AL1697

AL1697
High PF, Offline Dimmable LED Driver with Internal High-Voltage MOSFET
Description
Pin Assignments
NEW PRODUCT
The AL1697 is a high performance, high power factor, high efficiency
and high precision buck-boost LED driver for mains dimmable LED
lamp applications. The AL1697 topology provides an accurate output
current over wide line and load regulation. The wide switching
frequency operates at boundary conduction mode (BCM) to ease
EMI/EMC design, and testing to meet the latest regulatory standards.
(Top View)
The AL1697 with built in MOSFET solution reduces the bill of material
(BOM) cost by eliminating the need of auxiliary winding and an
external high voltage MOSFET. The AL1697 has extensive protection
features to enhance system safety and reliability. The AL1697 starts
reducing output current when the driver’s temperature is higher than
the built-in thermal foldback protection trigger point.
The AL1697 applies to a wide range of dimmers including leading
edge and trailing edge dimmer. Some can achieve deep dimming
down to 1%. The AL1697 dimming curve is compliant with the NEMA
SSL6 standard.
7
D
3
6
CS
4
5
FB
VCC
1
RT
2
COMP
GND
SO-7
Applications


Mains Dimmable LED Lamps
Offline LED Power Supply Driver
The AL1697 is available in SO-7 package, which provides an extra
pin spacing between the high voltage MOSFET’s drain and low
voltage pins to increase electricity isolation.
Features











Two Internal High-Voltage MOSFET Options:
 RDSON 4Ω and 1.8Ω for Super-Junction
Tight Current Sense Tolerance : ± 3%
Low Startup Current: 130µA
Low Operation Current: 170µA (Switching Frequency at 4kHz)
Single Winding Inductor
Wide Range of Dimmer Compatibility
NEMA SSL6 Dimming Curve Compliant
Internal Protections
 Under Voltage Lockout (UVLO)
 Leading-Edge Blanking (LEB)
 Cycle-by-cycle Over Current Protection (OCP)
 Output Open/Short Protection (OVP/OSP)
 Thermal Foldback Protection (TFP)
 Over-Temperature Protection (OTP)
SO-7 Package
Totally Lead-Free & Fully RoHS Compliant (Notes 1 & 2)
Halogen and Antimony Free. “Green” Device (Note 3)
Notes:
1. No purposely added lead. Fully EU Directive 2002/95/EC (RoHS) & 2011/65/EU (RoHS 2) compliant.
2. See http://www.diodes.com/quality/lead_free.html for more information about Diodes Incorporated’s definitions of Halogen- and Antimony-free, "Green"
and Lead-free.
3. Halogen- and Antimony-free "Green” products are defined as those which contain <900ppm bromine, <900ppm chlorine (<1500ppm total Br + Cl) and
<1000ppm antimony compounds.
AL1697
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AL1697
Typical Applications Circuit
L1
R2
FR1
R3
DB1
R1
VCC
1
RT
2
COMP
C2
NEW PRODUCT
C1
C3
C4
R6
GND
C6
D
7
U1 AL1697
AC
Input
3
4
CS
6
FB
5
R5
D1
R4
R9
L2
D2
C5
R7
LEDS
+
R8
Pin Descriptions
Pin Number
Pin Name
Function
1
VCC
2
RT
3
COMP
4
GND
5
FB
Feedback for LED open protection voltage
6
CS
Current sensing
7
D
Power supply voltage
Resistor set the system’s maximum tON
Compensation for current control
Ground
Drain of the internal high voltage MOSFET
Functional Block Diagram
VCC
7
1
STOP
OFF
Fault
OTP
VCC
OVP
VDD
RT
VCC
Clamp
Management
UVLO
Management
D
VREF
tONS Detection
(ZCD)
2
Set tON_max
VCC
tON_max
Driver Supply
Clamp
S
R
Q
COMP
6
3
tON_max
STOP
Gm
+
+
Sample and Hold
CS
VREF
+
-
OCP
1V
VREF_OVP
GND
4
AL1697
Document number: DS38223 Rev. 3 - 2
OVP
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OVP
5
FB
January 2016
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AL1697
Absolute Maximum Ratings (@TA = +25°C, unless otherwise specified.) (Note 4)
Symbol
VD
IDS
NEW PRODUCT
Rating
Unit
Power Supply Voltage
18
V
Voltage on Drain Pin (AL1697-20CS7-13)
600
V
Voltage on Drain Pin (AL1697-40DS7-13)
Parameter
VCC
670
V
Continuous Drain Current TC = +25°C (AL1697-20CS7-13)
2
A
Continuous Drain Current TC = +25°C, (AL1697-40DS7-13)
4
A
VCS
Voltage on CS Pin
-0.3 to 7
V
VRT
Voltage on RT Pin
-0.3 to 7
V
VFB
Voltage on FB Pin
-0.3 to 7
V
TJ
Operating Junction Temperature
-40 to +150
°C
TSTG
Storage Temperature
-65 to +150
°C
TLEAD
Lead Temperature (Soldering, 10 seconds)
+260
°C
PD
Power Dissipation (TA = +50°C) (Note 5)
0.8
W
JA
Thermal Resistance (Junction to Ambient) (Note 5)
123
°C/W
JC
Thermal Resistance (Junction to Case) (Note 5)
19
°C/W
2,000
V
200
V
ESD (Human Body Model)
–
ESD (Machine Model)
Note:
4. Stresses greater than those listed under “Absolute Maximum Ratings” may cause permanent damage to the device. These are stress ratings only, and
functional operation of the device at these or any other conditions beyond those indicated under “Recommended Operating Conditions” is not implied.
Exposure to “Absolute Maximum Ratings” for extended periods may affect device reliability. All voltages unless otherwise stated and measured with
respect to GND.
5. Device mounted on 1"x1" FR-4 substrate PCB, 2oz copper, with minimum recommended pad layout.
Recommended Operating Conditions (@TA = +25°C, unless otherwise specified.)
Symbol
TA
Note:
Parameter
Ambient Temperature (Note 6)
Min
Max
Unit
-40
+105
°C
6. The device may operate normally at +125°C ambient temperature under the condition not trigger temperature protection.
AL1697
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AL1697
Electrical Characteristics
Symbol
(@TA = +25°C, unless otherwise specified.)
Parameter
Conditions
Min
Typ
Max
Unit
UVLO
Startup Voltage
–
–
14.5
–
V
VOPR(Min)
Minimal Operating Voltage
After Turn On
–
8.5
–
V
VCC_CLAMP
VCC Clamp Voltage
ICC=1mA
–
15.5
–
V
VCC = VTH (ST)-0.5V,
Before Start Up
Switching Frequency
at 4kHz
–
130
–
µA
–
170
–
µA
–
–
1
–
Ω
AL1697-20CS7-13
–
4
5.5
AL1697-40DS7-13
–
1.8
2.5
AL1697-20CS7-13
600
–
–
AL1697-40DS7-13
670
700
–
AL1697-20CS7-13
–
–
1
AL1697-40DS7-13
–
–
1
Reference Voltage of RT pin
–
–
0.5
–
V
CS Clamp Voltage
–
–
1
–
V
Internal Current Loop Control
Reference
–
0.388
0.4
0.412
V
tON_MIN
Minimum tON
–
–
550
–
ns
tON_MAX
Maximum tON
RT=51kΩ, VCOMP=4V
–
3.6
–
µs
tOFF_MIN
Minimum tOFF (Note 7)
–
–
4
–
µs
tOFF_MAX
Maximum tOFF
–
–
260
–
µs
VFB
Feedback Voltage
–
3.76
4.0
4.24
V
IFB
Feedback Pin Input Leakage
Current
VFB = 2V
–
4
–
μA
Gm
Gm Trans-Conductance
–
–
25
–
µA/V
ISOURCE
Amplifier Source Current
–
–
10
–
µA
Amplifier Sink Current
–
–
9
–
µA
Foldback Temperature (Note 7)
–
–
+145
–
°C
Shutdown Temperature (Notes 7 & 8)
–
–
+160
–
°C
VTH (ST)
NEW PRODUCT
Standby Current
IST
ICC (OPR)
Start-Up Current
Operating Current
Source Driver
RDS(ON)LV
Low Voltage MOSFET On-State
Resistance (Note 7)
High Voltage and Super-Junction MOSFET
RDS(ON)HV
VDS
IDSS
Drain-Source On-State Resistance
Drain-Source Breakdown Voltage
Drain-Source Leakage Current
Ω
V
µA
RT
VRT_REF
Current Sense
VCS_CLAMP
VREF
FB
Error Amplifier
ISINK
Thermal Foldback and Over Temperature Protection (OTP)
TFOLD
–
Notes:
7. These parameters, although guaranteed by design, are not tested in production.
8. The device will latch off when OTP happens, recovered after power cycle and the device won’t operate normally at this temperature.
AL1697
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AL1697
Performance Characteristics (Note 9)
Start-up Voltage vs. Ambient Temperature
Minimum Operating Voltage vs. Ambient Temperature
10.0
15.5
9.5
Minimum Operating Voltage (V)
16.0
NEW PRODUCT
Start-up Voltage (V)
15.0
14.5
14.0
13.5
13.0
12.5
9.0
8.5
8.0
7.5
7.0
6.5
6.0
12.0
-40
-20
0
20
40
60
80
100
-40
120
-20
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
o
o
Ambient Temperature ( C)
Ambient Temperature ( C)
Start-up Current vs. Ambient Temperature
Operating Current vs. Ambient Temperature
180
210
170
200
Operating Current (A)
Start-up Current (A)
160
150
140
130
120
110
190
180
170
160
150
140
100
130
90
-40
-20
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
-40
120
-20
0
20
o
40
60
80
100
120
o
Ambient Temperature ( C)
Ambient Temperature ( C)
VCC Clamp Voltage vs. Ambient Temperature
FB Leakage Current vs. Ambient Temperature
6.0
19.5
5.5
18.0
FB Leakage Current (A)
VCC Clamp Voltage (V)
5.0
16.5
15.0
13.5
12.0
10.5
4.5
4.0
3.5
3.0
2.5
2.0
1.5
9.0
1.0
-40
-20
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
o
Notes:
-40
-20
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
o
Ambient Temperature ( C)
Ambient Temperature ( C)
9. These electrical characteristics are tested under DC condition. The ambient temperature is equal to the junction temperature of the device.
AL1697
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AL1697
Functional Description and Application Information
Convertor Operation
High power factor (PF) is achieved using constant on-time mode; coupled with simple closed loop of constant current control the AL1697 achieves
good line and load regulation. The AL1697 adopts source-driver technique to decrease the system operating current. It uses a novel method to
detect the tOFF time which results in the removal for the need of an auxiliary winding for (VCC supply and) detecting the tOFF time, which enables the
AL1697 to have an extremely low bill material (BOM) solution. The AL1697 operates at boundary conduction mode (BCM) which can ease EMI
design.
L1
R2
FR1
R3
AC
Input
DB1
R1
VCC
1
RT
2
COMP
C1
C2
C3
C4
R6
GND
C6
3
7
U1 AL1697
NEW PRODUCT
The AL1697 is a single stage, single winding, high efficiency, and high power factor LED driver converter for dimmable LED lamp applications. It is
available in two internal High-Voltage MOSFET options for 4Ω and 1.8Ω with Super-Junction which reduce the overall LED driver solution size of
the LED lamp. Two different MOSFET options are targeted at optimizing the solutions of different LED chain lengths and powers.
4
6
5
D
CS
FB
R5
D1
R4
R9
D2
L2
R7
R8
C5
LEDS
+
Figure 1. Typical Application Circuit
Start-up and Supply Voltage
Before start-up, the VCC capacitor C4 is charged by the startup resistors (R2, R3) from the high voltage mains. When the start-up voltage is
reached, the AL1697 starts switching. During normal operation, the VCC supply is provided by start-up resisters (R2, R3) and the output voltage
(VOUT) rectified by one diode (D2). In this way the system can provide VCC supply at low dimming angle.
The AL1697 has an internal VCC clamp voltage (typical 15.5V), which is limited by one internal active Zener diode.
When VCC voltage drops to below the VOPR(Min), switching is stop. So the device can operate normally when the voltage on VCC pin is between
VOPR(MIN) and VCC clamp voltage.
Protections
Under Voltage Lockout (UVLO)
When the voltage on the VCC pin drops to below VOPR(MIN), the IC stops switching. The IC can restart when the voltage on VCC exceeds the
startup voltage (VTH(ST)).
Leading-Edge Blanking (LEB)
To prevent false detection of the peak current of the inductor, a blanking time following switch-on is designed. When the internal switch turns on, a
short current spike can occur because of the capacitive discharge of the voltage over the drain and source. It is disregarded during the LEB time
(tON_MIN).
Cycle-by-cycle Over Current Protection (OCP)
The AL1697 has a built-in peak current detector. It triggers when the voltage on CS pin reaches the peak level VCS_CLAMP. The R5 is connected to
the CS pin to sense the current of the inductor. The maximum peak current (IPEAK(MAX))of the inductor can be calculated as below:
AL1697
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AL1697
Functional Description and Application Information (Cont.)
I PEAK  MAX  
VCS _ CLAMP
R5
…………… (1)
The detection circuit is activated after the LEB time. When the detection circuit sense the CS voltage is higher than 1V, the IC will turn off the
switching to limit the output current. It automatically provides protection for the maximum LED current during operation. A propagation delay exists
between over current detection and actual source-switch off, so the actual peak current is a little higher than the OCP level set by the R5.
NEW PRODUCT
Over-Voltage Protection and Output-Open Protection (OVP)
The output voltage is sensed by the FB pin, which provides an over-voltage protection (OVP) function. When the output is open or large transient
happens, the output voltage will exceed the rated value (R8, R9). When the voltage exceeds VFB, the over-voltage is triggered and the IC will
discharge VCC. When the VCC is below the UVLO threshold voltage, IC will restart and the VCC capacitor is charged again by start-up resistance. If
the over voltage condition still exists, the system will work in hiccup mode.
Output-Short Protection (OSP)
When LED is shorted, the device cannot detect the tOFF time, and the device controls the system operation at 4kHz low frequency.
Thermal Foldback Protection (TFP)
AL1697 has a thermal foldback function and adopts self-adaptive control method, which can prevent the system breaking down caused by high
temperature. The overheating temperature is set at +145°C typical, when the junction temperature of the IC is higher than +145°C typical, the
device will linearly decrease the internal reference voltage to decrease the output current. As a result of this feature, the device can control the
system’s output power at high ambient temperature, to control the quantity of heat of the system. This enhances the safety of the system at high
temperature.
The thermal foldback waveform is shown below:
Output Current
100%
50%
TFOLD=145 OTP
Junction Temperature/°C
Figure 2. Thermal Foldback Waveform
Over-Temperature Protection (OTP)
The AL1697 has OTP protection function. When the junction temperature reach to +160°C typical, the IC will trigger an over-temperature
protection condition which causes the device to shut down and latched. Once OTP has triggered, the system will resume after the system’s AC
source supply has been reset and power up.
Design Parameters
Setting the Current Sense Resistor R5
The AL1697 adopts boundary conduction mode, the output current is calculated as below,
IO _ MEAN 

tOFF
1
 I
 sin( ) 
d
 0 2 PEAK
tON  tOFF  tDELAY
1
…………… (2)
Where,
IPEAK is the peak current of the inductance
tON is the internal MOSFET on time
tOFF is the freewheel diode D1 conduction time
tDELAY is typical 0.15µs
AL1697
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AL1697
Functional Description and Application Information (Cont.)
The AL1697 is a closed loop constant current control with the relationship between output current and current sense voltage follows this equation
VREF 
1


  I PEAK  sin( )  R5 
0
tOFF
d
tON  tOFF  tDELAY
…………… (3)
Where,
VREF is the internal reference, typical 0.4V.
R5 is the current sense resistor
NEW PRODUCT
So we can get the output current equation as below,
1 V
I O _ MEAN =  REF
2 R5
……………………………………
(4)
Inductance Selection (L2)
In buck-boost structure, the peak current of the inductance can be calculated as below
 VREF
I PEAK 

R5   sin( ) 
0
2 VIN _ RMS  sin( )
2 VIN _ RMS  sin( )  Vo
d
…………………… (5)
Where,
VIN_RMS is the input voltage’s RMS value
VO is the system output voltage
The AL1697 controls the system operating at boundary conduction mode which results in its operating frequency not being constant. To set the
minimum switching frequency fMIN at the crest of the minimum AC input.
L2 
2VIN _ RMS VO
I PEAK (
 2VIN _ RMS +VO) f MIN
………………………… (6)
According to the Faraday’s Law, the winding number of the inductance can be calculated by:
NL2 
L 2  I PEAK
Ae  Bm
…………………………………………(7)
Where,
Ae is the core effective area.
Bm is the maximum magnetic flux density.
tON_MAX Setting
In order to get a good dimmer compatibility and a good dimming depth, the device sets a tON_MAX by one external resistor RT (R6).
And the tON_MAX time has the below equation:
tON _ MAX 
3.3  CREF
VRT _ REF
+0.5uA
10  R6
…………………………………(8)
Where
VRT_REF is the internal RT pin 0.5V’s reference.
CREF is the internal 1.5pF capacitor.
AL1697
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AL1697
Functional Description and Application Information (Cont.)
Dimming Control
NEW PRODUCT
AL1697 is a closed loop control device, the dimming function is realized by tON_MAX limited when dimmer is connected in. When the dimmer is at the
largest conduction angle, the device still has the adjustability to control the output current constant before COMP voltage is adjusted to the
maximum 4V, so for most of the dimmer, the output current is almost the same with the no dimmer condition at the largest conduction angle. If the
conduction angle is decreased, the COMP pin voltage will continue to increase quickly till to the maximum level (typical 4V), the device will output
tON_MAX to limit system’s output current. The tON_MAX is set by RT pin connected with one resistor, so the dimming depth can be adjusted by RT
resistor (R6).
Before the AL1697 enters tON_MAX mode, the AL1697 keep the output current constant the same as no dimmer condition. When enter tON_MAX mode,
we can get the following equation:
I PEAK _ DIM 
VI N _ RMS  Sin( )  tON _ MAX
…………………………………………… (9)
L2
From the buck-boost output current equation, we can get the output current when dimming:
 1 VREF
 2  R5

I O ( ) 

2VIN _ RMS  Sin( )
 1 1  I PEAK _ DI M 
d

0
 2
2VIN _ RMS  Sin( )  VO

if tON  tON _ MAX
else
……………… (10)
Where,
 is the dimmer conduction angle.
Output Current (%)
100
tON<tON_MAX
tON=tON_MAX
0
Critical Conduction Angle 180
0
Conduction Angle  (deg)
Figure 3. Dimming Curve
Dimmer Compatibility
Passive Bleeder Design
The passive bleeder is designed to supply latching and holding current to eliminate dimmer misfire and flicker.
L
Passive
Bleeder
L1
Damping
FR1
DB1
R1
C1
N
C2
Figure 4. LED Driver Schematic with Passive Bleeder
AL1697
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AL1697
Functional Description and Application information (Cont.)
The passive bleeder includes a capacitor (C2, in hundreds of nF) to provide latching current. A resistor (R1) is necessary to dampen the current
spike. Because a large C2 will affect the PF, THD and efficiency, the value of the capacitor (C2) should be selected accordingly. Generally,
100nF/400V to 330nF/400V is recommended. R1 is used to limit the latching current, If R1 is too large, the latching current is not enough and the
TRIAC dimmer will misfire causing LED flicker. If R1 is too small, it will result in greater power dissipation. Generally speaking, a 200Ω to 2KΩ
resistor is selected for R1.
NEW PRODUCT
Passive Damping Design
FR1 is the damper for reducing the spike current caused by quick charging of C2 at firing. In General, FR1 is selected from 20Ω to 100Ω for low
line like 120VAC application, and 51Ω to 200Ω for high line like 230VAC application.
Ordering Information
AL1697–XX X XX–13
Current Option
20 : 2.0A
40: 4.0A
Packing
Package
MOSFET Voltage
C: 600V
D: 650V
S7 : SO-7
Part Number
Package Code
Package
AL1697-20CS7-13
S7
AL1697-40DS7-13
S7
13 :13" Tape & Reel
13” Tape and Reel
Quantity
Part Number Suffix
SO-7
4000/Tape & Reel
-13
SO-7
4000/Tape & Reel
-13
Marking Information
(1)
SO-7
(Top View)
7
6
5
Logo
Part Number
1697-20C for 2.0A/600V
4.0A/700V
1697-40D for 4.0A/650V
1697 - ZZZ
YY WW X X
1
AL1697
Document number: DS38223 Rev. 3 - 2
YY : Year : 15,16,17 ~
WW : Week : 01~52; 52
represents 52 and 53 week
X X : Internal Code
2
3
4
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AL1697
Package Outline Dimensions (All dimensions in mm.)
(1)
Package Type: SO-7
5.800(0.228)
1.350(0.053)
1.750(0.069)
6.200(0.244)
NEW PRODUCT
0.330(0.013)
0.510(0.020)
2.54(0.100)
TYP
4.700(0.185)
5.100(0.201)
1.270(0.050)
TYP
0.080(0.003)
0.250(0.010)
3.800(0.150)
4.000(0.157)
1.250(0.049)
1.500(0.059)
0.350(0.014)
TYP
0°
8°
Option 1
0.450(0.017)
0.800(0.031)
45°
0.150(0.006)
0.250(0.010)
Option 2
Note: Eject hole, oriented hole and mold mark is optional.
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AL1697
Suggested Pad Layout
Package Type: SO-7
NEW PRODUCT
(1)
G
Z
E1
Y
X
E
Dimensions
Z
(mm)/(inch)
G
(mm)/(inch)
X
(mm)/(inch)
Y
(mm)/(inch)
E
(mm)/(inch)
E1
(mm)/(inch)
Value
6.900/0.272
3.900/0.154
0.650/0.026
1.500/0.059
1.270/0.050
2.540/0.100
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AL1697
IMPORTANT NOTICE
DIODES INCORPORATED MAKES NO WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, WITH REGARDS TO THIS DOCUMENT,
INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE
(AND THEIR EQUIVALENTS UNDER THE LAWS OF ANY JURISDICTION).
NEW PRODUCT
Diodes Incorporated and its subsidiaries reserve the right to make modifications, enhancements, improvements, corrections or other changes
without further notice to this document and any product described herein. Diodes Incorporated does not assume any liability arising out of the
application or use of this document or any product described herein; neither does Diodes Incorporated convey any license under its patent or
trademark rights, nor the rights of others. Any Customer or user of this document or products described herein in such applications shall assume
all risks of such use and will agree to hold Diodes Incorporated and all the companies whose products are represented on Diodes Incorporated
website, harmless against all damages.
Diodes Incorporated does not warrant or accept any liability whatsoever in respect of any products purchased through unauthorized sales channel.
Should Customers purchase or use Diodes Incorporated products for any unintended or unauthorized application, Customers shall indemnify and
hold Diodes Incorporated and its representatives harmless against all claims, damages, expenses, and attorney fees arising out of, directly or
indirectly, any claim of personal injury or death associated with such unintended or unauthorized application.
Products described herein may be covered by one or more United States, international or foreign patents pending. Product names and markings
noted herein may also be covered by one or more United States, international or foreign trademarks.
This document is written in English but may be translated into multiple languages for reference. Only the English version of this document is the
final and determinative format released by Diodes Incorporated.
LIFE SUPPORT
Diodes Incorporated products are specifically not authorized for use as critical components in life support devices or systems without the express
written approval of the Chief Executive Officer of Diodes Incorporated. As used herein:
A. Life support devices or systems are devices or systems which:
1. are intended to implant into the body, or
2. support or sustain life and whose failure to perform when properly used in accordance with instructions for use provided in the
labeling can be reasonably expected to result in significant injury to the user.
B. A critical component is any component in a life support device or system whose failure to perform can be reasonably expected to cause the
failure of the life support device or to affect its safety or effectiveness.
Customers represent that they have all necessary expertise in the safety and regulatory ramifications of their life support devices or systems, and
acknowledge and agree that they are solely responsible for all legal, regulatory and safety-related requirements concerning their products and any
use of Diodes Incorporated products in such safety-critical, life support devices or systems, notwithstanding any devices- or systems-related
information or support that may be provided by Diodes Incorporated. Further, Customers must fully indemnify Diodes Incorporated and its
representatives against any damages arising out of the use of Diodes Incorporated products in such safety-critical, life support devices or systems.
Copyright © 2016, Diodes Incorporated
www.diodes.com
AL1697
Document number: DS38223 Rev. 3 - 2
13 of 13
www.diodes.com
January 2016
© Diodes Incorporated
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