This behavior increases the time
window for ZVS operation. This behavior is not without
consequences, however. The transition time and the period
of time during which the voltage is clamped reduces the
effective duty cycle.
The gate charge affects the switching speed of the FETs.
Higher gate charge translates into higher drive requirements
and/or slower switching speeds. The energy required to
drive the gates is dissipated as heat.
FIGURE 7F. BOTTOM LAYER: 1 TURN SECONDARY AND SR
WINDINGS
11
The maximum input voltage, VIN, plus transient voltage,
determines the voltage rating required. With a maximum
input voltage of 53V for this application, and if we allow a
10% adder for transients, a voltage rating of 60V or higher
will suffice.
FN9147.8
September 22, 2005
ISL6744
The RMS current through each primary side FET can be
determined from EQ. 10, substituting 5A of primary current
for IOUT (assuming 100% duty cycle). The result is 3.5A
RMS. Fairchild FDS3672 FETs, rated at 100V and 7.5A
(rDS(ON) = 22mΩ), were selected for the half-bridge
switches.
Once the estimated transition time is determined, it must be
verified directly in the application. The transformer leakage
inductance was measured at 125nH and the combined
capacitance was estimated at 2000pF. Calculations indicate
a transition period of ~25ns. Verification of the performance
yielded a value of TD closer to 45ns.
The synchronous rectifier FETs must withstand
approximately one half of the input voltage assuming no
switching transients are present. This suggests that a device
capable of withstanding at least 30V is required. Empirical
testing in the circuit revealed switching transients of 20V
were present across the device indicating a rating of at least
60V is required.
The remainder of the switching half-period is the charge
time, TC, and can be found from
The RMS current rating of 7.07A for each SR FET requires a
low rDS(ON) to minimize conduction losses, which is difficult to
find in a 60V device. It was decided to use two devices in
parallel to simplify the thermal design. Two Fairchild FDS5670
devices are used in parallel for a total of four SR FETs. The
FDS5670 is rated at 60V and 10A (rDS(ON) = 14mΩ).
Using Figure 3, the capacitor value appropriate to the
desired oscillator operating frequency of 470kHz can be
selected. A CT value of 100pF, 150pF, or 220pF is
appropriate for this frequency. A value of 150pF was
selected.
Oscillator Component Selection
The desired operating frequency of 235kHz for the converter
was established in the Design Criteria section. The
oscillator frequency operates at twice the frequency of the
converter because two clock cycles are required for a
complete converter period.
During each oscillator cycle the timing capacitor, CT, must be
charged and discharged. Determining the required
discharge time to achieve zero voltage switching (ZVS) is
the critical design goal in selecting the timing components.
The discharge time sets the deadtime between the two
outputs, and is the same as ZVS transition time. Once the
discharge time is determined, the remainder of the period
becomes the charge time.
The ZVS transition duration is determined by the
transformer’s primary leakage inductance, Llk, by the FET
Coss, by the transformer’s parasitic winding capacitance,
and by any other parasitic elements on the node. The
parameters may be determined by measurement,
calculation, estimate, or by some combination of these
methods.
π L lk • ( 2C oss + C xfrmr )
t zvs ≈ -------------------------------------------------------------------2
s
(EQ. 12)
Device output capacitance, Coss, is non-linear with applied
voltage. To find the equivalent discrete capacitance, Cfet, a
charge model is used. Using a known current source, the
time required to charge the MOSFET drain to the desired
operating voltage is determined and the equivalent
capacitance is calculated.
Ichg • t
Cfet = -------------------V
(EQ. 13)
F
12
–9
1
1
= 2.08
T C = -------------------- – T D = ---------------------------------- – 45 • 10
3
2 • F Sw
2 • 235 • 10
μs
(EQ. 14)
where FSw is the converter switching frequency.
To obtain the proper value for RTD, EQ. 3 is used. Since
there is a 10ns propagation delay in the oscillator circuit, it
must be included in the calculation. The value of RTD
selected is 10kΩ.
Output Filter Design
The output filter inductor and capacitor selection is simple
and straightforward. Under steady state operating conditions
the voltage across the inductor is very small due to the large
duty cycle. Voltage is applied across the inductor only during
the switch transition time, about 45ns in this application.
Ignoring the voltage drop across the SR FETs, the voltage
across the inductor during the on time with VIN = 48V is
V IN • N S • ( 1 – D )
V L = V S – V OUT = ------------------------------------------------ ≈ 250
2N P
mV
(EQ. 15)
where
VL is the inductor voltage
VS is the voltage across the secondary winding
VOUT is the output voltage
If we allow a current ramp, ΔI, of 5% of the rated output
current, the minimum inductance required is
V L • T ON
0.25 • 2.08
L ≥ ------------------------- = ----------------------------- = 1.04
ΔI
0.5
μH
(EQ. 16)
An inductor value of 1.5μH, rated for 18A was selected.
With a maximum input voltage of 53V, the maximum output
voltage is about 13V. The closest higher voltage rated
capacitor is 16V. Under steady state operating conditions the
ripple current in the capacitor is small, so it would seem
appropriate to have a low ripple current rated capacitor.
However, a high rated ripple current capacitor was selected
FN9147.8
September 22, 2005
ISL6744
based on the nature of the intended load, multiple buck
regulators. To minimize the output impedance of the filter, a
SANYO OSCON 16SH150M capacitor in parallel with a
22μF ceramic capacitor were selected.
Current Limit Threshold
The current limit threshold is fixed at 0.6V nominal, which is
the reference to the overcurrent protection comparator. The
current level that corresponds to the overcurrent threshold
must be chosen to allow for the dynamic behavior of an open
loop converter. In particular, the low inductor ripple current
under steady state operation increases significantly as the
duty cycle decreases.
reduction of the average current through the inductor. The
implication is that the converter can not supply the same
output current in current limit that it can supply under steady
state conditions. The peak current limit setpoint must take
this behavior into consideration. A 5.11Ω current sense
resistor was selected for the rectified secondary of current
transformer T2 for the ISL6744Eval 1, corresponding to a
peak current limit setpoint of about 11A.
Performance
The major performance criteria for the converter are
efficiency, and to a lesser extent, load regulation. Efficiency,
load regulation and line regulation performance are
demonstrated in the following Figures.
As expected, the output voltage varies considerably with line
and load when compared to an equivalent converter with a
closed loop feedback. However, for applications where tight
regulation is not required, such as those applications that
use downstream DC/DC converters, this design approach is
viable.
14
13
12
11
100
10
9
8
0.9950
0.9960
0.9970
0.9980
0.9990
1.000
TIME (ms)
V (L1:1)
I (L1)
EFFICIENCY (%)
95
FIGURE 8. STEADY STATE SECONDARY WINDING
VOLTAGE AND INDUCTOR CURRENT
90
85
85
75
70
15
1
0
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
LOAD CURRENT (A)
FIGURE 10. EFFICIENCY vs LOAD VIN = 48V
10
12.5
5
0.986
0.988
0.990
0.992
0.994
0.996
0.998
1.000
TIME (ms)
V (L1:1)
I (L1)
FIGURE 9. SECONDARY WINDING VOLTAGE AND
INDUCTOR CURRENT DURING CURRENT LIMIT
OPERATION
Figures 8 and 9 show the behavior of the inductor ripple
under steady state and overcurrent conditions. In this
example, the peak current limit is set at 11A. The peak
current limit causes the duty cycle to decrease resulting in a
13
OUTPUT VOLTAGE (V)
12.25
12
11.75
11.5
11.25
11
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
LOAD CURRENT (A)
FIGURE 11. LOAD REGULATION AT VIN = 48V
FN9147.8
September 22, 2005
ISL6744
13.5
OUTPUT VOLTAGE (V)
13
12.5
12
11.5
11
10.5
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
INPUT VOLTAGE (V)
FIGURE 12. LINE REGULATION AT IOUT = 1A
FIGURE 14. FET DRAIN-SOURCE VOLTAGE
Waveforms
Typical waveforms can be found in the following Figures.
Figure 13 shows the output voltage ripple and noise at a 5A.
FIGURE 15. FET D-S VOLTAGE NEAR-ZVS TRANSITION
FIGURE 13. OUTPUT RIPPLE AND NOISE - 20MHz BW
Figures 14 and 15 show the voltage waveforms at the
switching node shared by the upper FET source and the
lower FET drain. In particular, Figure 15 shows near ZVS
operation at 5A of load when the upper FET is turning off
and the lower FET is turning on. ZVS operation occurs
completely, implying that all the energy stored in the node
capacitance has been recovered. Figure 16 shows the
switching transition between outputs, OUTA and OUTB
during steady state operation. The deadtime duration of
46.9ns is clearly shown.
A 2.7V zener is added between the Vdd pins of ISL6700 and
ISL6744, in order to ensure that the PWM turns on only after
the driver has turned on, thereby ensuring the soft-start
function. Figure 17 shows the soft-start operation.
FIGURE 16. OUTA - OUTB TRANSITION
14
FN9147.8
September 22, 2005
ISL6744
FIGURE 17. OUTPUT SOFT-START
Component List
REFERENCE
DESIGNATOR
VALUE
C1
1.0µF
Capacitor, 1812, X7R, 100V, 20%
C2, C3
3.3µF
Capacitor, 1812, X5R, 50V, 20%
C4
1.0µF
Capacitor, 0805, X5R, 16V, 10%
C5
0.1µF
Capacitor, 0603, X7R, 16V, 10%
C6, C15
4.7µF
Capacitor, 0805, X5R, 10V, 20%
C7
Open
Capacitor, 0603, Open or Optional Discrete Stray Capacitance
C8
22µF
Capacitor, 1812, X5R, 16V, 20%
C9
150µF
Capacitor, Radial, Sanyo 16SH150M
C10, C11, C12,
C13, C14
1000pF
Capacitor, 0603, X7R, 50V, 10%
C16
150pF
Capacitor, 0603, COG, 16V, 5%
C18
0.01µF
Capacitor, 0603, X7R, 16V, 10%
CR1, CR2
DESCRIPTION
Diode, Schottky, BAT54S, 30V
CR3
Diode, Schottky, BAT54, 30V
CR4
Diode, Schottky, SMA, 100V, 2.1A
D1
Zener, 10V,Zetex BZX84C10ZXCT-ND
D2
Zener, 2.7V, BZX84C2V7
L1
190nH
Pulse, P2004T
L2
1.5µH
Bitech, HM73-301R5
L3
Short
Jumper or Optional Discrete Leakage Inductance
P1, P2, P3, P4
Q5
Keystone, 1514-2
NPN
QL, QH
Transistor, ON MJD31C
FET, Fairchild FDS3672, 100V
15
FN9147.8
September 22, 2005
ISL6744
Component List
REFERENCE
DESIGNATOR
(Continued)
VALUE
QR1, QR2, QR3,
QR4
DESCRIPTION
FET, Fairchild FDS5670, 60V
R1
3.3
Resistor, 2512, 1%
R2
3.01K
Resistor, 2512, 1%
R5
5.11
Resistor, 0603, 1%
R6
205
Resistor, 0603, 1%
R7
75.0K
Resistor, 0805, 1%
R8, R9
20.0
Resistor, 0805, 1%
R10
18
Resistor, 2512, 1%
R11
100
Resistor, 0603, 1%
R12
10.0K
Resistor, 0603, 1%
T1
Custom
Midcom 31718
T2
Custom
Midcom 31719R
TP1, TP2, TP4,
TP5, TP6
5002
SP1
Keystone
Tektronix Scope Jack, 131-4353-00
U1
Intersil ISL6744AU, MSOP8
U4
Intersil ISL6700IB, SOIC
16
FN9147.8
September 22, 2005
ISL6744
Mini Small Outline Plastic Packages (MSOP)
N
M8.118 (JEDEC MO-187AA)
8 LEAD MINI SMALL OUTLINE PLASTIC PACKAGE
E1
INCHES
E
-B-
INDEX
AREA
1 2
0.20 (0.008)
A B C
TOP VIEW
4X θ
0.25
(0.010)
R1
R
GAUGE
PLANE
A
SEATING
PLANE -C-
A2
A1
b
-He
D
0.10 (0.004)
4X θ
L1
SEATING
PLANE
C
0.20 (0.008)
C
a
CL
E1
C D
MAX
MIN
MAX
NOTES
0.037
0.043
0.94
1.10
-
A1
0.002
0.006
0.05
0.15
-
A2
0.030
0.037
0.75
0.95
-
b
0.010
0.014
0.25
0.36
9
c
0.004
0.008
0.09
0.20
-
D
0.116
0.120
2.95
3.05
3
E1
0.116
0.120
2.95
3.05
4
0.026 BSC
-B-
0.65 BSC
-
E
0.187
0.199
4.75
5.05
-
L
0.016
0.028
0.40
0.70
6
0.037 REF
N
C
0.20 (0.008)
MIN
A
L1
-A-
SIDE VIEW
SYMBOL
e
L
MILLIMETERS
0.95 REF
8
R
0.003
R1
0
α
-
8
-
0.07
0.003
-
5o
15o
0o
6o
7
-
-
0.07
-
-
5o
15o
-
0o
6o
Rev. 2 01/03
END VIEW
NOTES:
1. These package dimensions are within allowable dimensions of
JEDEC MO-187BA.
2. Dimensioning and tolerancing per ANSI Y14.5M-1994.
3. Dimension “D” does not include mold flash, protrusions or gate
burrs and are measured at Datum Plane. Mold flash, protrusion
and gate burrs shall not exceed 0.15mm (0.006 inch) per side.
4. Dimension “E1” does not include interlead flash or protrusions
and are measured at Datum Plane. - H - Interlead flash and
protrusions shall not exceed 0.15mm (0.006 inch) per side.
5. Formed leads shall be planar with respect to one another within
0.10mm (0.004) at seating Plane.
6. “L” is the length of terminal for soldering to a substrate.
7. “N” is the number of terminal positions.
8. Terminal numbers are shown for reference only.
9. Dimension “b” does not include dambar protrusion. Allowable
dambar protrusion shall be 0.08mm (0.003 inch) total in excess
of “b” dimension at maximum material condition. Minimum space
between protrusion and adjacent lead is 0.07mm (0.0027 inch).
10. Datums -A -H- .
and - B - to be determined at Datum plane
11. Controlling dimension: MILLIMETER. Converted inch dimensions are for reference only.
17
FN9147.8
September 22, 2005
ISL6744
Small Outline Plastic Packages (SOIC)
M8.15 (JEDEC MS-012-AA ISSUE C)
N
8 LEAD NARROW BODY SMALL OUTLINE PLASTIC PACKAGE
INDEX
AREA
H
0.25(0.010) M
B M
INCHES
E
SYMBOL
-B-
1
2
3
L
SEATING PLANE
-A-
A
D
h x 45°
-C-
e
A1
B
0.25(0.010) M
C
0.10(0.004)
C A M
MIN
MAX
MIN
MAX
NOTES
A
0.0532
0.0688
1.35
1.75
-
A1
0.0040
0.0098
0.10
0.25
-
B
0.013
0.020
0.33
0.51
9
C
0.0075
0.0098
0.19
0.25
-
D
0.1890
0.1968
4.80
5.00
3
E
0.1497
0.1574
3.80
4.00
4
e
α
B S
0.050 BSC
1.27 BSC
-
H
0.2284
0.2440
5.80
6.20
-
h
0.0099
0.0196
0.25
0.50
5
L
0.016
0.050
0.40
1.27
6
N
α
NOTES:
MILLIMETERS
8
0°
8
8°
0°
7
8°
1. Symbols are defined in the “MO Series Symbol List” in Section 2.2 of
Publication Number 95.
Rev. 1 6/05
2. Dimensioning and tolerancing per ANSI Y14.5M-1982.
3. Dimension “D” does not include mold flash, protrusions or gate burrs.
Mold flash, protrusion and gate burrs shall not exceed 0.15mm (0.006
inch) per side.
4. Dimension “E” does not include interlead flash or protrusions. Interlead flash and protrusions shall not exceed 0.25mm (0.010 inch) per
side.
5. The chamfer on the body is optional. If it is not present, a visual index
feature must be located within the crosshatched area.
6. “L” is the length of terminal for soldering to a substrate.
7. “N” is the number of terminal positions.
8. Terminal numbers are shown for reference only.
9. The lead width “B”, as measured 0.36mm (0.014 inch) or greater
above the seating plane, shall not exceed a maximum value of
0.61mm (0.024 inch).
10. Controlling dimension: MILLIMETER. Converted inch dimensions
are not necessarily exact.
All Intersil U.S. products are manufactured, assembled and tested utilizing ISO9000 quality systems.
Intersil Corporation’s quality certifications can be viewed at www.intersil.com/design/quality
Intersil products are sold by description only. Intersil Corporation reserves the right to make changes in circuit design, software and/or specifications at any time without
notice. Accordingly, the reader is cautioned to verify that data sheets are current before placing orders. Information furnished by Intersil is believed to be accurate and
reliable. However, no responsibility is assumed by Intersil or its subsidiaries for its use; nor for any infringements of patents or other rights of third parties which may result
from its use. No license is granted by implication or otherwise under any patent or patent rights of Intersil or its subsidiaries.
For information regarding Intersil Corporation and its products, see www.intersil.com
18
FN9147.8
September 22, 2005
Similar pages