AN-940: 低噪声放大器选择指南 (Rev. A)

AN-940
ᆌᆩԴऻ
One Technology Way t P.O. B ox 9106 t Norwood, MA 02062-9106 t Tel: 781/329-4700 t Fax: 781/326-8703 t www.analog.com
ፌॅሯำႠీǖ‫گ‬ሯำ‫ٷݣ‬ഗ჋ስኸళ
ፕኁǖPaul Lee
०঻
‫ړ‬ኍ‫گܔ‬ሯำᆌᆩೠࠚ‫ٷݣ‬ഗ‫ڦ‬Ⴀీ้Lj੊୯ᅺ໎ኮᅃ๟
ሯำLjԈઔాևሯำࢅྔևሯำăԨᆌᆩԴऻॽ०ᄲ༑༪
ᆶ࠲ాևࢅྔևሯำ‫ڦ‬एԨᇱ૙Ljժኸ‫؜‬ሞྺ‫گ‬ሯำยऺ
჋ስፌॅ‫ٷݣ‬ഗ้ภत‫ڦڟ‬඄࢚࿚༶ă
ྔևሯำ
ాևࢅྔևሯำᇸኮक़٪ሞᅃۨ൶՚ăྔևሯำ੗ᅜԈઔ
ඪࢆྔևᆖၚLjԲසྔևഗॲࢅ‫ۉ‬ഘ/‫߅ىۉ‬ඡ‫ڪ‬ă߅ඡ๟
ኸᅜ‫ۉ‬უई‫ୁۉ‬ႚ๕٪ሞ‫ڦ‬ඪࢆ࿮ᆩ႑ࡽLj़੗ీ٪ሞᇀ
‫ٷݣ‬ഗᆅগ‫ت‬Ljᄺ੗ీ٪ሞᇀ၎࠲‫ۉڦ‬ୟዐă߅ඡ੗ీ՗
၄ྺॖ‫ރ‬Ă঩ሂĂኟ၀հࢅໜऐሯำ‫ڪ‬ă߅ඡ੗ᅜઠጲඪ
ࢆ‫ݛں‬ǖऐႁĂଣৎ‫ۉ‬૰၍Ăพೕ݀พഗईথ๭ഗĂऺ໙
ऐฯ዁ཞᅃยԢዐ‫ۉڦ‬ୟ)नຕጴ‫ۉ‬ୟईਸ࠲႙‫ۉ‬ᇸ*ăन
๑्ย੗ᅜཚࡗዜ௢‫ڦ‬ยऺࢅ/ई‫ۉ‬ୟӱքਆք၍ઠၩ‫أ‬໯
ᆶ߅ඡLj‫ٷݣ‬ഗतഄ၎࠲‫ۉ‬ୟዐ‫ڦ‬ഗॲධ඗ׂࣷิໜऐሯ
ำă
ዜྷ‫ۉ‬ୟഗॲׂิ‫ڦ‬ሯำᄺՂႷ੊୯ă‫ړ‬࿒‫ߛ܈‬ᇀਨ‫ܔ‬ଭ
‫้܈‬Lj໯ᆶ‫ۉ‬ፆ‫ۼ‬๟ሯำᇸLjኄ๟ᆯᇀሜࢁጱׂิඤሏ‫ۯ‬
ܸሰ‫ڦׯ‬঳ࡕLj‫ྺ׬‬ሀࡪსሯำईඤሯำăኄዖሯำໜ‫ۉ‬
ፆĂ࿒‫ڦ੻ټࢅ܈‬ሺेܸืߛă‫ۉ‬უࢅ‫ୁۉ‬ሯำ‫ऺڦ‬໙ࠅ
๕සူ໯๖ǖ
Vn = 4kTBR
ഄዐǖ
Vn๟‫ۉ‬უሯำă
k՗๖իܻጦத‫׉‬ຕ(1.38 × 10-23 J/K)ă
T՗๖ਨ‫ܔ‬࿒‫ڇ)܈‬࿋ǖKelvin*ă
B՗๖‫ڇ)੻ټ‬࿋ǖHz*ă
R՗๖‫ۉ‬ፆ)‫ڇ‬࿋ǖΩ*ă
(1 )
In =
4kTB
R
(2 )
ഄዐǖ
In๟‫ۉ‬უሯำă
k՗๖իܻጦத‫׉‬ຕ(1.38 × 10-23 J/K)ă
T՗๖ਨ‫ܔ‬࿒‫ڇ)܈‬࿋ǖKelvin*ă
B՗๖‫ڇ)੻ټ‬࿋ǖHz*ă
R՗๖‫ۉ‬ፆ)‫ڇ‬࿋ǖΩ*ă
ᅃӯܸჾLjሞ๪࿒ူLjᅃ߲1 kΩ‫ۉ‬ፆ‫ڦ‬ሯำሀྺ4 nV/√Hză
ሞ৊ႜศ෇‫ݴ‬ဆ้Lj࣏Ⴔ੊୯‫ۉ‬ፆ‫ڦ‬ഄ໱ሯำᇸLjස‫ۅة‬
ሯำĂො૭ሯำᅜतᇑ༬ۨ‫ۉ‬ፆ႙ࡽ၎࠲‫ڦ‬सิሯำăሞ
ԨᆌᆩԴऻዐLj࿢்ኻ༪ஃሀࡪსሯำLjᅺྺኄዖሯำᇑ
‫ۉ‬ፆኵ‫ڦ‬ೝ‫ߵݛ‬๟‫ׯ‬Բ૩‫ڦ‬ă
‫ੇۉ‬փׂࣷิሯำLj‫ڍ‬ཚࡗ‫ڦੇۉ‬ሯำ‫ୁۉ‬ඐׂࣷิሯำ
‫ۉ‬უࢅ၎࠲सิሯำă
ᄲই‫ۉگ‬ୟ๼‫ڦ؜‬ሯำLj੗ཚࡗই‫ۉگ‬ୟዐ‫ڦ‬ഗॲጺ‫ۉ‬ፆ
ई၌዆‫ۉ‬ୟ‫੻ټ‬ă඗ܸLjই‫گ‬࿒‫܈‬ᅃӯᆩ‫ت‬փ‫ٷ‬Lj‫ీݥأ‬
๑‫ۉ‬ፆ࿒‫܈‬ই዁ट‫ڦگ‬຤ೝLjᅺྺሯำࠀ୲๟ᇑਨ‫ܔ‬࿒‫܈‬
‫ׯ‬Բ૩‫ڦ‬Lj
T(x)DŽ‫ڇ‬࿋ǖKelvinDž= x°C + 273.15°
(3)
‫ۉ‬ୟዐ‫ڦ‬໯ᆶ‫ۉ‬ፆ਩ׂࣷิሯำLjՂႷ๔ዕ੊୯໲்‫ڦ‬ᆖ
ၚăํाฉLjኻᆶ๼෇ࢅ‫ݒ‬ઍཚ‫ڢ‬ዐ‫ۉڦ‬ፆ)ཚ‫׉‬ሞߛሺᅮ
ದዃዐ*ᆶ੗ీ‫ۉܔ‬ୟጺሯำׂิড‫ڦٷ‬ᆖၚăሯำ़੗ණ
ྺઠጲ‫ୁۉ‬ᇸLjᄺ੗ණྺઠጲ‫ۉ‬უᇸ)ሞ़ۨ‫ۉ‬ୟዐLjྫྫ
֑ᆩᅃዖՍᇀ‫ت‬૙‫ڦ‬ႚ๕*ă
Rev. A | Page 1 of 12
AN-940
Application Note
ణ୤
०঻ ..................................................................................................... 1
“Ԗ௝ࢾ”ሯำ ............................................................................. 5
ྔևሯำ ............................................................................................ 1
۠ेሯำᇸ ................................................................................ 5
ాևሯำ ............................................................................................ 3
ሯำሺᅮ .................................................................................... 6
຺ૌాևሯำ .................................................................................... 4
჋ስ‫گ‬ሯำሏ໙‫ٷݣ‬ഗ ................................................................ 7
ችࢇ‫ڟ‬๼෇‫ۉڦ܋‬უሯำ ....................................................... 4
঳ஃ ..................................................................................................... 9
ችࢇ‫ڟ‬๼෇‫ୁۉڦ܋‬ሯำ ....................................................... 4
֖੊ጨଙ ........................................................................................... 12
෻ຮሯำ .................................................................................... 5
Rev. A | Page 2 of 12
Application Note
AN-940
ాևሯำ
‫ٷݣ‬ഗ‫ాڦ‬ևሯำ੗‫ݴ‬ᅜူबૌǖ
ሞ‫ٷݣ‬ഗ๼‫܋؜‬Ljሯำཚ‫׉‬ᅜ‫ۉ‬უ‫ڦ‬ႚ๕՗၄‫؜‬ઠLj඗
ܸLjኄዖሯำඐ๟‫ۉ‬უᇸࢅ‫ୁۉ‬ᇸࠌཞׂิ‫ڦ‬ăᅃӯઠ
঄Lj໯ᆶాևሯำᇸ‫ۼ‬ԥች໙‫ڟ‬๼෇‫܋‬Ljᄺ৽๟ຫLjాև
ሯำᇸ‫ۼ‬ԥ‫ړ‬ፕᇑ૙ၙ‫ڦ‬࿮ሯำ‫ٷݣ‬ഗ‫ڦ‬๼෇၎‫૴ز‬ईժ
૴‫ڦ‬փ၎࠲ई‫܀‬૬‫ڦ‬ໜऐሯำ݀ิഗ)९཮1*ăᆯᇀኄၵሯ
ำᇸԥ๫ྺໜऐሯำLjժ/ई՗၄ྺፏთߛຯ‫ݴ‬քLjᅺُLj
ሞ۠ेሯำᇸ้LjႴᄲ༬՚ጀᅪLjၘဦాඹස“۠ेሯำ
ᇸ”ᅃব໯ຎă
• ችࢇ‫ڟ‬๼෇‫ۉڦ܋‬უሯำ
සࡕཞᅃ߲ሯำሞ‫ۉ‬ୟዐ‫؜‬၄ሞ2߲ईᅜฉ‫)ۅڦ‬ԲසLj๼
෇ೋዃ‫ୁۉ‬ց‫ۉ׋‬ୟ*Ljఫ஺ኄଇ߲ሯำᇸྺ၎࠲ሯำᇸLj
ሞ‫ݴ‬ဆሯำ‫ࢪ้ڦ‬Ljᆌ޿੊୯‫ڟ‬၎࠲ሯำ۠ेᅺጱ‫ڦ‬ᅺ
໎ăኄೊᆌᆩԴऻժுᆶ߸‫ڦܠ‬༪ஃ၎࠲ሯำLjᅺྺᅃӯ
൧઄ူ၎࠲ሯำᇸ‫ڦ‬ᆖၚᅃӯ‫ۼ‬ၭᇀ10%ईኁ15%Ljժ൐
ྫྫ੗ᅜԥู୼ۖă
• ችࢇ‫ڟ‬๼෇‫ୁۉڦ܋‬ሯำ
• ො૭ሯำ
• “Ԗ௝ࢾ”ሯำ
ችࢇ‫ڟ‬๼෇‫ۉڦ܋‬უሯำࢅችࢇ‫ڟ‬๼෇‫ୁۉڦ܋‬ሯำ๟‫ݣ‬
‫ٷ‬ഗሯำ‫ݴ‬ဆዐፌ‫׉‬९‫ڦ‬ኸՔăཚ‫ۨ׉‬ᅭྺችࢇ‫ڟ‬๼෇‫܋‬
‫ڦ‬೷௢‫ࡧ܈‬ຕईΔf‫੻ټ‬ዐ໯Ԉࡤ‫ڦ‬਩‫(ߵݛ‬RMS)ሯำኵLj
ᅃӯᅜnV/√Hz)‫ۉ‬უሯำ*ईpA/√Hz)‫ୁۉ‬ሯำ*ྺ‫ڇ‬࿋ă๑
ᆩ/√Hz‫ڦ‬ᇱᅺሞᇀLjሯำࠀ୲ໜ‫(੻ټ‬Hz)ܸሺेLjईኁLj
‫ۉ‬უࢅ‫ୁۉ‬ሯำ௢‫܈‬ໜ‫ڦ੻ټ‬ೝ‫ߵݛ‬ኵ(√Hz)ܸሺे)९ࠅ
๕1ࢅࠅ๕2*ă
Rev. A | Page 3 of 12
AN-940
Application Note
຺ૌాևሯำ
Ԩবॽ঻ถችࢇ‫ڟ‬๼෇‫ۉڦ܋‬უሯำĂችࢇ‫ڟ‬๼෇‫ۉڦ܋‬
ୁሯำĂ෻ຮሯำࢅ“Ԗ௝ࢾ”ሯำă
en
+
–
in
in
R2
ችࢇ‫ڟ‬๼෇‫ୁۉڦ܋‬ሯำ(in)ཚ‫׉‬՗၄ྺཚࡗଇֶ߲‫ݴ‬๼෇
‫܋‬๼‫ڦୁۉ؜‬ଇ߲ሯำ‫ୁۉ‬ᇸă
ො૭ሯำ)ᆶ้‫ྺ׬‬ၰ༬एሯำ*๟ᆯᇀୁࡗగ߲๞ૉ)සᅃ
߲PN঳*‫ୁۉڦ‬ዐ‫ڦ‬ሜࢁጱໜऐ‫ݴ‬քׂܸิ‫ୁۉڦ‬ሯำă
ො૭ሯำ‫(ୁۉ‬in)ཚࡗᅜူࠅ๕ऺ໙‫؜ڥ‬ǖ
R1
in = 2 I B qB
07053-001
–+
RS
ችࢇ‫ڟ‬๼෇‫ୁۉڦ܋‬ሯำ
཮1 ሏ໙‫ٷݣ‬ഗሯำఇ႙
ችࢇ‫ڟ‬๼෇‫ۉڦ܋‬უሯำ
ችࢇ‫ڟ‬๼෇‫ۉڦ܋‬უሯำ(en)ཚ‫׉‬ԥ๫ྺᅃዖሯำ‫ۉ‬უᇸ
‫ۉ‬უሯำ๟ঢ়‫׉‬ԥഽۙ‫ڦ‬ሯำኸՔǗ඗ܸLjසࡕ๼෇ፆੇ
ডߛLj‫ୁۉ‬ሯำྫྫࣷ‫ྺׯ‬ဣཥሯำႠీ‫ڦ‬዆ሀᅺ໎ăኄ
ᇑ฿ۙ‫ۉ‬უटྺૌຼLj๼෇฿ۙ‫ۉ‬უཚ‫ྺׯ׉‬๼‫؜‬฿ۙ‫ڦ‬
༺ፍᄜLjܸํाฉLj‫ړ‬๼෇ፆੇডߛ้Ljሰ‫ׯ‬๼‫؜‬฿ۙ‫ڦ‬
ፍઋऌ๯๟ೋዃ‫ୁۉ‬ă
ഄዐǖ
IB՗๖ೋዃ‫ڇ)ୁۉ‬࿋ǖA*ă
q՗๖‫ۉ‬ጱ‫ڇ)ࢁۉ‬࿋ǖ1.6 × 10-19 C*ă
B՗๖‫ڇ)੻ټ‬࿋ǖHz*ă
०‫ڇ‬ມट႙ࢅJFETሏ໙‫ٷݣ‬ഗ‫ୁۉڦ‬ሯำཚ‫׉‬ሞ๼෇ೋዃ
‫ڦୁۉ‬ො૭ሯำ‫ڦ‬1 dBई2 dBኮాă޿ኸՔժփঢ়‫׉‬ଚᇀຕ
਍๮֩ኮዐă
‫ܔ‬ᇀችࢇ‫ڟ‬๼෇‫ڦ܋‬ሯำLjႴጀᅪᅜူब‫ۅ‬ǖ
•
‫ܔ‬ᇀችࢇ‫ڟ‬๼෇‫ۉڦ܋‬უሯำLjႴጀᅪᅜူब‫ۅ‬ǖ
• ‫ܔ‬ᇀፌߛႠీ‫ڦ‬ሏ໙‫ٷݣ‬ഗLj‫ۉ‬უሯำ੗ీ‫گ‬ᇀ1 nV/√Hză
• ມट႙ሏ໙‫ٷݣ‬ഗ‫ۉڦ‬უሯำࣷ‫گ‬ᇀFETሏ໙‫ٷݣ‬ഗLj
‫ڍ‬๟ഄ‫ୁۉ‬ሯำࣷ௽၂ড‫ٷ‬ă
• ມट႙‫ٷݣ‬ഗ‫ڦ‬ሯำ༬Ⴀൽਦᇀৢༀ‫ୁۉ‬ă
• ၄ሞ‫ڦ‬FETሏ໙‫ٷݣ‬ഗీࠕሞइ‫ୁۉگڥ‬ሯำ‫ڦ‬ཞ้Lj
इ‫ڥ‬ᇑມट႙‫ٷݣ‬ഗႠీ၎ৎ‫ۉگڦ‬უሯำLj‫ړ‬඗ᇑ
ፌࡻ‫ڦ‬ມट႙๼෇‫ٷݣ‬ഗ࣏ᆶᅃၵֶਐă
(4 )
‫ۆ‬႙‫ڦ‬ມट႙ৗ༹࠶ሏ໙‫ٷݣ‬ഗLjසOP27Lj‫ୁۉ‬ሯำྺ
400 fA/√Hz, IB = 10 nA.‫أ‬ೋዃ‫ୁۉ‬ց‫ٷݣ׋‬ഗྔLjփࣷ
ໜ࿒‫ޗٷิܸ݀܈‬Վࣅă
• JFET๼෇ሏ໙‫ٷݣ‬ഗ)සAD8610ǖ5 fA/√HzLjഄዐLjIB =
10 pA*‫ୁۉڦ‬ሯำ৑࠶ฎ‫گ‬Lj‫ڍ‬ႊೌ࿒‫܈‬௅ሺे20°CLj
ഄ‫ୁۉ‬ሯำ৽ࣷሺेᅃԠLjᅺྺ࿒‫܈‬௅ሺे10°CLj
JFETሏ໙‫ٷݣ‬ഗ‫ڦ‬ೋዃ‫ࣷୁۉ‬ሺेᅃԠă
• ‫د‬ཥ‫ټڦ‬ೝ࢚๼෇‫ۉڦ‬უ‫ݒ‬ઍሏ໙‫ٷݣ‬ഗཚ‫׉‬ሞഄ‫ݒ‬၎
ࢅཞ၎๼෇‫܋‬ਏᆶ၎‫)ڦڪ‬၎࠲ईփ၎࠲‫ୁۉ*ڦ‬ሯำă
• Ⴙ‫ٷݣܠ‬ഗLjᆮഄ๟ఫၵ‫ټ‬๼෇ೋዃ‫ୁۉ‬ၩ‫ۉأ‬ୟ‫ݣڦ‬
‫ٷ‬ഗLjഄ၎࠲ሯำ‫ݴׯ‬Բփ၎࠲ሯำ‫ܠڥٷݴׯ‬ăጺ
༹ܸჾLj੗ཚࡗཁेፆੇೝ࢚‫ۉ‬ፆ)๑ኟ޶๼෇ᆅগฉ
‫ڦ‬ፆੇ၎೅ದ*ઠ߀฀ሯำႠీă
Rev. A | Page 4 of 12
Application Note
AN-940
෻ຮሯำ
“Ԗ௝ࢾ”ሯำ
ሏ໙‫ٷݣ‬ഗ‫ڦ‬ሯำਏᆶߛຯ༬ႠLjഄ೷௢‫)܈‬ӣሯำ*ሞড
੻ೕ୲‫ྺాྷݔ‬ᅃ߲‫׉‬ຕăໜጣೕ୲‫ူڦ‬ইLj๴዆ሰ߾
ᅝĂICഗॲքਆࢅഗॲૌ႙‫ڦ‬ᆖၚLj೷௢‫ॽ܈‬ਸ๔Ӏᅜူ
໏୲ืߛǖ3 dB/Ԡೕ‫)ײ‬CMOS‫ٷݣ‬ഗ*Ǘ3.5 dB዁4.5 dB/Ԡೕ
‫)ײ‬ມट႙‫ٷݣ‬ഗ*Ǘईፌߛ5 dB/Ԡೕ‫)ײ‬JFET‫ٷݣ‬ഗ*ă
“Ԗ௝ࢾ”ሯำᅨ‫ྺ׬‬ໜऐሯำLj๟฿ۙ‫ۉ‬უई‫཭ڦୁۉ‬඗
ՎࣅLj‫׼‬Ⴤ้क़ྺຕྲ௱Ljና‫ٗޗ‬बμV‫ڟ‬बӥμVփ‫ڪ‬ă
ኄዖԖଛई“Ԗ௝ࢾ”ሯำ๟ໜऐ‫ڦ‬ăཚ‫׉‬Lj‫گ‬࿒ࢅߛᇸፆ
ੇཉॲူፌᅟᇀׂิ“Ԗ௝ࢾ”ሯำă৑࠶‫ڞ‬ዂ“Ԗ௝ࢾሯ
ำ”‫ߵڦ‬Ԩᇱᅺժփ๟ਨ‫ڦܔ‬Lj‫ڍ‬ৗ߭ዐ٪ሞ‫ূڦ‬ຌ࿫ක
ᅜतాևई՗௬ඍ။‫ۼ‬੗ీ๑ICׂิ“Ԗ௝ࢾ”ईԖଛሯ
ำă໚඗ሞ၄‫پ‬ৗᇶ዆ሰዐLjට்ࢾକ‫ٷ‬ଉ৛૰ઠ३ณ
“Ԗ௝ࢾ”ሯำ‫ߵڦ‬ᇸLj‫ྜڍ‬ඇߵ‫أ‬๟փ੗ీ‫ڦ‬ă߸ศ෇‫ڦ‬
‫ܔ‬Ԗ௝ࢾሯำ‫ݴڦ‬ဆᅙঢ়‫؜ג‬କ࿢்ኄೊ࿔ቤႴᄲ༑༪‫ڦ‬
‫ྷݔ‬ă
ኄዖ‫گ‬ೕሯำ༬Ⴀԥ‫ྺ׬‬෻ຮሯำई1/fሯำLjᅺྺሯำࠀ
୲೷௢‫܈‬ᇑೕ୲‫ݒװ‬Բ࠲ဣ(1/f)ăሞ‫ܔ‬ຕፖՔ཮ዐၽ୲ྺ-1ă
-3 dB/Ԡೕ‫)ײ‬CMOSૌ‫ٷݣ‬ഗ*‫ླྀྔڦ‬೷௢‫܈‬၍ᇑ੻‫׉ټ‬ຕ೷
௢‫܈‬ኵ၎঍‫ڦ‬ೕ୲ԥ‫ྺ׬‬1/f࠯ঙೕ୲Ljܸ൐๟‫ٷݣ‬ഗ‫ڦ‬ᅃ
߲೗ዊᅺຕ)९཮2*ăມट႙ࢅJFET‫ٷݣ‬ഗ‫ڦ‬1/f࠯ঙೕ୲ཚ
‫گ׉‬ᇀCMOS‫ٷݣ‬ഗă
۠ेሯำᇸ
සࡕሯำᇸփ၎࠲)नᅃዖሯำ႑ࡽ࿮݆ገ࣑ྺଷᅃዖሯำ
႑ࡽ*Lj၎े‫ڦ‬঳ࡕժփ‫ڪ‬ᇀഄ໙ຍࢅLjܸ๟‫ڪ‬ᇀഄೝ‫ࢅݛ‬
‫ڦ‬ೝ‫ߵݛ‬ă
100
EXTRAPOLATED 1/f
SPECTRAL NOISE DENSITY
1
EXTRAPOLATED
CONSTANT SPECTRAL
NOISE DENSITY
1/f CORNER FREQUENCY
1
10
100
FREQUENCY (Hz)
཮2 ሯำ೷௢‫܈‬
൩ጀᅪᅜူ๚ၜǖ
1k
10k
t ཞ၎๼෇ዐ‫ڦ‬ඪࢆ‫ۉ‬ፆ‫ۼ‬ਏᆶሀࡪსሯำLjժॽ‫ୁۉ‬ሯ
ำገ࣑ྺ‫ۉ‬უሯำă
t ሞߛፆੇ‫ۉ‬ୟዐLj‫ݒ‬ઍ‫ۉ‬ፆዐ‫ڦ‬ሀࡪსሯำᆶ੗ీׂิ
ড‫ٷ‬ᆖၚă
཮3ᅜࠎࠣۨ૙኱࠵ቛ๖କࠅ๕5ዐ‫ڦ‬ၠଉ൱ࢅ݆ă
Vni, TOTAL
en
Vn (REX)
RS × in
཮3 ሯำᇸၠଉ൱ࢅ
Rev. A | Page 5 of 12
07053-006
0.1
0.1
(5)
ഄዐǖ
Vni, TOTAL՗๖ችࢇ‫ڟ‬๼෇‫(܋‬RTI)‫ڦ‬ጺሯำă
en՗๖ችࢇ‫ڟ‬๼෇‫ۉڦ܋‬უሯำă
in՗๖ችࢇ‫ڟ‬๼෇‫ୁۉڦ܋‬ሯำă
RS՗๖‫ٷݣ‬ഗ‫ڪڦ‬ၳᇸ‫ۉ‬ፆई๼෇‫ۉ‬ፆă
Vn (REX)՗๖ઠጲྔև‫ۉ‬ୟ‫ۉڦ‬უሯำă
10
07053-005
VOLTAGE NOISE (nV/ Hz)
Vni,TOTAL = (en) 2 + (RS × in) 2 + Vn(REX) 2
AN-940
Application Note
OP AMP
NOISE MODEL
COMBINED RTI NOISE
(Vni, TOTAL)
en
+
RESISTOR
NOISE RS
–
RESISTOR
NOISE
R2
–+
in
+
–
in
R1
RESISTOR
NOISE
R1
R2
07053-007
–+
཮4 ०ࣅ‫ٷݣ‬ഗሯำ‫ۉ‬ୟ
ᅜฉ༪ஃ‫߳ڦ‬ዖ‫ٷݣ‬ഗ‫ۉ‬ୟሯำ੗ࡃྺችࢇ‫ڟ‬๼෇‫(܋‬RTI)
‫ڦ‬ሯำăᄲऺ໙‫ٷݣ‬ഗ‫ۉ‬ୟ‫ڦ‬ጺ๼‫؜‬ሯำLjՂႷᆩ‫ٷݣ‬ഗ
‫ۉ‬ୟ‫ڦ‬ሯำሺᅮ‫ױ‬ᅜ๼෇ዐ‫ڦ‬ጺࢇ‫ׯ‬ሯำăሯำሺᅮ๟‫ݣ‬
‫ٷ‬ഗ‫ۉ‬ୟችࢇ‫ڟ‬๼෇‫ڦ܋‬ሯำ‫ڦ‬ሺᅮLjཚ‫׉‬ᆩઠಒ܏‫ٷݣ‬
ഗ‫ۉ‬ୟ‫ڦ‬࿘ۨႠă
ሞగၵ൧઄ူLjሯำሺᅮࢅ႑ࡽሺᅮժփ၎‫(ڪ‬९཮5)ăႴ
ጀᅪ‫ڦ‬๟LjԿ࣍‫੻ټ‬ཚࡗᆩሺᅮ‫੻ټ‬ओ(ई‫ڇ‬࿋ሺᅮೕ୲)
‫أ‬ᅜ‫ٷݣ‬ഗ‫ۉ‬ୟ‫ڦ‬ሯำሺᅮઠऺ໙ă
NOISE
SOURCE
ྺକ०ࣅሯำሺᅮऺ໙Lj੗ᅜॽ཮1໯๖‫ٷݣ‬ഗ‫ۉ‬ୟ०཮
ዐ‫ڦ‬ሯำᇸ०ࣅྺᅃ߲RTIጺሯำᇸ(Vni, TOTAL)Ljස཮4໯๖ă
ᅃዖ‫׉‬९ፔ݆๟ॽጺࢇ‫ׯ‬RTIሯำᅃْႠችࢇ‫ٷݣڟ‬ഗ‫ڦ‬
ཞ၎๼෇‫܋‬ă
Vno,TOTAL = GN × Vni,TOTAL
ഄዐǖ
Vno, TOTAL՗๖ችࢇ‫ڟ‬๼‫)܋؜‬SUP*‫ڦ‬ጺሯำă
Vni, TOTAL՗๖ችࢇ‫ڟ‬๼෇‫)܋‬SUJ*‫ڦ‬ጺሯำă
!
R1
GN = 1 +
R2
+
CASE 1:
SIGNAL
SOURCE
–
CASE 2:
SIGNAL
SOURCE
R2
R1
07053-008
ሯำሺᅮ
཮5. ႑ࡽሺᅮᇑሯำሺᅮ
൧ႚ1ǖሞཞ၎ದዃዐLj႑ࡽሺᅮࢅሯำሺᅮ‫ڪۼ‬ᇀ1 + R1/R2ă
൧ႚ2ǖሞ‫ݒ‬၎ದዃዐLj႑ࡽሺᅮ‫ڪ‬ᇀ–(R1/R2)Ljܸሯำሺ
ᅮධ‫ڪ‬ᇀ1 + R1/R2ă
ഄዐǖ
GN՗๖ሯำሺᅮă
R1՗๖‫ݒ‬ઍ‫ڪ‬ၳፆੇă
R2՗๖๼෇‫ڪ‬ၳፆੇ
Rev. A | Page 6 of 12
Application Note
AN-940
჋ስ‫گ‬ሯำሏ໙‫ٷݣ‬ഗ
සࡕగ߲‫ٷݣ‬ഗ‫ڦ‬ሯำࠋ၅၎‫ܔ‬ᇀᇸ‫ۉ‬ፆ੗ᅜࢮ୼փऺLj
ሶ੗ཚࡗሏ໙‫ٷݣ‬ഗ‫ڦ‬೗ዊᅺຕRS, OPઠ৊ႜ჋ስăኄ੗ᅜཚ
ࡗ‫ٷݣ‬ഗ‫ڦ‬ሯำኸՔઠऺ໙ǖ
සࡕൻ‫ۯ‬ᅃ߲‫ټ‬ᆶᅃۨᇸ‫ۉ‬ፆ‫ڦ‬ሏ໙‫ٷݣ‬ഗLj‫ڪ‬ၳሯำ๼
෇ሶ‫ڪ‬ᇀᅜူ߳ၜೝ‫ڦࢅݛ‬ೝ‫ߵݛ‬ǖ‫ٷݣ‬ഗ‫ۉڦ‬უሯำǗ
ᇸ‫ۉ‬ፆׂิ‫ۉڦ‬უǗᅜतୁࡗᇸፆੇ‫ٷݣڦ‬ഗ‫ୁۉ‬ሯำ໯
ׂิ‫ۉڦ‬უă
RS , OP =
සࡕᇸ‫ۉ‬ፆ࢔ၭLjሶᇸ‫ۉ‬ፆׂิ‫ڦ‬ሯำࢅ‫ٷݣ‬ഗ‫ୁۉڦ‬ሯ
ำ‫ܔ‬ጺሯำ‫ڦ‬ᆖၚփ‫ٷ‬ăኄዖ൧઄ူLj๼෇‫ڦ܋‬ሯำํा
ฉኻ๟ሏ໙‫ٷݣ‬ഗ‫ۉڦ‬უሯำă
en
in
(7)
ഄዐǖ
en՗๖ችࢇ‫ڟ‬๼෇‫ۉڦ܋‬უሯำă
in՗๖ችࢇ‫ڟ‬๼෇‫ୁۉڦ܋‬ሯำă
සࡕᇸ‫ۉ‬ፆড‫ٷ‬Ljᇸ‫ۉ‬ፆ‫ڦ‬ሀࡪსሯำ੗ీᇺߛᇀሏ໙‫ݣ‬
‫ٷ‬ഗ‫ۉڦ‬უሯำࢅᆯ‫ୁۉ‬ሯำׂิ‫ۉڦ‬უă‫ڍ‬ႴᄲጀᅪLj
ᆯᇀሀࡪსሯำৈໜ‫ۉ‬ፆ‫ڦ‬ೝ‫ܸߵݛ‬ሺ‫׊‬Ljܸ๴‫ୁۉ‬ሯำ
ᆖၚ‫ڦ‬ሯำ‫ۉ‬უᇑ๼෇ፆੇ‫ׯ‬ኟԲ࠲ဣLjᅺܸ‫ܔ‬ᇀ๼෇ፆ
ੇኵፁࠕߛ‫ڦ‬൧઄Lj‫ٷݣ‬ഗ‫ୁۉڦ‬ሯำॽ‫ྺׯ‬ዷ‫ڞ‬ă‫ݣړ‬
‫ٷ‬ഗ‫ۉڦ‬უࢅ‫ୁۉ‬ሯำፁࠕߛ้Ljሞඪࢆ๼෇‫ۉ‬ፆኵ൧઄
ူLjሀࡪსሯำ‫ۼ‬փࣷ๟ዷ‫ڞ‬ă
཮6ߴ‫ڦ؜‬๟1 KHzူLj‫ܠ‬ዖADIߛუ)ፌߛ44 V*ሏ໙‫ٷݣ‬ഗ
‫ۉڦ‬უሯำ௢‫ܔ܈‬ᇑRS, OP࠲ဣ‫ڦ‬ԲডLj1 kHzăၽ၍၂๖କ
ᇑ‫ۉ‬ፆ၎࠲‫ڦ‬ሀࡪსሯำă
100
f = 1kHz
en @ 1kHz
JOHNSON NOISE LINE
OF SOURCE RESISTANCE
OP285
OP467
OP271
VOLTAGE NOISE (nV/ Hz)
10
OP275
AD8610/
AD8620
OPx177
OP213
OPx84
OP270
OP27/OP37
AD743/AD745
ADA4004-4
AD8597/AD8599
1
0.1
10
100
1k
10k
SOURCE RESISTANCE (Ω )
཮ 6 ADIࠅິ‫ٷݣڦ‬ഗሯำፖՔ཮
Rev. A | Page 7 of 12
100k
1M
07053-002
AD797
AN-940
Application Note
ߵ਍ሏ໙‫ٷݣ‬ഗຕ਍๮֩ዐ‫ڦ‬ຕ਍)९཮8*Lj੗ᅜྺగ߲჋
ۨೕ୲዆ፕૌຼ‫ڦ‬൸၍཮ă૩සLjAD8599‫ڦ‬ችࢇ‫ڟ‬๼෇‫܋‬
‫ۉڦ‬უሯำሀྺ1.07 nV/√HzLjችࢇ‫ڟ‬๼෇‫ୁۉڦ܋‬ሯำྺ
2.3 pA/√Hz)1 kHz*ăഄRs,OPኵሀྺ465 Ω)1 kHz*ăଷྔLjႴᄲ
ጀᅪᅜူब‫ۅ‬ǖ
2. ሞሀࡪსሯำ၍ฉඓۨߴۨᇸ‫ۉ‬ፆ‫ڦ‬࿋ዃLjස1 kΩă
t ᇑ޿ഗॲ၎࠲‫ڦ‬ሀࡪსሯำ‫ڪ‬ၳᇀሀྺ69.6 Ω‫ڦ‬ᇸ‫ۉ‬ፆ
)९཮6*ă
࿋ᇀ၍ཉᆸူ‫ٷݣڦݛ‬ഗ਩ྺ๢ᆩᇀణՔยऺ‫ڦ‬ᆫዊ‫گ‬ሯ
ำሏ໙‫ٷݣ‬ഗLjස཮3ᅽᆖև‫ݴ‬໯๖ă
t ‫ܔ‬ᇀ‫ࡗג‬465 Ω‫ڦ‬ᇸ‫ۉ‬ፆLj‫ٷݣ‬ഗ‫ୁۉ‬ሯำׂิ‫ڦ‬ሯำ‫ۉ‬
უࣷ‫ࡗג‬ᇸ‫ۉ‬ፆׂิ‫ڦ‬ሯำ‫ۉ‬უǗ‫ٷݣ‬ഗ‫ୁۉڦ‬ሯำ
‫ྺׯ‬ዷᄲሯำᇸă
ሞ ཮ 7໯ ๖ ૩ ጱ ዐ Lj ๢ ᆩ ᇀ ణ Ք ย ऺ ‫ ڦ‬ᆫ ዊ ׂ ೗ ᆶ ǖ
AD8597Ă AD8599Ă AD797Ă ADA4004-4Ă OP270Ă
OP27/OP37ĂAD743/AD745ࢅOP184ă
3. ٗ‫ڼ‬2օඓۨ‫ۅڦ‬ၠፖՔ཮ᆸ֨ࣃᅃཉ຤ೝ၍ă
4. ٗ‫ڼ‬2օඓۨ‫ۅڦ‬ၠፑူ‫ࣃݛ‬ᅃཉ኱၍၍ăၽ୲ྺLj௅
ူই10Ԡ‫ۉ‬უሯำሶူই10Ԡ‫ۉ‬ፆă
ැᇡ๑ᆩ޿཮)९཮7*Lj൩ኴႜ‫ڼ‬1዁‫ڼ‬4օă
1. ཚ‫׉‬൧઄ူLjᇸ‫ۉ‬ፆ๟ᅙኪ‫)ڦ‬ස‫ߌد‬ഗፆੇ*ăසࡕփ
ኪ‫ۉڢ‬ፆኵLjሶߵ਍ዜྷ‫ڦ‬ईമ‫ۉڦ܋‬ୟഗॲ৊ႜऺ
໙ă
100
f = 1kHz
en @ 1kHz
JOHNSON NOISE LINE
LOW NOISE BOUNDRY
IDEAL OP AMPS FOR A
LOW NOISE APPLICATION
OP285
AD8610/
AD8620
OP467
OP271
VOLTAGE NOISE (nV/ Hz)
10
STEP 2
OP275
OPx177
STEP 3
OP213
OPx84
OP270
OP27/OP37
AD743/AD745
ADA4004-4
AD8597/AD8599
1
AD797
0.1
10
100
1k
10k
SOURCE RESISTANCE (Ω )
཮7 ྺ‫گ‬ሯำยऺ჋ስሏ໙‫ٷݣ‬ഗ
Rev. A | Page 8 of 12
100k
1M
07053-003
STEP 4
Application Note
AN-940
঳ஃ
ሞኍ‫گܔ‬ሯำยऺೠࠚ‫ٷݣ‬ഗሯำႠీ้Ljᆌ੊୯໯ᆶയ
ሞሯำᇸă
‫ܔ‬ᇀ‫ۉ‬ፆႠሯำᇸLj൩ፏთᅜူࡀሶǖ
߁ઔܸჾLj੗ཚࡗᅜူ‫ݛ‬๕३ณईၩ‫߅أ‬ඡ႑ࡽǖ
tߵ਍ᆌᆩ‫ڦ‬Ⴔᄲઠ၌዆‫੻ټ‬ă
t৑੗ీই‫ۉگ‬ፆኵă
t๑ᆩ‫گ‬ሯำ‫ۉ‬ፆLjස֑ᆩ‫ূٷ‬ຌԋೌĂ၍ජ๕ࢅূຌԋఈ
रຍ‫ۉڦ‬ፆă
t৑੗ీ३ณ‫ۉ‬ፆႠሯำᇸ‫ڦ‬ຕଉă
t ሞ჋ስADI‫گ‬ሯำ‫ٷݣ‬ഗ้Lj੗঺ዺ཮8ࢅ཮9LjժᅜԨᆌ
ᆩԴऻ༪ஃ‫ڦ‬Քጚྺᅈ਍ă
tଆࡻ‫ڦ‬ք၍रຍLjᅜ३ณसิၳᆌă
tଆࡻ‫ڦ‬থ‫ں‬रຍLjසຕጴথ‫ࢅں‬ఇెথ‫߰ڦں‬૗ă
tଆࡻ‫ڦ‬ೡԸă
ᆶ࠲ሯำ‫ܠ߸ڦ‬႑တLj൩֖ለĖ‫ߌد‬ഗ႑ࡽۙ૙‫ۉ‬ୟዐ‫ڦ‬
ሯำᆫࣅė(Noise Optimization in Sensor Signal Conditioning
Circuit)ᅃ࿔Ljྪ኷ǖhttp://www.analog.com/noiseoptimization
ሏ໙‫ٷݣ‬ഗ‫ڦ‬ዷᄲሯำࠋ၅ൽਦᇀᇸ‫ۉ‬ፆLjਏ༹සူǖ
t3S3S, OPǗችࢇ‫ڟ‬๼෇‫ୁۉڦ܋‬ሯำ቞ᆫ๞ă
t3S3S, OPǗ‫ٷݣ‬ഗሯำ੗ࢮ୼Ǘ‫ۉ‬ፆሯำ቞ᆫ๞ă
t3S3S, OPǗችࢇ‫ڟ‬๼෇‫ۉڦ܋‬უሯำ቞ᆫ๞ă
Rev. A | Page 9 of 12
Application Note
8
10
20
15
10.5
5.7
0.9
1.07
0.7
12
2.7
2.2
1.8
50
0.2
10
2.5
3.4
2.8
0.3*
—
10
2
40
111
106
75
75
0.2
0.3
10
10
2.5
4
2.9
3.5
2.8
2.8
0.3*
0.3*
—
—
10
10
2
12
40
30
114
100
120
110
1
1/
2/
4
1000
100
100
0.3
0.3
0.3
6.5
8
40
12
2.8
17
2.25
5.7
4.7
2.8
3.2
3.2
1.2
0.4
0.4
2333
8000
8000
5
2.7
2.7
100
80
75
40
30
30
110
100
100
106
140
140
2
1
1
2/
4
1
1
TCVOS
(μV/°C)
AD797
AD8597/
AD8599
10 TO 36
9 TO 36
40
120
0.2
0.8
ADA4004-1/
ADA4004-2/
ADA4004-4
AD8676
10 TO 36
125
10 TO 36
AD8675
AD8671/
AD8672/
AD8674
10 TO 36
10 TO 36
±4.5 TO ±18
8 TO 44
8 TO 44
OP270
OP470
AD743
AD745
in @
1 kHz
(nV√Hz)
ፌ‫ٷ‬
ISY/AMP
(mA)
ፌ‫ٷ‬
VOS
(μV)
ADA4075-2
OP27
OP37
en @
1 kHz
(nV√Hz)
უӦ୲
(V/μs)
VSY
(V)
ׂ೗
႙ࡽ
GBP
(MHz)
RS, OP @
1kHz
(Ω)
1/f
࠯ঙ
(Hz)
ፌ‫ٷ‬
IB
(nA)
ISC
(mA)
ፌၭ
CMRR
(dB)
ፌၭ
PSRR
(dB)
2
2.3
450
465
60
9
900
200
80
52
120
120
120
120
1
1/
2
1.2
1500
5
90
25
110
110
1/
2/
4
2
‫ٷݣ‬ഗ
ຕଉ
9 TO 36
75
0.2
5
2.4
3.25
3.2
0.6
5333
5
20
15
106
110
9.6 TO 36
9.6 TO 36
1000
500
2
2
4.5
20
2.8
12.5
10
10
3.2
3.2
0.0069
0.0069
463,768
463,768
50
50
0.4
0.25
40
40
80
90
90
100
3 TO 36
100
0.2
4.25
4
2
3.9
0.4
9750
10
450
10
86
90
2.7 TO 5.5
250
0.4
28
11
4.5
4
—
—
3000
0.01
220
85
88
OP113 /
OP213/
OP413
4 TO 36
150
0.2
3.4
1.2
3
4.7
0.4
11,750
10
600
40
96
100
1/
2/
4
SSM2135
OP285
4 TO 36
9 TO 36
2000
250
—
1
3.5
9
0.9
22
3
2.5
5.2
6
0.5
0.9
10,400
6667
3
125
750
350
30
30
87
80
90
85
2
2
AD8610/
AD8620
OP275
10 TO 27
100
0.5
25
60
3.5
6
0.005
1,200,000
1000
0.01
65
90
100
9 TO 44
1000
2
9
22
2.5
6
1.5
4000
2.24
350
14
80
85
1/
2
2
OP467
OP471
OP1177/
OP2177/
OP4177
AD8510/
AD8512/
AD8513
9 TO 36
9 TO 36
5 TO 36
500
1800
60
3.5
4
0.2
28
6.5
1.3
170
8
0.7
2.5
2.75
0.5
6
6.5
7.9
0.8
0.4
0.2
7500
16,250
39,500
8
5
10
600
60
2
40
10
25
80
95
120
96
95
120
9 TO 36
400
1
8
20
2.5
8
—
—
100
0.08
70
86
86
OP184/
OP284/
OP484
AD8655/
AD8656
1/
2/
4
1/
2
4
4
1/
2/
4
1/
2/
4
AD8651/
AD8652
AD8646/
AD8647/
AD8648
2.7 TO 5.5
350
4
50
41
14
8
0.025
320,000
10000
0.01
80
80
76
2.7 TO 5.5
2500
1.8
24
11
1.5
8
—
—
1000
0.001
120
67
63
AD8605/
AD8512/
AD8513
AD8691/
AD8692/
AD8694
OP162/
OP262/
OP462
OP07
2.7 TO 5.5
300
1
10
5
1.2
8
0.01
800,000
500
0.001
80
85
80
2.7 TO 6
2000
1.3
10
5
1.05
8
0.05
160,000
3000
0.001
80
70
80
2.7 TO 12
325
1
15
13
0.8
9.5
0.4
23,750
10
600
30
70
60
6 TO 36
75
0.3
0.6
0.3
4
9.6
0.12
80,000
100
4
30
106
94
1/
2/
4
1(SD)/
2(SD)/
4(SD)
1/
2/
4
1
OP07D
8 TO 36
150
0.5
0.6
0.2
1.3
10
0.074
135,135
8
1
30
120
115
1
AD8677
AD8615/
AD8616/
AD8618
AD8519/
AD8529
AD8665/
AD8666/
AD8668
AD8661/
AD8662/
AD8664
8 TO 36
2.7 TO 5.5
130
500
0.5
1.5
0.6
24
0.2
12
1.3
2
10
10
0.074
0.05
135,135
200,000
8
1000
1
0.001
30
150
120
80
115
70
2.7 TO 12
1100
2
8
2.9
1.2
10
0.4
25,000
80
300
70
63
60
5 TO 16
2500
3
4
3.5
1.55
10
0.1
100,000
1000
0.001
140
90
98
5 TO 16
160
4
4
3.5
1.55
12
0.1
120,000
1000
0.001
140
90
95
1
1/
2/
4
1/
2
1/
2/
4
1/
2/
4
OP97
OP297
OP497
OP777/
OP727/
OP747
4 TO 40
75
0.3
0.9
0.2
0.38
14
0.02*
1,166,667
200
0.15
10
110
110
3 TO 36
100
0.3
0.7
0.2
0.35
15
0.13
115,384
20
11
30
110
120
1.8 TO 6
3500
2
7
8
1.2
15
1.2
12,500
200
450
10
60
90
AD8517/
AD8527/
*൩֖੊ׂ೗ຕ਍๮֩इ‫ၘ߸ڥ‬ဦ‫ڦ‬ཉॲă
཮8 ADI‫گ‬๼෇‫ۉ‬უሯำ‫ٷݣ‬ഗ჋႙՗
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07053-004
AN-940
AN-940
VSY
(V)
ፌ‫ٷ‬
VOS
(μV)
TCVOS
(μV/°C)
AD549
10 TO 36
500
10
AD548K/B
AD743
AD745
AD711C
AD8605/
AD8606/
AD8608
AD8651/
AD8652
9 TO 36
9.6 TO 36
9.6 TO 36
9 TO 36
2.7 TO 6
500
1000
500
250
300
5
2
2
5
1
ׂ೗
႙ࡽ
en @
in @
უӦ୲
(V/μs)
ፌ‫ٷ‬
ISY/AMP
(mA)
1 kHz
(nV√Hz)
1 kHz
(nV√Hz)
5
3
0.7
35
0.22
1
4.5
20
4
10
1.8
2.8
12.5
20
5
0.2
10
10
2.8
1.2
30
3.2
3.2
18
8
1.8
6.9
6.9
10
10
GBP
(MHz)
1/f
࠯ঙ
(Hz)
ፌ‫ٷ‬
IB
(nA)
ISC
(mA)
ፌၭ
CMRR
(dB)
ፌၭ
PSRR
(dB)
‫ٷݣ‬ഗ
ຕଉ
159,090,909
100
0.06
20
90
90
1
16,666,666
463,768
463,768
1,800,000
800,000
700
50
50
200
500
10
0.4
0.25
25
1
15
40
40
25
80
82
80
90
86
85
86
90
100
86
80
1
1
1
1
1/
2/
4
1/
2
RS, OP @
1kHz
(Ω)
2.7 TO 5.5
350
4
50
41
14
8
25
320,000
10,000
10
80
80
76
AD8615/
AD8616/
AD8618
AD8691/
AD8692/
AD8694
AD8661/
AD8662/
AD8664
2.7 TO 6
500
1.5
24
12
1.3
10
50
200,000
1000
1
150
80
70
2.7 TO 6
2000
1.3
10
5
1.05
8
0.05
160,000
3000
1
80
70
80
5 TO 6
160
4
4
3.5
1.55
12
0.1
120,000
1000
1
140
90
95
OP07
6 TO 36
75
0.3
0.6
0.3
4
9.6
0.12
80,000
100
4000
30
106
94
཮9 ADI‫گ‬๼෇‫ୁۉ‬ሯำ‫ٷݣ‬ഗ჋႙՗
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07053-104
Application Note
AN-940
Application Note
ጀ๥
Analog Devices, Inc., AN-280 Application Note Mixed Signal Circuit Techniques.
Barrow, J., and Paul Brokaw. 1989. “Grounding for Low- and High-Frequency Circuits.” Analog Dialogue. Analog Devices, Inc. (23-3).
Bennett, W. R. 1960. Electrical Noise. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Bowers, Derek F. 1989. “Minimizing Noise in Analog Bipolar Circuit Design.” IEEE Press.
Brockman, Don and Arnold Williams. AN-214 Application Note Ground Rules for High-Speed Circuits. Analog Devices, Inc.
Brokaw, Paul. 2000. AN-202 Application Note An IC Amplifier User’s Guide to Decoupling, Grounding, and Making Things Go Right for a
Change. Analog Devices, Inc. (February).
Brokaw, Paul and Jeff Barrow. AN-345 Application Note Grounding for Low- and High-Frequency Circuits. Analog Devices, Inc.
Bryant, James Bryant and Lew Counts. 1990. “Op Amp Issues–Noise ” Analog Dialogue. Analog Devices Inc. (24–2).
Freeman, J. J. 1958. Principles of Noise. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Gupta, Madhu S., ed., 1977. Electrical Noise: Fundamentals & Sources. New York: IEEE Press. Collection of classical reprints.
Johnson, J. B. 1928. “Thermal Agitation of Electricity in Conductors” (Physical Review 32): 97–109.
Motchenbacher, C. D., and J. A. Connelly. 1993. Low-Noise Electronic Design. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Nyquist, H. 1928. “Thermal Agitation of Electric Charge in Conductors” (Physical Review 32): 110–113.
Rice, S.O. 1944. “Math Analysis for Random Noise” Bell System Technical Journal (July): 282–332.
Rich, Alan. 1982. “Understanding Interference-Type Noise.” Analog Dialogue. Analog Devices Inc., (16–3).
Rich, Alan. 1983. “Shielding and Guarding.” Analog Dialogue. Analog Devices Inc. (17–1).
Ryan, Al and Tim Scranton. 1984. “DC Amplifier Noise Revisited.” Analog Dialogue. Analog Devices, Inc., (18–1).
Schottky, W. 1926. “Small-Shot Effect and Flicker Effect.” (Phys. Rev. 28): 74–103.
Van Der Ziel, A. 1954. Noise. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, Inc.
©2007–2009 Analog Devices, Inc. All rights reserved. Trademarks and
registered trademarks are the property of their respective owners.
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