cd00181783

AN2689
Application note
Protection of automotive electronics from electrical hazards,
guidelines for design and component selection
Introduction
Electronic equipment represents a large part of the automobiles of today. Although these
electronic modules bring much more comfort and security for the vehicle user, they also
bring significant concerns in terms of reliability regarding the automobile environment.
Because electronic modules are sensitive to electromagnetic disturbances (EMI),
electrostatic discharges (ESD) and other electrical disturbances (and automobiles are the
source of many such hazards), caution must be taken wherever electronic modules are
used in the automotive environment.
Several standards have been produced to model the electrical hazards that are currently
found in automobiles. As a result manufacturers and suppliers have to consider these
standards and have to add protection devices to their modules to fulfill the major obligations
imposed by these standards.
The objective of this document is to help electronic module designers with a protection
design approach for selecting the most suitable devices for typical applications depending
on the protection standard the electronic module has to meet.
Section 1 describes the electrical hazards considered in this document. Section 2 presents
a list of parameters to be taken into account before selecting possible protection devices.
Section 3 and Section 4 provide worked design examples, with design calculations, for
several protection solutions. Section 5 provides recommendations for the design of PCB
layout for improved solutions.
Transil is a trademark of STMicroelectronics.
October 2012
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www.st.com
AN2689
Contents
1
Electrical hazards in the automotive environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
1.1
1.2
1.3
Source of hazards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
1.1.1
Conducted hazards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
1.1.2
Radiated hazards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Propagation of electrical hazards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
1.2.1
Propagation on the data lines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
1.2.2
Hazards on the supply rail . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Standards for the protection of automotive electronics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
2
Parameters to consider in selecting protection devices . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
3
Data line protection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
3.1
4
Protection topologies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
3.1.1
Clamping topology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
3.1.2
Rail-to-rail topology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
3.2
Data line protection example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
3.3
Design calculation example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
3.3.1
Determination of Rd . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
3.3.2
Power dissipation determination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
Supply rail protection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
4.1
Protection topology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
4.1.1
4.2
Supply rail protection example 1: pulse 2 ISO 7637-2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
4.3
Calculations for example 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
4.3.1
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Clamping topology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
4.3.2
Determination of Rd . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
Power dissipation determination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
4.3.3
Junction temperature determination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
4.4
Supply rail protection example 2: pulse 5a load dump ISO 7637-2 . . . . . 28
4.5
Calculations for example 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
4.5.1
Determination of Rd . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
4.5.2
Power dissipation determination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
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5
PCB layout recommendations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
5.1
Parasitic inductances of the Transil and the PCB tracks . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
5.1.1
Parasitic inductance from Transil wiring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
5.1.2
Capacitive and inductive coupling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
5.1.3
Parasitic coupling due to the loop-effect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
6
Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
7
Revision history . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
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Electrical hazards in the automotive environment
1
AN2689
Electrical hazards in the automotive environment
The automotive environment is the source of many electrical hazards. These hazards, such
as electromagnetic interference, electrostatic discharges and other electrical disturbances
are generated by various accessories like ignition, relay contacts, alternator, injectors,
SMPS (i.e. HID front lights) and other accessories.
These hazards can occur directly in the wiring harness in case of conducted hazards, or be
applied indirectly to the electronic modules by radiation. These generated hazards can
impact the electronics in two ways - either on the data lines or on the supply rail wires,
depending on the environment.
1.1
Source of hazards
1.1.1
Conducted hazards
These hazards occur directly in the cable harness. They are generated by inductive loads
like electro-valves, solenoids, alternators, etc.
The schematic in Figure 1 shows a typical configuration.
Figure 1.
Conducted hazards
Source of
distrubances
Alternator
Equipment
needing protection
ECU
Battery
1.1.2
Radiated hazards
These hazards are generated by high current switching like relay contact, high current MOS
or IGBT switches, ignition systems, etc. The electromagnetic field generated by these
circuits directly affects lines or modules near the source of the electromagnetic radiation.
The schematic diagram in Figure 2 indicates how electromagnetic radiation creates such
hazards as electromagnetic interference in electronic modules.
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Electrical hazards in the automotive environment
Figure 2.
Electromagnetic radiation in the automotive environment
Equipment
needing protection
ECU
Ignition coil
Spark
plug
Battery
ABS
CAR
RADIO
...
1.2
Propagation of electrical hazards
1.2.1
Propagation on the data lines
Transients that are generated on data lines are mainly ESD surges which are low energy but
very high dv/dt and can generate a very strong electromagnetic field. These mainly concern
ISO 10605 and IEC 61000-4-2 standards.
The data lines concerned are communication lines like media transfer lines, data buses,
sensor data lines and so on.
Figure 3 shows surge forms of hazards that can be found on data lines.
Figure 3.
Kinds of surges on data lines
±25 kV (1)
ISO 10605
±15 kV (1)
IEC 61000-4-2
±8 kV (2)
ISO 10605
±8 kV (2)
IEC 61000-4-2
Nominal
V dataline
0V
(1): Air discharge
(2): Contact discharge
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Electrical hazards in the automotive environment
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The ISO 10605 ESD surge test is applied to a complete system. This is simulating the ESD
occurring on an electronic module in its environment due to human body contact.
1.2.2
Hazards on the supply rail
Transients that are generated on the supply rail range from severe low level-high energy, to
high level-low energy with sometimes high dv/dt. These mainly concern ISO 7637-2 and
ISO 10605 standards.
Figure 4 shows a simple representation of the form of major supply rail transients.
Figure 4.
Kinds of surges on power rail
±25 kV
ESD spikes
87 V
Load dump
+150 / -220 V
Spikes
24 VJump start
Nominal
14 V
6 V Crank
0V
Reverse battery
The most energetic transients are those resulting from load-dump and jump start. But all
other hazards may affect the normal operation of electronic modules.
The “6 V crank” is caused by the starting of the car. The energy necessary to crank the
engine makes the power voltage drop to 6 V.
The load-dump is caused by the discharged battery being disconnected from the alternator
while the alternator is generating charging current. This transient can last 400 ms and the
equivalent generator internal resistance is specified as 0.5 minimum to 4  maximum.
The “+150/-220 V Spikes” are due to the ignition system that is necessary to ignite the
gasoline mixture. The frequency of the spikes depends on the engine rotation speed and the
number of cylinders. These generate electromagnetic radiation.
The “24 V jump start” results from the temporary application of an over voltage in excess of
the battery voltage. The circuit power supply may be subjected to a temporary over voltage
condition due to the regulator failing or deliberately generated when it is necessary to boost
start the car. In such condition some repair vehicles use 24 V battery jump to start the car.
Automotive specifications call for the support of this over voltage application for up to 60
seconds.
The “reverse battery” is the result of battery inversion by mistake. Thus accessories have
their power termination polarized in the wrong way.
The “25 kV ESD spike” is the result of electrostatic discharge (ESD)
All these events may affect the electronic environment as conducted hazards or as radiated
hazards.
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1.3
Electrical hazards in the automotive environment
Standards for the protection of automotive electronics
All the hazards indicated above are described by several standards bodies such as the
Society of Automobile Engineers (SAE), the Automotive Electronic Council (AEC) and the
International Standard Organization (ISO).
Because the ISO 10605 (a) and the ISO 7637 (b) are the most important automotive
standards regarding electrical hazards, this document mainly concerns the cases
considering such standards.
a. ISO 10605: standard for “Electrostatic discharges” due to human body discharging inside a vehicle applied to a
complete system
b. ISO 7637 standard for “Electrical disturbances from conduction and coupling
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Parameters to consider in selecting protection devices
2
AN2689
Parameters to consider in selecting protection
devices
To make the best choice in protection device and considering Figure 5, it is necessary to
consider several parameters such as:
●
Nominal voltage the electronic module runs with (Vnom)
●
Maximum voltage this electronic module can support (Vmax)
●
Kind of surge that the electronic module may be called upon to support
–
If the surge shape is exponential:
What is the surge maximum voltage (Vs)?
What is the surge duration and at what level is it measured (tp)?
What is the surge generator impedance (Rs)?
What is the number of cycles in the surge (1/f)?
–
If the surge is a DC surge:
What is the DC voltage level (Vdc)?
What is the duration of the surge (tp)?
What is the surge generator impedance (Rs)?
●
What is the ambient temperature (Tamb)?
●
What kind of protection package is preferred?
●
Is the electronic module a simple DC module or a digital one?
–
If digital:
What is the signal frequency (F)?
What are the rise and fall time of the surge signal (tr, tf)?
What is the maximum line capacitance (Cl)?
Figure 5.
Surge application topology
Surge
Generator
Vs
Rs
Td
F
Module to protect
Vnom
Vmax
Protection
device (*)
Vcl
(*) Transil or rail-to-rail protection device
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Data line protection
3
Data line protection
3.1
Protection topologies
3.1.1
Clamping topology
Various protection topologies can be chosen for data line protection. There is the usual
topology that consists of using a clamping device as shown in Figure 6. The action of the
suppressor upon positive and negative surge occurrence is shown respectively in Figure 7
and Figure 8.
Sensitive line
Data line protection using a Transil™
Accessory Connector
Figure 6.
Module to protect
Vnom
Vmax
Transil
When a positive surge occurs, the over voltage is suppressed by the Transil as the voltage
passes the breakdown voltage (VBR). Thus the current is diverted to ground. The remaining
voltage on the data line is limited to the clamping voltage (Vcl).
Figure 7.
Positive surge suppression
Sensitive data lines
Vs
Accessory Connector
Vcc
Module to protect
Vnom
Vmax
I
Vcl
For the negative surge, the Transil is now in forward mode and the over voltage is eliminated
as the surge voltage passes the forward voltage drop of the protection device (Vf). The
remaining voltage is limited to the peak forward voltage of the Transil (Vfp).
Negative surge suppression
Vs
Sensitive data lines
Vcc
Accessory Connector
Figure 8.
Module to protect
Vnom
Vmax
I
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This topology is easy to manage. There should be as many protection devices as there are
lines to protect. The protection device in fact can be several single Transils but there is a
possibility to use protection devices in an array package so that one device protects each
data line as shown in Figure 9.
Figure 9.
Data line protection using a diode array
Vcc
Sensitive line
Accessory Connector
Transil array
Module to protect
Vnom
Vmax
This clamping topology is good when the clamping voltage of each Transil is close to the
nominal voltage of the data lines to be protected. For example, if the nominal voltage is 5 V,
an ESDA6V1xx (Vbr = 6.1 V) protection device is ideal. The Transil offers a fixed clamping
voltage which does not require external power supply as in the rail-to-rail configuration but
for some cases it is more convenient to use the rail-to-rail topology as described below.
3.1.2
Rail-to-rail topology
The rail-to-rail topology, shown in Figure 10, is achieved using simple regular diodes. In that
case the clamping level is no longer fixed but, instead, depends on the power supply voltage
Vcc. As soon as a surge occurs, all the voltage over Vcc is diverted to the power supply as
shown in Figure 11.
In this case the remaining over voltage that the data line is exposed to is very low.
Figure 10. Rail-to-rail protection topology
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Sensitive datalines
Accessory Connector
Vcc
Module to protect
Vnom
Vmax
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Data line protection
For a positive surge, shown in Figure 11, as the over voltage reaches the power supply
voltage Vcc plus the forward voltage drop of the upper diode, the surge current is diverted
into the power supply line. To prevent this power supply line oscillating or being raised too
much, a capacitor (47 nF suggested) is needed close to the rail-to-rail protection device.
The remaining voltage V at the module data line is limited to VCC plus the forward voltage
drop Vf of the upper diode.
Figure 11. Positive surge suppression
Vcc
Accessory Connector
Vs
Sensitive data lines
Isurge
Module to protect
Vnom
Vmax
V
For the negative surge case (Figure 12), the surge suppression is the same as described in
Figure 8.
Figure 12. Negative surge suppression
Vs
Sensitive data lines
Accessory Connector
Vcc
Module to protect
Vnom
Vmax
Isurge
V
In the same approach as for the previous topology, there is a possibility to manage this railto-rail protection topology using as many single devices as there are data lines to protect or
one diode array device that fulfills all line protection needs as shown in Figure 13.
Figure 13. Rail-to-rail diode array
Sensitive data lines
Accessory Connector
Vcc
Module to protect
Vnom
Vmax
DiodeArray
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This solution requires that the Vcc voltage track be accessible and a decoupling capacitor is
required close to the diode array device. On the other hand this topology is suitable for high
speed data lines that often requires low parasitic line capacitance.
3.2
Data line protection example
Let’s consider the ISO 10605 standard.
The ESD current waveform, shown in Figure 14, has the corresponding generator circuit
given in Figure 15 when the generator output is in short circuit.
This surge is specified for contact or air-discharge as shown in Table 1 and maximum
voltage occurring is a 25 KV (air-discharge)
Figure 14. ESD current waveform with generator output in short circuit
tr ≤ 1 ns
Table 1.
Surge voltage levels for contact and air discharge
Contact discharge
Air discharge
Level
Test voltage (kV)
Level
Test voltage (kV)
1
±4
1
±8
2
±6
2
±15
3
±8
3
±25
Figure 15. Equivalent circuit schematic (occupant discharge model)
R (MΩ )
High voltage
supply
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2 kΩ
330 pf
Device
under test
AN2689
Data line protection
If we consider the +25 kV air discharge surge test, then, regarding the suggested
application given in Figure 16: the worked example below may be used as a guideline for
protection solution selection.
Figure 16. ISO 10605 ESD test set-up
Surge
Generator
Module to protect
Vnom = 13.5 V
Vmax = 45 V
Tmax = 85 °C
Vs = 25 kV contact
Rs = 2 kΩ
tr ≤ 1 ns
Vcl
Identification of the best protection (Transil)
About the module to protect:
●
The protection shall be “transparent” for the normal operating conditions of the module,
in this case 13.5 V.
●
The maximum voltage the module can withstand is 45 V so the Transil will not offer a
higher voltage than 45 V when acting.
●
The max temperature is 85 °C.
About the surge to suppress:
●
The maximum voltage (Vpp) of the surge is 25 kV.
●
The surge time constant duration  is 660 ns (R*C).
●
The maximum repetition is one strike (t1).
●
The internal series resistor of the generator is 2 k.
About the Transil:
●
The suppressor has the following electrical characteristics (Figure 17):
Figure 17. Transil diode electrical characteristics
I
Ipp
I
V
Irm
Vrm
Vcl
Vbr
V
If
Vf
Where:
Vrm is the stand-off voltage measured @Irm. This corresponds to the nominal voltage of the
application Vrm13.5 V.
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Vbr is the breakdown voltage measured @1 mA. This corresponds to the beginning of the
action of the Transil.
Vcl is the clamping voltage Vcl  45 V. Its value depends on the current that flows through the
device. The relationship between this parameter and the current is given by:
Vcl = Vbr + Rd * Ipp
Where:
3.3
●
Rd is the dynamic resistance of the Transil.
●
Ipp is the current imposed by the surge generator.
●
Irm is the leakage current measured @Vrm.
●
Vf is the direct voltage drop measured at current If depending on the application.
Design calculation example
Whatever the protection device package choice, the final choice will be directly linked to the
power dissipation demanded by the surge.
Power is:
Ppp = Vcl * Ipp
with
Vcl = Vbr + Rd * Ipp
The important missing parameter to solve these equations is the dynamic resistance Rd,
which depends on the current value imposed by the surge.
3.3.1
Determination of Rd
Rd is the dynamic resistance of the Transil. It is dependent on the current surge rate and
duration.
Rd is calculated by:
Rd =
Vcl - Vbrmax
Ipp
Where Vcl is the dynamic clamping voltage measured at Ipp for exponential surge duration.
For example, considering an SM6T27AY device (Figure 18), we can determine the Rd for a
pulse duration tp = 1 ms thanks to the 10/1000 µs parameters of Table 2:
Figure 18. SM6T27AY package
A
K
Unidirectional
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Data line protection
Table 2.
SM6T27AY electrical characteristics, parameter values (Tamb = 25 °C)
VBR @ IR(1)
IRM @ VRM
Order code
max
VCL @ IPP
10/1000 µs
8/20 µs
min. typ. max
µA
µA
(Tj =25°C) (Tj =85°C)
SM6T27AY
VCL @ IPP
0.5
1
V
V
23.1 25.7
max
max
T(2)
C
max
typ.
V
V
mA
V
A
V
A
10-4/°C
pF
27
28.4
1
37.5
16
48.3
83
9.6
1150
1. Pulse test: tp < 50 ms.
2. VBR = T * (Tamb - 25) * VBR(25 °C).
Rd10 / 1000 µs =
37.5 - 28.4
= 0.57 Ω
16
In the same way we can determine Rd for tp = 20 µs pulse duration. In this case we should
refer to the 8/20 µs parameters of Table 2.
Rd 8 / 20 µs =
48.3 - 28.4
= 0.24 Ω
83
For other tp pulse durations the next procedure should be considered:
For tp < 20 µs, Rd is approximately equivalent to Rd20 µs so we consider the 8/20 µs
parameters of Table 2.
For 20 µs < tp < 1 ms, Rdtp is given by (tp in µs):
Rdtp =
Rd1 ms - Rd20 µs
980
(tp -
20)+ Rd20 µs
For tp > 1 ms, Rdtp is given by the following (tp is the pulse duration in s in this case):
Β
- tp
⎛
⎞
2
Rdtp = αTRthj - a ⎜⎜1 - e τ ⎟⎟ Vbrnom
⎝
⎠
T is the temperature coefficient of Vbr given in the Transil datasheet (see Table 2).
Rthj-a is the thermal impedance of the device at the junction-ambient area.
, and  define the transient thermal impedance. These parameters depend on the package
as shown in Table 3.
Table 3.
Transient thermal impedance versus packages(1)
B
(s)
Rthj-a (°C/W)
SMA
0.55
24
140
SMB
0.60
40
125
SMC
0.55
40
90
D2PAK
0.63
120
60
Package
1. SMA and SMB footprint = 50 mm2 (2 x 25 mm2), SMC footprint = 128 mm2 (2 x 64 mm2), D2PAK footprint
= minimum footprint
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During an ESD strike, the voltage diagrams look like those given in Figure 19.
Figure 19. Voltage diagrams during an ESD strike
Vs
ESDwaveform
τ = RC
Vcl
Voltage and current
Ip
across the transil
Ip/2
t’
3.3.2
t
Power dissipation determination
To make sure the power of the surge will not damage the Transil we need to determine the
power dissipated in the Transil.
Dissipated power is given by:
Vcl = Vbr + Rd * Ipp
Ipp =
Vs - Vcl
Rs
and
Ppp = Vcl * Ipp
In this study, the transient duration is much lower than 20 µs, therefore we consider Rd
equivalent to Rd20 µs.
This Rd20µs can be easily calculated thanks to the Transil datasheets (see example given in
Section 3.3.1: Determination of Rd for SM6T27AY)
So
Rd20 µs =
Vcl20 µs - Vbrmax
Ipp20 µs
Rd20 µs = 0.24 Ω
Then the power dissipation can be determined from:
Vcl = Vbrmax + Rd20 µs Ipp
Ipp =
Vs - Vbrmax
Rs+ Rd20 µs
Vbrmax ≈ Vbrmin + 10%
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Data line protection
Considering the ISO 10605 surge with Vpp = +25 kV, Rs = 2000  and Vbrmax = 28.4 V, the
calculation produces:
Vcl =
Ipp =
RsVbrmax+ Rd 20 µsVs
Rs+ Rd20 µs
Vs - Vbrmax
Rs+ Rd20 µs
Then Vcl = 31.4 V and Ipp = 12.5 A
Therefore the maximum residual voltage that will be applied to the module is lower than the
maximum voltage admissible (<45 V).
The question now is to determine if the Transil is able to withstand the power of the surge.
The peak pulse power (Ppp) dissipated in the Transil is:
Ppp= Vcl * Ipp ⇒ Ppp = 392 W
To see if this power can be supported by the Transil, it is necessary to determine the
duration of the current that crosses the Transil during the surge compared to the peak pulse
power versus exponential pulse duration graph shown in Figure 20 (also in the datasheet).
Care must be taken at this step because the duration to be considered is the pulse duration
at Ip/2. So it is necessary to determine the current surge duration (t’ in Figure 19) that
corresponds to half of the peak current crossing the Transil.
Figure 20. Peak pulse power versus exponential pulse duration
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Figure 21. ESD ISO 10605 equivalent circuit
R (MΩ)
2 kΩ
Ic
High voltage
supply
Vc
330 pf
Considering the generator circuit sown in Figure 21, which respects the ESD surge
standard, the following equations apply:
Ic(t ) =
Vc (t ) - Vbr
Rs+ Rd
Ic(t ) =
- CdVc (t )
dt
And
Hence the equation
-CdVc(t )
Vc(t )
Vbr
=
dt
Rs+ Rd Rs+ Rd
Vc(t) can also be expressed as:
-t
Vc(t ) = λ expC (Rs + Rd) + Y0
where  is a coefficient and Y0 a constant. Thus:
-t
-1
dVc (t )
expC (Rs+ Rd)+ 0
= λ
C(Rs+ Rd)
dt
For the initial conditions the limit of VC when t tends to 0 is given by:
-t
⎡
⎤
Vc 0 - Vbr
-1
expC (Rs+ Rd)+ 0⎥
= - C ⎢λ
(
)
Rs + Rd
C
Rs
Rd
+
⎣⎢
⎦⎥
This reduces to
Vc0 - Vbr
λ
=
Rs + Rd Rs + Rd
Then
λ = (Vc0 - Vbr )
and thus
Y0 = Vc0 - (Vc0 - Vbr ) ⇒ Y0 = Vbr
To determine the current, it is necessary to evaluate the voltage equation which is:
-t
Vc (t ) = (Vc0 - Vbr)expC(Rs + Rd) + Vbr
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It becomes then
-t
-1
Ic(t ) = - C(Vc 0 - Vbr )
expC (Rs+Rd)
C(Rs + Rd)
then
-t
Ic(t ) =
Vc0 - Vbr
expC (Rs+Rd)
Rs + Rd
So to determine the time duration (t’) at half value of the max current crossing the Transil,
use the equation:
- t'
1 Vc 0 - Vbr Vc 0 - Vbr
=
expC(Rs+ Rd)
Rs+ Rd
2 Rs+ Rd
which reduces to
t ' = C(Rs+ Rd)ln 2
This produces a duration of t’ = 457 ns.
If now we use this value in the peak pulse power versus exponential pulse duration graph in
Figure 20, we can see that the SM6T27AY Transil is able to withstand more than 100 kW
power dissipation for a 457 ns pulse duration (extrapolation of Figure 20). As the application
can be submitted to an ambient temperature of +85 °C maximum, it is necessary to apply a
derating factor to this value. Figure 22 from the datasheet indicates the derating factor we
must apply.
Figure 22. Peak power dissipation versus initial junction temperature
Ppp (W)
700
10/1000 µs
600
500
400
300
200
100
Tj(°C)
0
0
25
50
75
100
125
150
175
Figure 22 shows that the derating factor is about 75% of the maximum power admissible.
Then the device will be able to withstand more than 75 kW for a 457 ns surge duration as
described in this example.
So compared to the application example where PPP = 392 W, the SM6T27AY device is more
than suitable for the application
The SM6T27AY is too powerful with regards to the ISO 10605 test. Then, consider the use
of a less powerful device such as the ESDA25LY shown in Figure 23.
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Figure 23. Package and internal circuit of the ESDA25LY
1
3
3
2
2
1
This device has the following characteristics:
Table 4.
ESDA25LY electrical characteristics
VBR @ IR
Order code
ESDA25LY
IRM @ VRM
max.
Rd
T
C
typ.(1)
max.(2)
typ.
0 V bias
VF@ IF
min.
max.
max.
V
V
mA
µA
V
V
mA
m
10-4/°C
pF
25
30
1
1
24
1.2
10
1000
10
50
1. Square pulse, Ipp = 15 A, tp = 2.5 µs.
2.  VBR = T* (Tamb - 25 °C) * VBR (25 °C)
Figure 24. Peak pulse power versus exponential time duration
PPP(W)
3000
Tj initial = 25°C
1000
100
t p (µs)
10
1
10
100
In the same way as for the SM6T27AY, the calculations give:
Rd = 1 , Vcl = 42.5 V, Ipp = 12.5 A
then Ppp = 531 W
and the t’ current pulse duration is still 457 ns.
Figure 24 shows that for 457 ns pulse duration the maximum power the ESDA25LY can
dissipate is higher than 2 kW. The ambient temperature derating makes a maximum power
dissipation higher than 1.5 kW so the ESDA25LY device would be suitable in this protection
application.
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4
Supply rail protection
4.1
Protection topology
4.1.1
Clamping topology
For supply rail protection the recommended topology is the “clamping topology”.
Figure 25 shows a schematic of the supply rail protection topology.
Figure 25. Supply rail protection using a Transil
Vbat
Accessory Connector
Transil
Module to protect
Vnom
Vmax
The choice of the protection device depends on the surge that is applied. To illustrate the
possible device selection, two protection examples are given below.
4.2
Supply rail protection example 1: pulse 2 ISO 7637-2
Pulse 2 from ISO 7637-2 standard corresponds to a surge, which is produced by a sudden
interruption of current in a device connected in parallel with the Transil, due to inductance in
the wiring harness. The pulse is directly applied to the battery and is a positive pulse. See
Figure 26 for the pulse characteristics.
The typical parameters are:
●
Rise time (10-90%) - approximately 10 µs (tr)
●
Pulse width (10-90%) - typically 50 µs (td)
●
Pulse amplitudes from +37 V to +50 V (Vs)
●
Pulse repetition from 0.2 Hz to 5 Hz (F)
●
Output impedance 2 
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Figure 26. ISO 7637-2, pulse 2 waveform characteristics
t1
td
tr
0.9 Vs
Vs
Va
0V
0.1 Vs
1/F
Figure 27. ISO 7637-2, pulse 2 test set up
Surge
Generator
Module to protect
Vs = 50 V
Rs = 2 Ω
td = 50 µs
Tr = 1 µs
F = 0.2 Hz to 5 Hz
Vnom =13.5 V
Vmax = 45 V
Tmax = 85 °C
Transil
Vcl
As for the examples in Section 3, it is necessary to check if the residual voltage after the
protection device is safe for the electronic module and if the protection device itself can
handle the power dissipated in the protection device during the suppression.
Let’s consider an SM15T33AY protection device (Figure 28). Its specifications are given in
Table 5 and Table 6.
Figure 28. SM15T33AY package
A
K
Unidirectional
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Table 5.
SM15T33AY electrical characteristics (extract from datasheet)
VBR @ IR(1)
IRM @ VRM
Order code
VCL @ IPP
10/1000 µs
8/20 µs
max
min. typ. max
SM15T33AY
VCL @ IPP
µA
1
V
28.2
V
31.4
V
33
V
34.7
max
mA
1
V
45.7
T
C
max(2)
typ(3)
10-4/°C
9.8
pF
2700
max
A
33
V
59.0
A
169
1. Pulse test: tp < 50 ms.
2. VBR = T * (Tamb - 25) * VBR (25°C)
3. VR = 0 V, F = 1 MHz.
Table 6.
SM15T33AY thermal parameter (extract from datasheet)
Symbol
Rth(j-a)
Parameter
Junction to ambient on printed circuit on recommended pad layout
4.3
Calculations for example 1
4.3.1
Determination of Rd
Value
Unit
75
°C/W
The voltage and current across the Transil are:
Vcl = Vbrmax + Rd * Ipp
Ipp =
Vs - Vbrmax
Rs+ Rd
Because Rd is dependent on the surge current duration and because its value for
ISO 7637-2 pulse 2 is not given in the datasheet, it is necessary to determine it to solve the
equations. But this time the generator internal schematic is not provided and none of the
internal elements are known. So the easiest way to determine the current duration is to refer
to the generator characteristics that are given in Figure 29 and Figure 30. These curves
were produced from a SCHAFFNER NSG5500, MT5510 module. The voltage curve is for
open circuit and the current curve produced when terminations were short circuited.
Figure 29. MT5510 output voltage in open circuit
Test conditions
50 V, 50 µs
Rs = 2 Ω
0.2 s period
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Figure 30. MT5510 output current in short circuit
Ipp = 23.5
At I = 0.5 Ipp, t = 0.7 τ
then τ = 5.4 µs
t = 3.8 µs
In Figure 30 the current waveform shape corresponds to the pulse 2 of the ISO 7637-2
standard delivered by the SCHAFFNER NSG5500 generator when terminations are short
circuited.
As can be seen in Figure 30, the time constant is 5.4 µs duration when the generator
outputs are short circuited. When:
i = 0.5Ipp → t = 0.7τ
therefore
τ =
3.8
⇒ τ = 5.4 µs
0.7
The current surge duration is below 20 µs. So, as explained previously when the duration is
below 20 µs, consider the Rd<20µs to be the same as Rd20µs
Rd20 µs =
Vcl20 µs - Vbrnom
Ipp 20 µs
Rd20 µs = 0.143 Ω
From the equations in Section 4.3 on page 23, VCL = 35.54 V and IPP = 7.22 A, which
means the residual over voltage will be consistent with the admissible maximum voltage of
the module to protect.
4.3.2
Power dissipation determination
On the other hand the peak power dissipation in the Transil is:
Ppp = Vcl * Ipp ⇒ Ppp = 256 W
From the previous calculation in Section 3.3.2 on page 19, the current duration at Ip/2 that
will cross the Transil during the surge is given by the equation:
t ' = C(Rs + Rd)ln 2
and the time constant is
τ = RsC
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where Rs is the serial resistor of the generator. In this case Rs = 2 
So the surge generator capacitor is C = 2.7 µF. Therefore, when considering the use of an
SM15T33AY, the current duration at Ip/2 is:
tpSM15T 33A = 2.7 * 10- 6 (2 + 0.14)ln 2
tpSM15T 33A = 4 µs
(tp is the current duration through the SM15T33AY measured between Ip and Ip/2)
It is now possible to compare this current duration with the curve given in Figure 31.
For a current duration of 4 µs, the peak pulse power the SM15T33AY can dissipate is
approximately 20 kW.
Figure 31. Peak pulse power versus exponential pulse duration
PPP (kW)
100.0
10.0
1.0
t p (ms)
0.1
1.E-03
1.E-02
1.E-01
1.E+00
1.E+01
In the same way as for the previous examples, a derating factor needs to be considered
regarding the ambient temperature. For 85 °C ambient temperature the derating is close to
70% (see Figure 32). So the maximum peak power the SM15T33AY can withstand for a 4
µs is instead 14 kW.
Figure 32. Peak power dissipation versus initial junction temperature
2000
PPP(W)
1500
1000
500
Tj(°C)
0
0
25
50
75
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Junction temperature determination
Another point to consider is the surge repetition. This would make the SM15T33AY junction
temperature rise. It is necessary to make sure this junction temperature rise will not pass the
maximum specified. As per the SM15T datasheet, Tjmax is specified as 150 °C (absolute
maximum ratings).
To clarify the situation, consider Figure 33 where current, voltage and junction temperature
rise are shown:
Figure 33. Voltage, current, and junction temperature behavior with surge repetition
Vs = 50 V
t = RC
Vcl = 36.5 V
Ip = 12.5 A
Ip/2
4 µs
Tj
t0
t
1/F
For repeated surges it is necessary to determine the average power (Pav) that the
SM15T33AY will have to dissipate.
There is a relationship between the exponential surge duration curve and square shape
surge duration. Figure 34 illustrates the relationship between these types of surge.
Figure 34. Relationship between exponential pulse and square pulse duration
Ip
Ip
Ip/2
tp
t
1.4tp
t
As shown on Figure 34, the current duration for equivalent square pulse duration is 1.4
times longer than the one measured at Ip/2 for an exponential surge. So we have the
following equation:
I AV =
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Ipp * 1.4tpIp / 2
T
⇒ I AV =
7.65 * 1.4 * 4 * 10- 6
= 0.21 mA
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Where tp is the current duration at Ip/2 and T the minimum surge period.
Then the average power is:
PAV = I AV * Vcl ⇒ PAV = 7.52 mW
The junction temperature can be calculated as:
Tj = Tamb + PAV Rthj - a
with Rthj-a = 75 °C/W.
The junction temperature will rise by less than 1 °C over the maximum ambient temperature.
So the maximum junction temperature will not be exceeded. Therefore the SM15T33AY will
be suitable for the application.
In the meantime, comparing the 274 W power induced by the surge with the SM15T33AY
admissible power, the SM15T33AY is extremely safe regarding the ISO 7637-2 pulse 2
surge, even over-specified.
For this reason it would be more effective to choose a smaller Transil, like, for instance, an
SM4T35AY (Vbrmin = 33.3 V). The same calculations show the power dissipation is quite
similar to the SM15T33AY results. Figure 35 and Figure 36 show that the maximum power
this SM4T35AY can dissipate for 4 µs exponential pulse duration is still higher than that the
surge imposes. The SM4T35AY is able to withstand more than 3 kW for 4 µs surge duration.
Figure 35. Peak pulse power versus exponential time duration of an SM4T Transil
10.0
PPP(kW)
Tj initial = 25 °C
1.0
t P(ms)
0.1
1.0E-03
1.0E-02
1.0E-01
1.0E+00
1.0E+01
Figure 36. Peak power dissipation versus initial junction temperature of SM4T
Transil
2000
PPP(W)
1500
1000
500
Tj(°C)
0
0
25
50
75
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Supply rail protection example 2: pulse 5a load dump
ISO 7637-2
The load dump is caused by the discharged battery being disconnected from the alternator
while the alternator is generating charging current
Parameters are:
●
Pulse width -td [40 to 400 ms]
●
Pulse amplitude -Vs [65 to 87 V]
●
Impedance is Rs [0.5  to 4 
●
Vbat = 13.5 V
Figure 37. ISO 7637-2, pulse 5a waveform characteristics
td
tr
0.9Vs
Vs
V bat
0V
0.1Vs
t
Figure 38. Load dump protection test set up
Surge
Generator
Module to protect
Vs = 87 V
Rs =2 Ω
td = 100 ms
Tr = 10 ms
Vbat = 13.5 V
Vnom =13.5 V
Vmax =45 V
Tmax = 85 °C
Transil
Vcl
In the same manner as for the last case (ISO pulse 2), we have to determine if the residual
voltage after the protection device is safe for the electronic module and if the power
dissipation involved in the protection device during the suppression is supported by the
protection device itself.
Consider now the RBO40-40 device (see Figure 39) which offers a surge protection
capability and a reverse battery protection.
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Figure 39. Package and internal schematic of the RBO40-40
3
1
D2PAK
RBO40-40G
2
Its specifications are the following:
Table 7.
RBO40-40G electrical characteristics, Transil T2 (-40 °C < Tamb < +85 °C)
Symbol
Test conditions
Min.
Typ.
Max.
Unit
35
V
32
V
VBR 32
IR = 1 mA
22
VBR 32
IR = 1 mA, Tamb = 25°C
24
IRM 32
VRM = 20 V
100
µA
IRM 32
VRM = 20 V, Tamb = 25°C
10
µA
VCL 32
IPP = 20
A(1)
28
tp = 10/1000µs
T
Temperature coefficient of VBR
C32
F = 1MHz VR = 0 V
8000
40
V
9
10-4/°C
pF
1. One pulse
4.5
Calculations for example 2
The voltage and current across the Transil are:
Vcl = Vbrmax + Rd * Ipp
Ipp =
Vs - Vbr
Rs+ Rd
As with the previous example, the internal elements of the surge generator are not known.
So, the easiest way to proceed is to refer to the voltage and current curves of the generator.
With voltage and current curves produced from a SCHAFFNER NSG5500, LD5505 module,
(see Figure 40 and Figure 41), we can measure the duration tp which corresponds to the
duration between Ip and Ip/2
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Figure 40. LD5505 output voltage in open circuit
Test conditions
87 V, 100 ms
13.5 V battery voltage
Rs = 2 Ω
Figure 41. LD5505 output current in short circuit
Ipp = 40 A
At I = 0.5 Ipp, tp = 0.7 τ
so τ = 40.7 ms
tp = 28.5 ms
Figure 41 shows the current waveform corresponding to the pulse 5a of the ISO 7637-2
standard delivered by the SCHAFFNER NSG5500 generator when terminations are short
circuited
The tp duration measured between Ip and Ip/2 is 28.5 ms. Then the time constant calculated
is 40.7 ms (generator outputs short circuited).
4.5.1
Determination of Rd
For tp > 1 ms, Rdtp is given by:
Β
- tp
⎛
⎞
2
Rd tp = αTRth j - a ⎜⎜1 - e τ ⎟⎟ Vbrnom
⎝
⎠
tp is in seconds in this case.
, and  define the transient thermal impedance (see Table 3: Transient thermal impedance
versus packages).
When the surge is applied to the RBO40-40 transient suppressor:
tpRBO40 - 40 = C(Rs + Rdtp )ln 2
And the time constant is = RsC.
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So, C = 20.35 mF.
Hence:
tpRBO40 - 40 = 20.35* 10- 3 (2 + Rd)ln 2
- tp
⎞
⎛
Rdtp = 9 * 10- 4 * 60 ⎜⎜1 - e120 ⎟⎟
⎠
⎝
0.63
2
28nom
Then, thanks to the test curves from the load dump generator, the result is tp = 33.6 ms and
Rd = 0.22 .
From the equations in Section 4.5 on page 29, Vcl = 33.8 V and Ipp = 26.6 A, which means
the residual over voltage will be consistent with the admissible maximum voltage of the
module to protect.
4.5.2
Power dissipation determination
The peak power dissipation in the Transil will be:
Ppp = Vcl * Ipp ⇒ Ppp = 549.25 W
Figure 42, shows that for 33.6 ms exponential surge duration the maximum admissible
power the RBO40-40 can withstand is approximately 900 W.
Figure 42. Peak pulse versus exponential surge duration
Ppp(kW)
10.0
5.0
2.0
Transil T2
1.0
Transil T1
0.5
0.2
0.1
t p (ms)
1
2
5
10
20
50
100
Figure 43. shows the derating factor for the ambient temperature effect.
Figure 43. Relative variation of peak power versus junction temperature
Ppp[Tj]/Ppp[Tj initial=85°C]
1.20
1.00
0.80
0.60
0.40
0.20
Tj initial (°C)
0.00
0
25
50
75
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For +85 °C ambient temperature, the derating factor is 1. So the power dissipation induced
by the load dump surge is supported by the RBO40-40 device.
The RBO40-40 combines a transient suppressor diode and also a reverse battery
protection. This function is helpful in case of battery polarity inversion that can occur by
mistake. A direct diode is placed in series with the power supply so that all power supply
inversion is safe for the protection diode (see Figure 43).
The direct diode reverse battery protection can also be replaced with a simple fuse.
However, upon battery inversion this fuse will blow and the module will need to be replaced
or repaired.
Figure 44. Use of serial protection devices for reverse battery prevention
Reverse battery protection
fuse or diode
or
Module to protect
Transil
Besides the ISO pulse 2a the Transil has to eliminate, and the reverse battery protection,
there is another condition to consider in the automotive environment. This condition is the
starting aid.
The starting aid covers the possibility of starting 12 V vehicles with a 24 V truck battery in
case of emergency. Then, the Transil nominal voltage will need to be higher than this
starting aid voltage. That is the reason the Transil nominal breakdown voltage is 27 V
minimum. In this case the Transil is not active during starting aid test. No dissipation occurs
in the device so the Transil is safe.
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5
PCB layout recommendations
PCB layout recommendations
Once the protection device has been selected, the designer has to pay attention to the
device placement on the board. This is because the device placement has a big impact on
protection efficiency and on parasitic electromagnetic coupling.
5.1
Parasitic inductances of the Transil and the PCB tracks
5.1.1
Parasitic inductance from Transil wiring
Figure 45 provides an example of a protection schematic.
Accessory Connector
Figure 45. Protection circuit schematic using a Transil
Sensitive line
Module to protect
Vnom
Vmax
Transil
Figure 46. shows what happens in the circuit when an over voltage occurs on the sensitive
protected line. The over voltage surge is suppressed by the Transil. When the voltage
reaches the breakdown voltage of the Transil, a current I crosses the protection device and a
residual voltage V is applied at the module input line.
Vs
Accessory Connector
Figure 46. Current and voltage at the Transil termination when a surge is applied
Module to protect
Sensitive line
I
Transil
Vnom
Vmax
V
This is the simple representation of the Transil action but in fact things are more complicated
and the more realistic circuit is given in Figure 47.
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Figure 47. Parasitic elements due to the wiring
Accessory Connector
Parasitic elements
Vs
Module to protect
I
Vnom
Vmax
V1
Transil
Vcl
V=V1+Vcl+V2
V2
Figure 47 shows there are two major parasitic elements:
●
Some parasitic inductance each side of the Transil
●
Some parasitic capacitance between lines
There is also some parasitic inductance brought by the lines themselves. These parasitic
elements cause inductive and capacitive coupling.
These parasitic couplings may induce over voltages or electromagnetic noise on adjacent
lines which have nothing to do with the protected lines.
The parasitic inductance is directly due to the PCB routing. The wiring tracks to the
protection device may drastically affect the efficiency of the protection device.
Consider a 35 µm copper track, 0.3 mm wide (W), spaced at 0.5 mm (h) from a ground
plane (see Figure 48). This gives the ratio h/W of 1.7. Figure 49 (AEMC source) shows, for
an h/W ratio of 1.7, a parasitic inductance of 5 nH/cm.
Figure 48. Double sided PCB structure - single track
w
εr=4.5
h
Figure 49. Inductance variation versus PCB thickness for single copper track
(AEMC source)
L (µH/m) versus h/W
L (µH/m)
1
0.1
0.1
1
h/w
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PCB layout recommendations
Consider the PCB layout example in Figure 50. The lengths of track that connect the Transil
to the sensitive line and the ground line are respectively 10 mm and 6 mm.
These lines show inductances of approximately 5 nH and 3 nH as shown in the schematic in
Figure 51
Figure 50. PCB routing example
10 mm long
Module to protect
TVS in
SMA package
Vnom
Vmax
6 mm long
Figure 51. Parasitic inductance due to the wiring tracks
H ≈ 5 nH
H ≈ 3 nH
When a +25 kV ESD air discharge is applied (ISO 10605) the remaining voltage at the
module to protect is split in three parts as shown in Figure 52.
Figure 52. Parasitic inductance effect on fast transient
L1di/dt
Vcl
L2di/dt
V=L1di/dt+Vcl+L2di/dt
+25kV ESD ISO10605
Module to protect
Vnom
Vmax
The Transil offers a clamping voltage Vcl and an internal resistance “Rd”. Whereas the
inductors bring on over voltage Ldi/dt.
To determine the Ldi/dt voltage
The ESD surge generator has an internal resistor of 2 k. The max Voltage is +25 kV, the
rise time of the surge is specified as tr  1ns
The current that would cross the Transil is:
I =
25000 - Vcl 25000
≈
≈ 12.5 A
2000
2000
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Then
di 12.5
=
⇒ 12.5 * 109 A * s- 1
dt 10- 9
Therefore, for L1, the over voltage is
L1
di
≈ 62.5 V
dt
and for L2 the over voltage is
L2
di
≈ 37.5 V
dt
That means the total over voltage seen by the module would be something close to Vcl +
100 V! This shows that whatever the protection device, if the routing is not optimized there
will be a big impact of the track inductance to the protection device on the remaining voltage
in case of fast transient discharge. Figure 53. illustrates the recommended Transil wiring to
prevent this phenomenon.
Figure 53. Recommended Transil wiring
Module to protect
Transil in
SMA package
Vnom
Vmax
The equivalent schematic diagram for the recommended wiring layout is shown in Figure 54.
Figure 54. Details of the remaining voltage at the module to protect
L1di/dt
L3di’/dt
Vcl
I
L2di/dt
I’
L4di’/dt
V=Vcl -L3di’/dt-L4di’/dt
+25kV ESD ISO10605
L1=L3 & L2=L4
In this layout the remaining voltage at the module to protect is:,
V = Vcl - L3
dI '
dI '
- L4
dt
dt
So, in the worst case (when L3 = L4 = 0), V is equal to VCL.
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Vmax
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5.1.2
PCB layout recommendations
Capacitive and inductive coupling
The parasitic capacitance (see Figure 47) is due to the geometrical conception of the PCB
and the routing together. Figure 55 shows the effective capacitive coupling during surge
suppression.
Figure 55. Capacitive coupling representation
C
V
Vsurge
This parasitic capacitance depends on the PCB and track structures as shown in Figure 56
and Figure 57. This parasitic capacitance is defined by the space between tracks, the track
width and the PCB thickness as well.
Figure 56. Double side PCB structure in coplanar
d
w
εr=4.5
h
Figure 57. Track to track capacitance for double side PCB (source AEMC)
1
Capacitance (pF/cm)
h / w = 0.3
h / w = 0.5
0.3
h/w=1
h/w=2
0.1
h/w=5
h / w = 10
0.03
0.01
0.003
d/h
0.001
0.1
0.3
1
3
10
30
The longer is the line to the protection device, the higher will be the capacitive coupling.
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Inductive coupling is also present on the PCB. This is sometime also called “inductive crosstalk”. When over voltage occurs, a current crosses the track and makes this track radiate.
This coupling depends on the current variation rate (di/dt). The parasitic inductance coupling
is shown in Figure 58.
Figure 58. Inductive coupling representation
e
rg
I su
I
Vsurge
Like capacitive coupling, the longer the tracks to the protection device the larger will be the
electromagnetic field.
The solution to minimize the capacitive and inductive coupling consists of placing the
protection device as close as possible to the accessories connector, where the surge impact
is the most probable. (Figure 59)
Vs
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Accessory Connector
Figure 59. Where to place the protection device
Module to protect
Vnom
Vmax
Transil
V
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AN2689
Parasitic coupling due to the loop-effect
In the presence of electromagnetic fields, caused by relay arcing or antenna emissions for
example, a loop coupling effect may occur as shown in Figure 60 (red dashed line)
Accessory Connector
Figure 60. Loop effect representation
Module to protect
Vnom
Vmax
Transil
V
I
Hazard
source
This coupling is dependent on the loop size and the source distance (see Figure 61).
Figure 61. Electromagnetic field applied to a loop
E,H
h
U
L
The loop effect voltage U is given by
U=
2 π LhE
[
][
λ 1 + (4 L λ )2 1 + (4 h λ )2
]
Where H is the magnetic field, E the electric field and  the wavelength.
U is in Volts, L, h and  are in meters and E in Volt/meter
The lower the L and h values, the smaller would be the voltage U. That means the smaller
would be the parasitic coupling. So the solution is to minimize the track loop between the
protection device and the module as shown in Figure 62.
Module to protect
Vnom
Vmax
Transil
Accessory Connector
Figure 62. Loop optimization
Accessory Connector
5.1.3
PCB layout recommendations
Big loop
Module to protect
Vnom
Vmax
Transil
Small loop
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Conclusion
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Figure 63 shows a recommended PCB layout using a protection device close to the
accessories connector, and with the track loop to the module to protect minimized.
Accessory connector
Figure 63. Placement and routing of a protection device
6
Module to protect
Transil
Vnom
Vmax
Conclusion
Because the automotive environment is a major source of electrical hazards and electronic
equipment is becoming more sensitive, caution must be taken when electronic modules are
designed.
It is therefore very common to use protection devices to ensure the modules and systems
are safe from all hazards generated inside the vehicle.
The choice of the protection device is not easy, and moreover, surges are not well defined
even by the standards. This document helps the electronic module designer in the selection
of the protection device.
Calculations are sometimes good enough to dimension the protection device but in some
cases the surges in practice have to be monitored to determine the best protection.
Some worked examples are given in this document, particularly for the IEC 10605 and ISO
7637-2, pulse 2 and pulse 5a. Thus the way these cases are treated offers the designer a
starting point for other kinds of surge, which are yet to be defined.
Beyond the guidance offered for choosing protection devices on the basis of standard
surges, other advice is given at the same time such as the protection device routing on PCB,
the PCB layout optimization, and the protection device placement.
As a result this document should be helpful in all automotive protection design approaches.
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Revision history
Revision history
Table 8.
Document revision history
Date
Revision
Changes
21-Feb-2008
1
Initial release.
30-Mar-2010
2
Updated Figure 3 to include IEC 61000 references.
26-Oct-2012
3
Updated example product part numbers.
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AN2689
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