dm00041647

AN4007
Application note
EVLVIP37LE5V3A: 15 W (5 V - 3 A) wide range single-output
demonstration board
By Fabio Cacciotto
Introduction
In several applications, such as LCD or plasma TVs, desktop computers, etc., the power
supply that converts the energy from the main, often includes two modules: the main power
supply that provides most of the power and is OFF when the application is OFF or in
standby mode, and the auxiliary power supply that provides energy only to some specific
parts of the equipment such as USB ports, remote receivers, or modems but is still ON
when the application is in standby mode.
It is often required that, in standby condition, the equipment input power is as low as
possible which means the input power of the auxiliary power supply in no load or light load
condition is reduced as low as possible.
This application note introduces a new offline high voltage converter from the VIPerPlus
family, the VIPER37LE and the presented demonstration board meets the specifications of a
wide range of auxiliary power supplies for said applications. Furthermore, it is optimized for
very low standby consumption, therefore helping to meet the most stringent energy saving
requirements.
Figure 1.
December 2012
Demonstration board image: power supply board
Doc ID 022455 Rev 2
1/33
www.st.com
Contents
AN4007
Contents
1
2
Test board: design and evaluation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
1.1
Output voltage characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
1.2
Efficiency and light load measurements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
1.3
No-load consumption . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
1.4
Light load consumption . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
1.5
Typical board waveforms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
1.6
Dynamic step load regulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
1.7
Soft-start . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Protection features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
2.1
Overload and short-circuit protection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
2.2
Overvoltage protection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
2.3
Secondary winding short-circuit and transformer saturation protection . . 23
2.4
Brownout protection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
3
Conducted noise measurements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
4
Thermal measurements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
5
Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
6
Demonstration tools and documentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
7
Revision history . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
2/33
Doc ID 022455 Rev 2
AN4007
List of figures
List of figures
Figure 1.
Figure 2.
Figure 3.
Figure 4.
Figure 5.
Figure 6.
Figure 7.
Figure 8.
Figure 9.
Figure 10.
Figure 11.
Figure 12.
Figure 13.
Figure 14.
Figure 15.
Figure 16.
Figure 17.
Figure 18.
Figure 19.
Figure 20.
Figure 21.
Figure 22.
Figure 23.
Figure 24.
Figure 25.
Figure 26.
Figure 27.
Figure 28.
Figure 29.
Figure 30.
Figure 31.
Figure 32.
Figure 33.
Figure 34.
Figure 35.
Demonstration board image: power supply board . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
Electrical schematic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Dimensional drawing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
Line and load regulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Efficiency vs. output power . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
No load consumption vs. input voltage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Light load consumption at different output power without brownout . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Light load consumption at different output power with brownout . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Drain current and voltage at full load 85 VAC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Drain current and voltage at full load 115 VAC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Drain current and voltage at full load 230 VAC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Drain current and voltage at full load 264 VAC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Output voltage ripple at full load and 230 VAC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
Output voltage ripple at full load and 115 VAC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Output voltage ripple during burst mode and 115 VAC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Output voltage ripple during burst mode and 230 VAC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
Dynamic step load: 0 to 50% load . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
Dynamic step load: 50 to 100% load . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
Dynamic step load: 0 to 100% load . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Soft-start feature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
Overload event: OLP triggering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
Overload event: continuous overload . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
Overvoltage event: OVP triggering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
Overvoltage event: OVP triggering (magnification) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
2nd level OCP: protection tripping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
2nd level OCP: steady-state operating conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
Brownout protection: converter’s power-down phase . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
Brownout protection: converter’s wake-up . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
Brownout protection: converter’s wake-up (magnification) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
CE average measurement at 115 VAC and full load: average measurement . . . . . . . . . . . 27
CE average measurement at 230 VAC and full load: average measurement . . . . . . . . . . . 28
CE average measurement at 115 VAC and full load: peak measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
CE average measurement at 230 VAC and full load: peak measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
Thermal map at 115 VAC and full load . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
Thermal map at 230 VAC and full load . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
Doc ID 022455 Rev 2
3/33
Test board: design and evaluation
1
AN4007
Test board: design and evaluation
Table 1 summarizes the electrical specifications of the power supply, Table 2 provides the
bom list and Table 3 lists the transformer characteristics. The electrical schematic is shown
in Figure 1 and the PCB layout in Figure 4.
Table 1.
VIPER37LE power supply: electrical specifications
Parameter
Min.
Typ.
Max.
AC main input voltage
85 VAC
265 VAC
Mains frequency (fL)
50 Hz
60 Hz
Output voltage
4.75 V
5V
5.25 V
Output current
3A
Output ripple voltage
50 mV
Rated output power
15 W
Input power in standby
30 mW
Active mode efficiency
70%
Ambient operating temperature
Table 2.
Reference
VIPER37LE demonstration board: bom list
Description
Note
R1
2.2 MΩ
1% tolerance
R2
3.9 MΩ
1% tolerance
R3
2 MΩ
1% tolerance
R4
150 kΩ
1% tolerance
R5
3.3 Ω
R6
330 Ω
R7
220 Ω
R8
12 kΩ
R9
120 kΩ
R10
10 kΩ
R11
33 kΩ
1% tolerance
R12
33 kΩ
1% tolerance
R13
47 kΩ
R14
39 kΩ
C1
220 pF - 630 V film capacitor
C2
33 µF - 400 V electrolytic
C3, C4
4/33
60 °C
Part
ZLK series
1200 µF - 16 V electrolytic
Doc ID 022455 Rev 2
1% tolerance
1% tolerance
Rubycon
AN4007
Test board: design and evaluation
Table 2.
Reference
VIPER37LE demonstration board: bom list (continued)
Part
Description
Note
C5
ZLH series
100 µF - 16 V electrolytic
Rubycon
C6
B81133C1223M
22 nF - X2
EPCOS
C7
2.2 nF Y-CAP
C9, C10
10 nF ceramic – 25 V
C11
33 nF ceramic – 25 V
C12
22 µF - 35 V electrolytic
C13
2.2 nF ceramic – 25 V
C14
22 nF ceramic – 25 V
D1
1.5KE220A
Transil™
ST
D2
STPS30L40CT
Power Schottky diode
ST
D3
STTH1L06A
Ultra-fast high voltage diode
ST
D5
BAT46RL
Signal Schottky diode
ST
1N4148
Signal diode
NXP
D6
BZX79-C18
18 V Zener diode
NXP
L1
ELC09D2R2F
2.2 H power inductor
Panasonic
CM
BU16-2530R7BL
CM choke
Coilcraft
BR
DF08M-E3
Bridge diode
Vishay
IC1
VIPER37LE
Primary switching regulator
ST
OPT
KB817A
Optoisolator
Kingbright
1715.0038
Flyback transformer
Magnetica
1.6 A fuse
Wickmann
NTC inrush current limiter
EPCOS
D4, D7
TF
Fs
NTC
Note:
B57236S0160M
If not otherwise specified, all resistors are ±5%, ¼ W.
Doc ID 022455 Rev 2
5/33
C6
22nF – X2
6/33
3
4
2
1
Doc ID 022455 Rev 2
AC IN
+
AC IN
NTC
10
D6
18V
R7
220
JMP
R3
2M
R1
2.2M
R11
33k
C14
22nF
C10
10nF
C12
22uF
D7
1N4148
C2
33uF
R12
39k
R4
150k
CONT
BR
D4
1N4148
C1
220pF.
R13
47k
C11
33nF
FB
C13
2.2nF
OPTO
KB817A
GND
DRAIN
U1
VIPER37LE
R5
3.3
CONTROL
VDD
R2
3.9M
D5
BAT46RL
D3
STTH1L06
D1
1.5KE220
C7
2.2nF
OPTO3
KB817A
C3
1200uF
VR1
TS431
R6
330
D2
STPS30L40CT
R10
100k
C9
10nF
R8
12k
C4
1200uF
L1
2.2uH
R14
39k
R9
120k
GND
C5
100uF
5V
Figure 2.
F1
1.5 A FUSE
CM
2X25mH
-
BR
TF
Test board: design and evaluation
AN4007
Electrical schematic
AM11341v1
AN4007
Test board: design and evaluation
Table 3.
VIPER37LE power supply: transformer characteristics
Manufacturer Magnetica
Part number
1715.0038
Primary inductance
1.3 mH
Leakage inductance
3% nom
Primary to secondary turn ratio
16.2 ± 5%
Primary to auxiliary turn ratio
5.90 ± 5%
Insulation primary-secondary
AC 4 kV (1 s – 2 mA)
Figure 3.
1.1
Values
Dimensional drawing
Output voltage characteristics
The output voltage of the board is measured in different line and load conditions. Figure 4
shows the results: the output voltage variation range is a few tens of mV for all the tested
conditions.
All output voltages have been measured on the output connector of the board.
Doc ID 022455 Rev 2
7/33
Test board: design and evaluation
Figure 4.
AN4007
Line and load regulation
5.15
115Vac
230Vac
Output voltage [V]
5.10
5.05
5.00
4.95
0.0
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
2.5
3.0
3.5
Output current [mA]
AM11343v1
1.2
Efficiency and light load measurements
Any external power supply (EPS) must be capable to meet the international regulation
agency limits. The european code of conduct (EC CoC) and US department of energy (DoEUS EISA 2007) limits are taken as reference. EPS limits are fixed up to 76.4%, when the
average efficiency is measured. The average efficiency measures the average value at
25%, 50%, 75% and 100% of the rated output power, at both 115 Vac and 230 Vac. Table 4
and Table 5 show the results:
Table 4.
Efficiency at 115 VAC
Load
IOUT
VOUT
POUT
PIN
Efficiency
25%
0.75
4.97
3.73
4.76
78.31%
50%
1.5
4.97
7.46
9.65
77.25%
75%
2.25
4.97
11.17
14.75
75.74%
100%
3
4.97
14.91
19.86
75.08%
Average efficiency
8/33
Doc ID 022455 Rev 2
76.59%
AN4007
Test board: design and evaluation
Table 5.
Efficiency at 230 VAC
Load
IOUT
VOUT
POUT
PIN
Efficiency
25%
0.75
4.97
3.73
4.9
76.07%
50%
1.5
4.965
7.45
9.61
77.50%
75%
2.25
4.965
11.17
14.45
77.31%
100%
3
4.95
14.85
19.3
76.94%
Average efficiency
Figure 5.
76.96%
Efficiency vs. output power
79
78
Efficiency [%]
77
76
75
115 Vac
230 Vac
average @115 Vac
averege @230 Vac
74
73
CoC & DoE limits
72
0
2
4
6
8
10
Output power [W]
1.3
12
14
16
AM11344v1
No-load consumption
The input power of the converter was measured in no load condition, with brownout
protection disabled (see relevant Section 2.4: Brownout protection) and brownout protection
enabled in the entire input voltage range.
The converter in the no load condition works always in burst mode so that the average
switching frequency is reduced. The presence of the brownout resistor divider (R16, R17
and R18, see schematic in Figure 2) does not affect the average switching frequency but
increases the input power consumption due to the power dissipated across it.
It is worth noting that often, if the converter is used as the standby power supply for LCD
TVs, PDPs or other applications, the EMI line filter often coincides with the main power
supply line filter that heavily contributes to standby consumption even if the power needed
by the auxiliary power supply is very low.
Doc ID 022455 Rev 2
9/33
Test board: design and evaluation
Figure 6.
AN4007
No load consumption vs. input voltage
65
60
No brownout
With brownout
55
Input power [mW]
50
45
40
35
30
25
20
15
10
50
100
150
200
250
Input voltage [Vac]
1.4
300
AM11347v1
Light load consumption
Even though the EC CoC and DoE-US EISA 2007 programs don’t have other requirements
regarding light load performance, except no load consumption, the user very often requires
the input power consumption when the output is loaded with a few tens of mW output power.
Such measurements were performed at different loads with brownout protection both
enabled and disabled, the results are reported below. The application meets the new EuP
Lot 6 requirements.
Figure 7.
Light load consumption at different output power without brownout
450
400
Input power [mW]
350
300
30mW
250
50mW
200
100mW
150
250mW
100
50
0
50
100
150
200
Input voltage [Vac]
10/33
Doc ID 022455 Rev 2
250
300
AM11345v1
AN4007
Test board: design and evaluation
Figure 8.
Light load consumption at different output power with brownout
450
Input power [mW]
400
350
300
30mW
250
50mW
200
100mW
150
250mW
100
50
0
50
100
150
200
Input voltage [Vac]
1.5
250
300
AM11346v1
Typical board waveforms
Drain voltage and current waveforms were reported at nominal input voltages and for the
minimum and the maximum voltage of the converter input operating range. Figure 10 and 11
show the drain current and the drain voltage waveforms at the two nominal input voltages
and full load, while Figure 9 and 12 show the same waveforms at the minimum and
maximum input voltage range respectively.
The converter is designed to operate in continuous conduction mode (in full load condition)
at low line. CCM (continuous conduction mode) allows the reduction of the root mean
square currents value, at the primary side, in the power switch inside the VIPer and in the
primary winding of the transformer; at the secondary side in the output diode (D2) and in the
output capacitors (C3 and C4). Reducing RMS currents means reducing the power
dissipation in the VIPer™ and the stress of the secondary side components.
Doc ID 022455 Rev 2
11/33
Test board: design and evaluation
Figure 9.
AN4007
Drain current and voltage at full load 85 VAC
I DS
VDS
Ch1 (Max): 356.4 V
Ch2 (Max): 734.0 mA
M: 4.0 µs/div
AM11348v1
Figure 10. Drain current and voltage at full load 115 VAC
I DS
VDS
Ch1 (Max): 417.6 V
Ch2 (Max): 792.0 mA
12/33
Doc ID 022455 Rev 2
M: 4.0 µs/div
AM11349v1
AN4007
Test board: design and evaluation
Figure 11. Drain current and voltage at full load 230 VAC
I DS
VDS
Ch1 (Max): 578.0 V
Ch2 (Max): 750.0 mA
M: 4.0 µs/div
AM11350v1
Figure 12. Drain current and voltage at full load 264 VAC
I DS
VDS
Ch1 (Max): 630.4 V
Ch2 (Max): 742.0 mA
Doc ID 022455 Rev 2
M: 4.0 µs/div
AM11351v1
13/33
Test board: design and evaluation
AN4007
The ripple at the switching frequency superimposed at the output voltage was also
measured. The board is provided with an LC filter to further reduce the ripple without
reducing the overall output capacitor’s ESR.
The voltage ripple across the output connector (VOUT) and before the LC filter (VOUT_PRE)
were measured in order to verify the effectiveness of the LC filter: Figure 13 shows the
output voltage ripple at full load when the converter input voltage is 115 VAC; while Figure 14
shows the output voltage ripple at full load when the converter input voltage is 230 VAC.
Figure 13. Output voltage ripple at full load and 230 VAC
V OUT
V OUT_PRE
Ch1 (Pk-Pk): 18.73 mV
Ch2 (Pk-Pk): 298.3 mV
14/33
Doc ID 022455 Rev 2
M: 20.0 µs/div
AM11352v1
AN4007
Test board: design and evaluation
Figure 14. Output voltage ripple at full load and 115 VAC
V OUT
V OUT_PRE
Ch1 (Pk-Pk): 22.05 mV
Ch2 (Pk-Pk): 248.2 mV
M: 20.0 µs/div
AM11353v1
Figure 15. Output voltage ripple during burst mode and 115 VAC
V OUT
V OUT_PRE
Ch1 (Pk-Pk): 19.79 mV
Ch2 (Pk-Pk): 56.45 mV
Doc ID 022455 Rev 2
M: 400.0 µs/div
AM11354v1
15/33
Test board: design and evaluation
AN4007
Figure 16. Output voltage ripple during burst mode and 230 VAC
V OUT
V OUT_PRE
Ch1 (Pk-Pk): 27.27 mV
Ch2 (Pk-Pk): 64.68 mV
1.6
M: 400.0 µs/div
AM11355v1
Dynamic step load regulation
In any power supply it is important to measure the output voltage when the converter is
submitted to dynamic load variations, in order to be sure that good stability is ensured and
no overvoltage on undervoltage occurs.
The board under evaluation was submitted to dynamic load variations from 0 to 50% loads
(Figure 17), from 50% to 100% loads (Figure 18) and from 0 to 100% loads (Figure 19).
In any tested condition, no abnormal oscillations were noticed on the output and the
over/undershoot were well within acceptable values.
16/33
Doc ID 022455 Rev 2
AN4007
Test board: design and evaluation
Figure 17. Dynamic step load: 0 to 50% load
V OUT
I
Ch1 (Max): 5.17 V
Ch1 (Min): 4.79 V
OUT
Ch2 (Max): 1.53 A
M: 20.0 ms/div
AM11356v1
Figure 18. Dynamic step load: 50 to 100% load
V OUT
I
Ch1 (Max): 5.17 V
Ch1 (Min): 4.75 V
OUT
Ch2 (Max): 3.073 A
Ch2 (Min): 1.55 A
Doc ID 022455 Rev 2
M: 20.0 ms/div
AM11357v1
17/33
Test board: design and evaluation
AN4007
Figure 19. Dynamic step load: 0 to 100% load
V OUT
I
Ch1 (Max): 5.35 V
Ch1 (Min): 4.58 V
1.7
OUT
Ch2 (Max): 3.07 A
M: 20.0 µs/div
AM11358v1
Soft-start
When the converter starts, the output capacitor is discharged and needs some time to reach
the steady-state condition. During this time the power demand from the control loop is the
maximum while the reflected voltage is low. These two conditions could lead to a deep
continuous operating mode of the converter.
When the MOSFET is switched on, it cannot be switched off immediately as the minimum
on-time (TON_MIN) must elapse. Because of the deep continuous working mode of the
converter, during this TON_MIN, an excess of drain current can overstress the component of
the converter as well as the device itself, the output diode, and the transformer. Transformer
saturation is also possible under these conditions.
To avoid all the described negative effects, the VIPER37LE implements an internal soft-start
feature. As the device starts to work, no matter what the control loop requests, the drain
current is allowed to increase from zero to the maximum value gradually.
The drain current limit is incremented in steps, and the values range from 0 to the fixed drain
current limitation value (values that can be adjusted through an external resistor) which is
divided into 16 steps. Each step length is 64 switching cycles. The total length of the softstart phase is about 8.5 ms. Figure 20 shows the soft-start phase of the presented converter
when it is operating at minimum line voltage and maximum load.
18/33
Doc ID 022455 Rev 2
AN4007
Test board: design and evaluation
Figure 20. Soft-start feature
V OUT
V FB
I
Ch1 (Max): 5.18 V
DRAIN
M: 4.0 ms/div
AM11359v1
Doc ID 022455 Rev 2
19/33
Protection features
2
AN4007
Protection features
The VIPER37LE has several protection features that considerably increase end-product
safety and reliability: overload protection, overvoltage protection, shorted secondary rectifier
detection and transformer saturation protection. In the following paragraphs all protections
are tested and the results are presented.
2.1
Overload and short-circuit protection
If the load power demand increases, the output voltage decreases and consequently the
feedback loop reacts, increasing the voltage on the FEEDBACK pin.
The FEEDBACK pin voltage increase leads to the PWM current set point increase, with the
rise of the power delivered to the output. This process ends when the delivered power
equals the load power requested.
If the load power demand exceeds the power capability (that can be adjusted using RLIM),
the voltage on the FEEDBACK pin continuously rises, but the drain current is limited to the
fixed current limitation value.
When the FEEDBACK pin voltage exceeds VFB_lin (3.3 V typ), the VIPER37LE takes it as a
warning status of an output overload condition. Before stopping the system, the device waits
for a time fixed by the FB capacitor. When the voltage on the FEEDBACK pin exceeds
VFB_lin, an internal pull-up circuit is disconnected and the pin starts sourcing a 3 A current
that charges the capacitor connected to the FEEDBACK pin itself. As the FEEDBACK pin's
voltage reaches the VFB_olp threshold (4.8 V typ.), the power MOSFET stops switching and
is not allowed to switch again until the VDD voltage falls below VDD_RESTART (4.5 V typ.).
If the short-circuit is not removed, the system starts to work in auto-restart mode: in this
case the MOSFET switches for a short period of time and the converter tries to deliver to the
output as much power as it can, and for a longer period where the device is not switching
and no power is processed.
As the duty cycle of power delivery is very low (around 4%), the average power throughput
is also very low, resulting in a very safe operation.
Figure 21 and 22 show the triggering of the overload and the operation with continuous
overload.
20/33
Doc ID 022455 Rev 2
AN4007
Protection features
Figure 21. Overload event: OLP triggering
V FB
V OUT
V DRAIN
V1: 3.24 V
V2: 4.8 V
M: 4.0 ms/div
AM11360v1
Figure 22. Overload event: continuous overload
V DD
V FB
I
DRAIN
Duty cicle: 4.17 %
M: 200.0 ms/div
AM11361v1
Doc ID 022455 Rev 2
21/33
Protection features
2.2
AN4007
Overvoltage protection
An output overvoltage protection is implemented monitoring the voltage across the auxiliary
winding during the MOSFET turn-off time, through the diode D4 and the resistor dividers R4
and R12 connected on the CONT pin of the VIPER37LE. If this voltage exceeds the VOVP
threshold (3 V typ.), an overvoltage event is assumed and the device is no longer allowed to
switch.
To re-enable operation, the VDD voltage must be recycled. In order to provide high noise
immunity and avoid that spikes erroneously trip the protection, a digital filter was
implemented so the CONT pin must sense a voltage higher than VOVP for four consecutive
cycles before stopping operation.
The protection can be tested by opening the resistor R9. In this way the converter operates
in open loop and the excess of power with respect to the load charges the output
capacitance, increasing the output voltage as the OVP is tripped and the converter stops
switching.
In Figure 23 and 24 it is possible to see that output voltage increases and as it reaches the
value of 6.5 V the converter stops switching. In the same figure the CONT pin voltage is
reported. The crest value of the CONT pin voltage tracks the output voltage.
Figure 23. Overvoltage event: OVP triggering
V CONT
V OUT
I
Ch2 (Max): 6.48 V
DRAIN
M: 400.0 µs/div
AM11362v1
22/33
Doc ID 022455 Rev 2
AN4007
Protection features
Figure 24. Overvoltage event: OVP triggering (magnification)
V CONT
V OUT
I
Ch2 (Max): 3.08 V
DRAIN
M: 20.0 µs/div
AM11363v1
2.3
Secondary winding short-circuit and transformer saturation
protection
The VIPER37LE is equipped with a hiccup mode overcurrent protection level.
If the drain current exceeds the second overcurrent threshold, the device enters a warning
state, at the next switching cycle, if the hiccup mode level is exceeded again, the device
assumes that a secondary winding short-circuit or a hard saturation of the transformer has
occurred, so the device stops operating and the MOSFET is no longer allowed to switch on.
In order to enable the MOSFET to switch on again, the VCC voltage must be recycled down
to VCCrestart and then up to VCCon. If the cause of the hiccup mode overcurrent protection
activation is not removed, the device again enters auto-restart mode. The extremely low
repetition rate ensures safe and reliable operation.
This protection was tested on the demonstration board. The secondary winding of the
transformer was shorted in different operating conditions. Figure 25 and 26 show the
behavior of the system during fault.
Doc ID 022455 Rev 2
23/33
Protection features
AN4007
Figure 25. 2nd level OCP: protection tripping
I
DRAIN
V FB
Ch2 (Max): 2.14 A
M: 40.0 µs/div
AM11364v1
Figure 26. 2nd level OCP: steady-state operating conditions
V CC
I
DS
V FB
Ch2 (Freq.): 1.39 Hz
Ch2 (Duty cycle): 1.71 %
M: 200.0 µs/div
AM11365v1
24/33
Doc ID 022455 Rev 2
AN4007
2.4
Protection features
Brownout protection
Brownout protection is basically an unlatched device shutdown functionality whose typical
use is to sense mains undervoltage or unplugged mains. The VIPER37LE has a BR pin
dedicated to this function which must be connected to the DC HV bus through a voltage
divider.
If the protection is not required, it can be disabled by connecting the pin to ground. In the
presented converter, brownout protection is implemented but can be disabled by changing
the jumper JMP.
The converter's shutdown is accomplished by means of an internal comparator internally
referenced to 450 mV that disables the PWM if the voltage applied at the BR pin is below the
internal reference.
PWM operation is re-enabled as the BR pin voltage is more than 450 mV plus 50 mV of
voltage hysteresis that ensures noise immunity. The brownout comparator is also provided
with current hysteresis. An internal 10 A current generator is ON as long as the voltage
applied at the BROWNOUT pin is below 450 mV and is OFF if the voltage exceeds 450 mV
plus the voltage hysteresis.
In Figure 27 the converter’s power-down is shown: once the main is disconnected and the
bulk capacitor is discharged, the IC stops switching when the DC bus voltage falls below
78 V. This reduces the RMS input current and ensures monotonic output voltage decay.
Figure 28 and 29 show brownout protection during the wake-up phase: once the DC bus
reaches 100 V, as the voltage on VDD pin is higher than VDDoff, the IC starts switching.
Figure 27. Brownout protection: converter’s power-down phase
V DD
V BUS
V BR
V2: 459 mV
V1: 78 V
M: 1.0 s/div
AM11366v1
Doc ID 022455 Rev 2
25/33
Protection features
AN4007
Figure 28. Brownout protection: converter’s wake-up
V BUS
V BR
V DD
Ch2 (Freq.): 1.39 Hz
Ch2 (duty cycle): 1.71 %
M: 100.0 ms/div
AM11367v1
Figure 29. Brownout protection: converter’s wake-up (magnification)
V BUS
V BR
V DD
V1: 457 mV
M: 10.0 ms/div
AM11368v1
26/33
Doc ID 022455 Rev 2
AN4007
3
Conducted noise measurements
Conducted noise measurements
A pre-compliance test for the EN55022 (Class B) European normative was also performed
on both average and peak measurements of the conducted noise emissions at full load and
nominal mains voltages. Figure 30 to 33 show the results. As seen in the diagrams, in all
test conditions there is a good margin for the measurements with respect to the limits, also
using the peak detector.
Figure 30. CE average measurement at 115 VAC and full load: average measurement
Doc ID 022455 Rev 2
27/33
Conducted noise measurements
AN4007
Figure 31. CE average measurement at 230 VAC and full load: average measurement
Figure 32. CE average measurement at 115 VAC and full load: peak measurement
28/33
Doc ID 022455 Rev 2
AN4007
Conducted noise measurements
Figure 33. CE average measurement at 230 VAC and full load: peak measurement
Doc ID 022455 Rev 2
29/33
Thermal measurements
4
AN4007
Thermal measurements
A thermal analysis of the board was performed using an IR camera.
The board was submitted to full load at nominal input voltage and the thermal map was
taken 15 min. after the power-on at ambient temperature (25 °C).
Figure 34 and 35 show the results.
Figure 34. Thermal map at 115 VAC and full load
Figure 35. Thermal map at 230 VAC and full load
30/33
Doc ID 022455 Rev 2
AN4007
Conclusions
Table 6.
5
Temperature of key components (Tamb=25 °C, emissivity=0.95 for all
points)
Point
Reference
T [°C] at 115 VAC
T [°C] at 230 VAC
A
IC (VIPER37LE)
61.2
63.4
B
D1 (Transil clamp)
82.8
81.6
C
D2 (output diode)
44.1
45.0
D
TF (flyback transformer)
67.3
70.0
E
NTC (inrush limiter)
54.1
41.6
Conclusions
A 15 W wide range single-output flyback converter using the new VIPER37LE has been
introduced and the results given.
The presented flyback converter is suitable as an external adapter or as an auxiliary power
supply in consumer equipment. Special attention was paid to low load performance and the
bench results are good with very low input power in light load condition.
The efficiency performances were compared with the requirements fixed by both EC CoC
and DoE US EISA 2007 programs for external AC/DC adapters with very good results, the
measured Active mode efficiency is always higher with respect to the minimum required.
6
Demonstration tools and documentation
The VIPER37LE demonstration board order code is: EVLVIP37LE5V3A.
Further information about this product is available in the VIPER37 datasheet at www.st.com.
Doc ID 022455 Rev 2
31/33
Revision history
7
AN4007
Revision history
Table 7.
Document revision history
Date
Revision
16-May-2012
1
Initial release.
2
Modified caption in Table 1: VIPER37LE power supply: electrical
specifications and Table 2: VIPER37LE demonstration board: bom
list.
Modified R12 value on Table 2: VIPER37LE demonstration board:
bom list.
Modified Section 1.2: Efficiency and light load measurements.
Updated Figure 5, Figure 7 and Figure 8.
Minor text changes.
12-Dec-2012
32/33
Changes
Doc ID 022455 Rev 2
AN4007
Please Read Carefully:
Information in this document is provided solely in connection with ST products. STMicroelectronics NV and its subsidiaries (“ST”) reserve the
right to make changes, corrections, modifications or improvements, to this document, and the products and services described herein at any
time, without notice.
All ST products are sold pursuant to ST’s terms and conditions of sale.
Purchasers are solely responsible for the choice, selection and use of the ST products and services described herein, and ST assumes no
liability whatsoever relating to the choice, selection or use of the ST products and services described herein.
No license, express or implied, by estoppel or otherwise, to any intellectual property rights is granted under this document. If any part of this
document refers to any third party products or services it shall not be deemed a license grant by ST for the use of such third party products
or services, or any intellectual property contained therein or considered as a warranty covering the use in any manner whatsoever of such
third party products or services or any intellectual property contained therein.
UNLESS OTHERWISE SET FORTH IN ST’S TERMS AND CONDITIONS OF SALE ST DISCLAIMS ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED
WARRANTY WITH RESPECT TO THE USE AND/OR SALE OF ST PRODUCTS INCLUDING WITHOUT LIMITATION IMPLIED
WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY, FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE (AND THEIR EQUIVALENTS UNDER THE LAWS
OF ANY JURISDICTION), OR INFRINGEMENT OF ANY PATENT, COPYRIGHT OR OTHER INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHT.
UNLESS EXPRESSLY APPROVED IN WRITING BY TWO AUTHORIZED ST REPRESENTATIVES, ST PRODUCTS ARE NOT
RECOMMENDED, AUTHORIZED OR WARRANTED FOR USE IN MILITARY, AIR CRAFT, SPACE, LIFE SAVING, OR LIFE SUSTAINING
APPLICATIONS, NOR IN PRODUCTS OR SYSTEMS WHERE FAILURE OR MALFUNCTION MAY RESULT IN PERSONAL INJURY,
DEATH, OR SEVERE PROPERTY OR ENVIRONMENTAL DAMAGE. ST PRODUCTS WHICH ARE NOT SPECIFIED AS "AUTOMOTIVE
GRADE" MAY ONLY BE USED IN AUTOMOTIVE APPLICATIONS AT USER’S OWN RISK.
Resale of ST products with provisions different from the statements and/or technical features set forth in this document shall immediately void
any warranty granted by ST for the ST product or service described herein and shall not create or extend in any manner whatsoever, any
liability of ST.
ST and the ST logo are trademarks or registered trademarks of ST in various countries.
Information in this document supersedes and replaces all information previously supplied.
The ST logo is a registered trademark of STMicroelectronics. All other names are the property of their respective owners.
© 2012 STMicroelectronics - All rights reserved
STMicroelectronics group of companies
Australia - Belgium - Brazil - Canada - China - Czech Republic - Finland - France - Germany - Hong Kong - India - Israel - Italy - Japan Malaysia - Malta - Morocco - Philippines - Singapore - Spain - Sweden - Switzerland - United Kingdom - United States of America
www.st.com
Doc ID 022455 Rev 2
33/33
Similar pages