Application Notes

AN11573
BGU8103 GNSS LNA evaluation board
Rev. 1 — 10 July 2015
Application note
Document information
Info
Content
Keywords
BGU8103, GNSS, LNA
Abstract
This document explains the BGU8103 GNSS LNA evaluation board
Ordering info
Board-number: OM7896
12NC: 9340 690 75598
Contact information
For more information, please visit: http://www.nxp.com
AN11573
NXP Semiconductors
BGU8103 GNSS LNA EVB
Revision history
Rev
Date
Description
1
First publication
20150710
Contact information
For more information, please visit: http://www.nxp.com
For sales office addresses, please send an email to: [email protected]
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1. Introduction
NXP Semiconductors’ BGU8103 Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) LNA
Evaluation Board is designed to evaluate the performance of the GNSS LNA using:

NXP Semiconductors’ BGU8103 GNSS Low Noise Amplifier

A matching inductor

A decoupling capacitor
NXP Semiconductors’ BGU8103 is a low-noise amplifier for wearable GNSS receiver
applications in a plastic, leadless 6 pin, extremely thin small outline SOT1232 at 1.1 x 0.7
x 0.37mm, 0.4mm pitch. The BGU8103 features gain of 17.5 dB and a noise figure of
0.80 dB at an extremely low current consumption of 1.2 mA. Its sufficient linearity
performance removes interference and noise from co-habitation cellular transmitters,
while retaining sensitivity. The LNA components occupy a total area of approximately 2.5
mm2.
In this document, the application diagram, board layout, bill of materials, and typical
results are given, as well as some explanations on GNSS related performance
parameters like out-of-band input third-order intercept point O_IIP3, gain compression
under jamming and noise under jamming.
Fig 1.
AN11573
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BGU8103 GNSS LNA evaluation board
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2. General description
Modern wearable applications like smartwatches suffer less from strong radio signals in
the direct neighborhood, so problems like co-habitation are not likely to occur and
linearity performance of a GNSS receiver may be reduced. To maximize battery life the
power consumption of a GNSS receiver implemented in a wearable application should be
as low as possible.
Since the GNSS receiver needs to receive signals with an average power level of -130
dBm, sensitivity is very important. Currently there are several GNSS chipsets on the
market that can be implemented in wearable applications. Although many of these GNSS
ICs do have integrated LNA front ends, the noise performance, and as a result the
system sensitivity, is not always adequate. The GNSS receiver sensitivity is a measure
how accurate the coordinates are calculated. The GNSS signal reception can be
improved by a GNSS LNA, which improves the sensitivity by amplifying the wanted
GNSS signal with a low-noise amplifier.
3. BGU8103 GNSS LNA evaluation board
The BGU8103LNA evaluation board simplifies the RF evaluation of the BGU8103 GNSS
LNA applied in a GNSS front-end, often used in mobile cell phones. The evaluation
board enables testing of the device RF performance and requires no additional support
circuitry. The board is fully assembled with the BGU8103 including the input series
inductor and decoupling capacitor. The board is supplied with two SMA connectors for
input and output connection to RF test equipment. The BGU8103 can operate from a 1.5
V to 3.1 V single supply and consumes typical 1.2 mA.
3.1 Application Circuit
The circuit diagram of the evaluation board is shown in Fig 2. With jumper JU1 the
enable input can be connected either to Vcc or GND.
BGU8103
GNSS LNA
EVB
X3
GND
Ven
Vcc
X4
JU1
C1
6
RF in
2
L1
5
BGU8103
4
X1
RF out
3
X2
1
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Fig 2.
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Circuit diagram of the BGU8103LNA evaluation board
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3.2 PCB Layout
Fig 3.
Printed-Circuit Board layout of the BGU8103LNA evaluation board
A good PCB layout is an essential part of an RF circuit design. The LNA evaluation board
of the BGU8103can serve as a guideline for laying out a board using the BGU8103. Use
controlled impedance lines for all high frequency inputs and outputs. Bypass Vcc with
decoupling capacitors, preferably located as close as possible to the device. For long
bias lines it may be necessary to add decoupling capacitors along the line further away
from the device. Proper grounding of the GND pins is also essential for good RF
performance. Either connect the GND pins directly to the ground plane or through vias,
or do both, which is recommended. The material that has been used for the evaluation
board is FR4 using the stack shown in Fig 4.
20um Cu
0.2mm FR4 critical
20um Cu
0.8mm FR4 only for
mechanical rigidity of PCB
20um Cu
(1) Material supplier is ISOLA DURAVER; εr = 4.6-4.9: T
Fig 4.
AN11573
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Stack of the PCB material
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3.3 Bill of materials
Table 1.
BOM of the BGU8103 GNSS LNA evaluation board
Designator Description
Footprint
Value
Supplier Name/type
G
BGU8103
1.1 x 0.7 x
0.37mm3,
NXP
Comment
SOT1232
0.4mm pitch
PCB
20 x 35mm
BGU8103 GNSS LNA EV Kit
C1
Capacitor
0402
1µF
Murata GRM1555
Decoupling
L1
Inductor
0402
12nH
Murata LQW15
Input matching
X1, X2
SMA RD
connector
-
-
Johnson, End launch SMA
RF input/ RF output
X3
DC header
-
-
Molex, PCB header, Right Angle, 1
row, 3 way 90121-0763
Bias connector
X4
JUMPER
-
-
Molex, PCB header, Vertical, 1
row, 3 way 90120-0763
Connect Ven to Vcc
or separate Ven
voltage
142-0701-841
Stage
JU1
JUMPER
3.4 BGU8103 product description
NXP Semiconductors’ BGU8103 GNSS low noise amplifier is designed for the GNSS
frequency band. The integrated biasing circuit is temperature stabilized, which keeps the
current constant over temperature. It also enables the superior linearity performance of
the BGU8103. The BGU8103 is also equipped with an enable function that allows it to be
controlled via a logic signal. In disabled mode it consumes less than1 μA.
The output of the BGU8103 is internally matched for 1575.42 MHz whereas only one
series inductor at the input is needed to achieve the best RF performance. Both the input
and output are AC coupled via an integrated capacitor.
It requires only two external components to build a GNSS LNA having the following
advantages:

Low noise

System optimized gain

High linearity under jamming

1.1 x 0.7 x 0.37, 0.4mm pitch: SOT1232

Low current consumption

Short power settling time
3.5 Series inductor
The evaluation board is supplied with Murata LQW15 series inductor of 12 nH. This is a
wire wound type of inductor with high quality factor (Q) and low series resistance (Rs)
(see Table 2). This type of inductor is recommended in order to achieve the best noise
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performance. High Q inductors from other suppliers can be used. If it is decided to use
other low cost inductors with lower Q and higher Rs the noise performance will degrade.
Table 2.
Type
Series Inductor options
Murata
Multilayer
Size
Size
Size
0201
0402
0603
LQG
Non-Magnetic Core
Film
Wirewound
LQP
15H
18H
NF↑↑
NF↑
03T
15M
NF↑↑
NF↑
LQW
Non-Magnetic Core
15A
18A
Default
NF↓
Comment
Lowest NF
4. Typical LNA evaluation board results
Table 3 gives the measured performance of the BGU8103 LNA EVB.
Table 3.
Typical results measured on the evaluation Board
Operating Frequency is f = 1575.42 MHz unless otherwise specified; Temp = 25 °C
Parameter
Symbol
LNA
LNA
LNA
EVB
EVB
EVB
LNA
EVB
Unit
Remarks
VCC
1.5
1.8
2.85
3.1
V
Supply Current
ICC
1.1
1.2
1.2
1.2
mA
Noise Figure
NF
0.9
0.9
1.1
1.1
dB
Power Gain
Gp
16.8
17.5
17.5
18
dB
Input Return Loss
RLin
7
8
8
8
dB
Output Return Loss
RLout
11
11
11
11
dB
Reverse Isolation
ISOrev
35
35
35
35
dB
Input 1dB Gain Compression
Pi1dB
-18
-16
-13
-13
dBm
Output 1dB Gain Compression
Po1dB
-2.2
0.5
3.5
4
dBm
Input third order intercept point
IIP3
-8
-8
-7
-6
dBm
[2]
Output third order intercept point
OIP3
8.8
9.5
10.5
12
dBm
[2]
Ton
<2
<2
<2
<2
µs
Toff
<1
<1
<1
<1
µs
Supply Voltage
Power settling time
[1]
[1]
The noise figure and gain figures are measured at the SMA connectors of the evaluation board. The losses of the connectors and the
PCB of approximately 0.05 dB are not subtracted. Measured at Tanb = 25 oC.
[2]
Out of band IP3, jammers at f1=f+138MHz and f2=f+276MHz, where f=1575.42MHz. Pin(f1)=-20dBm, Pin(f2)=-65dBm
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At the average power levels of –130 dBm that have to be received by a GNSS receiver,
the system will not have in-band intermodulation problems caused by the GNSS-signal
itself. Strong out-of-band cell phone TX jammers however can cause linearity problems,
and result in third-order intermodulation products in the GNSS frequency band. In the
next paragraphs the effects of these Jammer-signals on the Noise and Gain performance
of the BGU8103 are described. The effect of these Jammers on the In-band and Out-ofBand Third-Order Intercept points are described in more detail in a separate User
Manual: UM10453: 2-Tone Test BGU7005 and BGU7007 GNSS LNA.
4.1 In-band 1dB gain compression due to 787MHz, 850MHz and
1850MHz jammers
As stated before, signal levels in the GNSS frequency band of -130dBm average will not
cause linearity problems in the GNSS band itself. This of course is also valid for the 1dB
gain compression in-band. The 1dB compression point at 1575.42MHz caused by cell
phone TX jammers however is important.
Measurements have been carried out using the setup shown in Fig 5.
Fig 5.
1dB Gain compression under jamming measurement setup (LNA evaluation board)
The gain of the DUT was measured between port RFin and RFout of the EVB at the
GNSS frequency 1575 MHz, while simultaneously a jammer power signal was swept at
the 20dB attenuated input port of the Directional Coupler. Please note that the drive
power of the jammer is 20 dB lower at the input of the DUT caused by the directional
coupler.
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The figures below show the supply-current (Icc) and gain compression curves with
787MHz, 850MHz and 1850 MHz jammers (input jammer power at LNA-board, taking
into account the approx. 20 dB attenuation of the directional coupler and RF-cable from
Jammer-Generator to the directional coupler).
The gain drops 1dB with approximately -12 dBm input jamming power at 787MHz and
850MHz (Vcc=1.8V) (Fig 7 and Fig 9). With an 1850MHz jamming signal, the 1dB gain
compression occurs around -11 dBm input power level (Fig 11).
Gain=f(P_jammer)
Icc=f(P_jammer)
20
8
18
7
16
6
14
Icc [mA]
Vcc=1.5V
4
Vcc=1.8V
Gain [dB]
12
5
10
Vcc=1.5V
8
Vcc=1.8V
3
Vcc=2.85V
6
Vcc=2.85V
2
Vcc=3.1V
4
Vcc=3.1V
2
1
0
0
-2
-70
-60
-50
-40 -30
Pin [dBm]
-20
-10
0
-70
Pin 1575 MHz = -45 dBm
Fig 6.
Application note
-50
-40 -30
Pin [dBm]
-20
-10
0
Pin 1575 MHz = -45 dBm
Icc versus jammer power at 787 MHz
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Fig 7.
Gain versus jammer power at 787 MHz
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Gain=f(P_jammer)
Icc=f(P_jammer)
20
8
18
7
16
6
14
Icc [mA]
Vcc=1.5V
4
Vcc=1.8V
Gain [dB]
12
5
10
Vcc=1.5V
8
Vcc=1.8V
3
Vcc=2.85V
6
Vcc=2.85V
2
Vcc=3.1V
4
Vcc=3.1V
2
1
0
-2
0
-70
-60
-50
-40 -30
Pin [dBm]
-20
-10
-70
0
Pin 1575 MHz = -45 dBm
Fig 8.
-60
-50
-40 -30
Pin [dBm]
-20
-10
0
Pin 1575 MHz = -45 dBm
Icc versus jammer power at 850 MHz
Fig 9.
Gain versus jammer power at 850 MHz
Gain=f(P_jammer)
Icc=f(P_jammer)
20
8
18
7
16
6
14
Icc [mA]
Vcc=1.5V
4
Vcc=1.8V
Gain [dB]
12
5
10
Vcc=1.5V
8
Vcc=1.8V
3
Vcc=2.85V
6
Vcc=2.85V
2
Vcc=3.1V
4
Vcc=3.1V
2
1
0
-2
0
-70
-60
-50
-40 -30
Pin [dBm]
-20
-10
-70
0
Pin 1575 MHz = -45 dBm
-60
-50
-40 -30
Pin [dBm]
-20
-10
0
Pin 1575 MHz = -45 dBm
Fig 10. Icc versus jammer power at 1850 MHz
Fig 11. Gain versus jammer power at 1850 MHz
4.2 Noise figure as function of jammer power at 850MHz and
1850MHz
Noise figure under jamming conditions is a measure of how the LNA behaves when e.g.
a GSM TX interfering signal is at the input of the GNSS antenna. To measure this
behavior the setup shown in Fig 12 is used.
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The jammer signal is coupled via a directional coupler to the DUT: this is to avoid the
jammer signal damaging the noise source. The GNSS BPF is needed to avoid driving the
second-stage LNA in saturation.
Fig 12. Noise under jamming measurement setup (LNA evaluation board)
With the results of these measurements and the specification of the SAW filter, the
jammer power levels that cause noise increase can be calculated.
As can be seen in Fig 13, with a 850 MHz jammer the NF of the LNA starts to increase at
Pjam = -20 dBm (input jammer power at LNA-board, taking into account the approx. 20 dB
attenuation of the directional coupler and RF-cable from Jammer-Generator to the
directional coupler). For the 1850 MHz jammer the NF of the LNA starts to increase at
Pjam = -25 dBm (see Fig 14).
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7
NF
(dB)
6
NF
(dB)
5.5
6.5
6
5.5
5
5
4.5
4.5
4
4
3.5
3.5
3
3
2.5
2.5
2
2
1.5
1.5
1
1
0.5
0.5
0
0
-50
-40
-30
-20
-10
-50
0
-40
-30
-20
-10
0
Jamming Power (dBm)
Jamming Power(dBm)
fjam = 1850 MHz; Tamb = 25 °C; f = 1575 MHz; including PCB
losses.
Vcc = 1.5 V
Vcc = 1.8 V
Vcc = 2.85 V
Vcc = 3.1 V
fjam = 850 MHz; Tamb = 25 °C; f = 1575 MHz; including PCB losses.
(1) Vcc = 1.5 V
(2) Vcc = 1.8 V
(3) Vcc = 2.85 V
(4) Vcc = 3.1 V
Fig 13. NF versus jammer power at 850 MHz
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Fig 14. NF versus jammer power at 1850 MHz
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5. Required Equipment
In order to measure the evaluation board the following is necessary:

DC Power Supply up to 30 mA at 1.5 V to 3.1 V

Two RF signal generators capable of generating RF signals at the operating
frequency of 1575.42 MHz, as well as the jammer frequencies 1713.42 MHz and
1851.42 MHz

An RF spectrum analyzer that covers at least the operating frequency of
1575.42 MHz as well as a few of the harmonics. Up to 6 GHz should be
sufficient.
“Optional” a version with the capability of measuring noise figure is convenient

Amp meter to measure the supply current (optional)

A network analyzer for measuring gain, return loss and reverse isolation

Noise figure analyzer and noise source

Directional coupler

Proper RF cables
6. Connections and setup
The BGU8103 GNSS LNA evaluation board is fully assembled and tested. Please follow
the steps below for a step-by-step guide to operate the LNA evaluation board and testing
the device functions.
1. Connect the DC power supply to the Vcc and GND terminals. Set the power supply to
the desired supply voltage, between 1.5 V and 3.1 V, but never exceed 3.1 V as it
might damage the BGU8103.
2. Jumper JU1 is connected between the Vcc terminal of the evaluation board and the
Ven pin of the BGU8103.
3. Connect the RF signal generator and the spectrum analyzer to the RF input and the
RF output of the evaluation board, respectively. Do not turn on the RF output of the
signal generator yet, set it to -45 dBm output power at 1575.42 MHz, set the
spectrum analyzer at 1575.42 MHz center frequency and a reference level of 0 dBm.
4. Turn on the DC power supply and it should read approximately 1.2 mA.
5. Enable the RF output of the generator: The spectrum analyzer displays a tone
around –27.5 dBm at 1575.42 MHz.
6. Instead of using a signal generator and spectrum analyzer one can also use a
network analyzer in order to measure gain as well as in- and output return loss.
7. For noise figure evaluation, either a noise figure analyzer or a spectrum analyzer with
noise option can be used. The use of a 5 dB noise source, like the Agilent 364B is
recommended. When measuring the noise figure of the evaluation board, any kind of
adaptors, cables etc between the noise source and the evaluation board should be
minimized, since this affects the noise figure.
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Fig 15. Evaluation board including its connections
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7. Legal information
7.1 Definitions
Draft — The document is a draft version only. The content is still under
internal review and subject to formal approval, which may result in
modifications or additions. NXP Semiconductors does not give any
representations or warranties as to the accuracy or completeness of
information included herein and shall have no liability for the consequences
of use of such information.
7.2 Disclaimers
Limited warranty and liability — Information in this document is believed to
be accurate and reliable. However, NXP Semiconductors does not give any
representations or warranties, expressed or implied, as to the accuracy or
completeness of such information and shall have no liability for the
consequences of use of such information. NXP Semiconductors takes no
responsibility for the content in this document if provided by an information
source outside of NXP Semiconductors.
In no event shall NXP Semiconductors be liable for any indirect, incidental,
punitive, special or consequential damages (including - without limitation lost profits, lost savings, business interruption, costs related to the removal
or replacement of any products or rework charges) whether or not such
damages are based on tort (including negligence), warranty, breach of
contract or any other legal theory.
Notwithstanding any damages that customer might incur for any reason
whatsoever, NXP Semiconductors’ aggregate and cumulative liability
towards customer for the products described herein shall be limited in
accordance with the Terms and conditions of commercial sale of NXP
Semiconductors.
Right to make changes — NXP Semiconductors reserves the right to make
changes to information published in this document, including without
limitation specifications and product descriptions, at any time and without
notice. This document supersedes and replaces all information supplied prior
to the publication hereof.
Suitability for use — NXP Semiconductors products are not designed,
authorized or warranted to be suitable for use in life support, life-critical or
safety-critical systems or equipment, nor in applications where failure or
malfunction of an NXP Semiconductors product can reasonably be expected
to result in personal injury, death or severe property or environmental
damage. NXP Semiconductors and its suppliers accept no liability for
inclusion and/or use of NXP Semiconductors products in such equipment or
applications and therefore such inclusion and/or use is at the customer’s
own risk.
Applications — Applications that are described herein for any of these
products are for illustrative purposes only. NXP Semiconductors makes no
representation or warranty that such applications will be suitable for the
specified use without further testing or modification.
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Customers are responsible for the design and operation of their applications
and products using NXP Semiconductors products, and NXP
Semiconductors accepts no liability for any assistance with applications or
customer product design. It is customer’s sole responsibility to determine
whether the NXP Semiconductors product is suitable and fit for the
customer’s applications and products planned, as well as for the planned
application and use of customer’s third party customer(s). Customers should
provide appropriate design and operating safeguards to minimize the risks
associated with their applications and products.
NXP Semiconductors does not accept any liability related to any default,
damage, costs or problem which is based on any weakness or default in the
customer’s applications or products, or the application or use by customer’s
third party customer(s). Customer is responsible for doing all necessary
testing for the customer’s applications and products using NXP
Semiconductors products in order to avoid a default of the applications and
the products or of the application or use by customer’s third party
customer(s). NXP does not accept any liability in this respect.
Export control — This document as well as the item(s) described herein
may be subject to export control regulations. Export might require a prior
authorization from national authorities.
Evaluation products — This product is provided on an “as is” and “with all
faults” basis for evaluation purposes only. NXP Semiconductors, its affiliates
and their suppliers expressly disclaim all warranties, whether express,
implied or statutory, including but not limited to the implied warranties of noninfringement, merchantability and fitness for a particular purpose. The entire
risk as to the quality, or arising out of the use or performance, of this product
remains with customer.
In no event shall NXP Semiconductors, its affiliates or their suppliers be
liable to customer for any special, indirect, consequential, punitive or
incidental damages (including without limitation damages for loss of
business, business interruption, loss of use, loss of data or information, and
the like) arising out the use of or inability to use the product, whether or not
based on tort (including negligence), strict liability, breach of contract, breach
of warranty or any other theory, even if advised of the possibility of such
damages.
Notwithstanding any damages that customer might incur for any reason
whatsoever (including without limitation, all damages referenced above and
all direct or general damages), the entire liability of NXP Semiconductors, its
affiliates and their suppliers and customer’s exclusive remedy for all of the
foregoing shall be limited to actual damages incurred by customer based on
reasonable reliance up to the greater of the amount actually paid by
customer for the product or five dollars (US$5.00). The foregoing limitations,
exclusions and disclaimers shall apply to the maximum extent permitted by
applicable law, even if any remedy fails of its essential purpose.
7.3 Trademarks
Notice: All referenced brands, product names, service names and
trademarks are property of their respective owners.
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8. List of figures
Fig 1.
Fig 2.
Fig 3.
Fig 4.
Fig 5.
Fig 6.
Fig 7.
Fig 8.
Fig 9.
Fig 10.
Fig 11.
Fig 12.
Fig 13.
Fig 14.
Fig 15.
BGU8103 GNSS LNA evaluation board ............ 3
Circuit diagram of the BGU8103LNA evaluation
board ................................................................. 5
Printed-Circuit Board layout of the
BGU8103LNA evaluation board ........................ 6
Stack of the PCB material ................................. 6
1dB Gain compression under jamming
measurement setup (LNA evaluation board)..... 9
Icc versus jammer power at 787 MHz ............. 10
Gain versus jammer power at 787 MHz .......... 10
Icc versus jammer power at 850 MHz ............. 11
Gain versus jammer power at 850 MHz .......... 11
Icc versus jammer power at 1850 MHz ........... 11
Gain versus jammer power at 1850 MHz ........ 11
Noise under jamming measurement setup (LNA
evaluation board) ............................................ 12
NF versus jammer power at 850 MHz ............. 13
NF versus jammer power at 1850 MHz ........... 13
Evaluation board including its connections ..... 15
AN11573
Application note
All information provided in this document is subject to legal disclaimers.
Rev. 1 — 10 July 2015
© NXP B.V. 2015. All rights reserved.
17 of 19
AN11573
NXP Semiconductors
BGU8103 GNSS LNA EVB
9. List of tables
Table 1.
Table 2.
Table 3.
BOM of the BGU8103 GNSS LNA evaluation
board ................................................................. 7
Series Inductor options ..................................... 8
Typical results measured on the evaluation
Board ................................................................ 8
AN11573
Application note
All information provided in this document is subject to legal disclaimers.
Rev. 1 — 10 July 2015
© NXP B.V. 2015. All rights reserved.
18 of 19
AN11573
NXP Semiconductors
BGU8103 GNSS LNA EVB
10. Contents
1.
2.
3.
3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4
3.5
4.
4.1
4.2
5.
6.
7.
7.1
7.2
7.3
8.
9.
10.
Introduction ......................................................... 3
General description ............................................. 4
BGU8103 GNSS LNA evaluation board ............. 4
Application Circuit .............................................. 4
PCB Layout ........................................................ 6
Bill of materials ................................................... 7
BGU8103 product description ............................ 7
Series inductor ................................................... 7
Typical LNA evaluation board results ............... 8
In-band 1dB gain compression due to 787MHz,
850MHz and 1850MHz jammers ........................ 9
Noise figure as function of jammer power at
850MHz and 1850MHz .................................... 11
Required Equipment ......................................... 14
Connections and setup ..................................... 14
Legal information .............................................. 16
Definitions ........................................................ 16
Disclaimers....................................................... 16
Trademarks ...................................................... 16
List of figures..................................................... 17
List of tables ...................................................... 18
Contents ............................................................. 19
Please be aware that important notices concerning this document and the product(s)
described herein, have been included in the section 'Legal information'.
© NXP B.V. 2015.
All rights reserved.
For more information, visit: http://www.nxp.com
For sales office addresses, please send an email to: [email protected]
Date of release: 10 July 2015
Document identifier: AN11573
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