ATmega169P(V) - Complete

Features
• High Performance, Low Power Atmel® AVR® 8-Bit Microcontroller
• Advanced RISC Architecture
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•
•
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– 130 Powerful Instructions – Most Single Clock Cycle Execution
– 32 × 8 General Purpose Working Registers
– Fully Static Operation
– Up to 16 MIPS Throughput at 16 MHz
– On-Chip 2-cycle Multiplier
High Endurance Non-volatile Memory segments
– 16 Kbytes of In-System Self-programmable Flash program memory
– 512 Bytes EEPROM
– 1 Kbytes Internal SRAM
– Write/Erase cycles: 10,000 Flash/100,000 EEPROM
– Data retention: 20 years at 85°C/100 years at 25°C(1)
– Optional Boot Code Section with Independent Lock Bits
In-System Programming by On-chip Boot Program
True Read-While-Write Operation
– Programming Lock for Software Security
JTAG (IEEE std. 1149.1 compliant) Interface
– Boundary-scan Capabilities According to the JTAG Standard
– Extensive On-chip Debug Support
– Programming of Flash, EEPROM, Fuses, and Lock Bits through the JTAG Interface
Peripheral Features
– 4 × 25 Segment LCD Driver
– Two 8-bit Timer/Counters with Separate Prescaler and Compare Mode
– One 16-bit Timer/Counter with Separate Prescaler, Compare Mode, and Capture
Mode
– Real Time Counter with Separate Oscillator
– Four PWM Channels
– 8-channel, 10-bit ADC
– Programmable Serial USART
– Master/Slave SPI Serial Interface
– Universal Serial Interface with Start Condition Detector
– Programmable Watchdog Timer with Separate On-chip Oscillator
– On-chip Analog Comparator
– Interrupt and Wake-up on Pin Change
Special Microcontroller Features
– Power-on Reset and Programmable Brown-out Detection
– Internal Calibrated Oscillator
– External and Internal Interrupt Sources
– Five Sleep Modes: Idle, ADC Noise Reduction, Power-save, Power-down, and
Standby
I/O and Packages
– 54 Programmable I/O Lines
– 64-lead TQFP, 64-pad QFN/MLF and 64-pad DRQFN
Speed Grade:
– ATmega169PV: 0 - 4 MHz @ 1.8V - 5.5V, 0 - 8 MHz @ 2.7V - 5.5V
– ATmega169P: 0 - 8 MHz @ 2.7V - 5.5V, 0 - 16 MHz @ 4.5V - 5.5V
Temperature range:
– -40°C to 85°C Industrial
Ultra-Low Power Consumption
– Active Mode:
1 MHz, 1.8V: 330 µA
32 kHz, 1.8V: 10 µA (including Oscillator)
32 kHz, 1.8V: 25 µA (including Oscillator and LCD)
– Power-down Mode:
0.1 µA at 1.8V
– Power-save Mode:
0.6 µA at 1.8V (Including 32 kHz RTC)
8-bit
Microcontroller
with 16K Bytes
In-System
Programmable
Flash
ATmega169P
ATmega169PV
Preliminary
Rev. 8018P–AVR–08/10
ATmega169P
1. Pin Configurations
Pinout - TQFP/QFN/MLF
LCDCAP
1
(RXD/PCINT0) PE0
2
GND
AREF
PF0 (ADC0)
PF1 (ADC1)
PF2 (ADC2)
PF3 (ADC3)
PF4 (ADC4/TCK)
PF5 (ADC5/TMS)
PF6 (ADC6/TDO)
PF7 (ADC7/TDI)
GND
VCC
PA0 (COM0)
PA1 (COM1)
PA2 (COM2)
63
62
61
60
59
58
57
56
55
54
53
52
51
50
49
64A (TQFP) and 64M1 (QFN/MLF) Pinout ATmega169P
AVCC
Figure 1-1.
64
1.1
48 PA3 (COM3)
47 PA4 (SEG0)
INDEX CORNER
(SCK/PCINT9) PB1
11
38 PC3 (SEG9)
(MOSI/PCINT10) PB2
12
37 PC2 (SEG10)
(MISO/PCINT11) PB3
13
36 PC1 (SEG11)
(OC0A/PCINT12) PB4
14
35 PC0 (SEG12)
(OC1A/PCINT13) PB5
15
34 PG1 (SEG13)
(OC1B/PCINT14) PB6
16
33 PG0 (SEG14)
Note:
(SEG15) PD7 32
39 PC4 (SEG8)
(SEG16) PD6 31
10
(SEG17) PD5 30
(SS/PCINT8) PB0
29
40 PC5 (SEG7)
(SEG18) PD4
9
28
(CLKO/PCINT7) PE7
(SEG19) PD3
41 PC6 (SEG6)
27
8
(SEG20) PD2
(DO/PCINT6) PE6
26
42 PC7 (SEG5)
(INT0/SEG21) PD1
7
25
(DI/SDA/PCINT5) PE5
(ICP1/SEG22) PD0
43 PG2 (SEG4)
24
6
(TOSC1) XTAL1
(USCK/SCL/PCINT4) PE4
23
44 PA7 (SEG3)
(TOSC2) XTAL2
5
22
(AIN1/PCINT3) PE3
GND
45 PA6 (SEG2)
VCC 21
4
RESET/PG5 20
(XCK/AIN0/PCINT2) PE2
(T0/SEG23) PG4 19
46 PA5 (SEG1)
(T1/SEG24) PG3 18
3
(OC2A/PCINT15) PB7 17
(TXD/PCINT1) PE1
The large center pad underneath the QFN/MLF packages is made of metal and internally connected to GND. It should be soldered or glued to the board to ensure good mechanical stability. If the center pad is left unconnected, the package might loosen
from the board.
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8018P–AVR–08/10
ATmega169P
Pinout - DRQFN
64MC (DRQFN) Pinout ATmega169P
A25
A23
B20
A4
A22
B4
B19
A21
B5
B18
A5
A6
A7
B7
Table 1-1.
A34
B29
A33
B30
A31
B28
A32
B3
A3
A4
B4
A5
B18
B5
A20
B17
A19
B6
A6
A7
B7
B16
A18
A8
A17
B15
A16
B15
A17
B13
A15
B14
B8
A10
B9
A11
B10
A12
B11
A13
B12
A14
A23
B20
A2
B19
A21
A18
A9
A8
B2
A22
A20
B17
A19
B16
B6
B21
A9
B3
A3
B1
A10
B8
B21
B22
A24
B10
A11
B9
B2
A2
A1
A25
A13
B11
A12
B22
A24
A16
B14
A15
B1
B26
A30
B27
A26
A27
B23
A26
A1
B23
A27
B24
Bottom view
B25
A28
B24
A34
B30
A33
B29
A32
B28
A31
B27
A30
B26
A29
Top view
A28
B25
A29
Figure 1-2.
B13
A14
B12
1.2
DRQFN-64 Pinout ATmega169P.
A1
PE0
A9
PB7
A18
PG1 (SEG13)
A26
PA2 (COM2)
B1
VLCDCAP
B8
PB6
B16
PG0 (SEG14)
B23
PA3 (COM3)
A2
PE1
A10
PG3
A19
PC0 (SEG12)
A27
PA1 (COM1)
B2
PE2
B9
PG4
B17
PC1 (SEG11)
B24
PA0 (COM0)
A3
PE3
A11
RESET
A20
PC2 (SEG10)
A28
VCC
B3
PE4
B10
VCC
B18
PC3 (SEG9)
B25
GND
A4
PE5
A12
GND
A21
PC4 (SEG8)
A29
PF7
B4
PE6
B11
XTAL2 (TOSC2)
B19
PC5 (SEG7)
B26
PF6
A5
PE7
A13
XTAL1 (TOSC1)
A22
PC6 (SEG6)
A30
PF5
B5
PB0
B12
PD0 (SEG22)
B20
PC7 (SEG5)
B27
PF4
A6
PB1
A14
PD1 (SEG21)
A23
PG2 (SEG4)
A31
PF3
B6
PB2
B13
PD2 (SEG20)
B21
PA7 (SEG3)
B28
PF2
A7
PB3
A15
PD3 (SEG19)
A24
PA6 (SEG2)
A32
PF1
B7
PB5
B14
PD4 (SEG18)
B22
PA4 (SEG0)
B29
PF0
A8
PB4
A16
PD5 (SEG17)
A25
PA5 (SEG1)
A33
AREF
B15
PD7 (SEG15)
B30
AVCC
A17
PD6 (SEG16)
A34
GND
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8018P–AVR–08/10
ATmega169P
2. Overview
The ATmega169P is a low-power CMOS 8-bit microcontroller based on the AVR enhanced RISC architecture. By executing powerful instructions in a single clock cycle, the ATmega169P achieves throughputs approaching 1 MIPS per MHz
allowing the system designer to optimize power consumption versus processing speed.
Block Diagram
Block Diagram
PF0 - PF7
PA0 - PA7
XTAL2
Figure 2-1.
XTAL1
2.1
PC0 - PC7
VCC
GND
PORTA DRIVERS
PORTF DRIVERS
DATA DIR.
REG. PORTF
DATA REGISTER
PORTF
PORTC DRIVERS
DATA DIR.
REG. PORTA
DATA REGISTER
PORTA
DATA REGISTER
PORTC
DATA DIR.
REG. PORTC
8-BIT DATA BUS
AVCC
CALIB. OSC
INTERNAL
OSCILLATOR
ADC
AREF
OSCILLATOR
JTAG TAP
PROGRAM
COUNTER
STACK
POINTER
WATCHDOG
TIMER
ON-CHIP DEBUG
PROGRAM
FLASH
SRAM
MCU CONTROL
REGISTER
BOUNDARYSCAN
INSTRUCTION
REGISTER
TIMING AND
CONTROL
LCD
CONTROLLER/
DRIVER
TIMER/
COUNTERS
GENERAL
PURPOSE
REGISTERS
INSTRUCTION
DECODER
CONTROL
LINES
+
-
INTERRUPT
UNIT
ALU
EEPROM
STATUS
REGISTER
AVR CPU
ANALOG
COMPARATOR
Z
Y
RESET
X
PROGRAMMING
LOGIC
USART
UNIVERSAL
SERIAL INTERFACE
DATA REGISTER
PORTE
DATA DIR.
REG. PORTE
PORTE DRIVERS
PE0 - PE7
SPI
DATA REGISTER
PORTB
DATA DIR.
REG. PORTB
PORTB DRIVERS
PB0 - PB7
DATA REGISTER
PORTD
DATA DIR.
REG. PORTD
DATA REG.
PORTG
DATA DIR.
REG. PORTG
PORTD DRIVERS
PORTG DRIVERS
PD0 - PD7
PG0 - PG4
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8018P–AVR–08/10
ATmega169P
The AVR core combines a rich instruction set with 32 general purpose working registers. All the
32 registers are directly connected to the Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU), allowing two independent
registers to be accessed in one single instruction executed in one clock cycle. The resulting
architecture is more code efficient while achieving throughputs up to ten times faster than conventional CISC microcontrollers.
The ATmega169P provides the following features: 16 Kbytes of In-System Programmable Flash
with Read-While-Write capabilities, 512 bytes EEPROM, 1 Kbyte SRAM, 53 general purpose I/O
lines, 32 general purpose working registers, a JTAG interface for Boundary-scan, On-chip
Debugging support and programming, a complete On-chip LCD controller with internal step-up
voltage, three flexible Timer/Counters with compare modes, internal and external interrupts, a
serial programmable USART, Universal Serial Interface with Start Condition Detector, an 8channel, 10-bit ADC, a programmable Watchdog Timer with internal Oscillator, an SPI serial
port, and five software selectable power saving modes. The Idle mode stops the CPU while
allowing the SRAM, Timer/Counters, SPI port, and interrupt system to continue functioning. The
Power-down mode saves the register contents but freezes the Oscillator, disabling all other chip
functions until the next interrupt or hardware reset. In Power-save mode, the asynchronous
timer and the LCD controller continues to run, allowing the user to maintain a timer base and
operate the LCD display while the rest of the device is sleeping. The ADC Noise Reduction
mode stops the CPU and all I/O modules except asynchronous timer, LCD controller and ADC,
to minimize switching noise during ADC conversions. In Standby mode, the crystal/resonator
Oscillator is running while the rest of the device is sleeping. This allows very fast start-up combined with low-power consumption.
The device is manufactured using Atmel’s high density non-volatile memory technology. The
On-chip ISP Flash allows the program memory to be reprogrammed In-System through an SPI
serial interface, by a conventional non-volatile memory programmer, or by an On-chip Boot program running on the AVR core. The Boot program can use any interface to download the
application program in the Application Flash memory. Software in the Boot Flash section will
continue to run while the Application Flash section is updated, providing true Read-While-Write
operation. By combining an 8-bit RISC CPU with In-System Self-Programmable Flash on a
monolithic chip, the Atmel ATmega169P is a powerful microcontroller that provides a highly flexible and cost effective solution to many embedded control applications.
The ATmega169P AVR is supported with a full suite of program and system development tools
including: C Compilers, Macro Assemblers, Program Debugger/Simulators, In-Circuit Emulators,
and Evaluation kits.
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8018P–AVR–08/10
ATmega169P
2.2
2.2.1
Pin Descriptions
VCC
Digital supply voltage.
2.2.2
GND
Ground.
2.2.3
Port A (PA7:PA0)
Port A is an 8-bit bi-directional I/O port with internal pull-up resistors (selected for each bit). The
Port A output buffers have symmetrical drive characteristics with both high sink and source
capability. As inputs, Port A pins that are externally pulled low will source current if the pull-up
resistors are activated. The Port A pins are tri-stated when a reset condition becomes active,
even if the clock is not running.
Port A also serves the functions of various special features of the ATmega169P as listed on
”Alternate Functions of Port A” on page 73.
2.2.4
Port B (PB7:PB0)
Port B is an 8-bit bi-directional I/O port with internal pull-up resistors (selected for each bit). The
Port B output buffers have symmetrical drive characteristics with both high sink and source
capability. As inputs, Port B pins that are externally pulled low will source current if the pull-up
resistors are activated. The Port B pins are tri-stated when a reset condition becomes active,
even if the clock is not running.
Port B has better driving capabilities than the other ports.
Port B also serves the functions of various special features of the ATmega169P as listed on
”Alternate Functions of Port B” on page 74.
2.2.5
Port C (PC7:PC0)
Port C is an 8-bit bi-directional I/O port with internal pull-up resistors (selected for each bit). The
Port C output buffers have symmetrical drive characteristics with both high sink and source
capability. As inputs, Port C pins that are externally pulled low will source current if the pull-up
resistors are activated. The Port C pins are tri-stated when a reset condition becomes active,
even if the clock is not running.
Port C also serves the functions of special features of the ATmega169P as listed on ”Alternate
Functions of Port C” on page 77.
2.2.6
Port D (PD7:PD0)
Port D is an 8-bit bi-directional I/O port with internal pull-up resistors (selected for each bit). The
Port D output buffers have symmetrical drive characteristics with both high sink and source
capability. As inputs, Port D pins that are externally pulled low will source current if the pull-up
resistors are activated. The Port D pins are tri-stated when a reset condition becomes active,
even if the clock is not running.
Port D also serves the functions of various special features of the ATmega169P as listed on
”Alternate Functions of Port D” on page 79.
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8018P–AVR–08/10
ATmega169P
2.2.7
Port E (PE7:PE0)
Port E is an 8-bit bi-directional I/O port with internal pull-up resistors (selected for each bit). The
Port E output buffers have symmetrical drive characteristics with both high sink and source
capability. As inputs, Port E pins that are externally pulled low will source current if the pull-up
resistors are activated. The Port E pins are tri-stated when a reset condition becomes active,
even if the clock is not running.
Port E also serves the functions of various special features of the ATmega169P as listed on
”Alternate Functions of Port E” on page 81.
2.2.8
Port F (PF7:PF0)
Port F serves as the analog inputs to the A/D Converter.
Port F also serves as an 8-bit bi-directional I/O port, if the A/D Converter is not used. Port pins
can provide internal pull-up resistors (selected for each bit). The Port F output buffers have symmetrical drive characteristics with both high sink and source capability. As inputs, Port F pins
that are externally pulled low will source current if the pull-up resistors are activated. The Port F
pins are tri-stated when a reset condition becomes active, even if the clock is not running. If the
JTAG interface is enabled, the pull-up resistors on pins PF7(TDI), PF5(TMS), and PF4(TCK) will
be activated even if a reset occurs.
Port F also serves the functions of the JTAG interface, see ”Alternate Functions of Port F” on
page 83.
2.2.9
Port G (PG5:PG0)
Port G is a 6-bit bi-directional I/O port with internal pull-up resistors (selected for each bit). The
Port G output buffers have symmetrical drive characteristics with both high sink and source
capability. As inputs, Port G pins that are externally pulled low will source current if the pull-up
resistors are activated. The Port G pins are tri-stated when a reset condition becomes active,
even if the clock is not running.
Port G also serves the functions of various special features of the ATmega169P as listed on
page 85.
2.2.10
RESET
Reset input. A low level on this pin for longer than the minimum pulse length will generate a
reset, even if the clock is not running. The minimum pulse length is given in Table 28-4 on page
333. Shorter pulses are not guaranteed to generate a reset.
2.2.11
XTAL1
Input to the inverting Oscillator amplifier and input to the internal clock operating circuit.
2.2.12
XTAL2
Output from the inverting Oscillator amplifier.
2.2.13
AVCC
AVCC is the supply voltage pin for Port F and the A/D Converter. It should be externally connected to VCC, even if the ADC is not used. If the ADC is used, it should be connected to VCC
through a low-pass filter.
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8018P–AVR–08/10
ATmega169P
2.2.14
AREF
This is the analog reference pin for the A/D Converter.
2.2.15
LCDCAP
An external capacitor (typical > 470 nF) must be connected to the LCDCAP pin as shown in Figure 23-2 on page 236. This capacitor acts as a reservoir for LCD power (V LCD ). A large
capacitance reduces ripple on VLCD but increases the time until VLCD reaches its target value.
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8018P–AVR–08/10
ATmega169P
3. Resources
A comprehensive set of development tools, application notes and datasheets are available for
download on http://www.atmel.com/avr.
Note:
1.
4. Data Retention
Reliability Qualification results show that the projected data retention failure rate is much less
than 1 PPM over 20 years at 85°C or 100 years at 25°C.
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ATmega169P
5. About Code Examples
This documentation contains simple code examples that briefly show how to use various parts of
the device. Be aware that not all C compiler vendors include bit definitions in the header files
and interrupt handling in C is compiler dependent. Please confirm with the C compiler documentation for more details.
These code examples assume that the part specific header file is included before compilation.
For I/O registers located in extended I/O map, "IN", "OUT", "SBIS", "SBIC", "CBI", and "SBI"
instructions must be replaced with instructions that allow access to extended I/O. Typically
"LDS" and "STS" combined with "SBRS", "SBRC", "SBR", and "CBR".
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8018P–AVR–08/10
ATmega169P
6. AVR CPU Core
6.1
Introduction
This section discusses the AVR core architecture in general. The main function of the CPU core
is to ensure correct program execution. The CPU must therefore be able to access memories,
perform calculations, control peripherals, and handle interrupts.
6.2
Architectural Overview
Figure 6-1.
Block Diagram of the AVR Architecture
Data Bus 8-bit
Flash
Program
Memory
Program
Counter
Status
and Control
32 x 8
General
Purpose
Registrers
Control Lines
Direct Addressing
Instruction
Decoder
Indirect Addressing
Instruction
Register
Interrupt
Unit
SPI
Unit
Watchdog
Timer
ALU
Analog
Comparator
I/O Module1
Data
SRAM
I/O Module 2
I/O Module n
EEPROM
I/O Lines
In order to maximize performance and parallelism, the AVR uses a Harvard architecture – with
separate memories and buses for program and data. Instructions in the program memory are
executed with a single level pipelining. While one instruction is being executed, the next instruction is pre-fetched from the program memory. This concept enables instructions to be executed
in every clock cycle. The program memory is In-System Reprogrammable Flash memory.
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8018P–AVR–08/10
ATmega169P
The fast-access Register File contains 32 × 8-bit general purpose working registers with a single
clock cycle access time. This allows single-cycle Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU) operation. In a typical ALU operation, two operands are output from the Register File, the operation is executed,
and the result is stored back in the Register File – in one clock cycle.
Six of the 32 registers can be used as three 16-bit indirect address register pointers for Data
Space addressing – enabling efficient address calculations. One of the these address pointers
can also be used as an address pointer for look up tables in Flash program memory. These
added function registers are the 16-bit X-, Y-, and Z-register, described later in this section.
The ALU supports arithmetic and logic operations between registers or between a constant and
a register. Single register operations can also be executed in the ALU. After an arithmetic operation, the Status Register is updated to reflect information about the result of the operation.
Program flow is provided by conditional and unconditional jump and call instructions, able to
directly address the whole address space. Most AVR instructions have a single 16-bit word format. Every program memory address contains a 16-bit or 32-bit instruction.
Program Flash memory space is divided in two sections, the Boot Program section and the
Application Program section. Both sections have dedicated Lock bits for write and read/write
protection. The SPM instruction that writes into the Application Flash memory section must
reside in the Boot Program section.
During interrupts and subroutine calls, the return address Program Counter (PC) is stored on the
Stack. The Stack is effectively allocated in the general data SRAM, and consequently the Stack
size is only limited by the total SRAM size and the usage of the SRAM. All user programs must
initialize the SP in the Reset routine (before subroutines or interrupts are executed). The Stack
Pointer (SP) is read/write accessible in the I/O space. The data SRAM can easily be accessed
through the five different addressing modes supported in the AVR architecture.
The memory spaces in the AVR architecture are all linear and regular memory maps.
A flexible interrupt module has its control registers in the I/O space with an additional Global
Interrupt Enable bit in the Status Register. All interrupts have a separate Interrupt Vector in the
Interrupt Vector table. The interrupts have priority in accordance with their Interrupt Vector position. The lower the Interrupt Vector address, the higher the priority.
The I/O memory space contains 64 addresses for CPU peripheral functions as Control Registers, SPI, and other I/O functions. The I/O Memory can be accessed directly, or as the Data
Space locations following those of the Register File, 0x20 - 0x5F. In addition, the ATmega169P
has Extended I/O space from 0x60 - 0xFF in SRAM where only the ST/STS/STD and
LD/LDS/LDD instructions can be used.
6.3
ALU – Arithmetic Logic Unit
The high-performance AVR ALU operates in direct connection with all the 32 general purpose
working registers. Within a single clock cycle, arithmetic operations between general purpose
registers or between a register and an immediate are executed. The ALU operations are divided
into three main categories – arithmetic, logical, and bit-functions. Some implementations of the
architecture also provide a powerful multiplier supporting both signed/unsigned multiplication
and fractional format. See the “Instruction Set” section for a detailed description.
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ATmega169P
6.4
Stack Pointer
The Stack is mainly used for storing temporary data, for storing local variables and for storing
return addresses after interrupts and subroutine calls. Note that the Stack is implemented as
growing from higher to lower memory locations. The Stack Pointer Register always points to the
top of the Stack. The Stack Pointer points to the data SRAM Stack area where the Subroutine
and Interrupt Stacks are located. A Stack PUSH command will decrease the Stack Pointer.
The Stack in the data SRAM must be defined by the program before any subroutine calls are
executed or interrupts are enabled. Initial Stack Pointer value equals the last address of the
internal SRAM and the Stack Pointer must be set to point above start of the SRAM, see Figure
7-2 on page 21.
See Table 6-1 for Stack Pointer details.
Table 6-1.
Stack Pointer instructions
Instruction
Stack pointer
Description
PUSH
Decremented by 1
Data is pushed onto the stack
CALL
ICALL
RCALL
Decremented by 2
Return address is pushed onto the stack with a subroutine call or
interrupt
POP
Incremented by 1
Data is popped from the stack
RET
RETI
Incremented by 2
Return address is popped from the stack with return from
subroutine or return from interrupt
The AVR Stack Pointer is implemented as two 8-bit registers in the I/O space. The number of
bits actually used is implementation dependent. Note that the data space in some implementations of the AVR architecture is so small that only SPL is needed. In this case, the SPH Register
will not be present.
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ATmega169P
6.4.1
SPH and SPL – Stack Pointer
Bit
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
0x3E (0x5E)
–
–
–
–
–
SP10
SP9
SP8
SPH
0x3D (0x5D)
SP7
SP6
SP5
SP4
SP3
SP2
SP1
SP0
SPL
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Read/Write
Initial Value
6.5
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Instruction Execution Timing
This section describes the general access timing concepts for instruction execution. The AVR
CPU is driven by the CPU clock clkCPU, directly generated from the selected clock source for the
chip. No internal clock division is used.
Figure 6-2 shows the parallel instruction fetches and instruction executions enabled by the Harvard architecture and the fast-access Register File concept. This is the basic pipelining concept
to obtain up to 1 MIPS per MHz with the corresponding unique results for functions per cost,
functions per clocks, and functions per power-unit.
Figure 6-2.
The Parallel Instruction Fetches and Instruction Executions
T1
T2
T3
T4
clkCPU
1st Instruction Fetch
1st Instruction Execute
2nd Instruction Fetch
2nd Instruction Execute
3rd Instruction Fetch
3rd Instruction Execute
4th Instruction Fetch
Figure 6-3 shows the internal timing concept for the Register File. In a single clock cycle an ALU
operation using two register operands is executed, and the result is stored back to the destination register.
Figure 6-3.
Single Cycle ALU Operation
T1
T2
T3
T4
clkCPU
Total Execution Time
Register Operands Fetch
ALU Operation Execute
Result Write Back
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6.6
Reset and Interrupt Handling
The AVR provides several different interrupt sources. These interrupts and the separate Reset
Vector each have a separate program vector in the program memory space. All interrupts are
assigned individual enable bits which must be written logic one together with the Global Interrupt
Enable bit in the Status Register in order to enable the interrupt. Depending on the Program
Counter value, interrupts may be automatically disabled when Boot Lock bits BLB02 or BLB12
are programmed. This feature improves software security. See the section ”Memory Programming” on page 296 for details.
The lowest addresses in the program memory space are by default defined as the Reset and
Interrupt Vectors. The complete list of vectors is shown in ”Interrupts” on page 56. The list also
determines the priority levels of the different interrupts. The lower the address the higher is the
priority level. RESET has the highest priority, and next is INT0 – the External Interrupt Request
0. The Interrupt Vectors can be moved to the start of the Boot Flash section by setting the IVSEL
bit in the MCU Control Register (MCUCR). Refer to ”Interrupts” on page 56 for more information.
The Reset Vector can also be moved to the start of the Boot Flash section by programming the
BOOTRST Fuse, see ”Boot Loader Support – Read-While-Write Self-Programming” on page
280.
When an interrupt occurs, the Global Interrupt Enable I-bit is cleared and all interrupts are disabled. The user software can write logic one to the I-bit to enable nested interrupts. All enabled
interrupts can then interrupt the current interrupt routine. The I-bit is automatically set when a
Return from Interrupt instruction – RETI – is executed.
There are basically two types of interrupts. The first type is triggered by an event that sets the
Interrupt Flag. For these interrupts, the Program Counter is vectored to the actual Interrupt Vector in order to execute the interrupt handling routine, and hardware clears the corresponding
Interrupt Flag. Interrupt Flags can also be cleared by writing a logic one to the flag bit position(s)
to be cleared. If an interrupt condition occurs while the corresponding interrupt enable bit is
cleared, the Interrupt Flag will be set and remembered until the interrupt is enabled, or the flag is
cleared by software. Similarly, if one or more interrupt conditions occur while the Global Interrupt
Enable bit is cleared, the corresponding Interrupt Flag(s) will be set and remembered until the
Global Interrupt Enable bit is set, and will then be executed by order of priority.
The second type of interrupts will trigger as long as the interrupt condition is present. These
interrupts do not necessarily have Interrupt Flags. If the interrupt condition disappears before the
interrupt is enabled, the interrupt will not be triggered.
When the AVR exits from an interrupt, it will always return to the main program and execute one
more instruction before any pending interrupt is served.
Note that the Status Register is not automatically stored when entering an interrupt routine, nor
restored when returning from an interrupt routine. This must be handled by software.
When using the CLI instruction to disable interrupts, the interrupts will be immediately disabled.
No interrupt will be executed after the CLI instruction, even if it occurs simultaneously with the
CLI instruction. The following example shows how this can be used to avoid interrupts during the
timed EEPROM write sequence.
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Assembly Code Example
in r16, SREG
cli
; store SREG value
; disable interrupts during timed sequence
sbi EECR, EEMWE
; start EEPROM write
sbi EECR, EEWE
out SREG, r16
; restore SREG value (I-bit)
C Code Example
char cSREG;
cSREG = SREG; /* store SREG value */
/* disable interrupts during timed sequence */
__disable_interrupt();
EECR |= (1<<EEMWE); /* start EEPROM write */
EECR |= (1<<EEWE);
SREG = cSREG; /* restore SREG value (I-bit) */
When using the SEI instruction to enable interrupts, the instruction following SEI will be executed before any pending interrupts, as shown in this example.
Assembly Code Example
sei
; set Global Interrupt Enable
sleep; enter sleep, waiting for interrupt
; note: will enter sleep before any pending
; interrupt(s)
C Code Example
__enable_interrupt(); /* set Global Interrupt Enable */
__sleep(); /* enter sleep, waiting for interrupt */
/* note: will enter sleep before any pending interrupt(s) */
6.6.1
Interrupt Response Time
The interrupt execution response for all the enabled AVR interrupts is four clock cycles minimum. After four clock cycles the program vector address for the actual interrupt handling routine
is executed. During this four clock cycle period, the Program Counter is pushed onto the Stack.
The vector is normally a jump to the interrupt routine, and this jump takes three clock cycles. If
an interrupt occurs during execution of a multi-cycle instruction, this instruction is completed
before the interrupt is served. If an interrupt occurs when the MCU is in sleep mode, the interrupt
execution response time is increased by four clock cycles. This increase comes in addition to the
start-up time from the selected sleep mode.
A return from an interrupt handling routine takes four clock cycles. During these four clock
cycles, the Program Counter (two bytes) is popped back from the Stack, the Stack Pointer is
incremented by two, and the I-bit in SREG is set.
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6.7
Status Register
The Status Register contains information about the result of the most recently executed arithmetic instruction. This information can be used for altering program flow in order to perform
conditional operations. Note that the Status Register is updated after all ALU operations, as
specified in the Instruction Set Reference. This will in many cases remove the need for using the
dedicated compare instructions, resulting in faster and more compact code.
The Status Register is not automatically stored when entering an interrupt routine and restored
when returning from an interrupt. This must be handled by software.
6.7.1
SREG – AVR Status Register
The SREG is defined as:
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
0x3F (0x5F)
I
T
H
S
V
N
Z
C
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
SREG
• Bit 7 – I: Global Interrupt Enable
The Global Interrupt Enable bit must be set for the interrupts to be enabled. The individual interrupt enable control is then performed in separate control registers. If the Global Interrupt Enable
Register is cleared, none of the interrupts are enabled independent of the individual interrupt
enable settings. The I-bit is cleared by hardware after an interrupt has occurred, and is set by
the RETI instruction to enable subsequent interrupts. The I-bit can also be set and cleared by
the application with the SEI and CLI instructions, as described in the instruction set reference.
• Bit 6 – T: Bit Copy Storage
The Bit Copy instructions BLD (Bit LoaD) and BST (Bit STore) use the T-bit as source or destination for the operated bit. A bit from a register in the Register File can be copied into T by the
BST instruction, and a bit in T can be copied into a bit in a register in the Register File by the
BLD instruction.
• Bit 5 – H: Half Carry Flag
The Half Carry Flag H indicates a Half Carry in some arithmetic operations. Half Carry Is useful
in BCD arithmetic. See the “Instruction Set Description” for detailed information.
• Bit 4 – S: Sign Bit, S = N ⊕ V
The S-bit is always an exclusive or between the Negative Flag N and the Two’s Complement
Overflow Flag V. See the “Instruction Set Description” for detailed information.
• Bit 3 – V: Two’s Complement Overflow Flag
The Two’s Complement Overflow Flag V supports two’s complement arithmetics. See the
“Instruction Set Description” for detailed information.
• Bit 2 – N: Negative Flag
The Negative Flag N indicates a negative result in an arithmetic or logic operation. See the
“Instruction Set Description” for detailed information.
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• Bit 1 – Z: Zero Flag
The Zero Flag Z indicates a zero result in an arithmetic or logic operation. See the “Instruction
Set Description” for detailed information.
• Bit 0 – C: Carry Flag
The Carry Flag C indicates a carry in an arithmetic or logic operation. See the “Instruction Set
Description” for detailed information.
6.8
General Purpose Register File
The Register File is optimized for the AVR Enhanced RISC instruction set. In order to achieve
the required performance and flexibility, the following input/output schemes are supported by the
Register File:
• One 8-bit output operand and one 8-bit result input
• Two 8-bit output operands and one 8-bit result input
• Two 8-bit output operands and one 16-bit result input
• One 16-bit output operand and one 16-bit result input
Figure 6-4 shows the structure of the 32 general purpose working registers in the CPU.
Figure 6-4.
AVR CPU General Purpose Working Registers
7
0
Addr.
R0
0x00
R1
0x01
R2
0x02
…
R13
0x0D
General
R14
0x0E
Purpose
R15
0x0F
Working
R16
0x10
Registers
R17
0x11
…
R26
0x1A
X-register Low Byte
R27
0x1B
X-register High Byte
R28
0x1C
Y-register Low Byte
R29
0x1D
Y-register High Byte
R30
0x1E
Z-register Low Byte
R31
0x1F
Z-register High Byte
Most of the instructions operating on the Register File have direct access to all registers, and
most of them are single cycle instructions.
As shown in Figure 6-4, each register is also assigned a data memory address, mapping them
directly into the first 32 locations of the user Data Space. Although not being physically implemented as SRAM locations, this memory organization provides great flexibility in access of the
registers, as the X-, Y- and Z-pointer registers can be set to index any register in the file.
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6.8.1
The X-register, Y-register, and Z-register
The registers R26..R31 have some added functions to their general purpose usage. These registers are 16-bit address pointers for indirect addressing of the data space. The three indirect
address registers X, Y, and Z are defined as described in Figure 6-5.
Figure 6-5.
The X-, Y-, and Z-registers
15
X-register
XH
7
XL
0
R27 (0x1B)
15
Y-register
YH
7
YL
0
0
7
0
R28 (0x1C)
15
ZH
7
0
R31 (0x1F)
0
R26 (0x1A)
R29 (0x1D)
Z-register
0
7
ZL
7
0
0
R30 (0x1E)
In the different addressing modes these address registers have functions as fixed displacement,
automatic increment, and automatic decrement (see the instruction set reference for details).
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7. AVR Memories
This section describes the different memories in the ATmega169P. The AVR architecture has
two main memory spaces, the Data Memory and the Program Memory space. In addition, the
ATmega169P features an EEPROM Memory for data storage. All three memory spaces are linear and regular.
7.1
In-System Reprogrammable Flash Program Memory
The ATmega169P contains 16 Kbytes On-chip In-System Reprogrammable Flash memory for
program storage. Since all AVR instructions are 16 or 32 bits wide, the Flash is organized as 8K
× 16. For software security, the Flash Program memory space is divided into two sections, Boot
Program section and Application Program section.
The Flash memory has an endurance of at least 10,000 write/erase cycles. The ATmega169P
Program Counter (PC) is 13 bits wide, thus addressing the 8K program memory locations. The
operation of Boot Program section and associated Boot Lock bits for software protection are
described in detail in ”Boot Loader Support – Read-While-Write Self-Programming” on page
280. ”Memory Programming” on page 296 contains a detailed description on Flash data serial
downloading using the SPI pins or the JTAG interface.
Constant tables can be allocated within the entire program memory address space (see the LPM
– Load Program Memory instruction description).
Timing diagrams for instruction fetch and execution are presented in ”Instruction Execution Timing” on page 14.
Figure 7-1.
Program Memory Map
Program Memory
0x0000
Application Flash Section
Boot Flash Section
0x1FFF
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7.2
SRAM Data Memory
Figure 7-2 shows how the ATmega169P SRAM Memory is organized.
The ATmega169P is a complex microcontroller with more peripheral units than can be supported within the 64 locations reserved in the Opcode for the IN and OUT instructions. For the
Extended I/O space from 0x60 - 0xFF in SRAM, only the ST/STS/STD and LD/LDS/LDD instructions can be used.
The lower 1,280 data memory locations address both the Register File, the I/O memory,
Extended I/O memory, and the internal data SRAM. The first 32 locations address the Register
File, the next 64 location the standard I/O memory, then 160 locations of Extended I/O memory,
and the next 1024 locations address the internal data SRAM.
The five different addressing modes for the data memory cover: Direct, Indirect with Displacement, Indirect, Indirect with Pre-decrement, and Indirect with Post-increment. In the Register
File, registers R26 to R31 feature the indirect addressing pointer registers.
The direct addressing reaches the entire data space.
The Indirect with Displacement mode reaches 63 address locations from the base address given
by the Y- or Z-register.
When using register indirect addressing modes with automatic pre-decrement and post-increment, the address registers X, Y, and Z are decremented or incremented.
The 32 general purpose working registers, 64 I/O Registers, 160 Extended I/O Registers, and
the 1,024 bytes of internal data SRAM in the ATmega169P are all accessible through all these
addressing modes. The Register File is described in ”General Purpose Register File” on page
18.
Figure 7-2.
Data Memory Map
Data Memory
32 Registers
64 I/O Registers
160 Ext I/O Reg.
0x0000 - 0x001F
0x0020 - 0x005F
0x0060 - 0x00FF
0x0100
Internal SRAM
(1024 x 8)
0x04FF
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7.2.1
Data Memory Access Times
This section describes the general access timing concepts for internal memory access. The
internal data SRAM access is performed in two clkCPU cycles as described in Figure 7-3.
Figure 7-3.
On-chip Data SRAM Access Cycles
T1
T2
T3
clkCPU
Address
Compute Address
Address valid
Write
Data
WR
Read
Data
RD
Memory Access Instruction
Next Instruction
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7.3
EEPROM Data Memory
The ATmega169P contains 512 bytes of data EEPROM memory. It is organized as a separate
data space, in which single bytes can be read and written. The EEPROM has an endurance of at
least 100,000 write/erase cycles. This section describes the access between the EEPROM and
the CPU, specifying the EEPROM Address Registers, the EEPROM Data Register, and the
EEPROM Control Register.
For a detailed description of SPI, JTAG and Parallel data downloading to the EEPROM, see
”Serial Downloading” on page 310, ”Programming via the JTAG Interface” on page 316, and
”Parallel Programming Parameters, Pin Mapping, and Commands” on page 299 respectively.
7.3.1
EEPROM Read/Write Access
The EEPROM Access Registers are accessible in the I/O space.
The write access time for the EEPROM is given in Table 7-1 on page 24. A self-timing function,
however, lets the user software detect when the next byte can be written. If the user code contains instructions that write the EEPROM, some precautions must be taken. In heavily filtered
power supplies, VCC is likely to rise or fall slowly on power-up/down. This causes the device for
some period of time to run at a voltage lower than specified as minimum for the clock frequency
used. See ”Preventing EEPROM Corruption” on page 27 for details on how to avoid problems in
these situations.
In order to prevent unintentional EEPROM writes, a specific write procedure must be followed.
When the EEPROM is read, the CPU is halted for four clock cycles before the next instruction is
executed. When the EEPROM is written, the CPU is halted for two clock cycles before the next
instruction is executed.
The following procedure should be followed when writing the EEPROM (the order of steps 3 and
4 is not essential). See ”EEPROM Register Description” on page 28 for supplementary description for each register bit:
1. Wait until EEWE becomes zero.
2. Wait until SPMEN in SPMCSR becomes zero.
3. Write new EEPROM address to EEAR (optional).
4. Write new EEPROM data to EEDR (optional).
5. Write a logical one to the EEMWE bit while writing a zero to EEWE in EECR.
6. Within four clock cycles after setting EEMWE, write a logical one to EEWE.
The EEPROM can not be programmed during a CPU write to the Flash memory. The software
must check that the Flash programming is completed before initiating a new EEPROM write.
Step 2 is only relevant if the software contains a Boot Loader allowing the CPU to program the
Flash. If the Flash is never being updated by the CPU, step 2 can be omitted. See ”Boot Loader
Support – Read-While-Write Self-Programming” on page 280 for details about Boot
programming.
Caution: An interrupt between step 5 and step 6 will make the write cycle fail, since the
EEPROM Master Write Enable will time-out. If an interrupt routine accessing the EEPROM is
interrupting another EEPROM access, the EEAR or EEDR Register will be modified, causing the
interrupted EEPROM access to fail. It is recommended to have the Global Interrupt Flag cleared
during all the steps to avoid these problems.
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When the write access time has elapsed, the EEWE bit is cleared by hardware. The user software can poll this bit and wait for a zero before writing the next byte. When EEWE has been set,
the CPU is halted for two cycles before the next instruction is executed.
The user should poll the EEWE bit before starting the read operation. If a write operation is in
progress, it is neither possible to read the EEPROM, nor to change the EEAR Register.
The calibrated Oscillator is used to time the EEPROM accesses. Table 7-1 lists the typical programming time for EEPROM access from the CPU.
Table 7-1.
EEPROM Programming Time
Symbol
EEPROM write (from CPU)
Number of Calibrated
RC Oscillator Cycles
Typical Programming Time
27 072
3.3 ms
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The following code examples show one assembly and one C function for writing to the
EEPROM. To avoid that interrupts will occur during execution of these functions, the examples
assume that interrupts are controlled (for example by disabling interrupts globally). The examples also assume that no Flash Boot Loader is present in the software. If such code is present,
the EEPROM write function must also wait for any ongoing SPM command to finish.
Assembly Code Example
EEPROM_write:
; Wait for completion of previous write
sbic EECR,EEWE
rjmp EEPROM_write
; Set up address (r18:r17) in address register
out EEARH, r18
out EEARL, r17
; Write data (r16) to Data Register
out EEDR,r16
; Write logical one to EEMWE
sbi EECR,EEMWE
; Start eeprom write by setting EEWE
sbi EECR,EEWE
ret
C Code Example
void EEPROM_write(unsigned int uiAddress, unsigned char ucData)
{
/* Wait for completion of previous write */
while(EECR & (1<<EEWE))
;
/* Set up address and Data Registers */
EEAR = uiAddress;
EEDR = ucData;
/* Write logical one to EEMWE */
EECR |= (1<<EEMWE);
/* Start eeprom write by setting EEWE */
EECR |= (1<<EEWE);
}
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The next code examples show assembly and C functions for reading the EEPROM. The examples assume that interrupts are controlled so that no interrupts will occur during execution of
these functions.
Assembly Code Example
EEPROM_read:
; Wait for completion of previous write
sbic EECR,EEWE
rjmp EEPROM_read
; Set up address (r18:r17) in address register
out EEARH, r18
out EEARL, r17
; Start eeprom read by writing EERE
sbi EECR,EERE
; Read data from Data Register
in
r16,EEDR
ret
C Code Example
unsigned char EEPROM_read(unsigned int uiAddress)
{
/* Wait for completion of previous write */
while(EECR & (1<<EEWE))
;
/* Set up address register */
EEAR = uiAddress;
/* Start eeprom read by writing EERE */
EECR |= (1<<EERE);
/* Return data from Data Register */
return EEDR;
}
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7.3.2
EEPROM Write During Power-down Sleep Mode
When entering Power-down sleep mode while an EEPROM write operation is active, the
EEPROM write operation will continue, and will complete before the Write Access time has
passed. However, when the write operation is completed, the clock continues running, and as a
consequence, the device does not enter Power-down entirely. It is therefore recommended to
verify that the EEPROM write operation is completed before entering Power-down.
7.3.3
Preventing EEPROM Corruption
During periods of low VCC, the EEPROM data can be corrupted because the supply voltage is
too low for the CPU and the EEPROM to operate properly. These issues are the same as for
board level systems using EEPROM, and the same design solutions should be applied.
An EEPROM data corruption can be caused by two situations when the voltage is too low. First,
a regular write sequence to the EEPROM requires a minimum voltage to operate correctly. Secondly, the CPU itself can execute instructions incorrectly, if the supply voltage is too low.
EEPROM data corruption can easily be avoided by following this design recommendation:
Keep the AVR RESET active (low) during periods of insufficient power supply voltage. This can
be done by enabling the internal Brown-out Detector (BOD). If the detection level of the internal
BOD does not match the needed detection level, an external low VCC reset Protection circuit can
be used. If a reset occurs while a write operation is in progress, the write operation will be completed provided that the power supply voltage is sufficient.
7.4
I/O Memory
The I/O space definition of the ATmega169P is shown in ”Register Summary” on page 373.
All ATmega169P I/Os and peripherals are placed in the I/O space. All I/O locations may be
accessed by the LD/LDS/LDD and ST/STS/STD instructions, transferring data between the 32
general purpose working registers and the I/O space. I/O Registers within the address range
0x00 - 0x1F are directly bit-accessible using the SBI and CBI instructions. In these registers, the
value of single bits can be checked by using the SBIS and SBIC instructions. Refer to the
instruction set section for more details. When using the I/O specific commands IN and OUT, the
I/O addresses 0x00 - 0x3F must be used. When addressing I/O Registers as data space using
LD and ST instructions, 0x20 must be added to these addresses. The ATmega169P is a complex microcontroller with more peripheral units than can be supported within the 64 location
reserved in Opcode for the IN and OUT instructions. For the Extended I/O space from 0x60 0xFF in SRAM, only the ST/STS/STD and LD/LDS/LDD instructions can be used.
For compatibility with future devices, reserved bits should be written to zero if accessed.
Reserved I/O memory addresses should never be written.
Some of the Status Flags are cleared by writing a logical one to them. Note that, unlike most
other AVRs, the CBI and SBI instructions will only operate on the specified bit, and can therefore
be used on registers containing such Status Flags. The CBI and SBI instructions work with registers 0x00 to 0x1F only.
The I/O and peripherals control registers are explained in later sections.
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7.5
General Purpose I/O Registers
The ATmega169P contains three General Purpose I/O Registers. These registers can be used
for storing any information, and they are particularly useful for storing global variables and Status Flags. General Purpose I/O Registers within the address range 0x00 - 0x1F are directly bitaccessible using the SBI, CBI, SBIS, and SBIC instructions.
7.5.1
GPIOR2 – General Purpose I/O Register 2
Bit
7.5.2
7.6.1
5
4
3
2
1
0
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
LSB
5
4
3
2
1
GPIOR2
GPIOR1 – General Purpose I/O Register 1
7
6
0
0x2A (0x4A)
MSB
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
LSB
5
4
3
2
1
GPIOR1
GPIOR0 – General Purpose I/O Register 0
Bit
7.6
6
MSB
Bit
7.5.3
7
0x2B (0x4B)
7
6
0
0x1E (0x3E)
MSB
LSB
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
GPIOR0
EEPROM Register Description
EEARH and EEARL – EEPROM Address Register
Bit
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
0x22 (0x42)
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
EEAR8
EEARH
0x21 (0x41)
EEAR7
EEAR6
EEAR5
EEAR4
EEAR3
EEAR2
EEAR1
EEAR0
EEARL
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Read/Write
Initial Value
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
• Bits 15:9 – Res: Reserved Bits
These bits are reserved and will always read as zero.
• Bits 8:0 – EEAR8:0: EEPROM Address
The EEPROM Address Registers – EEARH and EEARL specify the EEPROM address in the
512 bytes EEPROM space. The EEPROM data bytes are addressed linearly between 0 and
511. The initial value of EEAR is undefined. A proper value must be written before the EEPROM
may be accessed.
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7.6.2
EEDR – EEPROM Data Register
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
0x20 (0x40)
MSB
LSB
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
EEDR
• Bits 7:0 – EEDR7:0: EEPROM Data
For the EEPROM write operation, the EEDR Register contains the data to be written to the
EEPROM in the address given by the EEAR Register. For the EEPROM read operation, the
EEDR contains the data read out from the EEPROM at the address given by EEAR.
7.6.3
EECR – EEPROM Control Register
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
0x1F (0x3F)
–
–
–
–
EERIE
EEMWE
EEWE
EERE
Read/Write
R
R
R
R
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
X
0
EECR
• Bits 7..4 – Res: Reserved Bits
These bits are reserved and will always read as zero.
• Bit 3 – EERIE: EEPROM Ready Interrupt Enable
Writing EERIE to one enables the EEPROM Ready Interrupt if the I-bit in SREG is set. Writing
EERIE to zero disables the interrupt. The EEPROM Ready interrupt generates a constant interrupt when EEWE is cleared.
• Bit 2 – EEMWE: EEPROM Master Write Enable
The EEMWE bit determines whether setting EEWE to one causes the EEPROM to be written.
When EEMWE is set, setting EEWE within four clock cycles will write data to the EEPROM at
the selected address. If EEMWE is zero, setting EEWE will have no effect. When EEMWE has
been written to one by software, hardware clears the bit to zero after four clock cycles. See the
description of the EEWE bit for an EEPROM write procedure.
• Bit 1 – EEWE: EEPROM Write Enable
The EEPROM Write Enable Signal EEWE is the write strobe to the EEPROM. When address
and data are correctly set up, the EEWE bit must be written to one to write the value into the
EEPROM. The EEMWE bit must be written to one before a logical one is written to EEWE, otherwise no EEPROM write takes place.
• Bit 0 – EERE: EEPROM Read Enable
The EEPROM Read Enable Signal EERE is the read strobe to the EEPROM. When the correct
address is set up in the EEAR Register, the EERE bit must be written to a logic one to trigger the
EEPROM read. The EEPROM read access takes one instruction, and the requested data is
available immediately. When the EEPROM is read, the CPU is halted for four cycles before the
next instruction is executed.
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8. System Clock and Clock Options
8.1
Clock Systems and their Distribution
Figure 8-1 presents the principal clock systems in the AVR and their distribution. All of the clocks
need not be active at a given time. In order to reduce power consumption, the clocks to modules
not being used can be halted by using different sleep modes, as described in ”Power Management and Sleep Modes” on page 40. The clock systems are detailed below.
Figure 8-1.
Clock Distribution
LCD Controller
Asynchronous
Timer/Counter
General I/O
Modules
clkI/O
CPU Core
RAM
Flash and
EEPROM
clkCPU
AVR Clock
Control Unit
clkASY
clkFLASH
Reset Logic
Source clock
System Clock
Prescaler
Watchdog Timer
Watchdog clock
Oscillator
Watchdog
Clock
Multiplexer
Timer/Counter
Oscillator
8.1.1
External Clock
Crystal
Oscillator
Low-frequency
Crystal Oscillator
Calibrated RC
Oscillator
CPU Clock – clkCPU
The CPU clock is routed to parts of the system concerned with operation of the AVR core.
Examples of such modules are the General Purpose Register File, the Status Register and the
data memory holding the Stack Pointer. Halting the CPU clock inhibits the core from performing
general operations and calculations.
8.1.2
I/O Clock – clkI/O
The I/O clock is used by the majority of the I/O modules, like Timer/Counters, SPI, and USART.
The I/O clock is also used by the External Interrupt module, but note that some external interrupts are detected by asynchronous logic, allowing such interrupts to be detected even if the I/O
clock is halted. Also note that start condition detection in the USI module is carried out asynchronously when clkI/O is halted, enabling USI start condition detection in all sleep modes.
8.1.3
Flash Clock – clkFLASH
The Flash clock controls operation of the Flash interface. The Flash clock is usually active simultaneously with the CPU clock.
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8.1.4
Asynchronous Timer Clock – clkASY
The Asynchronous Timer clock allows the Asynchronous Timer/Counter and the LCD controller
to be clocked directly from an external clock or an external 32 kHz clock crystal. The dedicated
clock domain allows using this Timer/Counter as a real-time counter even when the device is in
sleep mode. It also allows the LCD controller output to continue while the rest of the device is in
sleep mode.
8.1.5
ADC Clock – clkADC
The ADC is provided with a dedicated clock domain. This allows halting the CPU and I/O clocks
in order to reduce noise generated by digital circuitry. This gives more accurate ADC conversion
results.
8.2
Clock Sources
The device has the following clock source options, selectable by Flash Fuse bits as shown
below. The clock from the selected source is input to the AVR clock generator, and routed to the
appropriate modules.
Device Clocking Options Select(1)
Table 8-1.
Device Clocking Option
CKSEL3:0
External Crystal/Ceramic Resonator
1111 - 1000
External Low-frequency Crystal
0111 - 0110
Calibrated Internal RC Oscillator
0010
External Clock
0000
Reserved
Note:
0011, 0001, 0101, 0100
1. For all fuses “1” means unprogrammed while “0” means programmed.
The various choices for each clocking option is given in the following sections. When the CPU
wakes up from Power-down or Power-save, the selected clock source is used to time the startup, ensuring stable Oscillator operation before instruction execution starts. When the CPU starts
from reset, there is an additional delay allowing the power to reach a stable level before commencing normal operation. The Watchdog Oscillator is used for timing this real-time part of the
start-up time. The number of WDT Oscillator cycles used for each time-out is shown in Table 82. The frequency of the Watchdog Oscillator is voltage dependent as shown in ”Typical Characteristics” on page 338.
Table 8-2.
Number of Watchdog Oscillator Cycles
Typ Time-out (VCC = 5.0V)
Typ Time-out (VCC = 3.0V)
Number of Cycles
4.1 ms
4.3 ms
4K (4,096)
65 ms
69 ms
64K (65,536)
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8.3
Default Clock Source
The device is shipped with CKSEL = “0010”, SUT = “10”, and CKDIV8 programmed. The default
clock source setting is the Internal RC Oscillator with longest start-up time and an initial system
clock prescaling of 8. This default setting ensures that all users can make their desired clock
source setting using an In-System or Parallel programmer.
8.4
Calibrated Internal RC Oscillator
B default, the Internal RC Oscillator provides an approximate 8 MHz clock. Though voltage and
temperature dependent, this clock can be very accurately calibrated by the user. See Table 28-2
on page 332 and ”Internal Oscillator Speed” on page 365 for more details. The device is shipped
with the CKDIV8 Fuse programmed. See ”System Clock Prescaler” on page 37 for more details.
This clock may be selected as the system clock by programming the CKSEL Fuses as shown in
Table 8-3. If selected, it will operate with no external components. During reset, hardware loads
the pre-programmed calibration value into the OSCCAL Register and thereby automatically calibrates the RC Oscillator. The accuracy of this calibration is shown as Factory calibration in Table
28-2 on page 332.
By changing the OSCCAL register from SW, see ”OSCCAL – Oscillator Calibration Register” on
page 38, it is possible to get a higher calibration accuracy than by using the factory calibration.
The accuracy of this calibration is shown as User calibration in Table 28-2 on page 332.
When this Oscillator is used as the chip clock, the Watchdog Oscillator will still be used for the
Watchdog Timer and for the Reset Time-out. For more information on the pre-programmed calibration value, see the section ”Calibration Byte” on page 299.
Table 8-3.
Notes:
Internal Calibrated RC Oscillator Operating Modes(1)(3)
Frequency Range(2) (MHz)
CKSEL3:0
7.3 - 8.1
0010
1. The device is shipped with this option selected.
2. The frequency ranges are preliminary values. Actual values are TBD.
3. If 8 MHz frequency exceeds the specification of the device (depends on VCC), the CKDIV8
Fuse can be programmed in order to divide the internal frequency by 8.
When this Oscillator is selected, start-up times are determined by the SUT Fuses as shown in
Table 8-4.
Table 8-4.
Start-up times for the internal calibrated RC Oscillator clock selection
Start-up Time from Powerdown and Power-save
Additional Delay from
Reset (VCC = 5.0V)
SUT1:0
BOD enabled
6 CK
14CK
00
Fast rising power
6 CK
14CK + 4.1 ms
Power Conditions
Slowly rising power
6 CK
Reserved
Note:
14CK + 65 ms
(1)
01
10
11
1. The device is shipped with this option selected.
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8.5
Crystal Oscillator
XTAL1 and XTAL2 are input and output, respectively, of an inverting amplifier which can be configured for use as an On-chip Oscillator, as shown in Figure 8-2. Either a quartz crystal or a
ceramic resonator may be used.
C1 and C2 should always be equal for both crystals and resonators. The optimal value of the
capacitors depends on the crystal or resonator in use, the amount of stray capacitance, and the
electromagnetic noise of the environment. Some initial guidelines for choosing capacitors for
use with crystals are given in Table 8-5. For ceramic resonators, the capacitor values given by
the manufacturer should be used.
Figure 8-2.
Crystal Oscillator Connections
C2
C1
XTAL2 (TOSC2)
XTAL1 (TOSC1)
GND
The Oscillator can operate in three different modes, each optimized for a specific frequency
range. The operating mode is selected by the fuses CKSEL3:1 as shown in Table 8-5.
Table 8-5.
Crystal Oscillator Operating Modes
CKSEL3:1
Frequency Range (MHz)
Recommended Range for Capacitors C1 and
C2 for Use with Crystals (pF)
100(1)
0.4 - 0.9
–
101
0.9 - 3.0
12 - 22
110
3.0 - 8.0
12 - 22
111
8.0 -
12 - 22
Notes:
1. This option should not be used with crystals, only with ceramic resonators.
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The CKSEL0 Fuse together with the SUT1..0 Fuses select the start-up times as shown in Table
8-6.
Table 8-6.
CKSEL0
SUT1:0
Start-up Time from
Power-down and
Power-save
0
00
258 CK(1)
14CK + 4.1 ms
Ceramic resonator, fast
rising power
0
01
258 CK(1)
14CK + 65 ms
Ceramic resonator, slowly
rising power
0
10
1K CK(2)
14CK
Ceramic resonator, BOD
enabled
0
11
1K CK(2)
14CK + 4.1 ms
Ceramic resonator, fast
rising power
1
00
1K CK(2)
14CK + 65 ms
Ceramic resonator, slowly
rising power
1
01
16K CK
14CK
Crystal Oscillator, BOD
enabled
1
10
16K CK
14CK + 4.1 ms
Crystal Oscillator, fast
rising power
1
11
16K CK
14CK + 65 ms
Crystal Oscillator, slowly
rising power
Notes:
8.6
Start-up Times for the Crystal Oscillator Clock Selection
Additional Delay
from Reset
(VCC = 5.0V)
Recommended Usage
1. These options should only be used when not operating close to the maximum frequency of the
device, and only if frequency stability at start-up is not important for the application. These
options are not suitable for crystals.
2. These options are intended for use with ceramic resonators and will ensure frequency stability
at start-up. They can also be used with crystals when not operating close to the maximum frequency of the device, and if frequency stability at start-up is not important for the application.
Low-frequency Crystal Oscillator
The Low-frequency Crystal Oscillator is optimized for use with a 32.768 kHz watch crystal.
When selecting crystals, load capacitance and crystal’s Equivalent Series Resistance, ESR
must be taken into consideration. Both values are specified by the crystal vendor. ATmega169P
oscillator is optimized for very low power consumption, and thus when selecting crystals, see
Table 8-7 for maximum ESR recommendations on 9 pF and 6.5 pF crystals.
Table 8-7.
Note:
Maximum ESR Recommendation for 32.768 kHz Watch Crystal
Crystal CL (pF)
Max ESR [kΩ](1)
6.5
60
9
35
1. Maximum ESR is typical value based on characterization
The Low-frequency Crystal Oscillator provides an internal load capacitance, see Table 8-8 on
page 35 at each TOSC pin.
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Table 8-8.
Capacitance for Low-Frequency Crystal Oscillator
Device
32 kHz Osc. Type
Cap (Xtal1/Tosc1)
Cap (Xtal2/Tosc2)
System Osc.
16 pF
6 pF
Timer Osc.
16 pF
6 pF
ATmega169P
The capacitance (Ce + Ci) needed at each TOSC pin can be calculated by using:
Ce + Ci = 2 ⋅ CL – C s
where
Ce - is optional external capacitors as described in Figure 8-2 on page 33.
Ci - is is the pin capacitance in Table 8-8.
CL - is the load capacitance for a 32.768 kHz crystal specified by the crystal vendor.
CS - is the total stray capacitance for one TOSC pin.
Crystals specifying load capacitance (CL) higher than the ones given in the Table 8-8, require
external capacitors applied as described in Figure 8-2 on page 33.
The Low-frequency Crystal Oscillator must be selected by setting the CKSEL Fuses to “0110” or
“0111” as shown in Table 8-10. Start-up times are determined by the SUT Fuses as shown in
Table 8-9.
Table 8-9.
Start-up Times for the Low-frequency Crystal Oscillator Clock Selection
SUT1..0
Additional Delay from Reset (VCC = 5.0V)
00
14 CK
01
14 CK + 4 ms
Slowly rising power
10
14 CK + 65 ms
Stable frequency at start-up
11
Fast rising power or BOD enabled
Reserved
Table 8-10.
Start-up Times for the Low-frequency Crystal Oscillator Clock Selection
CKSEL3..0
Start-up Time from
Power-down and Power-save
0110(1)
1K CK
0111
32K CK
Note:
Recommended Usage
Recommended Usage
Stable frequency at start-up
1. This option should only be used if frequency stability at start-up is not important for the
application
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8.7
External Clock
To drive the device from an external clock source, XTAL1 should be driven as shown in Figure
8-3. To run the device on an external clock, the CKSEL Fuses must be programmed to “0000”.
Figure 8-3.
External Clock Drive Configuration
NC
XTAL2
EXTERNAL
CLOCK
SIGNAL
XTAL1
GND
When this clock source is selected, start-up times are determined by the SUT Fuses as shown in
Table 8-12.
Table 8-11.
Crystal Oscillator Clock Frequency
CKSEL3..0
Frequency Range
0000
0 - 16 MHz
Table 8-12.
Start-up Times for the External Clock Selection
SUT1..0
Start-up Time from Powerdown and Power-save
Additional Delay from
Reset (VCC = 5.0V)
00
6 CK
14CK
01
6 CK
14CK + 4.1 ms
Fast rising power
10
6 CK
14CK + 65 ms
Slowly rising power
11
Recommended Usage
BOD enabled
Reserved
When applying an external clock, it is required to avoid sudden changes in the applied clock frequency to ensure stable operation of the MCU. A variation in frequency of more than 2% from
one clock cycle to the next can lead to unpredictable behavior. It is required to ensure that the
MCU is kept in Reset during such changes in the clock frequency.
Note that the System Clock Prescaler can be used to implement run-time changes of the internal
clock frequency while still ensuring stable operation. Refer to ”System Clock Prescaler” on page
37 for details.
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8.8
Timer/Counter Oscillator
ATmega169P uses the same crystal oscillator for Low-frequency Oscillator and Timer/Counter
Oscillator. See ”Low-frequency Crystal Oscillator” on page 34 for details on the oscillator and
crystal requirements.
ATmega169P share the Timer/Counter Oscillator Pins (TOSC1 and TOSC2) with XTAL1 and
XTAL2. When using the Timer/Counter Oscillator, the system clock needs to be four times the
oscillator frequency. Due to this and the pin sharing, the Timer/Counter Oscillator can only be
used when the Calibrated Internal RC Oscillator is selected as system clock source.
Applying an external clock source to TOSC1 can be done if EXTCLK in the ASSR Register is
written to logic one. See ”Asynchronous operation of the Timer/Counter” on page 150 for further
description on selecting external clock as input instead of a 32.768 kHz watch crystal.
8.9
Clock Output Buffer
When the CKOUT Fuse is programmed, the system Clock will be output on CLKO. This mode is
suitable when chip clock is used to drive other circuits on the system. The clock will be output
also during reset and the normal operation of I/O pin will be overridden when the fuse is programmed. Any clock source, including internal RC Oscillator, can be selected when CLKO
serves as clock output. If the System Clock Prescaler is used, it is the divided system clock that
is output when the CKOUT Fuse is programmed.
8.10
System Clock Prescaler
The ATmega169P system clock can be divided by setting the ”CLKPR – Clock Prescale Register” on page 38. This feature can be used to decrease the system clock frequency and power
consumption when the requirement for processing power is low. This can be used with all clock
source options, and it will affect the clock frequency of the CPU and all synchronous peripherals.
clkI/O, clkADC, clkCPU, and clkFLASH are divided by a factor as shown in Table 8-13.
When switching between prescaler settings, the System Clock Prescaler ensures that no
glitches occur in the clock system and that no intermediate frequency is higher than neither the
clock frequency corresponding to the previous setting, nor the clock frequency corresponding to
the new setting.
The ripple counter that implements the prescaler runs at the frequency of the undivided clock,
which may be faster than the CPU’s clock frequency. Hence, it is not possible to determine the
state of the prescaler – even if it were readable, and the exact time it takes to switch from one
clock division to another cannot be exactly predicted. From the time the CLKPS values are written, it takes between T1 + T2 and T1 + 2 × T2 before the new clock frequency is active. In this
interval, 2 active clock edges are produced. Here, T1 is the previous clock period, and T2 is the
period corresponding to the new prescaler setting.
To avoid unintentional changes of clock frequency, a special write procedure must be followed
to change the CLKPS bits:
1. Write the Clock Prescaler Change Enable (CLKPCE) bit to one and all other bits in
CLKPR to zero.
2. Within four cycles, write the desired value to CLKPS while writing a zero to CLKPCE.
Interrupts must be disabled when changing prescaler setting to make sure the write procedure is
not interrupted.
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8.11
8.11.1
Register Description
OSCCAL – Oscillator Calibration Register
Bit
(0x66)
Read/Write
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
CAL7
CAL6
CAL5
CAL4
CAL3
CAL2
CAL1
CAL0
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
OSCCAL
Device Specific Calibration Value
• Bits 7:0 – CAL7:0: Oscillator Calibration Value
The Oscillator Calibration Register is used to trim the Calibrated Internal RC Oscillator to
remove process variations from the oscillator frequency. A pre-programmed calibration value is
automatically written to this register during chip reset, giving the Factory calibrated frequency as
specified in Table 28-2 on page 332. The application software can write this register to change
the oscillator frequency. The oscillator can be calibrated to frequencies as specified in Table 282 on page 332. Calibration outside that range is not guaranteed.
Note that this oscillator is used to time EEPROM and Flash write accesses, and these write
times will be affected accordingly. If the EEPROM or Flash are written, do not calibrate to more
than 8.8 MHz. Otherwise, the EEPROM or Flash write may fail.
The CAL7 bit determines the range of operation for the oscillator. Setting this bit to 0 gives the
lowest frequency range, setting this bit to 1 gives the highest frequency range. The two frequency ranges are overlapping, in other words a setting of OSCCAL = 0x7F gives a higher
frequency than OSCCAL = 0x80.
The CAL6..0 bits are used to tune the frequency within the selected range. A setting of 0x00
gives the lowest frequency in that range, and a setting of 0x7F gives the highest frequency in the
range.
8.11.2
CLKPR – Clock Prescale Register
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
CLKPCE
–
–
–
CLKPS3
CLKPS2
CLKPS1
CLKPS0
Read/Write
R/W
R
R
R
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
(0x61)
CLKPR
See Bit Description
• Bit 7 – CLKPCE: Clock Prescaler Change Enable
The CLKPCE bit must be written to logic one to enable change of the CLKPS bits. The CLKPCE
bit is only updated when the other bits in CLKPR are simultaneously written to zero. CLKPCE is
cleared by hardware four cycles after it is written or when CLKPS bits are written. Rewriting the
CLKPCE bit within this time-out period does neither extend the time-out period, nor clear the
CLKPCE bit.
• Bits 3:0 – CLKPS3:0: Clock Prescaler Select Bits 3 - 0
These bits define the division factor between the selected clock source and the internal system
clock. These bits can be written run-time to vary the clock frequency to suit the application
requirements. As the divider divides the master clock input to the MCU, the speed of all synchronous peripherals is reduced when a division factor is used. The division factors are given in
Table 8-13 on page 39.
The CKDIV8 Fuse determines the initial value of the CLKPS bits. If CKDIV8 is unprogrammed,
the CLKPS bits will be reset to “0000”. If CKDIV8 is programmed, CLKPS bits are reset to
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“0011”, giving a division factor of 8 at start up. This feature should be used if the selected clock
source has a higher frequency than the maximum frequency of the device at the present operating conditions. Note that any value can be written to the CLKPS bits regardless of the CKDIV8
Fuse setting. The Application software must ensure that a sufficient division factor is chosen if
the selected clock source has a higher frequency than the maximum frequency of the device at
the present operating conditions. The device is shipped with the CKDIV8 Fuse programmed.
Table 8-13.
Clock Prescaler Select
CLKPS3
CLKPS2
CLKPS1
CLKPS0
Clock Division Factor
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
1
2
0
0
1
0
4
0
0
1
1
8
0
1
0
0
16
0
1
0
1
32
0
1
1
0
64
0
1
1
1
128
1
0
0
0
256
1
0
0
1
Reserved
1
0
1
0
Reserved
1
0
1
1
Reserved
1
1
0
0
Reserved
1
1
0
1
Reserved
1
1
1
0
Reserved
1
1
1
1
Reserved
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9. Power Management and Sleep Modes
Sleep modes enable the application to shut down unused modules in the MCU, thereby savingpower. The AVR provides various sleep modes allowing the user to tailor the power
consumption to the application’s requirements.
9.1
Sleep Modes
Figure 8-1 on page 30 presents the different clock systems in the ATmega169P, and their distribution. The figure is helpful in selecting an appropriate sleep mode. Table 9-1 shows the
different sleep modes and their wake up sources.
Active Clock Domains and Wake-up Sources in the Different Sleep Modes.
ADC NRM
X
X
X
X(2)
X
(2)
X
Powerdown
Powersave
X
Standby(1)
Notes:
X
X
X
X
X(3)
X
X(3)
X
X(3)
X
(2)
X
X
X
(2)
X
X
X
X
X
Other
I/O
X
ADC
X
(3)
SPM/ EEPROM
Ready
X
Timer2
LCD
Controller
X
Timer Osc
Enabled
clkASY
clkADC
X
Wake-up Sources
USI Start
Condition
X
Oscillators
INT0 and
Pin Change
Idle
clkIO
Sleep
Mode
clkFLASH
clkCPU
Active Clock Domains
Main Clock
Source Enabled
Table 9-1.
X
X
1. Only recommended with external crystal or resonator selected as clock source.
2. If either LCD controller or Timer/Counter2 is running in asynchronous mode.
3. For INT0, only level interrupt.
To enter any of the sleep modes, the SE bit in SMCR must be written to logic one and a SLEEP
instruction must be executed. The SM2, SM1, and SM0 bits in the SMCR Register select which
sleep mode will be activated by the SLEEP instruction. See Table 9-2 on page 45 for a
summary.
If an enabled interrupt occurs while the MCU is in a sleep mode, the MCU wakes up. The MCU
is then halted for four cycles in addition to the start-up time, executes the interrupt routine, and
resumes execution from the instruction following SLEEP. The contents of the Register File and
SRAM are unaltered when the device wakes up from sleep. If a reset occurs during sleep mode,
the MCU wakes up and executes from the Reset Vector.
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9.2
Idle Mode
When the SM2..0 bits are written to 000, the SLEEP instruction makes the MCU enter Idle
mode, stopping the CPU but allowing LCD controller, the SPI, USART, Analog Comparator,
ADC, USI, Timer/Counters, Watchdog, and the interrupt system to continue operating. This
sleep mode basically halts clkCPU and clkFLASH, while allowing the other clocks to run.
Idle mode enables the MCU to wake up from external triggered interrupts as well as internal
ones like the Timer Overflow and USART Transmit Complete interrupts. If wake-up from the
Analog Comparator interrupt is not required, the Analog Comparator can be powered down by
setting the ACD bit in the Analog Comparator Control and Status Register – ACSR. This will
reduce power consumption in Idle mode. If the ADC is enabled, a conversion starts automatically when this mode is entered.
9.3
ADC Noise Reduction Mode
When the SM2..0 bits are written to 001, the SLEEP instruction makes the MCU enter ADC
Noise Reduction mode, stopping the CPU but allowing the ADC, the external interrupts, the USI
start condition detection, Timer/Counter2, LCD Controller, and the Watchdog to continue operating (if enabled). This sleep mode basically halts clkI/O, clkCPU, and clkFLASH, while allowing the
other clocks to run.
This improves the noise environment for the ADC, enabling higher resolution measurements. If
the ADC is enabled, a conversion starts automatically when this mode is entered. Apart form the
ADC Conversion Complete interrupt, only an External Reset, a Watchdog Reset, a Brown-out
Reset, an LCD controller interrupt, USI start condition interrupt, a Timer/Counter2 interrupt, an
SPM/EEPROM ready interrupt, an external level interrupt on INT0 or a pin change interrupt can
wake up the MCU from ADC Noise Reduction mode.
9.4
Power-down Mode
When the SM2..0 bits are written to 010, the SLEEP instruction makes the MCU enter Powerdown mode. In this mode, the external Oscillator is stopped, while the external interrupts, the
USI start condition detection, and the Watchdog continue operating (if enabled). Only an External Reset, a Watchdog Reset, a Brown-out Reset, USI start condition interrupt, an external level
interrupt on INT0, or a pin change interrupt can wake up the MCU. This sleep mode basically
halts all generated clocks, allowing operation of asynchronous modules only.
Note that if a level triggered interrupt is used for wake-up from Power-down mode, the changed
level must be held for some time to wake up the MCU. Refer to ”External Interrupts” on page 61
for details.
When waking up from Power-down mode, there is a delay from the wake-up condition occurs
until the wake-up becomes effective. This allows the clock to restart and become stable after
having been stopped. The wake-up period is defined by the same CKSEL Fuses that define the
Reset Time-out period, as described in ”Clock Sources” on page 31.
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9.5
Power-save Mode
When the SM2..0 bits are written to 011, the SLEEP instruction makes the MCU enter Powersave mode. This mode is identical to Power-down, with one exception:
If Timer/Counter2 and/or the LCD controller are enabled, they will keep running during sleep.
The device can wake up from either Timer Overflow or Output Compare event from
Timer/Counter2 if the corresponding Timer/Counter2 interrupt enable bits are set in TIMSK2,
and the Global Interrupt Enable bit in SREG is set. It can also wake up from an LCD controller
interrupt.
If neither Timer/Counter2 nor the LCD controller is running, Power-down mode is recommended
instead of Power-save mode.
The LCD controller and Timer/Counter2 can be clocked both synchronously and asynchronously
in Power-save mode. The clock source for the two modules can be selected independent of
each other. If neither the LCD controller nor the Timer/Counter2 is using the asynchronous
clock, the Timer/Counter Oscillator is stopped during sleep. If neither the LCD controller nor the
Timer/Counter2 is using the synchronous clock, the clock source is stopped during sleep. Note
that even if the synchronous clock is running in Power-save, this clock is only available for the
LCD controller and Timer/Counter2.
9.6
Standby Mode
When the SM2..0 bits are 110 and an external crystal/resonator clock option is selected, the
SLEEP instruction makes the MCU enter Standby mode. This mode is identical to Power-down
with the exception that the Oscillator is kept running. From Standby mode, the device wakes up
in six clock cycles.
9.7
Power Reduction Register
The Power Reduction Register (PRR), see ”PRR – Power Reduction Register” on page 45, provides a method to stop the clock to individual peripherals to reduce power consumption. The
current state of the peripheral is frozen and the I/O registers can not be read or written.
Resources used by the peripheral when stopping the clock will remain occupied, hence the
peripheral should in most cases be disabled before stopping the clock. Waking up a module,
which is done by clearing the bit in PRR, puts the module in the same state as before shutdown.
Module shutdown can be used in Idle mode and Active mode to significantly reduce the overall
power consumption. See ”Supply Current of I/O modules” on page 343 for examples. In all other
sleep modes, the clock is already stopped.
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9.8
Minimizing Power Consumption
There are several issues to consider when trying to minimize the power consumption in an AVR
controlled system. In general, sleep modes should be used as much as possible, and the sleep
mode should be selected so that as few as possible of the device’s functions are operating. All
functions not needed should be disabled. In particular, the following modules may need special
consideration when trying to achieve the lowest possible power consumption.
9.8.1
Analog to Digital Converter
If enabled, the ADC will be enabled in all sleep modes. To save power, the ADC should be disabled before entering any sleep mode. When the ADC is turned off and on again, the next
conversion will be an extended conversion. Refer to ”ADC - Analog to Digital Converter” on page
216 for details on ADC operation.
9.8.2
Analog Comparator
When entering Idle mode, the Analog Comparator should be disabled if not used. When entering
ADC Noise Reduction mode, the Analog Comparator should be disabled. In other sleep modes,
the Analog Comparator is automatically disabled. However, if the Analog Comparator is set up
to use the Internal Voltage Reference as input, the Analog Comparator should be disabled in all
sleep modes. Otherwise, the Internal Voltage Reference will be enabled, independent of sleep
mode. Refer to ”AC - Analog Comparator” on page 212 for details on how to configure the Analog Comparator.
9.8.3
Brown-out Detector
If the Brown-out Detector is not needed by the application, this module should be turned off. If
the Brown-out Detector is enabled by the BODLEVEL Fuses, it will be enabled in all sleep
modes, and hence, always consume power. In the deeper sleep modes, this will contribute significantly to the total current consumption. Refer to ”Brown-out Detection” on page 50 for details
on how to configure the Brown-out Detector.
9.8.4
Internal Voltage Reference
The Internal Voltage Reference will be enabled when needed by the Brown-out Detection, the
Analog Comparator or the ADC. If these modules are disabled as described in the sections
above, the internal voltage reference will be disabled and it will not be consuming power. When
turned on again, the user must allow the reference to start up before the output is used. If the
reference is kept on in sleep mode, the output can be used immediately. Refer to ”Internal Voltage Reference” on page 51 for details on the start-up time.
9.8.5
Watchdog Timer
If the Watchdog Timer is not needed in the application, the module should be turned off. If the
Watchdog Timer is enabled, it will be enabled in all sleep modes, and hence, always consume
power. In the deeper sleep modes, this will contribute significantly to the total current consumption. Refer to ”Watchdog Timer” on page 51 for details on how to configure the Watchdog Timer.
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9.8.6
Port Pins
When entering a sleep mode, all port pins should be configured to use minimum power. The
most important is then to ensure that no pins drive resistive loads. In sleep modes where both
the I/O clock (clkI/O) and the ADC clock (clkADC) are stopped, the input buffers of the device will
be disabled. This ensures that no power is consumed by the input logic when not needed. In
some cases, the input logic is needed for detecting wake-up conditions, and it will then be
enabled. Refer to the section ”Digital Input Enable and Sleep Modes” on page 69 for details on
which pins are enabled. If the input buffer is enabled and the input signal is left floating or have
an analog signal level close to VCC/2, the input buffer will use excessive power.
For analog input pins, the digital input buffer should be disabled at all times. An analog signal
level close to VCC/2 on an input pin can cause significant current even in active mode. Digital
input buffers can be disabled by writing to the Digital Input Disable Registers (DIDR1 and
DIDR0). Refer to ”DIDR1 – Digital Input Disable Register 1” on page 215 and ”DIDR0 – Digital
Input Disable Register 0” on page 233 for details.
9.8.7
JTAG Interface and On-chip Debug System
If the On-chip debug system is enabled by the OCDEN Fuse and the chip enter Power down or
Power save sleep mode, the main clock source remains enabled. In these sleep modes, this will
contribute significantly to the total current consumption. There are three alternative ways to
avoid this:
• Disable OCDEN Fuse.
• Disable JTAGEN Fuse.
• Write one to the JTD bit in MCUCSR.
The TDO pin is left floating when the JTAG interface is enabled while the JTAG TAP controller is
not shifting data. If the hardware connected to the TDO pin does not pull up the logic level,
power consumption will increase. Note that the TDI pin for the next device in the scan chain contains a pull-up that avoids this problem. Writing the JTD bit in the MCUCSR register to one or
leaving the JTAG fuse unprogrammed disables the JTAG interface.
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9.9
9.9.1
Register Description
SMCR – Sleep Mode Control Register
The Sleep Mode Control Register contains control bits for power management.
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
0x33 (0x53)
–
–
–
–
SM2
SM1
SM0
SE
Read/Write
R
R
R
R
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
SMCR
• Bits 3, 2, 1 – SM2:0: Sleep Mode Select Bits 2, 1, and 0
These bits select between the five available sleep modes as shown in Table 9-2.
Table 9-2.
Sleep Mode Select
SM2
SM1
SM0
0
0
0
Idle
0
0
1
ADC Noise Reduction
0
1
0
Power-down
0
1
1
Power-save
1
0
0
Reserved
1
0
1
Reserved
1
1
0
Standby(1)
1
1
1
Reserved
Note:
Sleep Mode
1. Standby mode is only recommended for use with external crystals or resonators.
• Bit 1 – SE: Sleep Enable
The SE bit must be written to logic one to make the MCU enter the sleep mode when the SLEEP
instruction is executed. To avoid the MCU entering the sleep mode unless it is the programmer’s
purpose, it is recommended to write the Sleep Enable (SE) bit to one just before the execution of
the SLEEP instruction and to clear it immediately after waking up.
9.9.2
PRR – Power Reduction Register
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
(0x64)
–
–
–
PRLCD
PRTIM1
PRSPI
PRUSART0
PRADC
Read/Write
R
R
R
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
PRR
• Bit 7:5 - Res: Reserved bits
These bits are reserved and will always read as zero.
• Bit 4 - PRLCD: Power Reduction LCD
Writing logic one to this bit shuts down the LCD controller. The LCD controller must be disabled
and the display discharged before shut down. See ”Disabling the LCD” on page 244 for details
on how to disable the LCD controller.
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• Bit 3 - PRTIM1: Power Reduction Timer/Counter1
Writing a logic one to this bit shuts down the Timer/Counter1 module. When the Timer/Counter1
is enabled, operation will continue like before the shutdown.
• Bit 2 - PRSPI: Power Reduction Serial Peripheral Interface
Writing a logic one to this bit shuts down the Serial Peripheral Interface by stopping the clock to
the module. When waking up the SPI again, the SPI should be re initialized to ensure proper
operation.
• Bit 1 - PRUSART0: Power Reduction USART0
Writing a logic one to this bit shuts down the USART by stopping the clock to the module. When
waking up the USART again, the USART should be re initialized to ensure proper operation.
• Bit 0 - PRADC: Power Reduction ADC
Writing a logic one to this bit shuts down the ADC. The ADC must be disabled before shut down.
The analog comparator cannot use the ADC input MUX when the ADC is shut down.
Note:
The Analog Comparator is disabled using the ACD-bit in the ”ACSR – Analog Comparator Control
and Status Register” on page 214.
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10. System Control and Reset
10.1
Resetting the AVR
During reset, all I/O Registers are set to their initial values, and the program starts execution
from the Reset Vector. The instruction placed at the Reset Vector must be a JMP – Absolute
Jump – instruction to the reset handling routine. If the program never enables an interrupt
source, the Interrupt Vectors are not used, and regular program code can be placed at these
locations. This is also the case if the Reset Vector is in the Application section while the Interrupt
Vectors are in the Boot section or vice versa. The circuit diagram in Figure 10-1 on page 48
shows the reset logic. Table 28-4 on page 333 defines the electrical parameters of the reset
circuitry.
The I/O ports of the AVR are immediately reset to their initial state when a reset source goes
active. This does not require any clock source to be running.
After all reset sources have gone inactive, a delay counter is invoked, stretching the internal
reset. This allows the power to reach a stable level before normal operation starts. The time-out
period of the delay counter is defined by the user through the SUT and CKSEL Fuses. The different selections for the delay period are presented in ”Clock Sources” on page 31.
10.2
Reset Sources
The ATmega169P has five sources of reset:
• Power-on Reset. The MCU is reset when the supply voltage is below the Power-on Reset
threshold (VPOT).
• External Reset. The MCU is reset when a low level is present on the RESET pin for longer than
the minimum pulse length.
• Watchdog Reset. The MCU is reset when the Watchdog Timer period expires and the
Watchdog is enabled.
• Brown-out Reset. The MCU is reset when the supply voltage VCC is below the Brown-out Reset
threshold (VBOT) and the Brown-out Detector is enabled.
• JTAG AVR Reset. The MCU is reset as long as there is a logic one in the Reset Register, one
of the scan chains of the JTAG system. Refer to the section ”IEEE 1149.1 (JTAG) Boundaryscan” on page 259 for details.
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Figure 10-1. Reset Logic
DATA BUS
PORF
BORF
EXTRF
WDRF
JTRF
MCU Status
Register (MCUSR)
Power-on Reset
Circuit
Brown-out
Reset Circuit
BODLEVEL [2..0]
Pull-up Resistor
SPIKE
FILTER
JTAG Reset
Register
Watchdog
Oscillator
Clock
Generator
CK
Delay Counters
TIMEOUT
CKSEL[3:0]
SUT[1:0]
10.2.1
Power-on Reset
A Power-on Reset (POR) pulse is generated by an On-chip detection circuit. The detection level
is defined in ”System and Reset Characteristics” on page 333. The POR is activated whenever
VCC is below the detection level. The POR circuit can be used to trigger the start-up Reset, as
well as to detect a failure in supply voltage.
A Power-on Reset (POR) circuit ensures that the device is reset from Power-on. Reaching the
Power-on Reset threshold voltage invokes the delay counter, which determines how long the
device is kept in RESET after VCC rise. The RESET signal is activated again, without any delay,
when VCC decreases below the detection level.
Figure 10-2. MCU Start-up, RESET Tied to VCC
VCC
RESET
TIME-OUT
VPOT
VRST
tTOUT
INTERNAL
RESET
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Figure 10-3. MCU Start-up, RESET Extended Externally
VCC
RESET
VPOT
VRST
TIME-OUT
tTOUT
INTERNAL
RESET
10.2.2
External Reset
An External Reset is generated by a low level on the RESET pin. Reset pulses longer than the
minimum pulse width (see ”System and Reset Characteristics” on page 333) will generate a
reset, even if the clock is not running. Shorter pulses are not guaranteed to generate a reset.
When the applied signal reaches the Reset Threshold Voltage – VRST – on its positive edge, the
delay counter starts the MCU after the Time-out period – tTOUT – has expired.
Figure 10-4. External Reset During Operation
CC
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10.2.3
Brown-out Detection
ATmega169P has an On-chip Brown-out Detection (BOD) circuit for monitoring the VCC level
during operation by comparing it to a fixed trigger level. The trigger level for the BOD can be
selected by the BODLEVEL Fuses. The trigger level has a hysteresis to ensure spike free
Brown-out Detection. The hysteresis on the detection level should be interpreted as VBOT+ =
VBOT + VHYST/2 and VBOT- = VBOT - VHYST/2.When the BOD is enabled, and VCC decreases to a
value below the trigger level (VBOT- in Figure 10-5), the Brown-out Reset is immediately activated. When VCC increases above the trigger level (VBOT+ in Figure 10-5), the delay counter
starts the MCU after the Time-out period tTOUT has expired.
The BOD circuit will only detect a drop in VCC if the voltage stays below the trigger level for longer than tBOD given in ”System and Reset Characteristics” on page 333.
Figure 10-5. Brown-out Reset During Operation
VCC
VBOT-
VBOT+
RESET
tTOUT
TIME-OUT
INTERNAL
RESET
10.2.4
Watchdog Reset
When the Watchdog times out, it will generate a short reset pulse of one CK cycle duration. On
the falling edge of this pulse, the delay timer starts counting the Time-out period tTOUT. Refer to
”Watchdog Timer” on page 51 for details on operation of the Watchdog Timer.
Figure 10-6. Watchdog Reset During Operation
CC
CK
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10.3
Internal Voltage Reference
ATmega169P features an internal bandgap reference. This reference is used for Brown-out
Detection, and it can be used as an input to the Analog Comparator or the ADC.
10.3.1
Voltage Reference Enable Signals and Start-up Time
The voltage reference has a start-up time that may influence the way it should be used. The
start-up time is given in ”System and Reset Characteristics” on page 333. To save power, the
reference is not always turned on. The reference is on during the following situations:
1. When the BOD is enabled (by programming the BODLEVEL [2..0] Fuse).
2. When the bandgap reference is connected to the Analog Comparator (by setting the
ACBG bit in ACSR).
3. When the ADC is enabled.
Thus, when the BOD is not enabled, after setting the ACBG bit or enabling the ADC, the user
must always allow the reference to start up before the output from the Analog Comparator or
ADC is used. To reduce power consumption in Power-down mode, the user can avoid the three
conditions above to ensure that the reference is turned off before entering Power-down mode.
10.4
Watchdog Timer
The Watchdog Timer is clocked from a separate On-chip Oscillator which runs at 1 MHz. This is
the typical value at VCC = 5V. See characterization data for typical values at other VCC levels. By
controlling the Watchdog Timer prescaler, the Watchdog Reset interval can be adjusted as
shown in Table 10-2 on page 55. The WDR – Watchdog Reset – instruction resets the Watchdog Timer. The Watchdog Timer is also reset when it is disabled and when a Chip Reset occurs.
Eight different clock cycle periods can be selected to determine the reset period. If the reset
period expires without another Watchdog Reset, the ATmega169P resets and executes from the
Reset Vector. For timing details on the Watchdog Reset, refer to Table 10-2 on page 55.
To prevent unintentional disabling of the Watchdog or unintentional change of time-out period,
two different safety levels are selected by the fuse WDTON as shown in Table 10-1 Refer to
”Timed Sequences for Changing the Configuration of the Watchdog Timer” on page 52 for
details.
Table 10-1.
WDT Configuration as a Function of the Fuse Settings of WDTON
WDTON
Safety
Level
WDT Initial
State
How to Disable the
WDT
How to Change Timeout
Unprogrammed
1
Disabled
Timed sequence
Timed sequence
Programmed
2
Enabled
Always enabled
Timed sequence
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Figure 10-7. Watchdog Timer
WATCHDOG
OSCILLATOR
10.4.1
Timed Sequences for Changing the Configuration of the Watchdog Timer
The sequence for changing configuration differs slightly between the two safety levels. Separate
procedures are described for each level.
10.4.1.1
Safety Level 1
In this mode, the Watchdog Timer is initially disabled, but can be enabled by writing the WDE bit
to 1 without any restriction. A timed sequence is needed when changing the Watchdog Time-out
period or disabling an enabled Watchdog Timer. To disable an enabled Watchdog Timer, and/or
changing the Watchdog Time-out, the following procedure must be followed:
1. In the same operation, write a logic one to WDCE and WDE. A logic one must be written
to WDE regardless of the previous value of the WDE bit.
2. Within the next four clock cycles, in the same operation, write the WDE and WDP bits as
desired, but with the WDCE bit cleared.
10.4.1.2
Safety Level 2
In this mode, the Watchdog Timer is always enabled, and the WDE bit will always read as one. A
timed sequence is needed when changing the Watchdog Time-out period. To change the
Watchdog Time-out, the following procedure must be followed:
1. In the same operation, write a logical one to WDCE and WDE. Even though the WDE
always is set, the WDE must be written to one to start the timed sequence.
Within the next four clock cycles, in the same operation, write the WDP bits as desired, but with
the WDCE bit cleared. The value written to the WDE bit is irrelevant.
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Assembly Code Example(1)
WDT_off:
; Reset WDT
wdr
; Write logical one to WDCE and WDE
in
r16, WDTCR
ori r16, (1<<WDCE)|(1<<WDE)
out WDTCR, r16
; Turn off WDT
ldi r16, (0<<WDE)
out WDTCR, r16
ret
C Code Example(1)
void WDT_off(void)
{
/* Reset WDT */
__watchdog_reset();
/* Write logical one to WDCE and WDE */
WDTCR |= (1<<WDCE) | (1<<WDE);
/* Turn off WDT */
WDTCR = 0x00;
}
Note:
1. See ”About Code Examples” on page 10.
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10.5
10.5.1
Register Description
MCUSR – MCU Status Register
The MCU Status Register provides information on which reset source caused an MCU reset.
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
0x35 (0x55)
–
–
–
JTRF
WDRF
BORF
EXTRF
PORF
Read/Write
R
R
R
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
MCUSR
See Bit Description
• Bit 4 – JTRF: JTAG Reset Flag
This bit is set if a reset is being caused by a logic one in the JTAG Reset Register selected by
the JTAG instruction AVR_RESET. This bit is reset by a Power-on Reset, or by writing a logic
zero to the flag.
• Bit 3 – WDRF: Watchdog Reset Flag
This bit is set if a Watchdog Reset occurs. The bit is reset by a Power-on Reset, or by writing a
logic zero to the flag.
• Bit 2 – BORF: Brown-out Reset Flag
This bit is set if a Brown-out Reset occurs. The bit is reset by a Power-on Reset, or by writing a
logic zero to the flag.
• Bit 1 – EXTRF: External Reset Flag
This bit is set if an External Reset occurs. The bit is reset by a Power-on Reset, or by writing a
logic zero to the flag.
• Bit 0 – PORF: Power-on Reset Flag
This bit is set if a Power-on Reset occurs. The bit is reset only by writing a logic zero to the flag.
To make use of the Reset Flags to identify a reset condition, the user should read and then
Reset the MCUSR as early as possible in the program. If the register is cleared before another
reset occurs, the source of the reset can be found by examining the Reset Flags.
10.5.2
WDTCR – Watchdog Timer Control Register
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
(0x60)
–
–
–
WDCE
WDE
WDP2
WDP1
WDP0
Read/Write
R
R
R
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
WDTCR
• Bits 7:5 – Res: Reserved Bits
These bits are reserved and will always read as zero.
• Bit 4 – WDCE: Watchdog Change Enable
This bit must be set when the WDE bit is written to logic zero. Otherwise, the Watchdog will not
be disabled. Once written to one, hardware will clear this bit after four clock cycles. Refer to the
description of the WDE bit for a Watchdog disable procedure. This bit must also be set when
changing the prescaler bits. See ”Timed Sequences for Changing the Configuration of the
Watchdog Timer” on page 52.
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• Bit 3 – WDE: Watchdog Enable
When the WDE is written to logic one, the Watchdog Timer is enabled, and if the WDE is written
to logic zero, the Watchdog Timer function is disabled. WDE can only be cleared if the WDCE bit
has logic level one. To disable an enabled Watchdog Timer, the following procedure must be
followed:
1. In the same operation, write a logic one to WDCE and WDE. A logic one must be written
to WDE even though it is set to one before the disable operation starts.
2. Within the next four clock cycles, write a logic 0 to WDE. This disables the Watchdog.
In safety level 2, it is not possible to disable the Watchdog Timer, even with the algorithm
described above. See ”Timed Sequences for Changing the Configuration of the Watchdog
Timer” on page 52.
• Bits 2:0 – WDP2, WDP1, WDP0: Watchdog Timer Prescaler 2, 1, and 0
The WDP2, WDP1, and WDP0 bits determine the Watchdog Timer prescaling when the Watchdog Timer is enabled. The different prescaling values and their corresponding Timeout Periods
are shown in Table 10-2.
Table 10-2.
Watchdog Timer Prescale Select
WDP2
WDP1
WDP0
Number of WDT
Oscillator Cycles
Typical Time-out at
VCC = 3.0V
Typical Time-out at
VCC = 5.0V
0
0
0
16K cycles
15.4 ms
14.7 ms
0
0
1
32K cycles
30.8 ms
29.3 ms
0
1
0
64K cycles
61.6 ms
58.7 ms
0
1
1
128K cycles
0.12 s
0.12 s
1
0
0
256K cycles
0.25 s
0.23 s
1
0
1
512K cycles
0.49 s
0.47 s
1
1
0
1,024K cycles
1.0 s
0.9 s
1
1
1
2,048K cycles
2.0 s
1.9 s
Note:
Also see Figure 29-54 on page 366.
The following code example shows one assembly and one C function for turning off the WDT.
The example assumes that interrupts are controlled (for example by disabling interrupts globally)
so that no interrupts will occur during execution of these functions.
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11. Interrupts
This section describes the specifics of the interrupt handling as performed in ATmega169P. For
a general explanation of the AVR interrupt handling, refer to ”Reset and Interrupt Handling” on
page 15.
11.1
Interrupt Vectors in ATmega169P
Table 11-1.
Reset and Interrupt Vectors
Vector
No.
Program
Address(2)
Source
Interrupt Definition
1
0x0000(1)
RESET
External Pin, Power-on Reset, Brown-out Reset,
Watchdog Reset, and JTAG AVR Reset
2
0x0002
INT0
External Interrupt Request 0
3
0x0004
PCINT0
Pin Change Interrupt Request 0
4
0x0006
PCINT1
Pin Change Interrupt Request 1
5
0x0008
TIMER2 COMP
Timer/Counter2 Compare Match
6
0x000A
TIMER2 OVF
Timer/Counter2 Overflow
7
0x000C
TIMER1 CAPT
Timer/Counter1 Capture Event
8
0x000E
TIMER1 COMPA
Timer/Counter1 Compare Match A
9
0x0010
TIMER1 COMPB
Timer/Counter1 Compare Match B
10
0x0012
TIMER1 OVF
Timer/Counter1 Overflow
11
0x0014
TIMER0 COMP
Timer/Counter0 Compare Match
12
0x0016
TIMER0 OVF
Timer/Counter0 Overflow
13
0x0018
SPI, STC
SPI Serial Transfer Complete
14
0x001A
USART, RX
USART0, Rx Complete
15
0x001C
USART, UDREn
USART0 Data Register Empty
16
0x001E
USART, TX
USART0, Tx Complete
17
0x0020
USI START
USI Start Condition
18
0x0022
USI OVERFLOW
USI Overflow
19
0x0024
ANALOG COMP
Analog Comparator
20
0x0026
ADC
ADC Conversion Complete
21
0x0028
EE READY
EEPROM Ready
22
0x002A
SPM READY
Store Program Memory Ready
23
0x002C
LCD
LCD Start of Frame
Notes:
1. When the BOOTRST Fuse is programmed, the device will jump to the Boot Loader address at
reset, see ”Boot Loader Support – Read-While-Write Self-Programming” on page 280.
2. When the IVSEL bit in MCUCR is set, Interrupt Vectors will be moved to the start of the Boot
Flash Section. The address of each Interrupt Vector will then be the address in this table
added to the start address of the Boot Flash Section.
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Table 11-2 on page 57 shows reset and Interrupt Vectors placement for the various combinations of BOOTRST and IVSEL settings. If the program never enables an interrupt source, the
Interrupt Vectors are not used, and regular program code can be placed at these locations. This
is also the case if the Reset Vector is in the Application section while the Interrupt Vectors are in
the Boot section or vice versa.
Table 11-2.
Reset and Interrupt Vectors Placement(1)
BOOTRST
IVSEL
1
Note:
Reset Address
Interrupt Vectors Start Address
0
0x0000
0x0002
1
1
0x0000
Boot Reset Address + 0x0002
0
0
Boot Reset Address
0x0002
0
1
Boot Reset Address
Boot Reset Address + 0x0002
1. The Boot Reset Address is shown in Table 26-6 on page 292. For the BOOTRST Fuse “1”
means unprogrammed while “0” means programmed.
The most typical and general program setup for the Reset and Interrupt Vector Addresses in
ATmega169P is:
Address Labels Code
Comments
0x0000
jmp
RESET
; Reset Handler
0x0002
jmp
EXT_INT0
; IRQ0 Handler
0x0004
jmp
PCINT0
; PCINT0 Handler
0x0006
jmp
PCINT1
; PCINT0 Handler
0x0008
jmp
TIM2_COMP
; Timer2 Compare Handler
0x000A
jmp
TIM2_OVF
; Timer2 Overflow Handler
0x000C
jmp
TIM1_CAPT
; Timer1 Capture Handler
0x000E
jmp
TIM1_COMPA
; Timer1 CompareA Handler
0x0010
jmp
TIM1_COMPB
; Timer1 CompareB Handler
0x0012
jmp
TIM1_OVF
; Timer1 Overflow Handler
0x0014
jmp
TIM0_COMP
; Timer0 Compare Handler
0x0016
jmp
TIM0_OVF
; Timer0 Overflow Handler
0x0018
jmp
SPI_STC
; SPI Transfer Complete Handler
0x001A
jmp
USART_RXCn
; USART0 RX Complete Handler
0x001C
jmp
USART_DRE
; USART0,UDRn Empty Handler
0x001E
jmp
USART_TXCn
; USART0 TX Complete Handler
0x0020
jmp
USI_STRT
; USI Start Condition Handler
0x0022
jmp
USI_OVFL
; USI Overflow Handler
0x0024
jmp
ANA_COMP
; Analog Comparator Handler
0x0026
jmp
ADC
; ADC Conversion Complete Handler
0x0028
jmp
EE_RDY
; EEPROM Ready Handler
0x002A
jmp
SPM_RDY
; SPM Ready Handler
0x002C
jmp
LCD_SOF
; LCD Start of Frame Handler
;
0x002E
RESET: ldi
0x002F
out
SPH,r16
r16, high(RAMEND); Main program start
0x0030
ldi
r16, low(RAMEND)
Set Stack Pointer to top of RAM
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ATmega169P
0x0031
0x0032
out
sei
0x0033
<instr>
...
...
...
SPL,r16
; Enable interrupts
xxx
...
When the BOOTRST Fuse is unprogrammed, the Boot section size set to 2 Kbytes and the
IVSEL bit in the MCUCR Register is set before any interrupts are enabled, the most typical and
general program setup for the Reset and Interrupt Vector Addresses is:
Address Labels Code
Comments
0x0000
RESET: ldi
0x0001
out
SPH,r16
r16,high(RAMEND); Main program start
0x0002
ldi
r16,low(RAMEND)
0x0003
0x0004
out
sei
SPL,r16
0x0005
<instr>
; Set Stack Pointer to top of RAM
; Enable interrupts
xxx
;
.org 0x1C02
0x1C02
jmp
EXT_INT0
; IRQ0 Handler
0x1C04
jmp
PCINT0
; PCINT0 Handler
...
...
...
;
0x1C2C
jmp
SPM_RDY
; Store Program Memory Ready Handler
When the BOOTRST Fuse is programmed and the Boot section size set to 2 Kbytes, the most
typical and general program setup for the Reset and Interrupt Vector Addresses is:
Address Labels Code
Comments
.org 0x0002
0x0002
jmp
EXT_INT0
; IRQ0 Handler
0x0004
jmp
PCINT0
; PCINT0 Handler
...
...
...
;
0x002C
jmp
SPM_RDY
; Store Program Memory Ready Handler
;
.org 0x1C00
0x1C00 RESET: ldi
r16,high(RAMEND); Main program start
0x1C01
out
SPH,r16
0x1C02
ldi
r16,low(RAMEND)
0x1C03
0x1C04
out
sei
SPL,r16
0x1C05
<instr>
; Set Stack Pointer to top of RAM
; Enable interrupts
xxx
When the BOOTRST Fuse is programmed, the Boot section size set to 2 Kbytes and the IVSEL
bit in the MCUCR Register is set before any interrupts are enabled, the most typical and general
program setup for the Reset and Interrupt Vector Addresses is:
Address Labels Code
Comments
;
.org 0x1C00
0x1C00
0x1C02
jmp
jmp
RESET
EXT_INT0
; Reset handler
; IRQ0 Handler
0x1C04
jmp
PCINT0
; PCINT0 Handler
...
...
...
;
0x1C2C
jmp
SPM_RDY
; Store Program Memory Ready Handler
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;
11.2
0x1C2E
RESET: ldi
r16,high(RAMEND); Main program start
0x1C2F
out
SPH,r16
0x1C30
ldi
r16,low(RAMEND)
0x1C31
0x1C32
out
sei
SPL,r16
0x1C33
<instr>
; Set Stack Pointer to top of RAM
; Enable interrupts
xxx
Moving Interrupts Between Application and Boot Space
The General Interrupt Control Register controls the placement of the Interrupt Vector table, see
”MCUCR – MCU Control Register” on page 60.
To avoid unintentional changes of Interrupt Vector tables, a special write procedure must be followed to change the IVSEL bit:
a. Write the Interrupt Vector Change Enable (IVCE) bit to one.
b.
Within four cycles, write the desired value to IVSEL while writing a zero to IVCE.
Interrupts will automatically be disabled while this sequence is executed. Interrupts are disabled
in the cycle IVCE is set, and they remain disabled until after the instruction following the write to
IVSEL. If IVSEL is not written, interrupts remain disabled for four cycles. The I-bit in the Status
Register is unaffected by the automatic disabling.
Note:
If Interrupt Vectors are placed in the Boot Loader section and Boot Lock bit BLB02 is programmed,
interrupts are disabled while executing from the Application section. If Interrupt Vectors are placed
in the Application section and Boot Lock bit BLB12 is programed, interrupts are disabled while
executing from the Boot Loader section. Refer to the section ”Boot Loader Support – Read-WhileWrite Self-Programming” on page 280 for details on Boot Lock bits.
The following example shows how interrupts are moved.
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Assembly Code Example
Move_interrupts:
; Get MCUCR
in r16, MCUCR
mov r17, r16
; Enable change of Interrupt Vectors
ori r16, (1<<IVCE)
out MCUCR, r16
; Move interrupts to Boot Flash section
ori r17, (1<<IVSEL)
out MCUCR, r17
ret
C Code Example
void Move_interrupts(void)
{
uchar temp;
/* Get MCUCR*/
temp = MCUCR;
/* Enable change of Interrupt Vectors */
MCUCR = temp | (1<<IVCE);
/* Move interrupts to Boot Flash section
*/ MCUCR = temp | (1<<IVSEL);
}
11.2.1
MCUCR – MCU Control Register
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
0x35 (0x55)
JTD
-
-
PUD
–
–
IVSEL
IVCE
Read/Write
R/W
R
R
R/W
R
R
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
MCUCR
• Bit 1 – IVSEL: Interrupt Vector Select
When the IVSEL bit is cleared (zero), the Interrupt Vectors are placed at the start of the Flash
memory. When this bit is set (one), the Interrupt Vectors are moved to the beginning of the Boot
Loader section of the Flash. The actual address of the start of the Boot Flash Section is determined by the BOOTSZ Fuses. Refer to the section ”Boot Loader Support – Read-While-Write
Self-Programming” on page 280 for details.
• Bit 0 – IVCE: Interrupt Vector Change Enable
The IVCE bit must be written to logic one to enable change of the IVSEL bit. IVCE is cleared by
hardware four cycles after it is written or when IVSEL is written. Setting the IVCE bit will disable
interrupts, as explained in the description in ”Moving Interrupts Between Application and Boot
Space” on page 59. See Code Example.
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12. External Interrupts
The External Interrupts are triggered by the INT0 pin or any of the PCINT15..0 pins. Observe
that, if enabled, the interrupts will trigger even if the INT0 or PCINT15..0 pins are configured as
outputs. This feature provides a way of generating a software interrupt. The pin change interrupt
PCI1 will trigger if any enabled PCINT15..8 pin toggles. Pin change interrupts PCI0 will trigger if
any enabled PCINT7..0 pin toggles. The PCMSK1 and PCMSK0 Registers control which pins
contribute to the pin change interrupts. Pin change interrupts on PCINT15..0 are detected asynchronously. This implies that these interrupts can be used for waking the part also from sleep
modes other than Idle mode.
The INT0 interrupts can be triggered by a falling or rising edge or a low level. This is set up as
indicated in the specification for the External Interrupt Control Register A – EICRA. When the
INT0 interrupt is enabled and is configured as level triggered, the interrupt will trigger as long as
the pin is held low. Note that recognition of falling or rising edge interrupts on INT0 requires the
presence of an I/O clock, described in ”Clock Systems and their Distribution” on page 30. Low
level interrupt on INT0 is detected asynchronously. This implies that this interrupt can be used
for waking the part also from sleep modes other than Idle mode. The I/O clock is halted in all
sleep modes except Idle mode.
Note that if a level triggered interrupt is used for wake-up from Power-down, the required level
must be held long enough for the MCU to complete the wake-up to trigger the level interrupt. If
the level disappears before the end of the Start-up Time, the MCU will still wake up, but no interrupt will be generated. The start-up time is defined by the SUT and CKSEL Fuses as described
in ”System Clock and Clock Options” on page 30.
12.1
Pin Change Interrupt Timing
An example of timing of a pin change interrupt is shown in Figure 12-1.
Figure 12-1. Pin Change Interrupt
pin_lat
PCINT(0)
LE
clk
D
pcint_in_(0)
Q
0
pcint_syn
pcint_setflag
PCIF
pin_sync
x
PCINT(0) in PCMSK(x)
clk
clk
PCINT(n)
pin_lat
pin_sync
pcint_in_(n)
pcint_syn
pcint_setflag
PCIF
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12.2
12.2.1
Register Description
EICRA – External Interrupt Control Register A
The External Interrupt Control Register A contains control bits for interrupt sense control.
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
(0x69)
–
–
–
–
–
–
ISC01
ISC00
Read/Write
R
R
R
R
R
R
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
EICRA
• Bit 1, 0 – ISC01, ISC00: Interrupt Sense Control 0 Bit 1 and Bit 0
The External Interrupt 0 is activated by the external pin INT0 if the SREG I-flag and the corresponding interrupt mask are set. The level and edges on the external INT0 pin that activate the
interrupt are defined in Table 12-1. The value on the INT0 pin is sampled before detecting
edges. If edge or toggle interrupt is selected, pulses that last longer than one clock period will
generate an interrupt. Shorter pulses are not guaranteed to generate an interrupt. If low level
interrupt is selected, the low level must be held until the completion of the currently executing
instruction to generate an interrupt.
Table 12-1.
12.2.2
Interrupt 0 Sense Control
ISC01
ISC00
Description
0
0
The low level of INT0 generates an interrupt request.
0
1
Any logical change on INT0 generates an interrupt request.
1
0
The falling edge of INT0 generates an interrupt request.
1
1
The rising edge of INT0 generates an interrupt request.
EIMSK – External Interrupt Mask Register
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
PCIE1
PCIE0
–
–
–
–
–
INT0
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R
R
R
R
R
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0x1D (0x3D)
EIMSK
• Bit 7 – PCIE1: Pin Change Interrupt Enable 1
When the PCIE1 bit is set (one) and the I-bit in the Status Register (SREG) is set (one), pin
change interrupt 1 is enabled. Any change on any enabled PCINT15..8 pin will cause an interrupt. The corresponding interrupt of Pin Change Interrupt Request is executed from the PCI1
Interrupt Vector. PCINT15:8 pins are enabled individually by the PCMSK1 Register.
• Bit 6 – PCIE0: Pin Change Interrupt Enable 0
When the PCIE0 bit is set (one) and the I-bit in the Status Register (SREG) is set (one), pin
change interrupt 0 is enabled. Any change on any enabled PCINT7..0 pin will cause an interrupt.
The corresponding interrupt of Pin Change Interrupt Request is executed from the PCI0 Interrupt Vector. PCINT7:0 pins are enabled individually by the PCMSK0 Register.
• Bit 0 – INT0: External Interrupt Request 0 Enable
When the INT0 bit is set (one) and the I-bit in the Status Register (SREG) is set (one), the external pin interrupt is enabled. The Interrupt Sense Control0 bits 1/0 (ISC01 and ISC00) in the
External Interrupt Control Register A (EICRA) define whether the external interrupt is activated
on rising and/or falling edge of the INT0 pin or level sensed. Activity on the pin will cause an
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ATmega169P
interrupt request even if INT0 is configured as an output. The corresponding interrupt of External
Interrupt Request 0 is executed from the INT0 Interrupt Vector.
12.2.3
EIFR – External Interrupt Flag Register
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
PCIF1
PCIF0
–
–
–
–
–
INTF0
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R
R
R
R
R
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0x1C (0x3C)
EIFR
• Bit 7 – PCIF1: Pin Change Interrupt Flag 1
When a logic change on any PCINT15..8 pin triggers an interrupt request, PCIF1 becomes set
(one). If the I-bit in SREG and the PCIE1 bit in EIMSK are set (one), the MCU will jump to the
corresponding Interrupt Vector. The flag is cleared when the interrupt routine is executed. Alternatively, the flag can be cleared by writing a logical one to it.
• Bit 6 – PCIF0: Pin Change Interrupt Flag 0
When a logic change on any PCINT7:0 pin triggers an interrupt request, PCIF0 becomes set
(one). If the I-bit in SREG and the PCIE0 bit in EIMSK are set (one), the MCU will jump to the
corresponding Interrupt Vector. The flag is cleared when the interrupt routine is executed. Alternatively, the flag can be cleared by writing a logical one to it.
• Bit 0 – INTF0: External Interrupt Flag 0
When an edge or logic change on the INT0 pin triggers an interrupt request, INTF0 becomes set
(one). If the I-bit in SREG and the INT0 bit in EIMSK are set (one), the MCU will jump to the corresponding Interrupt Vector. The flag is cleared when the interrupt routine is executed.
Alternatively, the flag can be cleared by writing a logical one to it. This flag is always cleared
when INT0 is configured as a level interrupt.
12.2.4
PCMSK1 – Pin Change Mask Register 1
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
PCINT15
PCINT14
PCINT13
PCINT12
PCINT11
PCINT10
PCINT9
PCINT8
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
(0x6C)
PCMSK1
• Bit 7:0 – PCINT15:8: Pin Change Enable Mask 15..8
Each PCINT15:8-bit selects whether pin change interrupt is enabled on the corresponding I/O
pin. If PCINT15:8 is set and the PCIE1 bit in EIMSK is set, pin change interrupt is enabled on the
corresponding I/O pin. If PCINT15..8 is cleared, pin change interrupt on the corresponding I/O
pin is disabled.
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12.2.5
PCMSK0 – Pin Change Mask Register 0
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
(0x6B)
PCINT7
PCINT6
PCINT5
PCINT4
PCINT3
PCINT2
PCINT1
PCINT0
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
PCMSK0
• Bit 7:0 – PCINT7:0: Pin Change Enable Mask 7:0
Each PCINT7:0 bit selects whether pin change interrupt is enabled on the corresponding I/O pin.
If PCINT7:0 is set and the PCIE0 bit in EIMSK is set, pin change interrupt is enabled on the corresponding I/O pin. If PCINT7:0 is cleared, pin change interrupt on the corresponding I/O pin is
disabled.
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13. I/O-Ports
13.1
Overview
All AVR ports have true Read-Modify-Write functionality when used as general digital I/O ports.
This means that the direction of one port pin can be changed without unintentionally changing
the direction of any other pin with the SBI and CBI instructions. The same applies when changing drive value (if configured as output) or enabling/disabling of pull-up resistors (if configured as
input). Each output buffer has symmetrical drive characteristics with both high sink and source
capability. The pin driver is strong enough to drive LED displays directly. All port pins have individually selectable pull-up resistors with a supply-voltage invariant resistance. All I/O pins have
protection diodes to both VCC and Ground as indicated in Figure 13-1 on page 65. Refer to
”Electrical Characteristics” on page 329 for a complete list of parameters.
Figure 13-1. I/O Pin Equivalent Schematic
Rpu
Logic
Pxn
Cpin
See Figure
"General Digital I/O" for
Details
All registers and bit references in this section are written in general form. A lower case “x” represents the numbering letter for the port, and a lower case “n” represents the bit number. However,
when using the register or bit defines in a program, the precise form must be used. For example,
PORTB3 for bit no. 3 in Port B, here documented generally as PORTxn. The physical I/O Registers and bit locations are listed in ”Register Description for I/O-Ports” on page 88.
Three I/O memory address locations are allocated for each port, one each for the Data Register
– PORTx, Data Direction Register – DDRx, and the Port Input Pins – PINx. The Port Input Pins
I/O location is read only, while the Data Register and the Data Direction Register are read/write.
However, writing a logic one to a bit in the PINx Register, will result in a toggle in the corresponding bit in the Data Register. In addition, the Pull-up Disable – PUD bit in MCUCR disables the
pull-up function for all pins in all ports when set.
Using the I/O port as General Digital I/O is described in ”Ports as General Digital I/O” on page
66. Most port pins are multiplexed with alternate functions for the peripheral features on the
device. How each alternate function interferes with the port pin is described in ”Alternate Port
Functions” on page 71. Refer to the individual module sections for a full description of the alternate functions.
Note that enabling the alternate function of some of the port pins does not affect the use of the
other pins in the port as general digital I/O.
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13.2
Ports as General Digital I/O
The ports are bi-directional I/O ports with optional internal pull-ups. Figure 13-2 shows a functional description of one I/O-port pin, here generically called Pxn.
Figure 13-2. General Digital I/O(1)
PUD
Q
D
DDxn
Q CLR
WDx
RESET
DATA BUS
RDx
1
Q
Pxn
D
0
PORTxn
Q CLR
RESET
SLEEP
WPx
RRx
SYNCHRONIZER
D
Q
L
Q
D
WRx
RPx
Q
PINxn
Q
clk I/O
PUD:
SLEEP:
clkI/O:
Note:
13.2.1
PULLUP DISABLE
SLEEP CONTROL
I/O CLOCK
WDx:
RDx:
WRx:
RRx:
RPx:
WPx:
WRITE DDRx
READ DDRx
WRITE PORTx
READ PORTx REGISTER
READ PORTx PIN
WRITE PINx REGISTER
1. WRx, WPx, WDx, RRx, RPx, and RDx are common to all pins within the same port. clkI/O,
SLEEP, and PUD are common to all ports.
Configuring the Pin
Each port pin consists of three register bits: DDxn, PORTxn, and PINxn. As shown in ”Register
Description for I/O-Ports” on page 88, the DDxn bits are accessed at the DDRx I/O address, the
PORTxn bits at the PORTx I/O address, and the PINxn bits at the PINx I/O address.
The DDxn bit in the DDRx Register selects the direction of this pin. If DDxn is written logic one,
Pxn is configured as an output pin. If DDxn is written logic zero, Pxn is configured as an input
pin.
If PORTxn is written logic one when the pin is configured as an input pin, the pull-up resistor is
activated. To switch the pull-up resistor off, PORTxn has to be written logic zero or the pin has to
be configured as an output pin. The port pins are tri-stated when reset condition becomes active,
even if no clocks are running.
If PORTxn is written logic one when the pin is configured as an output pin, the port pin is driven
high (one). If PORTxn is written logic zero when the pin is configured as an output pin, the port
pin is driven low (zero).
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13.2.2
Toggling the Pin
Writing a logic one to PINxn toggles the value of PORTxn, independent on the value of DDRxn.
Note that the SBI instruction can be used to toggle one single bit in a port.
13.2.3
Switching Between Input and Output
When switching between tri-state ({DDxn, PORTxn} = 0b00) and output high ({DDxn, PORTxn}
= 0b11), an intermediate state with either pull-up enabled {DDxn, PORTxn} = 0b01) or output
low ({DDxn, PORTxn} = 0b10) must occur. Normally, the pull-up enabled state is fully acceptable, as a high-impedant environment will not notice the difference between a strong high driver
and a pull-up. If this is not the case, the PUD bit in the MCUCR Register can be set to disable all
pull-ups in all ports.
Switching between input with pull-up and output low generates the same problem. The user
must use either the tri-state ({DDxn, PORTxn} = 0b00) or the output high state ({DDxn, PORTxn}
= 0b11) as an intermediate step.
Table 13-1 summarizes the control signals for the pin value.
Table 13-1.
13.2.4
Port Pin Configurations
DDxn
PORTxn
PUD
(in MCUCR)
I/O
Pull-up
0
0
X
Input
No
Tri-state (Hi-Z)
0
1
0
Input
Yes
Pxn will source current if ext. pulled low.
0
1
1
Input
No
Tri-state (Hi-Z)
1
0
X
Output
No
Output Low (Sink)
1
1
X
Output
No
Output High (Source)
Comment
Reading the Pin Value
Independent of the setting of Data Direction bit DDxn, the port pin can be read through the
PINxn Register bit. As shown in Figure 13-2 on page 66, the PINxn Register bit and the preceding latch constitute a synchronizer. This is needed to avoid metastability if the physical pin
changes value near the edge of the internal clock, but it also introduces a delay. Figure 13-3 on
page 68 shows a timing diagram of the synchronization when reading an externally applied pin
value. The maximum and minimum propagation delays are denoted t pd,max and t pd,min
respectively.
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Figure 13-3. Synchronization when Reading an Externally Applied Pin value
SYSTEM CLK
INSTRUCTIONS
XXX
XXX
in r17, PINx
SYNC LATCH
PINxn
r17
0x00
0xFF
t pd, max
t pd, min
Consider the clock period starting shortly after the first falling edge of the system clock. The latch
is closed when the clock is low, and goes transparent when the clock is high, as indicated by the
shaded region of the “SYNC LATCH” signal. The signal value is latched when the system clock
goes low. It is clocked into the PINxn Register at the succeeding positive clock edge. As indicated by the two arrows tpd,max and tpd,min, a single signal transition on the pin will be delayed
between ½ and 1½ system clock period depending upon the time of assertion.
When reading back a software assigned pin value, a nop instruction must be inserted as indicated in Figure 13-4. The out instruction sets the “SYNC LATCH” signal at the positive edge of
the clock. In this case, the delay tpd through the synchronizer is 1 system clock period.
Figure 13-4. Synchronization when Reading a Software Assigned Pin Value
SYSTEM CLK
r16
INSTRUCTIONS
0xFF
out PORTx, r16
nop
in r17, PINx
SYNC LATCH
PINxn
r17
0x00
0xFF
t pd
The following code example shows how to set port B pins 0 and 1 high, 2 and 3 low, and define
the port pins from 4 to 7 as input with pull-ups assigned to port pins 6 and 7. The resulting pin
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values are read back again, but as previously discussed, a nop instruction is included to be able
to read back the value recently assigned to some of the pins.
Assembly Code Example(1)
...
; Define pull-ups and set outputs high
; Define directions for port pins
ldi
r16,(1<<PB7)|(1<<PB6)|(1<<PB1)|(1<<PB0)
ldi
r17,(1<<DDB3)|(1<<DDB2)|(1<<DDB1)|(1<<DDB0)
out
PORTB,r16
out
DDRB,r17
; Insert nop for synchronization
nop
; Read port pins
in
r16,PINB
...
C Code Example
unsigned char i;
...
/* Define pull-ups and set outputs high */
/* Define directions for port pins */
PORTB = (1<<PB7)|(1<<PB6)|(1<<PB1)|(1<<PB0);
DDRB = (1<<DDB3)|(1<<DDB2)|(1<<DDB1)|(1<<DDB0);
/* Insert nop for synchronization*/
__no_operation();
/* Read port pins */
i = PINB;
...
Note:
13.2.5
1. For the assembly program, two temporary registers are used to minimize the time from pullups are set on pins 0, 1, 6, and 7, until the direction bits are correctly set, defining bit 2 and 3
as low and redefining bits 0 and 1 as strong high drivers.
Digital Input Enable and Sleep Modes
As shown in Figure 13-2 on page 66, the digital input signal can be clamped to ground at the
input of the Schmidt Trigger. The signal denoted SLEEP in the figure, is set by the MCU Sleep
Controller in Power-down mode, Power-save mode, and Standby mode to avoid high power
consumption if some input signals are left floating, or have an analog signal level close to VCC/2.
SLEEP is overridden for port pins enabled as external interrupt pins. If the external interrupt
request is not enabled, SLEEP is active also for these pins. SLEEP is also overridden by various
other alternate functions as described in ”Alternate Port Functions” on page 71.
If a logic high level (“one”) is present on an asynchronous external interrupt pin configured as
“Interrupt on Rising Edge, Falling Edge, or Any Logic Change on Pin” while the external interrupt
is not enabled, the corresponding External Interrupt Flag will be set when resuming from the
above mentioned Sleep mode, as the clamping in these sleep mode produces the requested
logic change.
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13.2.6
Unconnected Pins
If some pins are unused, it is recommended to ensure that these pins have a defined level. Even
though most of the digital inputs are disabled in the deep sleep modes as described above, floating inputs should be avoided to reduce current consumption in all other modes where the digital
inputs are enabled (Reset, Active mode and Idle mode).
The simplest method to ensure a defined level of an unused pin, is to enable the internal pull-up.
In this case, the pull-up will be disabled during reset. If low power consumption during reset is
important, it is recommended to use an external pull-up or pull-down. Connecting unused pins
directly to VCC or GND is not recommended, since this may cause excessive currents if the pin is
accidentally configured as an output.
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13.3
Alternate Port Functions
Most port pins have alternate functions in addition to being general digital I/Os. Figure 13-5
shows how the port pin control signals from the simplified Figure 13-2 on page 66 can be overridden by alternate functions. The overriding signals may not be present in all port pins, but the
figure serves as a generic description applicable to all port pins in the AVR microcontroller
family.
Figure 13-5. Alternate Port Functions(1)
PUOExn
PUOVxn
1
PUD
0
DDOExn
DDOVxn
1
Q D
DDxn
0
Q CLR
WDx
PVOExn
RESET
RDx
1
1
Pxn
Q
0
D
0
PORTxn
PTOExn
Q CLR
DIEOExn
DIEOVxn
WPx
RESET
WRx
1
0
DATA BUS
PVOVxn
RRx
SLEEP
SYNCHRONIZER
D
SET
Q
D
RPx
Q
PINxn
L
CLR
Q
CLR
Q
clk I/O
DIxn
AIOxn
PUOExn:
PUOVxn:
DDOExn:
DDOVxn:
PVOExn:
PVOVxn:
DIEOExn:
DIEOVxn:
SLEEP:
PTOExn:
Note:
Pxn PULL-UP OVERRIDE ENABLE
Pxn PULL-UP OVERRIDE VALUE
Pxn DATA DIRECTION OVERRIDE ENABLE
Pxn DATA DIRECTION OVERRIDE VALUE
Pxn PORT VALUE OVERRIDE ENABLE
Pxn PORT VALUE OVERRIDE VALUE
Pxn DIGITAL INPUT-ENABLE OVERRIDE ENABLE
Pxn DIGITAL INPUT-ENABLE OVERRIDE VALUE
SLEEP CONTROL
Pxn, PORT TOGGLE OVERRIDE ENABLE
PUD:
WDx:
RDx:
RRx:
WRx:
RPx:
WPx:
clkI/O:
DIxn:
AIOxn:
PULLUP DISABLE
WRITE DDRx
READ DDRx
READ PORTx REGISTER
WRITE PORTx
READ PORTx PIN
WRITE PINx
I/O CLOCK
DIGITAL INPUT PIN n ON PORTx
ANALOG INPUT/OUTPUT PIN n ON PORTx
1. WRx, WPx, WDx, RRx, RPx, and RDx are common to all pins within the same port. clkI/O,
SLEEP, and PUD are common to all ports. All other signals are unique for each pin.
Table 13-2 on page 72 summarizes the function of the overriding signals. The pin and port
indexes from Figure 13-5 on page 71 are not shown in the succeeding tables. The overriding
signals are generated internally in the modules having the alternate function.
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Table 13-2.
Generic Description of Overriding Signals for Alternate Functions
Signal Name
Full Name
Description
PUOE
Pull-up Override
Enable
If this signal is set, the pull-up enable is controlled by the PUOV
signal. If this signal is cleared, the pull-up is enabled when
{DDxn, PORTxn, PUD} = 0b010.
PUOV
Pull-up Override
Value
If PUOE is set, the pull-up is enabled/disabled when PUOV is
set/cleared, regardless of the setting of the DDxn, PORTxn,
and PUD Register bits.
DDOE
Data Direction
Override Enable
If this signal is set, the Output Driver Enable is controlled by the
DDOV signal. If this signal is cleared, the Output driver is
enabled by the DDxn Register bit.
DDOV
Data Direction
Override Value
If DDOE is set, the Output Driver is enabled/disabled when
DDOV is set/cleared, regardless of the setting of the DDxn
Register bit.
PVOE
Port Value
Override Enable
If this signal is set and the Output Driver is enabled, the port
value is controlled by the PVOV signal. If PVOE is cleared, and
the Output Driver is enabled, the port Value is controlled by the
PORTxn Register bit.
PVOV
Port Value
Override Value
If PVOE is set, the port value is set to PVOV, regardless of the
setting of the PORTxn Register bit.
PTOE
Port Toggle
Override Enable
If PTOE is set, the PORTxn Register bit is inverted.
DIEOE
Digital Input
Enable Override
Enable
If this bit is set, the Digital Input Enable is controlled by the
DIEOV signal. If this signal is cleared, the Digital Input Enable
is determined by MCU state (Normal mode, sleep mode).
DIEOV
Digital Input
Enable Override
Value
If DIEOE is set, the Digital Input is enabled/disabled when
DIEOV is set/cleared, regardless of the MCU state (Normal
mode, sleep mode).
DI
Digital Input
This is the Digital Input to alternate functions. In the figure, the
signal is connected to the output of the schmitt trigger but
before the synchronizer. Unless the Digital Input is used as a
clock source, the module with the alternate function will use its
own synchronizer.
AIO
Analog
Input/Output
This is the Analog Input/output to/from alternate functions. The
signal is connected directly to the pad, and can be used bidirectionally.
The following subsections shortly describe the alternate functions for each port, and relate the
overriding signals to the alternate function. Refer to the alternate function description for further
details.
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13.3.1
Alternate Functions of Port A
The Port A has an alternate function as COM0:3 and SEG0:3 for the LCD Controller.
Table 13-3.
Port A Pins Alternate Functions
Port Pin
Alternate Function
PA7
SEG3 (LCD Front Plane 3)
PA6
SEG2 (LCD Front Plane 2)
PA5
SEG1 (LCD Front Plane 1)
PA4
SEG0 (LCD Front Plane 0)
PA3
COM3 (LCD Back Plane 3)
PA2
COM2 (LCD Back Plane 2)
PA1
COM1 (LCD Back Plane 1)
PA0
COM0 (LCD Back Plane 0)
Table 13-4 and Table 13-5 on page 74 relates the alternate functions of Port A to the overriding
signals shown in Figure 13-5 on page 71.
Table 13-4.
Overriding Signals for Alternate Functions in PA7..PA4
Signal Name
PA7/SEG3
PA6/SEG2
PA5/SEG1
PA4/SEG0
PUOE
LCDEN
LCDEN
LCDEN
LCDEN
PUOV
0
0
0
0
DDOE
LCDEN
LCDEN
LCDEN
LCDEN
DDOV
0
0
0
0
PVOE
0
0
0
0
PVOV
0
0
0
0
PTOE
–
–
–
–
DIEOE
LCDEN
LCDEN
LCDEN
LCDEN
DIEOV
0
0
0
0
DI
–
–
–
–
AIO
SEG3
SEG2
SEG1
SEG0
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Table 13-5.
13.3.2
Overriding Signals for Alternate Functions in PA3..PA0
Signal Name
PA3/COM3
PA2/COM2
PA1/COM1
PA0/COM0
PUOE
LCDEN •
(LCDMUX>2)
LCDEN •
(LCDMUX>1)
LCDEN •
(LCDMUX>0)
LCDEN
PUOV
0
0
0
0
DDOE
LCDEN •
(LCDMUX>2)
LCDEN •
(LCDMUX>1)
LCDEN •
(LCDMUX>0)
LCDEN
DDOV
0
0
0
0
PVOE
0
0
0
0
PVOV
0
0
0
0
PTOE
–
–
–
–
DIEOE
LCDEN •
(LCDMUX>2)
LCDEN •
(LCDMUX>1)
LCDEN •
(LCDMUX>0)
LCDEN
DIEOV
0
0
0
0
DI
–
–
–
–
AIO
COM3
COM2
COM1
COM0
Alternate Functions of Port B
The Port B pins with alternate functions are shown in Table 13-6.
Table 13-6.
Port Pin
Port B Pins Alternate Functions
Alternate Functions
PB7
OC2A/PCINT15 (Output Compare and PWM Output A for Timer/Counter2 or Pin Change
Interrupt15).
PB6
OC1B/PCINT14 (Output Compare and PWM Output B for Timer/Counter1 or Pin Change
Interrupt14).
PB5
OC1A/PCINT13 (Output Compare and PWM Output A for Timer/Counter1 or Pin Change
Interrupt13).
PB4
OC0A/PCINT12 (Output Compare and PWM Output A for Timer/Counter0 or Pin Change
Interrupt12).
PB3
MISO/PCINT11 (SPI Bus Master Input/Slave Output or Pin Change Interrupt11).
PB2
MOSI/PCINT10 (SPI Bus Master Output/Slave Input or Pin Change Interrupt10).
PB1
SCK/PCINT9 (SPI Bus Serial Clock or Pin Change Interrupt9).
PB0
SS/PCINT8 (SPI Slave Select input or Pin Change Interrupt8).
The alternate pin configuration is as follows:
• OC2A/PCINT15, Bit 7
OC2, Output Compare Match A output: The PB7 pin can serve as an external output for the
Timer/Counter2 Output Compare A. The pin has to be configured as an output (DDB7 set (one))
to serve this function. The OC2A pin is also the output pin for the PWM mode timer function.
PCINT15, Pin Change Interrupt source 15: The PB7 pin can serve as an external interrupt
source.
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• OC1B/PCINT14, Bit 6
OC1B, Output Compare Match B output: The PB6 pin can serve as an external output for the
Timer/Counter1 Output Compare B. The pin has to be configured as an output (DDB6 set (one))
to serve this function. The OC1B pin is also the output pin for the PWM mode timer function.
PCINT14, Pin Change Interrupt Source 14: The PB6 pin can serve as an external interrupt
source.
• OC1A/PCINT13, Bit 5
OC1A, Output Compare Match A output: The PB5 pin can serve as an external output for the
Timer/Counter1 Output Compare A. The pin has to be configured as an output (DDB5 set (one))
to serve this function. The OC1A pin is also the output pin for the PWM mode timer function.
PCINT13, Pin Change Interrupt Source 13: The PB5 pin can serve as an external interrupt
source.
• OC0A/PCINT12, Bit 4
OC0A, Output Compare Match A output: The PB4 pin can serve as an external output for the
Timer/Counter0 Output Compare A. The pin has to be configured as an output (DDB4 set (one))
to serve this function. The OC0A pin is also the output pin for the PWM mode timer function.
PCINT12, Pin Change Interrupt Source 12: The PB4 pin can serve as an external interrupt
source.
• MISO/PCINT11 – Port B, Bit 3
MISO: Master Data input, Slave Data output pin for SPI. When the SPI is enabled as a Master,
this pin is configured as an input regardless of the setting of DDB3. When the SPI is enabled as
a Slave, the data direction of this pin is controlled by DDB3. When the pin is forced to be an
input, the pull-up can still be controlled by the PORTB3 bit.
PCINT11, Pin Change Interrupt Source 11: The PB3 pin can serve as an external interrupt
source.
• MOSI/PCINT10 – Port B, Bit 2
MOSI: SPI Master Data output, Slave Data input for SPI. When the SPI is enabled as a Slave,
this pin is configured as an input regardless of the setting of DDB2. When the SPI is enabled as
a Master, the data direction of this pin is controlled by DDB2. When the pin is forced to be an
input, the pull-up can still be controlled by the PORTB2 bit.
PCINT10, Pin Change Interrupt Source 10: The PB2 pin can serve as an external interrupt
source.
• SCK/PCINT9 – Port B, Bit 1
SCK: Master Clock output, Slave Clock input pin for SPI. When the SPI is enabled as a Slave,
this pin is configured as an input regardless of the setting of DDB1. When the SPI is enabled as
a Master, the data direction of this pin is controlled by DDB1. When the pin is forced to be an
input, the pull-up can still be controlled by the PORTB1 bit.
PCINT9, Pin Change Interrupt Source 9: The PB1 pin can serve as an external interrupt source.
• SS/PCINT8 – Port B, Bit 0
SS: Slave Port Select input. When the SPI is enabled as a Slave, this pin is configured as an
input regardless of the setting of DDB0. As a Slave, the SPI is activated when this pin is driven
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low. When the SPI is enabled as a Master, the data direction of this pin is controlled by DDB0.
When the pin is forced to be an input, the pull-up can still be controlled by the PORTB0 bit.
PCINT8, Pin Change Interrupt Source 8: The PB0 pin can serve as an external interrupt source.
Table 13-7 and Table 13-8 on page 77 relate the alternate functions of Port B to the overriding
signals shown in Figure 13-5 on page 71. SPI MSTR INPUT and SPI SLAVE OUTPUT constitute the MISO signal, while MOSI is divided into SPI MSTR OUTPUT and SPI SLAVE INPUT.
Table 13-7.
Overriding Signals for Alternate Functions in PB7..PB4
Signal
Name
PB7/OC2A/
PCINT15
PB6/OC1B/
PCINT14
PB5/OC1A/
PCINT13
PB4/OC0A/
PCINT12
PUOE
0
0
0
0
PUOV
0
0
0
0
DDOE
0
0
0
0
DDOV
0
0
0
0
PVOE
OC2A ENABLE
OC1B ENABLE
OC1A ENABLE
OC0A ENABLE
PVOV
OC2A
OC1B
OC1A
OC0A
PTOE
–
–
–
–
DIEOE
PCINT15 • PCIE1
PCINT14 • PCIE1
PCINT13 • PCIE1
PCINT12 • PCIE1
DIEOV
1
1
1
1
DI
PCINT15 INPUT
PCINT14 INPUT
PCINT13 INPUT
PCINT12 INPUT
AIO
–
–
–
–
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Table 13-8.
13.3.3
Overriding Signals for Alternate Functions in PB3..PB0
Signal
Name
PB3/MISO/
PCINT11
PB2/MOSI/
PCINT10
PB1/SCK/
PCINT9
PB0/SS/
PCINT8
PUOE
SPE • MSTR
SPE • MSTR
SPE • MSTR
SPE • MSTR
PUOV
PORTB3 • PUD
PORTB2 • PUD
PORTB1 • PUD
PORTB0 • PUD
DDOE
SPE • MSTR
SPE • MSTR
SPE • MSTR
SPE • MSTR
DDOV
0
0
0
0
PVOE
SPE • MSTR
SPE • MSTR
SPE • MSTR
0
PVOV
SPI SLAVE OUTPUT
SPI MSTR OUTPUT
SCK OUTPUT
0
PTOE
–
–
–
–
DIEOE
PCINT11 • PCIE1
PCINT10 • PCIE1
PCINT9 • PCIE1
PCINT8 • PCIE1
DIEOV
1
1
1
1
DI
PCINT11 INPUT
SPI MSTR INPUT
PCINT10 INPUT
SPI SLAVE INPUT
PCINT9 INPUT
SCK INPUT
PCINT8 INPUT
SPI SS
AIO
–
–
–
–
Alternate Functions of Port C
The Port C has an alternate function as the SEG5:12 for the LCD Controller.
Table 13-9.
Port C Pins Alternate Functions
Port Pin
Alternate Function
PC7
SEG5 (LCD Front Plane 5)
PC6
SEG6 (LCD Front Plane 6)
PC5
SEG7 (LCD Front Plane 7)
PC4
SEG8 (LCD Front Plane 8)
PC3
SEG9 (LCD Front Plane 9)
PC2
SEG10 (LCD Front Plane 10)
PC1
SEG11 (LCD Front Plane 11)
PC0
SEG12 (LCD Front Plane 12)
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Table 13-10 and Table 13-11 relate the alternate functions of Port C to the overriding signals
shown in Figure 13-5 on page 71.
Table 13-10. Overriding Signals for Alternate Functions in PC7..PC4
Signal
Name
PC7/SEG5
PC6/SEG6
PC5/SEG7
PC4/SEG8
PUOE
LCDEN
LCDEN
LCDEN
LCDEN
PUOV
0
0
0
0
DDOE
LCDEN
LCDEN
LCDEN
LCDEN
DDOV
0
0
0
0
PVOE
0
0
0
0
PVOV
0
0
0
0
PTOE
–
–
–
–
DIEOE
LCDEN
LCDEN
LCDEN
LCDEN
DIEOV
0
0
0
0
DI
–
–
–
–
AIO
SEG5
SEG6
SEG7
SEG8
Table 13-11. Overriding Signals for Alternate Functions in PC3..PC0
Signal
Name
PC3/SEG9
PC2/SEG10
PC1/SEG11
PC0/SEG12
PUOE
LCDEN
LCDEN
LCDEN
LCDEN
PUOV
0
0
0
0
DDOE
LCDEN
LCDEN
LCDEN
LCDEN
DDOV
0
0
0
0
PVOE
0
0
0
0
PVOV
0
0
0
0
PTOE
–
–
–
–
DIEOE
LCDEN
LCDEN
LCDEN
LCDEN
DIEOV
0
0
0
0
DI
–
–
–
–
AIO
SEG9
SEG10
SEG11
SEG12
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13.3.4
Alternate Functions of Port D
The Port D pins with alternate functions are shown in Table 13-12.
Table 13-12. Port D Pins Alternate Functions
Port Pin
Alternate Function
PD7
SEG15 (LCD front plane 15)
PD6
SEG16 (LCD front plane 16)
PD5
SEG17 (LCD front plane 17)
PD4
SEG18 (LCD front plane 18)
PD3
SEG19 (LCD front plane 19)
PD2
SEG20 (LCD front plane 20)
PD1
INT0/SEG21 (External Interrupt0 Input or LCD front plane 21)
PD0
ICP1/SEG22 (Timer/Counter1 Input Capture pin or LCD front plane 22)
The alternate pin configuration is as follows:
• SEG15 - SEG20 – Port D, Bit 7:2
SEG15-SEG20, LCD front plane 15-20.
• INT0/SEG21 – Port D, Bit 1
INT0, External Interrupt Source 0. The PD1 pin can serve as an external interrupt source to the
MCU.
SEG21, LCD front plane 21.
• ICP1/SEG22 – Port D, Bit 0
ICP1 – Input Capture pin1: The PD0 pin can act as an Input Capture pin for Timer/Counter1.
SEG22, LCD front plane 22.
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Table 13-13 and Table 13-14 relates the alternate functions of Port D to the overriding signals
shown in Figure 13-5 on page 71.
Table 13-13. Overriding Signals for Alternate Functions PD7..PD4
Signal
Name
PD7/SEG15
PD6/SEG16
PD5/SEG17
PD4/SEG18
PUOE
LCDEN •
(LCDPM>1)
LCDEN •
(LCDPM>1)
LCDEN •
(LCDPM>2)
LCDEN •
(LCDPM>2)
PUOV
0
0
0
0
DDOE
LCDEN •
(LCDPM>1)
LCDEN •
(LCDPM>1)
LCDEN •
(LCDPM>2)
LCDEN •
(LCDPM>2)
DDOV
0
0
0
0
PVOE
0
0
0
0
PVOV
0
0
0
0
PTOE
–
–
–
–
DIEOE
LCDEN •
(LCDPM>1)
LCDEN •
(LCDPM>1)
LCDEN •
(LCDPM>2)
LCDEN •
(LCDPM>2)
DIEOV
0
0
0
0
DI
–
–
–
–
AIO
SEG15
SEG16
SEG17
SEG18
Table 13-14. Overriding Signals for Alternate Functions in PD3..PD0
Signal
Name
PD3/SEG19
PD2/SEG20
PD1/INT0/SEG21
PD0/ICP1/SEG22
PUOE
LCDEN •
(LCDPM>3)
LCDEN •
(LCDPM>3)
LCDEN •
(LCDPM>4)
LCDEN •
(LCDPM>4)
PUOV
0
0
0
0
DDOE
LCDEN •
(LCDPM>3)
LCDEN •
(LCDPM>3)
LCDEN •
(LCDPM>4)
LCDEN •
(LCDPM>4)
DDOV
0
0
0
0
PVOE
0
0
0
0
PVOV
0
0
0
0
PTOE
–
–
–
–
DIEOE
LCDEN •
(LCDPM>3)
LCDEN •
(LCDPM>3)
LCDEN + (INT0
ENABLE)
LCDEN •
(LCDPM>4)
DIEOV
0
0
LCDEN • (INT0
ENABLE)
0
DI
–
–
INT0 INPUT
ICP1 INPUT
AIO
–
–
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13.3.5
Alternate Functions of Port E
The Port E pins with alternate functions are shown in Table 13-15.
Table 13-15. Port E Pins Alternate Functions
Port Pin
Alternate Function
PE7
PCINT7 (Pin Change Interrupt7)
CLKO (Divided System Clock)
PE6
DO/PCINT6 (USI Data Output or Pin Change Interrupt6)
PE5
DI/SDA/PCINT5 (USI Data Input or TWI Serial DAta or Pin Change Interrupt5)
PE4
USCK/SCL/PCINT4 (USART External Clock Input/Output or TWI Serial Clock or Pin
Change Interrupt4)
PE3
AIN1/PCINT3 (Analog Comparator Negative Input or Pin Change Interrupt3)
PE2
XCK/AIN0/ PCINT2 (USART External Clock or Analog Comparator Positive Input or Pin
Change Interrupt2)
PE1
TXD/PCINT1 (USART Transmit Pin or Pin Change Interrupt1)
PE0
RXD/PCINT0 (USART Receive Pin or Pin Change Interrupt0)
• PCINT7 – Port E, Bit 7
PCINT7, Pin Change Interrupt Source 7: The PE7 pin can serve as an external interrupt source.
CLKO, Divided System Clock: The divided system clock can be output on the PE7 pin. The
divided system clock will be output if the CKOUT Fuse is programmed, regardless of the
PORTE7 and DDE7 settings. It will also be output during reset.
• DO/PCINT6 – Port E, Bit 6
DO, Universal Serial Interface Data output.
PCINT6, Pin Change Interrupt Source 6: The PE6 pin can serve as an external interrupt source.
• DI/SDA/PCINT5 – Port E, Bit 5
DI, Universal Serial Interface Data input.
SDA, Two-wire Serial Interface Data:
PCINT5, Pin Change Interrupt Source 5: The PE5 pin can serve as an external interrupt source.
• USCK/SCL/PCINT4 – Port E, Bit 4
USCK, Universal Serial Interface Clock.
SCL, Two-wire Serial Interface Clock.
PCINT4, Pin Change Interrupt Source 4: The PE4 pin can serve as an external interrupt source.
• AIN1/PCINT3 – Port E, Bit 3
AIN1 – Analog Comparator Negative input. This pin is directly connected to the negative input of
the Analog Comparator.
PCINT3, Pin Change Interrupt Source 3: The PE3 pin can serve as an external interrupt source.
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• XCK/AIN0/PCINT2 – Port E, Bit 2
XCK, USART External Clock. The Data Direction Register (DDE2) controls whether the clock is
output (DDE2 set) or input (DDE2 cleared). The XCK pin is active only when the USART operates in synchronous mode.
AIN0 – Analog Comparator Positive input. This pin is directly connected to the positive input of
the Analog Comparator.
PCINT2, Pin Change Interrupt Source 2: The PE2 pin can serve as an external interrupt source.
• TXD/PCINT1 – Port E, Bit 1
TXD0, UART0 Transmit pin.
PCINT1, Pin Change Interrupt Source 1: The PE1 pin can serve as an external interrupt source.
• RXD/PCINT0 – Port E, Bit 0
RXD, USART Receive pin. Receive Data (Data input pin for the USART). When the USART
Receiver is enabled this pin is configured as an input regardless of the value of DDE0. When the
USART forces this pin to be an input, a logical one in PORTE0 will turn on the internal pull-up.
PCINT0, Pin Change Interrupt Source 0: The PE0 pin can serve as an external interrupt source.
Table 13-16 and Table 13-17 on page 83 relates the alternate functions of Port E to the overriding signals shown in Figure 13-5 on page 71.
Table 13-16. Overriding Signals for Alternate Functions PE7:PE4
Signal
Name
PE7/PCINT7
PE6/DO/
PCINT6
PE5/DI/SDA/
PCINT5
PE4/USCK/SCL/
PCINT4
PUOE
0
0
USI_TWO-WIRE
USI_TWO-WIRE
PUOV
0
0
0
0
DDOE
CKOUT(1)
0
USI_TWO-WIRE
USI_TWO-WIRE
DDOV
1
0
(SDA + PORTE5) •
DDE5
(USI_SCL_HOLD •
PORTE4) + DDE4
PVOE
CKOUT(1)
USI_THREEWIRE
USI_TWO-WIRE •
DDE5
USI_TWO-WIRE • DDE4
PVOV
clkI/O
DO
0
0
PTOE
–
–
0
USITC
DIEOE
PCINT7 • PCIE0
PCINT6 • PCIE0
(PCINT5 • PCIE0) +
USISIE
(PCINT4 • PCIE0) +
USISIE
DIEOV
1
1
1
1
DI
PCINT7 INPUT
PCINT6 INPUT
DI/SDA INPUT
PCINT5 INPUT
USCKL/SCL INPUT
PCINT4 INPUT
AIO
–
–
–
–
Note:
1. CKOUT is one if the CKOUT Fuse is programmed
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ATmega169P
Table 13-17. Overriding Signals for Alternate Functions in PE3:PE0
Signal
Name
PE3/AIN1/
PCINT3
PE2/XCK/AIN0/
PCINT2
PE1/TXD/
PCINT1
PE0/RXD/PCINT0
PUOE
0
0
TXENn
RXENn
PUOV
0
0
0
PORTE0 • PUD
DDOE
0
0
TXENn
RXENn
DDOV
0
0
1
0
PVOE
0
XCK OUTPUT ENABLE
TXENn
0
PVOV
0
XCK
TXD
0
PTOE
–
–
–
–
DIEOE
(PCINT3 • PCIE0)
+ AIN1D(1)
(PCINT2 • PCIE0) +
AIN0D(1)
PCINT1 • PCIE0
PCINT0 • PCIE0
DIEOV
PCINT3 • PCIE0
PCINT2 • PCIE0
1
1
DI
PCINT3 INPUT
XCK/PCINT2 INPUT
PCINT1 INPUT
RXD/PCINT0 INPUT
AIO
AIN1 INPUT
AIN0 INPUT
–
–
Note:
13.3.6
1. AIN0D and AIN1D is described in ”DIDR1 – Digital Input Disable Register 1” on page 215.
Alternate Functions of Port F
The Port F has an alternate function as analog input for the ADC as shown in Table 13-18. If
some Port F pins are configured as outputs, it is essential that these do not switch when a conversion is in progress. This might corrupt the result of the conversion. If the JTAG interface is
enabled, the pull-up resistors on pins PF7(TDI), PF5(TMS) and PF4(TCK) will be activated even
if a reset occurs.
Table 13-18. Port F Pins Alternate Functions
Port Pin
Alternate Function
PF7
ADC7/TDI (ADC input channel 7 or JTAG Test Data Input)
PF6
ADC6/TDO (ADC input channel 6 or JTAG Test Data Output)
PF5
ADC5/TMS (ADC input channel 5 or JTAG Test mode Select)
PF4
ADC4/TCK (ADC input channel 4 or JTAG Test ClocK)
PF3
ADC3 (ADC input channel 3)
PF2
ADC2 (ADC input channel 2)
PF1
ADC1 (ADC input channel 1)
PF0
ADC0 (ADC input channel 0)
• TDI, ADC7 – Port F, Bit 7
ADC7, Analog to Digital Converter, Channel 7.
TDI, JTAG Test Data In: Serial input data to be shifted in to the Instruction Register or Data Register (scan chains). When the JTAG interface is enabled, this pin can not be used as an I/O pin.
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ATmega169P
• TDO, ADC6 – Port F, Bit 6
ADC6, Analog to Digital Converter, Channel 6.
TDO, JTAG Test Data Out: Serial output data from Instruction Register or Data Register. When
the JTAG interface is enabled, this pin can not be used as an I/O pin. In TAP states that shift out
data, the TDO pin drives actively. In other states the pin is pulled high.
• TMS, ADC5 – Port F, Bit 5
ADC5, Analog to Digital Converter, Channel 5.
TMS, JTAG Test mode Select: This pin is used for navigating through the TAP-controller state
machine. When the JTAG interface is enabled, this pin can not be used as an I/O pin.
• TCK, ADC4 – Port F, Bit 4
ADC4, Analog to Digital Converter, Channel 4.
TCK, JTAG Test Clock: JTAG operation is synchronous to TCK. When the JTAG interface is
enabled, this pin can not be used as an I/O pin.
• ADC3 - ADC0 – Port F, Bit 3:0
Analog to Digital Converter, Channel 3-0.
Table 13-19. Overriding Signals for Alternate Functions in PF7:PF4
Signal
Name
PF7/ADC7/TDI
PF6/ADC6/TDO
PF5/ADC5/TMS
PF4/ADC4/TCK
PUOE
JTAGEN
JTAGEN
JTAGEN
JTAGEN
PUOV
1
1
1
1
DDOE
JTAGEN
JTAGEN
JTAGEN
JTAGEN
DDOV
0
SHIFT_IR + SHIFT_DR
0
0
PVOE
0
JTAGEN
0
0
PVOV
0
TDO
0
0
PTOE
–
–
–
–
DIEOE
JTAGEN
JTAGEN
JTAGEN
JTAGEN
DIEOV
0
0
0
1
DI
–
–
–
–
AIO
TDI
ADC7 INPUT
ADC6 INPUT
TMS
ADC5 INPUT
TCK
ADC4 INPUT
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ATmega169P
Table 13-20. Overriding Signals for Alternate Functions in PF3:PF0
13.3.7
Signal
Name
PF3/ADC3
PF2/ADC2
PF1/ADC1
PF0/ADC0
PUOE
0
0
0
0
PUOV
0
0
0
0
DDOE
0
0
0
0
DDOV
0
0
0
0
PVOE
0
0
0
0
PVOV
0
0
0
0
PTOE
–
–
–
–
DIEOE
0
0
0
0
DIEOV
0
0
0
0
DI
–
–
–
–
AIO
ADC3 INPUT
ADC2 INPUT
ADC1 INPUT
ADC0 INPUT
Alternate Functions of Port G
The alternate pin configuration is as follows:
Table 13-21. Port G Pins Alternate Functions(1)
Port Pin
Note:
Alternate Function
PG5
RESET
PG4
T0/SEG23 (Timer/Counter0 Clock Input or LCD Front Plane 23)
PG3
T1/SEG24 (Timer/Counter1 Clock Input or LCD Front Plane 24)
PG2
SEG4 (LCD Front Plane 4)
PG1
SEG13 (LCD Front Plane 13)
PG0
SEG14 (LCD Front Plane 14)
1. Port G, PG5 is input only. Pull-up is always on.
See Table 27-3 on page 297 for RSTDISBL fuse.
The alternate pin configuration is as follows:
• RESET – Port G, Bit 5
RESET: External Reset input. When the RSTDISBL Fuse is programmed (‘0’), PG5 will function
as input with pull-up always on.
• T0/SEG23 – Port G, Bit 4
T0, Timer/Counter0 Counter Source.
SEG23, LCD front plane 23
• T1/SEG24 – Port G, Bit 3
T1, Timer/Counter1 Counter Source.
SEG24, LCD front plane 24
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• SEG4 – Port G, Bit 2
SEG4, LCD front plane 4
• SEG13 – Port G, Bit 1
SEG13, Segment driver 13
• SEG14 – Port G, Bit 0
SEG14, LCD front plane 14
Table 13-21 on page 85 and Table 13-22 relates the alternate functions of Port G to the overriding signals shown in Figure 13-5 on page 71.
Table 13-22. Overriding Signals for Alternate Functions in PG4
Signal
Name
PG4/T0/SEG23
PUOE
LCDEN • (LCDPM>5)
PUOV
0
DDOE
LCDEN • (LCDPM>5)
DDOV
1
PVOE
0
PVOV
0
PTOE
–
–
–
–
DIEOE
LCDEN • (LCDPM>5)
DIEOV
0
DI
T0 INPUT
AIO
SEG23
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ATmega169P
Table 13-23. Overriding Signals for Alternate Functions in PG3:0
Signal
Name
PG3/T1/SEG24
PG2/SEG4
PG1/SEG13
PG0/SEG14
PUOE
LCDEN •
(LCDPM>6)
LCDEN
LCDEN •
(LCDPM>0)
LCDEN • (LCDPM>0)
PUOV
0
0
0
0
DDOE
LCDEN •
(LCDPM>6)
LCDEN
LCDEN •
(LCDPM>0)
LCDEN • (LCDPM>0)
DDOV
0
0
0
0
PVOE
0
0
0
0
PVOV
0
0
0
0
PTOE
–
–
–
–
DIEOE
LCDEN •
(LCDPM>6)
LCDEN
LCDEN •
(LCDPM>0)
LCDEN • (LCDPM>0)
DIEOV
0
0
0
0
DI
T1 INPUT
–
–
–
AIO
SEG24
SEG4
SEG13
SEG14
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13.4
13.4.1
Register Description for I/O-Ports
MCUCR – MCU Control Register
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
0x35 (0x55)
JTD
-
-
PUD
–
–
IVSEL
IVCE
Read/Write
R/W
R
R
R/W
R
R
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
MCUCR
• Bit 4 – PUD: Pull-up Disable
When this bit is written to one, the pull-ups in the I/O ports are disabled even if the DDxn and
PORTxn Registers are configured to enable the pull-ups ({DDxn, PORTxn} = 0b01). See ”Configuring the Pin” on page 66 for more details about this feature.
13.4.2
PORTA – Port A Data Register
Bit
13.4.3
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
0x02 (0x22)
PORTA7
PORTA6
PORTA5
PORTA4
PORTA3
PORTA2
PORTA1
PORTA0
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
DDRA – Port A Data Direction Register
Bit
13.4.4
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
0x01 (0x21)
DDA7
DDA6
DDA5
DDA4
DDA3
DDA2
DDA1
DDA0
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
0x00 (0x20)
PINA7
PINA6
PINA5
PINA4
PINA3
PINA2
PINA1
PINA0
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
0x05 (0x25)
PORTB7
PORTB6
PORTB5
PORTB4
PORTB3
PORTB2
PORTB1
PORTB0
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
PORTB
DDRB – Port B Data Direction Register
Bit
13.4.7
PINA
PORTB – Port B Data Register
Bit
13.4.6
DDRA
PINA – Port A Input Pins Address
Bit
13.4.5
PORTA
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
0x04 (0x24)
DDB7
DDB6
DDB5
DDB4
DDB3
DDB2
DDB1
DDB0
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
DDRB
PINB – Port B Input Pins Address
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
0x03 (0x23)
PINB7
PINB6
PINB5
PINB4
PINB3
PINB2
PINB1
PINB0
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
PINB
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ATmega169P
13.4.8
PORTC – Port C Data Register
Bit
13.4.9
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
0x08 (0x28)
PORTC7
PORTC6
PORTC5
PORTC4
PORTC3
PORTC2
PORTC1
PORTC0
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
DDRC – Port C Data Direction Register
Bit
13.4.10
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
0x07 (0x27)
DDC7
DDC6
DDC5
DDC4
DDC3
DDC2
DDC1
DDC0
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
0x06 (0x26)
PINC7
PINC6
PINC5
PINC4
PINC3
PINC2
PINC1
PINC0
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
0x0B (0x2B)
PORTD7
PORTD6
PORTD5
PORTD4
PORTD3
PORTD2
PORTD1
PORTD0
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
0x0A (0x2A)
DDD7
DDD6
DDD5
DDD4
DDD3
DDD2
DDD1
DDD0
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
0x09 (0x29)
PIND7
PIND6
PIND5
PIND4
PIND3
PIND2
PIND1
PIND0
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
PIND
PORTE – Port E Data Register
Bit
13.4.15
DDRD
PIND – Port D Input Pins Address
Bit
13.4.14
PORTD
DDRD – Port D Data Direction Register
Bit
13.4.13
PINC
PORTD – Port D Data Register
Bit
13.4.12
DDRC
PINC – Port C Input Pins Address
Bit
13.4.11
PORTC
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
0x0E (0x2E)
PORTE7
PORTE6
PORTE5
PORTE4
PORTE3
PORTE2
PORTE1
PORTE0
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
PORTE
DDRE – Port E Data Direction Register
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
DDE7
DDE6
DDE5
DDE4
DDE3
DDE2
DDE1
DDE0
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0x0D (0x2D)
DDRE
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ATmega169P
13.4.16
PINE – Port E Input Pins Address
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
PINE7
PINE6
PINE5
PINE4
PINE3
PINE2
PINE1
PINE0
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
0x0C (0x2C)
13.4.17
PORTF – Port F Data Register
Bit
13.4.18
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
0x11 (0x31)
PORTF7
PORTF6
PORTF5
PORTF4
PORTF3
PORTF2
PORTF1
PORTF0
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
0x10 (0x30)
DDF7
DDF6
DDF5
DDF4
DDF3
DDF2
DDF1
DDF0
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
13.4.21
13.4.22
DDRF
PINF – Port F Input Pins Address
Bit
13.4.20
PORTF
DDRF – Port F Data Direction Register
Bit
13.4.19
PINE
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
0x0F (0x2F)
PINF7
PINF6
PINF5
PINF4
PINF3
PINF2
PINF1
PINF0
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
PINF
PORTG – Port G Data Register
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
0x14 (0x34)
–
–
PORTG4
PORTG4
PORTG3
PORTG2
PORTG1
PORTG0
Read/Write
R
R
R
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
PORTG
DDRG – Port G Data Direction Register
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
0x13 (0x33)
–
–
DDG5
DDG4
DDG3
DDG2
DDG1
DDG0
Read/Write
R
R
R
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
DDRG
PING – Port G Input Pins Address
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
0x12 (0x32)
–
–
PING5
PING4
PING3
PING2
PING1
PING0
Read/Write
R
R
R
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
PING
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ATmega169P
14. 8-bit Timer/Counter0 with PWM
14.1
Features
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
14.2
Single Compare Unit Counter
Clear Timer on Compare Match (Auto Reload)
Glitch-free, Phase Correct Pulse Width Modulator (PWM)
Frequency Generator
External Event Counter
10-bit Clock Prescaler
Overflow and Compare Match Interrupt Sources (TOV0 and OCF0A)
Overview
Timer/Counter0 is a general purpose, single compare unit, 8-bit Timer/Counter module. A simplified block diagram is shown in Figure 14-1. For the actual placement of I/O pins, refer to Figure
1-1 on page 2. CPU accessible I/O Registers, including I/O bits and I/O pins, are shown in bold.
The device-specific I/O Register and bit locations are listed in the ”8-bit Timer/Counter Register
Description” on page 102.
Figure 14-1. 8-bit Timer/Counter Block Diagram
TCCRn
count
TOVn
(Int.Req.)
clear
Control Logic
direction
clk Tn
Clock Select
Edge
Detector
DATA BUS
BOTTOM
Tn
TOP
( From Prescaler )
Timer/Counter
TCNTn
=
=0
= 0xFF
OCn
(Int.Req.)
Waveform
Generation
OCn
OCRn
14.2.1
Registers
The Timer/Counter (TCNT0) and Output Compare Register (OCR0A) are 8-bit registers. Interrupt request (abbreviated to Int.Req. in the figure) signals are all visible in the Timer Interrupt
Flag Register (TIFR0). All interrupts are individually masked with the Timer Interrupt Mask Register (TIMSK0). TIFR0 and TIMSK0 are not shown in the figure.
The Timer/Counter can be clocked internally, via the prescaler, or by an external clock source on
the T0 pin. The Clock Select logic block controls which clock source and edge the Timer/Counter
uses to increment (or decrement) its value. The Timer/Counter is inactive when no clock source
is selected. The output from the Clock Select logic is referred to as the timer clock (clkT0).
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ATmega169P
The double buffered Output Compare Register (OCR0A) is compared with the Timer/Counter
value at all times. The result of the compare can be used by the Waveform Generator to generate a PWM or variable frequency output on the Output Compare pin (OC0A). See ”Output
Compare Unit” on page 93. for details. The compare match event will also set the Compare Flag
(OCF0A) which can be used to generate an Output Compare interrupt request.
14.2.2
Definitions
Many register and bit references in this section are written in general form. A lower case “n”
replaces the Timer/Counter number, in this case 0. A lower case “x” replaces the Output Compare unit number, in this case unit A. However, when using the register or bit defines in a
program, the precise form must be used, that is, TCNT0 for accessing Timer/Counter0 counter
value and so on.
The definitions in Table 14-1 are also used extensively throughout the document.
Table 14-1.
14.3
Timer/Counter Definitions
BOTTOM
The counter reaches the BOTTOM when it becomes 0x00.
MAX
The counter reaches its MAXimum when it becomes 0xFF (decimal 255).
TOP
The counter reaches the TOP when it becomes equal to the highest value in the
count sequence. The TOP value can be assigned to be the fixed value 0xFF
(MAX) or the value stored in the OCR0A Register. The assignment is dependent
on the mode of operation.
Timer/Counter Clock Sources
The Timer/Counter can be clocked by an internal or an external clock source. The clock source
is selected by the Clock Select logic which is controlled by the Clock Select (CS02:0) bits
located in the Timer/Counter Control Register (TCCR0A). For details on clock sources and prescaler, see ”Timer/Counter0 and Timer/Counter1 Prescalers” on page 135.
14.4
Counter Unit
The main part of the 8-bit Timer/Counter is the programmable bi-directional counter unit. Figure
14-2 shows a block diagram of the counter and its surroundings.
Figure 14-2. Counter Unit Block Diagram
TOVn
(Int.Req.)
DATA BUS
Clock Select
count
TCNTn
clear
Control Logic
clkTn
Edge
Detector
Tn
direction
( From Prescaler )
bottom
top
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Signal description (internal signals):
count
Increment or decrement TCNT0 by 1.
direction
Select between increment and decrement.
clear
Clear TCNT0 (set all bits to zero).
clkTn
Timer/Counter clock, referred to as clkT0 in the following.
top
Signalize that TCNT0 has reached maximum value.
bottom
Signalize that TCNT0 has reached minimum value (zero).
Depending of the mode of operation used, the counter is cleared, incremented, or decremented
at each timer clock (clkT0). clkT0 can be generated from an external or internal clock source,
selected by the Clock Select bits (CS02:0). When no clock source is selected (CS02:0 = 0) the
timer is stopped. However, the TCNT0 value can be accessed by the CPU, regardless of
whether clkT0 is present or not. A CPU write overrides (has priority over) all counter clear or
count operations.
The counting sequence is determined by the setting of the WGM01 and WGM00 bits located in
the Timer/Counter Control Register (TCCR0A). There are close connections between how the
counter behaves (counts) and how waveforms are generated on the Output Compare output
OC0A. For more details about advanced counting sequences and waveform generation, see
”Modes of Operation” on page 96.
The Timer/Counter Overflow Flag (TOV0) is set according to the mode of operation selected by
the WGM01:0 bits. TOV0 can be used for generating a CPU interrupt.
14.5
Output Compare Unit
The 8-bit comparator continuously compares TCNT0 with the Output Compare Register
(OCR0A). Whenever TCNT0 equals OCR0A, the comparator signals a match. A match will set
the Output Compare Flag (OCF0A) at the next timer clock cycle. If enabled (OCIE0A = 1 and
Global Interrupt Flag in SREG is set), the Output Compare Flag generates an Output Compare
interrupt. The OCF0A Flag is automatically cleared when the interrupt is executed. Alternatively,
the OCF0A Flag can be cleared by software by writing a logical one to its I/O bit location. The
Waveform Generator uses the match signal to generate an output according to operating mode
set by the WGM01:0 bits and Compare Output mode (COM0A1:0) bits. The max and bottom signals are used by the Waveform Generator for handling the special cases of the extreme values
in some modes of operation (See ”Modes of Operation” on page 96.).
Figure 14-3 on page 94 shows a block diagram of the Output Compare unit.
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Figure 14-3. Output Compare Unit, Block Diagram
DATA BUS
OCRnx
TCNTn
= (8-bit Comparator )
OCFnx (Int.Req.)
top
bottom
Waveform Generator
OCnx
FOCn
WGMn1:0
COMnx1:0
The OCR0A Register is double buffered when using any of the Pulse Width Modulation (PWM)
modes. For the normal and Clear Timer on Compare (CTC) modes of operation, the double buffering is disabled. The double buffering synchronizes the update of the OCR0 Compare Register
to either top or bottom of the counting sequence. The synchronization prevents the occurrence
of odd-length, non-symmetrical PWM pulses, thereby making the output glitch-free.
The OCR0A Register access may seem complex, but this is not case. When the double buffering is enabled, the CPU has access to the OCR0A Buffer Register, and if double buffering is
disabled the CPU will access the OCR0A directly.
14.5.1
Force Output Compare
In non-PWM waveform generation modes, the match output of the comparator can be forced by
writing a one to the Force Output Compare (FOC0A) bit. Forcing compare match will not set the
OCF0A Flag or reload/clear the timer, but the OC0A pin will be updated as if a real compare
match had occurred (the COM0A1:0 bits settings define whether the OC0A pin is set, cleared or
toggled).
14.5.2
Compare Match Blocking by TCNT0 Write
All CPU write operations to the TCNT0 Register will block any compare match that occur in the
next timer clock cycle, even when the timer is stopped. This feature allows OCR0A to be initialized to the same value as TCNT0 without triggering an interrupt when the Timer/Counter clock is
enabled.
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14.5.3
Using the Output Compare Unit
Since writing TCNT0 in any mode of operation will block all compare matches for one timer clock
cycle, there are risks involved when changing TCNT0 when using the Output Compare unit,
independently of whether the Timer/Counter is running or not. If the value written to TCNT0
equals the OCR0A value, the compare match will be missed, resulting in incorrect waveform
generation. Similarly, do not write the TCNT0 value equal to BOTTOM when the counter is down
counting.
The setup of the OC0A should be performed before setting the Data Direction Register for the
port pin to output. The easiest way of setting the OC0A value is to use the Force Output Compare (FOC0A) strobe bits in Normal mode. The OC0A Register keeps its value even when
changing between Waveform Generation modes.
Be aware that the COM0A1:0 bits are not double buffered together with the compare value.
Changing the COM0A1:0 bits will take effect immediately.
14.6
Compare Match Output Unit
The Compare Output mode (COM0A1:0) bits have two functions. The Waveform Generator
uses the COM0A1:0 bits for defining the Output Compare (OC0A) state at the next compare
match. Also, the COM0A1:0 bits control the OC0A pin output source. Figure 14-4 shows a simplified schematic of the logic affected by the COM0A1:0 bit setting. The I/O Registers, I/O bits,
and I/O pins in the figure are shown in bold. Only the parts of the general I/O port control registers (DDR and PORT) that are affected by the COM0A1:0 bits are shown. When referring to the
OC0A state, the reference is for the internal OC0A Register, not the OC0A pin. If a System
Reset occur, the OC0A Register is reset to “0”.
Figure 14-4. Compare Match Output Unit, Schematic
COMnx1
COMnx0
FOCn
Waveform
Generator
D
Q
1
OCnx
DATA BUS
D
0
OCn
Pin
Q
PORT
D
Q
DDR
clk I/O
The general I/O port function is overridden by the Output Compare (OC0A) from the Waveform
Generator if either of the COM0A1:0 bits are set. However, the OC0A pin direction (input or output) is still controlled by the Data Direction Register (DDR) for the port pin. The Data Direction
Register bit for the OC0A pin (DDR_OC0A) must be set as output before the OC0A value is visible on the pin. The port override function is independent of the Waveform Generation mode.
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The design of the Output Compare pin logic allows initialization of the OC0A state before the
output is enabled. Note that some COM0A1:0 bit settings are reserved for certain modes of
operation. See ”8-bit Timer/Counter Register Description” on page 102.
14.6.1
Compare Output Mode and Waveform Generation
The Waveform Generator uses the COM0A1:0 bits differently in Normal, CTC, and PWM
modes. For all modes, setting the COM0A1:0 = 0 tells the Waveform Generator that no action on
the OC0A Register is to be performed on the next compare match. For compare output actions
in the non-PWM modes refer to Table 14-3 on page 103. For fast PWM mode, refer to Table 144 on page 103, and for phase correct PWM refer to Table 14-5 on page 103.
A change of the COM0A1:0 bits state will have effect at the first compare match after the bits are
written. For non-PWM modes, the action can be forced to have immediate effect by using the
FOC0A strobe bits.
14.7
Modes of Operation
The mode of operation, that is, the behavior of the Timer/Counter and the Output Compare pins,
is defined by the combination of the Waveform Generation mode (WGM01:0) and Compare Output mode (COM0A1:0) bits. The Compare Output mode bits do not affect the counting
sequence, while the Waveform Generation mode bits do. The COM0A1:0 bits control whether
the PWM output generated should be inverted or not (inverted or non-inverted PWM). For nonPWM modes the COM0A1:0 bits control whether the output should be set, cleared, or toggled at
a compare match (See ”Compare Match Output Unit” on page 95.).
For detailed timing information refer to Figure 14-8, Figure 14-9, Figure 14-10 and Figure 14-11
in ”Timer/Counter Timing Diagrams” on page 100.
14.7.1
Normal Mode
The simplest mode of operation is the Normal mode (WGM01:0 = 0). In this mode the counting
direction is always up (incrementing), and no counter clear is performed. The counter simply
overruns when it passes its maximum 8-bit value (TOP = 0xFF) and then restarts from the bottom (0x00). In normal operation the Timer/Counter Overflow Flag (TOV0) will be set in the same
timer clock cycle as the TCNT0 becomes zero. The TOV0 Flag in this case behaves like a ninth
bit, except that it is only set, not cleared. However, combined with the timer overflow interrupt
that automatically clears the TOV0 Flag, the timer resolution can be increased by software.
There are no special cases to consider in the Normal mode, a new counter value can be written
anytime.
The Output Compare unit can be used to generate interrupts at some given time. Using the Output Compare to generate waveforms in Normal mode is not recommended, since this will
occupy too much of the CPU time.
14.7.2
Clear Timer on Compare Match (CTC) Mode
In Clear Timer on Compare or CTC mode (WGM01:0 = 2), the OCR0A Register is used to
manipulate the counter resolution. In CTC mode the counter is cleared to zero when the counter
value (TCNT0) matches the OCR0A. The OCR0A defines the top value for the counter, hence
also its resolution. This mode allows greater control of the compare match output frequency. It
also simplifies the operation of counting external events.
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The timing diagram for the CTC mode is shown in Figure 14-5. The counter value (TCNT0)
increases until a compare match occurs between TCNT0 and OCR0A, and then counter
(TCNT0) is cleared.
Figure 14-5. CTC Mode, Timing Diagram
OCnx Interrupt Flag Set
TCNTn
OCn
(Toggle)
Period
(COMnx1:0 = 1)
1
2
3
4
An interrupt can be generated each time the counter value reaches the TOP value by using the
OCF0A Flag. If the interrupt is enabled, the interrupt handler routine can be used for updating
the TOP value. However, changing TOP to a value close to BOTTOM when the counter is running with none or a low prescaler value must be done with care since the CTC mode does not
have the double buffering feature. If the new value written to OCR0A is lower than the current
value of TCNT0, the counter will miss the compare match. The counter will then have to count to
its maximum value (0xFF) and wrap around starting at 0x00 before the compare match can
occur.
For generating a waveform output in CTC mode, the OC0A output can be set to toggle its logical
level on each compare match by setting the Compare Output mode bits to toggle mode
(COM0A1:0 = 1). The OC0A value will not be visible on the port pin unless the data direction for
the pin is set to output. The waveform generated will have a maximum frequency of fOC0 =
fclk_I/O/2 when OCR0A is set to zero (0x00). The waveform frequency is defined by the following
equation:
f clk_I/O
f OCnx = ------------------------------------------------2 ⋅ N ⋅ ( 1 + OCRnx )
The N variable represents the prescale factor (1, 8, 64, 256, or 1024).
As for the Normal mode of operation, the TOV0 Flag is set in the same timer clock cycle that the
counter counts from MAX to 0x00.
14.7.3
Fast PWM Mode
The fast Pulse Width Modulation or fast PWM mode (WGM01:0 = 3) provides a high frequency
PWM waveform generation option. The fast PWM differs from the other PWM option by its single-slope operation. The counter counts from BOTTOM to MAX then restarts from BOTTOM. In
non-inverting Compare Output mode, the Output Compare (OC0A) is cleared on the compare
match between TCNT0 and OCR0A, and set at BOTTOM. In inverting Compare Output mode,
the output is set on compare match and cleared at BOTTOM. Due to the single-slope operation,
the operating frequency of the fast PWM mode can be twice as high as the phase correct PWM
mode that use dual-slope operation. This high frequency makes the fast PWM mode well suited
for power regulation, rectification, and DAC applications. High frequency allows physically small
sized external components (coils, capacitors), and therefore reduces total system cost.
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In fast PWM mode, the counter is incremented until the counter value matches the MAX value.
The counter is then cleared at the following timer clock cycle. The timing diagram for the fast
PWM mode is shown in Figure 14-6. The TCNT0 value is in the timing diagram shown as a histogram for illustrating the single-slope operation. The diagram includes non-inverted and
inverted PWM outputs. The small horizontal line marks on the TCNT0 slopes represent compare
matches between OCR0A and TCNT0.
Figure 14-6. Fast PWM Mode, Timing Diagram
OCRnx Interrupt Flag Set
OCRnx Update and
TOVn Interrupt Flag Set
TCNTn
OCn
(COMnx1:0 = 2)
OCn
(COMnx1:0 = 3)
Period
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
The Timer/Counter Overflow Flag (TOV0) is set each time the counter reaches MAX. If the interrupt is enabled, the interrupt handler routine can be used for updating the compare value.
In fast PWM mode, the compare unit allows generation of PWM waveforms on the OC0A pin.
Setting the COM0A1:0 bits to two will produce a non-inverted PWM and an inverted PWM output
can be generated by setting the COM0A1:0 to three (See Table 14-4 on page 103). The actual
OC0A value will only be visible on the port pin if the data direction for the port pin is set as output. The PWM waveform is generated by setting (or clearing) the OC0A Register at the compare
match between OCR0A and TCNT0, and clearing (or setting) the OC0A Register at the timer
clock cycle the counter is cleared (changes from MAX to BOTTOM).
The PWM frequency for the output can be calculated by the following equation:
f clk_I/O
f OCnxPWM = ----------------N ⋅ 256
The N variable represents the prescale factor (1, 8, 64, 256, or 1024).
The extreme values for the OCR0A Register represents special cases when generating a PWM
waveform output in the fast PWM mode. If the OCR0A is set equal to BOTTOM, the output will
be a narrow spike for each MAX+1 timer clock cycle. Setting the OCR0A equal to MAX will result
in a constantly high or low output (depending on the polarity of the output set by the COM0A1:0
bits).
A frequency (with 50% duty cycle) waveform output in fast PWM mode can be achieved by setting OC0A to toggle its logical level on each compare match (COM0A1:0 = 1). The waveform
generated will have a maximum frequency of fOC0 = fclk_I/O/2 when OCR0A is set to zero. This
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feature is similar to the OC0A toggle in CTC mode, except the double buffer feature of the Output Compare unit is enabled in the fast PWM mode.
14.7.4
Phase Correct PWM Mode
The phase correct PWM mode (WGM01:0 = 1) provides a high resolution phase correct PWM
waveform generation option. The phase correct PWM mode is based on a dual-slope operation.
The counter counts repeatedly from BOTTOM to MAX and then from MAX to BOTTOM. In noninverting Compare Output mode, the Output Compare (OC0A) is cleared on the compare match
between TCNT0 and OCR0A while upcounting, and set on the compare match while downcounting. In inverting Output Compare mode, the operation is inverted. The dual-slope operation
has lower maximum operation frequency than single slope operation. However, due to the symmetric feature of the dual-slope PWM modes, these modes are preferred for motor control
applications.
The PWM resolution for the phase correct PWM mode is fixed to eight bits. In phase correct
PWM mode the counter is incremented until the counter value matches MAX. When the counter
reaches MAX, it changes the count direction. The TCNT0 value will be equal to MAX for one
timer clock cycle. The timing diagram for the phase correct PWM mode is shown on Figure 14-7.
The TCNT0 value is in the timing diagram shown as a histogram for illustrating the dual-slope
operation. The diagram includes non-inverted and inverted PWM outputs. The small horizontal
line marks on the TCNT0 slopes represent compare matches between OCR0A and TCNT0.
Figure 14-7. Phase Correct PWM Mode, Timing Diagram
OCnx Interrupt Flag Set
OCRnx Update
TOVn Interrupt Flag Set
TCNTn
OCn
(COMnx1:0 = 2)
OCn
(COMnx1:0 = 3)
Period
1
2
3
The Timer/Counter Overflow Flag (TOV0) is set each time the counter reaches BOTTOM. The
Interrupt Flag can be used to generate an interrupt each time the counter reaches the BOTTOM
value.
In phase correct PWM mode, the compare unit allows generation of PWM waveforms on the
OC0A pin. Setting the COM0A1:0 bits to two will produce a non-inverted PWM. An inverted
PWM output can be generated by setting the COM0A1:0 to three (See Table 14-5 on page 103).
The actual OC0A value will only be visible on the port pin if the data direction for the port pin is
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set as output. The PWM waveform is generated by clearing (or setting) the OC0A Register at the
compare match between OCR0A and TCNT0 when the counter increments, and setting (or
clearing) the OC0A Register at compare match between OCR0A and TCNT0 when the counter
decrements. The PWM frequency for the output when using phase correct PWM can be calculated by the following equation:
f clk_I/O
f OCnxPCPWM = ----------------N ⋅ 510
The N variable represents the prescale factor (1, 8, 64, 256, or 1024).
The extreme values for the OCR0A Register represent special cases when generating a PWM
waveform output in the phase correct PWM mode. If the OCR0A is set equal to BOTTOM, the
output will be continuously low and if set equal to MAX the output will be continuously high for
non-inverted PWM mode. For inverted PWM the output will have the opposite logic values.
At the very start of period 2 in Figure 14-7 on page 99 OCn has a transition from high to low
even though there is no Compare Match. The point of this transition is to guarantee symmetry
around BOTTOM. There are two cases that give a transition without Compare Match.
• OCR0A changes its value from MAX, like in Figure 14-7 on page 99. When the OCR0A value
is MAX the OCn pin value is the same as the result of a down-counting Compare Match. To
ensure symmetry around BOTTOM the OCn value at MAX must correspond to the result of an
up-counting Compare Match.
• The timer starts counting from a value higher than the one in OCR0A, and for that reason
misses the Compare Match and hence the OCn change that would have happened on the way
up.
14.8
Timer/Counter Timing Diagrams
The Timer/Counter is a synchronous design and the timer clock (clkT0) is therefore shown as a
clock enable signal in the following figures. The figures include information on when Interrupt
Flags are set. Figure 14-8 contains timing data for basic Timer/Counter operation. The figure
shows the count sequence close to the MAX value in all modes other than phase correct PWM
mode.
Figure 14-8. Timer/Counter Timing Diagram, no Prescaling
clkI/O
clkTn
(clkI/O /1)
TCNTn
MAX - 1
MAX
BOTTOM
BOTTOM + 1
TOVn
Figure 14-9 on page 101 shows the same timing data, but with the prescaler enabled.
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Figure 14-9. Timer/Counter Timing Diagram, with Prescaler (fclk_I/O/8)
clkI/O
clkTn
(clkI/O /8)
TCNTn
MAX - 1
MAX
BOTTOM
BOTTOM + 1
TOVn
Figure 14-10 shows the setting of OCF0A in all modes except CTC mode.
Figure 14-10. Timer/Counter Timing Diagram, Setting of OCF0A, with Prescaler (fclk_I/O/8)
clkI/O
clkTn
(clkI/O /8)
TCNTn
OCRnx - 1
OCRnx
OCRnx
OCRnx + 1
OCRnx + 2
OCRnx Value
OCFnx
Figure 14-11 shows the setting of OCF0A and the clearing of TCNT0 in CTC mode.
Figure 14-11. Timer/Counter Timing Diagram, Clear Timer on Compare Match mode, with Prescaler (fclk_I/O/8)
clkI/O
clkTn
(clkI/O /8)
TCNTn
(CTC)
OCRnx
TOP - 1
TOP
BOTTOM
BOTTOM + 1
TOP
OCFnx
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14.9
8-bit Timer/Counter Register Description
14.9.1
TCCR0A – Timer/Counter Control Register A
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
0x24 (0x44)
FOC0A
WGM00
COM0A1
COM0A0
WGM01
CS02
CS01
CS00
Read/Write
W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
TCCR0A
• Bit 7 – FOC0A: Force Output Compare A
The FOC0A bit is only active when the WGM00 bit specifies a non-PWM mode. However, for
ensuring compatibility with future devices, this bit must be set to zero when TCCR0A is written
when operating in PWM mode. When writing a logical one to the FOC0A bit, an immediate compare match is forced on the Waveform Generation unit. The OC0A output is changed according
to its COM0A1:0 bits setting. Note that the FOC0A bit is implemented as a strobe. Therefore it is
the value present in the COM0A1:0 bits that determines the effect of the forced compare.
A FOC0A strobe will not generate any interrupt, nor will it clear the timer in CTC mode using
OCR0A as TOP.
The FOC0A bit is always read as zero.
• Bit 6, 3 – WGM01:0: Waveform Generation Mode
These bits control the counting sequence of the counter, the source for the maximum (TOP)
counter value, and what type of waveform generation to be used. Modes of operation supported
by the Timer/Counter unit are: Normal mode, Clear Timer on Compare match (CTC) mode, and
two types of Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) modes. See Table 14-2 and ”Modes of Operation”
on page 96.
Table 14-2.
Waveform Generation Mode Bit Description()
Mode
WGM01
(CTC0)
WGM00
(PWM0)
Timer/Counter Mode
of Operation
TOP
Update of
OCR0A at
TOV0 Flag Set
on
0
0
0
Normal
0xFF
Immediate
MAX
1
0
1
PWM, Phase Correct
0xFF
TOP
BOTTOM
2
1
0
CTC
OCR0A
Immediate
MAX
3
1
1
Fast PWM
0xFF
BOTTOM
MAX
Note:
1. The CTC0 and PWM0 bit definition names are now obsolete. Use the WGM01:0 definitions.
However, the functionality and location of these bits are compatible with previous versions of
the timer.
• Bit 5:4 – COM0A1:0: Compare Match Output Mode
These bits control the Output Compare pin (OC0A) behavior. If one or both of the COM0A1:0
bits are set, the OC0A output overrides the normal port functionality of the I/O pin it is connected
to. However, note that the Data Direction Register (DDR) bit corresponding to the OC0A pin
must be set in order to enable the output driver.
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When OC0A is connected to the pin, the function of the COM0A1:0 bits depends on the
WGM01:0 bit setting. Table 14-3 shows the COM0A1:0 bit functionality when the WGM01:0 bits
are set to a normal or CTC mode (non-PWM).
Table 14-3.
Compare Output Mode, non-PWM Mode
COM0A1
COM0A0
Description
0
0
Normal port operation, OC0A disconnected.
0
1
Toggle OC0A on compare match
1
0
Clear OC0A on compare match
1
1
Set OC0A on compare match
Table 14-4 shows the COM0A1:0 bit functionality when the WGM01:0 bits are set to fast PWM
mode.
Table 14-4.
Compare Output Mode, Fast PWM Mode(1)
COM0A1
COM0A0
0
0
Normal port operation, OC0A disconnected.
0
1
Reserved
1
0
Clear OC0A on compare match, set OC0A at BOTTOM
(non-inverting mode)
1
1
Set OC0A on compare match, clear OC0A at BOTTOM
(inverting mode)
Note:
Description
1. A special case occurs when OCR0A equals TOP and COM0A1 is set. In this case, the compare match is ignored, but the set or clear is done at BOTTOM. See ”Fast PWM Mode” on
page 97 for more details.
Table 14-5 shows the COM0A1:0 bit functionality when the WGM01:0 bits are set to phase correct PWM mode.
Table 14-5.
Compare Output Mode, Phase Correct PWM Mode(1)
COM0A1
COM0A0
0
0
Normal port operation, OC0A disconnected.
0
1
Reserved
1
0
Clear OC0A on compare match when up-counting. Set OC0A on
compare match when down counting.
1
1
Set OC0A on compare match when up-counting. Clear OC0A on
compare match when down counting.
Note:
Description
1. A special case occurs when OCR0A equals TOP and COM0A1 is set. In this case, the compare match is ignored, but the set or clear is done at TOP. See ”Phase Correct PWM Mode” on
page 99 for more details.
• Bit 2:0 – CS02:0: Clock Select
The three Clock Select bits select the clock source to be used by the Timer/Counter.
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Table 14-6.
Clock Select Bit Description
CS02
CS01
CS00
Description
0
0
0
No clock source (Timer/Counter stopped)
0
0
1
clkI/O/(No prescaling)
0
1
0
clkI/O/8 (From prescaler)
0
1
1
clkI/O/64 (From prescaler)
1
0
0
clkI/O/256 (From prescaler)
1
0
1
clkI/O/1024 (From prescaler)
1
1
0
External clock source on T0 pin. Clock on falling edge.
1
1
1
External clock source on T0 pin. Clock on rising edge.
If external pin modes are used for the Timer/Counter0, transitions on the T0 pin will clock the
counter even if the pin is configured as an output. This feature allows software control of the
counting.
14.9.2
TCNT0 – Timer/Counter Register
Bit
7
6
5
0x26 (0x46)
4
3
2
1
0
TCNT0[7:0]
TCNT0
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
The Timer/Counter Register gives direct access, both for read and write operations, to the
Timer/Counter unit 8-bit counter. Writing to the TCNT0 Register blocks (removes) the compare
match on the following timer clock. Modifying the counter (TCNT0) while the counter is running,
introduces a risk of missing a compare match between TCNT0 and the OCR0A Register.
14.9.3
OCR0A – Output Compare Register A
Bit
7
6
5
0x27 (0x47)
4
3
2
1
0
OCR0A[7:0]
OCR0A
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
The Output Compare Register A contains an 8-bit value that is continuously compared with the
counter value (TCNT0). A match can be used to generate an Output Compare interrupt, or to
generate a waveform output on the OC0A pin.
14.9.4
TIMSK0 – Timer/Counter 0 Interrupt Mask Register
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
(0x6E)
–
–
–
–
–
–
OCIE0A
TOIE0
Read/Write
R
R
R
R
R
R
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
TIMSK0
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• Bit 1 – OCIE0A: Timer/Counter0 Output Compare Match A Interrupt Enable
When the OCIE0A bit is written to one, and the I-bit in the Status Register is set (one), the
Timer/Counter0 Compare Match A interrupt is enabled. The corresponding interrupt is executed
if a compare match in Timer/Counter0 occurs, that is, when the OCF0A bit is set in the
Timer/Counter 0 Interrupt Flag Register – TIFR0.
• Bit 0 – TOIE0: Timer/Counter0 Overflow Interrupt Enable
When the TOIE0 bit is written to one, and the I-bit in the Status Register is set (one), the
Timer/Counter0 Overflow interrupt is enabled. The corresponding interrupt is executed if an
overflow in Timer/Counter0 occurs, that is, when the TOV0 bit is set in the Timer/Counter 0 Interrupt Flag Register – TIFR0.
14.9.5
TIFR0 – Timer/Counter 0 Interrupt Flag Register
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
0x15 (0x35)
–
–
–
–
–
–
OCF0A
TOV0
Read/Write
R
R
R
R
R
R
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
TIFR0
• Bit 1 – OCF0A: Output Compare Flag 0 A
The OCF0A bit is set (one) when a compare match occurs between the Timer/Counter0 and the
data in OCR0A – Output Compare Register0. OCF0A is cleared by hardware when executing
the corresponding interrupt handling vector. Alternatively, OCF0A is cleared by writing a logic
one to the flag. When the I-bit in SREG, OCIE0A (Timer/Counter0 Compare match Interrupt
Enable), and OCF0A are set (one), the Timer/Counter0 Compare match Interrupt is executed.
• Bit 0 – TOV0: Timer/Counter0 Overflow Flag
The bit TOV0 is set (one) when an overflow occurs in Timer/Counter0. TOV0 is cleared by hardware when executing the corresponding interrupt handling vector. Alternatively, TOV0 is cleared
by writing a logic one to the flag. When the SREG I-bit, TOIE0 (Timer/Counter0 Overflow Interrupt Enable), and TOV0 are set (one), the Timer/Counter0 Overflow interrupt is executed. In
phase correct PWM mode, this bit is set when Timer/Counter0 changes counting direction at
0x00.
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15. 16-bit Timer/Counter1
15.1
Features
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
15.2
True 16-bit Design (that is, allows 16-bit PWM)
Two independent Output Compare Units
Double Buffered Output Compare Registers
One Input Capture Unit
Input Capture Noise Canceler
Clear Timer on Compare Match (Auto Reload)
Glitch-free, Phase Correct Pulse Width Modulator (PWM)
Variable PWM Period
Frequency Generator
External Event Counter
Four independent interrupt Sources (TOV1, OCF1A, OCF1B, and ICF1)
Overview
The 16-bit Timer/Counter unit allows accurate program execution timing (event management),
wave generation, and signal timing measurement. Most register and bit references in this section are written in general form. A lower case “n” replaces the Timer/Counter number, and a
lower case “x” replaces the Output Compare unit number. However, when using the register or
bit defines in a program, the precise form must be used, that is, TCNT1 for accessing
Timer/Counter1 counter value and so on.
A simplified block diagram of the 16-bit Timer/Counter is shown in Figure 15-1 on page 107. For
the actual placement of I/O pins, refer to Figure 1-1 on page 2. CPU accessible I/O Registers,
including I/O bits and I/O pins, are shown in bold. The device-specific I/O Register and bit locations are listed in the Section 15.11 ”16-bit Timer/Counter Register Description” on page 128.
The PRTIM1 bit in Section 9.9.2 ”PRR – Power Reduction Register” on page 45 must be written
to zero to enable Timer/Counter1 module.
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Figure 15-1. 16-bit Timer/Counter Block Diagram(1)
Count
Clear
Direction
TOVn
(Int.Req.)
Control Logic
clkTn
Clock Select
Edge
Detector
TOP
Tn
BOTTOM
( From Prescaler )
Timer/Counter
TCNTn
=
=0
OCnA
(Int.Req.)
Waveform
Generation
=
OCnA
DATA BUS
OCRnA
OCnB
(Int.Req.)
Fixed
TOP
Values
Waveform
Generation
=
OCRnB
OCnB
( From Analog
Comparator Ouput )
ICFn (Int.Req.)
Edge
Detector
ICRn
Noise
Canceler
ICPn
TCCRnA
Note:
15.2.1
TCCRnB
1. Refer to Figure 1-1 on page 2, Table 13-5 on page 74, and Table 13-11 on page 78 for
Timer/Counter1 pin placement and description.
Registers
The Timer/Counter (TCNT1), Output Compare Registers (OCR1A/B), and Input Capture Register (ICR1) are all 16-bit registers. Special procedures must be followed when accessing the 16bit registers. These procedures are described in the section ”Accessing 16-bit Registers” on
page 109. The Timer/Counter Control Registers (TCCR1A/B) are 8-bit registers and have no
CPU access restrictions. Interrupt requests (abbreviated to Int.Req. in the figure) signals are all
visible in the Timer Interrupt Flag Register (TIFR1). All interrupts are individually masked with
the Timer Interrupt Mask Register (TIMSK1). TIFR1 and TIMSK1 are not shown in the figure.
The Timer/Counter can be clocked internally, via the prescaler, or by an external clock source on
the T1 pin. The Clock Select logic block controls which clock source and edge the Timer/Counter
uses to increment (or decrement) its value. The Timer/Counter is inactive when no clock source
is selected. The output from the Clock Select logic is referred to as the timer clock (clkT1).
The double buffered Output Compare Registers (OCR1A/B) are compared with the Timer/Counter value at all time. The result of the compare can be used by the Waveform Generator to
generate a PWM or variable frequency output on the Output Compare pin (OC1A/B). See ”Out-
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put Compare Units” on page 115. The compare match event will also set the Compare Match
Flag (OCF1A/B) which can be used to generate an Output Compare interrupt request.
The Input Capture Register can capture the Timer/Counter value at a given external (edge triggered) event on either the Input Capture pin (ICP1) or on the Analog Comparator pins (See ”AC
- Analog Comparator” on page 212.) The Input Capture unit includes a digital filtering unit (Noise
Canceler) for reducing the chance of capturing noise spikes.
The TOP value, or maximum Timer/Counter value, can in some modes of operation be defined
by either the OCR1A Register, the ICR1 Register, or by a set of fixed values. When using
OCR1A as TOP value in a PWM mode, the OCR1A Register can not be used for generating a
PWM output. However, the TOP value will in this case be double buffered allowing the TOP
value to be changed in run time. If a fixed TOP value is required, the ICR1 Register can be used
as an alternative, freeing the OCR1A to be used as PWM output.
15.2.2
Definitions
The following definitions are used extensively throughout the section:
15.2.3
BOTTOM
The counter reaches the BOTTOM when it becomes 0x0000.
MAX
The counter reaches its MAXimum when it becomes 0xFFFF (decimal 65535).
TOP
The counter reaches the TOP when it becomes equal to the highest value in the count
sequence. The TOP value can be assigned to be one of the fixed values: 0x00FF, 0x01FF,
or 0x03FF, or to the value stored in the OCR1A or ICR1 Register. The assignment is
dependent of the mode of operation.
Compatibility
The 16-bit Timer/Counter has been updated and improved from previous versions of the 16-bit
AVR Timer/Counter. This 16-bit Timer/Counter is fully compatible with the earlier version
regarding:
• All 16-bit Timer/Counter related I/O Register address locations, including Timer Interrupt
Registers.
• Bit locations inside all 16-bit Timer/Counter Registers, including Timer Interrupt Registers.
• Interrupt Vectors.
The following control bits have changed name, but have same functionality and register location:
• PWM10 is changed to WGM10.
• PWM11 is changed to WGM11.
• CTC1 is changed to WGM12.
The following bits are added to the 16-bit Timer/Counter Control Registers:
• FOC1A and FOC1B are added to TCCR1C.
• WGM13 is added to TCCR1B.
The 16-bit Timer/Counter has improvements that will affect the compatibility in some special
cases.
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15.3
Accessing 16-bit Registers
The TCNT1, OCR1A/B, and ICR1 are 16-bit registers that can be accessed by the AVR CPU via
the 8-bit data bus. The 16-bit register must be byte accessed using two read or write operations.
Each 16-bit timer has a single 8-bit register for temporary storing of the high byte of the 16-bit
access. The same temporary register is shared between all 16-bit registers within each 16-bit
timer. Accessing the low byte triggers the 16-bit read or write operation. When the low byte of a
16-bit register is written by the CPU, the high byte stored in the temporary register, and the low
byte written are both copied into the 16-bit register in the same clock cycle. When the low byte of
a 16-bit register is read by the CPU, the high byte of the 16-bit register is copied into the temporary register in the same clock cycle as the low byte is read.
Not all 16-bit accesses uses the temporary register for the high byte. Reading the OCR1A/B 16bit registers does not involve using the temporary register.
To do a 16-bit write, the high byte must be written before the low byte. For a 16-bit read, the low
byte must be read before the high byte.
The following code examples show how to access the 16-bit Timer Registers assuming that no
interrupts updates the temporary register. The same principle can be used directly for accessing
the OCR1A/B and ICR1 Registers. Note that when using “C”, the compiler handles the 16-bit
access.
Assembly Code Examples(1)
...
; Set TCNT1 to 0x01FF
ldi r17,0x01
ldi r16,0xFF
out TCNT1H,r17
out TCNT1L,r16
; Read TCNT1 into r17:r16
in r16,TCNT1L
in r17,TCNT1H
...
C Code Examples(1)
unsigned int i;
...
/* Set TCNT1 to 0x01FF */
TCNT1 = 0x1FF;
/* Read TCNT1 into i */
i = TCNT1;
...
Note:
1. See ”About Code Examples” on page 10.
The assembly code example returns the TCNT1 value in the r17:r16 register pair.
It is important to notice that accessing 16-bit registers are atomic operations. If an interrupt
occurs between the two instructions accessing the 16-bit register, and the interrupt code
updates the temporary register by accessing the same or any other of the 16-bit Timer Registers, then the result of the access outside the interrupt will be corrupted. Therefore, when both
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the main code and the interrupt code update the temporary register, the main code must disable
the interrupts during the 16-bit access.
The following code examples show how to do an atomic read of the TCNT1 Register contents.
Reading any of the OCR1A/B or ICR1 Registers can be done by using the same principle.
Assembly Code Example(1)
TIM16_ReadTCNT1:
; Save global interrupt flag
in r18,SREG
; Disable interrupts
cli
; Read TCNT1 into r17:r16
in r16,TCNT1L
in r17,TCNT1H
; Restore global interrupt flag
out SREG,r18
ret
C Code Example(1)
unsigned int TIM16_ReadTCNT1( void )
{
unsigned char sreg;
unsigned int i;
/* Save global interrupt flag */
sreg = SREG;
/* Disable interrupts */
__disable_interrupt();
/* Read TCNT1 into i */
i = TCNT1;
/* Restore global interrupt flag */
SREG = sreg;
return i;
}
Note:
1. See ”About Code Examples” on page 10.
The assembly code example returns the TCNT1 value in the r17:r16 register pair.
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The following code examples show how to do an atomic write of the TCNT1 Register contents.
Writing any of the OCR1A/B or ICR1 Registers can be done by using the same principle.
Assembly Code Example(1)
TIM16_WriteTCNT1:
; Save global interrupt flag
in r18,SREG
; Disable interrupts
cli
; Set TCNT1 to r17:r16
out TCNT1H,r17
out TCNT1L,r16
; Restore global interrupt flag
out SREG,r18
ret
C Code Example(1)
void TIM16_WriteTCNT1( unsigned int i )
{
unsigned char sreg;
unsigned int i;
/* Save global interrupt flag */
sreg = SREG;
/* Disable interrupts */
__disable_interrupt();
/* Set TCNT1 to i */
TCNT1 = i;
/* Restore global interrupt flag */
SREG = sreg;
}
Note:
1. See ”About Code Examples” on page 10.
The assembly code example requires that the r17:r16 register pair contains the value to be written to TCNT1.
15.3.1
Reusing the Temporary High Byte Register
If writing to more than one 16-bit register where the high byte is the same for all registers written,
then the high byte only needs to be written once. However, note that the same rule of atomic
operation described previously also applies in this case.
15.4
Timer/Counter Clock Sources
The Timer/Counter can be clocked by an internal or an external clock source. The clock source
is selected by the Clock Select logic which is controlled by the Clock Select (CS12:0) bits
located in the Timer/Counter control Register B (TCCR1B). For details on clock sources and
prescaler, see ”Timer/Counter0 and Timer/Counter1 Prescalers” on page 135.
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15.5
Counter Unit
The main part of the 16-bit Timer/Counter is the programmable 16-bit bi-directional counter unit.
Figure 15-2 shows a block diagram of the counter and its surroundings.
Figure 15-2. Counter Unit Block Diagram
DATA BUS
(8-bit)
TOVn
(Int.Req.)
TEMP (8-bit)
Clock Select
Count
TCNTnH (8-bit)
TCNTnL (8-bit)
Clear
Direction
TCNTn (16-bit Counter)
Control Logic
clkTn
Edge
Detector
Tn
( From Prescaler )
TOP
BOTTOM
Signal description (internal signals):
Count
Increment or decrement TCNT1 by 1.
Direction
Select between increment and decrement.
Clear
Clear TCNT1 (set all bits to zero).
clkT1
Timer/Counter clock.
TOP
Signalize that TCNT1 has reached maximum value.
BOTTOM
Signalize that TCNT1 has reached minimum value (zero).
The 16-bit counter is mapped into two 8-bit I/O memory locations: Counter High (TCNT1H) containing the upper eight bits of the counter, and Counter Low (TCNT1L) containing the lower eight
bits. The TCNT1H Register can only be indirectly accessed by the CPU. When the CPU does an
access to the TCNT1H I/O location, the CPU accesses the high byte temporary register (TEMP).
The temporary register is updated with the TCNT1H value when the TCNT1L is read, and
TCNT1H is updated with the temporary register value when TCNT1L is written. This allows the
CPU to read or write the entire 16-bit counter value within one clock cycle via the 8-bit data bus.
It is important to notice that there are special cases of writing to the TCNT1 Register when the
counter is counting that will give unpredictable results. The special cases are described in the
sections where they are of importance.
Depending on the mode of operation used, the counter is cleared, incremented, or decremented
at each timer clock (clkT1). The clkT1 can be generated from an external or internal clock source,
selected by the Clock Select bits (CS12:0). When no clock source is selected (CS12:0 = 0) the
timer is stopped. However, the TCNT1 value can be accessed by the CPU, independent of
whether clkT1 is present or not. A CPU write overrides (has priority over) all counter clear or
count operations.
The counting sequence is determined by the setting of the Waveform Generation mode bits
(WGM13:0) located in the Timer/Counter Control Registers A and B (TCCR1A and TCCR1B).
There are close connections between how the counter behaves (counts) and how waveforms
are generated on the Output Compare outputs OC1x. For more details about advanced counting
sequences and waveform generation, see ”Modes of Operation” on page 118.
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The Timer/Counter Overflow Flag (TOV1) is set according to the mode of operation selected by
the WGM13:0 bits. TOV1 can be used for generating a CPU interrupt.
15.6
Input Capture Unit
The Timer/Counter incorporates an Input Capture unit that can capture external events and give
them a time-stamp indicating time of occurrence. The external signal indicating an event, or multiple events, can be applied via the ICP1 pin or alternatively, via the analog-comparator unit. The
time-stamps can then be used to calculate frequency, duty-cycle, and other features of the signal applied. Alternatively the time-stamps can be used for creating a log of the events.
The Input Capture unit is illustrated by the block diagram shown in Figure 15-3. The elements of
the block diagram that are not directly a part of the Input Capture unit are gray shaded. The
small “n” in register and bit names indicates the Timer/Counter number.
Figure 15-3. Input Capture Unit Block Diagram
DATA BUS
(8-bit)
TEMP (8-bit)
ICRnH (8-bit)
WRITE
ICRnL (8-bit)
TCNTnH (8-bit)
ICRn (16-bit Register)
ACO*
Analog
Comparator
ACIC*
TCNTnL (8-bit)
TCNTn (16-bit Counter)
ICNC
ICES
Noise
Canceler
Edge
Detector
ICFn (Int.Req.)
ICPn
When a change of the logic level (an event) occurs on the Input Capture pin (ICP1), alternatively
on the Analog Comparator output (ACO), and this change confirms to the setting of the edge
detector, a capture will be triggered. When a capture is triggered, the 16-bit value of the counter
(TCNT1) is written to the Input Capture Register (ICR1). The Input Capture Flag (ICF1) is set at
the same system clock as the TCNT1 value is copied into ICR1 Register. If enabled (ICIE1 = 1),
the Input Capture Flag generates an Input Capture interrupt. The ICF1 Flag is automatically
cleared when the interrupt is executed. Alternatively the ICF1 Flag can be cleared by software
by writing a logical one to its I/O bit location.
Reading the 16-bit value in the Input Capture Register (ICR1) is done by first reading the low
byte (ICR1L) and then the high byte (ICR1H). When the low byte is read the high byte is copied
into the high byte temporary register (TEMP). When the CPU reads the ICR1H I/O location it will
access the TEMP Register.
The ICR1 Register can only be written when using a Waveform Generation mode that utilizes
the ICR1 Register for defining the counter’s TOP value. In these cases the Waveform Genera-
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tion mode (WGM13:0) bits must be set before the TOP value can be written to the ICR1
Register. When writing the ICR1 Register the high byte must be written to the ICR1H I/O location
before the low byte is written to ICR1L.
For more information on how to access the 16-bit registers refer to ”Accessing 16-bit Registers”
on page 109.
15.6.1
Input Capture Trigger Source
The main trigger source for the Input Capture unit is the Input Capture pin (ICP1).
Timer/Counter1 can alternatively use the Analog Comparator output as trigger source for the
Input Capture unit. The Analog Comparator is selected as trigger source by setting the Analog
Comparator Input Capture (ACIC) bit in the Analog Comparator Control and Status Register
(ACSR). Be aware that changing trigger source can trigger a capture. The Input Capture Flag
must therefore be cleared after the change.
Both the Input Capture pin (ICP1) and the Analog Comparator output (ACO) inputs are sampled
using the same technique as for the T1 pin (Figure 16-1 on page 135). The edge detector is also
identical. However, when the noise canceler is enabled, additional logic is inserted before the
edge detector, which increases the delay by four system clock cycles. Note that the input of the
noise canceler and edge detector is always enabled unless the Timer/Counter is set in a Waveform Generation mode that uses ICR1 to define TOP.
An Input Capture can be triggered by software by controlling the port of the ICP1 pin.
15.6.2
Noise Canceler
The noise canceler improves noise immunity by using a simple digital filtering scheme. The
noise canceler input is monitored over four samples, and all four must be equal for changing the
output that in turn is used by the edge detector.
The noise canceler is enabled by setting the Input Capture Noise Canceler (ICNC1) bit in
Timer/Counter Control Register B (TCCR1B). When enabled the noise canceler introduces additional four system clock cycles of delay from a change applied to the input, to the update of the
ICR1 Register. The noise canceler uses the system clock and is therefore not affected by the
prescaler.
15.6.3
Using the Input Capture Unit
The main challenge when using the Input Capture unit is to assign enough processor capacity
for handling the incoming events. The time between two events is critical. If the processor has
not read the captured value in the ICR1 Register before the next event occurs, the ICR1 will be
overwritten with a new value. In this case the result of the capture will be incorrect.
When using the Input Capture interrupt, the ICR1 Register should be read as early in the interrupt handler routine as possible. Even though the Input Capture interrupt has relatively high
priority, the maximum interrupt response time is dependent on the maximum number of clock
cycles it takes to handle any of the other interrupt requests.
Using the Input Capture unit in any mode of operation when the TOP value (resolution) is
actively changed during operation, is not recommended.
Measurement of an external signal’s duty cycle requires that the trigger edge is changed after
each capture. Changing the edge sensing must be done as early as possible after the ICR1
Register has been read. After a change of the edge, the Input Capture Flag (ICF1) must be
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cleared by software (writing a logical one to the I/O bit location). For measuring frequency only,
the clearing of the ICF1 Flag is not required (if an interrupt handler is used).
15.7
Output Compare Units
The 16-bit comparator continuously compares TCNT1 with the Output Compare Register
(OCR1x). If TCNT equals OCR1x the comparator signals a match. A match will set the Output
Compare Flag (OCF1x) at the next timer clock cycle. If enabled (OCIE1x = 1), the Output Compare Flag generates an Output Compare interrupt. The OCF1x Flag is automatically cleared
when the interrupt is executed. Alternatively the OCF1x Flag can be cleared by software by writing a logical one to its I/O bit location. The Waveform Generator uses the match signal to
generate an output according to operating mode set by the Waveform Generation mode
(WGM13:0) bits and Compare Output mode (COM1x1:0) bits. The TOP and BOTTOM signals
are used by the Waveform Generator for handling the special cases of the extreme values in
some modes of operation (See ”Modes of Operation” on page 118.)
A special feature of Output Compare unit A allows it to define the Timer/Counter TOP value (that
is, counter resolution). In addition to the counter resolution, the TOP value defines the period
time for waveforms generated by the Waveform Generator.
Figure 15-4 shows a block diagram of the Output Compare unit. The small “n” in the register and
bit names indicates the device number (n = 1 for Timer/Counter 1), and the “x” indicates Output
Compare unit (A/B). The elements of the block diagram that are not directly a part of the Output
Compare unit are gray shaded.
Figure 15-4. Output Compare Unit, Block Diagram
DATA BUS
(8-bit)
TEMP (8-bit)
OCRnxH Buf. (8-bit)
OCRnxL Buf. (8-bit)
TCNTnH (8-bit)
OCRnx Buffer (16-bit Register)
OCRnxH (8-bit)
TCNTnL (8-bit)
TCNTn (16-bit Counter)
OCRnxL (8-bit)
OCRnx (16-bit Register)
= (16-bit Comparator )
OCFnx (Int.Req.)
TOP
BOTTOM
Waveform Generator
WGMn3:0
OCnx
COMnx1:0
The OCR1x Register is double buffered when using any of the twelve Pulse Width Modulation
(PWM) modes. For the Normal and Clear Timer on Compare (CTC) modes of operation, the
double buffering is disabled. The double buffering synchronizes the update of the OCR1x Compare Register to either TOP or BOTTOM of the counting sequence. The synchronization
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prevents the occurrence of odd-length, non-symmetrical PWM pulses, thereby making the output glitch-free.
The OCR1x Register access may seem complex, but this is not case. When the double buffering
is enabled, the CPU has access to the OCR1x Buffer Register, and if double buffering is disabled the CPU will access the OCR1x directly. The content of the OCR1x (Buffer or Compare)
Register is only changed by a write operation (the Timer/Counter does not update this register
automatically as the TCNT1 and ICR1 Register). Therefore OCR1x is not read via the high byte
temporary register (TEMP). However, it is a good practice to read the low byte first as when
accessing other 16-bit registers. Writing the OCR1x Registers must be done via the TEMP Register since the compare of all 16 bits is done continuously. The high byte (OCR1xH) has to be
written first. When the high byte I/O location is written by the CPU, the TEMP Register will be
updated by the value written. Then when the low byte (OCR1xL) is written to the lower eight bits,
the high byte will be copied into the upper 8-bits of either the OCR1x buffer or OCR1x Compare
Register in the same system clock cycle.
For more information of how to access the 16-bit registers refer to ”Accessing 16-bit Registers”
on page 109.
15.7.1
Force Output Compare
In non-PWM Waveform Generation modes, the match output of the comparator can be forced by
writing a one to the Force Output Compare (FOC1x) bit. Forcing compare match will not set the
OCF1x Flag or reload/clear the timer, but the OC1x pin will be updated as if a real compare
match had occurred (the COMx1:0 bits settings define whether the OC1x pin is set, cleared or
toggled).
15.7.2
Compare Match Blocking by TCNT1 Write
All CPU writes to the TCNT1 Register will block any compare match that occurs in the next timer
clock cycle, even when the timer is stopped. This feature allows OCR1x to be initialized to the
same value as TCNT1 without triggering an interrupt when the Timer/Counter clock is enabled.
15.7.3
Using the Output Compare Unit
Since writing TCNT1 in any mode of operation will block all compare matches for one timer clock
cycle, there are risks involved when changing TCNT1 when using any of the Output Compare
units, independent of whether the Timer/Counter is running or not. If the value written to TCNT1
equals the OCR1x value, the compare match will be missed, resulting in incorrect waveform
generation. Do not write the TCNT1 equal to TOP in PWM modes with variable TOP values. The
compare match for the TOP will be ignored and the counter will continue to 0xFFFF. Similarly,
do not write the TCNT1 value equal to BOTTOM when the counter is down counting.
The setup of the OC1x should be performed before setting the Data Direction Register for the
port pin to output. The easiest way of setting the OC1x value is to use the Force Output Compare (FOC1x) strobe bits in Normal mode. The OC1x Register keeps its value even when
changing between Waveform Generation modes.
Be aware that the COM1x1:0 bits are not double buffered together with the compare value.
Changing the COM1x1:0 bits will take effect immediately.
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15.8
Compare Match Output Unit
The Compare Output mode (COM1x1:0) bits have two functions. The Waveform Generator uses
the COM1x1:0 bits for defining the Output Compare (OC1x) state at the next compare match.
Secondly the COM1x1:0 bits control the OC1x pin output source. Figure 15-5 shows a simplified
schematic of the logic affected by the COM1x1:0 bit setting. The I/O Registers, I/O bits, and I/O
pins in the figure are shown in bold. Only the parts of the general I/O Port Control Registers
(DDR and PORT) that are affected by the COM1x1:0 bits are shown. When referring to the
OC1x state, the reference is for the internal OC1x Register, not the OC1x pin. If a system reset
occur, the OC1x Register is reset to “0”.
Figure 15-5. Compare Match Output Unit, Schematic
COMnx1
COMnx0
FOCnx
Waveform
Generator
D
Q
1
OCnx
DATA BUS
D
0
OCnx
Pin
Q
PORT
D
Q
DDR
clk I/O
The general I/O port function is overridden by the Output Compare (OC1x) from the Waveform
Generator if either of the COM1x1:0 bits are set. However, the OC1x pin direction (input or output) is still controlled by the Data Direction Register (DDR) for the port pin. The Data Direction
Register bit for the OC1x pin (DDR_OC1x) must be set as output before the OC1x value is visible on the pin. The port override function is generally independent of the Waveform Generation
mode, but there are some exceptions. Refer to Table 15-1 on page 128, Table 15-2 on page 128
and Table 15-3 on page 129 for details.
The design of the Output Compare pin logic allows initialization of the OC1x state before the output is enabled. Note that some COM1x1:0 bit settings are reserved for certain modes of
operation. See ”16-bit Timer/Counter Register Description” on page 128.
The COM1x1:0 bits have no effect on the Input Capture unit.
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15.8.1
Compare Output Mode and Waveform Generation
The Waveform Generator uses the COM1x1:0 bits differently in normal, CTC, and PWM modes.
For all modes, setting the COM1x1:0 = 0 tells the Waveform Generator that no action on the
OC1x Register is to be performed on the next compare match. For compare output actions in the
non-PWM modes refer to Table 15-1 on page 128. For fast PWM mode refer to Table 15-2 on
page 128, and for phase correct and phase and frequency correct PWM refer to Table 15-3 on
page 129.
A change of the COM1x1:0 bits state will have effect at the first compare match after the bits are
written. For non-PWM modes, the action can be forced to have immediate effect by using the
FOC1x strobe bits.
15.9
Modes of Operation
The mode of operation, that is, the behavior of the Timer/Counter and the Output Compare pins,
is defined by the combination of the Waveform Generation mode (WGM13:0) and Compare Output mode (COM1x1:0) bits. The Compare Output mode bits do not affect the counting sequence,
while the Waveform Generation mode bits do. The COM1x1:0 bits control whether the PWM output generated should be inverted or not (inverted or non-inverted PWM). For non-PWM modes
the COM1x1:0 bits control whether the output should be set, cleared or toggle at a compare
match. (See ”Compare Match Output Unit” on page 117.)
For detailed timing information refer to ”Timer/Counter Timing Diagrams” on page 126.
15.9.1
Normal Mode
The simplest mode of operation is the Normal mode (WGM13:0 = 0). In this mode the counting
direction is always up (incrementing), and no counter clear is performed. The counter simply
overruns when it passes its maximum 16-bit value (MAX = 0xFFFF) and then restarts from the
BOTTOM (0x0000). In normal operation the Timer/Counter Overflow Flag (TOV1) will be set in
the same timer clock cycle as the TCNT1 becomes zero. The TOV1 Flag in this case behaves
like a 17th bit, except that it is only set, not cleared. However, combined with the timer overflow
interrupt that automatically clears the TOV1 Flag, the timer resolution can be increased by software. There are no special cases to consider in the Normal mode, a new counter value can be
written anytime.
The Input Capture unit is easy to use in Normal mode. However, observe that the maximum
interval between the external events must not exceed the resolution of the counter. If the interval
between events are too long, the timer overflow interrupt or the prescaler must be used to
extend the resolution for the capture unit.
The Output Compare units can be used to generate interrupts at some given time. Using the
Output Compare to generate waveforms in Normal mode is not recommended, since this will
occupy too much of the CPU time.
15.9.2
Clear Timer on Compare Match (CTC) Mode
In Clear Timer on Compare or CTC mode (WGM13:0 = 4 or 12), the OCR1A or ICR1 Register
are used to manipulate the counter resolution. In CTC mode the counter is cleared to zero when
the counter value (TCNT1) matches either the OCR1A (WGM13:0 = 4) or the ICR1 (WGM13:0 =
12). The OCR1A or ICR1 define the top value for the counter, hence also its resolution. This
mode allows greater control of the compare match output frequency. It also simplifies the operation of counting external events.
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The timing diagram for the CTC mode is shown in Figure 15-6. The counter value (TCNT1)
increases until a compare match occurs with either OCR1A or ICR1, and then counter (TCNT1)
is cleared.
Figure 15-6. CTC Mode, Timing Diagram
OCnA Interrupt Flag Set
or ICFn Interrupt Flag Set
(Interrupt on TOP)
TCNTn
OCnA
(Toggle)
Period
(COMnA1:0 = 1)
1
2
3
4
An interrupt can be generated at each time the counter value reaches the TOP value by either
using the OCF1A or ICF1 Flag according to the register used to define the TOP value. If the
interrupt is enabled, the interrupt handler routine can be used for updating the TOP value. However, changing the TOP to a value close to BOTTOM when the counter is running with none or a
low prescaler value must be done with care since the CTC mode does not have the double buffering feature. If the new value written to OCR1A or ICR1 is lower than the current value of
TCNT1, the counter will miss the compare match. The counter will then have to count to its maximum value (0xFFFF) and wrap around starting at 0x0000 before the compare match can occur.
In many cases this feature is not desirable. An alternative will then be to use the fast PWM mode
using OCR1A for defining TOP (WGM13:0 = 15) since the OCR1A then will be double buffered.
For generating a waveform output in CTC mode, the OC1A output can be set to toggle its logical
level on each compare match by setting the Compare Output mode bits to toggle mode
(COM1A1:0 = 1). The OC1A value will not be visible on the port pin unless the data direction for
the pin is set to output (DDR_OC1A = 1). The waveform generated will have a maximum frequency of fOC1A = fclk_I/O/2 when OCR1A is set to zero (0x0000). The waveform frequency is
defined by the following equation:
f clk_I/O
f OCnA = -------------------------------------------------2 ⋅ N ⋅ ( 1 + OCRnA )
The N variable represents the prescaler factor (1, 8, 64, 256, or 1024).
As for the Normal mode of operation, the TOV1 Flag is set in the same timer clock cycle that the
counter counts from MAX to 0x0000.
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15.9.3
Fast PWM Mode
The fast Pulse Width Modulation or fast PWM mode (WGM13:0 = 5, 6, 7, 14, or 15) provides a
high frequency PWM waveform generation option. The fast PWM differs from the other PWM
options by its single-slope operation. The counter counts from BOTTOM to TOP then restarts
from BOTTOM. In non-inverting Compare Output mode, the Output Compare (OC1x) is cleared
on the compare match between TCNT1 and OCR1x, and set at BOTTOM. In inverting Compare
Output mode output is set on compare match and cleared at BOTTOM. Due to the single-slope
operation, the operating frequency of the fast PWM mode can be twice as high as the phase correct and phase and frequency correct PWM modes that use dual-slope operation. This high
frequency makes the fast PWM mode well suited for power regulation, rectification, and DAC
applications. High frequency allows physically small sized external components (coils, capacitors), hence reduces total system cost.
The PWM resolution for fast PWM can be fixed to 8-bit, 9-bit, or 10-bit, or defined by either ICR1
or OCR1A. The minimum resolution allowed is 2-bit (ICR1 or OCR1A set to 0x0003), and the
maximum resolution is 16-bit (ICR1 or OCR1A set to MAX). The PWM resolution in bits can be
calculated by using the following equation:
log ( TOP + 1 -)
R FPWM = ---------------------------------log ( 2 )
In fast PWM mode the counter is incremented until the counter value matches either one of the
fixed values 0x00FF, 0x01FF, or 0x03FF (WGM13:0 = 5, 6, or 7), the value in ICR1 (WGM13:0 =
14), or the value in OCR1A (WGM13:0 = 15). The counter is then cleared at the following timer
clock cycle. The timing diagram for the fast PWM mode is shown in Figure 15-7. The figure
shows fast PWM mode when OCR1A or ICR1 is used to define TOP. The TCNT1 value is in the
timing diagram shown as a histogram for illustrating the single-slope operation. The diagram
includes non-inverted and inverted PWM outputs. The small horizontal line marks on the TCNT1
slopes represent compare matches between OCR1x and TCNT1. The OC1x Interrupt Flag will
be set when a compare match occurs.
Figure 15-7. Fast PWM Mode, Timing Diagram
OCRnx / TOP Update
and TOVn Interrupt Flag
Set and OCnA Interrupt
Flag Set or ICFn
Interrupt Flag Set
(Interrupt on TOP)
TCNTn
OCnx
(COMnx1:0 = 2)
OCnx
(COMnx1:0 = 3)
Period
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
The Timer/Counter Overflow Flag (TOV1) is set each time the counter reaches TOP. In addition
the OC1A or ICF1 Flag is set at the same timer clock cycle as TOV1 is set when either OCR1A
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or ICR1 is used for defining the TOP value. If one of the interrupts are enabled, the interrupt handler routine can be used for updating the TOP and compare values.
When changing the TOP value the program must ensure that the new TOP value is higher or
equal to the value of all of the Compare Registers. If the TOP value is lower than any of the
Compare Registers, a compare match will never occur between the TCNT1 and the OCR1x.
Note that when using fixed TOP values the unused bits are masked to zero when any of the
OCR1x Registers are written.
The procedure for updating ICR1 differs from updating OCR1A when used for defining the TOP
value. The ICR1 Register is not double buffered. This means that if ICR1 is changed to a low
value when the counter is running with none or a low prescaler value, there is a risk that the new
ICR1 value written is lower than the current value of TCNT1. The result will then be that the
counter will miss the compare match at the TOP value. The counter will then have to count to the
MAX value (0xFFFF) and wrap around starting at 0x0000 before the compare match can occur.
The OCR1A Register however, is double buffered. This feature allows the OCR1A I/O location
to be written anytime. When the OCR1A I/O location is written the value written will be put into
the OCR1A Buffer Register. The OCR1A Compare Register will then be updated with the value
in the Buffer Register at the next timer clock cycle the TCNT1 matches TOP. The update is done
at the same timer clock cycle as the TCNT1 is cleared and the TOV1 Flag is set.
Using the ICR1 Register for defining TOP works well when using fixed TOP values. By using
ICR1, the OCR1A Register is free to be used for generating a PWM output on OC1A. However,
if the base PWM frequency is actively changed (by changing the TOP value), using the OCR1A
as TOP is clearly a better choice due to its double buffer feature.
In fast PWM mode, the compare units allow generation of PWM waveforms on the OC1x pins.
Setting the COM1x1:0 bits to two will produce a non-inverted PWM and an inverted PWM output
can be generated by setting the COM1x1:0 to three (see Table 15-2 on page 128). The actual
OC1x value will only be visible on the port pin if the data direction for the port pin is set as output
(DDR_OC1x). The PWM waveform is generated by setting (or clearing) the OC1x Register at
the compare match between OCR1x and TCNT1, and clearing (or setting) the OC1x Register at
the timer clock cycle the counter is cleared (changes from TOP to BOTTOM).
The PWM frequency for the output can be calculated by the following equation:
f clk_I/O
f OCnxPWM = ---------------------------------N ⋅ ( 1 + TOP )
The N variable represents the prescaler divider (1, 8, 64, 256, or 1024).
The extreme values for the OCR1x Register represents special cases when generating a PWM
waveform output in the fast PWM mode. If the OCR1x is set equal to BOTTOM (0x0000) the output will be a narrow spike for each TOP+1 timer clock cycle. Setting the OCR1x equal to TOP
will result in a constant high or low output (depending on the polarity of the output set by the
COM1x1:0 bits).
A frequency (with 50% duty cycle) waveform output in fast PWM mode can be achieved by setting OC1A to toggle its logical level on each compare match (COM1A1:0 = 1). This applies only
if OCR1A is used to define the TOP value (WGM13:0 = 15). The waveform generated will have
a maximum frequency of fOC1A = fclk_I/O/2 when OCR1A is set to zero (0x0000). This feature is
similar to the OC1A toggle in CTC mode, except the double buffer feature of the Output Compare unit is enabled in the fast PWM mode.
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15.9.4
Phase Correct PWM Mode
The phase correct Pulse Width Modulation or phase correct PWM mode (WGM13:0 = 1, 2, 3,
10, or 11) provides a high resolution phase correct PWM waveform generation option. The
phase correct PWM mode is, like the phase and frequency correct PWM mode, based on a dualslope operation. The counter counts repeatedly from BOTTOM (0x0000) to TOP and then from
TOP to BOTTOM. In non-inverting Compare Output mode, the Output Compare (OC1x) is
cleared on the compare match between TCNT1 and OCR1x while upcounting, and set on the
compare match while down counting. In inverting Output Compare mode, the operation is
inverted. The dual-slope operation has lower maximum operation frequency than single slope
operation. However, due to the symmetric feature of the dual-slope PWM modes, these modes
are preferred for motor control applications.
The PWM resolution for the phase correct PWM mode can be fixed to 8-bit, 9-bit, or 10-bit, or
defined by either ICR1 or OCR1A. The minimum resolution allowed is 2-bit (ICR1 or OCR1A set
to 0x0003), and the maximum resolution is 16-bit (ICR1 or OCR1A set to MAX). The PWM resolution in bits can be calculated by using the following equation:
log ( TOP + 1 )
R PCPWM = ----------------------------------log ( 2 )
In phase correct PWM mode the counter is incremented until the counter value matches either
one of the fixed values 0x00FF, 0x01FF, or 0x03FF (WGM13:0 = 1, 2, or 3), the value in ICR1
(WGM13:0 = 10), or the value in OCR1A (WGM13:0 = 11). The counter has then reached the
TOP and changes the count direction. The TCNT1 value will be equal to TOP for one timer clock
cycle. The timing diagram for the phase correct PWM mode is shown on Figure 15-8. The figure
shows phase correct PWM mode when OCR1A or ICR1 is used to define TOP. The TCNT1
value is in the timing diagram shown as a histogram for illustrating the dual-slope operation. The
diagram includes non-inverted and inverted PWM outputs. The small horizontal line marks on
the TCNT1 slopes represent compare matches between OCR1x and TCNT1. The OC1x Interrupt Flag will be set when a compare match occurs.
Figure 15-8. Phase Correct PWM Mode, Timing Diagram
OCRnx/TOP Update and
OCnA Interrupt Flag Set
or ICFn Interrupt Flag Set
(Interrupt on TOP)
TOVn Interrupt Flag Set
(Interrupt on Bottom)
TCNTn
OCnx
(COMnx1:0 = 2)
OCnx
(COMnx1:0 = 3)
Period
1
2
3
4
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The Timer/Counter Overflow Flag (TOV1) is set each time the counter reaches BOTTOM. When
either OCR1A or ICR1 is used for defining the TOP value, the OC1A or ICF1 Flag is set accordingly at the same timer clock cycle as the OCR1x Registers are updated with the double buffer
value (at TOP). The Interrupt Flags can be used to generate an interrupt each time the counter
reaches the TOP or BOTTOM value.
When changing the TOP value the program must ensure that the new TOP value is higher or
equal to the value of all of the Compare Registers. If the TOP value is lower than any of the
Compare Registers, a compare match will never occur between the TCNT1 and the OCR1x.
Note that when using fixed TOP values, the unused bits are masked to zero when any of the
OCR1x Registers are written. As the third period shown in Figure 15-8 on page 122 illustrates,
changing the TOP actively while the Timer/Counter is running in the phase correct mode can
result in an unsymmetrical output. The reason for this can be found in the time of update of the
OCR1x Register. Since the OCR1x update occurs at TOP, the PWM period starts and ends at
TOP. This implies that the length of the falling slope is determined by the previous TOP value,
while the length of the rising slope is determined by the new TOP value. When these two values
differ the two slopes of the period will differ in length. The difference in length gives the unsymmetrical result on the output.
It is recommended to use the phase and frequency correct mode instead of the phase correct
mode when changing the TOP value while the Timer/Counter is running. When using a static
TOP value there are practically no differences between the two modes of operation.
In phase correct PWM mode, the compare units allow generation of PWM waveforms on the
OC1x pins. Setting the COM1x1:0 bits to two will produce a non-inverted PWM and an inverted
PWM output can be generated by setting the COM1x1:0 to three (See Table 15-3 on page 129).
The actual OC1x value will only be visible on the port pin if the data direction for the port pin is
set as output (DDR_OC1x). The PWM waveform is generated by setting (or clearing) the OC1x
Register at the compare match between OCR1x and TCNT1 when the counter increments, and
clearing (or setting) the OC1x Register at compare match between OCR1x and TCNT1 when
the counter decrements. The PWM frequency for the output when using phase correct PWM can
be calculated by the following equation:
f clk_I/O
f OCnxPCPWM = --------------------------2 ⋅ N ⋅ TOP
The N variable represents the prescaler divider (1, 8, 64, 256, or 1024).
The extreme values for the OCR1x Register represent special cases when generating a PWM
waveform output in the phase correct PWM mode. If the OCR1x is set equal to BOTTOM the
output will be continuously low and if set equal to TOP the output will be continuously high for
non-inverted PWM mode. For inverted PWM the output will have the opposite logic values. If
OCR1A is used to define the TOP value (WGM13:0 = 11) and COM1A1:0 = 1, the OC1A output
will toggle with a 50% duty cycle.
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15.9.5
Phase and Frequency Correct PWM Mode
The phase and frequency correct Pulse Width Modulation, or phase and frequency correct PWM
mode (WGM13:0 = 8 or 9) provides a high resolution phase and frequency correct PWM waveform generation option. The phase and frequency correct PWM mode is, like the phase correct
PWM mode, based on a dual-slope operation. The counter counts repeatedly from BOTTOM
(0x0000) to TOP and then from TOP to BOTTOM. In non-inverting Compare Output mode, the
Output Compare (OC1x) is cleared on the compare match between TCNT1 and OCR1x while
upcounting, and set on the compare match while down counting. In inverting Compare Output
mode, the operation is inverted. The dual-slope operation gives a lower maximum operation frequency compared to the single-slope operation. However, due to the symmetric feature of the
dual-slope PWM modes, these modes are preferred for motor control applications.
The main difference between the phase correct, and the phase and frequency correct PWM
mode is the time the OCR1x Register is updated by the OCR1x Buffer Register, (see Figure 158 on page 122 and Figure 15-9 on page 125).
The PWM resolution for the phase and frequency correct PWM mode can be defined by either
ICR1 or OCR1A. The minimum resolution allowed is 2-bit (ICR1 or OCR1A set to 0x0003), and
the maximum resolution is 16-bit (ICR1 or OCR1A set to MAX). The PWM resolution in bits can
be calculated using the following equation:
log ( TOP + 1 )
R PFCPWM = ----------------------------------log ( 2 )
In phase and frequency correct PWM mode the counter is incremented until the counter value
matches either the value in ICR1 (WGM13:0 = 8), or the value in OCR1A (WGM13:0 = 9). The
counter has then reached the TOP and changes the count direction. The TCNT1 value will be
equal to TOP for one timer clock cycle. The timing diagram for the phase correct and frequency
correct PWM mode is shown on Figure 15-9 on page 125. The figure shows phase and frequency correct PWM mode when OCR1A or ICR1 is used to define TOP. The TCNT1 value is in
the timing diagram shown as a histogram for illustrating the dual-slope operation. The diagram
includes non-inverted and inverted PWM outputs. The small horizontal line marks on the TCNT1
slopes represent compare matches between OCR1x and TCNT1. The OC1x Interrupt Flag will
be set when a compare match occurs.
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Figure 15-9. Phase and Frequency Correct PWM Mode, Timing Diagram
OCnA Interrupt Flag Set
or ICFn Interrupt Flag Set
(Interrupt on TOP)
OCRnx/TOP Updateand
TOVn Interrupt Flag Set
(Interrupt on Bottom)
TCNTn
OCnx
(COMnx1:0 = 2)
OCnx
(COMnx1:0 = 3)
Period
1
2
3
4
The Timer/Counter Overflow Flag (TOV1) is set at the same timer clock cycle as the OCR1x
Registers are updated with the double buffer value (at BOTTOM). When either OCR1A or ICR1
is used for defining the TOP value, the OC1A or ICF1 Flag set when TCNT1 has reached TOP.
The Interrupt Flags can then be used to generate an interrupt each time the counter reaches the
TOP or BOTTOM value.
When changing the TOP value the program must ensure that the new TOP value is higher or
equal to the value of all of the Compare Registers. If the TOP value is lower than any of the
Compare Registers, a compare match will never occur between the TCNT1 and the OCR1x.
As Figure 15-9 shows the output generated is, in contrast to the phase correct mode, symmetrical in all periods. Since the OCR1x Registers are updated at BOTTOM, the length of the rising
and the falling slopes will always be equal. This gives symmetrical output pulses and is therefore
frequency correct.
Using the ICR1 Register for defining TOP works well when using fixed TOP values. By using
ICR1, the OCR1A Register is free to be used for generating a PWM output on OC1A. However,
if the base PWM frequency is actively changed by changing the TOP value, using the OCR1A as
TOP is clearly a better choice due to its double buffer feature.
In phase and frequency correct PWM mode, the compare units allow generation of PWM waveforms on the OC1x pins. Setting the COM1x1:0 bits to two will produce a non-inverted PWM and
an inverted PWM output can be generated by setting the COM1x1:0 to three (See Table 15-3 on
page 129). The actual OC1x value will only be visible on the port pin if the data direction for the
port pin is set as output (DDR_OC1x). The PWM waveform is generated by setting (or clearing)
the OC1x Register at the compare match between OCR1x and TCNT1 when the counter increments, and clearing (or setting) the OC1x Register at compare match between OCR1x and
TCNT1 when the counter decrements. The PWM frequency for the output when using phase
and frequency correct PWM can be calculated by the following equation:
f clk_I/O
f OCnxPFCPWM = --------------------------2 ⋅ N ⋅ TOP
The N variable represents the prescaler divider (1, 8, 64, 256, or 1024).
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The extreme values for the OCR1x Register represents special cases when generating a PWM
waveform output in the phase and frequency correct PWM mode. If the OCR1x is set equal to
BOTTOM the output will be continuously low and if set equal to TOP the output will be set to
high for non-inverted PWM mode. For inverted PWM the output will have the opposite logic values. If OCR1A is used to define the TOP value (WGM13:0 = 9) and COM1A1:0 = 1, the OC1A
output will toggle with a 50% duty cycle.
15.10 Timer/Counter Timing Diagrams
The Timer/Counter is a synchronous design and the timer clock (clkT1) is therefore shown as a
clock enable signal in the following figures. The figures include information on when Interrupt
Flags are set, and when the OCR1x Register is updated with the OCR1x buffer value (only for
modes utilizing double buffering). Figure 15-10 shows a timing diagram for the setting of OCF1x.
Figure 15-10. Timer/Counter Timing Diagram, Setting of OCF1x, no Prescaling
clkI/O
clkTn
(clkI/O /1)
TCNTn
OCRnx - 1
OCRnx
OCRnx
OCRnx + 1
OCRnx + 2
OCRnx Value
OCFnx
Figure 15-11 shows the same timing data, but with the prescaler enabled.
Figure 15-11. Timer/Counter Timing Diagram, Setting of OCF1x, with Prescaler (fclk_I/O/8)
clkI/O
clkTn
(clkI/O /8)
TCNTn
OCRnx
OCRnx - 1
OCRnx
OCRnx + 1
OCRnx + 2
OCRnx Value
OCFnx
Figure 15-12 on page 127 shows the count sequence close to TOP in various modes. When
using phase and frequency correct PWM mode the OCR1x Register is updated at BOTTOM.
The timing diagrams will be the same, but TOP should be replaced by BOTTOM, TOP-1 by
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BOTTOM+1 and so on. The same renaming applies for modes that set the TOV1 Flag at
BOTTOM.
Figure 15-12. Timer/Counter Timing Diagram, no Prescaling
clkI/O
clkTn
(clkI/O /1)
TCNTn
(CTC and FPWM)
TCNTn
(PC and PFC PWM)
TOP - 1
TOP
BOTTOM
BOTTOM + 1
TOP - 1
TOP
TOP - 1
TOP - 2
TOVn (FPWM)
and ICFn (if used
as TOP)
OCRnx
(Update at TOP)
Old OCRnx Value
New OCRnx Value
Figure 15-13 shows the same timing data, but with the prescaler enabled.
Figure 15-13. Timer/Counter Timing Diagram, with Prescaler (fclk_I/O/8)
clkI/O
clkTn
(clkI/O/8)
TCNTn
(CTC and FPWM)
TCNTn
(PC and PFC PWM)
TOP - 1
TOP
BOTTOM
BOTTOM + 1
TOP - 1
TOP
TOP - 1
TOP - 2
TOVn (FPWM)
and ICF n (if used
as TOP)
OCRnx
(Update at TOP)
Old OCRnx Value
New OCRnx Value
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15.11 16-bit Timer/Counter Register Description
15.11.1
TCCR1A – Timer/Counter1 Control Register A
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
COM1A1
COM1A0
COM1B1
COM1B0
–
–
WGM11
WGM10
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R
R
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
(0x80)
TCCR1A
• Bit 7:6 – COM1A1:0: Compare Output Mode for Unit A
• Bit 5:4 – COM1B1:0: Compare Output Mode for Unit B
The COM1A1:0 and COM1B1:0 control the Output Compare pins (OC1A and OC1B respectively) behavior. If one or both of the COM1A1:0 bits are written to one, the OC1A output
overrides the normal port functionality of the I/O pin it is connected to. If one or both of the
COM1B1:0 bit are written to one, the OC1B output overrides the normal port functionality of the
I/O pin it is connected to. However, note that the Data Direction Register (DDR) bit corresponding to the OC1A or OC1B pin must be set in order to enable the output driver.
When the OC1A or OC1B is connected to the pin, the function of the COM1x1:0 bits is dependent of the WGM13:0 bits setting. Table 15-1 shows the COM1x1:0 bit functionality when the
WGM13:0 bits are set to a Normal or a CTC mode (non-PWM).
Table 15-1.
Compare Output Mode, non-PWM
COM1A1/COM1B1
COM1A0/COM1B0
Description
0
0
Normal port operation, OC1A/OC1B disconnected.
0
1
Toggle OC1A/OC1B on Compare Match.
1
0
Clear OC1A/OC1B on Compare Match (Set output to
low level).
1
1
Set OC1A/OC1B on Compare Match (Set output to
high level).
Table 15-2 shows the COM1x1:0 bit functionality when the WGM13:0 bits are set to the fast
PWM mode.
Table 15-2.
Compare Output Mode, Fast PWM(1)
COM1A1/COM1B1
COM1A0/COM1B0
0
0
Normal port operation, OC1A/OC1B disconnected.
0
1
WGM13:0 = 14 or 15: Toggle OC1A on Compare
Match, OC1B disconnected (normal port operation).
For all other WGM1 settings, normal port operation,
OC1A/OC1B disconnected.
1
0
Clear OC1A/OC1B on Compare Match, set
OC1A/OC1B at BOTTOM (non-inverting mode)
1
1
Set OC1A/OC1B on Compare Match, clear
OC1A/OC1B at BOTTOM (inverting mode)
Note:
Description
1. A special case occurs when OCR1A/OCR1B equals TOP and COM1A1/COM1B1 is set. In
this case the compare match is ignored, but the set or clear is done at TOP. See ”Fast PWM
Mode” on page 120. for more details.
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Table 15-3 shows the COM1x1:0 bit functionality when the WGM13:0 bits are set to the phase
correct or the phase and frequency correct, PWM mode.
Table 15-3.
Compare Output Mode, Phase Correct and Phase and Frequency Correct
PWM(1)
COM1A1/COM1B1
COM1A0/COM1B0
0
0
Normal port operation, OC1A/OC1B disconnected.
0
1
WGM13:0 = 9 or 11: Toggle OC1A on Compare
Match, OC1B disconnected (normal port operation).
For all other WGM1 settings, normal port operation,
OC1A/OC1B disconnected.
1
0
Clear OC1A/OC1B on Compare Match when upcounting. Set OC1A/OC1B on Compare Match when
down counting.
1
1
Set OC1A/OC1B on Compare Match when upcounting. Clear OC1A/OC1B on Compare Match
when down counting.
Note:
Description
1. A special case occurs when OCR1A/OCR1B equals TOP and COM1A1/COM1B1 is set. See
”Phase Correct PWM Mode” on page 122. for more details.
• Bit 1:0 – WGM11:0: Waveform Generation Mode
Combined with the WGM13:2 bits found in the TCCR1B Register, these bits control the counting
sequence of the counter, the source for maximum (TOP) counter value, and what type of waveform generation to be used, see Table 15-4 on page 130. Modes of operation supported by the
Timer/Counter unit are: Normal mode (counter), Clear Timer on Compare match (CTC) mode,
and three types of Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) modes. (See ”Modes of Operation” on page
118.)
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Waveform Generation Mode Bit Description(1)
Table 15-4.
Mode
WGM13
WGM12
(CTC1)
WGM11
(PWM11)
WGM10
(PWM10)
Timer/Counter Mode of
Operation
TOP
Update of
OCR1x at
TOV1 Flag
Set on
0
0
0
0
0
Normal
0xFFFF
Immediate
MAX
1
0
0
0
1
PWM, Phase Correct, 8-bit
0x00FF
TOP
BOTTOM
2
0
0
1
0
PWM, Phase Correct, 9-bit
0x01FF
TOP
BOTTOM
3
0
0
1
1
PWM, Phase Correct, 10-bit
0x03FF
TOP
BOTTOM
4
0
1
0
0
CTC
OCR1A
Immediate
MAX
5
0
1
0
1
Fast PWM, 8-bit
0x00FF
BOTTOM
TOP
6
0
1
1
0
Fast PWM, 9-bit
0x01FF
BOTTOM
TOP
7
0
1
1
1
Fast PWM, 10-bit
0x03FF
BOTTOM
TOP
8
1
0
0
0
PWM, Phase and Frequency
Correct
ICR1
BOTTOM
BOTTOM
9
1
0
0
1
PWM, Phase and Frequency
Correct
OCR1A
BOTTOM
BOTTOM
10
1
0
1
0
PWM, Phase Correct
ICR1
TOP
BOTTOM
11
1
0
1
1
PWM, Phase Correct
OCR1A
TOP
BOTTOM
12
1
1
0
0
CTC
ICR1
Immediate
MAX
13
1
1
0
1
(Reserved)
–
–
–
14
1
1
1
0
Fast PWM
ICR1
BOTTOM
TOP
15
1
1
1
1
Fast PWM
OCR1A
BOTTOM
TOP
Note:
15.11.2
1. The CTC1 and PWM11:0 bit definition names are obsolete. Use the WGM12:0 definitions. However, the functionality and
location of these bits are compatible with previous versions of the timer.
TCCR1B – Timer/Counter1 Control Register B
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
ICNC1
ICES1
–
WGM13
WGM12
CS12
CS11
CS10
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
(0x81)
TCCR1B
• Bit 7 – ICNC1: Input Capture Noise Canceler
Setting this bit (to one) activates the Input Capture Noise Canceler. When the noise canceler is
activated, the input from the Input Capture pin (ICP1) is filtered. The filter function requires four
successive equal valued samples of the ICP1 pin for changing its output. The Input Capture is
therefore delayed by four Oscillator cycles when the noise canceler is enabled.
• Bit 6 – ICES1: Input Capture Edge Select
This bit selects which edge on the Input Capture pin (ICP1) that is used to trigger a capture
event. When the ICES1 bit is written to zero, a falling (negative) edge is used as trigger, and
when the ICES1 bit is written to one, a rising (positive) edge will trigger the capture.
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When a capture is triggered according to the ICES1 setting, the counter value is copied into the
Input Capture Register (ICR1). The event will also set the Input Capture Flag (ICF1), and this
can be used to cause an Input Capture Interrupt, if this interrupt is enabled.
When the ICR1 is used as TOP value (see description of the WGM13:0 bits located in the
TCCR1A and the TCCR1B Register), the ICP1 is disconnected and consequently the Input Capture function is disabled.
• Bit 5 – Reserved Bit
This bit is reserved for future use. For ensuring compatibility with future devices, this bit must be
written to zero when TCCR1B is written.
• Bit 4:3 – WGM13:2: Waveform Generation Mode
See TCCR1A Register description.
• Bit 2:0 – CS12:0: Clock Select
The three Clock Select bits select the clock source to be used by the Timer/Counter, see Figure
15-10 on page 126 and Figure 15-11 on page 126.
Table 15-5.
Clock Select Bit Description
CS12
CS11
CS10
Description
0
0
0
No clock source (Timer/Counter stopped).
0
0
1
clkI/O/1 (No prescaling)
0
1
0
clkI/O/8 (From prescaler)
0
1
1
clkI/O/64 (From prescaler)
1
0
0
clkI/O/256 (From prescaler)
1
0
1
clkI/O/1024 (From prescaler)
1
1
0
External clock source on T1 pin. Clock on falling edge.
1
1
1
External clock source on T1 pin. Clock on rising edge.
If external pin modes are used for the Timer/Counter1, transitions on the T1 pin will clock the
counter even if the pin is configured as an output. This feature allows software control of the
counting.
15.11.3
TCCR1C – Timer/Counter1 Control Register C
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
FOC1A
FOC1B
–
–
–
–
–
–
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R
R
R
R
R
R
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
(0x82)
TCCR1C
• Bit 7 – FOC1A: Force Output Compare for Unit A
• Bit 6 – FOC1B: Force Output Compare for Unit B
The FOC1A/FOC1B bits are only active when the WGM13:0 bits specifies a non-PWM mode.
However, for ensuring compatibility with future devices, these bits must be set to zero when
TCCR1A is written when operating in a PWM mode. When writing a logical one to the
FOC1A/FOC1B bit, an immediate compare match is forced on the Waveform Generation unit.
The OC1A/OC1B output is changed according to its COM1x1:0 bits setting. Note that the
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FOC1A/FOC1B bits are implemented as strobes. Therefore it is the value present in the
COM1x1:0 bits that determine the effect of the forced compare.
A FOC1A/FOC1B strobe will not generate any interrupt nor will it clear the timer in Clear Timer
on Compare match (CTC) mode using OCR1A as TOP.
The FOC1A/FOC1B bits are always read as zero.
15.11.4
TCNT1H and TCNT1L – Timer/Counter1
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
(0x85)
TCNT1[15:8]
(0x84)
TCNT1[7:0]
2
1
0
TCNT1H
TCNT1L
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
The two Timer/Counter I/O locations (TCNT1H and TCNT1L, combined TCNT1) give direct
access, both for read and for write operations, to the Timer/Counter unit 16-bit counter. To
ensure that both the high and low bytes are read and written simultaneously when the CPU
accesses these registers, the access is performed using an 8-bit temporary High Byte Register
(TEMP). This temporary register is shared by all the other 16-bit registers. See ”Accessing 16-bit
Registers” on page 109.
Modifying the counter (TCNT1) while the counter is running introduces a risk of missing a compare match between TCNT1 and one of the OCR1x Registers.
Writing to the TCNT1 Register blocks (removes) the compare match on the following timer clock
for all compare units.
15.11.5
OCR1AH and OCR1AL – Output Compare Register 1 A
Bit
15.11.6
7
6
5
4
3
(0x89)
OCR1A[15:8]
(0x88)
OCR1A[7:0]
2
1
0
OCR1AH
OCR1AL
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
4
3
2
1
0
OCR1BH and OCR1BL – Output Compare Register 1 B
Bit
7
6
5
(0x8B)
OCR1B[15:8]
(0x8A)
OCR1B[7:0]
OCR1BH
OCR1BL
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
The Output Compare Registers contain a 16-bit value that is continuously compared with the
counter value (TCNT1). A match can be used to generate an Output Compare interrupt, or to
generate a waveform output on the OC1x pin.
The Output Compare Registers are 16-bit in size. To ensure that both the high and low bytes are
written simultaneously when the CPU writes to these registers, the access is performed using an
8-bit temporary High Byte Register (TEMP). This temporary register is shared by all the other
16-bit registers. See ”Accessing 16-bit Registers” on page 109.
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15.11.7
ICR1H and ICR1L – Input Capture Register 1
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
(0x87)
ICR1[15:8]
(0x86)
ICR1[7:0]
2
1
0
ICR1H
ICR1L
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
The Input Capture is updated with the counter (TCNT1) value each time an event occurs on the
ICP1 pin (or optionally on the Analog Comparator output for Timer/Counter1). The Input Capture
can be used for defining the counter TOP value.
The Input Capture Register is 16-bit in size. To ensure that both the high and low bytes are read
simultaneously when the CPU accesses these registers, the access is performed using an 8-bit
temporary High Byte Register (TEMP). This temporary register is shared by all the other 16-bit
registers. See ”Accessing 16-bit Registers” on page 109.
15.11.8
TIMSK1 – Timer/Counter1 Interrupt Mask Register
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
(0x6F)
–
–
ICIE1
–
–
OCIE1B
OCIE1A
TOIE1
Read/Write
R
R
R/W
R
R
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
TIMSK1
• Bit 5 – ICIE1: Timer/Counter1, Input Capture Interrupt Enable
When this bit is written to one, and the I-flag in the Status Register is set (interrupts globally
enabled), the Timer/Counter1 Input Capture interrupt is enabled. The corresponding Interrupt
Vector (See ”Interrupts” on page 56.) is executed when the ICF1 Flag, located in TIFR1, is set.
• Bit 2 – OCIE1B: Timer/Counter1, Output Compare B Match Interrupt Enable
When this bit is written to one, and the I-flag in the Status Register is set (interrupts globally
enabled), the Timer/Counter1 Output Compare B Match interrupt is enabled. The corresponding
Interrupt Vector (See ”Interrupts” on page 56.) is executed when the OCF1B Flag, located in
TIFR1, is set.
• Bit 1 – OCIE1A: Timer/Counter1, Output Compare A Match Interrupt Enable
When this bit is written to one, and the I-flag in the Status Register is set (interrupts globally
enabled), the Timer/Counter1 Output Compare A Match interrupt is enabled. The corresponding
Interrupt Vector (See ”Interrupts” on page 56.) is executed when the OCF1A Flag, located in
TIFR1, is set.
• Bit 0 – TOIE1: Timer/Counter1, Overflow Interrupt Enable
When this bit is written to one, and the I-flag in the Status Register is set (interrupts globally
enabled), the Timer/Counter1 Overflow interrupt is enabled. The corresponding Interrupt Vector
(See ”Interrupts” on page 56.) is executed when the TOV1 Flag, located in TIFR1, is set.
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15.11.9
TIFR1 – Timer/Counter1 Interrupt Flag Register
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
0x16 (0x36)
–
–
ICF1
–
–
OCF1B
OCF1A
TOV1
Read/Write
R
R
R/W
R
R
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
TIFR1
• Bit 5 – ICF1: Timer/Counter1, Input Capture Flag
This flag is set when a capture event occurs on the ICP1 pin. When the Input Capture Register
(ICR1) is set by the WGM13:0 to be used as the TOP value, the ICF1 Flag is set when the counter reaches the TOP value.
ICF1 is automatically cleared when the Input Capture Interrupt Vector is executed. Alternatively,
ICF1 can be cleared by writing a logic one to its bit location.
• Bit 2 – OCF1B: Timer/Counter1, Output Compare B Match Flag
This flag is set in the timer clock cycle after the counter (TCNT1) value matches the Output
Compare Register B (OCR1B).
Note that a Forced Output Compare (FOC1B) strobe will not set the OCF1B Flag.
OCF1B is automatically cleared when the Output Compare Match B Interrupt Vector is executed. Alternatively, OCF1B can be cleared by writing a logic one to its bit location.
• Bit 1 – OCF1A: Timer/Counter1, Output Compare A Match Flag
This flag is set in the timer clock cycle after the counter (TCNT1) value matches the Output
Compare Register A (OCR1A).
Note that a Forced Output Compare (FOC1A) strobe will not set the OCF1A Flag.
OCF1A is automatically cleared when the Output Compare Match A Interrupt Vector is executed. Alternatively, OCF1A can be cleared by writing a logic one to its bit location.
• Bit 0 – TOV1: Timer/Counter1, Overflow Flag
The setting of this flag is dependent of the WGM13:0 bits setting. In Normal and CTC modes,
the TOV1 Flag is set when the timer overflows. Refer to Table 15-4 on page 130 for the TOV1
Flag behavior when using another WGM13:0 bit setting.
TOV1 is automatically cleared when the Timer/Counter1 Overflow Interrupt Vector is executed.
Alternatively, TOV1 can be cleared by writing a logic one to its bit location.
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16. Timer/Counter0 and Timer/Counter1 Prescalers
Timer/Counter1 and Timer/Counter0 share the same prescaler module, but the Timer/Counters
can have different prescaler settings. The description below applies to both Timer/Counter1 and
Timer/Counter0.
16.1
Prescaler Reset
The prescaler is free running, that is, operates independently of the Clock Select logic of the
Timer/Counter, and it is shared by Timer/Counter1 and Timer/Counter0. Since the prescaler is
not affected by the Timer/Counter’s clock select, the state of the prescaler will have implications
for situations where a prescaled clock is used. One example of prescaling artifacts occurs when
the timer is enabled and clocked by the prescaler (6 > CSn2:0 > 1). The number of system clock
cycles from when the timer is enabled to the first count occurs can be from 1 to N+1 system
clock cycles, where N equals the prescaler divisor (8, 64, 256, or 1024).
It is possible to use the prescaler reset for synchronizing the Timer/Counter to program execution. However, care must be taken if the other Timer/Counter that shares the same prescaler
also uses prescaling. A prescaler reset will affect the prescaler period for all Timer/Counters it is
connected to.
16.2
Internal Clock Source
The Timer/Counter can be clocked directly by the system clock (by setting the CSn2:0 = 1). This
provides the fastest operation, with a maximum Timer/Counter clock frequency equal to system
clock frequency (fCLK_I/O). Alternatively, one of four taps from the prescaler can be used as a
clock source. The prescaled clock has a frequency of either fCLK_I/O/8, fCLK_I/O/64, fCLK_I/O/256, or
fCLK_I/O/1024.
16.3
External Clock Source
An external clock source applied to the T1/T0 pin can be used as Timer/Counter clock
(clkT1/clkT0). The T1/T0 pin is sampled once every system clock cycle by the pin synchronization
logic. The synchronized (sampled) signal is then passed through the edge detector. Figure 16-1
on page 135 shows a functional equivalent block diagram of the T1/T0 synchronization and
edge detector logic. The registers are clocked at the positive edge of the internal system clock
(clkI/O). The latch is transparent in the high period of the internal system clock.
The edge detector generates one clkT1/clkT0 pulse for each positive (CSn2:0 = 7) or negative
(CSn2:0 = 6) edge it detects.
Figure 16-1. T1/T0 Pin Sampling
Tn
D
Q
D
Q
D
Tn_sync
(To Clock
Select Logic)
Q
LE
clk I/O
Synchronization
Edge Detector
The synchronization and edge detector logic introduces a delay of 2.5 to 3.5 system clock cycles
from an edge has been applied to the T1/T0 pin to the counter is updated.
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Enabling and disabling of the clock input must be done when T1/T0 has been stable for at least
one system clock cycle, otherwise it is a risk that a false Timer/Counter clock pulse is generated.
Each half period of the external clock applied must be longer than one system clock cycle to
ensure correct sampling. The external clock must be guaranteed to have less than half the system clock frequency (fExtClk < fclk_I/O/2) given a 50/50% duty cycle. Since the edge detector uses
sampling, the maximum frequency of an external clock it can detect is half the sampling frequency (Nyquist sampling theorem). However, due to variation of the system clock frequency
and duty cycle caused by Oscillator source (crystal, resonator, and capacitors) tolerances, it is
recommended that maximum frequency of an external clock source is less than fclk_I/O/2.5.
An external clock source can not be prescaled.
Figure 16-2. Prescaler for Timer/Counter0 and Timer/Counter1(1)
clk I/O
Clear
PSR10
T0
Synchronization
T1
Synchronization
clkT1
Note:
clkT0
1. The synchronization logic on the input pins (T1/T0) is shown in Figure 16-1 on page 135.
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16.4
16.4.1
Register Description
GTCCR – General Timer/Counter Control Register
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
0x23 (0x43)
TSM
–
–
–
–
–
PSR2
PSR10
Read/Write
R/W
R
R
R
R
R
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
GTCCR
• Bit 7 – TSM: Timer/Counter Synchronization Mode
Writing the TSM bit to one activates the Timer/Counter Synchronization mode. In this mode, the
value that is written to the PSR2 and PSR10 bits is kept, hence keeping the corresponding prescaler reset signals asserted. This ensures that the corresponding Timer/Counters are halted and
can be configured to the same value without the risk of one of them advancing during configuration. When the TSM bit is written to zero, the PSR2 and PSR10 bits are cleared by hardware,
and the Timer/Counters start counting simultaneously.
• Bit 0 – PSR10: Prescaler Reset Timer/Counter1 and Timer/Counter0
When this bit is one, Timer/Counter1 and Timer/Counter0 prescaler will be Reset. This bit is normally cleared immediately by hardware, except if the TSM bit is set. Note that Timer/Counter1
and Timer/Counter0 share the same prescaler and a reset of this prescaler will affect both
timers.
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17. 8-bit Timer/Counter2 with PWM and Asynchronous Operation
Timer/Counter2 is a general purpose, single compare unit, 8-bit Timer/Counter module. The
main features are:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
17.1
Single Compare Unit Counter
Clear Timer on Compare Match (Auto Reload)
Glitch-free, Phase Correct Pulse Width Modulator (PWM)
Frequency Generator
10-bit Clock Prescaler
Overflow and Compare Match Interrupt Sources (TOV2 and OCF2A)
Allows Clocking from External 32 kHz Watch Crystal Independent of the I/O Clock
Overview
A simplified block diagram of the 8-bit Timer/Counter is shown in Figure 17-1. For the actual
placement of I/O pins, refer to Figure 1-1 on page 2. CPU accessible I/O Registers, including I/O
bits and I/O pins, are shown in bold. The device-specific I/O Register and bit locations are listed
in the Section 17.10 ”8-bit Timer/Counter Register Description” on page 153.
Figure 17-1. 8-bit Timer/Counter Block Diagram
TCCRnx
count
TOVn
(Int.Req.)
clear
Control Logic
direction
clkTn
TOSC1
BOTTOM
TOP
Prescaler
T/C
Oscillator
TOSC2
Timer/Counter
TCNTn
=0
= 0xFF
OCnx
(Int.Req.)
Waveform
Generation
=
clkI/O
OCnx
DATA BUS
OCRnx
Synchronized Status flags
clkI/O
Synchronization Unit
clkASY
Status flags
ASSRn
asynchronous mode
select (ASn)
17.1.1
Registers
The Timer/Counter (TCNT2) and Output Compare Register (OCR2A) are 8-bit registers. Interrupt request (shorten as Int.Req.) signals are all visible in the Timer Interrupt Flag Register
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(TIFR2). All interrupts are individually masked with the Timer Interrupt Mask Register (TIMSK2).
TIFR2 and TIMSK2 are not shown in the figure.
The Timer/Counter can be clocked internally, via the prescaler, or asynchronously clocked from
the TOSC1/2 pins, as detailed later in this section. The asynchronous operation is controlled by
the Asynchronous Status Register (ASSR). The Clock Select logic block controls which clock
source the Timer/Counter uses to increment (or decrement) its value. The Timer/Counter is inactive when no clock source is selected. The output from the Clock Select logic is referred to as the
timer clock (clkT2).
The double buffered Output Compare Register (OCR2A) is compared with the Timer/Counter
value at all times. The result of the compare can be used by the Waveform Generator to generate a PWM or variable frequency output on the Output Compare pin (OC2A). See ”Output
Compare Unit” on page 140. for details. The compare match event will also set the Compare
Flag (OCF2A) which can be used to generate an Output Compare interrupt request.
17.1.2
Definitions
Many register and bit references in this document are written in general form. A lower case “n”
replaces the Timer/Counter number, in this case 2. However, when using the register or bit
defines in a program, the precise form must be used, that is, TCNT2 for accessing
Timer/Counter2 counter value and so on.
The definitions in Table 17-1 are also used extensively throughout the section.
Table 17-1.
17.2
Timer/Counter Definitions
BOTTOM
The counter reaches the BOTTOM when it becomes zero (0x00).
MAX
The counter reaches its MAXimum when it becomes 0xFF (decimal 255).
TOP
The counter reaches the TOP when it becomes equal to the highest value in the
count sequence. The TOP value can be assigned to be the fixed value 0xFF
(MAX) or the value stored in the OCR2A Register. The assignment is dependent
on the mode of operation.
Timer/Counter Clock Sources
The Timer/Counter can be clocked by an internal synchronous or an external asynchronous
clock source. The clock source clkT2 is by default equal to the MCU clock, clkI/O. When the AS2
bit in the ASSR Register is written to logic one, the clock source is taken from the Timer/Counter
Oscillator connected to TOSC1 and TOSC2. For details on asynchronous operation, see ”ASSR
– Asynchronous Status Register” on page 156. For details on clock sources and prescaler, see
”Timer/Counter Prescaler” on page 152.
17.3
Counter Unit
The main part of the 8-bit Timer/Counter is the programmable bi-directional counter unit. Figure
17-2 on page 140 shows a block diagram of the counter and its surrounding environment.
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Figure 17-2. Counter Unit Block Diagram
TOVn
(Int.Req.)
DATA BUS
TOSC1
count
TCNTn
clear
clk Tn
Control Logic
Prescaler
T/C
Oscillator
direction
bottom
TOSC2
top
clkI/O
Signal description (internal signals):
count
Increment or decrement TCNT2 by 1.
direction
Selects between increment and decrement.
clear
Clear TCNT2 (set all bits to zero).
clkT2
Timer/Counter clock.
top
Signalizes that TCNT2 has reached maximum value.
bottom
Signalizes that TCNT2 has reached minimum value (zero).
Depending on the mode of operation used, the counter is cleared, incremented, or decremented
at each timer clock (clkT2). clkT2 can be generated from an external or internal clock source,
selected by the Clock Select bits (CS22:0). When no clock source is selected (CS22:0 = 0) the
timer is stopped. However, the TCNT2 value can be accessed by the CPU, regardless of
whether clkT2 is present or not. A CPU write overrides (has priority over) all counter clear or
count operations.
The counting sequence is determined by the setting of the WGM21 and WGM20 bits located in
the Timer/Counter Control Register (TCCR2A). There are close connections between how the
counter behaves (counts) and how waveforms are generated on the Output Compare output
OC2A. For more details about advanced counting sequences and waveform generation, see
”Modes of Operation” on page 143.
The Timer/Counter Overflow Flag (TOV2) is set according to the mode of operation selected by
the WGM21:0 bits. TOV2 can be used for generating a CPU interrupt.
17.4
Output Compare Unit
The 8-bit comparator continuously compares TCNT2 with the Output Compare Register
(OCR2A). Whenever TCNT2 equals OCR2A, the comparator signals a match. A match will set
the Output Compare Flag (OCF2A) at the next timer clock cycle. If enabled (OCIE2A = 1), the
Output Compare Flag generates an Output Compare interrupt. The OCF2A Flag is automatically
cleared when the interrupt is executed. Alternatively, the OCF2A Flag can be cleared by software by writing a logical one to its I/O bit location. The Waveform Generator uses the match
signal to generate an output according to operating mode set by the WGM21:0 bits and Compare Output mode (COM2A1:0) bits. The max and bottom signals are used by the Waveform
Generator for handling the special cases of the extreme values in some modes of operation
(”Modes of Operation” on page 143).
Figure 17-3 on page 141 shows a block diagram of the Output Compare unit.
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Figure 17-3. Output Compare Unit, Block Diagram
DATA BUS
OCRnx
TCNTn
= (8-bit Comparator )
OCFnx (Int.Req.)
top
bottom
Waveform Generator
OCnx
FOCn
WGMn1:0
COMnx1:0
The OCR2A Register is double buffered when using any of the Pulse Width Modulation (PWM)
modes. For the Normal and Clear Timer on Compare (CTC) modes of operation, the double
buffering is disabled. The double buffering synchronizes the update of the OCR2A Compare
Register to either top or bottom of the counting sequence. The synchronization prevents the
occurrence of odd-length, non-symmetrical PWM pulses, thereby making the output glitch-free.
The OCR2A Register access may seem complex, but this is not case. When the double buffering is enabled, the CPU has access to the OCR2A Buffer Register, and if double buffering is
disabled the CPU will access the OCR2A directly.
17.4.1
Force Output Compare
In non-PWM waveform generation modes, the match output of the comparator can be forced by
writing a one to the Force Output Compare (FOC2A) bit. Forcing compare match will not set the
OCF2A Flag or reload/clear the timer, but the OC2A pin will be updated as if a real compare
match had occurred (the COM2A1:0 bits settings define whether the OC2A pin is set, cleared or
toggled).
17.4.2
Compare Match Blocking by TCNT2 Write
All CPU write operations to the TCNT2 Register will block any compare match that occurs in the
next timer clock cycle, even when the timer is stopped. This feature allows OCR2A to be initialized to the same value as TCNT2 without triggering an interrupt when the Timer/Counter clock is
enabled.
17.4.3
Using the Output Compare Unit
Since writing TCNT2 in any mode of operation will block all compare matches for one timer clock
cycle, there are risks involved when changing TCNT2 when using the Output Compare unit,
independently of whether the Timer/Counter is running or not. If the value written to TCNT2
equals the OCR2A value, the compare match will be missed, resulting in incorrect waveform
generation. Similarly, do not write the TCNT2 value equal to BOTTOM when the counter is down
counting.
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The setup of the OC2A should be performed before setting the Data Direction Register for the
port pin to output. The easiest way of setting the OC2A value is to use the Force Output Compare (FOC2A) strobe bit in Normal mode. The OC2A Register keeps its value even when
changing between Waveform Generation modes.
Be aware that the COM2A1:0 bits are not double buffered together with the compare value.
Changing the COM2A1:0 bits will take effect immediately.
17.5
Compare Match Output Unit
The Compare Output mode (COM2A1:0) bits have two functions. The Waveform Generator
uses the COM2A1:0 bits for defining the Output Compare (OC2A) state at the next compare
match. Also, the COM2A1:0 bits control the OC2A pin output source. Figure 17-4 shows a simplified schematic of the logic affected by the COM2A1:0 bit setting. The I/O Registers, I/O bits,
and I/O pins in the figure are shown in bold. Only the parts of the general I/O Port Control Registers (DDR and PORT) that are affected by the COM2A1:0 bits are shown. When referring to the
OC2A state, the reference is for the internal OC2A Register, not the OC2A pin.
Figure 17-4. Compare Match Output Unit, Schematic
COMnx1
COMnx0
FOCnx
Waveform
Generator
D
Q
1
OCnx
DATA BUS
D
0
OCnx
Pin
Q
PORT
D
Q
DDR
clk I/O
The general I/O port function is overridden by the Output Compare (OC2A) from the Waveform
Generator if either of the COM2A1:0 bits are set. However, the OC2A pin direction (input or output) is still controlled by the Data Direction Register (DDR) for the port pin. The Data Direction
Register bit for the OC2A pin (DDR_OC2A) must be set as output before the OC2A value is visible on the pin. The port override function is independent of the Waveform Generation mode.
The design of the Output Compare pin logic allows initialization of the OC2A state before the
output is enabled. Note that some COM2A1:0 bit settings are reserved for certain modes of
operation. See ”8-bit Timer/Counter Register Description” on page 153.
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17.5.1
Compare Output Mode and Waveform Generation
The Waveform Generator uses the COM2A1:0 bits differently in normal, CTC, and PWM modes.
For all modes, setting the COM2A1:0 = 0 tells the Waveform Generator that no action on the
OC2A Register is to be performed on the next compare match. For compare output actions in
the non-PWM modes refer to Table 17-3 on page 154. For fast PWM mode, refer to Table 17-4
on page 154, and for phase correct PWM refer to Table 17-5 on page 154.
A change of the COM2A1:0 bits state will have effect at the first compare match after the bits are
written. For non-PWM modes, the action can be forced to have immediate effect by using the
FOC2A strobe bits.
17.6
Modes of Operation
The mode of operation, that is, the behavior of the Timer/Counter and the Output Compare pins,
is defined by the combination of the Waveform Generation mode (WGM21:0) and Compare Output mode (COM2A1:0) bits. The Compare Output mode bits do not affect the counting
sequence, while the Waveform Generation mode bits do. The COM2A1:0 bits control whether
the PWM output generated should be inverted or not (inverted or non-inverted PWM). For nonPWM modes the COM2A1:0 bits control whether the output should be set, cleared, or toggled at
a compare match. (See ”Compare Match Output Unit” on page 142.)
For detailed timing information refer to ”Timer/Counter Timing Diagrams” on page 148.
17.6.1
Normal Mode
The simplest mode of operation is the Normal mode (WGM21:0 = 0). In this mode the counting
direction is always up (incrementing), and no counter clear is performed. The counter simply
overruns when it passes its maximum 8-bit value (TOP = 0xFF) and then restarts from the bottom (0x00). In normal operation the Timer/Counter Overflow Flag (TOV2) will be set in the same
timer clock cycle as the TCNT2 becomes zero. The TOV2 Flag in this case behaves like a ninth
bit, except that it is only set, not cleared. However, combined with the timer overflow interrupt
that automatically clears the TOV2 Flag, the timer resolution can be increased by software.
There are no special cases to consider in the Normal mode, a new counter value can be written
anytime.
The Output Compare unit can be used to generate interrupts at some given time. Using the Output Compare to generate waveforms in Normal mode is not recommended, since this will
occupy too much of the CPU time.
17.6.2
Clear Timer on Compare Match (CTC) Mode
In Clear Timer on Compare or CTC mode (WGM21:0 = 2), the OCR2A Register is used to
manipulate the counter resolution. In CTC mode the counter is cleared to zero when the counter
value (TCNT2) matches the OCR2A. The OCR2A defines the top value for the counter, hence
also its resolution. This mode allows greater control of the compare match output frequency. It
also simplifies the operation of counting external events.
The timing diagram for the CTC mode is shown in Figure 17-5 on page 144. The counter value
(TCNT2) increases until a compare match occurs between TCNT2 and OCR2A, and then counter (TCNT2) is cleared.
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Figure 17-5. CTC Mode, Timing Diagram
OCnx Interrupt Flag Set
TCNTn
OCnx
(Toggle)
Period
(COMnx1:0 = 1)
1
2
3
4
An interrupt can be generated each time the counter value reaches the TOP value by using the
OCF2A Flag. If the interrupt is enabled, the interrupt handler routine can be used for updating
the TOP value. However, changing the TOP to a value close to BOTTOM when the counter is
running with none or a low prescaler value must be done with care since the CTC mode does
not have the double buffering feature. If the new value written to OCR2A is lower than the current value of TCNT2, the counter will miss the compare match. The counter will then have to
count to its maximum value (0xFF) and wrap around starting at 0x00 before the compare match
can occur.
For generating a waveform output in CTC mode, the OC2A output can be set to toggle its logical
level on each compare match by setting the Compare Output mode bits to toggle mode
(COM2A1:0 = 1). The OC2A value will not be visible on the port pin unless the data direction for
the pin is set to output. The waveform generated will have a maximum frequency of fOC2A =
fclk_I/O/2 when OCR2A is set to zero (0x00). The waveform frequency is defined by the following
equation:
f clk_I/O
f OCnx = ------------------------------------------------2 ⋅ N ⋅ ( 1 + OCRnx )
The N variable represents the prescale factor (1, 8, 32, 64, 128, 256, or 1024).
As for the Normal mode of operation, the TOV2 Flag is set in the same timer clock cycle that the
counter counts from MAX to 0x00.
17.6.3
Fast PWM Mode
The fast Pulse Width Modulation or fast PWM mode (WGM21:0 = 3) provides a high frequency
PWM waveform generation option. The fast PWM differs from the other PWM option by its single-slope operation. The counter counts from BOTTOM to MAX then restarts from BOTTOM. In
non-inverting Compare Output mode, the Output Compare (OC2A) is cleared on the compare
match between TCNT2 and OCR2A, and set at BOTTOM. In inverting Compare Output mode,
the output is set on compare match and cleared at BOTTOM. Due to the single-slope operation,
the operating frequency of the fast PWM mode can be twice as high as the phase correct PWM
mode that uses dual-slope operation. This high frequency makes the fast PWM mode well suited
for power regulation, rectification, and DAC applications. High frequency allows physically small
sized external components (coils, capacitors), and therefore reduces total system cost.
In fast PWM mode, the counter is incremented until the counter value matches the MAX value.
The counter is then cleared at the following timer clock cycle. The timing diagram for the fast
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PWM mode is shown in Figure 17-6. The TCNT2 value is in the timing diagram shown as a histogram for illustrating the single-slope operation. The diagram includes non-inverted and
inverted PWM outputs. The small horizontal line marks on the TCNT2 slopes represent compare
matches between OCR2A and TCNT2.
Figure 17-6. Fast PWM Mode, Timing Diagram
OCRnx Interrupt Flag Set
OCRnx Update and
TOVn Interrupt Flag Set
TCNTn
OCnx
(COMnx1:0 = 2)
OCnx
(COMnx1:0 = 3)
Period
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
The Timer/Counter Overflow Flag (TOV2) is set each time the counter reaches MAX. If the interrupt is enabled, the interrupt handler routine can be used for updating the compare value.
In fast PWM mode, the compare unit allows generation of PWM waveforms on the OC2A pin.
Setting the COM2A1:0 bits to two will produce a non-inverted PWM and an inverted PWM output
can be generated by setting the COM2A1:0 to three (See Table 17-4 on page 154). The actual
OC2A value will only be visible on the port pin if the data direction for the port pin is set as output. The PWM waveform is generated by setting (or clearing) the OC2A Register at the compare
match between OCR2A and TCNT2, and clearing (or setting) the OC2A Register at the timer
clock cycle the counter is cleared (changes from MAX to BOTTOM).
The PWM frequency for the output can be calculated by the following equation:
f clk_I/O
f OCnxPWM = ----------------N ⋅ 256
The N variable represents the prescale factor (1, 8, 32, 64, 128, 256, or 1024).
The extreme values for the OCR2A Register represent special cases when generating a PWM
waveform output in the fast PWM mode. If the OCR2A is set equal to BOTTOM, the output will
be a narrow spike for each MAX+1 timer clock cycle. Setting the OCR2A equal to MAX will result
in a constantly high or low output (depending on the polarity of the output set by the COM2A1:0
bits).
A frequency (with 50% duty cycle) waveform output in fast PWM mode can be achieved by setting OC2A to toggle its logical level on each compare match (COM2A1:0 = 1). The waveform
generated will have a maximum frequency of foc2 = fclk_I/O/2 when OCR2A is set to zero. This feature is similar to the OC2A toggle in CTC mode, except the double buffer feature of the Output
Compare unit is enabled in the fast PWM mode.
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17.6.4
Phase Correct PWM Mode
The phase correct PWM mode (WGM21:0 = 1) provides a high resolution phase correct PWM
waveform generation option. The phase correct PWM mode is based on a dual-slope operation.
The counter counts repeatedly from BOTTOM to MAX and then from MAX to BOTTOM. In noninverting Compare Output mode, the Output Compare (OC2A) is cleared on the compare match
between TCNT2 and OCR2A while upcounting, and set on the compare match while downcounting. In inverting Output Compare mode, the operation is inverted. The dual-slope operation
has lower maximum operation frequency than single slope operation. However, due to the symmetric feature of the dual-slope PWM modes, these modes are preferred for motor control
applications.
The PWM resolution for the phase correct PWM mode is fixed to eight bits. In phase correct
PWM mode the counter is incremented until the counter value matches MAX. When the counter
reaches MAX, it changes the count direction. The TCNT2 value will be equal to MAX for one
timer clock cycle. The timing diagram for the phase correct PWM mode is shown on Figure 17-7.
The TCNT2 value is in the timing diagram shown as a histogram for illustrating the dual-slope
operation. The diagram includes non-inverted and inverted PWM outputs. The small horizontal
line marks on the TCNT2 slopes represent compare matches between OCR2A and TCNT2.
Figure 17-7. Phase Correct PWM Mode, Timing Diagram
OCnx Interrupt Flag Set
OCRnx Update
TOVn Interrupt Flag Set
TCNTn
OCnx
(COMnx1:0 = 2)
OCnx
(COMnx1:0 = 3)
Period
1
2
3
The Timer/Counter Overflow Flag (TOV2) is set each time the counter reaches BOTTOM. The
Interrupt Flag can be used to generate an interrupt each time the counter reaches the BOTTOM
value.
In phase correct PWM mode, the compare unit allows generation of PWM waveforms on the
OC2A pin. Setting the COM2A1:0 bits to two will produce a non-inverted PWM. An inverted
PWM output can be generated by setting the COM2A1:0 to three (See Table 17-5 on page 154).
The actual OC2A value will only be visible on the port pin if the data direction for the port pin is
set as output. The PWM waveform is generated by clearing (or setting) the OC2A Register at the
compare match between OCR2A and TCNT2 when the counter increments, and setting (or
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clearing) the OC2A Register at compare match between OCR2A and TCNT2 when the counter
decrements. The PWM frequency for the output when using phase correct PWM can be calculated by the following equation:
f clk_I/O
f OCnxPCPWM = ----------------N ⋅ 510
The N variable represents the prescale factor (1, 8, 32, 64, 128, 256, or 1024).
The extreme values for the OCR2A Register represent special cases when generating a PWM
waveform output in the phase correct PWM mode. If the OCR2A is set equal to BOTTOM, the
output will be continuously low and if set equal to MAX the output will be continuously high for
non-inverted PWM mode. For inverted PWM the output will have the opposite logic values.
At the very start of period 2 in Figure 17-7 on page 146 OCn has a transition from high to low
even though there is no Compare Match. The point of this transition is to guarantee symmetry
around BOTTOM. There are two cases that give a transition without Compare Match.
• OCR2A changes its value from MAX, like in Figure 17-7 on page 146. When the OCR2A value
is MAX the OCn pin value is the same as the result of a down-counting compare match. To
ensure symmetry around BOTTOM the OCn value at MAX must correspond to the result of an
up-counting Compare Match.
• The timer starts counting from a value higher than the one in OCR2A, and for that reason
misses the Compare Match and hence the OCn change that would have happened on the way
up.
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17.7
Timer/Counter Timing Diagrams
The following figures show the Timer/Counter in synchronous mode, and the timer clock (clkT2)
is therefore shown as a clock enable signal. In asynchronous mode, clkI/O should be replaced by
the Timer/Counter Oscillator clock. The figures include information on when Interrupt Flags are
set. Figure 17-8 contains timing data for basic Timer/Counter operation. The figure shows the
count sequence close to the MAX value in all modes other than phase correct PWM mode.
Figure 17-8. Timer/Counter Timing Diagram, no Prescaling
clkI/O
clkTn
(clkI/O /1)
TCNTn
MAX - 1
MAX
BOTTOM
BOTTOM + 1
TOVn
Figure 17-9 shows the same timing data, but with the prescaler enabled.
Figure 17-9. Timer/Counter Timing Diagram, with Prescaler (fclk_I/O/8)
clkI/O
clkTn
(clkI/O /8)
TCNTn
MAX - 1
MAX
BOTTOM
BOTTOM + 1
TOVn
Figure 17-10 on page 149 shows the setting of OCF2A in all modes except CTC mode.
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Figure 17-10. Timer/Counter Timing Diagram, Setting of OCF2A, with Prescaler (fclk_I/O/8)
clkI/O
clkTn
(clkI/O /8)
TCNTn
OCRnx - 1
OCRnx
OCRnx + 1
OCRnx + 2
OCRnx Value
OCRnx
OCFnx
Figure 17-11 shows the setting of OCF2A and the clearing of TCNT2 in CTC mode.
Figure 17-11. Timer/Counter Timing Diagram, Clear Timer on Compare Match mode, with Prescaler (fclk_I/O/8)
clkI/O
clkTn
(clkI/O /8)
TCNTn
(CTC)
OCRnx
TOP - 1
TOP
BOTTOM
BOTTOM + 1
TOP
OCFnx
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17.8
17.8.1
Asynchronous operation of the Timer/Counter
Asynchronous Operation of Timer/Counter2
When Timer/Counter2 operates asynchronously, some considerations must be taken.
• Warning: When switching between asynchronous and synchronous clocking of
Timer/Counter2, the Timer Registers TCNT2, OCR2A, and TCCR2A might be corrupted. A
safe procedure for switching clock source is:
a. Disable the Timer/Counter2 interrupts by clearing OCIE2A and TOIE2.
b.
Select clock source by setting AS2 as appropriate.
c.
Write new values to TCNT2, OCR2A, and TCCR2A.
d. To switch to asynchronous operation: Wait for TCN2UB, OCR2UB, and TCR2UB.
e. Clear the Timer/Counter2 Interrupt Flags.
f.
Enable interrupts, if needed.
• The CPU main clock frequency must be more than four times the Oscillator frequency.
• When writing to one of the registers TCNT2, OCR2A, or TCCR2A, the value is transferred to a
temporary register, and latched after two positive edges on TOSC1. The user should not write
a new value before the contents of the temporary register have been transferred to its
destination. Each of the three mentioned registers have their individual temporary register,
which means that, for example, writing to TCNT2 does not disturb an OCR2A write in progress.
To detect that a transfer to the destination register has taken place, the Asynchronous Status
Register – ASSR has been implemented.
• When entering Power-save or ADC Noise Reduction mode after having written to TCNT2,
OCR2A, or TCCR2A, the user must wait until the written register has been updated if
Timer/Counter2 is used to wake up the device. Otherwise, the MCU will enter sleep mode
before the changes are effective. This is particularly important if the Output Compare2 interrupt
is used to wake up the device, since the Output Compare function is disabled during writing to
OCR2A or TCNT2. If the write cycle is not finished, and the MCU enters sleep mode before the
OCR2UB bit returns to zero, the device will never receive a compare match interrupt, and the
MCU will not wake up.
• If Timer/Counter2 is used to wake the device up from Power-save or ADC Noise Reduction
mode, precautions must be taken if the user wants to re-enter one of these modes: The
interrupt logic needs one TOSC1 cycle to be reset. If the time between wake-up and reentering sleep mode is less than one TOSC1 cycle, the interrupt will not occur, and the device
will fail to wake up. If the user is in doubt whether the time before re-entering Power-save or
ADC Noise Reduction mode is sufficient, the following algorithm can be used to ensure that
one TOSC1 cycle has elapsed:
a. Write a value to TCCR2A, TCNT2, or OCR2A.
b.
Wait until the corresponding Update Busy Flag in ASSR returns to zero.
c.
Enter Power-save or ADC Noise Reduction mode.
• When the asynchronous operation is selected, the 32.768 kHz Oscillator for Timer/Counter2 is
always running, except in Power-down and Standby modes. After a Power-up Reset or wakeup from Power-down or Standby mode, the user should be aware of the fact that this Oscillator
might take as long as one second to stabilize. The user is advised to wait for at least one
second before using Timer/Counter2 after power-up or wake-up from Power-down or Standby
mode. The contents of all Timer/Counter2 Registers must be considered lost after a wake-up
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from Power-down or Standby mode due to unstable clock signal upon start-up, no matter
whether the Oscillator is in use or a clock signal is applied to the TOSC1 pin.
• Description of wake up from Power-save or ADC Noise Reduction mode when the timer is
clocked asynchronously: When the interrupt condition is met, the wake up process is started
on the following cycle of the timer clock, that is, the timer is always advanced by at least one
before the processor can read the counter value. After wake-up, the MCU is halted for four
cycles, it executes the interrupt routine, and resumes execution from the instruction following
SLEEP.
• Reading of the TCNT2 Register shortly after wake-up from Power-save may give an incorrect
result. Since TCNT2 is clocked on the asynchronous TOSC clock, reading TCNT2 must be
done through a register synchronized to the internal I/O clock domain. Synchronization takes
place for every rising TOSC1 edge. When waking up from Power-save mode, and the I/O clock
(clkI/O) again becomes active, TCNT2 will read as the previous value (before entering sleep)
until the next rising TOSC1 edge. The phase of the TOSC clock after waking up from Powersave mode is essentially unpredictable, as it depends on the wake-up time. The recommended
procedure for reading TCNT2 is thus as follows:
a. Write any value to either of the registers OCR2A or TCCR2A.
b.
Wait for the corresponding Update Busy Flag to be cleared.
c.
Read TCNT2.
• During asynchronous operation, the synchronization of the Interrupt Flags for the
asynchronous timer takes 3 processor cycles plus one timer cycle. The timer is therefore
advanced by at least one before the processor can read the timer value causing the setting of
the Interrupt Flag. The Output Compare pin is changed on the timer clock and is not
synchronized to the processor clock.
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17.9
Timer/Counter Prescaler
Figure 17-12. Prescaler for Timer/Counter2
PSR2
clkT2S/1024
clkT2S/256
clkT2S/128
AS2
clkT2S/64
10-BIT T/C PRESCALER
Clear
clkT2S/32
TOSC1
clkT2S
clkT2S/8
clkI/O
0
CS20
CS21
CS22
TIMER/COUNTER2 CLOCK SOURCE
clkT2
The clock source for Timer/Counter2 is named clkT2S. clkT2S is by default connected to the main
system I/O clock clk IO. By setting the AS2 bit in ASSR, Timer/Counter2 is asynchronously
clocked from the TOSC1 pin. This enables use of Timer/Counter2 as a Real Time Counter
(RTC). When AS2 is set, pins TOSC1 and TOSC2 are disconnected from Port C. A crystal can
then be connected between the TOSC1 and TOSC2 pins to serve as an independent clock
source for Timer/Counter2. The Oscillator is optimized for use with a 32.768 kHz crystal. If
applying an external clock on TOSC1, the EXCLK bit in ASSR must be set.
For Timer/Counter2, the possible prescaled selections are: clk T2S /8, clk T2S /32, clk T2S /64,
clkT2S/128, clkT2S/256, and clkT2S/1024. Additionally, clkT2S as well as 0 (stop) may be selected.
Setting the PSR2 bit in GTCCR resets the prescaler. This allows the user to operate with a predictable prescaler.
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17.10 8-bit Timer/Counter Register Description
17.10.1
TCCR2A – Timer/Counter Control Register A
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
FOC2A
WGM20
COM2A1
COM2A0
WGM21
CS22
CS21
CS20
Read/Write
W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
(0xB0)
TCCR2A
• Bit 7 – FOC2A: Force Output Compare A
The FOC2A bit is only active when the WGM bits specify a non-PWM mode. However, for ensuring compatibility with future devices, this bit must be set to zero when TCCR2A is written when
operating in PWM mode. When writing a logical one to the FOC2A bit, an immediate compare
match is forced on the Waveform Generation unit. The OC2A output is changed according to its
COM2A1:0 bits setting. Note that the FOC2A bit is implemented as a strobe. Therefore it is the
value present in the COM2A1:0 bits that determines the effect of the forced compare.
A FOC2A strobe will not generate any interrupt, nor will it clear the timer in CTC mode using
OCR2A as TOP.
The FOC2A bit is always read as zero.
• Bit 6, 3 – WGM21:0: Waveform Generation Mode
These bits control the counting sequence of the counter, the source for the maximum (TOP)
counter value, and what type of waveform generation to be used. Modes of operation supported
by the Timer/Counter unit are: Normal mode, Clear Timer on Compare match (CTC) mode, and
two types of Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) modes. See Table 17-2 and ”Modes of Operation”
on page 143.
Table 17-2.
Waveform Generation Mode Bit Description(1)
Mode
WGM21
(CTC2)
WGM20
(PWM2)
Timer/Counter Mode of
Operation
TOP
Update of
OCR2A at
TOV2 Flag
Set on
0
0
0
Normal
0xFF
Immediate
MAX
1
0
1
PWM, Phase Correct
0xFF
TOP
BOTTOM
2
1
0
CTC
OCR2A
Immediate
MAX
3
1
1
Fast PWM
0xFF
BOTTOM
MAX
Note:
1. The CTC2 and PWM2 bit definition names are now obsolete. Use the WGM21:0 definitions.
However, the functionality and location of these bits are compatible with previous versions of
the timer.
• Bit 5:4 – COM2A1:0: Compare Match Output Mode A
These bits control the Output Compare pin (OC2A) behavior. If one or both of the COM2A1:0
bits are set, the OC2A output overrides the normal port functionality of the I/O pin it is connected
to. However, note that the Data Direction Register (DDR) bit corresponding to OC2A pin must be
set in order to enable the output driver.
When OC2A is connected to the pin, the function of the COM2A1:0 bits depends on the
WGM21:0 bit setting. Table 17-3 on page 154 shows the COM2A1:0 bit functionality when the
WGM21:0 bits are set to a normal or CTC mode (non-PWM).
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Table 17-3.
Compare Output Mode, non-PWM Mode
COM2A1
COM2A0
Description
0
0
Normal port operation, OC2A disconnected.
0
1
Toggle OC2A on compare match.
1
0
Clear OC2A on compare match.
1
1
Set OC2A on compare match.
Table 17-4 shows the COM2A1:0 bit functionality when the WGM21:0 bits are set to fast PWM
mode.
Table 17-4.
Compare Output Mode, Fast PWM Mode(1)
COM2A1
COM2A0
0
0
Normal port operation, OC2A disconnected.
0
1
Reserved
1
0
Clear OC2A on compare match, set OC2A at BOTTOM
(non-inverting mode).
1
1
Set OC2A on compare match, clear OC2A at BOTTOM
(inverting mode).
Note:
Description
1. A special case occurs when OCR2A equals TOP and COM2A1 is set. In this case, the compare match is ignored, but the set or clear is done at TOP. See ”Fast PWM Mode” on page 144
for more details.
Table 17-5 shows the COM2A1:0 bit functionality when the WGM21:0 bits are set to phase correct PWM mode.
Table 17-5.
Compare Output Mode, Phase Correct PWM Mode(1)
COM2A1
COM2A0
0
0
Normal port operation, OC2A disconnected.
0
1
Reserved
1
0
Clear OC2A on compare match when up-counting. Set OC2A on
compare match when down counting.
1
1
Set OC2A on compare match when up-counting. Clear OC2A on
compare match when down counting.
Note:
Description
1. A special case occurs when OCR2A equals TOP and COM2A1 is set. In this case, the compare match is ignored, but the set or clear is done at TOP. See ”Phase Correct PWM Mode” on
page 146 for more details.
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• Bit 2:0 – CS22:0: Clock Select
The three Clock Select bits select the clock source to be used by the Timer/Counter, see Table
17-6.
Table 17-6.
17.10.2
Clock Select Bit Description
CS22
CS21
CS20
Description
0
0
0
No clock source (Timer/Counter stopped).
0
0
1
clkT2S/(No prescaling)
0
1
0
clkT2S/8 (From prescaler)
0
1
1
clkT2S/32 (From prescaler)
1
0
0
clkT2S/64 (From prescaler)
1
0
1
clkT2S/128 (From prescaler)
1
1
0
clkT2S/256 (From prescaler)
1
1
1
clkT2S/1024 (From prescaler)
TCNT2 – Timer/Counter Register
Bit
7
6
5
(0xB2)
4
3
2
1
0
TCNT2[7:0]
TCNT2
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
The Timer/Counter Register gives direct access, both for read and write operations, to the
Timer/Counter unit 8-bit counter. Writing to the TCNT2 Register blocks (removes) the compare
match on the following timer clock. Modifying the counter (TCNT2) while the counter is running,
introduces a risk of missing a compare match between TCNT2 and the OCR2A Register.
17.10.3
OCR2A – Output Compare Register A
Bit
7
6
5
(0xB3)
4
3
2
1
0
OCR2A[7:0]
OCR2A
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
The Output Compare Register A contains an 8-bit value that is continuously compared with the
counter value (TCNT2). A match can be used to generate an Output Compare interrupt, or to
generate a waveform output on the OC2A pin.
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17.10.4
TIMSK2 – Timer/Counter2 Interrupt Mask Register
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
(0x70)
–
–
–
–
–
–
OCIE2A
TOIE2
Read/Write
R
R
R
R
R
R
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
TIMSK2
• Bit 1 – OCIE2A: Timer/Counter2 Output Compare Match A Interrupt Enable
When the OCIE2A bit is written to one and the I-bit in the Status Register is set (one), the
Timer/Counter2 Compare Match A interrupt is enabled. The corresponding interrupt is executed
if a compare match in Timer/Counter2 occurs, that is, when the OCF2A bit is set in the
Timer/Counter 2 Interrupt Flag Register – TIFR2.
• Bit 0 – TOIE2: Timer/Counter2 Overflow Interrupt Enable
When the TOIE2 bit is written to one and the I-bit in the Status Register is set (one), the
Timer/Counter2 Overflow interrupt is enabled. The corresponding interrupt is executed if an
overflow in Timer/Counter2 occurs, that is, when the TOV2 bit is set in the Timer/Counter2 Interrupt Flag Register – TIFR2.
17.10.5
TIFR2 – Timer/Counter2 Interrupt Flag Register
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
0x17 (0x37)
–
–
–
–
–
–
OCF2A
TOV2
Read/Write
R
R
R
R
R
R
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
TIFR2
• Bit 1 – OCF2A: Output Compare Flag 2 A
The OCF2A bit is set (one) when a compare match occurs between the Timer/Counter2 and the
data in OCR2A – Output Compare Register2. OCF2A is cleared by hardware when executing
the corresponding interrupt handling vector. Alternatively, OCF2A is cleared by writing a logic
one to the flag. When the I-bit in SREG, OCIE2A (Timer/Counter2 Compare match Interrupt
Enable), and OCF2A are set (one), the Timer/Counter2 Compare match Interrupt is executed.
• Bit 0 – TOV2: Timer/Counter2 Overflow Flag
The TOV2 bit is set (one) when an overflow occurs in Timer/Counter2. TOV2 is cleared by hardware when executing the corresponding interrupt handling vector. Alternatively, TOV2 is cleared
by writing a logic one to the flag. When the SREG I-bit, TOIE2A (Timer/Counter2 Overflow Interrupt Enable), and TOV2 are set (one), the Timer/Counter2 Overflow interrupt is executed. In
PWM mode, this bit is set when Timer/Counter2 changes counting direction at 0x00.
17.10.6
ASSR – Asynchronous Status Register
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
(0xB6)
–
–
–
EXCLK
AS2
TCN2UB
OCR2UB
TCR2UB
Read/Write
R
R
R
R/W
R/W
R
R
R
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
ASSR
• Bit 4 – EXCLK: Enable External Clock Input
When EXCLK is written to one, and asynchronous clock is selected, the external clock input buffer is enabled and an external clock can be input on Timer Oscillator 1 (TOSC1) pin instead of a
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32 kHz crystal. Writing to EXCLK should be done before asynchronous operation is selected.
Note that the crystal Oscillator will only run when this bit is zero.
• Bit 3 – AS2: Asynchronous Timer/Counter2
When AS2 is written to zero, Timer/Counter2 is clocked from the I/O clock, clkI/O. When AS2 is
written to one, Timer/Counter2 is clocked from a crystal Oscillator connected to the Timer Oscillator 1 (TOSC1) pin. When the value of AS2 is changed, the contents of TCNT2, OCR2A, and
TCCR2A might be corrupted.
• Bit 2 – TCN2UB: Timer/Counter2 Update Busy
When Timer/Counter2 operates asynchronously and TCNT2 is written, this bit becomes set.
When TCNT2 has been updated from the temporary storage register, this bit is cleared by hardware. A logical zero in this bit indicates that TCNT2 is ready to be updated with a new value.
• Bit 1 – OCR2UB: Output Compare Register2 Update Busy
When Timer/Counter2 operates asynchronously and OCR2A is written, this bit becomes set.
When OCR2A has been updated from the temporary storage register, this bit is cleared by hardware. A logical zero in this bit indicates that OCR2A is ready to be updated with a new value.
• Bit 0 – TCR2UB: Timer/Counter Control Register2 Update Busy
When Timer/Counter2 operates asynchronously and TCCR2A is written, this bit becomes set.
When TCCR2A has been updated from the temporary storage register, this bit is cleared by
hardware. A logical zero in this bit indicates that TCCR2A is ready to be updated with a new
value.
If a write is performed to any of the three Timer/Counter2 Registers while its update busy flag is
set, the updated value might get corrupted and cause an unintentional interrupt to occur.
The mechanisms for reading TCNT2, OCR2A, and TCCR2A are different. When reading
TCNT2, the actual timer value is read. When reading OCR2A or TCCR2A, the value in the temporary storage register is read.
17.10.7
GTCCR – General Timer/Counter Control Register
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
0x23 (0x43)
TSM
–
–
–
–
–
PSR2
PSR10
Read/Write
R/W
R
R
R
R
R
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
GTCCR
• Bit 1 – PSR2: Prescaler Reset Timer/Counter2
When this bit is one, the Timer/Counter2 prescaler will be reset. This bit is normally cleared
immediately by hardware. If the bit is written when Timer/Counter2 is operating in asynchronous
mode, the bit will remain one until the prescaler has been reset. The bit will not be cleared by
hardware if the TSM bit is set. Refer to the description of the ”Bit 7 – TSM: Timer/Counter Synchronization Mode” on page 137 for a description of the Timer/Counter Synchronization mode.
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18. SPI – Serial Peripheral Interface
18.1
Features
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
18.2
Full-duplex, Three-wire Synchronous Data Transfer
Master or Slave Operation
LSB First or MSB First Data Transfer
Seven Programmable Bit Rates
End of Transmission Interrupt Flag
Write Collision Flag Protection
Wake-up from Idle Mode
Double Speed (CK/2) Master SPI Mode
Overview
The Serial Peripheral Interface (SPI) allows high-speed synchronous data transfer between the
ATmega169P and peripheral devices or between several AVR devices.
The PRSPI bit in ”PRR – Power Reduction Register” on page 45 must be written to zero to
enable SPI module.
Figure 18-1. SPI Block Diagram(1)
SPI2X
SPI2X
DIVIDER
/2/4/8/16/32/64/128
Note:
1. Refer to Figure 1-1 on page 2, and Table 13-6 on page 74 for SPI pin placement.
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The interconnection between Master and Slave CPUs with SPI is shown in Figure 18-2. The system consists of two shift Registers, and a Master clock generator. The SPI Master initiates the
communication cycle when pulling low the Slave Select SS pin of the desired Slave. Master and
Slave prepare the data to be sent in their respective shift Registers, and the Master generates
the required clock pulses on the SCK line to interchange data. Data is always shifted from Master to Slave on the Master Out – Slave In, MOSI, line, and from Slave to Master on the Master In
– Slave Out, MISO, line. After each data packet, the Master will synchronize the Slave by pulling
high the Slave Select, SS, line.
When configured as a Master, the SPI interface has no automatic control of the SS line. This
must be handled by user software before communication can start. When this is done, writing a
byte to the SPI Data Register starts the SPI clock generator, and the hardware shifts the eight
bits into the Slave. After shifting one byte, the SPI clock generator stops, setting the end of
Transmission Flag (SPIF). If the SPI Interrupt Enable bit (SPIE) in the SPCR Register is set, an
interrupt is requested. The Master may continue to shift the next byte by writing it into SPDR, or
signal the end of packet by pulling high the Slave Select, SS line. The last incoming byte will be
kept in the Buffer Register for later use.
When configured as a Slave, the SPI interface will remain sleeping with MISO tri-stated as long
as the SS pin is driven high. In this state, software may update the contents of the SPI Data
Register, SPDR, but the data will not be shifted out by incoming clock pulses on the SCK pin
until the SS pin is driven low. As one byte has been completely shifted, the end of Transmission
Flag, SPIF is set. If the SPI Interrupt Enable bit, SPIE, in the SPCR Register is set, an interrupt
is requested. The Slave may continue to place new data to be sent into SPDR before reading
the incoming data. The last incoming byte will be kept in the Buffer Register for later use.
Figure 18-2. SPI Master-slave Interconnection
SHIFT
ENABLE
The system is single buffered in the transmit direction and double buffered in the receive direction. This means that bytes to be transmitted cannot be written to the SPI Data Register before
the entire shift cycle is completed. When receiving data, however, a received character must be
read from the SPI Data Register before the next character has been completely shifted in. Otherwise, the first byte is lost.
In SPI Slave mode, the control logic will sample the incoming signal of the SCK pin. To ensure
correct sampling of the clock signal, the minimum low and high periods should be:
Low period:
longer than 2 CPU clock cycles.
High period: longer than 2 CPU clock cycles.
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When the SPI is enabled, the data direction of the MOSI, MISO, SCK, and SS pins is overridden
according to Table 18-1. For more details on automatic port overrides, refer to ”Alternate Port
Functions” on page 71.
Table 18-1.
Pin
SPI Pin Overrides(1)
Direction, Master SPI
Direction, Slave SPI
MOSI
User Defined
Input
MISO
Input
User Defined
SCK
User Defined
Input
SS
User Defined
Input
Note:
1. See ”Alternate Functions of Port B” on page 74 for a detailed description of how to define the
direction of the user defined SPI pins.
The following code examples show how to initialize the SPI as a Master and how to perform a
simple transmission. DDR_SPI in the examples must be replaced by the actual Data Direction
Register controlling the SPI pins. DD_MOSI, DD_MISO and DD_SCK must be replaced by the
actual data direction bits for these pins. For example if MOSI is placed on pin PB5, replace
DD_MOSI with DDB5 and DDR_SPI with DDRB.
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Assembly Code Example(1)
SPI_MasterInit:
; Set MOSI and SCK output, all others input
ldi
r17,(1<<DD_MOSI)|(1<<DD_SCK)
out
DDR_SPI,r17
; Enable SPI, Master, set clock rate fck/16
ldi
r17,(1<<SPE)|(1<<MSTR)|(1<<SPR0)
out
SPCR,r17
ret
SPI_MasterTransmit:
; Start transmission of data (r16)
out
SPDR,r16
Wait_Transmit:
; Wait for transmission complete
sbis SPSR,SPIF
rjmp Wait_Transmit
ret
C Code Example(1)
void SPI_MasterInit(void)
{
/* Set MOSI and SCK output, all others input */
DDR_SPI = (1<<DD_MOSI)|(1<<DD_SCK);
/* Enable SPI, Master, set clock rate fck/16 */
SPCR = (1<<SPE)|(1<<MSTR)|(1<<SPR0);
}
void SPI_MasterTransmit(char cData)
{
/* Start transmission */
SPDR = cData;
/* Wait for transmission complete */
while(!(SPSR & (1<<SPIF)))
;
}
Note:
1. ”About Code Examples” on page 10
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The following code examples show how to initialize the SPI as a Slave and how to perform a
simple reception.
Assembly Code Example(1)
SPI_SlaveInit:
; Set MISO output, all others input
ldi
r17,(1<<DD_MISO)
out
DDR_SPI,r17
; Enable SPI
ldi
r17,(1<<SPE)
out
SPCR,r17
ret
SPI_SlaveReceive:
; Wait for reception complete
sbis SPSR,SPIF
rjmp SPI_SlaveReceive
; Read received data and return
in
r16,SPDR
ret
C Code Example(1)
void SPI_SlaveInit(void)
{
/* Set MISO output, all others input */
DDR_SPI = (1<<DD_MISO);
/* Enable SPI */
SPCR = (1<<SPE);
}
char SPI_SlaveReceive(void)
{
/* Wait for reception complete */
while(!(SPSR & (1<<SPIF)))
;
/* Return Data Register */
return SPDR;
}
Note:
1. ”About Code Examples” on page 10.
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18.3
18.3.1
SS Pin Functionality
Slave Mode
When the SPI is configured as a Slave, the Slave Select (SS) pin is always input. When SS is
held low, the SPI is activated, and MISO becomes an output if configured so by the user. All
other pins are inputs. When SS is driven high, all pins are inputs, and the SPI is passive, which
means that it will not receive incoming data. Note that the SPI logic will be reset once the SS pin
is driven high.
The SS pin is useful for packet/byte synchronization to keep the slave bit counter synchronous
with the master clock generator. When the SS pin is driven high, the SPI slave will immediately
reset the send and receive logic, and drop any partially received data in the Shift Register.
18.3.2
Master Mode
When the SPI is configured as a Master (MSTR in SPCR is set), the user can determine the
direction of the SS pin.
If SS is configured as an output, the pin is a general output pin which does not affect the SPI
system. Typically, the pin will be driving the SS pin of the SPI Slave.
If SS is configured as an input, it must be held high to ensure Master SPI operation. If the SS pin
is driven low by peripheral circuitry when the SPI is configured as a Master with the SS pin
defined as an input, the SPI system interprets this as another master selecting the SPI as a
slave and starting to send data to it. To avoid bus contention, the SPI system takes the following
actions:
1. The MSTR bit in SPCR is cleared and the SPI system becomes a Slave. As a result of
the SPI becoming a Slave, the MOSI and SCK pins become inputs.
2. The SPIF Flag in SPSR is set, and if the SPI interrupt is enabled, and the I-bit in SREG is
set, the interrupt routine will be executed.
Thus, when interrupt-driven SPI transmission is used in Master mode, and there exists a possibility that SS is driven low, the interrupt should always check that the MSTR bit is still set. If the
MSTR bit has been cleared by a slave select, it must be set by the user to re-enable SPI Master
mode.
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18.4
Data Modes
There are four combinations of SCK phase and polarity with respect to serial data, which are
determined by control bits CPHA and CPOL. The SPI data transfer formats are shown in Figure
18-3 and Figure 18-4. Data bits are shifted out and latched in on opposite edges of the SCK signal, ensuring sufficient time for data signals to stabilize. This is clearly seen by summarizing
Table 18-3 on page 165 and Table 18-4 on page 165, as done below:
Table 18-2.
CPOL Functionality
Leading Edge
Trailing eDge
SPI Mode
CPOL=0, CPHA=0
Sample (Rising)
Setup (Falling)
0
CPOL=0, CPHA=1
Setup (Rising)
Sample (Falling)
1
CPOL=1, CPHA=0
Sample (Falling)
Setup (Rising)
2
CPOL=1, CPHA=1
Setup (Falling)
Sample (Rising)
3
Figure 18-3. SPI Transfer Format with CPHA = 0
SCK (CPOL = 0)
mode 0
SCK (CPOL = 1)
mode 2
SAMPLE I
MOSI/MISO
CHANGE 0
MOSI PIN
CHANGE 0
MISO PIN
SS
MSB first (DORD = 0) MSB
LSB first (DORD = 1) LSB
Bit 6
Bit 1
Bit 5
Bit 2
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 3
Bit 4
Bit 2
Bit 5
Bit 1
Bit 6
LSB
MSB
Figure 18-4. SPI Transfer Format with CPHA = 1
SCK (CPOL = 0)
mode 1
SCK (CPOL = 1)
mode 3
SAMPLE I
MOSI/MISO
CHANGE 0
MOSI PIN
CHANGE 0
MISO PIN
SS
MSB first (DORD = 0)
LSB first (DORD = 1)
MSB
LSB
Bit 6
Bit 1
Bit 5
Bit 2
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 3
Bit 4
Bit 2
Bit 5
Bit 1
Bit 6
LSB
MSB
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18.5
18.5.1
Register Description
SPCR – SPI Control Register
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
0x2C (0x4C)
SPIE
SPE
DORD
MSTR
CPOL
CPHA
SPR1
SPR0
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
SPCR
• Bit 7 – SPIE: SPI Interrupt Enable
This bit causes the SPI interrupt to be executed if SPIF bit in the SPSR Register is set and the if
the Global Interrupt Enable bit in SREG is set.
• Bit 6 – SPE: SPI Enable
When the SPE bit is written to one, the SPI is enabled. This bit must be set to enable any SPI
operations.
• Bit 5 – DORD: Data Order
When the DORD bit is written to one, the LSB of the data word is transmitted first.
When the DORD bit is written to zero, the MSB of the data word is transmitted first.
• Bit 4 – MSTR: Master/Slave Select
This bit selects Master SPI mode when written to one, and Slave SPI mode when written logic
zero. If SS is configured as an input and is driven low while MSTR is set, MSTR will be cleared,
and SPIF in SPSR will become set. The user will then have to set MSTR to re-enable SPI Master mode.
• Bit 3 – CPOL: Clock Polarity
When this bit is written to one, SCK is high when idle. When CPOL is written to zero, SCK is low
when idle. Refer to Figure 18-3 on page 164 and Figure 18-4 on page 164 for an example. The
CPOL functionality is summarized below:
Table 18-3.
CPOL Functionality
CPOL
Leading Edge
Trailing Edge
0
Rising
Falling
1
Falling
Rising
• Bit 2 – CPHA: Clock Phase
The settings of the Clock Phase bit (CPHA) determine if data is sampled on the leading (first) or
trailing (last) edge of SCK. Refer to Figure 18-3 on page 164 and Figure 18-4 on page 164 for an
example. The CPOL functionality is summarized below:
Table 18-4.
CPHA Functionality
CPHA
Leading Edge
Trailing Edge
0
Sample
Setup
1
Setup
Sample
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• Bits 1, 0 – SPR1, SPR0: SPI Clock Rate Select 1 and 0
These two bits control the SCK rate of the device configured as a Master. SPR1 and SPR0 have
no effect on the Slave. The relationship between SCK and the Oscillator Clock frequency fosc is
shown in the following table:
Table 18-5.
18.5.2
Relationship Between SCK and the Oscillator Frequency
SPI2X
SPR1
SPR0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
1
0
0
1
1
1
0
0
1
0
1
1
1
0
1
1
1
SCK Frequency
fosc/4
fosc/16
fosc/64
fosc/128
fosc/2
fosc/8
fosc/32
fosc/64
SPSR – SPI Status Register
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
SPIF
WCOL
–
–
–
–
–
SPI2X
Read/Write
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0x2D (0x4D)
SPSR
• Bit 7 – SPIF: SPI Interrupt Flag
When a serial transfer is complete, the SPIF Flag is set. An interrupt is generated if SPIE in
SPCR is set and global interrupts are enabled. If SS is an input and is driven low when the SPI is
in Master mode, this will also set the SPIF Flag. SPIF is cleared by hardware when executing the
corresponding interrupt handling vector. Alternatively, the SPIF bit is cleared by first reading the
SPI Status Register with SPIF set, then accessing the SPI Data Register (SPDR).
• Bit 6 – WCOL: Write COLlision Flag
The WCOL bit is set if the SPI Data Register (SPDR) is written during a data transfer. The
WCOL bit (and the SPIF bit) are cleared by first reading the SPI Status Register with WCOL set,
and then accessing the SPI Data Register.
• Bit 5..1 – Res: Reserved Bits
These bits are reserved and will always read as zero.
• Bit 0 – SPI2X: Double SPI Speed Bit
When this bit is written logic one the SPI speed (SCK Frequency) will be doubled when the SPI
is in Master mode (see Table 18-5). This means that the minimum SCK period will be two CPU
clock periods. When the SPI is configured as Slave, the SPI is only guaranteed to work at fosc/4
or lower.
The SPI interface on the ATmega169P is also used for program memory and EEPROM downloading or uploading. See page 310 for serial programming and verification.
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18.5.3
SPDR – SPI Data Register
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
0x2E (0x4E)
MSB
LSB
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
SPDR
Undefined
The SPI Data Register is a read/write register used for data transfer between the Register File
and the SPI Shift Register. Writing to the register initiates data transmission. Reading the register causes the Shift Register Receive buffer to be read.
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19. USART
19.1
Features
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
19.2
Full Duplex Operation (Independent Serial Receive and Transmit Registers)
Asynchronous or Synchronous Operation
Master or Slave Clocked Synchronous Operation
High Resolution Baud Rate Generator
Supports Serial Frames with 5, 6, 7, 8, or 9 Data Bits and 1 or 2 Stop Bits
Odd or Even Parity Generation and Parity Check Supported by Hardware
Data OverRun Detection
Framing Error Detection
Noise Filtering Includes False Start Bit Detection and Digital Low Pass Filter
Three Separate Interrupts on TX Complete, TX Data Register Empty and RX Complete
Multi-processor Communication Mode
Double Speed Asynchronous Communication Mode
Overview
The Universal Synchronous and Asynchronous serial Receiver and Transmitter (USART) is a
highly flexible serial communication device.
The PRUSART0 bit in ”PRR – Power Reduction Register” on page 45 must be written to zero to
enable USART0 module.
A simplified block diagram of the USART Transmitter is shown in Figure 19-1 on page 169. CPU
accessible I/O Registers and I/O pins are shown in bold.
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Figure 19-1. USART Block Diagram(1)
Clock Generator
UBRR[H:L]
OSC
BAUD RATE GENERATOR
SYNC LOGIC
PIN
CONTROL
XCK
Transmitter
TX
CONTROL
UDR (Transmit)
DATA BUS
PARITY
GENERATOR
TxD
Receiver
UCSRA
Note:
PIN
CONTROL
TRANSMIT SHIFT REGISTER
CLOCK
RECOVERY
RX
CONTROL
RECEIVE SHIFT REGISTER
DATA
RECOVERY
PIN
CONTROL
UDR (Receive)
PARITY
CHECKER
UCSRB
RxD
UCSRC
1. Refer to Figure 1-1 on page 2, Table 13-13 on page 80, and Table 13-7 on page 76 for USART
pin placement.
The dashed boxes in the block diagram separate the three main parts of the USART (listed from
the top): Clock Generator, Transmitter and Receiver. Control Registers are shared by all units.
The Clock Generation logic consists of synchronization logic for external clock input used by
synchronous slave operation, and the baud rate generator. The XCK (Transfer Clock) pin is only
used by synchronous transfer mode. The Transmitter consists of a single write buffer, a serial
Shift Register, Parity Generator and Control logic for handling different serial frame formats. The
write buffer allows a continuous transfer of data without any delay between frames. The
Receiver is the most complex part of the USART module due to its clock and data recovery
units. The recovery units are used for asynchronous data reception. In addition to the recovery
units, the Receiver includes a Parity Checker, Control logic, a Shift Register and a two level
receive buffer (UDRn). The Receiver supports the same frame formats as the Transmitter, and
can detect Frame Error, Data OverRun and Parity Errors.
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19.2.1
AVR USART vs. AVR UART – Compatibility
The USART is fully compatible with the AVR UART regarding:
• Bit locations inside all USART Registers.
• Baud Rate Generation.
• Transmitter Operation.
• Transmit Buffer Functionality.
• Receiver Operation.
However, the receive buffering has two improvements that will affect the compatibility in some
special cases:
• A second Buffer Register has been added. The two Buffer Registers operate as a circular FIFO
buffer. Therefore the UDRn must only be read once for each incoming data! More important is
the fact that the Error Flags (FEn and DORn) and the ninth data bit (RXB8n) are buffered with
the data in the receive buffer. Therefore the status bits must always be read before the UDRn
Register is read. Otherwise the error status will be lost since the buffer state is lost.
• The Receiver Shift Register can now act as a third buffer level. This is done by allowing the
received data to remain in the serial Shift Register (see Figure 19-1 on page 169) if the Buffer
Registers are full, until a new start bit is detected. The USART is therefore more resistant to
Data OverRun (DORn) error conditions.
The following control bits have changed name, but have same functionality and register location:
• CHR9 is changed to UCSZn2.
• OR is changed to DORn.
19.3
Clock Generation
The Clock Generation logic generates the base clock for the Transmitter and Receiver. The
USART supports four modes of clock operation: Normal asynchronous, Double Speed asynchronous, Master synchronous and Slave synchronous mode. The UMSELn bit in USART
Control and Status Register C (UCSRnC) selects between asynchronous and synchronous
operation. Double Speed (asynchronous mode only) is controlled by the U2Xn found in the
UCSRnA Register. When using synchronous mode (UMSELn = 1), the Data Direction Register
for the XCK pin (DDR_XCK) controls whether the clock source is internal (Master mode) or
external (Slave mode). The XCK pin is only active when using synchronous mode.
Figure 19-2 on page 171 shows a block diagram of the clock generation logic.
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Figure 19-2. Clock Generation Logic, Block Diagram
UBRR
U2X
fosc
Prescaling
Down-Counter
UBRR+1
/2
/4
/2
0
1
0
OSC
DDR_XCK
xcki
XCK
Pin
Sync
Register
Edge
Detector
0
UCPOL
txclk
UMSEL
1
xcko
DDR_XCK
1
1
0
rxclk
Signal description:
19.3.1
txclk
Transmitter clock (Internal Signal).
rxclk
Receiver base clock (Internal Signal).
xcki
Input from XCK pin (internal Signal). Used for synchronous slave
operation.
xcko
Clock output to XCK pin (Internal Signal). Used for synchronous master
operation.
fosc
XTAL pin frequency (System Clock).
Internal Clock Generation – The Baud Rate Generator
Internal clock generation is used for the asynchronous and the synchronous master modes of
operation. The description in this section refers to Figure 19-2.
The USART Baud Rate Register (UBRRn) and the down-counter connected to it function as a
programmable prescaler or baud rate generator. The down-counter, running at system clock
(fosc), is loaded with the UBRRn value each time the counter has counted down to zero or when
the UBRRLn Register is written. A clock is generated each time the counter reaches zero. This
clock is the baud rate generator clock output (= fosc/(UBRRn+1)). The Transmitter divides the
baud rate generator clock output by 2, 8 or 16 depending on mode. The baud rate generator output is used directly by the Receiver’s clock and data recovery units. However, the recovery units
use a state machine that uses 2, 8 or 16 states depending on mode set by the state of the
UMSELn, U2Xn and DDR_XCK bits.
Table 19-1 on page 172 contains equations for calculating the baud rate (in bits per second) and
for calculating the UBRRn value for each mode of operation using an internally generated clock
source.
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Table 19-1.
Equations for Calculating Baud Rate Register Setting
Equation for Calculating Baud
Rate(1)
Operating Mode
Equation for Calculating UBRRn
Value
f OSC
BAUD = ----------------------------------------16 ( UBRRn + 1 )
f OSC
UBRRn = -----------------------–1
16BAUD
Asynchronous Double
Speed mode (U2Xn = 1)
f OSC
BAUD = -------------------------------------8 ( UBRRn + 1 )
f OSC
-–1
UBRRn = ------------------8BAUD
Synchronous Master
mode
f OSC
BAUD = -------------------------------------2 ( UBRRn + 1 )
f OSC
-–1
UBRRn = ------------------2BAUD
Asynchronous Normal
mode (U2Xn = 0)
Note:
1. The baud rate is defined to be the transfer rate in bit per second (bps)
BAUD
Baud rate (in bits per second, bps).
fOSC
System Oscillator clock frequency.
UBRRn
Contents of the UBRRHn and UBRRLn Registers, (0-4095).
Some examples of UBRRn values for some system clock frequencies are found in Table 19-4 on
page 190.
19.3.2
Double Speed Operation (U2Xn)
The transfer rate can be doubled by setting the U2Xn bit in UCSRnA. Setting this bit only has
effect for the asynchronous operation. Set this bit to zero when using synchronous operation.
Setting this bit will reduce the divisor of the baud rate divider from 16 to 8, effectively doubling
the transfer rate for asynchronous communication. Note however that the Receiver will in this
case only use half the number of samples (reduced from 16 to 8) for data sampling and clock
recovery, and therefore a more accurate baud rate setting and system clock are required when
this mode is used. For the Transmitter, there are no downsides.
19.3.3
External Clock
External clocking is used by the synchronous slave modes of operation. The description in this
section refers to Figure 19-2 on page 171 for details.
External clock input from the XCK pin is sampled by a synchronization register to minimize the
chance of meta-stability. The output from the synchronization register must then pass through
an edge detector before it can be used by the Transmitter and Receiver. This process introduces a two CPU clock period delay and therefore the maximum external XCK clock frequency
is limited by the following equation:
f OSC
f XCK < ----------4
Note that fosc depends on the stability of the system clock source. It is therefore recommended to
add some margin to avoid possible loss of data due to frequency variations.
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19.3.4
Synchronous Clock Operation
When synchronous mode is used (UMSELn = 1), the XCK pin will be used as either clock input
(Slave) or clock output (Master). The dependency between the clock edges and data sampling
or data change is the same. The basic principle is that data input (on RxD) is sampled at the
opposite XCK clock edge of the edge the data output (TxD) is changed.
Figure 19-3. Synchronous Mode XCK Timing.
UCPOL = 1
XCK
RxD / TxD
Sample
UCPOL = 0
XCK
RxD / TxD
Sample
The UCPOLn bit UCRSC selects which XCK clock edge is used for data sampling and which is
used for data change. As Figure 19-3 shows, when UCPOLn is zero the data will be changed at
rising XCK edge and sampled at falling XCK edge. If UCPOLn is set, the data will be changed at
falling XCK edge and sampled at rising XCK edge.
19.4
Frame Formats
A serial frame is defined to be one character of data bits with synchronization bits (start and stop
bits), and optionally a parity bit for error checking. The USART accepts all 30 combinations of
the following as valid frame formats:
• 1 start bit
• 5, 6, 7, 8, or 9 data bits
• no, even or odd parity bit
• 1 or 2 stop bits
A frame starts with the start bit followed by the least significant data bit. Then the next data bits,
up to a total of nine, are succeeding, ending with the most significant bit. If enabled, the parity bit
is inserted after the data bits, before the stop bits. When a complete frame is transmitted, it can
be directly followed by a new frame, or the communication line can be set to an idle (high) state.
Figure 19-4 on page 174 illustrates the possible combinations of the frame formats. Bits inside
brackets are optional.
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Figure 19-4. Frame Formats
FRAME
(IDLE)
St
0
1
2
3
4
[5]
[6]
[7]
[8]
[P]
Sp1 [Sp2]
(St / IDLE)
St
Start bit, always low.
(n)
Data bits (0 to 8).
P
Parity bit. Can be odd or even.
Sp
Stop bit, always high.
IDLE
No transfers on the communication line (RxD or TxD). An IDLE line must
be high.
The frame format used by the USART is set by the UCSZn2:0, UPM1n:0 and USBSn bits in
UCSRnB and UCSRnC. The Receiver and Transmitter use the same setting. Note that changing
the setting of any of these bits will corrupt all ongoing communication for both the Receiver and
Transmitter.
The USART Character SiZe (UCSZn2:0) bits select the number of data bits in the frame. The
USART Parity mode (UPM1n:0) bits enable and set the type of parity bit. The selection between
one or two stop bits is done by the USART Stop Bit Select (USBSn) bit. The Receiver ignores
the second stop bit. An FEn (Frame Error FEn) will therefore only be detected in the cases
where the first stop bit is zero.
19.4.1
Parity Bit Calculation
The parity bit is calculated by doing an exclusive-or of all the data bits. If odd parity is used, the
result of the exclusive or is inverted. The relation between the parity bit and data bits is as
follows:
P even = d n – 1 ⊕ … ⊕ d 3 ⊕ d 2 ⊕ d 1 ⊕ d 0 ⊕ 0
P odd = d n – 1 ⊕ … ⊕ d 3 ⊕ d 2 ⊕ d 1 ⊕ d 0 ⊕ 1
Peven
Parity bit using even parity.
Podd
Parity bit using odd parity.
dn
Data bit n of the character.
If used, the parity bit is located between the last data bit and first stop bit of a serial frame.
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19.5
USART Initialization
The USART has to be initialized before any communication can take place. The initialization process normally consists of setting the baud rate, setting frame format and enabling the
Transmitter or the Receiver depending on the usage. For interrupt driven USART operation, the
Global Interrupt Flag should be cleared (and interrupts globally disabled) when doing the
initialization.
Before doing a re-initialization with changed baud rate or frame format, be sure that there are no
ongoing transmissions during the period the registers are changed. The TXCn Flag can be used
to check that the Transmitter has completed all transfers, and the RXCn Flag can be used to
check that there are no unread data in the receive buffer. Note that the TXCn Flag must be
cleared before each transmission (before UDRn is written) if it is used for this purpose.
The following simple USART initialization code examples show one assembly and one C function that are equal in functionality. The examples assume asynchronous operation using polling
(no interrupts enabled) and a fixed frame format. The baud rate is given as a function parameter.
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For the assembly code, the baud rate parameter is assumed to be stored in the r17:r16
Registers.
Assembly Code Example(1)
USART_Init:
; Set baud rate
sts
UBRRH0, r17
sts
UBRRL0, r16
; Enable receiver and transmitter
ldi
r16, (1<<RXEN0)|(1<<TXEN0)
sts
UCSR0B,r16
; Set frame format: 8data, 2stop bit
ldi
r16, (1<<USBS0)|(3<<UCSZ00)
sts
UCSR0C,r16
ret
C Code Example(1)
#define FOSC 1843200// Clock Speed
#define BAUD 9600
#define MYUBRR FOSC/16/BAUD-1
void main( void )
{
...
USART_Init ( MYUBRR );
...
}
void USART_Init( unsigned int ubrr)
{
/* Set baud rate */
UBRRH0 = (unsigned char)(ubrr>>8);
UBRRL0 = (unsigned char)ubrr;
/* Enable receiver and transmitter */
UCSR0B = (1<<RXEN0)|(1<<TXEN0);
/* Set frame format: 8data, 2stop bit */
UCSRnC = (1<<USBS0)|(3<<UCSZ00);
}
Note:
1. See ”About Code Examples” on page 10.
More advanced initialization routines can be made that include frame format as parameters, disable interrupts and so on. However, many applications use a fixed setting of the baud and
control registers, and for these types of applications the initialization code can be placed directly
in the main routine, or be combined with initialization code for other I/O modules.
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19.6
Data Transmission – The USART Transmitter
The USART Transmitter is enabled by setting the Transmit Enable (TXENn) bit in the UCSRnB
Register. When the Transmitter is enabled, the normal port operation of the TxD pin is overridden by the USART and given the function as the Transmitter’s serial output. The baud rate,
mode of operation and frame format must be set up once before doing any transmissions. If synchronous operation is used, the clock on the XCK pin will be overridden and used as
transmission clock.
19.6.1
Sending Frames with 5 to 8 Data Bit
A data transmission is initiated by loading the transmit buffer with the data to be transmitted. The
CPU can load the transmit buffer by writing to the UDRn I/O location. The buffered data in the
transmit buffer will be moved to the Shift Register when the Shift Register is ready to send a new
frame. The Shift Register is loaded with new data if it is in idle state (no ongoing transmission) or
immediately after the last stop bit of the previous frame is transmitted. When the Shift Register is
loaded with new data, it will transfer one complete frame at the rate given by the Baud Register,
U2Xn bit or by XCK depending on mode of operation.
The following code examples show a simple USART transmit function based on polling of the
Data Register Empty (UDREn) Flag. When using frames with less than eight bits, the most significant bits written to the UDRn are ignored. The USART has to be initialized before the function
can be used. For the assembly code, the data to be sent is assumed to be stored in Register
R16.
Assembly Code Example(1)
USART_Transmit:
; Wait for empty transmit buffer
sbis UCSR0A,UDREn
rjmp USART_Transmit
; Put data (r16) into buffer, sends the data
sts
UDR0,r16
ret
C Code Example(1)
void USART_Transmit( unsigned char data )
{
/* Wait for empty transmit buffer */
while ( !( UCSR0A & (1<<UDRE0)) )
;
/* Put data into buffer, sends the data */
UDR0 = data;
}
Note:
1. See ”About Code Examples” on page 10.
The function simply waits for the transmit buffer to be empty by checking the UDREn Flag,
before loading it with new data to be transmitted. If the Data Register Empty interrupt is utilized,
the interrupt routine writes the data into the buffer.
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19.6.2
Sending Frames with 9 Data Bit
If 9-bit characters are used (UCSZ = 7), the ninth bit must be written to the TXB8n bit in
UCSRnB before the low byte of the character is written to UDRn. The following code examples
show a transmit function that handles 9-bit characters. For the assembly code, the data to be
sent is assumed to be stored in registers R17:R16.
Assembly Code Example(1)(2)
USART_Transmit:
; Wait for empty transmit buffer
sbis UCSR0A,UDRE0
rjmp USART_Transmit
; Copy 9th bit from r17 to TXB80
cbi
UCSR0B,TXB80
sbrc r17,0
sbi
UCSR0B,TXB80
; Put LSB data (r16) into buffer, sends the data
sts
UDR0,r16
ret
C Code Example(1)(2)
void USART_Transmit( unsigned int data )
{
/* Wait for empty transmit buffer */
while ( !( UCSR0A & (1<<UDRE0))) )
;
/* Copy 9th bit to TXB8n */
UCSR0B &= ~(1<<TXB80);
if ( data & 0x0100 )
UCSR0B |= (1<<TXB80);
/* Put data into buffer, sends the data */
UDR0 = data;
}
Notes:
1. These transmit functions are written to be general functions. They can be optimized if the contents of the UCSRnB is static. For example, only the TXB8n bit of the UCSRnB Register is
used after initialization.
2. See ”About Code Examples” on page 10.
The ninth bit can be used for indicating an address frame when using multi processor communication mode or for other protocol handling as for example synchronization.
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19.6.3
Transmitter Flags and Interrupts
The USART Transmitter has two flags that indicate its state: USART Data Register Empty
(UDREn) and Transmit Complete (TXCn). Both flags can be used for generating interrupts.
The Data Register Empty (UDREn) Flag indicates whether the transmit buffer is ready to receive
new data. This bit is set when the transmit buffer is empty, and cleared when the transmit buffer
contains data to be transmitted that has not yet been moved into the Shift Register. For compatibility with future devices, always write this bit to zero when writing the UCSRnA Register.
When the Data Register Empty Interrupt Enable (UDRIEn) bit in UCSRnB is written to one, the
USART Data Register Empty Interrupt will be executed as long as UDREn is set (provided that
global interrupts are enabled). UDREn is cleared by writing UDRn. When interrupt-driven data
transmission is used, the Data Register Empty interrupt routine must either write new data to
UDRn in order to clear UDREn or disable the Data Register Empty interrupt, otherwise a new
interrupt will occur once the interrupt routine terminates.
The Transmit Complete (TXCn) Flag bit is set one when the entire frame in the Transmit Shift
Register has been shifted out and there are no new data currently present in the transmit buffer.
The TXCn Flag bit is automatically cleared when a transmit complete interrupt is executed, or it
can be cleared by writing a one to its bit location. The TXCn Flag is useful in half-duplex communication interfaces (like the RS-485 standard), where a transmitting application must enter
receive mode and free the communication bus immediately after completing the transmission.
When the Transmit Compete Interrupt Enable (TXCIEn) bit in UCSRnB is set, the USART
Transmit Complete Interrupt will be executed when the TXCn Flag becomes set (provided that
global interrupts are enabled). When the transmit complete interrupt is used, the interrupt handling routine does not have to clear the TXCn Flag, this is done automatically when the interrupt
is executed.
19.6.4
Parity Generator
The Parity Generator calculates the parity bit for the serial frame data. When parity bit is enabled
(UPM1n = 1), the transmitter control logic inserts the parity bit between the last data bit and the
first stop bit of the frame that is sent.
19.6.5
Disabling the Transmitter
The disabling of the Transmitter (setting the TXENn to zero) will not become effective until ongoing and pending transmissions are completed, that is, when the Transmit Shift Register and
Transmit Buffer Register do not contain data to be transmitted. When disabled, the Transmitter
will no longer override the TxD pin.
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19.7
Data Reception – The USART Receiver
The USART Receiver is enabled by writing the Receive Enable (RXENn) bit in the UCSRnB
Register to one. When the Receiver is enabled, the normal pin operation of the RxD pin is overridden by the USART and given the function as the Receiver’s serial input. The baud rate, mode
of operation and frame format must be set up once before any serial reception can be done. If
synchronous operation is used, the clock on the XCK pin will be used as transfer clock.
19.7.1
Receiving Frames with 5 to 8 Data Bits
The Receiver starts data reception when it detects a valid start bit. Each bit that follows the start
bit will be sampled at the baud rate or XCK clock, and shifted into the Receive Shift Register until
the first stop bit of a frame is received. A second stop bit will be ignored by the Receiver. When
the first stop bit is received, that is, a complete serial frame is present in the Receive Shift Register, the contents of the Shift Register will be moved into the receive buffer. The receive buffer
can then be read by reading the UDRn I/O location.
The following code example shows a simple USART receive function based on polling of the
Receive Complete (RXCn) Flag. When using frames with less than eight bits the most significant
bits of the data read from the UDRn will be masked to zero. The USART has to be initialized
before the function can be used.
Assembly Code Example(1)
USART_Receive:
; Wait for data to be received
sbis UCSR0A, RXC0
rjmp USART_Receive
; Get and return received data from buffer
in
r16, UDR0
ret
C Code Example(1)
unsigned char USART_Receive( void )
{
/* Wait for data to be received */
while ( !(UCSR0A & (1<<RXC0)) )
;
/* Get and return received data from buffer */
return UDR0;
}
Note:
1. See ”About Code Examples” on page 10.
The function simply waits for data to be present in the receive buffer by checking the RXCn Flag,
before reading the buffer and returning the value.
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19.7.2
Receiving Frames with 9 Data Bits
If 9-bit characters are used (UCSZ=7) the ninth bit must be read from the RXB8n bit in UCSRnB
before reading the low bits from the UDRn. This rule applies to the FEn, DORn and UPEn Status Flags as well. Read status from UCSRnA, then data from UDRn. Reading the UDRn I/O
location will change the state of the receive buffer FIFO and consequently the TXB8n, FEn,
DORn and UPEn bits, which all are stored in the FIFO, will change.
The following code example shows a simple USART receive function that handles both nine bit
characters and the status bits.
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Assembly Code Example(1)
USART_Receive:
; Wait for data to be received
sbis UCSR0A, RXC0
rjmp USART_Receive
; Get status and 9th bit, then data from buffer
in
r18, UCSR0A
in
r17, UCSR0B
in
r16, UDR0
; If error, return -1
andi r18,(1<<FE0)|(1<<DOR0)|(1<<UPE0)
breq USART_ReceiveNoError
ldi
r17, HIGH(-1)
ldi
r16, LOW(-1)
USART_ReceiveNoError:
; Filter the 9th bit, then return
lsr
r17
andi r17, 0x01
ret
C Code Example(1)
unsigned int USART_Receive( void )
{
unsigned char status, resh, resl;
/* Wait for data to be received */
while ( !(UCSRnA & (1<<RXCn)) )
;
/* Get status and 9th bit, then data */
/* from buffer */
status = UCSR0A;
resh = UCSR0B;
resl = UDR0;
/* If error, return -1 */
if ( status & (1<<FE0)|(1<<DOR0)|(1<<UPE0) )
return -1;
/* Filter the 9th bit, then return */
resh = (resh >> 1) & 0x01;
return ((resh << 8) | resl);
}
Note:
1. ”About Code Examples” on page 10.
The receive function example reads all the I/O Registers into the Register File before any computation is done. This gives an optimal receive buffer utilization since the buffer location read will
be free to accept new data as early as possible.
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19.7.3
Receive Compete Flag and Interrupt
The USART Receiver has one flag that indicates the Receiver state.
The Receive Complete (RXCn) Flag indicates if there are unread data present in the receive buffer. This flag is one when unread data exist in the receive buffer, and zero when the receive
buffer is empty (that is, does not contain any unread data). If the Receiver is disabled (RXENn =
0), the receive buffer will be flushed and consequently the RXCn bit will become zero.
When the Receive Complete Interrupt Enable (RXCIEn) in UCSRnB is set, the USART Receive
Complete interrupt will be executed as long as the RXCn Flag is set (provided that global interrupts are enabled). When interrupt-driven data reception is used, the receive complete routine
must read the received data from UDRn in order to clear the RXCn Flag, otherwise a new interrupt will occur once the interrupt routine terminates.
19.7.4
Receiver Error Flags
The USART Receiver has three Error Flags: Frame Error (FEn), Data OverRun (DORn) and
Parity Error (UPEn). All can be accessed by reading UCSRnA. Common for the Error Flags is
that they are located in the receive buffer together with the frame for which they indicate the
error status. Due to the buffering of the Error Flags, the UCSRnA must be read before the
receive buffer (UDRn), since reading the UDRn I/O location changes the buffer read location.
Another equality for the Error Flags is that they can not be altered by software doing a write to
the flag location. However, all flags must be set to zero when the UCSRnA is written for upward
compatibility of future USART implementations. None of the Error Flags can generate interrupts.
The Frame Error (FEn) Flag indicates the state of the first stop bit of the next readable frame
stored in the receive buffer. The FEn Flag is zero when the stop bit was correctly read (as one),
and the FEn Flag will be one when the stop bit was incorrect (zero). This flag can be used for
detecting out-of-sync conditions, detecting break conditions and protocol handling. The FEn
Flag is not affected by the setting of the USBSn bit in UCSRnC since the Receiver ignores all,
except for the first, stop bits. For compatibility with future devices, always set this bit to zero
when writing to UCSRnA.
The Data OverRun (DORn) Flag indicates data loss due to a receiver buffer full condition. A
Data OverRun occurs when the receive buffer is full (two characters), it is a new character waiting in the Receive Shift Register, and a new start bit is detected. If the DORn Flag is set there
was one or more serial frame lost between the frame last read from UDRn, and the next frame
read from UDRn. For compatibility with future devices, always write this bit to zero when writing
to UCSRnA. The DORn Flag is cleared when the frame received was successfully moved from
the Shift Register to the receive buffer.
The Parity Error (UPEn) Flag indicates that the next frame in the receive buffer had a Parity
Error when received. If Parity Check is not enabled the UPEn bit will always be read zero. For
compatibility with future devices, always set this bit to zero when writing to UCSRnA. For more
details see ”Parity Bit Calculation” on page 174 and ”Parity Checker” on page 184.
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19.7.5
Parity Checker
The Parity Checker is active when the high USART Parity mode (UPM1n) bit is set. Type of Parity Check to be performed (odd or even) is selected by the UPM0n bit. When enabled, the Parity
Checker calculates the parity of the data bits in incoming frames and compares the result with
the parity bit from the serial frame. The result of the check is stored in the receive buffer together
with the received data and stop bits. The Parity Error (UPEn) Flag can then be read by software
to check if the frame had a Parity Error.
The UPEn bit is set if the next character that can be read from the receive buffer had a Parity
Error when received and the Parity Checking was enabled at that point (UPM1n = 1). This bit is
valid until the receive buffer (UDRn) is read.
19.7.6
Disabling the Receiver
In contrast to the Transmitter, disabling of the Receiver will be immediate. Data from ongoing
receptions will therefore be lost. When disabled (that is, the RXENn is set to zero) the Receiver
will no longer override the normal function of the RxD port pin. The Receiver buffer FIFO will be
flushed when the Receiver is disabled. Remaining data in the buffer will be lost.
19.7.7
Flushing the Receive Buffer
The receiver buffer FIFO will be flushed when the Receiver is disabled, that is, the buffer will be
emptied of its contents. Unread data will be lost. If the buffer has to be flushed during normal
operation, due to for instance an error condition, read the UDRn I/O location until the RXCn Flag
is cleared. The following code example shows how to flush the receive buffer.
Assembly Code Example(1)
USART_Flush:
sbis UCSR0A, RXC0
ret
in
r16, UDR0
rjmp USART_Flush
C Code Example(1)
void USART_Flush( void )
{
unsigned char dummy;
while ( UCSR0A & (1<<RXC0) ) dummy = UDR0;
}
Note:
1. See ”About Code Examples” on page 10.
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19.8
Asynchronous Data Reception
The USART includes a clock recovery and a data recovery unit for handling asynchronous data
reception. The clock recovery logic is used for synchronizing the internally generated baud rate
clock to the incoming asynchronous serial frames at the RxD pin. The data recovery logic samples and low pass filters each incoming bit, thereby improving the noise immunity of the
Receiver. The asynchronous reception operational range depends on the accuracy of the internal baud rate clock, the rate of the incoming frames, and the frame size in number of bits.
19.8.1
Asynchronous Clock Recovery
The clock recovery logic synchronizes internal clock to the incoming serial frames. Figure 19-5
illustrates the sampling process of the start bit of an incoming frame. The sample rate is 16 times
the baud rate for Normal mode, and eight times the baud rate for Double Speed mode. The horizontal arrows illustrate the synchronization variation due to the sampling process. Note the
larger time variation when using the Double Speed mode (U2Xn = 1) of operation. Samples
denoted zero are samples done when the RxD line is idle (that is, no communication activity).
Figure 19-5. Start Bit Sampling
RxD
IDLE
START
BIT 0
Sample
(U2X = 0)
0
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
1
2
3
Sample
(U2X = 1)
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
1
2
When the clock recovery logic detects a high (idle) to low (start) transition on the RxD line, the
start bit detection sequence is initiated. Let sample 1 denote the first zero-sample as shown in
the figure. The clock recovery logic then uses samples 8, 9, and 10 for Normal mode, and samples 4, 5, and 6 for Double Speed mode (indicated with sample numbers inside boxes on the
figure), to decide if a valid start bit is received. If two or more of these three samples have logical
high levels (the majority wins), the start bit is rejected as a noise spike and the Receiver starts
looking for the next high to low-transition. If however, a valid start bit is detected, the clock recovery logic is synchronized and the data recovery can begin. The synchronization process is
repeated for each start bit.
19.8.2
Asynchronous Data Recovery
When the receiver clock is synchronized to the start bit, the data recovery can begin. The data
recovery unit uses a state machine that has 16 states for each bit in Normal mode and eight
states for each bit in Double Speed mode. Figure 19-6 on page 186 shows the sampling of the
data bits and the parity bit. Each of the samples is given a number that is equal to the state of
the recovery unit.
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Figure 19-6. Sampling of Data and Parity Bit
RxD
BIT n
Sample
(U2X = 0)
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
1
Sample
(U2X = 1)
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
1
The decision of the logic level of the received bit is taken by doing a majority voting of the logic
value to the three samples in the center of the received bit. The center samples are emphasized
on the figure by having the sample number inside boxes. The majority voting process is done as
follows: If two or all three samples have high levels, the received bit is registered to be a logic 1.
If two or all three samples have low levels, the received bit is registered to be a logic 0. This
majority voting process acts as a low pass filter for the incoming signal on the RxD pin. The
recovery process is then repeated until a complete frame is received. Including the first stop bit.
Note that the Receiver only uses the first stop bit of a frame.
Figure 19-7 shows the sampling of the stop bit and the earliest possible beginning of the start bit
of the next frame.
Figure 19-7. Stop Bit Sampling and Next Start Bit Sampling
RxD
STOP 1
(A)
(B)
(C)
Sample
(U2X = 0)
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
0/1
0/1
0/1
Sample
(U2X = 1)
1
2
3
4
5
6
0/1
The same majority voting is done to the stop bit as done for the other bits in the frame. If the stop
bit is registered to have a logic 0 value, the Frame Error (FEn) Flag will be set.
A new high to low transition indicating the start bit of a new frame can come right after the last of
the bits used for majority voting. For Normal Speed mode, the first low level sample can be at
point marked (A) in Figure 19-7. For Double Speed mode the first low level must be delayed to
(B). (C) marks a stop bit of full length. The early start bit detection influences the operational
range of the Receiver.
19.8.3
Asynchronous Operational Range
The operational range of the Receiver is dependent on the mismatch between the received bit
rate and the internally generated baud rate. If the Transmitter is sending frames at too fast or too
slow bit rates, or the internally generated baud rate of the Receiver does not have a similar (see
Table 19-2 on page 187) base frequency, the Receiver will not be able to synchronize the
frames to the start bit.
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The following equations can be used to calculate the ratio of the incoming data rate and internal
receiver baud rate.
( D + 1 )S
R slow = ------------------------------------------S – 1 + D ⋅ S + SF
( D + 2 )S
R fast = ----------------------------------( D + 1 )S + S M
D
Sum of character size and parity size (D = 5 to 10 bit).
S
Samples per bit. S = 16 for Normal Speed mode and S = 8 for Double Speed
mode.
SF
First sample number used for majority voting. SF = 8 for normal speed and SF = 4
for Double Speed mode.
SM
Middle sample number used for majority voting. SM = 9 for normal speed and
SM = 5 for Double Speed mode.
Rslow
is the ratio of the slowest incoming data rate that can be accepted in relation to the
receiver baud rate. Rfast is the ratio of the fastest incoming data rate that can be
accepted in relation to the receiver baud rate.
Table 19-2 and Table 19-3 list the maximum receiver baud rate error that can be tolerated. Note
that Normal Speed mode has higher toleration of baud rate variations.
Table 19-2.
Recommended Maximum Receiver Baud Rate Error for Normal Speed Mode
(U2Xn = 0)
D
# (Data+Parity Bit)
Rslow (%)
Rfast (%)
Max Total Error (%)
Recommended Max
Receiver Error (%)
5
93.20
106.67
+6.67/-6.8
±3.0
6
94.12
105.79
+5.79/-5.88
±2.5
7
94.81
105.11
+5.11/-5.19
±2.0
8
95.36
104.58
+4.58/-4.54
±2.0
9
95.81
104.14
+4.14/-4.19
±1.5
10
96.17
103.78
+3.78/-3.83
±1.5
Table 19-3.
Recommended Maximum Receiver Baud Rate Error for Double Speed Mode
(U2Xn = 1)
D
# (Data+Parity Bit)
Rslow (%)
Rfast (%)
Max Total Error (%)
Recommended Max
Receiver Error (%)
5
94.12
105.66
+5.66/-5.88
±2.5
6
94.92
104.92
+4.92/-5.08
±2.0
7
95.52
104.35
+4.35/-4.48
±1.5
8
96.00
103.90
+3.90/-4.00
±1.5
9
96.39
103.53
+3.53/-3.61
±1.5
10
96.70
103.23
+3.23/-3.30
±1.0
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The recommendations of the maximum receiver baud rate error was made under the assumption that the Receiver and Transmitter equally divides the maximum total error.
There are two possible sources for the receivers baud rate error. The Receiver’s system clock
(XTAL) will always have some minor instability over the supply voltage range and the temperature range. When using a crystal to generate the system clock, this is rarely a problem, but for a
resonator the system clock may differ more than 2% depending of the resonators tolerance. The
second source for the error is more controllable. The baud rate generator can not always do an
exact division of the system frequency to get the baud rate wanted. In this case an UBRRn value
that gives an acceptable low error can be used if possible.
19.9
Multi-processor Communication Mode
Setting the Multi-processor Communication mode (MPCMn) bit in UCSRnA enables a filtering
function of incoming frames received by the USART Receiver. Frames that do not contain
address information will be ignored and not put into the receive buffer. This effectively reduces
the number of incoming frames that has to be handled by the CPU, in a system with multiple
MCUs that communicate via the same serial bus. The Transmitter is unaffected by the MPCMn
setting, but has to be used differently when it is a part of a system utilizing the Multi-processor
Communication mode.
If the Receiver is set up to receive frames that contain 5 to 8 data bits, then the first stop bit indicates if the frame contains data or address information. If the Receiver is set up for frames with
nine data bits, then the ninth bit (RXB8n) is used for identifying address and data frames. When
the frame type bit (the first stop or the ninth bit) is one, the frame contains an address. When the
frame type bit is zero the frame is a data frame.
The Multi-processor Communication mode enables several slave MCUs to receive data from a
master MCU. This is done by first decoding an address frame to find out which MCU has been
addressed. If a particular slave MCU has been addressed, it will receive the following data
frames as normal, while the other slave MCUs will ignore the received frames until another
address frame is received.
19.9.1
Using MPCMn
For an MCU to act as a master MCU, it can use a 9-bit character frame format (UCSZ = 7). The
ninth bit (TXB8n) must be set when an address frame (TXB8n = 1) or cleared when a data frame
(TXB = 0) is being transmitted. The slave MCUs must in this case be set to use a 9-bit character
frame format.
The following procedure should be used to exchange data in Multi-processor Communication
mode:
1. All Slave MCUs are in Multi-processor Communication mode (MPCMn in UCSRnA is
set).
2. The Master MCU sends an address frame, and all slaves receive and read this frame. In
the Slave MCUs, the RXCn Flag in UCSRnA will be set as normal.
3. Each Slave MCU reads the UDRn Register and determines if it has been selected. If so,
it clears the MPCMn bit in UCSRnA, otherwise it waits for the next address byte and
keeps the MPCMn setting.
4. The addressed MCU will receive all data frames until a new address frame is received.
The other Slave MCUs, which still have the MPCMn bit set, will ignore the data frames.
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5. When the last data frame is received by the addressed MCU, the addressed MCU sets
the MPCMn bit and waits for a new address frame from master. The process then
repeats from 2.
Using any of the 5-bit to 8-bit character frame formats is possible, but impractical since the
Receiver must change between using n and n+1 character frame formats. This makes fullduplex operation difficult since the Transmitter and Receiver uses the same character size setting. If 5-bit to 8-bit character frames are used, the Transmitter must be set to use two stop bit
(USBSn = 1) since the first stop bit is used for indicating the frame type.
Do not use Read-Modify-Write instructions (SBI and CBI) to set or clear the MPCMn bit. The
MPCMn bit shares the same I/O location as the TXCn Flag and this might accidentally be
cleared when using SBI or CBI instructions.
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19.10 Examples of Baud Rate Setting
For standard crystal and resonator frequencies, the most commonly used baud rates for asynchronous operation can be generated by using the UBRRn settings in Table 19-4. UBRRn
values which yield an actual baud rate differing less than 0.5% from the target baud rate, are
bold in the table. Higher error ratings are acceptable, but the Receiver will have less noise resistance when the error ratings are high, especially for large serial frames (see ”Asynchronous
Operational Range” on page 186). The error values are calculated using the following equation:
BaudRate Closest Match
Error[%] = ⎛⎝ ------------------------------------------------------- – 1⎞⎠ • 100%
BaudRate
Table 19-4.
Examples of UBRRn Settings for Commonly Used Oscillator Frequencies
fosc = 1.0000 MHz
fosc = 1.8432 MHz
Baud
Rate
(bps)
UBRRn
2400
25
0.2%
51
0.2%
47
4800
12
0.2%
25
0.2%
9600
6
-7.0%
12
14.4k
3
8.5%
19.2k
2
28.8k
U2Xn = 0
U2Xn = 1
UBRRn
Error
0.0%
95
0.0%
51
0.2%
103
0.2%
23
0.0%
47
0.0%
25
0.2%
51
0.2%
0.2%
11
0.0%
23
0.0%
12
0.2%
25
0.2%
8
-3.5%
7
0.0%
15
0.0%
8
-3.5%
16
2.1%
8.5%
6
-7.0%
5
0.0%
11
0.0%
6
-7.0%
12
0.2%
1
8.5%
3
8.5%
3
0.0%
7
0.0%
3
8.5%
8
-3.5%
38.4k
1
-18.6%
2
8.5%
2
0.0%
5
0.0%
2
8.5%
6
-7.0%
57.6k
0
8.5%
1
8.5%
1
0.0%
3
0.0%
1
8.5%
3
8.5%
76.8k
–
–
1
-18.6%
1
-25.0%
2
0.0%
1
-18.6%
2
8.5%
115.2k
–
–
0
8.5%
0
0.0%
1
0.0%
0
8.5%
1
8.5%
230.4k
–
–
–
–
–
–
0
0.0%
–
–
–
–
250k
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
0
0.0%
Note:
125 Kbps
UBRRn
Error
U2Xn = 1
UBRRn
62.5 Kbps
Error
U2Xn = 0
Error
Max.
UBRRn
U2Xn = 1
UBRRn
(1)
Error
U2Xn = 0
fosc = 2.0000 MHz
115.2 Kbps
230.4 Kbps
Error
125 Kbps
250 Kbps
1. UBRRn = 0, Error = 0%.
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Table 19-5.
Examples of UBRRn Settings for Commonly Used Oscillator Frequencies (Continued)
fosc = 3.6864 MHz
Baud
Rate
(bps)
U2Xn = 0
fosc = 4.0000 MHz
U2Xn = 1
U2Xn = 0
fosc = 7.3728 MHz
U2Xn = 1
U2Xn = 0
U2Xn = 1
UBRRn
Error
UBRRn
Error
UBRRn
Error
UBRRn
Error
UBRRn
Error
UBRRn
Error
2400
95
0.0%
191
0.0%
103
0.2%
207
0.2%
191
0.0%
383
0.0%
4800
47
0.0%
95
0.0%
51
0.2%
103
0.2%
95
0.0%
191
0.0%
9600
23
0.0%
47
0.0%
25
0.2%
51
0.2%
47
0.0%
95
0.0%
14.4k
15
0.0%
31
0.0%
16
2.1%
34
-0.8%
31
0.0%
63
0.0%
19.2k
11
0.0%
23
0.0%
12
0.2%
25
0.2%
23
0.0%
47
0.0%
28.8k
7
0.0%
15
0.0%
8
-3.5%
16
2.1%
15
0.0%
31
0.0%
38.4k
5
0.0%
11
0.0%
6
-7.0%
12
0.2%
11
0.0%
23
0.0%
57.6k
3
0.0%
7
0.0%
3
8.5%
8
-3.5%
7
0.0%
15
0.0%
76.8k
2
0.0%
5
0.0%
2
8.5%
6
-7.0%
5
0.0%
11
0.0%
115.2k
1
0.0%
3
0.0%
1
8.5%
3
8.5%
3
0.0%
7
0.0%
230.4k
0
0.0%
1
0.0%
0
8.5%
1
8.5%
1
0.0%
3
0.0%
250k
0
-7.8%
1
-7.8%
0
0.0%
1
0.0%
1
-7.8%
3
-7.8%
0.5M
–
–
0
-7.8%
–
–
0
0.0%
0
-7.8%
1
-7.8%
1M
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
0
-7.8%
Max.
Note:
(1)
230.4 Kbps
460.8 Kbps
250 Kbps
0.5 Mbps
460.8 Kbps
921.6 Kbps
1. UBRRn = 0, Error = 0.0%
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Table 19-6.
Examples of UBRRn Settings for Commonly Used Oscillator Frequencies (Continued)
fosc = 11.0592 MHz
fosc = 8.0000 MHz
fosc = 14.7456 MHz
Baud
Rate
(bps)
UBRRn
Error
UBRRn
Error
UBRRn
Error
UBRRn
Error
UBRRn
Error
UBRRn
Error
2400
207
0.2%
416
-0.1%
287
0.0%
575
0.0%
383
0.0%
767
0.0%
4800
103
0.2%
207
0.2%
143
0.0%
287
0.0%
191
0.0%
383
0.0%
9600
51
0.2%
103
0.2%
71
0.0%
143
0.0%
95
0.0%
191
0.0%
14.4k
34
-0.8%
68
0.6%
47
0.0%
95
0.0%
63
0.0%
127
0.0%
19.2k
25
0.2%
51
0.2%
35
0.0%
71
0.0%
47
0.0%
95
0.0%
28.8k
16
2.1%
34
-0.8%
23
0.0%
47
0.0%
31
0.0%
63
0.0%
38.4k
12
0.2%
25
0.2%
17
0.0%
35
0.0%
23
0.0%
47
0.0%
57.6k
8
-3.5%
16
2.1%
11
0.0%
23
0.0%
15
0.0%
31
0.0%
76.8k
6
-7.0%
12
0.2%
8
0.0%
17
0.0%
11
0.0%
23
0.0%
115.2k
3
8.5%
8
-3.5%
5
0.0%
11
0.0%
7
0.0%
15
0.0%
230.4k
1
8.5%
3
8.5%
2
0.0%
5
0.0%
3
0.0%
7
0.0%
250k
1
0.0%
3
0.0%
2
-7.8%
5
-7.8%
3
-7.8%
6
5.3%
0.5M
0
0.0%
1
0.0%
–
–
2
-7.8%
1
-7.8%
3
-7.8%
1M
–
–
0
0.0%
–
–
–
–
0
-7.8%
1
-7.8%
Max.
Note:
U2Xn = 0
(1)
0.5 Mbps
U2Xn = 1
1 Mbps
U2Xn = 0
U2Xn = 1
691.2 Kbps
U2Xn = 0
1.3824 Mbps
921.6 Kbps
U2Xn = 1
1.8432 Mbps
1. UBRRn = 0, Error = 0.0%
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Table 19-7.
Examples of UBRRn Settings for Commonly Used Oscillator Frequencies (Continued)
fosc = 16.0000 MHz
fosc = 18.4320 MHz
fosc = 20.0000 MHz
Baud
Rate
(bps)
UBRRn
Error
UBRRn
Error
UBRRn
Error
UBRRn
Error
UBRRn
Error
UBRRn
Error
2400
416
-0.1%
832
0.0%
479
0.0%
959
0.0%
520
0.0%
1041
0.0%
4800
207
0.2%
416
-0.1%
239
0.0%
479
0.0%
259
0.2%
520
0.0%
9600
103
0.2%
207
0.2%
119
0.0%
239
0.0%
129
0.2%
259
0.2%
14.4k
68
0.6%
138
-0.1%
79
0.0%
159
0.0%
86
-0.2%
173
-0.2%
19.2k
51
0.2%
103
0.2%
59
0.0%
119
0.0%
64
0.2%
129
0.2%
28.8k
34
-0.8%
68
0.6%
39
0.0%
79
0.0%
42
0.9%
86
-0.2%
38.4k
25
0.2%
51
0.2%
29
0.0%
59
0.0%
32
-1.4%
64
0.2%
57.6k
16
2.1%
34
-0.8%
19
0.0%
39
0.0%
21
-1.4%
42
0.9%
76.8k
12
0.2%
25
0.2%
14
0.0%
29
0.0%
15
1.7%
32
-1.4%
115.2k
8
-3.5%
16
2.1%
9
0.0%
19
0.0%
10
-1.4%
21
-1.4%
230.4k
3
8.5%
8
-3.5%
4
0.0%
9
0.0%
4
8.5%
10
-1.4%
250k
3
0.0%
7
0.0%
4
-7.8%
8
2.4%
4
0.0%
9
0.0%
0.5M
1
0.0%
3
0.0%
–
–
4
-7.8%
–
–
4
0.0%
1M
0
0.0%
1
0.0%
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
Max.
Note:
U2Xn = 0
(1)
1 Mbps
U2Xn = 1
2 Mbps
U2Xn = 0
U2Xn = 1
1.152 Mbps
U2Xn = 0
2.304 Mbps
U2Xn = 1
1.25 Mbps
2.5 Mbps
1. UBRRn = 0, Error = 0.0%
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19.11 USART Register Description
19.11.1
UDRn – USART I/O Data Register
Bit
7
6
5
4
(0xC6)
3
2
1
0
RXB[7:0]
UDRn (Read)
TXB[7:0]
UDRn (Write)
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
The USART Transmit Data Buffer Register and USART Receive Data Buffer Registers share the
same I/O address referred to as USART Data Register or UDRn. The Transmit Data Buffer Register (TXB) will be the destination for data written to the UDRn Register location. Reading the
UDRn Register location will return the contents of the Receive Data Buffer Register (RXB).
For 5-, 6-, or 7-bit characters the upper unused bits will be ignored by the Transmitter and set to
zero by the Receiver.
The transmit buffer can only be written when the UDREn Flag in the UCSRnA Register is set.
Data written to UDRn when the UDREn Flag is not set, will be ignored by the USART Transmitter. When data is written to the transmit buffer, and the Transmitter is enabled, the Transmitter
will load the data into the Transmit Shift Register when the Shift Register is empty. Then the
data will be serially transmitted on the TxD pin.
The receive buffer consists of a two level FIFO. The FIFO will change its state whenever the
receive buffer is accessed. Due to this behavior of the receive buffer, do not use Read-ModifyWrite instructions (SBI and CBI) on this location. Be careful when using bit test instructions
(SBIC and SBIS), since these also will change the state of the FIFO.
19.11.2
UCSRnA – USART Control and Status Register A
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
RXCn
TXCn
UDREn
FEn
DORn
UPEn
U2Xn
MPCMn
Read/Write
R
R/W
R
R
R
R
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
(0xC0)
UCSRnA
• Bit 7 – RXCn: USART Receive Complete n
This flag bit is set when there are unread data in the receive buffer and cleared when the receive
buffer is empty (that is, does not contain any unread data). If the Receiver is disabled, the
receive buffer will be flushed and consequently the RXCn bit will become zero. The RXCn Flag
can be used to generate a Receive Complete interrupt (see description of the RXCIEn bit).
• Bit 6 – TXCn: USART Transmit Complete n
This flag bit is set when the entire frame in the Transmit Shift Register has been shifted out and
there are no new data currently present in the transmit buffer (UDRn). The TXC Flag bit is automatically cleared when a transmit complete interrupt is executed, or it can be cleared by writing
a one to its bit location. The TXC Flag can generate a Transmit Complete interrupt (see description of the TXCIE bit).
• Bit 5 – UDREn: USART Data Register Empty n
The UDREn Flag indicates if the transmit buffer (UDRn) is ready to receive new data. If UDREn
is one, the buffer is empty, and therefore ready to be written. The UDREn Flag can generate a
Data Register Empty interrupt (see description of the UDRIEn bit).
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UDREn is set after a reset to indicate that the Transmitter is ready.
• Bit 4 – FEn: Frame Error n
This bit is set if the next character in the receive buffer had a Frame Error when received, that is,
when the first stop bit of the next character in the receive buffer is zero. This bit is valid until the
receive buffer (UDRn) is read. The FEn bit is zero when the stop bit of received data is one.
Always set this bit to zero when writing to UCSRnA.
• Bit 3 – DORn: Data OverRun n
This bit is set if a Data OverRun condition is detected. A Data OverRun occurs when the receive
buffer is full (two characters), it is a new character waiting in the Receive Shift Register, and a
new start bit is detected. This bit is valid until the receive buffer (UDRn) is read. Always set this
bit to zero when writing to UCSRnA.
• Bit 2 – UPEn: USART Parity Error n
This bit is set if the next character in the receive buffer had a Parity Error when received and the
Parity Checking was enabled at that point (UPM1n = 1). This bit is valid until the receive buffer
(UDRn) is read. Always set this bit to zero when writing to UCSRnA.
• Bit 1 – U2Xn: Double the USART Transmission Speed n
This bit only has effect for the asynchronous operation. Write this bit to zero when using synchronous operation.
Writing this bit to one will reduce the divisor of the baud rate divider from 16 to 8 effectively doubling the transfer rate for asynchronous communication.
• Bit 0 – MPCMn: Multi-processor Communication Mode n
This bit enables the Multi-processor Communication mode. When the MPCMn bit is written to
one, all the incoming frames received by the USART Receiver that do not contain address information will be ignored. The Transmitter is unaffected by the MPCMn setting. For more detailed
information see ”Multi-processor Communication Mode” on page 188.
19.11.3
UCSRnB – USART Control and Status Register n B
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
RXCIEn
TXCIEn
UDRIEn
RXENn
TXENn
UCSZn2
RXB8n
TXB8n
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
(0xC1)
UCSRnB
• Bit 7 – RXCIEn: RX Complete Interrupt Enable n
Writing this bit to one enables interrupt on the RXC Flag. A USART Receive Complete interrupt
will be generated only if the RXCIE bit is written to one, the Global Interrupt Flag in SREG is written to one and the RXC bit in UCSRnA is set.
• Bit 6 – TXCIEn: TX Complete Interrupt Enable n
Writing this bit to one enables interrupt on the TXCn Flag. A USART Transmit Complete interrupt
will be generated only if the TXCIEn bit is written to one, the Global Interrupt Flag in SREG is
written to one and the TXCn bit in UCSRnA is set.
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• Bit 5 – UDRIEn: USART Data Register Empty Interrupt Enable
Writing this bit to one enables interrupt on the UDREn Flag. A Data Register Empty interrupt will
be generated only if the UDRIEn bit is written to one, the Global Interrupt Flag in SREG is written
to one and the UDREn bit in UCSRnA is set.
• Bit 4 – RXENn: Receiver Enable n
Writing this bit to one enables the USART Receiver. The Receiver will override normal port operation for the RxD pin when enabled. Disabling the Receiver will flush the receive buffer
invalidating the FEn, DORn, and UPEn Flags.
• Bit 3 – TXENn: Transmitter Enable n
Writing this bit to one enables the USART Transmitter. The Transmitter will override normal port
operation for the TxD pin when enabled. The disabling of the Transmitter (writing TXENn to
zero) will not become effective until ongoing and pending transmissions are completed, that is,
when the Transmit Shift Register and Transmit Buffer Register do not contain data to be transmitted. When disabled, the Transmitter will no longer override the TxD port.
• Bit 2 – UCSZn2: Character Size n
The UCSZn2 bits combined with the UCSZ1n:0 bit in UCSRnC sets the number of data bits
(Character SiZe) in a frame the Receiver and Transmitter use.
• Bit 1 – RXB8n: Receive Data Bit 8 n
RXB8n is the ninth data bit of the received character when operating with serial frames with nine
data bits. Must be read before reading the low bits from UDRn.
• Bit 0 – TXB8n: Transmit Data Bit 8 n
TXB8n is the ninth data bit in the character to be transmitted when operating with serial frames
with nine data bits. Must be written before writing the low bits to UDRn.
19.11.4
UCSRnC – USART Control and Status Register n C
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
(0xC2)
–
UMSELn
UPMn1
UPMn0
USBSn
UCSZn1
UCSZn0
UCPOLn
Read/Write
R
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
0
UCSRnC
• Bit 6 – UMSELn: USART Mode Select n
This bit selects between asynchronous and synchronous mode of operation.
Table 19-8.
UMSELn Bit Settings
UMSELn
Mode
0
Asynchronous Operation
1
Synchronous Operation
• Bit 5:4 – UPMn[1:0]: Parity Mode
These bits enable and set type of parity generation and check. If enabled, the Transmitter will
automatically generate and send the parity of the transmitted data bits within each frame. The
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Receiver will generate a parity value for the incoming data and compare it to the UPM0n setting.
If a mismatch is detected, the UPEn Flag in UCSRnA will be set.
Table 19-9.
UPM Bits Settings
UPMn1
UPMn0
Parity Mode
0
0
Disabled
0
1
Reserved
1
0
Enabled, Even Parity
1
1
Enabled, Odd Parity
• Bit 3 – USBSn: Stop Bit Select
This bit selects the number of stop bits to be inserted by the Transmitter. The Receiver ignores
this setting.
Table 19-10. USBSn Bit Settings
USBSn
Stop Bit(s)
0
1-bit
1
2-bit
• Bit 2:1 – UCSZn[1:0]: Character Size
The UCSZn[1:0] bits combined with the UCSZn2 bit in UCSRnB sets the number of data bits
(Character SiZe) in a frame the Receiver and Transmitter use.
Table 19-11. UCSZ Bits Settings
UCSZn2
UCSZn1
UCSZn0
Character Size
0
0
0
5-bit
0
0
1
6-bit
0
1
0
7-bit
0
1
1
8-bit
1
0
0
Reserved
1
0
1
Reserved
1
1
0
Reserved
1
1
1
9-bit
• Bit 0 – UCPOLn: Clock Polarity
This bit is used for synchronous mode only. Write this bit to zero when asynchronous mode is
used. The UCPOLn bit sets the relationship between data output change and data input sample,
and the synchronous clock (XCK).
Table 19-12. UCPOLn Bit Settings
Transmitted Data Changed
(Output of TxD Pin)
Received Data Sampled (Input on RxD
Pin)
0
Rising XCK Edge
Falling XCK Edge
1
Falling XCK Edge
Rising XCK Edge
UCPOLn
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19.11.5
UBRRLn and UBRRHn – USART Baud Rate Registers
Bit
15
14
13
12
(0xC5)
–
–
–
–
(0xC4)
Initial Value
10
9
8
UBRRn[11:8]
UBRRHn
UBRRn[7:0]
7
Read/Write
11
6
5
4
3
UBRRLn
2
1
0
R
R
R
R
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
• Bit 15:12 – Reserved Bits
These bits are reserved for future use. For compatibility with future devices, these bit must be
written to zero when UBRRHn is written.
• Bit 11:0 – UBRR11:0: USART Baud Rate Register
This is a 12-bit register which contains the USART baud rate. The UBRRHn contains the four
most significant bits, and the UBRRLn contains the eight least significant bits of the USART
baud rate. Ongoing transmissions by the Transmitter and Receiver will be corrupted if the baud
rate is changed. Writing UBRRLn will trigger an immediate update of the baud rate prescaler.
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20. USI – Universal Serial Interface
The Universal Serial Interface, or USI, provides the basic hardware resources needed for serial
communication. Combined with a minimum of control software, the USI allows significantly
higher transfer rates and uses less code space than solutions based on software only. Interrupts
are included to minimize the processor load. The main features of the USI are:
•
•
•
•
•
•
20.1
Two-wire Synchronous Data Transfer (Master or Slave)
Three-wire Synchronous Data Transfer (Master or Slave)
Data Received Interrupt
Wakeup from Idle Mode
In Two-wire Mode: Wake-up from All Sleep Modes, Including Power-down Mode
Two-wire Start Condition Detector with Interrupt Capability
Overview
A simplified block diagram of the USI is shown on Figure 20-1. For the actual placement of I/O
pins, refer to Figure 1-1 on page 2. CPU accessible I/O Registers, including I/O bits and I/O pins,
are shown in bold. The device-specific I/O Register and bit locations are listed in the ”USI Register Descriptions” on page 207.
Figure 20-1. Universal Serial Interface, Block Diagram
USIPF
1
0
4-bit Counter
USIDC
USIOIF
USISIF
(Output only)
DI/SDA
(Input/Open Drain)
USCK/SCL
(Input/Open Drain)
3
2
USIDR
DATA BUS
DO
Bit0
Bit7
D Q
LE
TIM0 COMP
3
2
0
1
1
0
CLOCK
HOLD
[1]
Two-wire Clock
Control Unit
USISR
USITC
USICLK
USICS0
USICS1
USIWM0
USIWM1
USISIE
USIOIE
2
USICR
The 8-bit Shift Register is directly accessible via the data bus and contains the incoming and
outgoing data. The register has no buffering so the data must be read as quickly as possible to
ensure that no data is lost. The most significant bit is connected to one of two output pins
depending of the wire mode configuration. A transparent latch is inserted between the Serial
Register Output and output pin, which delays the change of data output to the opposite clock
edge of the data input sampling. The serial input is always sampled from the Data Input (DI) pin
independent of the configuration.
The 4-bit counter can be both read and written via the data bus, and can generate an overflow
interrupt. Both the Serial Register and the counter are clocked simultaneously by the same clock
source. This allows the counter to count the number of bits received or transmitted and generate
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an interrupt when the transfer is complete. Note that when an external clock source is selected
the counter counts both clock edges. In this case the counter counts the number of edges, and
not the number of bits. The clock can be selected from three different sources: The USCK pin,
Timer/Counter0 Compare Match or from software.
The Two-wire clock control unit can generate an interrupt when a start condition is detected on
the Two-wire bus. It can also generate wait states by holding the clock pin low after a start condition is detected, or after the counter overflows.
20.2
20.2.1
Functional Descriptions
Three-wire Mode
The USI Three-wire mode is compliant to the Serial Peripheral Interface (SPI) mode 0 and 1, but
does not have the slave select (SS) pin functionality. However, this feature can be implemented
in software if necessary. Pin names used by this mode are: DI, DO, and USCK.
Figure 20-2. Three-wire Mode Operation, Simplified Diagram
DO
Bit7
Bit6
Bit5
Bit4
Bit3
Bit2
Bit1
DI
Bit0
USCK
SLAVE
DO
Bit7
Bit6
Bit5
Bit4
Bit3
Bit2
Bit1
DI
Bit0
USCK
PORTxn
MASTER
Figure 20-2 shows two USI units operating in Three-wire mode, one as Master and one as
Slave. The two Shift Registers are interconnected in such way that after eight USCK clocks, the
data in each register are interchanged. The same clock also increments the USI’s 4-bit counter.
The Counter Overflow (interrupt) Flag, or USIOIF, can therefore be used to determine when a
transfer is completed. The clock is generated by the Master device software by toggling the
USCK pin via the PORT Register or by writing a one to the USITC bit in USICR.
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Figure 20-3. Three-wire Mode, Timing Diagram
CYCLE
( Reference )
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
USCK
USCK
DO
MSB
DI
MSB
A
B
C
6
5
4
3
2
1
LSB
6
5
4
3
2
1
LSB
D
E
The Three-wire mode timing is shown in Figure 20-3 At the top of the figure is a USCK cycle reference. One bit is shifted into the USI Shift Register (USIDR) for each of these cycles. The
USCK timing is shown for both external clock modes. In External Clock mode 0 (USICS0 = 0), DI
is sampled at positive edges, and DO is changed (Data Register is shifted by one) at negative
edges. External Clock mode 1 (USICS0 = 1) uses the opposite edges versus mode 0, that is,
samples data at negative and changes the output at positive edges. The USI clock modes corresponds to the SPI data mode 0 and 1.
Referring to the timing diagram (Figure 20-3), a bus transfer involves the following steps:
1. The Slave device and Master device sets up its data output and, depending on the protocol used, enables its output driver (mark A and B). The output is set up by writing the
data to be transmitted to the Serial Data Register. Enabling of the output is done by setting the corresponding bit in the port Data Direction Register. Note that point A and B
does not have any specific order, but both must be at least one half USCK cycle before
point C where the data is sampled. This must be done to ensure that the data setup
requirement is satisfied. The 4-bit counter is reset to zero.
2. The Master generates a clock pulse by software toggling the USCK line twice (C and D).
The bit value on the slave and master’s data input (DI) pin is sampled by the USI on the
first edge (C), and the data output is changed on the opposite edge (D). The 4-bit counter
will count both edges.
3. Step 2. is repeated eight times for a complete register (byte) transfer.
4. After eight clock pulses (that is, 16 clock edges) the counter will overflow and indicate
that the transfer is completed. The data bytes transferred must now be processed before
a new transfer can be initiated. The overflow interrupt will wake up the processor if it is
set to Idle mode. Depending of the protocol used the slave device can now set its output
to high impedance.
20.2.2
SPI Master Operation Example
The following code demonstrates how to use the USI module as a SPI Master:
SPITransfer:
sts
USIDR,r16
ldi
r16,(1<<USIOIF)
sts
USISR,r16
ldi
r16,(1<<USIWM0)|(1<<USICS1)|(1<<USICLK)|(1<<USITC)
SPITransfer_loop:
sts
USICR,r16
lds
r16, USISR
sbrs
r16, USIOIF
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rjmp
SPITransfer_loop
lds
r16,USIDR
ret
The code is size optimized using only eight instructions (+ ret). The code example assumes that
the DO and USCK pins are enabled as output in the DDRE Register. The value stored in register
r16 prior to the function is called is transferred to the Slave device, and when the transfer is completed the data received from the Slave is stored back into the r16 Register.
The second and third instructions clears the USI Counter Overflow Flag and the USI counter
value. The fourth and fifth instruction set Three-wire mode, positive edge Shift Register clock,
count at USITC strobe, and toggle USCK. The loop is repeated 16 times.
The following code demonstrates how to use the USI module as a SPI Master with maximum
speed (fsck = fck/4):
SPITransfer_Fast:
sts
USIDR,r16
ldi
r16,(1<<USIWM0)|(0<<USICS0)|(1<<USITC)
ldi
r17,(1<<USIWM0)|(0<<USICS0)|(1<<USITC)|(1<<USICLK)
sts
USICR,r16 ; MSB
sts
USICR,r17
sts
USICR,r16
sts
USICR,r17
sts
USICR,r16
sts
USICR,r17
sts
USICR,r16
sts
USICR,r17
sts
USICR,r16
sts
USICR,r17
sts
USICR,r16
sts
USICR,r17
sts
USICR,r16
sts
USICR,r17
sts
USICR,r16 ; LSB
sts
USICR,r17
lds
r16,USIDR
ret
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20.2.3
SPI Slave Operation Example
The following code demonstrates how to use the USI module as a SPI Slave:
init:
ldi
r16,(1<<USIWM0)|(1<<USICS1)
sts
USICR,r16
...
SlaveSPITransfer:
sts
USIDR,r16
ldi
r16,(1<<USIOIF)
sts
USISR,r16
SlaveSPITransfer_loop:
lds
r16, USISR
sbrs
r16, USIOIF
rjmp
SlaveSPITransfer_loop
lds
r16,USIDR
ret
The code is size optimized using only eight instructions (+ ret). The code example assumes that
the DO is configured as output and USCK pin is configured as input in the DDR Register. The
value stored in register r16 prior to the function is called is transferred to the master device, and
when the transfer is completed the data received from the Master is stored back into the r16
Register.
Note that the first two instructions is for initialization only and needs only to be executed
once.These instructions sets Three-wire mode and positive edge Shift Register clock. The loop
is repeated until the USI Counter Overflow Flag is set.
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20.2.4
Two-wire Mode
The USI Two-wire mode is compliant to the Inter IC (TWI) bus protocol, but without slew rate limiting on outputs and input noise filtering. Pin names used by this mode are SCL and SDA.
Figure 20-4. Two-wire Mode Operation, Simplified Diagram
VCC
Bit7
Bit6
Bit5
Bit4
Bit3
Bit2
Bit1
SDA
Bit0
SCL
HOLD
SCL
Two-wire Clock
Control Unit
SLAVE
Bit7
Bit6
Bit5
Bit4
Bit3
Bit2
Bit1
SDA
Bit0
SCL
PORTxn
MASTER
Figure 20-4 shows two USI units operating in Two-wire mode, one as Master and one as Slave.
It is only the physical layer that is shown since the system operation is highly dependent of the
communication scheme used. The main differences between the Master and Slave operation at
this level, is the serial clock generation which is always done by the Master, and only the Slave
uses the clock control unit. Clock generation must be implemented in software, but the shift
operation is done automatically by both devices. Note that only clocking on negative edge for
shifting data is of practical use in this mode. The slave can insert wait states at start or end of
transfer by forcing the SCL clock low. This means that the Master must always check if the SCL
line was actually released after it has generated a positive edge.
Since the clock also increments the counter, a counter overflow can be used to indicate that the
transfer is completed. The clock is generated by the master by toggling the USCK pin via the
PORT Register.
The data direction is not given by the physical layer. A protocol, like the one used by the TWIbus, must be implemented to control the data flow.
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Figure 20-5. Two-wire Mode, Typical Timing Diagram
SDA
SCL
S
A
B
1-7
8
9
1-8
9
1-8
9
ADDRESS
R/W
ACK
DATA
ACK
DATA
ACK
C
D
E
P
F
Referring to the timing diagram (Figure 20-5), a bus transfer involves the following steps:
1. The a start condition is generated by the Master by forcing the SDA low line while the
SCL line is high (A). SDA can be forced low either by writing a zero to bit 7 of the Shift
Register, or by setting the corresponding bit in the PORT Register to zero. Note that the
Data Direction Register bit must be set to one for the output to be enabled. The slave
device’s start detector logic (Figure 20-6) detects the start condition and sets the USISIF
Flag. The flag can generate an interrupt if necessary.
2. In addition, the start detector will hold the SCL line low after the Master has forced an
negative edge on this line (B). This allows the Slave to wake up from sleep or complete
its other tasks before setting up the Shift Register to receive the address. This is done by
clearing the start condition flag and reset the counter.
3. The Master set the first bit to be transferred and releases the SCL line (C). The Slave
samples the data and shift it into the Serial Register at the positive edge of the SCL
clock.
4. After eight bits are transferred containing slave address and data direction (read or
write), the Slave counter overflows and the SCL line is forced low (D). If the slave is not
the one the Master has addressed, it releases the SCL line and waits for a new start
condition.
5. If the Slave is addressed it holds the SDA line low during the acknowledgment cycle
before holding the SCL line low again (that is, the Counter Register must be set to 14
before releasing SCL at (D)). Depending of the R/W bit the Master or Slave enables its
output. If the bit is set, a master read operation is in progress (that is, the slave drives the
SDA line) The slave can hold the SCL line low after the acknowledge (E).
6. Multiple bytes can now be transmitted, all in same direction, until a stop condition is given
by the Master (F). Or a new start condition is given.
If the Slave is not able to receive more data it does not acknowledge the data byte it has last
received. When the Master does a read operation it must terminate the operation by force the
acknowledge bit low after the last byte transmitted.
Figure 20-6. Start Condition Detector, Logic Diagram
USISIF
D Q
D Q
CLR
CLR
SDA
CLOCK
HOLD
SCL
Write( USISIF)
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20.2.5
Start Condition Detector
The start condition detector is shown in Figure 20-6 on page 205 The SDA line is delayed (in the
range of 50 to 300 ns) to ensure valid sampling of the SCL line. The start condition detector is
only enabled in Two-wire mode.
The start condition detector is working asynchronously and can therefore wake up the processor
from the Power-down sleep mode. However, the protocol used might have restrictions on the
SCL hold time. Therefore, when using this feature in this case the Oscillator start-up time set by
the CKSEL Fuses (see ”Clock Systems and their Distribution” on page 30) must also be taken
into the consideration. Refer to the ”Bit 7 – USISIF: Start Condition Interrupt Flag” on page 207
for further details.
20.2.6
Clock speed considerations.
Maximum frequency for SCL and SCK is f_CK /4. This is also the maximum data transmit and
receieve rate in both two- and three-wire mode. In two-wire slave mode the Two-wire Clock Control Unit will hold the SCL low until the slave is ready to receive more data. This may reduce the
actual data rate in two-wire mode.
20.3
Alternative USI Usage
When the USI unit is not used for serial communication, it can be set up to do alternative tasks
due to its flexible design.
20.3.1
Half-duplex Asynchronous Data Transfer
By utilizing the Shift Register in Three-wire mode, it is possible to implement a more compact
and higher performance UART than by software only.
20.3.2
4-bit Counter
The 4-bit counter can be used as a stand-alone counter with overflow interrupt. Note that if the
counter is clocked externally, both clock edges will generate an increment.
20.3.3
12-bit Timer/Counter
Combining the USI 4-bit counter and Timer/Counter0 allows them to be used as a 12-bit
counter.
20.3.4
Edge Triggered External Interrupt
By setting the counter to maximum value (F) it can function as an additional external interrupt.
The Overflow Flag and Interrupt Enable bit are then used for the external interrupt. This feature
is selected by the USICS1 bit.
20.3.5
Software Interrupt
The counter overflow interrupt can be used as a software interrupt triggered by a clock strobe.
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20.4
USI Register Descriptions
20.4.1
USIDR – USI Data Register
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
(0xBA)
MSB
LSB
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
USIDR
The USI uses no buffering of the Serial Register, that is, when accessing the Data Register
(USIDR) the Serial Register is accessed directly. If a serial clock occurs at the same cycle the
register is written, the register will contain the value written and no shift is performed. A (left) shift
operation is performed depending of the USICS1..0 bits setting. The shift operation can be controlled by an external clock edge, by a Timer/Counter0 Compare Match, or directly by software
using the USICLK strobe bit. Note that even when no wire mode is selected (USIWM1..0 = 0)
both the external data input (DI/SDA) and the external clock input (USCK/SCL) can still be used
by the Shift Register.
The output pin in use, DO or SDA depending on the wire mode, is connected via the output latch
to the most significant bit (bit 7) of the Data Register. The output latch is open (transparent) during the first half of a serial clock cycle when an external clock source is selected (USICS1 = 1),
and constantly open when an internal clock source is used (USICS1 = 0). The output will be
changed immediately when a new MSB written as long as the latch is open. The latch ensures
that data input is sampled and data output is changed on opposite clock edges.
Note that the corresponding Data Direction Register to the pin must be set to one for enabling
data output from the Shift Register.
20.4.2
USISR – USI Status Register
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
USISIF
USIOIF
USIPF
USIDC
USICNT3
USICNT2
USICNT1
USICNT0
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
(0xB9)
USISR
The Status Register contains Interrupt Flags, line Status Flags and the counter value.
• Bit 7 – USISIF: Start Condition Interrupt Flag
When Two-wire mode is selected, the USISIF Flag is set (to one) when a start condition is
detected. When output disable mode or Three-wire mode is selected and (USICSx = 0b11 &
USICLK = 0) or (USICS = 0b10 & USICLK = 0), any edge on the SCK pin sets the flag.
An interrupt will be generated when the flag is set while the USISIE bit in USICR and the Global
Interrupt Enable Flag are set. The flag will only be cleared by writing a logical one to the USISIF
bit. Clearing this bit will release the start detection hold of USCL in Two-wire mode.
A start condition interrupt will wakeup the processor from all sleep modes.
• Bit 6 – USIOIF: Counter Overflow Interrupt Flag
This flag is set (one) when the 4-bit counter overflows (that is, at the transition from 15 to 0). An
interrupt will be generated when the flag is set while the USIOIE bit in USICR and the Global
Interrupt Enable Flag are set. The flag will only be cleared if a one is written to the USIOIF bit.
Clearing this bit will release the counter overflow hold of SCL in Two-wire mode.
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A counter overflow interrupt will wakeup the processor from Idle sleep mode.
• Bit 5 – USIPF: Stop Condition Flag
When Two-wire mode is selected, the USIPF Flag is set (one) when a stop condition is detected.
The flag is cleared by writing a one to this bit. Note that this is not an Interrupt Flag. This signal is
useful when implementing Two-wire bus master arbitration.
• Bit 4 – USIDC: Data Output Collision
This bit is logical one when bit 7 in the Shift Register differs from the physical pin value. The flag
is only valid when Two-wire mode is used. This signal is useful when implementing Two-wire
bus master arbitration.
• Bits 3..0 – USICNT3:0: Counter Value
These bits reflect the current 4-bit counter value. The 4-bit counter value can directly be read or
written by the CPU.
The 4-bit counter increments by one for each clock generated either by the external clock edge
detector, by a Timer/Counter0 Compare Match, or by software using USICLK or USITC strobe
bits. The clock source depends of the setting of the USICS1:0 bits. For external clock operation
a special feature is added that allows the clock to be generated by writing to the USITC strobe
bit. This feature is enabled by write a one to the USICLK bit while setting an external clock
source (USICS1 = 1).
Note that even when no wire mode is selected (USIWM1:0 = 0) the external clock input
(USCK/SCL) are can still be used by the counter.
20.4.3
USICR – USI Control Register
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
USISIE
USIOIE
USIWM1
USIWM0
USICS1
USICS0
USICLK
USITC
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
W
W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
(0xB8)
USICR
The Control Register includes interrupt enable control, wire mode setting, Clock Select setting,
and clock strobe.
• Bit 7 – USISIE: Start Condition Interrupt Enable
Setting this bit to one enables the Start Condition detector interrupt. If there is a pending interrupt when the USISIE and the Global Interrupt Enable Flag is set to one, this will immediately be
executed. Refer to the ”Bit 7 – USISIF: Start Condition Interrupt Flag” on page 207 for further
details.
• Bit 6 – USIOIE: Counter Overflow Interrupt Enable
Setting this bit to one enables the Counter Overflow interrupt. If there is a pending interrupt when
the USIOIE and the Global Interrupt Enable Flag is set to one, this will immediately be executed.
Refer to the ”Bit 6 – USIOIF: Counter Overflow Interrupt Flag” on page 207 for further details.
• Bit 5:4 – USIWM1:0: Wire Mode
These bits set the type of wire mode to be used. Basically only the function of the outputs are
affected by these bits. Data and clock inputs are not affected by the mode selected and will
always have the same function. The counter and Shift Register can therefore be clocked exter-
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nally, and data input sampled, even when outputs are disabled. The relations between
USIWM1:0 and the USI operation is summarized in Table 20-1 on page 210.
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Table 20-1.
Relations between USIWM1:0 and the USI Operation
USIWM1
USIWM0
0
0
Outputs, clock hold, and start detector disabled. Port pins operates as
normal.
1
Three-wire mode. Uses DO, DI, and USCK pins.
The Data Output (DO) pin overrides the corresponding bit in the PORT
Register in this mode. However, the corresponding DDR bit still controls the
data direction. When the port pin is set as input the pins pull-up is controlled
by the PORT bit.
The Data Input (DI) and Serial Clock (USCK) pins do not affect the normal
port operation. When operating as master, clock pulses are software
generated by toggling the PORT Register, while the data direction is set to
output. The USITC bit in the USICR Register can be used for this purpose.
0
Two-wire mode. Uses SDA (DI) and SCL (USCK) pins(1).
The Serial Data (SDA) and the Serial Clock (SCL) pins are bi-directional and
uses open-collector output drives. The output drivers are enabled by setting
the corresponding bit for SDA and SCL in the DDR Register.
When the output driver is enabled for the SDA pin, the output driver will force
the line SDA low if the output of the Shift Register or the corresponding bit in
the PORT Register is zero. Otherwise the SDA line will not be driven (that is, it
is released). When the SCL pin output driver is enabled the SCL line will be
forced low if the corresponding bit in the PORT Register is zero, or by the start
detector. Otherwise the SCL line will not be driven.
The SCL line is held low when a start detector detects a start condition and
the output is enabled. Clearing the Start Condition Flag (USISIF) releases the
line. The SDA and SCL pin inputs is not affected by enabling this mode. Pullups on the SDA and SCL port pin are disabled in Two-wire mode.
1
Two-wire mode. Uses SDA and SCL pins.
Same operation as for the Two-wire mode described above, except that the
SCL line is also held low when a counter overflow occurs, and is held low until
the Counter Overflow Flag (USIOIF) is cleared.
0
1
1
Note:
Description
1. The DI and USCK pins are renamed to Serial Data (SDA) and Serial Clock (SCL) respectively
to avoid confusion between the modes of operation.
• Bit 3:2 – USICS1:0: Clock Source Select
These bits set the clock source for the Shift Register and counter. The data output latch ensures
that the output is changed at the opposite edge of the sampling of the data input (DI/SDA) when
using external clock source (USCK/SCL). When software strobe or Timer/Counter0 Compare
Match clock option is selected, the output latch is transparent and therefore the output is
changed immediately. Clearing the USICS1..0 bits enables software strobe option. When using
this option, writing a one to the USICLK bit clocks both the Shift Register and the counter. For
external clock source (USICS1 = 1), the USICLK bit is no longer used as a strobe, but selects
between external clocking and software clocking by the USITC strobe bit.
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Table 20-2 shows the relationship between the USICS1:0 and USICLK setting and clock source
used for the Shift Register and the 4-bit counter.
Table 20-2.
Relations between the USICS1:0 and USICLK Setting
USICS1
USICS0
USICLK
Shift Register Clock Source
4-bit Counter Clock Source
0
0
0
No Clock
No Clock
0
0
1
Software clock strobe
(USICLK)
Software clock strobe
(USICLK)
0
1
X
Timer/Counter0 Compare
Match
Timer/Counter0 Compare
Match
1
0
0
External, positive edge
External, both edges
1
1
0
External, negative edge
External, both edges
1
0
1
External, positive edge
Software clock strobe (USITC)
1
1
1
External, negative edge
Software clock strobe (USITC)
• Bit 1 – USICLK: Clock Strobe
Writing a one to this bit location strobes the Shift Register to shift one step and the counter to
increment by one, provided that the USICS1..0 bits are set to zero and by doing so the software
clock strobe option is selected. The output will change immediately when the clock strobe is executed, that is, in the same instruction cycle. The value shifted into the Shift Register is sampled
the previous instruction cycle. The bit will be read as zero.
When an external clock source is selected (USICS1 = 1), the USICLK function is changed from
a clock strobe to a Clock Select Register. Setting the USICLK bit in this case will select the
USITC strobe bit as clock source for the 4-bit counter (see Table 20-2).
• Bit 0 – USITC: Toggle Clock Port Pin
Writing a one to this bit location toggles the USCK/SCL value either from 0 to 1, or from 1 to 0.
The toggling is independent of the setting in the Data Direction Register, but if the PORT value is
to be shown on the pin the DDRE4 must be set as output (to one). This feature allows easy clock
generation when implementing master devices. The bit will be read as zero.
When an external clock source is selected (USICS1 = 1) and the USICLK bit is set to one, writing to the USITC strobe bit will directly clock the 4-bit counter. This allows an early detection of
when the transfer is done when operating as a master device.
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21. AC - Analog Comparator
The Analog Comparator compares the input values on the positive pin AIN0 and negative pin
AIN1. When the voltage on the positive pin AIN0 is higher than the voltage on the negative pin
AIN1, the Analog Comparator output, ACO, is set. The comparator’s output can be set to trigger
the Timer/Counter1 Input Capture function. In addition, the comparator can trigger a separate
interrupt, exclusive to the Analog Comparator. The user can select Interrupt triggering on comparator output rise, fall or toggle. A block diagram of the comparator and its surrounding logic is
shown in Figure 21-1.
The Power Reduction ADC bit, PRADC, in ”PRR – Power Reduction Register” on page 45 must
be disabled by writing a logical zero to be able to use the ADC input MUX.
Figure 21-1. Analog Comparator Block Diagram(2)
BANDGAP
REFERENCE
ACBG
ACME
ADEN
ADC MULTIPLEXER
OUTPUT (1)
Notes:
1. See Table 21-1 on page 213.
2. Refer to Figure 1-1 on page 2 and Table 13-5 on page 74 for Analog Comparator pin
placement.
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21.1
Analog Comparator Multiplexed Input
It is possible to select any of the ADC7:0 pins to replace the negative input to the Analog Comparator. The ADC multiplexer is used to select this input, and consequently, the ADC must be
switched off to utilize this feature. If the Analog Comparator Multiplexer Enable bit (ACME in
ADCSRB) is set and the ADC is switched off (ADEN in ADCSRA is zero), MUX2:0 in ADMUX
select the input pin to replace the negative input to the Analog Comparator, as shown in Table
21-1. If ACME is cleared or ADEN is set, AIN1 is applied to the negative input to the Analog
Comparator.
Table 21-1.
Analog Comparator Multiplexed Input
ACME
ADEN
MUX2:0
Analog Comparator Negative Input
0
x
xxx
AIN1
1
1
xxx
AIN1
1
0
000
ADC0
1
0
001
ADC1
1
0
010
ADC2
1
0
011
ADC3
1
0
100
ADC4
1
0
101
ADC5
1
0
110
ADC6
1
0
111
ADC7
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21.2
21.2.1
Analog Comparator Register Description
ADCSRB – ADC Control and Status Register B
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
(0x7B)
–
ACME
–
–
–
ADTS2
ADTS1
ADTS0
Read/Write
R
R/W
R
R
R
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
ADCSRB
• Bit 6 – ACME: Analog Comparator Multiplexer Enable
When this bit is written logic one and the ADC is switched off (ADEN in ADCSRA is zero), the
ADC multiplexer selects the negative input to the Analog Comparator. When this bit is written
logic zero, AIN1 is applied to the negative input of the Analog Comparator. For a detailed
description of this bit, see ”Analog Comparator Multiplexed Input” on page 213.
21.2.2
ACSR – Analog Comparator Control and Status Register
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
0x30 (0x50)
ACD
ACBG
ACO
ACI
ACIE
ACIC
ACIS1
ACIS0
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
N/A
0
0
0
0
0
ACSR
• Bit 7 – ACD: Analog Comparator Disable
When this bit is written logic one, the power to the Analog Comparator is switched off. This bit
can be set at any time to turn off the Analog Comparator. This will reduce power consumption in
Active and Idle mode. When changing the ACD bit, the Analog Comparator Interrupt must be
disabled by clearing the ACIE bit in ACSR. Otherwise an interrupt can occur when the bit is
changed.
• Bit 6 – ACBG: Analog Comparator Bandgap Select
When this bit is set, a fixed bandgap reference voltage replaces the positive input to the Analog
Comparator. When this bit is cleared, AIN0 is applied to the positive input of the Analog Comparator. See ”Internal Voltage Reference” on page 51.
• Bit 5 – ACO: Analog Comparator Output
The output of the Analog Comparator is synchronized and then directly connected to ACO. The
synchronization introduces a delay of 1 - 2 clock cycles.
• Bit 4 – ACI: Analog Comparator Interrupt Flag
This bit is set by hardware when a comparator output event triggers the interrupt mode defined
by ACIS1 and ACIS0. The Analog Comparator interrupt routine is executed if the ACIE bit is set
and the I-bit in SREG is set. ACI is cleared by hardware when executing the corresponding interrupt handling vector. Alternatively, ACI is cleared by writing a logic one to the flag.
• Bit 3 – ACIE: Analog Comparator Interrupt Enable
When the ACIE bit is written logic one and the I-bit in the Status Register is set, the Analog Comparator interrupt is activated. When written logic zero, the interrupt is disabled.
• Bit 2 – ACIC: Analog Comparator Input Capture Enable
When written logic one, this bit enables the Input Capture function in Timer/Counter1 to be triggered by the Analog Comparator. The comparator output is in this case directly connected to the
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Input Capture front-end logic, making the comparator utilize the noise canceler and edge select
features of the Timer/Counter1 Input Capture interrupt. When written logic zero, no connection
between the Analog Comparator and the Input Capture function exists. To make the comparator
trigger the Timer/Counter1 Input Capture interrupt, the ICIE1 bit in the Timer Interrupt Mask
Register (TIMSK1) must be set.
• Bits 1, 0 – ACIS1, ACIS0: Analog Comparator Interrupt Mode Select
These bits determine which comparator events that trigger the Analog Comparator interrupt. The
different settings are shown in Table 21-2 on page 215.
Table 21-2.
ACIS1/ACIS0 Settings
ACIS1
ACIS0
Interrupt Mode
0
0
Comparator Interrupt on Output Toggle.
0
1
Reserved
1
0
Comparator Interrupt on Falling Output Edge.
1
1
Comparator Interrupt on Rising Output Edge.
When changing the ACIS1/ACIS0 bits, the Analog Comparator Interrupt must be disabled by
clearing its Interrupt Enable bit in the ACSR Register. Otherwise an interrupt can occur when the
bits are changed.
21.2.3
DIDR1 – Digital Input Disable Register 1
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
(0x7F)
–
–
–
–
–
–
AIN1D
AIN0D
Read/Write
R
R
R
R
R
R
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
DIDR1
• Bit 1, 0 – AIN1D, AIN0D: AIN1, AIN0 Digital Input Disable
When this bit is written logic one, the digital input buffer on the AIN1/0 pin is disabled. The corresponding PIN Register bit will always read as zero when this bit is set. When an analog signal is
applied to the AIN1/0 pin and the digital input from this pin is not needed, this bit should be written logic one to reduce power consumption in the digital input buffer.
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22. ADC - Analog to Digital Converter
22.1
Features
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
22.2
10-bit Resolution
0.5 LSB Integral Non-linearity
±2 LSB Absolute Accuracy
13 µs - 260 µs Conversion Time (50 kHz to 1 MHz ADC clock)
Up to 15 ksps at Maximum Resolution (200 kHz ADC clock)
Eight Multiplexed Single Ended Input Channels
Optional Left Adjustment for ADC Result Readout
0 - VCC ADC Input Voltage Range
Selectable 1.1V ADC Reference Voltage
Free Running or Single Conversion Mode
ADC Start Conversion by Auto Triggering on Interrupt Sources
Interrupt on ADC Conversion Complete
Sleep Mode Noise Canceler
Overview
The ATmega169P features a 10-bit successive approximation ADC. The ADC is connected to
an 8-channel Analog Multiplexer which allows eight single-ended voltage inputs constructed
from the pins of Port F. The single-ended voltage inputs refer to 0V (GND).
The ADC contains a Sample and Hold circuit which ensures that the input voltage to the ADC is
held at a constant level during conversion. A block diagram of the ADC is shown in Figure 22-1
on page 217.
The ADC has a separate analog supply voltage pin, AVCC. AVCC must not differ more than
±0.3V from VCC. See the paragraph ”ADC Noise Canceler” on page 222 on how to connect this
pin.
Internal reference voltages of nominally 1.1V or AVCC are provided On-chip. The voltage reference may be externally decoupled at the AREF pin by a capacitor for better noise performance.
The Power Reduction ADC bit, PRADC, in ”PRR – Power Reduction Register” on page 45 must
be written to zero to enable the ADC module.
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Figure 22-1. Analog to Digital Converter Block Schematic
ADC CONVERSION
COMPLETE IRQ
INTERRUPT
FLAGS
ADTS[2:0]
15
TRIGGER
SELECT
ADC[9:0]
ADPS0
ADPS1
ADIF
ADPS2
ADATE
ADEN
ADSC
0
ADC DATA REGISTER
(ADCH/ADCL)
ADC CTRL. & STATUS
REGISTER (ADCSRA)
MUX0
MUX2
MUX1
MUX4
MUX3
ADLAR
REFS1
REFS0
ADC MULTIPLEXER
SELECT (ADMUX)
ADIE
ADIF
8-BIT DATA BUS
MUX DECODER
CHANNEL SELECTION
PRESCALER
AVCC
START
CONVERSION LOGIC
INTERNAL
REFERENCE
SAMPLE & HOLD
COMPARATOR
AREF
10-BIT DAC
+
GND
BANDGAP
REFERENCE
ADC7
SINGLE ENDED / DIFFERENTIAL SELECTION
ADC6
ADC5
POS.
INPUT
MUX
ADC MULTIPLEXER
OUTPUT
ADC4
ADC3
+
ADC2
DIFFERENTIAL
AMPLIFIER
ADC1
ADC0
NEG.
INPUT
MUX
22.3
Operation
The ADC converts an analog input voltage to a 10-bit digital value through successive approximation. The minimum value represents GND and the maximum value represents the voltage on
the AREF pin minus 1 LSB. Optionally, AVCC or an internal 1.1V reference voltage may be connected to the AREF pin by writing to the REFSn bits in the ADMUX Register. The internal
voltage reference may thus be decoupled by an external capacitor at the AREF pin to improve
noise immunity.
The analog input channel is selected by writing to the MUX bits in ADMUX. Any of the ADC input
pins, as well as GND and a fixed bandgap voltage reference, can be selected as single ended
inputs to the ADC. The ADC is enabled by setting the ADC Enable bit, ADEN in ADCSRA. Voltage reference and input channel selections will not go into effect until ADEN is set. The ADC
does not consume power when ADEN is cleared, so it is recommended to switch off the ADC
before entering power saving sleep modes.
The ADC generates a 10-bit result which is presented in the ADC Data Registers, ADCH and
ADCL. By default, the result is presented right adjusted, but can optionally be presented left
adjusted by setting the ADLAR bit in ADMUX.
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If the result is left adjusted and no more than 8-bit precision is required, it is sufficient to read
ADCH. Otherwise, ADCL must be read first, then ADCH, to ensure that the content of the Data
Registers belongs to the same conversion. Once ADCL is read, ADC access to Data Registers
is blocked. This means that if ADCL has been read, and a conversion completes before ADCH is
read, neither register is updated and the result from the conversion is lost. When ADCH is read,
ADC access to the ADCH and ADCL Registers is re-enabled.
The ADC has its own interrupt which can be triggered when a conversion completes. When ADC
access to the Data Registers is prohibited between reading of ADCH and ADCL, the interrupt
will trigger even if the result is lost.
22.4
Starting a Conversion
A single conversion is started by writing a logical one to the ADC Start Conversion bit, ADSC.
This bit stays high as long as the conversion is in progress and will be cleared by hardware
when the conversion is completed. If a different data channel is selected while a conversion is in
progress, the ADC will finish the current conversion before performing the channel change.
Alternatively, a conversion can be triggered automatically by various sources. Auto Triggering is
enabled by setting the ADC Auto Trigger Enable bit, ADATE in ADCSRA. The trigger source is
selected by setting the ADC Trigger Select bits, ADTS in ADCSRB (See description of the ADTS
bits for a list of the trigger sources). When a positive edge occurs on the selected trigger signal,
the ADC prescaler is reset and a conversion is started. This provides a method of starting conversions at fixed intervals. If the trigger signal still is set when the conversion completes, a new
conversion will not be started. If another positive edge occurs on the trigger signal during conversion, the edge will be ignored. Note that an Interrupt Flag will be set even if the specific
interrupt is disabled or the Global Interrupt Enable bit in SREG is cleared. A conversion can thus
be triggered without causing an interrupt. However, the Interrupt Flag must be cleared in order to
trigger a new conversion at the next interrupt event.
Figure 22-2. ADC Auto Trigger Logic
ADTS[2:0]
PRESCALER
START
ADIF
CLKADC
ADATE
SOURCE 1
.
.
.
.
SOURCE n
CONVERSION
LOGIC
EDGE
DETECTOR
ADSC
Using the ADC Interrupt Flag as a trigger source makes the ADC start a new conversion as soon
as the ongoing conversion has finished. The ADC then operates in Free Running mode, constantly sampling and updating the ADC Data Register. The first conversion must be started by
writing a logical one to the ADSC bit in ADCSRA. In this mode the ADC will perform successive
conversions independently of whether the ADC Interrupt Flag, ADIF is cleared or not.
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If Auto Triggering is enabled, single conversions can be started by writing ADSC in ADCSRA to
one. ADSC can also be used to determine if a conversion is in progress. The ADSC bit will be
read as one during a conversion, independently of how the conversion was started.
22.5
Prescaling and Conversion Timing
Figure 22-3. ADC Prescaler
ADEN
START
Reset
7-BIT ADC PRESCALER
CK/64
CK/128
CK/32
CK/8
CK/16
CK/4
CK/2
CK
ADPS0
ADPS1
ADPS2
ADC CLOCK SOURCE
By default, the successive approximation circuitry requires an input clock frequency between 50
kHz and 200 kHz to get maximum resolution. If a lower resolution than 10 bits is needed, the
input clock frequency to the ADC can be higher than 200 kHz to get a higher sample rate.
The ADC module contains a prescaler, which generates an acceptable ADC clock frequency
from any CPU frequency above 100 kHz. The prescaling is set by the ADPS bits in ADCSRA.
The prescaler starts counting from the moment the ADC is switched on by setting the ADEN bit
in ADCSRA. The prescaler keeps running for as long as the ADEN bit is set, and is continuously
reset when ADEN is low.
When initiating a single ended conversion by setting the ADSC bit in ADCSRA, the conversion
starts at the following rising edge of the ADC clock cycle.
A normal conversion takes 13 ADC clock cycles. The first conversion after the ADC is switched
on (ADEN in ADCSRA is set) takes 25 ADC clock cycles in order to initialize the analog circuitry.
The actual sample-and-hold takes place 1.5 ADC clock cycles after the start of a normal conversion and 13.5 ADC clock cycles after the start of an first conversion. When a conversion is
complete, the result is written to the ADC Data Registers, and ADIF is set. In Single Conversion
mode, ADSC is cleared simultaneously. The software may then set ADSC again, and a new
conversion will be initiated on the first rising ADC clock edge.
When Auto Triggering is used, the prescaler is reset when the trigger event occurs. This assures
a fixed delay from the trigger event to the start of conversion. In this mode, the sample-and-hold
takes place two ADC clock cycles after the rising edge on the trigger source signal. Three additional CPU clock cycles are used for synchronization logic. When using Differential mode, along
with Auto triggering from a source other than the ADC Conversion Complete, each conversion
will require 25 ADC clocks. This is because the ADC must be disabled and re-enabled after
every conversion.
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In Free Running mode, a new conversion will be started immediately after the conversion completes, while ADSC remains high. For a summary of conversion times, see Table 22-1 on page
221.
Figure 22-4. ADC Timing Diagram, First Conversion (Single Conversion Mode)
Next
Conversion
First Conversion
Cycle Number
1
2
12
13
14
16
15
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
1
2
3
ADC Clock
ADEN
ADSC
ADIF
Sign and MSB of Result
ADCH
LSB of Result
ADCL
MUX and REFS
Update
Conversion
Complete
Sample & Hold
MUX and REFS
Update
Figure 22-5. ADC Timing Diagram, Single Conversion
One Conversion
Cycle Number
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
Next Conversion
10
11
12
13
1
2
3
ADC Clock
ADSC
ADIF
ADCH
Sign and MSB of Result
ADCL
LSB of Result
Sample & Hold
Conversion
Complete
MUX and REFS
Update
MUX and REFS
Update
Figure 22-6. ADC Timing Diagram, Auto Triggered Conversion
One Conversion
Cycle Number
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
Next Conversion
10
11
12
13
1
2
ADC Clock
Trigger
Source
ADATE
ADIF
ADCH
Sign and MSB of Result
ADCL
LSB of Result
Prescaler
Reset
Sample &
Hold
Conversion
Complete
Prescaler
Reset
MUX and REFS
Update
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Figure 22-7. ADC Timing Diagram, Free Running Conversion
One Conversion
Cycle Number
11
12
Next Conversion
13
1
2
3
4
ADC Clock
ADSC
ADIF
ADCH
Sign and MSB of Result
ADCL
LSB of Result
Sample & Hold
Conversion
Complete
Table 22-1.
MUX and REFS
Update
ADC Conversion Time
Sample & Hold (Cycles from
Start of Conversion)
Conversion Time (Cycles)
First conversion
13.5
25
Normal conversions, single ended
1.5
13
2
13.5
Condition
Auto Triggered conversions
22.6
Changing Channel or Reference Selection
The MUXn and REFS1:0 bits in the ADMUX Register are single buffered through a temporary
register to which the CPU has random access. This ensures that the channels and reference
selection only takes place at a safe point during the conversion. The channel and reference
selection is continuously updated until a conversion is started. Once the conversion starts, the
channel and reference selection is locked to ensure a sufficient sampling time for the ADC. Continuous updating resumes in the last ADC clock cycle before the conversion completes (ADIF in
ADCSRA is set). Note that the conversion starts on the following rising ADC clock edge after
ADSC is written. The user is thus advised not to write new channel or reference selection values
to ADMUX until one ADC clock cycle after ADSC is written.
If Auto Triggering is used, the exact time of the triggering event can be indeterministic. Special
care must be taken when updating the ADMUX Register, in order to control which conversion
will be affected by the new settings.
If both ADATE and ADEN is written to one, an interrupt event can occur at any time. If the
ADMUX Register is changed in this period, the user cannot tell if the next conversion is based
on the old or the new settings. ADMUX can be safely updated in the following ways:
a. When ADATE or ADEN is cleared.
b.
During conversion, minimum one ADC clock cycle after the trigger event.
c.
After a conversion, before the Interrupt Flag used as trigger source is cleared.
When updating ADMUX in one of these conditions, the new settings will affect the next ADC
conversion.
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22.6.1
ADC Input Channels
When changing channel selections, the user should observe the following guidelines to ensure
that the correct channel is selected:
In Single Conversion mode, always select the channel before starting the conversion. The channel selection may be changed one ADC clock cycle after writing one to ADSC. However, the
simplest method is to wait for the conversion to complete before changing the channel selection.
In Free Running mode, always select the channel before starting the first conversion. The channel selection may be changed one ADC clock cycle after writing one to ADSC. However, the
simplest method is to wait for the first conversion to complete, and then change the channel
selection. Since the next conversion has already started automatically, the next result will reflect
the previous channel selection. Subsequent conversions will reflect the new channel selection.
22.6.2
ADC Voltage Reference
The reference voltage for the ADC (VREF) indicates the conversion range for the ADC. Single
ended channels that exceed VREF will result in codes close to 0x3FF. VREF can be selected as
either AVCC, internal 1.1V reference, or external AREF pin.
AVCC is connected to the ADC through a passive switch. The internal 1.1V reference is generated from the internal bandgap reference (VBG) through an internal buffer. In either case, the
external AREF pin is directly connected to the ADC, and the reference voltage can be made
more immune to noise by connecting a capacitor between the AREF pin and ground. VREF can
also be measured at the AREF pin with a high impedant voltmeter. Note that VREF is a high
impedant source, and only a capacitive load should be connected in a system.
If the user has a fixed voltage source connected to the AREF pin, the user may not use the other
reference voltage options in the application, as they will be shorted to the external voltage. If no
external voltage is applied to the AREF pin, the user may switch between AVCC and 1.1V as
reference selection. The first ADC conversion result after switching reference voltage source
may be inaccurate, and the user is advised to discard this result.
22.7
ADC Noise Canceler
The ADC features a noise canceler that enables conversion during sleep mode to reduce noise
induced from the CPU core and other I/O peripherals. The noise canceler can be used with ADC
Noise Reduction and Idle mode. To make use of this feature, the following procedure should be
used:
a. Make sure that the ADC is enabled and is not busy converting. Single Conversion
mode must be selected and the ADC conversion complete interrupt must be enabled.
b.
Enter ADC Noise Reduction mode (or Idle mode). The ADC will start a conversion
once the CPU has been halted.
c.
If no other interrupts occur before the ADC conversion completes, the ADC interrupt
will wake up the CPU and execute the ADC Conversion Complete interrupt routine. If
another interrupt wakes up the CPU before the ADC conversion is complete, that
interrupt will be executed, and an ADC Conversion Complete interrupt request will be
generated when the ADC conversion completes. The CPU will remain in active mode
until a new sleep command is executed.
Note that the ADC will not be automatically turned off when entering other sleep modes than Idle
mode and ADC Noise Reduction mode. The user is advised to write zero to ADEN before entering such sleep modes to avoid excessive power consumption.
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22.7.1
Analog Input Circuitry
The analog input circuitry for single ended channels is illustrated in Figure 22-8 An analog
source applied to ADCn is subjected to the pin capacitance and input leakage of that pin, regardless of whether that channel is selected as input for the ADC. When the channel is selected, the
source must drive the S/H capacitor through the series resistance (combined resistance in the
input path).
The ADC is optimized for analog signals with an output impedance of approximately 10 kΩ or
less. If such a source is used, the sampling time will be negligible. If a source with higher impedance is used, the sampling time will depend on how long time the source needs to charge the
S/H capacitor, with can vary widely. The user is recommended to only use low impedant sources
with slowly varying signals, since this minimizes the required charge transfer to the S/H
capacitor.
Signal components higher than the Nyquist frequency (fADC/2) should not be present for either
kind of channels, to avoid distortion from unpredictable signal convolution. The user is advised
to remove high frequency components with a low-pass filter before applying the signals as
inputs to the ADC.
Figure 22-8. Analog Input Circuitry
IIH
ADCn
1..100 kΩ
CS/H= 14 pF
IIL
VCC/2
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22.7.2
Analog Noise Canceling Techniques
Digital circuitry inside and outside the device generates EMI which might affect the accuracy of
analog measurements. If conversion accuracy is critical, the noise level can be reduced by
applying the following techniques:
a. Keep analog signal paths as short as possible. Make sure analog tracks run over the
analog ground plane, and keep them well away from high-speed switching digital
tracks.
b.
The AVCC pin on the device should be connected to the digital VCC supply voltage
via an LC network as shown in Figure 22-9.
c.
Use the ADC noise canceler function to reduce induced noise from the CPU.
d. If any ADC port pins are used as digital outputs, it is essential that these do not
switch while a conversion is in progress.
Figure 22-9. ADC Power Connections
GND
10 µH
53
54
(ADC6) PF6
55
(ADC5) PF5
56
(ADC4) PF4
57
(ADC3) PF3
58
(ADC2) PF2
59
(ADC1) PF1
60
(ADC0) PF0
61
AREF
62
AVCC
Ground Plane
52
(ADC7) PF7
GND
100 nF
51
63
64
1
LCDCAP
PA0
VCC
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22.7.3
ADC Accuracy Definitions
An n-bit single-ended ADC converts a voltage linearly between GND and V REF in 2 n steps
(LSBs). The lowest code is read as 0, and the highest code is read as 2n-1.
Several parameters describe the deviation from the ideal behavior:
• Offset: The deviation of the first transition (0x000 to 0x001) compared to the ideal transition (at
0.5 LSB). Ideal value: 0 LSB.
Figure 22-10. Offset Error
Output Code
Ideal ADC
Actual ADC
Offset
Error
VREF Input Voltage
• Gain Error: After adjusting for offset, the Gain Error is found as the deviation of the last
transition (0x3FE to 0x3FF) compared to the ideal transition (at 1.5 LSB below maximum).
Ideal value: 0 LSB.
Figure 22-11. Gain Error
Output Code
Gain
Error
Ideal ADC
Actual ADC
VREF Input Voltage
• Integral Non-linearity (INL): After adjusting for offset and gain error, the INL is the maximum
deviation of an actual transition compared to an ideal transition for any code. Ideal value: 0
LSB.
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Figure 22-12. Integral Non-linearity (INL)
Output Code
INL
Ideal ADC
Actual ADC
VREF
Input Voltage
• Differential Non-linearity (DNL): The maximum deviation of the actual code width (the interval
between two adjacent transitions) from the ideal code width (1 LSB). Ideal value: 0 LSB.
Figure 22-13. Differential Non-linearity (DNL)
Output Code
0x3FF
1 LSB
DNL
0x000
0
VREF Input Voltage
• Quantization Error: Due to the quantization of the input voltage into a finite number of codes, a
range of input voltages (1 LSB wide) will code to the same value. Always ±0.5 LSB.
• Absolute Accuracy: The maximum deviation of an actual (unadjusted) transition compared to
an ideal transition for any code. This is the compound effect of offset, gain error, differential
error, non-linearity, and quantization error. Ideal value: ±0.5 LSB.
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22.8
ADC Conversion Result
After the conversion is complete (ADIF is high), the conversion result can be found in the ADC
Result Registers (ADCL, ADCH).
For single ended conversion, the result is
V IN ⋅ 1024
ADC = -------------------------V REF
where VIN is the voltage on the selected input pin and VREF the selected voltage reference (see
Table 22-3 on page 229 and Table 22-4 on page 230). 0x000 represents analog ground, and
0x3FF represents the selected reference voltage minus one LSB.
( V POS – V NEG ) ⋅ 512
ADC = ---------------------------------------------------V REF
Figure 22-14. Differential Measurement Range
Output Code
0x1FF
0x000
- VREF
0x3FF
0
VREF
Differential Input
Voltage (Volts)
0x200
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Table 22-2.
Correlation Between Input Voltage and Output Codes
VADCn
Read Code
VADCm + VREF
0x1FF
511
VADCm + 511/512 VREF
0x1FF
511
VADCm + 510/512 VREF
0x1FE
510
...
...
...
VADCm + /512 VREF
0x001
1
VADCm
0x000
0
VADCm - 1/512 VREF
0x3FF
-1
...
...
...
1
VADCm -
511
/512 VREF
VADCm - VREF
Corresponding Decimal Value
0x201
-511
0x200
-512
ADMUX = 0xFB (ADC3 - ADC2, 1.1V reference, left adjusted result).
Voltage on ADC3 is 300 mV, voltage on ADC2 is 500 mV.
ADCR = 512 × (300 - 500) / 1100 = -93 = 0x3A3.
ADCL will thus read 0xC0, and ADCH will read 0xD8. Writing zero to ADLAR right adjusts the
result: ADCL = 0xA3, ADCH = 0x03.
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22.9
22.9.1
ADC Register Description
ADMUX – ADC Multiplexer Selection Register
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
REFS1
REFS0
ADLAR
MUX4
MUX3
MUX2
MUX1
MUX0
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
(0x7C)
ADMUX
• Bit 7:6 – REFS1:0: Reference Selection Bits
These bits select the voltage reference for the ADC, as shown in Table 22-3. If these bits are
changed during a conversion, the change will not go in effect until this conversion is complete
(ADIF in ADCSRA is set). The internal voltage reference options may not be used if an external
reference voltage is being applied to the AREF pin.
Table 22-3.
Voltage Reference Selections for ADC
REFS1
REFS0
Voltage Reference Selection
0
0
AREF, Internal Vref turned off
0
1
AVCC with external capacitor at AREF pin
1
0
Reserved
1
1
Internal 1.1V Voltage Reference with external capacitor at AREF pin
• Bit 5 – ADLAR: ADC Left Adjust Result
The ADLAR bit affects the presentation of the ADC conversion result in the ADC Data Register.
Write one to ADLAR to left adjust the result. Otherwise, the result is right adjusted. Changing the
ADLAR bit will affect the ADC Data Register immediately, regardless of any ongoing conversions. For a complete description of this bit, see ”ADCL and ADCH – ADC Data Register” on
page 232.
• Bits 4:0 – MUX4:0: Analog Channel Selection Bits
The value of these bits selects which combination of analog inputs are connected to the ADC.
See Table 22-4 on page 230 for details. If these bits are changed during a conversion, the
change will not go in effect until this conversion is complete (ADIF in ADCSRA is set).
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Table 22-4.
Input Channel Selections
MUX4..0
Single Ended Input
00000
ADC0
00001
ADC1
00010
ADC2
00011
ADC3
00100
ADC4
00101
ADC5
00110
ADC6
00111
ADC7
Positive Differential Input
Negative Differential Input
N/A
01000
01001
01010
01011
01100
01101
01110
01111
10000
ADC0
ADC1
10001
ADC1
ADC1
ADC2
ADC1
10011
ADC3
ADC1
10100
ADC4
ADC1
10101
ADC5
ADC1
10110
ADC6
ADC1
10111
ADC7
ADC1
11000
ADC0
ADC2
11001
ADC1
ADC2
11010
ADC2
ADC2
11011
ADC3
ADC2
11100
ADC4
ADC2
11101
ADC5
ADC2
10010
N/A
11110
1.1V (VBG)
11111
0V (GND)
N/A
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22.9.2
ADCSRA – ADC Control and Status Register A
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
ADEN
ADSC
ADATE
ADIF
ADIE
ADPS2
ADPS1
ADPS0
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
(0x7A)
ADCSRA
• Bit 7 – ADEN: ADC Enable
Writing this bit to one enables the ADC. By writing it to zero, the ADC is turned off. Turning the
ADC off while a conversion is in progress, will terminate this conversion.
• Bit 6 – ADSC: ADC Start Conversion
In Single Conversion mode, write this bit to one to start each conversion. In Free Running mode,
write this bit to one to start the first conversion. The first conversion after ADSC has been written
after the ADC has been enabled, or if ADSC is written at the same time as the ADC is enabled,
will take 25 ADC clock cycles instead of the normal 13. This first conversion performs initialization of the ADC.
ADSC will read as one as long as a conversion is in progress. When the conversion is complete,
it returns to zero. Writing zero to this bit has no effect.
• Bit 5 – ADATE: ADC Auto Trigger Enable
When this bit is written to one, Auto Triggering of the ADC is enabled. The ADC will start a conversion on a positive edge of the selected trigger signal. The trigger source is selected by setting
the ADC Trigger Select bits, ADTS in ADCSRB.
• Bit 4 – ADIF: ADC Interrupt Flag
This bit is set when an ADC conversion completes and the Data Registers are updated. The
ADC Conversion Complete Interrupt is executed if the ADIE bit and the I-bit in SREG are set.
ADIF is cleared by hardware when executing the corresponding interrupt handling vector. Alternatively, ADIF is cleared by writing a logical one to the flag. Beware that if doing a Read-ModifyWrite on ADCSRA, a pending interrupt can be disabled. This also applies if the SBI and CBI
instructions are used.
• Bit 3 – ADIE: ADC Interrupt Enable
When this bit is written to one and the I-bit in SREG is set, the ADC Conversion Complete Interrupt is activated.
• Bits 2:0 – ADPS2:0: ADC Prescaler Select Bits
These bits determine the division factor between the XTAL frequency and the input clock to the
ADC.
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Table 22-5.
22.9.3
22.9.3.1
ADPS2
ADPS1
ADPS0
Division Factor
0
0
0
2
0
0
1
2
0
1
0
4
0
1
1
8
1
0
0
16
1
0
1
32
1
1
0
64
1
1
1
128
ADCL and ADCH – ADC Data Register
ADLAR = 0
Bit
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
(0x79)
–
–
–
–
–
–
ADC9
ADC8
ADCH
(0x78)
ADC7
ADC6
ADC5
ADC4
ADC3
ADC2
ADC1
ADC0
ADCL
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Read/Write
Initial Value
22.9.3.2
ADC Prescaler Selections
ADLAR = 1
Bit
Read/Write
Initial Value
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
ADC9
ADC8
ADC7
ADC6
ADC5
ADC4
ADC3
ADC2
ADCH
ADC1
ADC0
–
–
–
–
–
–
ADCL
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
When an ADC conversion is complete, the result is found in these two registers.When ADCL is
read, the ADC Data Register is not updated until ADCH is read. Consequently, if the result is left
adjusted and no more than 8-bit precision is required, it is sufficient to read ADCH. Otherwise,
ADCL must be read first, then ADCH.
The ADLAR bit in ADMUX, and the MUXn bits in ADMUX affect the way the result is read from
the registers. If ADLAR is set, the result is left adjusted. If ADLAR is cleared (default), the result
is right adjusted.
• ADC9:0: ADC Conversion Result
These bits represent the result from the conversion, as detailed in ”ADC Conversion Result” on
page 227.
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22.9.4
ADCSRB – ADC Control and Status Register B
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
(0x7B)
–
ACME
–
–
–
ADTS2
ADTS1
ADTS0
Read/Write
R
R/W
R
R
R
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
ADCSRB
• Bit 7 – Res: Reserved Bit
This bit is reserved for future use. To ensure compatibility with future devices, this bit must be
written to zero when ADCSRB is written.
• Bit 2:0 – ADTS2:0: ADC Auto Trigger Source
If ADATE in ADCSRA is written to one, the value of these bits selects which source will trigger
an ADC conversion. If ADATE is cleared, the ADTS2:0 settings will have no effect. A conversion
will be triggered by the rising edge of the selected Interrupt Flag. Note that switching from a trigger source that is cleared to a trigger source that is set, will generate a positive edge on the
trigger signal. If ADEN in ADCSRA is set, this will start a conversion. Switching to Free Running
mode (ADTS[2:0]=0) will not cause a trigger event, even if the ADC Interrupt Flag is set.
Table 22-6.
22.9.5
ADC Auto Trigger Source Selections
ADTS2
ADTS1
ADTS0
Trigger Source
0
0
0
Free Running mode
0
0
1
Analog Comparator
0
1
0
External Interrupt Request 0
0
1
1
Timer/Counter0 Compare Match
1
0
0
Timer/Counter0 Overflow
1
0
1
Timer/Counter Compare Match B
1
1
0
Timer/Counter1 Overflow
1
1
1
Timer/Counter1 Capture Event
DIDR0 – Digital Input Disable Register 0
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
ADC7D
ADC6D
ADC5D
ADC4D
ADC3D
ADC2D
ADC1D
ADC0D
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
(0x7E)
DIDR0
• Bit 7:0 – ADC7D..ADC0D: ADC7:0 Digital Input Disable
When this bit is written logic one, the digital input buffer on the corresponding ADC pin is disabled. The corresponding PIN Register bit will always read as zero when this bit is set. When an
analog signal is applied to the ADC7:0 pin and the digital input from this pin is not needed, this
bit should be written logic one to reduce power consumption in the digital input buffer.
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23. LCD Controller
23.1
Features
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
23.2
Display Capacity of 25 Segments and Four Common Terminals
Support Static, 1/2, 1/3 and 1/4 Duty
Support Static, 1/2, 1/3 Bias
On-chip LCD Power Supply, only One External Capacitor needed
Display Possible in Power-save Mode for Low Power Consumption
Software Selectable Low Power Waveform Capability
Flexible Selection of Frame Frequency
Software Selection between System Clock or an External Asynchronous Clock Source
Equal Source and Sink Capability to maximize LCD Life Time
LCD Interrupt Can be Used for Display Data Update or Wake-up from Sleep Mode
Segment and Common Pins not Needed for Driving the Display Can be Used as Ordinary I/O Pins
Latching of Display Data gives Full Freedom in Register Update
Overview
The LCD Controller/driver is intended for monochrome passive liquid crystal display (LCD) with
up to four common terminals and up to 25 segment terminals.
A simplified block diagram of the LCD Controller/Driver is shown in Figure 23-1 on page 235. For
the actual placement of I/O pins, see ”64A (TQFP) and 64M1 (QFN/MLF) Pinout ATmega169P”
on page 2.
An LCD consists of several segments (pixels or complete symbols) which can be visible or non
visible. A segment has two electrodes with liquid crystal between them. When a voltage above a
threshold voltage is applied across the liquid crystal, the segment becomes visible.
The voltage must alternate to avoid an electrophoresis effect in the liquid crystal, which
degrades the display. Hence the waveform across a segment must not have a DC-component.
The PRLCD bit in ”PRR – Power Reduction Register” on page 45 must be written to zero to
enable the LCD module.
23.2.1
Definitions
Several terms are used when describing LCD. The definitions in Table 23-1 are used throughout
this document.
Table 23-1.
Definitions
LCD
A passive display panel with terminals leading directly to a segment
Segment
The least viewing element (pixel) which can be on or off
Common
Denotes how many segments are connected to a segment terminal
Duty
1/(Number of common terminals on a actual LCD display)
Bias
1/(Number of voltage levels used driving a LCD display -1)
Frame Rate
Number of times the LCD segments is energized per second.
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Figure 23-1. LCD Module Block Diagram
clki/o
TOSC
0
1
clkLCD
12-bit Prescaler
clkLCD/2048
clkLCD/4096
clkLCD/512
clkLCD/1024
clkLCD/128
clkLCD/256
clkLCD/16
clkLCD/64
lcdcs
SEG0
lcdps2:0
LCDFRR
Clock
Multiplexer
SEG1
SEG2
SEG3
SEG4
LCDCRA
lcdcd2:0
Divide by 1 to 8
SEG5
SEG6
SEG7
LCDCRB
D
A
T
A
B
U
S
clkLCD_PS
SEG8
SEG9
LCD
Timing
SEG10
SEG11
SEG12
LCDDR 18 -15
LCDDR 13 -10
LATCH
array
LCDDR 8 - 5
25 x
4:1
MUX
Analog
Switch
Array
LCD Ouput
Decoder
SEG13
SEG14
SEG15
SEG16
SEG17
LCD_voltage_ok
LCDDR 3 - 0
SEG18
SEG19
Display
Configuration
LCD Buffer/
Driver
1/3 VLCD
SEG20
1/2 VLCD
SEG21
2/3 VLCD
SEG22
SEG23
SEG24
LCDCCR
lcdcc3:0
VLCD
Contrast Controller/
Power Supply
COM1
LCD
CAP
23.2.2
COM0
COM2
COM3
LCD Clock Sources
The LCD Controller can be clocked by an internal synchronous or an external asynchronous
clock source. The clock source clkLCD is by default equal to the system clock, clkI/O. When the
LCDCS bit in the LCDCRB Register is written to logic one, the clock source is taken from the
TOSC1 pin.
The clock source must be stable to obtain accurate LCD timing and hence minimize DC voltage
offset across LCD segments.
23.2.3
LCD Prescaler
The prescaler consist of a 12-bit ripple counter and a 1- to 8-clock divider. The LCDPS2:0 bits
selects clkLCD divided by 16, 64, 128, 256, 512, 1024, 2048, or 4096.
If a finer resolution rate is required, the LCDCD2:0 bits can be used to divide the clock further by
1 to 8.
Output from the clock divider clkLCD_PS is used as clock source for the LCD timing.
23.2.4
LCD Memory
The display memory is available through I/O Registers grouped for each common terminal.
When a bit in the display memory is written to one, the corresponding segment is energized (on),
and non-energized when a bit in the display memory is written to zero.
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To energize a segment, an absolute voltage above a certain threshold must be applied. This is
done by letting the output voltage on corresponding COM pin and SEG pin have opposite phase.
For display with more than one common, one (1/2 bias) or two (1/3 bias) additional voltage levels must be applied. Otherwise, non-energized segments on COM0 would be energized for all
non-selected common.
Addressing COM0 starts a frame by driving opposite phase with large amplitude out on COM0
compared to none addressed COM lines. Non-energized segments are in phase with the
addressed COM0, and energized segments have opposite phase and large amplitude. For
waveform figures refer to ”Mode of Operation” on page 237. Latched data from LCDDR4 LCDDR0 is multiplexed into the decoder. The decoder is controlled from the LCD timing and
sets up signals controlling the analog switches to produce an output waveform. Next, COM1 is
addressed, and latched data from LCDDR9 - LCDDR5 is input to decoder. Addressing continuous until all COM lines are addressed according to number of common (duty). The display data
are latched before a new frame start.
23.2.5
LCD Contrast Controller/Power Supply
The peak value (VLCD) on the output waveform determines the LCD Contrast. VLCD is controlled
by software from 2.6V to 3.35V independent of VCC. An internal signal inhibits output to the LCD
until VLCD has reached its target value.
23.2.6
LCDCAP
An external capacitor (typical > 470 nF) must be connected to the LCDCAP pin as shown in Figure 23-2. This capacitor acts as a reservoir for LCD power (VLCD). A large capacitance reduces
ripple on VLCD but increases the time until VLCD reaches its target value.
It is possible to use an external power supply. This power can be applied to LCDCAP before
VCC. Externally applied VLCD can be both above and below VCC. Maximum VLCD is 5.5V.
Figure 23-2. LCDCAP Connection
62
63
64
LCDCAP
1
2
3
VLCD
(Optional)
23.2.7
LCD Buffer Driver
Intermediate voltage levels are generated from buffers/drivers. The buffers are active the
amount of time specified by LCDDC[2:0] in ”LCDCCR – LCD Contrast Control Register” on page
250. Then LCD output pins are tri-stated and buffers are switched off. Shortening the drive time
will reduce power consumption, but displays with high internal resistance or capacitance may
need longer drive time to achieve sufficient contrast.
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23.2.8
Minimizing Power Consumption
By keeping the percentage of the time the LCD drivers are turned on at a minimum, the power
consumption of the LCD driver can be minimized. This can be achieved by using the lowest
acceptable frame rate, and using low power waveform if possible. The drive time should be kept
at the lowest setting that achieves satisfactory contrast for a particular display, while allowing
some headroom for production variations between individual LCD drivers and displays. Note
that some of the highest LCD voltage settings may result in high power consumption when VCC
is below 2.0V. The recommended maximum LCD voltage is 2*(VCC - 0.2V).
23.3
23.3.1
Mode of Operation
Static Duty and Bias
If all segments on a LCD have one electrode common, then each segment must have a unique
terminal.
This kind of display is driven with the waveform shown in Figure 23-3. SEG0 - COM0 is the voltage across a segment that is on, and SEG1 - COM0 is the voltage across a segment that is off.
Figure 23-3. Driving a LCD with One Common Terminal
VLCD
VLCD
SEG0
GND
SEG1
GND
VLCD
VLCD
COM0
GND
COM0
GND
VLCD
SEG0 - COM0
GND
GND
SEG1 - COM0
-VLCD
Frame
23.3.2
Frame
Frame
Frame
1/2 Duty and 1/2 Bias
For LCD with two common terminals (1/2 duty) a more complex waveform must be used to individually control segments. Although 1/3 bias can be selected 1/2 bias is most common for these
displays. Waveform is shown in Figure 23-4 on page 238. SEG0 - COM0 is the voltage across a
segment that is on, and SEG0 - COM1 is the voltage across a segment that is off.
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Figure 23-4. Driving a LCD with Two Common Terminals
VLCD
VLCD
SEG0
SEG0
GND
GND
VLCD
1/ V
2 LCD
COM0
1/
VLCD
2VLCD
GND
1/
2VLCD
-1/
GND
V
2 LCD
-VLCD
GND
VLCD
1/ V
2 LCD
GND
SEG0 - COM0
-1/ V
2 LCD
-VLCD
Frame
Frame
COM1
VLCD
SEG0 - COM1
Frame
Frame
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23.3.3
1/3 Duty and 1/3 Bias
1/3 bias is usually recommended for LCD with three common terminals (1/3 duty). Waveform is
shown in Figure 23-5. SEG0 - COM0 is the voltage across a segment that is on and SEG0COM1 is the voltage across a segment that is off.
Figure 23-5. Driving a LCD with Three Common Terminals
VLCD
2/
3VLCD
1/
3VLCD
SEG0
GND
GND
VLCD
VLCD
2/ V
3 LCD
1/ V
3 LCD
2/
3VLCD
1/
3VLCD
COM0
GND
GND
VLCD
V
3 LCD
1/ V
3 LCD
GND
-1/3VLCD
-2/3VLCD
-VLCD
VLCD
2/ V
3 LCD
1/ V
3 LCD
2/
23.3.4
VLCD
2/ V
3 LCD
1/ V
3 LCD
SEG0 - COM0
SEG0
COM1
SEG0 - COM1
GND
-1/3VLCD
-2/3VLCD
Frame
-VLCD
Frame
Frame
Frame
1/4 Duty and 1/3 Bias
1/3 bias is optimal for LCD displays with four common terminals (1/4 duty). Waveform is shown
in Figure 23-6. SEG0 - COM0 is the voltage across a segment that is on and SEG0 - COM1 is
the voltage across a segment that is off.
Figure 23-6. Driving a LCD with Four Common Terminals
VLCD
2/ V
3 LCD
1/ V
3 LCD
SEG0
VLCD
2/ V
3 LCD
1/ V
3 LCD
GND
GND
VLCD
2/ V
3 LCD
1/ V
3 LCD
VLCD
2/ V
3 LCD
1/ V
3 LCD
COM0
GND
GND
VLCD
2/ V
3 LCD
1/ V
3 LCD
VLCD
2/ V
3 LCD
1/ V
3 LCD
GND
-1/3VLCD
-2/3VLCD
-VLCD
SEG0 - COM0
Frame
Frame
GND
-1/3VLCD
-2/3VLCD
-VLCD
SEG0
COM1
SEG0 - COM1
Frame
Frame
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23.3.5
Low Power Waveform
To reduce toggle activity and hence power consumption a low power waveform can be selected
by writing LCDAB to one. Low power waveform requires two subsequent frames with the same
display data to obtain zero DC voltage. Consequently data latching and Interrupt Flag is only set
every second frame. Default and low power waveform is shown in Figure 23-7 for 1/3 duty and
1/3 bias. For other selections of duty and bias, the effect is similar.
Figure 23-7. Default and Low Power Waveform
VLCD
2/ V
3 LCD
1/ V
3 LCD
GND
GND
VLCD
2/ V
3 LCD
1/ V
3 LCD
VLCD
2/ V
3 LCD
1/ V
3 LCD
COM0
GND
GND
VLCD
2/ V
3 LCD
1/ V
3 LCD
VLCD
2/ V
3 LCD
1/ V
3 LCD
GND
-1/3VLCD
-2/3VLCD
-VLCD
23.3.6
SEG0
VLCD
2/ V
3 LCD
1/ V
3 LCD
SEG0 - COM0
Frame
Frame
GND
-1/3VLCD
-2/3VLCD
-VLCD
SEG0
COM0
SEG0 - COM0
Frame
Frame
Operation in Sleep Mode
When synchronous LCD clock is selected (LCDCS = 0) the LCD display will operate in Idle
mode and Power-save mode with any clock source.
An asynchronous clock from TOSC1 can be selected as LCD clock by writing the LCDCS bit to
one when Calibrated Internal RC Oscillator is selected as system clock source. The LCD will
then operate in Idle mode, ADC Noise Reduction mode and Power-save mode.
When EXCLK in ASSR Register is written to one, and asynchronous clock is selected, the external clock input buffer is enabled and an external clock can be input on Timer Oscillator 1
(TOSC1) pin instead of a 32 kHz crystal. See ”Asynchronous operation of the Timer/Counter” on
page 150 for further details.
Before entering Power-down mode, Standby mode or ADC Noise Reduction mode with synchronous LCD clock selected, the user have to disable the LCD. Refer to ”Disabling the LCD” on
page 244.
23.3.7
Display Blanking
When LCDBL is written to one, the LCD is blanked after completing the current frame. All segments and common pins are connected to GND, discharging the LCD. Display memory is
preserved. Display blanking should be used before disabling the LCD to avoid DC voltage
across segments, and a slowly fading image.
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23.3.8
Port Mask
For LCD with less than 25 segment terminals, it is possible to mask some of the unused pins
and use them as ordinary port pins instead. Refer to Table 23-3 on page 247 for details. Unused
common pins are automatically configured as port pins.
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23.4
LCD Usage
The following section describes how to use the LCD.
23.4.1
LCD Initialization
Prior to enabling the LCD some initialization must be preformed. The initialization process normally consists of setting the frame rate, duty, bias and port mask. LCD contrast is set initially, but
can also be adjusted during operation.
Consider the following LCD as an example:
Figure 23-8. LCD usage example.
LCD
2a
1b
2f
2b
2g
1c
2e
2c
51
50
COM2
COM1
COM0
2d
49
COM3 48
SEG0 47
ATmega169
SEG2
2f
2g
..
SEG1
2c
2d
2e
SEG0
SEG1 46
1b,1c
2a
2b
COM0
COM1
COM2
Connection table
SEG2 45
Display:
TN Positive, Reflective
Number of common terminals:
3
Number of segment terminals:
21
Bias system:
1/3 Bias
Drive system:
1/3 Duty
Operating voltage:
3.0 ±0.3V
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Assembly Code Example(1)
LCD_Init:
; Use 32 kHz crystal oscillator
; 1/3 Bias and 1/3 duty, SEG21:SEG24 is used as port pins
ldi
r16, (1<<LCDCS) | (1<<LCDMUX1)| (1<<LCDPM2)
sts
LCDCRB, r16
; Using 16 as prescaler selection and 7 as LCD Clock Divide
; gives a frame rate of 49 Hz
ldi
r16, (1<<LCDCD2) | (1<<LCDCD1)
sts
LCDFRR, r16
; Set segment drive time to 125 µs and output voltage to 3.3 V
ldi
r16, (1<<LCDDC1) | (1<<LCDCC3) | (1<<LCDCC2) | (1<<LCDCC1)
sts
LCDCCR, r16
; Enable LCD, default waveform and no interrupt enabled
ldi
r16, (1<<LCDEN)
sts
LCDCRA, r16
ret
C Code Example(1)
Void LCD_Init(void);
{
/* Use 32 kHz crystal oscillator */
/* 1/3 Bias and 1/3 duty, SEG21:SEG24 is used as port pins */
LCDCRB = (1<<LCDCS) | (1<<LCDMUX1)| (1<<LCDPM2);
/* Using 16 as prescaler selection and 7 as LCD Clock Divide */
/* gives a frame rate of 49 Hz */
LCDFRR = (1<<LCDCD2) | (1<<LCDCD1);
/* Set segment drive time to 125 µs and output voltage to 3.3 V*/
LCDCCR = (1<<LCDDC1) | (1<<LCDCC3) | (1<<LCDCC2) | (1<<LCDCC1);
/* Enable LCD, default waveform and no interrupt enabled */
LCDCRA = (1<<LCDEN);
}
Note:
1. See ”About Code Examples” on page 10.
Before a re-initialization is done, the LCD controller/driver should be disabled.
23.4.2
Updating the LCD
Display memory (LCDDR0, LCDDR1, ..), LCD Blanking (LCDBL), Low power waveform
(LCDAB) and contrast control (LCDCCR) are latched prior to every new frame. There are no
restrictions on writing these LCD Register locations, but an LCD data update may be split
between two frames if data are latched while an update is in progress. To avoid this, an interrupt
routine can be used to update Display memory, LCD Blanking, Low power waveform, and contrast control, just after data are latched.
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In the example below we assume SEG10 and COM1 and SEG4 in COM0 are the only segments
changed from frame to frame. Data are stored in r20 and r21 for simplicity
Assembly Code Example(1)
LCD_update:
; LCD Blanking and Low power waveform are unchanged.
; Update Display memory.
sts
LCDDR0, r20
sts
LCDDR6, r21
ret
C Code Example(1)
Void LCD_update(unsigned char data1, data2);
{
/* LCD Blanking and Low power waveform are unchanged. */
/* Update Display memory. */
LCDDR0 = data1;
LCDDR6 = data2;
}
Note:
23.4.3
1. See ”About Code Examples” on page 10.
Disabling the LCD
In some application it may be necessary to disable the LCD. This is the case if the MCU enters
Power-down mode where no clock source is present.
The LCD should be completely discharged before being disabled. No DC voltage should be left
across any segment. The best way to achieve this is to use the LCD Blanking feature that drives
all segment pins and common pins to GND.
When the LCD is disabled, port function is activated again. Therefore, the user must check that
port pins connected to a LCD terminal are either tri-state or output low (sink).
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Assembly Code Example(1)
LCD_disable:
; Wait until a new frame is started.
Wait_1:
lds
r16, LCDCRA
sbrs r16, LCDIF
rjmp Wait_1
; Set LCD Blanking and clear interrupt flag
; by writing a logical one to the flag.
ldi
r16, (1<<LCDEN)|(1<<LCDIF)|(1<<LCDBL)
sts
LCDCRA, r16
; Wait until LCD Blanking is effective.
Wait_2:
lds
r16, LCDCRA
sbrs r16, LCDIF
rjmp Wait_2
; Disable LCD.
ldi
r16, (0<<LCDEN)
sts
LCDCRA, r16
ret
C Code Example(1)
Void LCD_disable(void);
{
/* Wait until a new frame is started. */
while ( !(LCDCRA & (1<<LCDIF)) )
;
/* Set LCD Blanking and clear interrupt flag */
/* by writing a logical one to the flag. */
LCDCRA = (1<<LCDEN)|(1<<LCDIF)|(1<<LCDBL);
/* Wait until LCD Blanking is effective. */
while ( !(LCDCRA & (1<<LCDIF)) )
;
/* Disable LCD */
LCDCRA = (0<<LCDEN);
}
Note:
1. See ”About Code Examples” on page 10.
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23.5
23.5.1
LCD Register Description
LCDCRA – LCD Control and Status Register A
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
LCDEN
LCDAB
–
LCDIF
LCDIE
LCDBD
LCDCCD
LCDBL
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
(0xE4)
LCDCRA
• Bit 7 – LCDEN: LCD Enable
Writing this bit to one enables the LCD Controller/Driver. By writing it to zero, the LCD is turned
off immediately. Turning the LCD Controller/Driver off while driving a display, enables ordinary
port function, and DC voltage can be applied to the display if ports are configured as output. It is
recommended to drive output to ground if the LCD Controller/Driver is disabled to discharge the
display.
• Bit 6 – LCDAB: LCD Low Power Waveform
When LCDAB is written logic zero, the default waveform is output on the LCD pins. When
LCDAB is written logic one, the Low Power Waveform is output on the LCD pins. If this bit is
modified during display operation the change takes place at the beginning of a new frame.
• Bit 5 – Res: Reserved Bit
This bit is reserved and will always read as zero.
• Bit 4 – LCDIF: LCD Interrupt Flag
This bit is set by hardware at the beginning of a new frame, at the same time as the display data
is updated. The LCD Start of Frame Interrupt is executed if the LCDIE bit and the I-bit in SREG
are set. LCDIF is cleared by hardware when executing the corresponding Interrupt Handling
Vector. Alternatively, writing a logical one to the flag clears LCDIF. Beware that if doing a ReadModify-Write on LCDCRA, a pending interrupt can be disabled. If Low Power Waveform is
selected the Interrupt Flag is set every second frame.
• Bit 3 – LCDIE: LCD Interrupt Enable
When this bit is written to one and the I-bit in SREG is set, the LCD Start of Frame Interrupt is
enabled.
• Bit 2 – LCDBD: LCD Buffer Disable
The intermediate voltage levels in the LCD are generated by an internal resistive voltage divider
and passed through buffer to increase the current driving capability. By writing this bit to one the
buffers are turned off and bypassed, resulting in decreased power consumption. The total resistance of the voltage divider is nominally 400 kΩ between LCDCAP and GND.
• Bit 1 – LCDCCD: LCD Contrast Control Disable
Writing this bit to one disables the internal power supply for the LCD driver. The desired voltage
must be applied to the LCDCAP pin from an external power supply. To avoid conflict between
internal and external power supply, this bit must be written as '1' prior to or simultaneously with
writing '1' to the LCDEN bit.
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• Bit 0 – LCDBL: LCD Blanking
When this bit is written to one, the display will be blanked after completion of a frame. All segment and common pins will be driven to ground.
23.5.2
LCDCRB – LCD Control and Status Register B
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
LCDCS
LCD2B
LCDMUX1
LCDMUX0
–
LCDPM2
LCDPM1
LCDPM0
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
(0xE5)
LCDCRB
• Bit 7 – LCDCS: LCD Clock Select
When this bit is written to zero, the system clock is used. When this bit is written to one, the
external asynchronous clock source is used. The asynchronous clock source is either
Timer/Counter Oscillator or external clock, depending on EXCLK in ASSR. See ”Asynchronous
operation of the Timer/Counter” on page 150 for further details.
• Bit 6 – LCD2B: LCD 1/2 Bias Select
When this bit is written to zero, 1/3 bias is used. When this bit is written to one, ½ bias is used.
Refer to the LCD Manufacture for recommended bias selection.
• Bit 5:4 – LCDMUX1:0: LCD Mux Select
The LCDMUX1:0 bits determine the duty cycle. Common pins that are not used are ordinary port
pins. The different duty selections are shown in Table 23-2.
Table 23-2.
LCD Duty Select
LCDMUX1
LCDMUX0
Duty
Bias
0
0
Static
Static
0
1
1
0
1
Note:
1
1/2
1/3
1/4
COM Pin
I/O Port Pin
COM0
COM1:3
(1)
COM0:1
COM2:3
1/2 or 1/3
(1)
COM0:2
COM3
1/2 or 1/3
(1)
COM0:3
None
1/2 or 1/3
1. 1/2 bias when LCD2B is written to one and 1/3 otherwise.
• Bit 3 – Res: Reserved Bit
This bit is reserved and will always read as zero.
• Bits 2:0 – LCDPM2:0: LCD Port Mask
The LCDPM2:0 bits determine the number of port pins to be used as segment drivers. The different selections are shown in Table 23-3. Unused pins can be used as ordinary port pins.
Table 23-3.
LCD Port Mask
LCDPM2
LCDPM1
LCDPM0
I/O Port in Use as Segment
Driver
Maximum Number of
Segments
0
0
0
SEG0:12
13
0
0
1
SEG0:14
15
0
1
0
SEG0:16
17
0
1
1
SEG0:18
19
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Table 23-3.
23.5.3
LCD Port Mask (Continued)
LCDPM2
LCDPM1
LCDPM0
I/O Port in Use as Segment
Driver
Maximum Number of
Segments
1
0
0
SEG0:20
21
1
0
1
SEG0:22
23
1
1
0
SEG0:23
24
1
1
1
SEG0:24
25
LCDFRR – LCD Frame Rate Register
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
(0xE6)
–
LCDPS2
LCDPS1
LCDPS0
–
LCDCD2
LCDCD1
LCDCD0
Read/Write
R
R/W
R/W
R/W
R
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
LCDFRR
• Bit 7 – Res: Reserved Bit
This bit is reserved and will always read as zero.
• Bits 6:4 – LCDPS2:0: LCD Prescaler Select
The LCDPS2:0 bits selects tap point from a prescaler. The prescaled output can be further
divided by setting the clock divide bits (LCDCD2:0). The different selections are shown in Table
23-4. Together they determine the prescaled LCD clock (clkLCD_PS), which is clocking the LCD
module.
Table 23-4.
LCD Prescaler Select
LCDPS2
LCDPS1
LCDPS0
Output from
Prescaler
clkLCD/N
Applied Prescaled LCD Clock Frequency
when LCDCD2:0 = 0, Duty = 1/4, and
Frame Rate = 64Hz
0
0
0
clkLCD/16
8.1 kHz
0
0
1
clkLCD/64
33 kHz
0
1
0
clkLCD/128
66 kHz
0
1
1
clkLCD/256
130 kHz
1
0
0
clkLCD/512
260 kHz
1
0
1
clkLCD/1024
520 kHz
1
1
0
clkLCD/2048
1 MHz
1
1
1
clkLCD/4096
2 MHz
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• Bit 3 – Res: Reserved Bit
This bit is reserved and will always read as zero.
• Bits 2:0 – LCDCD2:0: LCD Clock Divide 2, 1, and 0
The LCDCD2:0 bits determine division ratio in the clock divider. The various selections are
shown in Table 23-5. This Clock Divider gives extra flexibility in frame rate selection.
Table 23-5.
LCD Clock Divide
LCDCD2
LCDCD1
LCDCD0
Output from Prescaler
divided by (D):
clkLCD = 32.768 kHz, N = 16, and
Duty = 1/4, gives a frame rate of:
0
0
0
1
256Hz
0
0
1
2
128Hz
0
1
0
3
85.3Hz
0
1
1
4
64Hz
1
0
0
5
51.2Hz
1
0
1
6
42.7Hz
1
1
0
7
36.6Hz
1
1
1
8
32Hz
The frame frequency can be calculated by the following equation:
f clk
LCD
f frame = ------------------------(K ⋅ N ⋅ D)
Where:
N = prescaler divider (16, 64, 128, 256, 512, 1024, 2048, or 4096).
K = 8 for duty = 1/4, 1/2, and static.
K = 6 for duty = 1/3.
D = Division factor (see Table 23-5).
This is a very flexible scheme, and users are encouraged to calculate their own table to investigate the possible frame rates from the formula above. Note when using 1/3 duty the frame rate
is increased with 33% when Frame Rate Register is constant. Example of frame rate calculation
is shown in Table 23-6.
Table 23-6.
Example of frame rate calculation
clkLCD
duty
K
N
LCDCD2:0
D
Frame Rate
4 MHz
1/4
8
2048
011
4
4000000/(8*2048*4) = 61Hz
4 MHz
1/3
6
2048
011
4
4000000/(6*2048*4) = 81Hz
32.768 kHz
Static
8
16
000
1
32768/(8*16*1) = 256Hz
32.768 kHz
1/2
8
16
100
5
32768/(8*16*5) = 51Hz
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23.5.4
LCDCCR – LCD Contrast Control Register
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
LCDDC2
LCDDC1
LCDDC0
LCDMDT
LCDCC3
LCDCC2
LCDCC1
LCDCC0
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
(0xE7)
LCDCCR
• Bits 7:5 – LCDDC2:0: LDC Display Configuration
The LCDDC2:0 bits determine the amount of time the LCD drivers are turned on for each voltage transition on segment and common pins. A short drive time will lead to lower power
consumption, but displays with high internal resistance may need longer drive time to achieve
satisfactory contrast. Note that the drive time will never be longer than one half prescaled LCD
clock period, even if the selected drive time is longer. When using static bias or blanking, drive
time will always be one half prescaled LCD clock period.
Table 23-7.
LCD Display Configuration
LCDDC2
LCDDC1
LCDDC0
Nominal drive time
0
0
0
300 µs
0
0
1
70 µs
0
1
0
150 µs
0
1
1
450 µs
1
0
0
575 µs
1
0
1
850 µs
1
1
0
1150 µs
1
1
1
50% of clkLCD_PS
• Bit 4 – LCDMDT: LCD Maximum Drive Time
Writing this bit to one turns the LCD drivers on 100% on the time, regardless of the drive time
configured by LCDDC2:0.
• Bits 3:0 – LCDCC3:0: LCD Contrast Control
The LCDCC3:0 bits determine the maximum voltage VLCD on segment and common pins. The
different selections are shown in Table 23-8 on page 251. New values take effect every beginning of a new frame.
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Table 23-8.
23.5.5
LCD Contrast Control
LCDCC3
LCDCC2
LCDCC1
LCDCC0
Maximum Voltage VLCD
0
0
0
0
2.60V
0
0
0
1
2.65V
0
0
1
0
2.70V
0
0
1
1
2.75V
0
1
0
0
2.80V
0
1
0
1
2.85V
0
1
1
0
2.90V
0
1
1
1
2.95V
1
0
0
0
3.00V
1
0
0
1
3.05V
1
0
1
0
3.10V
1
0
1
1
3.15V
1
1
0
0
3.20V
1
1
0
1
3.25V
1
1
1
0
3.30V
1
1
1
1
3.35V
LCD Memory Mapping
Write a LCD memory bit to one and the corresponding segment will be energized (visible).
Unused LCD Memory bits for the actual display can be used freely as storage.
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
COM3
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
SEG324
LCDDR18
COM3
SEG323
SEG322
SEG321
SEG320
SEG319
SEG318
SEG317
SEG316
LCDDR17
COM3
SEG315
SEG314
SEG313
SEG312
SEG311
SEG310
SEG309
SEG308
LCDDR16
COM3
SEG307
SEG306
SEG305
SEG304
SEG303
SEG302
SEG301
SEG300
LCDDR15
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
LCDDR14
COM2
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
SEG224
LCDDR13
COM2
SEG223
SEG222
SEG221
SEG220
SEG219
SEG218
SEG217
SEG216
LCDDR12
COM2
SEG215
SEG214
SEG213
SEG212
SEG211
SEG210
SEG209
SEG208
LCDDR11
COM2
SEG207
SEG206
SEG205
SEG204
SEG203
SEG202
SEG201
SEG200
LCDDR10
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
LCDDR9
COM1
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
SEG124
LCDDR8
COM1
SEG123
SEG122
SEG121
SEG120
SEG119
SEG118
SEG117
SEG116
LCDDR7
COM1
SEG115
SEG114
SEG113
SEG112
SEG111
SEG110
SEG109
SEG108
LCDDR6
COM1
SEG107
SEG106
SEG105
SEG104
SEG103
SEG102
SEG101
SEG100
LCDDR5
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
LCDDR4
COM0
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
SEG024
LCDDR3
COM0
SEG023
SEG022
SEG021
SEG020
SEG019
SEG018
SEG017
SEG016
LCDDR2
COM0
SEG015
SEG014
SEG013
SEG012
SEG011
SEG010
SEG009
SEG008
LCDDR1
COM0
SEG007
SEG006
SEG005
SEG004
SEG003
SEG002
SEG001
SEG000
LCDDR0
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Bit
0
LCDDR19
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24. JTAG Interface and On-chip Debug System
24.0.1
Features
• JTAG (IEEE std. 1149.1 Compliant) Interface
• Boundary-scan Capabilities According to the IEEE std. 1149.1 (JTAG) Standard
• Debugger Access to:
– All Internal Peripheral Units
– Internal and External RAM
– The Internal Register File
– Program Counter
– EEPROM and Flash Memories
• Extensive On-chip Debug Support for Break Conditions, Including
– AVR Break Instruction
– Break on Change of Program Memory Flow
– Single Step Break
– Program Memory Break Points on Single Address or Address Range
– Data Memory Break Points on Single Address or Address Range
• Programming of Flash, EEPROM, Fuses, and Lock Bits through the JTAG Interface
• On-chip Debugging Supported by AVR Studio®
24.1
Overview
The AVR IEEE std. 1149.1 compliant JTAG interface can be used for:
• Testing PCBs by using the JTAG Boundary-scan capability.
• Programming the non-volatile memories, Fuses and Lock bits.
• On-chip debugging.
A brief description is given in the following sections. Detailed descriptions for Programming via
the JTAG interface, and using the Boundary-scan Chain can be found in the sections ”Programming via the JTAG Interface” on page 316 and ”IEEE 1149.1 (JTAG) Boundary-scan” on page
259, respectively. The On-chip Debug support is considered being private JTAG instructions,
and distributed within ATMEL and to selected third party vendors only.
Figure 24-1 on page 254 shows a block diagram of the JTAG interface and the On-chip Debug
system. The TAP Controller is a state machine controlled by the TCK and TMS signals. The TAP
Controller selects either the JTAG Instruction Register or one of several Data Registers as the
scan chain (Shift Register) between the TDI – input and TDO – output. The Instruction Register
holds JTAG instructions controlling the behavior of a Data Register.
The ID-Register, Bypass Register, and the Boundary-scan Chain are the Data Registers used
for board-level testing. The JTAG Programming Interface (actually consisting of several physical
and virtual Data Registers) is used for serial programming via the JTAG interface. The Internal
Scan Chain and Break Point Scan Chain are used for On-chip debugging only.
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24.2
TAP – Test Access Port
The JTAG interface is accessed through four of the AVR’s pins. In JTAG terminology, these pins
constitute the Test Access Port – TAP. These pins are:
• TMS: Test mode select. This pin is used for navigating through the TAP-controller state
machine.
• TCK: Test Clock. JTAG operation is synchronous to TCK.
• TDI: Test Data In. Serial input data to be shifted in to the Instruction Register or Data Register
(Scan Chains).
• TDO: Test Data Out. Serial output data from Instruction Register or Data Register.
The IEEE std. 1149.1 also specifies an optional TAP signal; TRST – Test ReSeT – which is not
provided.
When the JTAGEN fuse is unprogrammed, these four TAP pins are normal port pins and the
TAP controller is in reset. When programmed and the JTD bit in MCUCSR is cleared, the TAP
pins are internally pulled high and the JTAG is enabled for Boundary-scan and programming.
The device is shipped with this fuse programmed.
For the On-chip Debug system, in addition to the JTAG interface pins, the RESET pin is monitored by the debugger to be able to detect external reset sources. The debugger can also pull
the RESET pin low to reset the whole system, assuming only open collectors on the reset line
are used in the application.
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Figure 24-1. Block Diagram
I/O PORT 0
DEVICE BOUNDARY
BOUNDARY SCAN CHAIN
TDI
TDO
TCK
TMS
JTAG PROGRAMMING
INTERFACE
TAP
CONTROLLER
AVR CPU
INSTRUCTION
REGISTER
ID
REGISTER
M
U
X
FLASH
MEMORY
Address
Data
BREAKPOINT
UNIT
BYPASS
REGISTER
INTERNAL
SCAN
CHAIN
PC
Instruction
FLOW CONTROL
UNIT
DIGITAL
PERIPHERAL
UNITS
ANALOG
PERIPHERIAL
UNITS
Analog inputs
BREAKPOINT
SCAN CHAIN
ADDRESS
DECODER
JTAG / AVR CORE
COMMUNICATION
INTERFACE
OCD STATUS
AND CONTROL
Control & Clock lines
I/O PORT n
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Figure 24-2. TAP Controller State Diagram
1
Test-Logic-Reset
0
0
Run-Test/Idle
1
Select-DR Scan
1
Select-IR Scan
0
1
0
1
Capture-DR
Capture-IR
0
0
0
Shift-DR
1
1
Exit1-DR
0
0
Pause-DR
0
Pause-IR
1
1
0
Exit2-DR
Exit2-IR
1
1
Update-DR
24.3
1
Exit1-IR
0
1
0
Shift-IR
1
0
1
Update-IR
0
1
0
TAP Controller
The TAP controller is a 16-state finite state machine that controls the operation of the Boundaryscan circuitry, JTAG programming circuitry, or On-chip Debug system. The state transitions
depicted in Figure 24-2 depend on the signal present on TMS (shown adjacent to each state
transition) at the time of the rising edge at TCK. The initial state after a Power-on Reset is TestLogic-Reset.
As a definition in this document, the LSB is shifted in and out first for all Shift Registers.
Assuming Run-Test/Idle is the present state, a typical scenario for using the JTAG interface is:
• At the TMS input, apply the sequence 1, 1, 0, 0 at the rising edges of TCK to enter the Shift
Instruction Register – Shift-IR state. While in this state, shift the four bits of the JTAG
instructions into the JTAG Instruction Register from the TDI input at the rising edge of TCK.
The TMS input must be held low during input of the 3 LSBs in order to remain in the Shift-IR
state. The MSB of the instruction is shifted in when this state is left by setting TMS high. While
the instruction is shifted in from the TDI pin, the captured IR-state 0x01 is shifted out on the
TDO pin. The JTAG Instruction selects a particular Data Register as path between TDI and
TDO and controls the circuitry surrounding the selected Data Register.
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8018P–AVR–08/10
ATmega169P
• Apply the TMS sequence 1, 1, 0 to re-enter the Run-Test/Idle state. The instruction is latched
onto the parallel output from the Shift Register path in the Update-IR state. The Exit-IR, PauseIR, and Exit2-IR states are only used for navigating the state machine.
• At the TMS input, apply the sequence 1, 0, 0 at the rising edges of TCK to enter the Shift Data
Register – Shift-DR state. While in this state, upload the selected Data Register (selected by
the present JTAG instruction in the JTAG Instruction Register) from the TDI input at the rising
edge of TCK. In order to remain in the Shift-DR state, the TMS input must be held low during
input of all bits except the MSB. The MSB of the data is shifted in when this state is left by
setting TMS high. While the Data Register is shifted in from the TDI pin, the parallel inputs to
the Data Register captured in the Capture-DR state is shifted out on the TDO pin.
• Apply the TMS sequence 1, 1, 0 to re-enter the Run-Test/Idle state. If the selected Data
Register has a latched parallel-output, the latching takes place in the Update-DR state. The
Exit-DR, Pause-DR, and Exit2-DR states are only used for navigating the state machine.
As shown in the state diagram, the Run-Test/Idle state need not be entered between selecting
JTAG instruction and using Data Registers, and some JTAG instructions may select certain
functions to be performed in the Run-Test/Idle, making it unsuitable as an Idle state.
Note:
Independent of the initial state of the TAP Controller, the Test-Logic-Reset state can always be
entered by holding TMS high for five TCK clock periods.
For detailed information on the JTAG specification, refer to the literature listed in ”Bibliography”
on page 258.
24.4
Using the Boundary-scan Chain
A complete description of the Boundary-scan capabilities are given in the section ”IEEE 1149.1
(JTAG) Boundary-scan” on page 259.
24.5
Using the On-chip Debug System
As shown in Figure 24-1 on page 254, the hardware support for On-chip Debugging consists
mainly of:
• A scan chain on the interface between the internal AVR CPU and the internal peripheral units.
• Break Point unit.
• Communication interface between the CPU and JTAG system.
All read or modify/write operations needed for implementing the Debugger are done by applying
AVR instructions via the internal AVR CPU Scan Chain. The CPU sends the result to an I/O
memory mapped location which is part of the communication interface between the CPU and the
JTAG system.
The Break Point Unit implements Break on Change of Program Flow, Single Step Break, two
Program Memory Break Points, and two combined Break Points. Together, the four Break
Points can be configured as either:
• 4 single Program Memory Break Points.
• 3 Single Program Memory Break Point + 1 single Data Memory Break Point.
• 2 single Program Memory Break Points + 2 single Data Memory Break Points.
• 2 single Program Memory Break Points + 1 Program Memory Break Point with mask (“range
Break Point”).
• 2 single Program Memory Break Points + 1 Data Memory Break Point with mask (“range Break
Point”).
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A debugger, like the AVR Studio, may however use one or more of these resources for its internal purpose, leaving less flexibility to the end-user.
A list of the On-chip Debug specific JTAG instructions is given in ”On-chip Debug Specific JTAG
Instructions” on page 257.
The JTAGEN Fuse must be programmed to enable the JTAG Test Access Port. In addition, the
OCDEN Fuse must be programmed and no Lock bits must be set for the On-chip debug system
to work. As a security feature, the On-chip debug system is disabled when either of the LB1 or
LB2 Lock bits are set. Otherwise, the On-chip debug system would have provided a back-door
into a secured device.
The AVR Studio enables the user to fully control execution of programs on an AVR device with
On-chip Debug capability, AVR In-Circuit Emulator, or the built-in AVR Instruction Set Simulator.
AVR Studio supports source level execution of Assembly programs assembled with Atmel Corporation’s AVR Assembler and C programs compiled with third party vendors’ compilers.
AVR Studio runs under Microsoft® Windows® 95/98/2000, Windows NT® and Windows XP®.
For a full description of the AVR Studio, please refer to the AVR Studio User Guide. Only highlights are presented in this document.
All necessary execution commands are available in AVR Studio, both on source level and on
disassembly level. The user can execute the program, single step through the code either by
tracing into or stepping over functions, step out of functions, place the cursor on a statement and
execute until the statement is reached, stop the execution, and reset the execution target. In
addition, the user can have an unlimited number of code Break Points (using the BREAK
instruction) and up to two data memory Break Points, alternatively combined as a mask (range)
Break Point.
24.6
On-chip Debug Specific JTAG Instructions
The On-chip debug support is considered being private JTAG instructions, and distributed within
ATMEL and to selected third party vendors only. Instruction opcodes are listed for reference.
24.6.1
PRIVATE0; 0x8
Private JTAG instruction for accessing On-chip debug system.
24.6.2
PRIVATE1; 0x9
Private JTAG instruction for accessing On-chip debug system.
24.6.3
PRIVATE2; 0xA
Private JTAG instruction for accessing On-chip debug system.
24.6.4
PRIVATE3; 0xB
Private JTAG instruction for accessing On-chip debug system.
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24.7
24.7.1
On-chip Debug Related Register in I/O Memory
OCDR – On-chip Debug Register
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
0x31 (0x51)
MSB/IDRD
LSB
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
OCDR
The OCDR Register provides a communication channel from the running program in the microcontroller to the debugger. The CPU can transfer a byte to the debugger by writing to this
location. At the same time, an internal flag; I/O Debug Register Dirty – IDRD – is set to indicate
to the debugger that the register has been written. When the CPU reads the OCDR Register the
7 LSB will be from the OCDR Register, while the MSB is the IDRD bit. The debugger clears the
IDRD bit when it has read the information.
In some AVR devices, this register is shared with a standard I/O location. In this case, the OCDR
Register can only be accessed if the OCDEN Fuse is programmed, and the debugger enables
access to the OCDR Register. In all other cases, the standard I/O location is accessed.
Refer to the debugger documentation for further information on how to use this register.
24.8
Using the JTAG Programming Capabilities
Programming of AVR parts via JTAG is performed via the 4-pin JTAG port, TCK, TMS, TDI, and
TDO. These are the only pins that need to be controlled/observed to perform JTAG programming (in addition to power pins). It is not required to apply 12V externally. The JTAGEN Fuse
must be programmed and the JTD bit in the MCUCR Register must be cleared to enable the
JTAG Test Access Port. See ”Boundary-scan Related Register in I/O Memory” on page 279.
The JTAG programming capability supports:
• Flash programming and verifying.
• EEPROM programming and verifying.
• Fuse programming and verifying.
• Lock bit programming and verifying.
The Lock bit security is exactly as in parallel programming mode. If the Lock bits LB1 or LB2 are
programmed, the OCDEN Fuse cannot be programmed unless first doing a chip erase. This is a
security feature that ensures no back-door exists for reading out the content of a secured
device.
The details on programming through the JTAG interface and programming specific JTAG
instructions are given in the section ”Programming via the JTAG Interface” on page 316.
24.9
Bibliography
For more information about general Boundary-scan, the following literature can be consulted:
• IEEE: IEEE Std. 1149.1-1990. IEEE Standard Test Access Port and Boundary-scan
Architecture, IEEE, 1993.
• Colin Maunder: The Board Designers Guide to Testable Logic Circuits, Addison-Wesley, 1992.
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25. IEEE 1149.1 (JTAG) Boundary-scan
25.1
Features
•
•
•
•
•
25.2
JTAG (IEEE std. 1149.1 compliant) Interface
Boundary-scan Capabilities According to the JTAG Standard
Full Scan of all Port Functions as well as Analog Circuitry having Off-chip Connections
Supports the Optional IDCODE Instruction
Additional Public AVR_RESET Instruction to Reset the AVR
System Overview
The Boundary-scan chain has the capability of driving and observing the logic levels on the digital I/O pins, as well as the boundary between digital and analog logic for analog circuitry having
off-chip connections. At system level, all ICs having JTAG capabilities are connected serially by
the TDI/TDO signals to form a long Shift Register. An external controller sets up the devices to
drive values at their output pins, and observe the input values received from other devices. The
controller compares the received data with the expected result. In this way, Boundary-scan provides a mechanism for testing interconnections and integrity of components on Printed Circuits
Boards by using the four TAP signals only.
The four IEEE 1149.1 defined mandatory JTAG instructions IDCODE, BYPASS, SAMPLE/PRELOAD, and EXTEST, as well as the AVR specific public JTAG instruction AVR_RESET can be
used for testing the Printed Circuit Board. Initial scanning of the Data Register path will show the
ID-Code of the device, since IDCODE is the default JTAG instruction. It may be desirable to
have the AVR device in reset during test mode. If not reset, inputs to the device may be determined by the scan operations, and the internal software may be in an undetermined state when
exiting the test mode. Entering reset, the outputs of any port pin will instantly enter the high
impedance state, making the HIGHZ instruction redundant. If needed, the BYPASS instruction
can be issued to make the shortest possible scan chain through the device. The device can be
set in the reset state either by pulling the external RESET pin low, or issuing the AVR_RESET
instruction with appropriate setting of the Reset Data Register.
The EXTEST instruction is used for sampling external pins and loading output pins with data.
The data from the output latch will be driven out on the pins as soon as the EXTEST instruction
is loaded into the JTAG IR-Register. Therefore, the SAMPLE/PRELOAD should also be used for
setting initial values to the scan ring, to avoid damaging the board when issuing the EXTEST
instruction for the first time. SAMPLE/PRELOAD can also be used for taking a snapshot of the
external pins during normal operation of the part.
The JTAGEN Fuse must be programmed and the JTD bit in the I/O Register MCUCR must be
cleared to enable the JTAG Test Access Port.
When using the JTAG interface for Boundary-scan, using a JTAG TCK clock frequency higher
than the internal chip frequency is possible. The chip clock is not required to run.
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8018P–AVR–08/10
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25.3
Data Registers
The Data Registers relevant for Boundary-scan operations are:
• Bypass Register
• Device Identification Register
• Reset Register
• Boundary-scan Chain
25.3.1
Bypass Register
The Bypass Register consists of a single Shift Register stage. When the Bypass Register is
selected as path between TDI and TDO, the register is reset to 0 when leaving the Capture-DR
controller state. The Bypass Register can be used to shorten the scan chain on a system when
the other devices are to be tested.
25.3.2
Device Identification Register
Figure 25-1 shows the structure of the Device Identification Register.
Figure 25-1. The Format of the Device Identification Register.
LSB
MSB
Bit
Device ID
25.3.2.1
31
28
27
12
11
1
0
Version
Part Number
Manufacturer ID
1
4 bits
16 bits
11 bits
1-bit
Version
Version is a 4-bit number identifying the revision of the component. The JTAG version number
follows the revision of the device. Revision A is 0x0, revision B is 0x1 and so on.
25.3.2.2
Part Number
The part number is a 16-bit code identifying the component. The JTAG Part Number for
ATmega169P is listed in Table 27-6 on page 299.
25.3.2.3
Manufacturer ID
The Manufacturer ID is a 11-bit code identifying the manufacturer. The JTAG manufacturer ID
for ATMEL is listed in Table 27-6 on page 299.
25.3.3
Reset Register
The Reset Register is a test Data Register used to reset the part. Since the AVR tri-states Port
Pins when reset, the Reset Register can also replace the function of the unimplemented optional
JTAG instruction HIGHZ.
A high value in the Reset Register corresponds to pulling the external Reset low. The part is
reset as long as there is a high value present in the Reset Register. Depending on the fuse settings for the clock options, the part will remain reset for a reset time-out period (refer to ”Clock
Sources” on page 31) after releasing the Reset Register. The output from this Data Register is
not latched, so the reset will take place immediately, as shown in Figure 25-2 on page 261.
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Figure 25-2. Reset Register
To
TDO
From Other Internal and
External Reset Sources
From
TDI
D
Q
Internal reset
ClockDR · AVR_RESET
25.3.4
Boundary-scan Chain
The Boundary-scan Chain has the capability of driving and observing the logic levels on the digital I/O pins, as well as the boundary between digital and analog logic for analog circuitry having
off-chip connections.
See ”Boundary-scan Chain” on page 262 for a complete description.
25.4
Boundary-scan Specific JTAG Instructions
The Instruction Register is 4-bit wide, supporting up to 16 instructions. Listed below are the
JTAG instructions useful for Boundary-scan operation. Note that the optional HIGHZ instruction
is not implemented, but all outputs with tri-state capability can be set in high-impedant state by
using the AVR_RESET instruction, since the initial state for all port pins is tri-state.
As a definition in this datasheet, the LSB is shifted in and out first for all Shift Registers.
The OPCODE for each instruction is shown behind the instruction name in hex format. The text
describes which Data Register is selected as path between TDI and TDO for each instruction.
25.4.1
EXTEST; 0x0
Mandatory JTAG instruction for selecting the Boundary-scan Chain as Data Register for testing
circuitry external to the AVR package. For port-pins, Pull-up Disable, Output Control, Output
Data, and Input Data are all accessible in the scan chain. For Analog circuits having off-chip
connections, the interface between the analog and the digital logic is in the scan chain. The contents of the latched outputs of the Boundary-scan chain is driven out as soon as the JTAG IRRegister is loaded with the EXTEST instruction.
The active states are:
• Capture-DR: Data on the external pins are sampled into the Boundary-scan Chain.
• Shift-DR: The Internal Scan Chain is shifted by the TCK input.
• Update-DR: Data from the scan chain is applied to output pins.
25.4.2
IDCODE; 0x1
Optional JTAG instruction selecting the 32-bit ID-Register as Data Register. The ID-Register
consists of a version number, a device number and the manufacturer code chosen by JEDEC.
This is the default instruction after power-up.
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The active states are:
• Capture-DR: Data in the IDCODE Register is sampled into the Boundary-scan Chain.
• Shift-DR: The IDCODE scan chain is shifted by the TCK input.
25.4.3
SAMPLE_PRELOAD; 0x2
Mandatory JTAG instruction for pre-loading the output latches and taking a snap-shot of the
input/output pins without affecting the system operation. However, the output latches are not
connected to the pins. The Boundary-scan Chain is selected as Data Register.
The active states are:
• Capture-DR: Data on the external pins are sampled into the Boundary-scan Chain.
• Shift-DR: The Boundary-scan Chain is shifted by the TCK input.
• Update-DR: Data from the Boundary-scan chain is applied to the output latches. However, the
output latches are not connected to the pins.
25.4.4
AVR_RESET; 0xC
The AVR specific public JTAG instruction for forcing the AVR device into the Reset mode or
releasing the JTAG reset source. The TAP controller is not reset by this instruction. The one bit
Reset Register is selected as Data Register. Note that the reset will be active as long as there is
a logic “one” in the Reset Chain. The output from this chain is not latched.
The active states are:
• Shift-DR: The Reset Register is shifted by the TCK input.
25.4.5
BYPASS; 0xF
Mandatory JTAG instruction selecting the Bypass Register for Data Register.
The active states are:
• Capture-DR: Loads a logic “0” into the Bypass Register.
• Shift-DR: The Bypass Register cell between TDI and TDO is shifted.
25.5
Boundary-scan Chain
The Boundary-scan chain has the capability of driving and observing the logic levels on the digital I/O pins, as well as the boundary between digital and analog logic for analog circuitry having
off-chip connection.
25.5.1
Scanning the Digital Port Pins
Figure 25-3 on page 263 shows the Boundary-scan Cell for a bi-directional port pin with pull-up
function. The cell consists of a standard Boundary-scan cell for the Pull-up Enable – PUExn –
function, and a bi-directional pin cell that combines the three signals Output Control – OCxn,
Output Data – ODxn, and Input Data – IDxn, into only a two-stage Shift Register. The port and
pin indexes are not used in the following description:
The Boundary-scan logic is not included in the figures in the datasheet. Figure 25-4 on page 264
shows a simple digital port pin as described in the section ”I/O-Ports” on page 65. The Boundary-scan details from Figure 25-3 on page 263 replaces the dashed box in Figure 25-4 on page
264.
When no alternate port function is present, the Input Data – ID – corresponds to the PINxn Register value (but ID has no synchronizer), Output Data corresponds to the PORT Register, Output
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Control corresponds to the Data Direction – DD Register, and the Pull-up Enable – PUExn – corresponds to logic expression PUD · DDxn · PORTxn.
Digital alternate port functions are connected outside the dotted box in Figure 25-4 on page 264
to make the scan chain read the actual pin value. For Analog function, there is a direct connection from the external pin to the analog circuit, and a scan chain is inserted on the interface
between the digital logic and the analog circuitry.
Figure 25-3. Boundary-scan Cell for Bi-directional Port Pin with Pull-up Function.
ShiftDR
To Next Cell
EXTEST
Pullup Enable (PUE)
Vcc
0
FF2
LD2
1
0
D
Q
D
Q
1
G
Output Control (OC)
FF1
LD1
0
D
Q
D
Q
0
1
1
G
FF0
0
1
LD0
0
D
Q
D
1
Q
0
1
Port Pin (PXn)
Output Data (OD)
G
Input Data (ID)
From Last Cell
ClockDR
UpdateDR
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Figure 25-4. General Port Pin Schematic Diagram
See Boundary-scan
Description for Details!
PUExn
PUD
Q
D
DDxn
Q CLR
WDx
RESET
OCxn
DATA BUS
RDx
Pxn
1
Q
ODxn
IDxn
D
0
PORTxn
Q CLR
RESET
SLEEP
WPx
RRx
SYNCHRONIZER
D
Q
L
Q
D
WRx
RPx
Q
PINxn
Q
CLK I/O
PUD:
PUExn:
OCxn:
ODxn:
IDxn:
SLEEP:
PULLUP DISABLE
PULLUP ENABLE for pin Pxn
OUTPUT CONTROL for pin Pxn
OUTPUT DATA to pin Pxn
INPUT DATA from pin Pxn
SLEEP CONTROL
WDx:
RDx:
WRx:
RRx:
RPx:
WPx:
CLK I/O :
WRITE DDRx
READ DDRx
WRITE PORTx
READ PORTx REGISTER
READ PORTx PIN
WRITE PINx REGISTER
I/O CLOCK
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25.5.2
Scanning the RESET Pin
The RESET pin accepts 5V active low logic for standard reset operation, and 12V active high
logic for High Voltage Parallel programming. An observe-only cell as shown in Figure 25-5 is
inserted both for the 5V reset signal; RSTT, and the 12V reset signal; RSTHV.
Figure 25-5. Observe-only Cell
To
Next
Cell
ShiftDR
From System Pin
To System Logic
FF1
0
D
Q
1
From
Previous
Cell
25.5.3
ClockDR
Scanning the Clock Pins
The AVR devices have many clock options selectable by fuses. These are: Internal RC Oscillator, External Clock, (High Frequency) Crystal Oscillator, Low-frequency Crystal Oscillator, and
Ceramic Resonator.
Figure 25-6 shows how each Oscillator with external connection is supported in the scan chain.
The Enable signal is supported with a general Boundary-scan cell, while the Oscillator/clock output is attached to an observe-only cell. In addition to the main clock, the timer Oscillator is
scanned in the same way. The output from the internal RC Oscillator is not scanned, as this
Oscillator does not have external connections.
Figure 25-6. Boundary-scan Cells for Oscillators and Clock Options
XTAL1/TOSC1
To
Next
Cell
ShiftDR
EXTEST
From Digital Logic
XTAL2/TOSC2
Oscillator
To
Next
Cell
ShiftDR
0
ENABLE
To System Logic
OUTPUT
1
FF1
0
D
Q
D
1
G
From
Previous
Cell
ClockDR
Q
0
D
Q
1
UpdateDR
From
Previous
Cell
ClockDR
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Table 25-1 summaries the scan registers for the external clock pin XTAL1, oscillators with
XTAL1/XTAL2 connections as well as 32 kHz Timer Oscillator.
Table 25-1.
Enable Signal
Scanned
Clock Line
Clock Option
Scanned Clock Line
when not Used
EXTCLKEN
EXTCLK (XTAL1)
External Clock
0
OSCON
OSCCK
External Crystal
External Ceramic Resonator
1
OSC32EN
OSC32CK
Low Freq. External Crystal
1
Notes:
25.5.4
Scan Signals for the Oscillator(1)(2)(3)
1. Do not enable more than one clock source as main clock at a time.
2. Scanning an Oscillator output gives unpredictable results as there is a frequency drift between
the internal Oscillator and the JTAG TCK clock. If possible, scanning an external clock is
preferred.
3. The clock configuration is programmed by fuses. As a fuse is not changed run-time, the clock
configuration is considered fixed for a given application. The user is advised to scan the same
clock option as to be used in the final system. The enable signals are supported in the scan
chain because the system logic can disable clock options in sleep modes, thereby disconnecting the Oscillator pins from the scan path if not provided.
Scanning the Analog Comparator
The relevant Comparator signals regarding Boundary-scan are shown in Figure 25-7. The
Boundary-scan cell from Figure 25-8 on page 267 is attached to each of these signals. The signals are described in Table 25-2 on page 267.
The Comparator need not be used for pure connectivity testing, since all analog inputs are
shared with a digital port pin as well.
Figure 25-7. Analog Comparator
BANDGAP
REFERENCE
ACBG
ACD
ACO
AC_IDLE
ACME
ADCEN
ADC MULTIPLEXER
OUTPUT
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Figure 25-8. General Boundary-scan cell Used for Signals for Comparator and ADC
To
Next
Cell
ShiftDR
EXTEST
From Digital Logic/
From Analog Ciruitry
0
1
To Analog Circuitry/
To Digital Logic
0
D
Q
D
Q
1
G
From
Previous
Cell
Table 25-2.
ClockDR
UpdateDR
Boundary-scan Signals for the Analog Comparator
Signal
Name
Direction as
Seen from the
Comparator
Recommended
Input when Not
in Use
Output Values when
Recommended Inputs
are Used
AC_IDLE
input
Turns off Analog
Comparator when
true
1
Depends upon µC code
being executed
ACO
output
Analog Comparator
Output
Will become input
to µC code being
executed
0
ACME
input
Uses output signal
from ADC mux when
true
0
Depends upon µC code
being executed
ACBG
input
Bandgap Reference
enable
0
Depends upon µC code
being executed
Description
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25.5.5
Scanning the ADC
Figure 25-9 shows a block diagram of the ADC with all relevant control and observe signals. The
Boundary-scan cell from Figure 25-5 on page 265 is attached to each of these signals. The ADC
need not be used for pure connectivity testing, since all analog inputs are shared with a digital
port pin as well.
Figure 25-9. Analog to Digital Converter.
VCCREN
AREF
IREFEN
1.11V
ref
To Comparator
PASSEN
MUXEN_7
ADC_7
MUXEN_6
ADC_6
MUXEN_5
ADC_5
MUXEN_4
ADC_4
ADCBGEN
SCTEST
1.22V
ref
EXTCH
MUXEN_3
ADC_3
MUXEN_2
ADC_2
MUXEN_1
ADC_1
MUXEN_0
ADC_0
PRECH
PRECH
AREF
AREF
DACOUT
DAC_9..0
10-bit DAC
+
COMP
COMP
-
ADCEN
ACTEN
+
1x
NEGSEL_2
GNDEN
ADC_1
NEGSEL_0
ADC_0
HOLD
-
ADC_2
NEGSEL_1
ST
ACLK
AMPEN
The signals are described briefly in Table 25-3 on page 269.
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Table 25-3.
Boundary-scan Signals for the ADC(1)
Signal
Name
Direction
as Seen
from the
ADC
Recommended Input
when not in
use
Output Values when
Recommended Inputs
are Used, and CPU is
not Using the ADC
Description
COMP
Output
Comparator Output
0
0
ACLK
Input
Clock signal to
differential amplifier
implemented as Switchcap filters
0
0
ACTEN
Input
Enable path from
differential amplifier to
the comparator
0
0
ADCBGEN
Input
Enable Band-gap
reference as negative
input to comparator
0
0
ADCEN
Input
Power-on signal to the
ADC
0
0
AMPEN
Input
Power-on signal to the
differential amplifier
0
0
DAC_9
Input
Bit 9 of digital value to
DAC
1
1
DAC_8
Input
Bit 8 of digital value to
DAC
0
0
DAC_7
Input
Bit 7 of digital value to
DAC
0
0
DAC_6
Input
Bit 6 of digital value to
DAC
0
0
DAC_5
Input
Bit 5 of digital value to
DAC
0
0
DAC_4
Input
Bit 4 of digital value to
DAC
0
0
DAC_3
Input
Bit 3 of digital value to
DAC
0
0
DAC_2
Input
Bit 2 of digital value to
DAC
0
0
DAC_1
Input
Bit 1 of digital value to
DAC
0
0
DAC_0
Input
Bit 0 of digital value to
DAC
0
0
EXTCH
Input
Connect ADC channels 0
- 3 to by-pass path
around differential
amplifier
1
1
GNDEN
Input
Ground the negative
input to comparator when
true
0
0
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Table 25-3.
Signal
Name
Boundary-scan Signals for the ADC(1)
Direction
as Seen
from the
ADC
Description
Recommended Input
when not in
use
Output Values when
Recommended Inputs
are Used, and CPU is
not Using the ADC
HOLD
Input
Sample & Hold signal.
Sample analog signal
when low. Hold signal
when high. If differential
amplifier is used, this
signal must go active
when ACLK is high.
IREFEN
Input
Enables Band-gap
reference as AREF
signal to DAC
0
0
MUXEN_7
Input
Input Mux bit 7
0
0
MUXEN_6
Input
Input Mux bit 6
0
0
MUXEN_5
Input
Input Mux bit 5
0
0
MUXEN_4
Input
Input Mux bit 4
0
0
MUXEN_3
Input
Input Mux bit 3
0
0
MUXEN_2
Input
Input Mux bit 2
0
0
MUXEN_1
Input
Input Mux bit 1
0
0
MUXEN_0
Input
Input Mux bit 0
1
1
NEGSEL_2
Input
Input Mux for negative
input for differential
signal, bit 2
0
0
NEGSEL_1
Input
Input Mux for negative
input for differential
signal, bit 1
0
0
NEGSEL_0
Input
Input Mux for negative
input for differential
signal, bit 0
0
0
PASSEN
Input
Enable pass-gate of
differential amplifier.
1
1
PRECH
Input
Precharge output latch of
comparator. (Active low)
1
1
Input
Switch-cap TEST enable.
Output from differential
amplifier is sent out to
Port Pin having ADC_4
0
0
ST
Input
Output of differential
amplifier will settle faster
if this signal is high first
two ACLK periods after
AMPEN goes high.
0
0
VCCREN
Input
Selects Vcc as the ACC
reference voltage.
0
0
SCTEST
1
1
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Note:
1. Incorrect setting of the switches in Figure 25-9 on page 268 will make signal contention and
may damage the part. There are several input choices to the S&H circuitry on the negative
input of the output comparator in Figure 25-9 on page 268. Make sure only one path is
selected from either one ADC pin, Bandgap reference source, or Ground.
If the ADC is not to be used during scan, the recommended input values from Table 25-3 on
page 269 should be used. The user is recommended not to use the Differential Amplifier during
scan. Switch-Cap based differential amplifier requires fast operation and accurate timing which
is difficult to obtain when used in a scan chain. Details concerning operations of the differential
amplifier is therefore not provided.
The AVR ADC is based on the analog circuitry shown in Figure 25-9 on page 268 with a successive approximation algorithm implemented in the digital logic. When used in Boundary-scan, the
problem is usually to ensure that an applied analog voltage is measured within some limits. This
can easily be done without running a successive approximation algorithm: apply the lower limit
on the digital DAC[9:0] lines, make sure the output from the comparator is low, then apply the
upper limit on the digital DAC[9:0] lines, and verify the output from the comparator to be high.
The ADC need not be used for pure connectivity testing, since all analog inputs are shared with
a digital port pin as well.
When using the ADC, remember the following:
• The port pin for the ADC channel in use must be configured to be an input with pull-up disabled
to avoid signal contention.
• In Normal mode, a dummy conversion (consisting of 10 comparisons) is performed when
enabling the ADC. The user is advised to wait at least 200 ns after enabling the ADC before
controlling/observing any ADC signal, or perform a dummy conversion before using the first
result.
• The DAC values must be stable at the midpoint value 0x200 when having the HOLD signal low
(Sample mode).
As an example, consider the task of verifying a 1.5V ±5% input signal at ADC channel 3 when
the power supply is 5.0V and AREF is externally connected to VCC.
The lower limit is:
The upper limit is:
1024 ⋅ 1.5V ⋅ 0,95 ⁄ 5V = 291 = 0x123
1024 ⋅ 1.5V ⋅ 1.05 ⁄ 5V = 323 = 0x143
The recommended values from Table 25-3 on page 269 are used unless other values are given
in the algorithm in Table 25-4 on page 272. Only the DAC and port pin values of the Scan Chain
are shown. The column “Actions” describes what JTAG instruction to be used before filling the
Boundary-scan Register with the succeeding columns. The verification should be done on the
data scanned out when scanning in the data on the same row in the table.
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Table 25-4.
Algorithm for Using the ADC
PA3.
Control
PA3.
Pull-up_
Enable
MUXEN
HOLD
PRECH
PA3.
Data
0x200
0x08
1
1
0
0
0
1
0x200
0x08
0
1
0
0
0
3
1
0x200
0x08
1
1
0
0
0
4
1
0x123
0x08
1
1
0
0
0
5
1
0x123
0x08
1
0
0
0
0
1
0x200
0x08
1
1
0
0
0
7
1
0x200
0x08
0
1
0
0
0
8
1
0x200
0x08
1
1
0
0
0
9
1
0x143
0x08
1
1
0
0
0
10
1
0x143
0x08
1
0
0
0
0
1
0x200
0x08
1
1
0
0
0
Step
Actions
1
SAMPLE_P
RELOAD
1
2
EXTEST
6
11
ADCEN
Verify the
COMP bit
scanned out
to be 0
Verify the
COMP bit
scanned out
to be 1
DAC
Using this algorithm, the timing constraint on the HOLD signal constrains the TCK clock frequency. As the algorithm keeps HOLD high for five steps, the TCK clock frequency has to be at
least five times the number of scan bits divided by the maximum hold time, thold,max
25.6
Boundary-scan Order
Table 25-5 shows the Scan order between TDI and TDO when the Boundary-scan chain is
selected as data path. Bit 0 is the LSB; the first bit scanned in, and the first bit scanned out. The
scan order follows the pin-out order as far as possible. Therefore, the bits of Port A is scanned in
the opposite bit order of the other ports. Exceptions from the rules are the Scan chains for the
analog circuits, which constitute the most significant bits of the scan chain regardless of which
physical pin they are connected to. In Figure 25-3 on page 263, PXn. Data corresponds to FF0,
PXn. Control corresponds to FF1, and PXn. Pull-up_enable corresponds to FF2. Bit 4, bit 5, bit
6, and bit 7 of Port F is not in the scan chain, since these pins constitute the TAP pins when the
JTAG is enabled.
Table 25-5.
ATmega169P Boundary-scan Order
Bit Number
Signal Name
197
AC_IDLE
196
ACO
195
ACME
194
AINBG
Module
Comparator
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Table 25-5.
ATmega169P Boundary-scan Order
Bit Number
Signal Name
193
COMP
192
ACLK
191
ACTEN
190
PRIVATE_SIGNAL1(1)
189
ADCBGEN
188
ADCEN
187
AMPEN
186
DAC_9
185
DAC_8
184
DAC_7
183
DAC_6
182
DAC_5
181
DAC_4
180
DAC_3
179
DAC_2
178
DAC_1
177
DAC_0
176
EXTCH
175
GNDEN
174
HOLD
173
IREFEN
172
MUXEN_7
171
MUXEN_6
170
MUXEN_5
169
MUXEN_4
168
MUXEN_3
167
MUXEN_2
166
MUXEN_1
165
MUXEN_0
164
NEGSEL_2
163
NEGSEL_1
162
NEGSEL_0
161
PASSEN
160
PRECH
159
ST
158
VCCREN
Module
ADC
ADC
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Table 25-5.
ATmega169P Boundary-scan Order
Bit Number
Signal Name
157
PE0.Data
156
PE0.Control
155
PE0.Pull-up_Enable
154
PE1.Data
153
PE1.Control
152
PE1.Pull-up_Enable
151
PE2.Data
150
PE2.Control
149
PE2.Pull-up_Enable
148
PE3.Data
147
PE3.Control
146
PE3.Pull-up_Enable
145
PE4.Data
144
PE4.Control
143
PE4.Pull-up_Enable
142
PE5.Data
141
PE5.Control
140
PE5.Pull-up_Enable
139
PE6.Data
138
PE6.Control
137
PE6.Pull-up_Enable
136
PE7.Data
135
PE7.Control
134
PE7.Pull-up_Enable
133
PB0.Data
Module
Port E
Port B
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Table 25-5.
ATmega169P Boundary-scan Order
Bit Number
Signal Name
Module
132
PB0.Control
131
PB0.Pull-up_Enable
130
PB1.Data
129
PB1.Control
128
PB1.Pull-up_Enable
127
PB2.Data
126
PB2.Control
125
PB2.Pull-up_Enable
124
PB3.Data
123
PB3.Control
122
PB3.Pull-up_Enable
121
PB4.Data
120
PB4.Control
119
PB4.Pull-up_Enable
118
PB5.Data
117
PB5.Control
116
PB5.Pull-up_Enable
115
PB6.Data
114
PB6.Control
113
PB6.Pull-up_Enable
112
PB7.Data
111
PB7.Control
110
PB7.Pull-up_Enable
109
PG3.Data
108
PG3.Control
107
PG3.Pull-up_Enable
106
PG4.Data
105
PG4.Control
104
PG4.Pull-up_Enable
103
PG5
(Observe Only)
102
RSTT
101
RSTHV
Reset Logic
(Observe-only)
100
EXTCLKEN
99
OSCON
98
RCOSCEN
97
OSC32EN
Port B
Port G
Enable signals for main Clock/Oscillators
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Table 25-5.
ATmega169P Boundary-scan Order
Bit Number
Signal Name
96
EXTCLK (XTAL1)
95
OSCCK
94
RCCK
93
OSC32CK
92
PD0.Data
91
PD0.Control
90
PD0.Pull-up_Enable
89
PD1.Data
88
PD1.Control
87
PD1.Pull-up_Enable
86
PD2.Data
85
PD2.Control
84
PD2.Pull-up_Enable
83
PD3.Data
82
PD3.Control
81
PD3.Pull-up_Enable
80
PD4.Data
79
PD4.Control
78
PD4.Pull-up_Enable
77
PD5.Data
76
PD5.Control
75
PD5.Pull-up_Enable
74
PD6.Data
73
PD6.Control
72
PD6.Pull-up_Enable
71
PD7.Data
70
PD7.Control
69
PD7.Pull-up_Enable
68
PG0.Data
67
PG0.Control
66
PG0.Pull-up_Enable
65
PG1.Data
64
PG1.Control
63
PG1.Pull-up_Enable
62
PC0.Data
61
PC0.Control
Module
Clock input and Oscillators for the main clock
(Observe-only)
Port D
Port G
Port C
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Table 25-5.
ATmega169P Boundary-scan Order
Bit Number
Signal Name
60
PC0.Pull-up_Enable
59
PC1.Data
58
PC1.Control
57
PC1.Pull-up_Enable
56
PC2.Data
55
PC2.Control
54
PC2.Pull-up_Enable
53
PC3.Data
52
PC3.Control
51
PC3.Pull-up_Enable
50
PC4.Data
49
PC4.Control
48
PC4.Pull-up_Enable
47
PC5.Data
46
PC5.Control
45
PC5.Pull-up_Enable
44
PC6.Data
43
PC6.Control
42
PC6.Pull-up_Enable
41
PC7.Data
40
PC7.Control
39
PC7.Pull-up_Enable
38
PG2.Data
37
PG2.Control
36
PG2.Pull-up_Enable
35
PA7.Data
34
PA7.Control
33
PA7.Pull-up_Enable
32
PA6.Data
31
PA6.Control
30
PA6.Pull-up_Enable
29
PA5.Data
28
PA5.Control
27
PA5.Pull-up_Enable
26
PA4.Data
25
PA4.Control
Module
Port C
Port G
Port A
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Table 25-5.
ATmega169P Boundary-scan Order
Bit Number
Signal Name
24
PA4.Pull-up_Enable
23
PA3.Data
22
PA3.Control
21
PA3.Pull-up_Enable
20
PA2.Data
19
PA2.Control
18
PA2.Pull-up_Enable
17
PA1.Data
16
PA1.Control
15
PA1.Pull-up_Enable
14
PA0.Data
13
PA0.Control
12
PA0.Pull-up_Enable
11
PF3.Data
10
PF3.Control
9
PF3.Pull-up_Enable
8
PF2.Data
7
PF2.Control
6
PF2.Pull-up_Enable
5
PF1.Data
4
PF1.Control
3
PF1.Pull-up_Enable
2
PF0.Data
1
PF0.Control
Module
Port A
Port F
0
Note:
25.7
PF0.Pull-up_Enable
1. PRIVATE_SIGNAL1 should always be scanned in as zero.
Boundary-scan Description Language Files
Boundary-scan Description Language (BSDL) files describe Boundary-scan capable devices in
a standard format used by automated test-generation software. The order and function of bits in
the Boundary-scan Data Register are included in this description. A BSDL file for ATmega169P
is available.
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25.8
25.8.1
Boundary-scan Related Register in I/O Memory
MCUCR – MCU Control Register
The MCU Control Register contains control bits for general MCU functions.
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
0x35 (0x55)
JTD
-
-
PUD
–
–
IVSEL
IVCE
Read/Write
R/W
R
R
R/W
R
R
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
MCUCR
• Bit 7 – JTD: JTAG Interface Disable
When this bit is zero, the JTAG interface is enabled if the JTAGEN Fuse is programmed. If this
bit is one, the JTAG interface is disabled. In order to avoid unintentional disabling or enabling of
the JTAG interface, a timed sequence must be followed when changing this bit: The application
software must write this bit to the desired value twice within four cycles to change its value. Note
that this bit must not be altered when using the On-chip Debug system.
If the JTAG interface is left unconnected to other JTAG circuitry, the JTD bit should be set to
one. The reason for this is to avoid static current at the TDO pin in the JTAG interface.
25.8.2
MCUSR – MCU Status Register
The MCU Status Register provides information on which reset source caused an MCU reset.
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
0x34 (0x54)
–
–
–
JTRF
WDRF
BORF
EXTRF
PORF
Read/Write
R
R
R
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
MCUSR
See Bit Description
• Bit 4 – JTRF: JTAG Reset Flag
This bit is set if a reset is being caused by a logic one in the JTAG Reset Register selected by
the JTAG instruction AVR_RESET. This bit is reset by a Power-on Reset, or by writing a logic
zero to the flag.
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26. Boot Loader Support – Read-While-Write Self-Programming
26.1
Features
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Read-While-Write Self-Programming
Flexible Boot Memory Size
High Security (Separate Boot Lock Bits for a Flexible Protection)
Separate Fuse to Select Reset Vector
Optimized Page(1) Size
Code Efficient Algorithm
Efficient Read-Modify-Write Support
Note:
26.2
1. A page is a section in the Flash consisting of several bytes (see Table 27-7 on page 299) used
during programming. The page organization does not affect normal operation.
Overview
The Boot Loader Support provides a real Read-While-Write Self-Programming mechanism for
downloading and uploading program code by the MCU itself. This feature allows flexible application software updates controlled by the MCU using a Flash-resident Boot Loader program. The
Boot Loader program can use any available data interface and associated protocol to read code
and write (program) that code into the Flash memory, or read the code from the program memory. The program code within the Boot Loader section has the capability to write into the entire
Flash, including the Boot Loader memory. The Boot Loader can thus even modify itself, and it
can also erase itself from the code if the feature is not needed anymore. The size of the Boot
Loader memory is configurable with fuses and the Boot Loader has two separate sets of Boot
Lock bits which can be set independently. This gives the user a unique flexibility to select different levels of protection.
26.3
Application and Boot Loader Flash Sections
The Flash memory is organized in two main sections, the Application section and the Boot
Loader section (see Figure 26-2 on page 283). The size of the different sections is configured by
the BOOTSZ Fuses as shown in Table 26-6 on page 292 and Figure 26-2 on page 283. These
two sections can have different level of protection since they have different sets of Lock bits.
26.3.1
Application Section
The Application section is the section of the Flash that is used for storing the application code.
The protection level for the Application section can be selected by the application Boot Lock bits
(Boot Lock bits 0), see Table 26-2 on page 284. The Application section can never store any
Boot Loader code since the SPM instruction is disabled when executed from the Application
section.
26.3.2
BLS – Boot Loader Section
While the Application section is used for storing the application code, the The Boot Loader software must be located in the BLS since the SPM instruction can initiate a programming when
executing from the BLS only. The SPM instruction can access the entire Flash, including the
BLS itself. The protection level for the Boot Loader section can be selected by the Boot Loader
Lock bits (Boot Lock bits 1), see Table 26-3 on page 284.
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26.4
Read-While-Write and No Read-While-Write Flash Sections
Whether the CPU supports Read-While-Write or if the CPU is halted during a Boot Loader software update is dependent on which address that is being programmed. In addition to the two
sections that are configurable by the BOOTSZ Fuses as described above, the Flash is also
divided into two fixed sections, the Read-While-Write (RWW) section and the No Read-WhileWrite (NRWW) section. The limit between the RWW- and NRWW sections is given in Table 267 on page 293 and Figure 26-2 on page 283. The main difference between the two sections is:
• When erasing or writing a page located inside the RWW section, the NRWW section can be
read during the operation.
• When erasing or writing a page located inside the NRWW section, the CPU is halted during the
entire operation.
Note that the user software can never read any code that is located inside the RWW section during a Boot Loader software operation. The syntax “Read-While-Write section” refers to which
section that is being programmed (erased or written), not which section that actually is being
read during a Boot Loader software update.
26.4.1
RWW – Read-While-Write Section
If a Boot Loader software update is programming a page inside the RWW section, it is possible
to read code from the Flash, but only code that is located in the NRWW section. During an ongoing programming, the software must ensure that the RWW section never is being read. If the
user software is trying to read code that is located inside the RWW section (that is, by a
call/jmp/lpm or an interrupt) during programming, the software might end up in an unknown
state. To avoid this, the interrupts should either be disabled or moved to the Boot Loader section. The Boot Loader section is always located in the NRWW section. The RWW Section Busy
bit (RWWSB) in the Store Program Memory Control and Status Register (SPMCSR) will be read
as logical one as long as the RWW section is blocked for reading. After a programming is completed, the RWWSB must be cleared by software before reading code located in the RWW
section. See ”SPMCSR – Store Program Memory Control and Status Register” on page 294. for
details on how to clear RWWSB.
26.4.2
NRWW – No Read-While-Write Section
The code located in the NRWW section can be read when the Boot Loader software is updating
a page in the RWW section. When the Boot Loader code updates the NRWW section, the CPU
is halted during the entire Page Erase or Page Write operation.
Table 26-1.
Read-While-Write Features
Which Section does the Z-pointer
Address During the Programming?
Which Section Can be
Read During Programming?
Is the
CPU Halted?
Read-While-Write
Supported?
RWW Section
NRWW Section
No
Yes
NRWW Section
None
Yes
No
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Figure 26-1. Read-While-Write vs. No Read-While-Write
Read-While-Write
(RWW) Section
Z-pointer
Addresses RWW
Section
Z-pointer
Addresses NRWW
Section
No Read-While-Write
(NRWW) Section
CPU is Halted
During the Operation
Code Located in
NRWW Section
Can be Read During
the Operation
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Figure 26-2. Memory Sections
Program Memory
BOOTSZ = '10'
Program Memory
BOOTSZ = '11'
0x0000
Read-While-Write Section
Application Flash Section
End RWW
Start NRWW
Application Flash Section
Boot Loader Flash Section
End Application
Start Boot Loader
Flashend
No Read-While-Write Section
No Read-While-Write Section
Read-While-Write Section
0x0000
Program Memory
BOOTSZ = '01'
Application Flash Section
End RWW
Start NRWW
Application Flash Section
End Application
Start Boot Loader
Boot Loader Flash Section
Flashend
Program Memory
BOOTSZ = '00'
Note:
Read-While-Write Section
0x0000
Application Flash Section
End RWW
Start NRWW
Application Flash Section
End Application
Start Boot Loader
Boot Loader Flash Section
Flashend
No Read-While-Write Section
No Read-While-Write Section
Read-While-Write Section
0x0000
Application Flash Section
End RWW, End Application
Start NRWW, Start Boot Loader
Boot Loader Flash Section
Flashend
1. The parameters in the figure above are given in Table 26-6 on page 292.
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26.5
Boot Loader Lock Bits
If no Boot Loader capability is needed, the entire Flash is available for application code. The
Boot Loader has two separate sets of Boot Lock bits which can be set independently. This gives
the user a unique flexibility to select different levels of protection.
The user can select:
• To protect the entire Flash from a software update by the MCU.
• To protect only the Boot Loader Flash section from a software update by the MCU.
• To protect only the Application Flash section from a software update by the MCU.
• Allow software update in the entire Flash.
See Table 26-2 and Table 26-3 for further details. The Boot Lock bits and general Lock bits can
be set in software and in Serial or Parallel Programming mode, but they can be cleared by a
Chip Erase command only. The general Write Lock (Lock Bit mode 2) does not control the programming of the Flash memory by SPM instruction. Similarly, the general Read/Write Lock
(Lock Bit mode 1) does not control reading nor writing by LPM/SPM, if it is attempted.
Table 26-2.
Boot Lock Bit0 Protection Modes (Application Section)(1)
BLB0 Mode
BLB02
BLB01
1
1
1
No restrictions for SPM or LPM accessing the Application
section.
2
1
0
SPM is not allowed to write to the Application section.
0
SPM is not allowed to write to the Application section, and LPM
executing from the Boot Loader section is not allowed to read
from the Application section. If Interrupt Vectors are placed in
the Boot Loader section, interrupts are disabled while executing
from the Application section.
1
LPM executing from the Boot Loader section is not allowed to
read from the Application section. If Interrupt Vectors are placed
in the Boot Loader section, interrupts are disabled while
executing from the Application section.
3
4
Note:
0
0
Protection
1. “1” means unprogrammed, “0” means programmed
Table 26-3.
Boot Lock Bit1 Protection Modes (Boot Loader Section)(1)
BLB1 Mode
BLB12
BLB11
1
1
1
No restrictions for SPM or LPM accessing the Boot Loader
section.
2
1
0
SPM is not allowed to write to the Boot Loader section.
0
SPM is not allowed to write to the Boot Loader section, and LPM
executing from the Application section is not allowed to read
from the Boot Loader section. If Interrupt Vectors are placed in
the Application section, interrupts are disabled while executing
from the Boot Loader section.
1
LPM executing from the Application section is not allowed to
read from the Boot Loader section. If Interrupt Vectors are
placed in the Application section, interrupts are disabled while
executing from the Boot Loader section.
3
4
Note:
0
0
Protection
1. “1” means unprogrammed, “0” means programmed
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26.6
Entering the Boot Loader Program
Entering the Boot Loader takes place by a jump or call from the application program. This may
be initiated by a trigger such as a command received via USART, or SPI interface. Alternatively,
the Boot Reset Fuse can be programmed so that the Reset Vector is pointing to the Boot Flash
start address after a reset. In this case, the Boot Loader is started after a reset. After the application code is loaded, the program can start executing the application code. Note that the fuses
cannot be changed by the MCU itself. This means that once the Boot Reset Fuse is programmed, the Reset Vector will always point to the Boot Loader Reset and the fuse can only be
changed through the serial or parallel programming interface.
Table 26-4.
BOOTRST
Note:
Boot Reset Fuse(1)
Reset Address
1
Reset Vector = Application Reset (address 0x0000)
0
Reset Vector = Boot Loader Reset (see Table 26-6 on page 292)
1. “1” means unprogrammed, “0” means programmed
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26.7
Addressing the Flash During Self-Programming
The Z-pointer is used to address the SPM commands.
Bit
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
ZH (R31)
Z15
Z14
Z13
Z12
Z11
Z10
Z9
Z8
ZL (R30)
Z7
Z6
Z5
Z4
Z3
Z2
Z1
Z0
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Since the Flash is organized in pages (see Table 27-7 on page 299), the Program Counter can
be treated as having two different sections. One section, consisting of the least significant bits, is
addressing the words within a page, while the most significant bits are addressing the pages.
This is shown in Figure 26-3. Note that the Page Erase and Page Write operations are
addressed independently. Therefore it is of major importance that the Boot Loader software
addresses the same page in both the Page Erase and Page Write operation. Once a programming operation is initiated, the address is latched and the Z-pointer can be used for other
operations.
The only SPM operation that does not use the Z-pointer is Setting the Boot Loader Lock bits.
The content of the Z-pointer is ignored and will have no effect on the operation. The LPM
instruction does also use the Z-pointer to store the address. Since this instruction addresses the
Flash byte-by-byte, also the LSB (bit Z0) of the Z-pointer is used.
Figure 26-3. Addressing the Flash During SPM(1)
BIT
15
ZPCMSB
ZPAGEMSB
Z - REGISTER
1 0
0
PCMSB
PROGRAM
COUNTER
PAGEMSB
PCPAGE
PAGE ADDRESS
WITHIN THE FLASH
PROGRAM MEMORY
PAGE
PCWORD
WORD ADDRESS
WITHIN A PAGE
PAGE
INSTRUCTION WORD
PCWORD[PAGEMSB:0]:
00
01
02
PAGEEND
Note:
1. The different variables used in Figure 26-3 are listed in Table 26-8 on page 293.
2. PCPAGE and PCWORD are listed in Table 27-7 on page 299.
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26.8
Self-Programming the Flash
The program memory is updated in a page by page fashion. Before programming a page with
the data stored in the temporary page buffer, the page must be erased. The temporary page buffer is filled one word at a time using SPM and the buffer can be filled either before the Page
Erase command or between a Page Erase and a Page Write operation:
Alternative 1, fill the buffer before a Page Erase
• Fill temporary page buffer
• Perform a Page Erase
• Perform a Page Write
Alternative 2, fill the buffer after Page Erase
• Perform a Page Erase
• Fill temporary page buffer
• Perform a Page Write
If only a part of the page needs to be changed, the rest of the page must be stored (for example
in the temporary page buffer) before the erase, and then be rewritten. When using alternative 1,
the Boot Loader provides an effective Read-Modify-Write feature which allows the user software
to first read the page, do the necessary changes, and then write back the modified data. If alternative 2 is used, it is not possible to read the old data while loading since the page is already
erased. The temporary page buffer can be accessed in a random sequence. It is essential that
the page address used in both the Page Erase and Page Write operation is addressing the same
page. See ”Boot Loader: Simple Assembly Code Example” on page 291 for an assembly code
example.
26.8.1
Performing Page Erase by SPM
To execute Page Erase, set up the address in the Z-pointer, write “X0000011” to SPMCSR and
execute SPM within four clock cycles after writing SPMCSR.(1) The data in R1 and R0 is ignored.
The page address must be written to PCPAGE in the Z-register. Other bits in the Z-pointer will
be ignored during this operation.
• Page Erase to the RWW section: The NRWW section can be read during the Page Erase.
• Page Erase to the NRWW section: The CPU is halted during the operation.
Note:
26.8.2
1. If an interrupt occurs in the timed sequence the four cycle access cannot be guaranteed. In
order to ensure atomic operation you must disable interrupes before writing to SPMCSR.
Filling the Temporary Buffer (Page Loading)
To write an instruction word, set up the address in the Z-pointer and data in R1:R0, write
“00000001” to SPMCSR and execute SPM within four clock cycles after writing SPMCSR. The
content of PCWORD in the Z-register is used to address the data in the temporary buffer. The
temporary buffer will auto-erase after a Page Write operation or by writing the RWWSRE bit in
SPMCSR. It is also erased after a system reset. Note that it is not possible to write more than
one time to each address without erasing the temporary buffer.
If the EEPROM is written in the middle of an SPM Page Load operation, all data loaded will be
lost.
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26.8.3
Performing a Page Write
To execute Page Write, set up the address in the Z-pointer, write “X0000101” to SPMCSR and
execute SPM within four clock cycles after writing SPMCSR. The data in R1 and R0 is ignored.
The page address must be written to PCPAGE. Other bits in the Z-pointer must be written to
zero during this operation.
• Page Write to the RWW section: The NRWW section can be read during the Page Write.
• Page Write to the NRWW section: The CPU is halted during the operation.
26.8.4
Using the SPM Interrupt
If the SPM interrupt is enabled, the SPM interrupt will generate a constant interrupt when the
SPMEN bit in SPMCSR is cleared. This means that the interrupt can be used instead of polling
the SPMCSR Register in software. When using the SPM interrupt, the Interrupt Vectors should
be moved to the BLS section to avoid that an interrupt is accessing the RWW section when it is
blocked for reading. How to move the interrupts is described in ”Interrupts” on page 56.
26.8.5
Consideration While Updating BLS
Special care must be taken if the user allows the Boot Loader section to be updated by leaving
Boot Lock bit11 unprogrammed. An accidental write to the Boot Loader itself can corrupt the
entire Boot Loader, and further software updates might be impossible. If it is not necessary to
change the Boot Loader software itself, it is recommended to program the Boot Lock bit11 to
protect the Boot Loader software from any internal software changes.
26.8.6
Prevent Reading the RWW Section During Self-Programming
During Self-Programming (either Page Erase or Page Write), the RWW section is always
blocked for reading. The user software itself must prevent that this section is addressed during
the self programming operation. The RWWSB in the SPMCSR will be set as long as the RWW
section is busy. During Self-Programming the Interrupt Vector table should be moved to the BLS
as described in ”Interrupts” on page 56, or the interrupts must be disabled. Before addressing
the RWW section after the programming is completed, the user software must clear the
RWWSB by writing the RWWSRE. See ”Boot Loader: Simple Assembly Code Example” on
page 291 for an example.
26.8.7
Setting the Boot Loader Lock Bits by SPM
To set the Boot Loader Lock bits and general Lock bits, write the desired data to R0, write
“X0001001” to SPMCSR and execute SPM within four clock cycles after writing SPMCSR.
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
R0
1
1
BLB12
BLB11
BLB02
BLB01
LB2
LB1
See Table 26-2 on page 284 and Table 26-3 on page 284 for how the different settings of the
Boot Loader bits affect the Flash access.
If bits 5..0 in R0 are cleared (zero), the corresponding Lock bit will be programmed if an SPM
instruction is executed within four cycles after BLBSET and SPMEN are set in SPMCSR. The Zpointer is don’t care during this operation, but for future compatibility it is recommended to load
the Z-pointer with 0x0001 (same as used for reading the Lock bits). For future compatibility it is
also recommended to set bit 7 and bit 6 in R0 to “1” when writing the Lock bits. When programming the Lock bits the entire Flash can be read during the operation.
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26.8.8
EEPROM Write Prevents Writing to SPMCSR
Note that an EEPROM write operation will block all software programming to Flash. Reading the
Fuses and Lock bits from software will also be prevented during the EEPROM write operation. It
is recommended that the user checks the status bit (EEWE) in the EECR Register and verifies
that the bit is cleared before writing to the SPMCSR Register.
26.8.9
Reading the Fuse and Lock Bits from Software
It is possible to read both the Fuse and Lock bits from software. To read the Lock bits, load the
Z-pointer with 0x0001 and set the BLBSET and SPMEN bits in SPMCSR. When an LPM instruction is executed within three CPU cycles after the BLBSET and SPMEN bits are set in SPMCSR,
the value of the Lock bits will be loaded in the destination register. The BLBSET and SPMEN
bits will auto-clear upon completion of reading the Lock bits or if no LPM instruction is executed
within three CPU cycles or no SPM instruction is executed within four CPU cycles. When BLBSET and SPMEN are cleared, LPM will work as described in the Instruction set Manual.
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Rd
–
–
BLB12
BLB11
BLB02
BLB01
LB2
LB1
The algorithm for reading the Fuse Low byte is similar to the one described above for reading
the Lock bits. To read the Fuse Low byte, load the Z-pointer with 0x0000 and set the BLBSET
and SPMEN bits in SPMCSR. When an LPM instruction is executed within three cycles after the
BLBSET and SPMEN bits are set in the SPMCSR, the value of the Fuse Low byte (FLB) will be
loaded in the destination register as shown below. Refer to Table 27-5 on page 298 for a
detailed description and mapping of the Fuse Low byte.
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Rd
FLB7
FLB6
FLB5
FLB4
FLB3
FLB2
FLB1
FLB0
Similarly, when reading the Fuse High byte, load 0x0003 in the Z-pointer. When an LPM instruction is executed within three cycles after the BLBSET and SPMEN bits are set in the SPMCSR,
the value of the Fuse High byte (FHB) will be loaded in the destination register as shown below.
Refer to Table 27-4 on page 298 for detailed description and mapping of the Fuse High byte.
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Rd
FHB7
FHB6
FHB5
FHB4
FHB3
FHB2
FHB1
FHB0
When reading the Extended Fuse byte, load 0x0002 in the Z-pointer. When an LPM instruction
is executed within three cycles after the BLBSET and SPMEN bits are set in the SPMCSR, the
value of the Extended Fuse byte (EFB) will be loaded in the destination register as shown below.
Refer to Table 27-3 on page 297 for detailed description and mapping of the Extended Fuse
byte.
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Rd
–
–
–
–
EFB3
EFB2
EFB1
EFB0
Fuse and Lock bits that are programmed, will be read as zero. Fuse and Lock bits that are
unprogrammed, will be read as one.
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26.8.10
Preventing Flash Corruption
During periods of low VCC, the Flash program can be corrupted because the supply voltage is
too low for the CPU and the Flash to operate properly. These issues are the same as for board
level systems using the Flash, and the same design solutions should be applied.
A Flash program corruption can be caused by two situations when the voltage is too low. First, a
regular write sequence to the Flash requires a minimum voltage to operate correctly. Secondly,
the CPU itself can execute instructions incorrectly, if the supply voltage for executing instructions
is too low.
Flash corruption can easily be avoided by following these design recommendations (one is
sufficient):
1. If there is no need for a Boot Loader update in the system, program the Boot Loader Lock
bits to prevent any Boot Loader software updates.
2. Keep the AVR RESET active (low) during periods of insufficient power supply voltage.
This can be done by enabling the internal Brown-out Detector (BOD) if the operating voltage matches the detection level. If not, an external low VCC reset protection circuit can be
used. If a reset occurs while a write operation is in progress, the write operation will be
completed provided that the power supply voltage is sufficient.
3. Keep the AVR core in Power-down sleep mode during periods of low VCC. This will prevent the CPU from attempting to decode and execute instructions, effectively protecting
the SPMCSR Register and thus the Flash from unintentional writes.
26.8.11
Programming Time for Flash when Using SPM
The calibrated RC Oscillator is used to time Flash accesses. Table 26-5 shows the typical programming time for Flash accesses from the CPU.
Table 26-5.
SPM Programming Time
Symbol
Min Programming Time
Max Programming Time
Flash write (Page Erase, Page Write, and
write Lock bits by SPM)
3.7 ms
4.5 ms
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26.8.12
Boot Loader: Simple Assembly Code Example
;-the routine writes one page of data from RAM to Flash
; the first data location in RAM is pointed to by the Y pointer
; the first data location in Flash is pointed to by the Z-pointer
;-error handling is not included
;-the routine must be placed inside the Boot space
; (at least the Do_spm sub routine). Only code inside NRWW section can
; be read during Self-Programming (Page Erase and Page Write).
;-registers used: r0, r1, temp1 (r16), temp2 (r17), looplo (r24),
; loophi (r25), spmcrval (r20)
; storing and restoring of registers is not included in the routine
; register usage can be optimized at the expense of code size
;-It is assumed that either the interrupt table is moved to the Boot
; loader section or that the interrupts are disabled.
.equ PAGESIZEB = PAGESIZE*2
;PAGESIZEB is page size in BYTES, not words
.org SMALLBOOTSTART
Write_page:
; Page Erase
ldi spmcrval, (1<<PGERS) | (1<<SPMEN)
call Do_spm
; re-enable the RWW section
ldi spmcrval, (1<<RWWSRE) | (1<<SPMEN)
call Do_spm
; transfer data from RAM to Flash page buffer
ldi looplo, low(PAGESIZEB)
;init loop variable
ldi loophi, high(PAGESIZEB) ;not required for PAGESIZEB<=256
Wrloop:
ld
r0, Y+
ld
r1, Y+
ldi spmcrval, (1<<SPMEN)
call Do_spm
adiw ZH:ZL, 2
sbiw loophi:looplo, 2
;use subi for PAGESIZEB<=256
brne Wrloop
; execute Page Write
subi ZL, low(PAGESIZEB)
;restore pointer
sbci ZH, high(PAGESIZEB)
;not required for PAGESIZEB<=256
ldi spmcrval, (1<<PGWRT) | (1<<SPMEN)
call Do_spm
; re-enable the RWW section
ldi spmcrval, (1<<RWWSRE) | (1<<SPMEN)
call Do_spm
; read back and check, optional
ldi looplo, low(PAGESIZEB)
;init loop variable
ldi loophi, high(PAGESIZEB) ;not required for PAGESIZEB<=256
subi YL, low(PAGESIZEB)
;restore pointer
sbci YH, high(PAGESIZEB)
Rdloop:
lpm r0, Z+
ld
r1, Y+
cpse r0, r1
jmp Error
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sbiw loophi:looplo, 1
brne Rdloop
;use subi for PAGESIZEB<=256
; return to RWW section
; verify that RWW section is safe to read
Return:
in
temp1, SPMCSR
sbrs temp1, RWWSB
; If RWWSB is set, the RWW section is not ready yet
ret
; re-enable the RWW section
ldi spmcrval, (1<<RWWSRE) | (1<<SPMEN)
call Do_spm
rjmp Return
Do_spm:
; check for previous SPM complete
Wait_spm:
in
temp1, SPMCSR
sbrc temp1, SPMEN
rjmp Wait_spm
; input: spmcrval determines SPM action
; disable interrupts if enabled, store status
in
temp2, SREG
cli
; check that no EEPROM write access is present
Wait_ee:
sbic EECR, EEWE
rjmp Wait_ee
; SPM timed sequence
out SPMCSR, spmcrval
spm
; restore SREG (to enable interrupts if originally enabled)
out SREG, temp2
ret
26.8.13
ATmega169P Boot Loader Parameters
In Table 26-6 through Table 26-8 on page 293, the parameters used in the description of the
Self-Programming are given.
Pages
BOOTSZ0
BOOTSZ1
Boot Size
Boot Size Configuration(1)
Table 26-6.
Application Flash
Section
Boot Loader
Flash
Section
End
Application
Section
Boot Reset
Address
(Start Boot
Loader
Section)
1
1
128
words
2
0x0000 - 0x1F7F
0x1F80 - 0x1FFF
0x1F7F
0x1F80
1
0
256
words
4
0x0000 - 0x1EFF
0x1F00 - 0x1FFF
0x1EFF
0x1F00
0
1
512
words
8
0x0000 - 0x1DFF
0x1E00 - 0x1FFF
0x1DFF
0x1E00
0
0
1024
words
16
0x0000 - 0x1BFF
0x1C00 - 0x1FFF
0x1BFF
0x1C00
Note:
1. The different BOOTSZ Fuse configurations are shown in Figure 26-2 on page 283.
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Table 26-7.
Read-While-Write Limit(1)
Section
Pages
Address
Read-While-Write section (RWW)
112
0x0000 - 0x1BFF
No Read-While-Write section (NRWW)
16
0x1C00 - 0x1FFF
Note:
1. For details about these two section, see ”NRWW – No Read-While-Write Section” on page
281 and ”RWW – Read-While-Write Section” on page 281.
Table 26-8.
Explanation of different variables used in Figure 26-3 on page 286 and the mapping to the Z-pointer(1)
Corresponding
Z-value
Variable
Description
PCMSB
12
Most significant bit in the Program Counter. (The
Program Counter is 13 bits PC[12:0])
PAGEMSB
5
Most significant bit which is used to address the words
within one page (64 words in a page requires six bits PC
[5:0]).
ZPCMSB
Z13
Bit in Z-register that is mapped to PCMSB. Because Z0
is not used, the ZPCMSB equals PCMSB + 1.
ZPAGEMSB
Z6
Bit in Z-register that is mapped to PAGEMSB. Because
Z0 is not used, the ZPAGEMSB equals PAGEMSB + 1.
PCPAGE
PC[12:6]
Z13:Z7
Program Counter page address: Page select, for Page
Erase and Page Write
PCWORD
PC[5:0]
Z6:Z1
Program Counter word address: Word select, for filling
temporary buffer (must be zero during Page Write
operation)
Note:
1. Z15:Z14: always ignored
Z0: should be zero for all SPM commands, byte select for the LPM instruction.
See ”Addressing the Flash During Self-Programming” on page 286 for details about the use of
Z-pointer during Self-Programming.
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26.9
26.9.1
Register Description
SPMCSR – Store Program Memory Control and Status Register
The Store Program Memory Control and Status Register contains the control bits needed to control the Boot Loader operations.
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
0x37 (0x57)
SPMIE
RWWSB
–
RWWSRE
BLBSET
PGWRT
PGERS
SPMEN
Read/Write
R/W
R
R
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
SPMCSR
• Bit 7 – SPMIE: SPM Interrupt Enable
When the SPMIE bit is written to one, and the I-bit in the Status Register is set (one), the SPM
ready interrupt will be enabled. The SPM ready Interrupt will be executed as long as the SPMEN
bit in the SPMCSR Register is cleared.
• Bit 6 – RWWSB: Read-While-Write Section Busy
When a Self-Programming (Page Erase or Page Write) operation to the RWW section is initiated, the RWWSB will be set (one) by hardware. When the RWWSB bit is set, the RWW section
cannot be accessed. The RWWSB bit will be cleared if the RWWSRE bit is written to one after a
Self-Programming operation is completed. Alternatively the RWWSB bit will automatically be
cleared if a page load operation is initiated.
• Bit 5 – Res: Reserved Bit
This bit is a reserved bit in the ATmega169P and always read as zero.
• Bit 4 – RWWSRE: Read-While-Write Section Read Enable
When programming (Page Erase or Page Write) to the RWW section, the RWW section is
blocked for reading (the RWWSB will be set by hardware). To re-enable the RWW section, the
user software must wait until the programming is completed (SPMEN will be cleared). Then, if
the RWWSRE bit is written to one at the same time as SPMEN, the next SPM instruction within
four clock cycles re-enables the RWW section. The RWW section cannot be re-enabled while
the Flash is busy with a Page Erase or a Page Write (SPMEN is set). If the RWWSRE bit is written while the Flash is being loaded, the Flash load operation will abort and the data loaded will
be lost.
• Bit 3 – BLBSET: Boot Lock Bit Set
If this bit is written to one at the same time as SPMEN, the next SPM instruction within four clock
cycles sets Boot Lock bits and general Lock bits, according to the data in R0. The data in R1 and
the address in the Z-pointer are ignored. The BLBSET bit will automatically be cleared upon
completion of the Lock bit set, or if no SPM instruction is executed within four clock cycles.
An LPM instruction within three cycles after BLBSET and SPMEN are set in the SPMCSR Register, will read either the Lock bits or the Fuse bits (depending on Z0 in the Z-pointer) into the
destination register. See ”Reading the Fuse and Lock Bits from Software” on page 289 for
details.
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• Bit 2 – PGWRT: Page Write
If this bit is written to one at the same time as SPMEN, the next SPM instruction within four clock
cycles executes Page Write, with the data stored in the temporary buffer. The page address is
taken from the high part of the Z-pointer. The data in R1 and R0 are ignored. The PGWRT bit
will auto-clear upon completion of a Page Write, or if no SPM instruction is executed within four
clock cycles. The CPU is halted during the entire Page Write operation if the NRWW section is
addressed.
• Bit 1 – PGERS: Page Erase
If this bit is written to one at the same time as SPMEN, the next SPM instruction within four clock
cycles executes Page Erase. The page address is taken from the high part of the Z-pointer. The
data in R1 and R0 are ignored. The PGERS bit will auto-clear upon completion of a Page Erase,
or if no SPM instruction is executed within four clock cycles. The CPU is halted during the entire
Page Write operation if the NRWW section is addressed.
• Bit 0 – SPMEN: Store Program Memory Enable
This bit enables the SPM instruction for the next four clock cycles. If written to one together with
either RWWSRE, BLBSET, PGWRT’ or PGERS, the following SPM instruction will have a special meaning, see description above. If only SPMEN is written, the following SPM instruction will
store the value in R1:R0 in the temporary page buffer addressed by the Z-pointer. The LSB of
the Z-pointer is ignored. The SPMEN bit will auto-clear upon completion of an SPM instruction,
or if no SPM instruction is executed within four clock cycles. During Page Erase and Page Write,
the SPMEN bit remains high until the operation is completed.
Writing any other combination than “10001”, “01001”, “00101”, “00011” or “00001” in the lower
five bits will have no effect.
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27. Memory Programming
27.1
Program And Data Memory Lock Bits
The ATmega169P provides six Lock bits which can be left unprogrammed (“1”) or can be programmed (“0”) to obtain the additional features listed in Table 27-2. The Lock bits can only be
erased to “1” with the Chip Erase command.
Table 27-1.
Lock Bit Byte(1)
Lock Bit Byte
Description
Default Value
7
–
1 (unprogrammed)
6
–
1 (unprogrammed)
BLB12
5
Boot Lock bit
1 (unprogrammed)
BLB11
4
Boot Lock bit
1 (unprogrammed)
BLB02
3
Boot Lock bit
1 (unprogrammed)
BLB01
2
Boot Lock bit
1 (unprogrammed)
LB2
1
Lock bit
1 (unprogrammed)
LB1
0
Lock bit
1 (unprogrammed)
Note:
Bit No
1. “1” means unprogrammed, “0” means programmed.
Table 27-2.
Lock Bit Protection Modes(1)(2)
Memory Lock Bits
Protection Type
LB Mode
LB2
LB1
1
1
1
No memory lock features enabled.
2
1
0
Further programming of the Flash and EEPROM is disabled in
Parallel and Serial Programming mode. The Fuse bits are
locked in both Serial and Parallel Programming mode.(1)
Further programming and verification of the Flash and EEPROM
is disabled in Parallel and Serial Programming mode. The Boot
Lock bits and Fuse bits are locked in both Serial and Parallel
Programming mode.(1)
3
0
0
BLB0 Mode
BLB02
BLB01
1
1
1
No restrictions for SPM or LPM accessing the Application
section.
2
1
0
SPM is not allowed to write to the Application section.
0
SPM is not allowed to write to the Application section, and LPM
executing from the Boot Loader section is not allowed to read
from the Application section. If Interrupt Vectors are placed in
the Boot Loader section, interrupts are disabled while executing
from the Application section.
1
LPM executing from the Boot Loader section is not allowed to
read from the Application section. If Interrupt Vectors are placed
in the Boot Loader section, interrupts are disabled while
executing from the Application section.
3
4
0
0
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Lock Bit Protection Modes(1)(2) (Continued)
Table 27-2.
Memory Lock Bits
BLB1 Mode
BLB12
BLB11
1
1
1
No restrictions for SPM or LPM accessing the Boot Loader
section.
2
1
0
SPM is not allowed to write to the Boot Loader section.
0
SPM is not allowed to write to the Boot Loader section, and LPM
executing from the Application section is not allowed to read
from the Boot Loader section. If Interrupt Vectors are placed in
the Application section, interrupts are disabled while executing
from the Boot Loader section.
1
LPM executing from the Application section is not allowed to
read from the Boot Loader section. If Interrupt Vectors are
placed in the Application section, interrupts are disabled while
executing from the Boot Loader section.
3
0
4
Notes:
27.2
Protection Type
0
1. Program the Fuse bits and Boot Lock bits before programming the LB1 and LB2.
2. “1” means unprogrammed, “0” means programmed.
Fuse Bits
The ATmega169P has three Fuse bytes. Table 27-3 to Table 27-5 on page 298 describe briefly
the functionality of all the fuses and how they are mapped into the Fuse bytes. Note that the
fuses are read as logical zero, “0”, if they are programmed.
Table 27-3.
Extended Fuse Byte
Fuse Low Byte
Bit No
Description
Default Value
–
7
–
1
–
6
–
1
–
5
–
1
–
4
–
1
BODLEVEL2(1)
3
Brown-out Detector trigger level
1 (unprogrammed)
BODLEVEL1(1)
2
Brown-out Detector trigger level
1 (unprogrammed)
(1)
BODLEVEL0
1
Brown-out Detector trigger level
1 (unprogrammed)
(2)
0
External Reset Disable
1 (unprogrammed)
RSTDISBL
Notes:
1. See Table 28-5 on page 334 for BODLEVEL Fuse decoding.
2. Port G, PG5 is input only. Pull-up is always on. See ”Alternate Functions of Port G” on page
85.
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Table 27-4.
Fuse High Byte
Fuse High Byte
Bit No
Description
Default Value
(4)
OCDEN
7
Enable OCD
1 (unprogrammed, OCD disabled)
JTAGEN(5)
6
Enable JTAG
0 (programmed, JTAG enabled)
SPIEN(1)
5
Enable Serial Program and Data
Downloading
0 (programmed, SPI prog.
enabled)
WDTON(3)
4
Watchdog Timer always on
1 (unprogrammed)
EESAVE
3
EEPROM memory is preserved
through the Chip Erase
1 (unprogrammed, EEPROM not
preserved)
BOOTSZ1
2
Select Boot Size (see Table 26-6
on page 292 for details)
0 (programmed)(2)
BOOTSZ0
1
Select Boot Size (see Table 26-6
on page 292 for details)
0 (programmed)(2)
BOOTRST
0
Select Reset Vector
1 (unprogrammed)
Note:
1. The SPIEN Fuse is not accessible in serial programming mode.
2. The default value of BOOTSZ1..0 results in maximum Boot Size. See Table 26-6 on page 292
for details.
3. See ”WDTCR – Watchdog Timer Control Register” on page 54 for details.
4. Never ship a product with the OCDEN Fuse programmed regardless of the setting of Lock bits
and JTAGEN Fuse. A programmed OCDEN Fuse enables some parts of the clock system to
be running in all sleep modes. This may increase the power consumption.
5. If the JTAG interface is left unconnected, the JTAGEN fuse should if possible be disabled. This
to avoid static current at the TDO pin in the JTAG interface.
.
Table 27-5.
Fuse Low Byte
Fuse Low Byte
Description
Default Value
7
Divide clock by 8
0 (programmed)
6
Clock output
1 (unprogrammed)
SUT1
5
Select start-up time
1 (unprogrammed)(1)
SUT0
4
Select start-up time
0 (programmed)(1)
CKSEL3
3
Select Clock source
0 (programmed)(2)
CKSEL2
2
Select Clock source
0 (programmed)(2)
CKSEL1
1
Select Clock source
1 (unprogrammed)(2)
CKSEL0
0
Select Clock source
0 (programmed)(2)
(4)
(3)
CKDIV8
CKOUT
Note:
Bit No
1. The default value of SUT1..0 results in maximum start-up time for the default clock source.
See Table 28-4 on page 333 for details.
2. The default setting of CKSEL3..0 results in internal RC Oscillator @ 8 MHz. See Table 8-9 on
page 35 for details.
3. The CKOUT Fuse allow the system clock to be output on PORTE7. See ”Clock Output Buffer”
on page 37 for details.
4. See ”System Clock Prescaler” on page 37 for details.
The status of the Fuse bits is not affected by Chip Erase. Note that the Fuse bits are locked if
Lock bit1 (LB1) is programmed. Program the Fuse bits before programming the Lock bits.
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27.2.1
Latching of Fuses
The fuse values are latched when the device enters programming mode and changes of the
fuse values will have no effect until the part leaves Programming mode. This does not apply to
the EESAVE Fuse which will take effect once it is programmed. The fuses are also latched on
Power-up in Normal mode.
27.3
Signature Bytes
All Atmel microcontrollers have a three-byte signature code which identifies the device. This
code can be read in both serial and parallel mode, also when the device is locked. The three
bytes reside in a separate address space. The signature bytes are given in Table 27-6.
Table 27-6.
Device and JTAG ID
Signature Bytes Address
27.4
JTAG
Part
0x000
0x001
0x002
Part Number
Manufacture ID
ATmega169P
0x1E
0x94
0x05
9405
0x1F
Calibration Byte
The ATmega169P has a byte calibration value for the internal RC Oscillator. This byte resides in
the high byte of address 0x000 in the signature address space. During reset, this byte is automatically written into the OSCCAL Register to ensure correct frequency of the calibrated RC
Oscillator.
27.5
Page Size
Table 27-7.
No. of Words in a Page and No. of Pages in the Flash
Flash Size
8K words (16 Kbytes)
Table 27-8.
27.6
Page Size
PCWORD
No. of Pages
PCPAGE
PCMSB
64 words
PC[5:0]
128
PC[12:6]
12
No. of Words in a Page and No. of Pages in the EEPROM
EEPROM Size
Page Size
PCWORD
No. of Pages
PCPAGE
EEAMSB
512 bytes
4 bytes
EEA[1:0]
128
EEA[8:2]
8
Parallel Programming Parameters, Pin Mapping, and Commands
This section describes how to parallel program and verify Flash Program memory, EEPROM
Data memory, Memory Lock bits, and Fuse bits in the ATmega169P. Pulses are assumed to be
at least 250 ns unless otherwise noted.
27.6.1
Signal Names
In this section, some pins of the ATmega169P are referenced by signal names describing their
functionality during parallel programming, see Figure 27-1 on page 300 and Table 27-9 on page
300. Pins not described in Table 27-9 on page 300 are referenced by pin names.
The XA1/XA0 pins determine the action executed when the XTAL1 pin is given a positive pulse.
The bit coding is shown in Table 27-11 on page 301.
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When pulsing WR or OE, the command loaded determines the action executed. The different
Commands are shown in Table 27-12 on page 301.
Figure 27-1. Parallel Programming
+5V
RDY/BSY
PD1
OE
PD2
WR
PD3
BS1
PD4
XA0
PD5
XA1
PD6
PAGEL
PD7
+12V
BS2
VCC
+5V
AVCC
PB7 - PB0
DATA
RESET
PA0
XTAL1
GND
Table 27-9.
Pin Name Mapping
Signal Name
in Programming Mode
Pin Name
I/O
Function
RDY/BSY
PD1
O
0: Device is busy programming, 1: Device is ready for
new command.
OE
PD2
I
Output Enable (Active low).
WR
PD3
I
Write Pulse (Active low).
BS1
PD4
I
Byte Select 1 (“0” selects low byte, “1” selects high
byte).
XA0
PD5
I
XTAL Action Bit 0
XA1
PD6
I
XTAL Action Bit 1
PAGEL
PD7
I
Program Memory and EEPROM data Page Load.
BS2
PA0
I
Byte Select 2 (“0” selects low byte, “1” selects 2’nd high
byte).
DATA
PB7-0
I/O
Bi-directional Data bus (Output when OE is low).
Table 27-10. Pin Values Used to Enter Programming Mode
Pin
Symbol
Value
PAGEL
Prog_enable[3]
0
XA1
Prog_enable[2]
0
XA0
Prog_enable[1]
0
BS1
Prog_enable[0]
0
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Table 27-11. XA1 and XA0 Coding
XA1
XA0
Action when XTAL1 is Pulsed
0
0
Load Flash or EEPROM Address (High or low address byte determined by
BS1).
0
1
Load Data (High or Low data byte for Flash determined by BS1).
1
0
Load Command
1
1
No Action, Idle
Table 27-12. Command Byte Bit Coding
Command Byte
Command Executed
1000 0000
Chip Erase
0100 0000
Write Fuse bits
0010 0000
Write Lock bits
0001 0000
Write Flash
0001 0001
Write EEPROM
0000 1000
Read Signature Bytes and Calibration byte
0000 0100
Read Fuse and Lock bits
0000 0010
Read Flash
0000 0011
Read EEPROM
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27.7
27.7.1
Parallel Programming
Enter Programming Mode
The following algorithm puts the device in parallel programming mode:
1. Apply 4.5V - 5.5V between VCC and GND.
2. Set RESET to “0” and toggle XTAL1 at least six times.
3. Set the Prog_enable pins listed in Table 27-10 on page 300 to “0000” and wait at least
100 ns.
4. Apply 11.5V - 12.5V to RESET. Any activity on Prog_enable pins within 100 ns after
+12V has been applied to RESET, will cause the device to fail entering programming
mode.
5. Wait at least 50 µs before sending a new command.
27.7.2
Considerations for Efficient Programming
The loaded command and address are retained in the device during programming. For efficient
programming, the following should be considered.
• The command needs only be loaded once when writing or reading multiple memory locations.
• Skip writing the data value 0xFF, that is the contents of the entire EEPROM (unless the
EESAVE Fuse is programmed) and Flash after a Chip Erase.
• Address high byte needs only be loaded before programming or reading a new 256 word
window in Flash or 256 byte EEPROM. This consideration also applies to Signature bytes
reading.
27.7.3
Chip Erase
The Chip Erase will erase the Flash and EEPROM(1) memories plus Lock bits. The Lock bits are
not reset until the program memory has been completely erased. The Fuse bits are not
changed. A Chip Erase must be performed before the Flash and/or EEPROM are
reprogrammed.
Note:
1. The EEPRPOM memory is preserved during Chip Erase if the EESAVE Fuse is programmed.
Load Command “Chip Erase”:
1. Set XA1, XA0 to “10”. This enables command loading.
2. Set BS1 to “0”.
3. Set DATA to “1000 0000”. This is the command for Chip Erase.
4. Give XTAL1 a positive pulse. This loads the command.
5. Give WR a negative pulse. This starts the Chip Erase. RDY/BSY goes low.
6. Wait until RDY/BSY goes high before loading a new command.
27.7.4
Programming the Flash
The Flash is organized in pages, see Table 27-7 on page 299. When programming the Flash,
the program data is latched into a page buffer. This allows one page of program data to be programmed simultaneously. The following procedure describes how to program the entire Flash
memory:
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ATmega169P
A. Load Command “Write Flash”
1. Set XA1, XA0 to “10”. This enables command loading.
2. Set BS1 to “0”.
3. Set DATA to “0001 0000”. This is the command for Write Flash.
4. Give XTAL1 a positive pulse. This loads the command.
B. Load Address Low byte
1. Set XA1, XA0 to “00”. This enables address loading.
2. Set BS1 to “0”. This selects low address.
3. Set DATA = Address low byte (0x00 - 0xFF).
4. Give XTAL1 a positive pulse. This loads the address low byte.
C. Load Data Low Byte
1. Set XA1, XA0 to “01”. This enables data loading.
2. Set DATA = Data low byte (0x00 - 0xFF).
3. Give XTAL1 a positive pulse. This loads the data byte.
D. Load Data High Byte
1. Set BS1 to “1”. This selects high data byte.
2. Set XA1, XA0 to “01”. This enables data loading.
3. Set DATA = Data high byte (0x00 - 0xFF).
4. Give XTAL1 a positive pulse. This loads the data byte.
E. Latch Data
1. Set BS1 to “1”. This selects high data byte.
2. Give PAGEL a positive pulse. This latches the data bytes. (See Figure 27-3 on page 304
for signal waveforms)
F. Repeat B through E until the entire buffer is filled or until all data within the page is loaded
While the lower bits in the address are mapped to words within the page, the higher bits address
the pages within the FLASH. This is illustrated in Figure 27-2 on page 304. Note that if less than
eight bits are required to address words in the page (pagesize < 256), the most significant bit(s)
in the address low byte are used to address the page when performing a Page Write.
G. Load Address High byte
1. Set XA1, XA0 to “00”. This enables address loading.
2. Set BS1 to “1”. This selects high address.
3. Set DATA = Address high byte (0x00 - 0xFF).
4. Give XTAL1 a positive pulse. This loads the address high byte.
H. Program Page
1. Give WR a negative pulse. This starts programming of the entire page of data. RDY/BSY
goes low.
2. Wait until RDY/BSY goes high (See Figure 27-3 on page 304 for signal waveforms).
I. Repeat B through H until the entire Flash is programmed or until all data has been
programmed.
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J. End Page Programming
1. 1. Set XA1, XA0 to “10”. This enables command loading.
2. Set DATA to “0000 0000”. This is the command for No Operation.
3. Give XTAL1 a positive pulse. This loads the command, and the internal write signals are
reset.
Figure 27-2. Addressing the Flash Which is Organized in Pages(1)
PCMSB
PROGRAM
COUNTER
PAGEMSB
PCPAGE
PCWORD
PAGE ADDRESS
WITHIN THE FLASH
WORD ADDRESS
WITHIN A PAGE
PROGRAM MEMORY
PAGE
PAGE
PCWORD[PAGEMSB:0]:
00
INSTRUCTION WORD
01
02
PAGEEND
Note:
1. PCPAGE and PCWORD are listed in Table 27-7 on page 299.
Figure 27-3. Programming the Flash Waveforms(1)
F
DATA
A
B
0x10
ADDR. LOW
C
DATA LOW
D
E
DATA HIGH
XX
B
ADDR. LOW
C
D
DATA LOW
DATA HIGH
E
XX
G
ADDR. HIGH
H
XX
XA1
XA0
BS1
XTAL1
WR
RDY/BSY
RESET +12V
OE
PAGEL
BS2
Note:
1. “XX” is don’t care. The letters refer to the programming description above.
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27.7.5
Programming the EEPROM
The EEPROM is organized in pages, see Table 27-8 on page 299. When programming the
EEPROM, the program data is latched into a page buffer. This allows one page of data to be
programmed simultaneously. The programming algorithm for the EEPROM data memory is as
follows (refer to ”Programming the Flash” on page 302 for details on Command, Address and
Data loading):
1. A: Load Command “0001 0001”.
2. G: Load Address High Byte (0x00 - 0xFF).
3. B: Load Address Low Byte (0x00 - 0xFF).
4. C: Load Data (0x00 - 0xFF).
5. E: Latch data (give PAGEL a positive pulse).
K: Repeat 3 through 5 until the entire buffer is filled.
L: Program EEPROM page
1. Set BS to “0”.
2. Give WR a negative pulse. This starts programming of the EEPROM page. RDY/BSY
goes low.
3. Wait until to RDY/BSY goes high before programming the next page (See Figure 27-4 for
signal waveforms).
Figure 27-4. Programming the EEPROM Waveforms
K
DATA
A
G
0x11
ADDR. HIGH
B
ADDR. LOW
C
DATA
E
XX
B
ADDR. LOW
C
DATA
E
L
XX
XA1
XA0
BS1
XTAL1
WR
RDY/BSY
RESET +12V
OE
PAGEL
BS2
27.7.6
Reading the Flash
The algorithm for reading the Flash memory is as follows (refer to ”Programming the Flash” on
page 302 for details on Command and Address loading):
1. A: Load Command “0000 0010”.
2. G: Load Address High Byte (0x00 - 0xFF).
3. B: Load Address Low Byte (0x00 - 0xFF).
4. Set OE to “0”, and BS1 to “0”. The Flash word low byte can now be read at DATA.
5. Set BS to “1”. The Flash word high byte can now be read at DATA.
6. Set OE to “1”.
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27.7.7
Reading the EEPROM
The algorithm for reading the EEPROM memory is as follows (refer to ”Programming the Flash”
on page 302 for details on Command and Address loading):
1. A: Load Command “0000 0011”.
2. G: Load Address High Byte (0x00 - 0xFF).
3. B: Load Address Low Byte (0x00 - 0xFF).
4. Set OE to “0”, and BS1 to “0”. The EEPROM Data byte can now be read at DATA.
5. Set OE to “1”.
27.7.8
Programming the Fuse Low Bits
The algorithm for programming the Fuse Low bits is as follows (refer to ”Programming the Flash”
on page 302 for details on Command and Data loading):
1. A: Load Command “0100 0000”.
2. C: Load Data Byte. Bit n = “0” programs and bit n = “1” erases the Fuse bit.
3. Give WR a negative pulse and wait for RDY/BSY to go high.
27.7.9
Programming the Fuse High Bits
The algorithm for programming the Fuse High bits is as follows (refer to ”Programming the
Flash” on page 302 for details on Command and Data loading):
1. A: Load Command “0100 0000”.
2. C: Load Data Byte. Bit n = “0” programs and bit n = “1” erases the Fuse bit.
3. Set BS1 to “1” and BS2 to “0”. This selects high fuse byte.
4. Give WR a negative pulse and wait for RDY/BSY to go high.
5. Set BS1 to “0”. This selects low data byte.
27.7.10
Programming the Extended Fuse Bits
The algorithm for programming the Extended Fuse bits is as follows (refer to ”Programming the
Flash” on page 302 for details on Command and Data loading):
1. 1. A: Load Command “0100 0000”.
2. 2. C: Load Data Byte. Bit n = “0” programs and bit n = “1” erases the Fuse bit.
3. 3. Set BS1 to “0” and BS2 to “1”. This selects extended fuse byte.
4. 4. Give WR a negative pulse and wait for RDY/BSY to go high.
5. 5. Set BS2 to “0”. This selects low data byte.
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Figure 27-5. Programming the FUSES Waveforms
Write Fuse Low byte
DATA
A
C
0x40
DATA
XX
Write Fuse high byte
A
C
0x40
DATA
XX
Write Extended Fuse byte
A
C
0x40
DATA
XX
XA1
XA0
BS1
BS2
XTAL1
WR
RDY/BSY
RESET +12V
OE
PAGEL
27.7.11
Programming the Lock Bits
The algorithm for programming the Lock bits is as follows (refer to ”Programming the Flash” on
page 302 for details on Command and Data loading):
1. A: Load Command “0010 0000”.
2. C: Load Data Low Byte. Bit n = “0” programs the Lock bit. If LB mode 3 is programmed
(LB1 and LB2 is programmed), it is not possible to program the Boot Lock bits by any
External Programming mode.
3. Give WR a negative pulse and wait for RDY/BSY to go high.
The Lock bits can only be cleared by executing Chip Erase.
27.7.12
Reading the Fuse and Lock Bits
The algorithm for reading the Fuse and Lock bits is as follows (refer to ”Programming the Flash”
on page 302 for details on Command loading):
1. A: Load Command “0000 0100”.
2. Set OE to “0”, BS2 to “0” and BS1 to “0”. The status of the Fuse Low bits can now be
read at DATA (“0” means programmed).
3. Set OE to “0”, BS2 to “1” and BS1 to “1”. The status of the Fuse High bits can now be
read at DATA (“0” means programmed).
4. Set OE to “0”, BS2 to “1”, and BS1 to “0”. The status of the Extended Fuse bits can now
be read at DATA (“0” means programmed).
5. Set OE to “0”, BS2 to “0” and BS1 to “1”. The status of the Lock bits can now be read at
DATA (“0” means programmed).
6. Set OE to “1”.
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Figure 27-6. Mapping Between BS1, BS2 and the Fuse and Lock Bits During Read
0
Fuse Low Byte
0
Extended Fuse Byte
1
DATA
BS2
0
Lock Bits
1
Fuse High Byte
BS1
1
BS2
27.7.13
Reading the Signature Bytes
The algorithm for reading the Signature bytes is as follows (refer to ”Programming the Flash” on
page 302 for details on Command and Address loading):
1. A: Load Command “0000 1000”.
2. B: Load Address Low Byte (0x00 - 0x02).
3. Set OE to “0”, and BS to “0”. The selected Signature byte can now be read at DATA.
4. Set OE to “1”.
27.7.14
Reading the Calibration Byte
The algorithm for reading the Calibration byte is as follows (refer to ”Programming the Flash” on
page 302 for details on Command and Address loading):
1. A: Load Command “0000 1000”.
2. B: Load Address Low Byte, 0x00.
3. Set OE to “0”, and BS1 to “1”. The Calibration byte can now be read at DATA.
4. Set OE to “1”.
27.7.15
Parallel Programming Characteristics
Figure 27-7. Parallel Programming Timing, Including some General Timing Requirements
tXLWL
tXHXL
XTAL1
tDVXH
tXLDX
Data & Contol
(DATA, XA0/1, BS1, BS2)
tPLBX t BVWL
tBVPH
PAGEL
tWLBX
tPHPL
tWLWH
WR
tPLWL
WLRL
RDY/BSY
tWLRH
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Figure 27-8. Parallel Programming Timing, Loading Sequence with Timing Requirements(1)
LOAD ADDRESS
(LOW BYTE)
LOAD DATA LOAD DATA
(HIGH BYTE)
LOAD DATA
(LOW BYTE)
tXLPH
t XLXH
LOAD ADDRESS
(LOW BYTE)
tPLXH
XTAL1
BS1
PAGEL
DATA
ADDR0 (Low Byte)
DATA (Low Byte)
DATA (High Byte)
ADDR1 (Low Byte)
XA0
XA1
Note:
1. The timing requirements shown in Figure 27-7 on page 308 (that is, tDVXH, tXHXL, and tXLDX)
also apply to loading operation.
Figure 27-9. Parallel Programming Timing, Reading Sequence (within the Same Page) with
Timing Requirements(1)
LOAD ADDRESS
(LOW BYTE)
READ DATA
(LOW BYTE)
READ DATA
(HIGH BYTE)
LOAD ADDRESS
(LOW BYTE)
tXLOL
XTAL1
tBVDV
BS1
tOLDV
OE
DATA
tOHDZ
ADDR0 (Low Byte)
DATA (Low Byte)
ADDR1 (Low Byte)
DATA (High Byte)
XA0
XA1
Note:
1. The timing requirements shown in Figure 27-7 on page 308 (that is, tDVXH, tXHXL, and tXLDX)
also apply to reading operation.
Table 27-13. Parallel Programming Characteristics, VCC = 5V ±10%
Symbol
Parameter
Min
VPP
Programming Enable Voltage
11.5
IPP
Programming Enable Current
Typ
Max
Units
12.5
V
250
μA
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Table 27-13. Parallel Programming Characteristics, VCC = 5V ±10%
Symbol
Parameter
Min
tDVXH
Data and Control Valid before XTAL1 High
67
tXLXH
XTAL1 Low to XTAL1 High
200
tXHXL
XTAL1 Pulse Width High
150
tXLDX
Data and Control Hold after XTAL1 Low
67
tXLWL
XTAL1 Low to WR Low
0
tXLPH
XTAL1 Low to PAGEL high
0
tPLXH
PAGEL low to XTAL1 high
150
tBVPH
BS1 Valid before PAGEL High
67
tPHPL
PAGEL Pulse Width High
150
tPLBX
BS1 Hold after PAGEL Low
67
tWLBX
BS2/1 Hold after WR Low
67
tPLWL
PAGEL Low to WR Low
67
tBVWL
BS1 Valid to WR Low
67
tWLWH
WR Pulse Width Low
150
tWLRL
WR Low to RDY/BSY Low
tWLRH
Max
Units
ns
0
1
WR Low to RDY/BSY High(1)
3.7
4.5
tWLRH_CE
WR Low to RDY/BSY High for Chip Erase(2)
7.5
9
tXLOL
XTAL1 Low to OE Low
0
tBVDV
BS1 Valid to DATA valid
0
tOLDV
OE Low to DATA Valid
250
tOHDZ
OE High to DATA Tri-stated
250
Notes:
27.8
Typ
μs
ms
250
ns
1.
tWLRH is valid for the Write Flash, Write EEPROM, Write Fuse bits and Write Lock bits
commands.
2. tWLRH_CE is valid for the Chip Erase command.
Serial Downloading
Both the Flash and EEPROM memory arrays can be programmed using the serial SPI bus while
RESET is pulled to GND. The serial interface consists of pins SCK, MOSI (input) and MISO (output). After RESET is set low, the Programming Enable instruction needs to be executed first
before program/erase operations can be executed. NOTE, in Table 27-14 on page 311, the pin
mapping for SPI programming is listed. Not all parts use the SPI pins dedicated for the internal
SPI interface.
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27.8.1
Serial Programming Pin Mapping
Table 27-14. Pin Mapping Serial Programming
Symbol
Pins
I/O
Description
MOSI
PB2
I
Serial Data in
MISO
PB3
O
Serial Data out
SCK
PB1
I
Serial Clock
Figure 27-10. Serial Programming and Verify(1)
+1.8V - 5.5V
VCC
+1.8V - 5.5V(2)
MOSI
AVCC
MISO
SCK
XTAL1
RESET
GND
Notes:
1. If the device is clocked by the internal Oscillator, it is no need to connect a clock source to the
XTAL1 pin.
2. VCC - 0.3V < AVCC < VCC + 0.3V, however, AVCC should always be within 1.8V - 5.5V
When programming the EEPROM, an auto-erase cycle is built into the self-timed programming
operation (in the Serial mode ONLY) and there is no need to first execute the Chip Erase
instruction. The Chip Erase operation turns the content of every memory location in both the
Program and EEPROM arrays into 0xFF.
Depending on CKSEL Fuses, a valid clock must be present. The minimum low and high periods
for the serial clock (SCK) input are defined as follows:
Low: > 2 CPU clock cycles for fck < 12 MHz, 3 CPU clock cycles for fck >= 12 MHz
High: > 2 CPU clock cycles for fck < 12 MHz, 3 CPU clock cycles for fck >= 12 MHz
27.8.2
Serial Programming Algorithm
When writing serial data to the ATmega169P, data is clocked on the rising edge of SCK.
When reading data from the ATmega169P, data is clocked on the falling edge of SCK. See Figure 27-11 on page 313 for timing details.
To program and verify the ATmega169P in the serial programming mode, the following
sequence is recommended (See four byte instruction formats in Table 27-16 on page 314):
1. Power-up sequence:
Apply power between VCC and GND while RESET and SCK are set to “0”. In some systems, the programmer can not guarantee that SCK is held low during power-up. In this
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case, RESET must be given a positive pulse of at least two CPU clock cycles duration
after SCK has been set to “0”.
2. Wait for at least 20 ms and enable serial programming by sending the Programming
Enable serial instruction to pin MOSI.
3. The serial programming instructions will not work if the communication is out of synchronization. When in sync. the second byte (0x53), will echo back when issuing the third
byte of the Programming Enable instruction. Whether the echo is correct or not, all four
bytes of the instruction must be transmitted. If the 0x53 did not echo back, give RESET a
positive pulse and issue a new Programming Enable command.
4. The Flash is programmed one page at a time. The page size is found in Table 27-7 on
page 299. The memory page is loaded one byte at a time by supplying the 6 LSB of the
address and data together with the Load Program Memory Page instruction. To ensure
correct loading of the page, the data low byte must be loaded before data high byte is
applied for a given address. The Program Memory Page is stored by loading the Write
Program Memory Page instruction with the 7 MSB of the address. If polling (RDY/BSY) is
not used, the user must wait at least tWD_FLASH before issuing the next page. (See Table
27-15.) Accessing the serial programming interface before the Flash write operation
completes can result in incorrect programming.
5. A: The EEPROM array is programmed one byte at a time by supplying the address and
data together with the appropriate Write instruction. An EEPROM memory location is first
automatically erased before new data is written. If polling (RDY/BSY) is not used, the
user must wait at least tWD_EEPROM before issuing the next byte (See Table 27-15). In a
chip erased device, no 0xFFs in the data file(s) need to be programmed.
B: The EEPROM array is programmed one page at a time. The Memory page is loaded
one byte at a time by supplying the 2 LSB of the address and data together with the Load
EEPROM Memory Page instruction. The EEPROM Memory Page is stored by loading
the Write EEPROM Memory Page Instruction with the 4 MSB of the address. When using
EEPROM page access only byte locations loaded with the Load EEPROM Memory Page
instruction is altered. The remaining locations remain unchanged. If polling (RDY/BSY) is
not used, the user must wait at least tWD_EEPROM before issuing the next page (See Table
27-15). In a chip erased device, no 0xFF in the data file(s) need to be programmed.
6. Any memory location can be verified by using the Read instruction which returns the content at the selected address at serial output MISO.
7. At the end of the programming session, RESET can be set high to commence normal
operation.
8. Power-off sequence (if needed):
Set RESET to “1”.
Turn VCC power off
Table 27-15. Minimum Wait Delay Before Writing the Next Flash or EEPROM Location
Symbol
Minimum Wait Delay
tWD_FUSE
4.5 ms
tWD_FLASH
4.5 ms
tWD_EEPROM
3.6 ms
tWD_ERASE
9.0 ms
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Figure 27-11. Serial Programming Waveforms
SERIAL DATA INPUT
(MOSI)
MSB
LSB
SERIAL DATA OUTPUT
(MISO)
MSB
LSB
SERIAL CLOCK INPUT
(SCK)
SAMPLE
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27.8.3
Serial Programming Instruction set
Table 27-16 and Figure 27-12 on page 315 describes the Instruction set.
Table 27-16. Serial Programming Instruction Set
Instruction Format
Instruction/Operation
Byte 1
Byte 2
Byte 3
Byte 4
Programming Enable
$AC
$53
$00
$00
Chip Erase (Program Memory/EEPROM)
$AC
$80
$00
$00
Poll RDY/BSY
$F0
$00
$00
data byte out
Load Extended Address byte(1)
$4D
$00
Extended adr
$00
Load Program Memory Page, High byte
$48
$00
adr LSB
high data byte in
Load Program Memory Page, Low byte
$40
$00
adr LSB
low data byte in
Load EEPROM Memory Page (page access)
$C1
$00
0000 00aa
data byte in
Read Program Memory, High byte
$28
adr MSB
adr LSB
high data byte out
Read Program Memory, Low byte
$20
adr MSB
adr LSB
low data byte out
Read EEPROM Memory
$A0
0000 00aa
aaaa aaaa
data byte out
Read Lock bits
$58
$00
$00
data byte out
Read Signature Byte
$30
$00
0000 00aa
data byte out
Read Fuse bits
$50
$00
$00
data byte out
Read Fuse High bits
$58
$08
$00
data byte out
Read Extended Fuse Bits
$50
$08
$00
data byte out
Read Calibration Byte
$38
$00
$00
data byte out
Write Program Memory Page
$4C
adr MSB
adr LSB
$00
Write EEPROM Memory
$C0
0000 00aa
aaaa aaaa
data byte in
Write EEPROM Memory Page (page access)
$C2
0000 00aa
aaaa aa00
$00
Write Lock bits
$AC
$E0
$00
data byte in
Write Fuse bits
$AC
$A0
$00
data byte in
Write Fuse High bits
$AC
$A8
$00
data byte in
Write Extended Fuse Bits
$AC
$A4
$00
data byte in
Load Instructions
Read Instructions
Write Instructions(6)
Notes:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Not all instructions are applicable for all parts
a = address
Bits are programmed ‘0’, unprogrammed ‘1’.
To ensure future compatibility, unused Fuses and Lock bits should be unprogrammed (‘1’).
Refer to the corresponding section for Fuse and Lock bits, Calibration and Signature bytes and Page size.
Instructions accessing program memory use a word address. This address may be random within the page range.
See htt://www.atmel.com/avr for Application Notes regarding programming and programmers.
If the LSB in RDY/BSY data byte out is ‘1’, a programming operation is still pending. Wait until
this bit returns ‘0’ before the next instruction is carried out.
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Within the same page, the low data byte must be loaded prior to the high data byte.
After data is loaded to the page buffer, program the EEPROM page, see Figure 27-12.
Figure 27-12. Serial Programming Instruction example
Serial Programming Instruction
Load Program Memory Page (High/Low Byte)/
Load EEPROM Memory Page (page access)
Byte 1
Byte 2
Byte 3
Adr
A
drr M
MS
MSB
SB
Bit 15 B
Write Program Memory Page/
Write EEPROM Memory Page
Byte 1
Byte 4
Byte 2
Adr LSB
Adr MSB
Bit 15 B
0
Byte 3
Byte 4
Adr
A
dr LS
LSB
SB
0
Page Buffer
Page Offset
Page 0
Page 1
Page 2
Page Number
Page N-1
Program Memory/
EEPROM Memory
27.8.4
SPI Serial Programming Characteristics
For characteristics of the SPI module, see ”SPI Timing Characteristics” on page 334.
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27.9
Programming via the JTAG Interface
Programming through the JTAG interface requires control of the four JTAG specific pins: TCK,
TMS, TDI, and TDO. Control of the reset and clock pins is not required.
To be able to use the JTAG interface, the JTAGEN Fuse must be programmed. The device is
default shipped with the fuse programmed. In addition, the JTD bit in MCUCSR must be cleared.
Alternatively, if the JTD bit is set, the external reset can be forced low. Then, the JTD bit will be
cleared after two chip clocks, and the JTAG pins are available for programming. This provides a
means of using the JTAG pins as normal port pins in Running mode while still allowing In-System Programming via the JTAG interface. Note that this technique can not be used when using
the JTAG pins for Boundary-scan or On-chip Debug. In these cases the JTAG pins must be dedicated for this purpose.
During programming the clock frequency of the TCK Input must be less than the maximum frequency of the chip. The System Clock Prescaler can not be used to divide the TCK Clock Input
into a sufficiently low frequency.
As a definition in this datasheet, the LSB is shifted in and out first of all Shift Registers.
27.9.1
Programming Specific JTAG Instructions
The Instruction Register is 4-bit wide, supporting up to 16 instructions. The JTAG instructions
useful for programming are listed below.
The OPCODE for each instruction is shown behind the instruction name in hex format. The text
describes which Data Register is selected as path between TDI and TDO for each instruction.
The Run-Test/Idle state of the TAP controller is used to generate internal clocks. It can also be
used as an idle state between JTAG sequences. The state machine sequence for changing the
instruction word is shown in Figure 27-13 on page 317.
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Figure 27-13. State Machine Sequence for Changing the Instruction Word
1
Test-Logic-Reset
0
0
Run-Test/Idle
1
Select-DR Scan
1
Select-IR Scan
0
1
0
1
Capture-DR
Capture-IR
0
0
0
Shift-DR
1
1
Exit1-DR
0
0
Pause-DR
0
Pause-IR
1
1
0
Exit2-DR
Exit2-IR
1
1
Update-DR
27.9.2
1
Exit1-IR
0
1
0
Shift-IR
1
0
1
Update-IR
0
1
0
AVR_RESET (0xC)
The AVR specific public JTAG instruction for setting the AVR device in the Reset mode or taking
the device out from the Reset mode. The TAP controller is not reset by this instruction. The one
bit Reset Register is selected as Data Register. Note that the reset will be active as long as there
is a logic “one” in the Reset Chain. The output from this chain is not latched.
The active states are:
• Shift-DR: The Reset Register is shifted by the TCK input.
27.9.3
PROG_ENABLE (0x4)
The AVR specific public JTAG instruction for enabling programming via the JTAG port. The 16bit Programming Enable Register is selected as Data Register. The active states are the
following:
• Shift-DR: The programming enable signature is shifted into the Data Register.
• Update-DR: The programming enable signature is compared to the correct value, and
Programming mode is entered if the signature is valid.
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27.9.4
PROG_COMMANDS (0x5)
The AVR specific public JTAG instruction for entering programming commands via the JTAG
port. The 15-bit Programming Command Register is selected as Data Register. The active
states are the following:
• Capture-DR: The result of the previous command is loaded into the Data Register.
• Shift-DR: The Data Register is shifted by the TCK input, shifting out the result of the previous
command and shifting in the new command.
• Update-DR: The programming command is applied to the Flash inputs.
• Run-Test/Idle: One clock cycle is generated, executing the applied command (not always
required, see Table 27-17 on page 321).
27.9.5
PROG_PAGELOAD (0x6)
The AVR specific public JTAG instruction to directly load the Flash data page via the JTAG port.
An 8-bit Flash Data Byte Register is selected as the Data Register. This is physically the 8 LSBs
of the Programming Command Register. The active states are the following:
• Shift-DR: The Flash Data Byte Register is shifted by the TCK input.
• Update-DR: The content of the Flash Data Byte Register is copied into a temporary register. A
write sequence is initiated that within 11 TCK cycles loads the content of the temporary
register into the Flash page buffer. The AVR automatically alternates between writing the low
and the high byte for each new Update-DR state, starting with the low byte for the first UpdateDR encountered after entering the PROG_PAGELOAD command. The Program Counter is
pre-incremented before writing the low byte, except for the first written byte. This ensures that
the first data is written to the address set up by PROG_COMMANDS, and loading the last
location in the page buffer does not make the program counter increment into the next page.
27.9.6
PROG_PAGEREAD (0x7)
The AVR specific public JTAG instruction to directly capture the Flash content via the JTAG port.
An 8-bit Flash Data Byte Register is selected as the Data Register. This is physically the 8 LSBs
of the Programming Command Register. The active states are the following:
• Capture-DR: The content of the selected Flash byte is captured into the Flash Data Byte
Register. The AVR automatically alternates between reading the low and the high byte for each
new Capture-DR state, starting with the low byte for the first Capture-DR encountered after
entering the PROG_PAGEREAD command. The Program Counter is post-incremented after
reading each high byte, including the first read byte. This ensures that the first data is captured
from the first address set up by PROG_COMMANDS, and reading the last location in the page
makes the program counter increment into the next page.
• Shift-DR: The Flash Data Byte Register is shifted by the TCK input.
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ATmega169P
27.9.7
Data Registers
The Data Registers are selected by the JTAG instruction registers described in section ”Programming Specific JTAG Instructions” on page 316. The Data Registers relevant for
programming operations are:
• Reset Register
• Programming Enable Register
• Programming Command Register
• Flash Data Byte Register
27.9.8
Reset Register
The Reset Register is a Test Data Register used to reset the part during programming. It is
required to reset the part before entering Programming mode.
A high value in the Reset Register corresponds to pulling the external reset low. The part is reset
as long as there is a high value present in the Reset Register. Depending on the Fuse settings
for the clock options, the part will remain reset for a Reset Time-out period (refer to ”Clock
Sources” on page 31) after releasing the Reset Register. The output from this Data Register is
not latched, so the reset will take place immediately, as shown in Figure 25-2 on page 261.
27.9.9
Programming Enable Register
The Programming Enable Register is a 16-bit register. The contents of this register is compared
to the programming enable signature, binary code 0b1010_0011_0111_0000. When the contents of the register is equal to the programming enable signature, programming via the JTAG
port is enabled. The register is reset to 0 on Power-on Reset, and should always be reset when
leaving Programming mode.
Figure 27-14. Programming Enable Register
TDI
D
A
T
A
0xA370
=
D
Q
Programming Enable
ClockDR & PROG_ENABLE
TDO
27.9.10
Programming Command Register
The Programming Command Register is a 15-bit register. This register is used to serially shift in
programming commands, and to serially shift out the result of the previous command, if any. The
JTAG Programming Instruction Set is shown in Table 27-17 on page 321. The state sequence
when shifting in the programming commands is illustrated in Figure 27-16 on page 324.
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ATmega169P
Figure 27-15. Programming Command Register
TDI
S
T
R
O
B
E
S
A
D
D
R
E
S
S
/
D
A
T
A
Flash
EEPROM
Fuses
Lock Bits
TDO
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ATmega169P
Table 27-17. JTAG Programming Instruction Set
a = address high bits, b = address low bits, H = 0 - Low byte, 1 - High Byte, o = data out, i = data in, x = don’t care
Instruction
TDI Sequence
TDO Sequence
Notes
1a. Chip Erase
0100011_10000000
0110001_10000000
0110011_10000000
0110011_10000000
xxxxxxx_xxxxxxxx
xxxxxxx_xxxxxxxx
xxxxxxx_xxxxxxxx
xxxxxxx_xxxxxxxx
1b. Poll for Chip Erase Complete
0110011_10000000
xxxxxox_xxxxxxxx
2a. Enter Flash Write
0100011_00010000
xxxxxxx_xxxxxxxx
2b. Load Address High Byte
0000111_aaaaaaaa
xxxxxxx_xxxxxxxx
2c. Load Address Low Byte
0000011_bbbbbbbb
xxxxxxx_xxxxxxxx
2d. Load Data Low Byte
0010011_iiiiiiii
xxxxxxx_xxxxxxxx
2e. Load Data High Byte
0010111_iiiiiiii
xxxxxxx_xxxxxxxx
2f. Latch Data
0110111_00000000
1110111_00000000
0110111_00000000
xxxxxxx_xxxxxxxx
xxxxxxx_xxxxxxxx
xxxxxxx_xxxxxxxx
(1)
2g. Write Flash Page
0110111_00000000
0110101_00000000
0110111_00000000
0110111_00000000
xxxxxxx_xxxxxxxx
xxxxxxx_xxxxxxxx
xxxxxxx_xxxxxxxx
xxxxxxx_xxxxxxxx
(1)
2h. Poll for Page Write Complete
0110111_00000000
xxxxxox_xxxxxxxx
(2)
3a. Enter Flash Read
0100011_00000010
xxxxxxx_xxxxxxxx
3b. Load Address High Byte
0000111_aaaaaaaa
xxxxxxx_xxxxxxxx
3c. Load Address Low Byte
0000011_bbbbbbbb
xxxxxxx_xxxxxxxx
3d. Read Data Low and High Byte
0110010_00000000
0110110_00000000
0110111_00000000
xxxxxxx_xxxxxxxx
xxxxxxx_oooooooo
xxxxxxx_oooooooo
4a. Enter EEPROM Write
0100011_00010001
xxxxxxx_xxxxxxxx
4b. Load Address High Byte
0000111_aaaaaaaa
xxxxxxx_xxxxxxxx
4c. Load Address Low Byte
0000011_bbbbbbbb
xxxxxxx_xxxxxxxx
4d. Load Data Byte
0010011_iiiiiiii
xxxxxxx_xxxxxxxx
4e. Latch Data
0110111_00000000
1110111_00000000
0110111_00000000
xxxxxxx_xxxxxxxx
xxxxxxx_xxxxxxxx
xxxxxxx_xxxxxxxx
(1)
4f. Write EEPROM Page
0110011_00000000
0110001_00000000
0110011_00000000
0110011_00000000
xxxxxxx_xxxxxxxx
xxxxxxx_xxxxxxxx
xxxxxxx_xxxxxxxx
xxxxxxx_xxxxxxxx
(1)
4g. Poll for Page Write Complete
0110011_00000000
xxxxxox_xxxxxxxx
(2)
5a. Enter EEPROM Read
0100011_00000011
xxxxxxx_xxxxxxxx
5b. Load Address High Byte
0000111_aaaaaaaa
xxxxxxx_xxxxxxxx
(2)
(9)
(9)
Low byte
High byte
(9)
(9)
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ATmega169P
Table 27-17. JTAG Programming Instruction Set
a = address high bits, b = address low bits, H = 0 - Low byte, 1 - High Byte, o = data out, i = data in, x = don’t care
Instruction
TDI Sequence
TDO Sequence
5c. Load Address Low Byte
0000011_bbbbbbbb
xxxxxxx_xxxxxxxx
5d. Read Data Byte
0110011_bbbbbbbb
0110010_00000000
0110011_00000000
xxxxxxx_xxxxxxxx
xxxxxxx_xxxxxxxx
xxxxxxx_oooooooo
0100011_01000000
xxxxxxx_xxxxxxxx
6b. Load Data Low Byte
0010011_iiiiiiii
xxxxxxx_xxxxxxxx
(3)
6c. Write Fuse Extended Byte
0111011_00000000
0111001_00000000
0111011_00000000
0111011_00000000
xxxxxxx_xxxxxxxx
xxxxxxx_xxxxxxxx
xxxxxxx_xxxxxxxx
xxxxxxx_xxxxxxxx
(1)
6d. Poll for Fuse Write Complete
0110111_00000000
xxxxxox_xxxxxxxx
(2)
6e. Load Data Low Byte(7)
0010011_iiiiiiii
xxxxxxx_xxxxxxxx
(3)
6f. Write Fuse High Byte
0110111_00000000
0110101_00000000
0110111_00000000
0110111_00000000
xxxxxxx_xxxxxxxx
xxxxxxx_xxxxxxxx
xxxxxxx_xxxxxxxx
xxxxxxx_xxxxxxxx
(1)
6g. Poll for Fuse Write Complete
0110111_00000000
xxxxxox_xxxxxxxx
(2)
6h. Load Data Low Byte
0010011_iiiiiiii
xxxxxxx_xxxxxxxx
(3)
6i. Write Fuse Low Byte
0110011_00000000
0110001_00000000
0110011_00000000
0110011_00000000
xxxxxxx_xxxxxxxx
xxxxxxx_xxxxxxxx
xxxxxxx_xxxxxxxx
xxxxxxx_xxxxxxxx
(1)
6j. Poll for Fuse Write Complete
0110011_00000000
xxxxxox_xxxxxxxx
(2)
7a. Enter Lock Bit Write
0100011_00100000
xxxxxxx_xxxxxxxx
7b. Load Data Byte
0010011_11iiiiii
xxxxxxx_xxxxxxxx
(4)
7c. Write Lock Bits
0110011_00000000
0110001_00000000
0110011_00000000
0110011_00000000
xxxxxxx_xxxxxxxx
xxxxxxx_xxxxxxxx
xxxxxxx_xxxxxxxx
xxxxxxx_xxxxxxxx
(1)
7d. Poll for Lock Bit Write complete
0110011_00000000
xxxxxox_xxxxxxxx
(2)
8a. Enter Fuse/Lock Bit Read
0100011_00000100
xxxxxxx_xxxxxxxx
8b. Read Extended Fuse Byte(6)
0111010_00000000
0111011_00000000
xxxxxxx_xxxxxxxx
xxxxxxx_oooooooo
8c. Read Fuse High Byte(7)
0111110_00000000
0111111_00000000
xxxxxxx_xxxxxxxx
xxxxxxx_oooooooo
8d. Read Fuse Low Byte(8)
0110010_00000000
0110011_00000000
xxxxxxx_xxxxxxxx
xxxxxxx_oooooooo
8e. Read Lock Bits(9)
0110110_00000000
0110111_00000000
xxxxxxx_xxxxxxxx
xxxxxxx_xxoooooo
6a. Enter Fuse Write
(6)
(7)
(9)
Notes
(5)
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ATmega169P
Table 27-17. JTAG Programming Instruction Set
a = address high bits, b = address low bits, H = 0 - Low byte, 1 - High Byte, o = data out, i = data in, x = don’t care
Instruction
TDI Sequence
TDO Sequence
Notes
8f. Read Fuses and Lock Bits
0111010_00000000
0111110_00000000
0110010_00000000
0110110_00000000
0110111_00000000
xxxxxxx_xxxxxxxx
xxxxxxx_oooooooo
xxxxxxx_oooooooo
xxxxxxx_oooooooo
xxxxxxx_oooooooo
(5)
Fuse Ext. byte
Fuse High byte
Fuse Low byte
Lock bits
9a. Enter Signature Byte Read
0100011_00001000
xxxxxxx_xxxxxxxx
9b. Load Address Byte
0000011_bbbbbbbb
xxxxxxx_xxxxxxxx
9c. Read Signature Byte
0110010_00000000
0110011_00000000
xxxxxxx_xxxxxxxx
xxxxxxx_oooooooo
10a. Enter Calibration Byte Read
0100011_00001000
xxxxxxx_xxxxxxxx
10b. Load Address Byte
0000011_bbbbbbbb
xxxxxxx_xxxxxxxx
10c. Read Calibration Byte
0110110_00000000
0110111_00000000
xxxxxxx_xxxxxxxx
xxxxxxx_oooooooo
11a. Load No Operation Command
0100011_00000000
0110011_00000000
xxxxxxx_xxxxxxxx
xxxxxxx_xxxxxxxx
Notes:
1. This command sequence is not required if the seven MSB are correctly set by the previous command sequence (which is
normally the case).
2. Repeat until o = “1”.
3. Set bits to “0” to program the corresponding Fuse, “1” to unprogramme the Fuse.
4. Set bits to “0” to program the corresponding Lock bit, “1” to leave the Lock bit unchanged.
5. “0” = programmed, “1” = unprogrammed.
6. The bit mapping for Fuses Extended byte is listed in Table 27-3 on page 297.
7. The bit mapping for Fuses High byte is listed in Table 27-4 on page 298.
8. The bit mapping for Fuses Low byte is listed in Table 27-5 on page 298.
9. The bit mapping for Lock bits byte is listed in Table 27-1 on page 296.
10. Address bits exceeding PCMSB and EEAMSB (Table 27-7 on page 299 and Table 27-8 on page 299).
11. All TDI and TDO sequences are represented by binary digits (0b...).
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ATmega169P
Figure 27-16. State Machine Sequence for Changing/Reading the Data Word
1
Test-Logic-Reset
0
0
Run-Test/Idle
1
Select-DR Scan
1
Select-IR Scan
0
1
0
1
Capture-DR
Capture-IR
0
0
Shift-DR
Shift-IR
0
1
Exit1-DR
0
Pause-DR
0
0
Pause-IR
1
1
0
Exit2-DR
Exit2-IR
1
1
Update-DR
27.9.11
1
Exit1-IR
0
1
0
1
1
0
1
Update-IR
0
1
0
Flash Data Byte Register
The Flash Data Byte Register provides an efficient way to load the entire Flash page buffer
before executing Page Write, or to read out/verify the content of the Flash. A state machine sets
up the control signals to the Flash and senses the strobe signals from the Flash, thus only the
data words need to be shifted in/out.
The Flash Data Byte Register actually consists of the 8-bit scan chain and a 8-bit temporary register. During page load, the Update-DR state copies the content of the scan chain over to the
temporary register and initiates a write sequence that within 11 TCK cycles loads the content of
the temporary register into the Flash page buffer. The AVR automatically alternates between
writing the low and the high byte for each new Update-DR state, starting with the low byte for the
first Update-DR encountered after entering the PROG_PAGELOAD command. The Program
Counter is pre-incremented before writing the low byte, except for the first written byte. This
ensures that the first data is written to the address set up by PROG_COMMANDS, and loading
the last location in the page buffer does not make the Program Counter increment into the next
page.
During Page Read, the content of the selected Flash byte is captured into the Flash Data Byte
Register during the Capture-DR state. The AVR automatically alternates between reading the
low and the high byte for each new Capture-DR state, starting with the low byte for the first Cap-
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ATmega169P
ture-DR encountered after entering the PROG_PAGEREAD command. The Program Counter is
post-incremented after reading each high byte, including the first read byte. This ensures that
the first data is captured from the first address set up by PROG_COMMANDS, and reading the
last location in the page makes the program counter increment into the next page.
Figure 27-17. Flash Data Byte Register
STROBES
TDI
State
Machine
ADDRESS
Flash
EEPROM
Fuses
Lock Bits
D
A
T
A
TDO
The state machine controlling the Flash Data Byte Register is clocked by TCK. During normal
operation in which eight bits are shifted for each Flash byte, the clock cycles needed to navigate
through the TAP controller automatically feeds the state machine for the Flash Data Byte Register with sufficient number of clock pulses to complete its operation transparently for the user.
However, if too few bits are shifted between each Update-DR state during page load, the TAP
controller should stay in the Run-Test/Idle state for some TCK cycles to ensure that there are at
least 11 TCK cycles between each Update-DR state.
27.9.12
Programming Algorithm
All references below of type “1a”, “1b”, and so on, refer to Table 27-17 on page 321.
27.9.13
Entering Programming Mode
1. Enter JTAG instruction AVR_RESET and shift 1 in the Reset Register.
2. Enter instruction PROG_ENABLE and shift 0b1010_0011_0111_0000 in the Programming Enable Register.
27.9.14
Leaving Programming Mode
1. Enter JTAG instruction PROG_COMMANDS.
2. Disable all programming instructions by using no operation instruction 11a.
3. Enter instruction PROG_ENABLE and shift 0b0000_0000_0000_0000 in the programming Enable Register.
4. Enter JTAG instruction AVR_RESET and shift 0 in the Reset Register.
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ATmega169P
27.9.15
Performing Chip Erase
1. Enter JTAG instruction PROG_COMMANDS.
2. Start Chip Erase using programming instruction 1a.
3. Poll for Chip Erase complete using programming instruction 1b, or wait for tWLRH_CE (refer
to Table 27-13 on page 309).
27.9.16
Programming the Flash
Before programming the Flash a Chip Erase must be performed, see “Performing Chip Erase”
on page 326.
1. Enter JTAG instruction PROG_COMMANDS.
2. Enable Flash write using programming instruction 2a.
3. Load address High byte using programming instruction 2b.
4. Load address Low byte using programming instruction 2c.
5. Load data using programming instructions 2d, 2e and 2f.
6. Repeat steps 4 and 5 for all instruction words in the page.
7. Write the page using programming instruction 2g.
8. Poll for Flash write complete using programming instruction 2h, or wait for tWLRH (refer to
Table 27-13 on page 309).
9. Repeat steps 3 to 7 until all data have been programmed.
A more efficient data transfer can be achieved using the PROG_PAGELOAD instruction:
1. Enter JTAG instruction PROG_COMMANDS.
2. Enable Flash write using programming instruction 2a.
3. Load the page address using programming instructions 2b and 2c. PCWORD (refer to
Table 27-7 on page 299) is used to address within one page and must be written as 0.
4. Enter JTAG instruction PROG_PAGELOAD.
5. Load the entire page by shifting in all instruction words in the page byte-by-byte, starting
with the LSB of the first instruction in the page and ending with the MSB of the last
instruction in the page. Use Update-DR to copy the contents of the Flash Data Byte Register into the Flash page location and to auto-increment the Program Counter before
each new word.
6. Enter JTAG instruction PROG_COMMANDS.
7. Write the page using programming instruction 2g.
8. Poll for Flash write complete using programming instruction 2h, or wait for tWLRH (refer to
Table 27-13 on page 309).
9. Repeat steps 3 to 8 until all data have been programmed.
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27.9.17
Reading the Flash
1. Enter JTAG instruction PROG_COMMANDS.
2. Enable Flash read using programming instruction 3a.
3. Load address using programming instructions 3b and 3c.
4. Read data using programming instruction 3d.
5. Repeat steps 3 and 4 until all data have been read.
A more efficient data transfer can be achieved using the PROG_PAGEREAD instruction:
1. Enter JTAG instruction PROG_COMMANDS.
2. Enable Flash read using programming instruction 3a.
3. Load the page address using programming instructions 3b and 3c. PCWORD (refer to
Table 27-7 on page 299) is used to address within one page and must be written as 0.
4. Enter JTAG instruction PROG_PAGEREAD.
5. Read the entire page (or Flash) by shifting out all instruction words in the page (or Flash),
starting with the LSB of the first instruction in the page (Flash) and ending with the MSB
of the last instruction in the page (Flash). The Capture-DR state both captures the data
from the Flash, and also auto-increments the program counter after each word is read.
Note that Capture-DR comes before the shift-DR state. Hence, the first byte which is
shifted out contains valid data.
6. Enter JTAG instruction PROG_COMMANDS.
7. Repeat steps 3 to 6 until all data have been read.
27.9.18
Programming the EEPROM
Before programming the EEPROM a Chip Erase must be performed, see “Performing Chip
Erase” on page 326.
1. Enter JTAG instruction PROG_COMMANDS.
2. Enable EEPROM write using programming instruction 4a.
3. Load address High byte using programming instruction 4b.
4. Load address Low byte using programming instruction 4c.
5. Load data using programming instructions 4d and 4e.
6. Repeat steps 4 and 5 for all data bytes in the page.
7. Write the data using programming instruction 4f.
8. Poll for EEPROM write complete using programming instruction 4g, or wait for tWLRH
(refer to Table 27-13 on page 309).
9. Repeat steps 3 to 8 until all data have been programmed.
Note that the PROG_PAGELOAD instruction can not be used when programming the EEPROM.
27.9.19
Reading the EEPROM
1. Enter JTAG instruction PROG_COMMANDS.
2. Enable EEPROM read using programming instruction 5a.
3. Load address using programming instructions 5b and 5c.
4. Read data using programming instruction 5d.
5. Repeat steps 3 and 4 until all data have been read.
Note that the PROG_PAGEREAD instruction can not be used when reading the EEPROM.
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27.9.20
Programming the Fuses
1. Enter JTAG instruction PROG_COMMANDS.
2. Enable Fuse write using programming instruction 6a.
3. Load data high byte using programming instructions 6b. A bit value of “0” will program the
corresponding fuse, a “1” will unprogram the fuse.
4. Write Fuse High byte using programming instruction 6c.
5. Poll for Fuse write complete using programming instruction 6d, or wait for tWLRH (refer to
Table 27-13 on page 309).
6. Load data low byte using programming instructions 6e. A “0” will program the fuse, a “1”
will unprogram the fuse.
7. Write Fuse low byte using programming instruction 6f.
8. Poll for Fuse write complete using programming instruction 6g, or wait for tWLRH (refer to
Table 27-13 on page 309).
27.9.21
Programming the Lock Bits
1. Enter JTAG instruction PROG_COMMANDS.
2. Enable Lock bit write using programming instruction 7a.
3. Load data using programming instructions 7b. A bit value of “0” will program the corresponding lock bit, a “1” will leave the lock bit unchanged.
4. Write Lock bits using programming instruction 7c.
5. Poll for Lock bit write complete using programming instruction 7d, or wait for tWLRH (refer
to Table 27-13 on page 309).
27.9.22
Reading the Fuses and Lock Bits
1. Enter JTAG instruction PROG_COMMANDS.
2. Enable Fuse/Lock bit read using programming instruction 8a.
3. To read all Fuses and Lock bits, use programming instruction 8e.
To only read Fuse High byte, use programming instruction 8b.
To only read Fuse Low byte, use programming instruction 8c.
To only read Lock bits, use programming instruction 8d.
27.9.23
Reading the Signature Bytes
1. Enter JTAG instruction PROG_COMMANDS.
2. Enable Signature byte read using programming instruction 9a.
3. Load address 0x00 using programming instruction 9b.
4. Read first signature byte using programming instruction 9c.
5. Repeat steps 3 and 4 with address 0x01 and address 0x02 to read the second and third
signature bytes, respectively.
27.9.24
Reading the Calibration Byte
1. Enter JTAG instruction PROG_COMMANDS.
2. Enable Calibration byte read using programming instruction 10a.
3. Load address 0x00 using programming instruction 10b.
4. Read the calibration byte using programming instruction 10c.
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28. Electrical Characteristics
28.1
Absolute Maximum Ratings*
Operating Temperature.................................. -55°C to +125°C
*NOTICE:
Storage Temperature ..................................... -65°C to +150°C
Voltage on any Pin except RESET
with respect to Ground ................................-0.5V to VCC+0.5V
Voltage on RESET with respect to Ground......-0.5V to +13.0V
Stresses beyond those listed under “Absolute
Maximum Ratings” may cause permanent damage to the device. This is a stress rating only and
functional operation of the device at these or
other conditions beyond those indicated in the
operational sections of this specification is not
implied. Exposure to absolute maximum rating
conditions for extended periods may affect
device reliability.
Maximum Operating Voltage ............................................ 6.0V
DC Current per I/O Pin ............................................... 40.0 mA
DC Current VCC and GND Pins................................ 400.0 mA
28.2
DC Characteristics
TA = -40°C to 85°C, VCC = 1.8V to 5.5V (unless otherwise noted)
Symbol
Parameter
Condition
Min.
Typ.
Max.
Units
(1)
VIL
Input Low Voltage except
XTAL1 and RESET pins
VCC = 1.8V - 2.4V
VCC = 2.4V - 5.5V
-0.5
-0.5
0.2VCC
0.3VCC(1)
VIH
Input High Voltage except
XTAL1 and RESET pins
VCC = 1.8V - 2.4V
VCC = 2.4V - 5.5V
0.7VCC(2)
0.6VCC(2)
VCC + 0.5
VCC + 0.5
VIL1
Input Low Voltage
XTAL1 pins
VCC = 1.8V - 5.5V
-0.5
0.1VCC(1)
VIH1
Input High Voltage,
XTAL1 pin
VCC = 1.8V - 2.4V
VCC = 2.4V - 5.5V
0.8VCC(2)
0.7VCC(2)
VCC + 0.5
VCC + 0.5
VIL2
Input Low Voltage,
RESET pins
VCC = 1.8V - 5.5V
-0.5
0.1VCC(1)
VIH2
Input High Voltage,
RESET pins
VCC = 1.8V - 5.5V
0.9VCC(2)
VOL
Output Low Voltage(3),
Port A, C, D, E, F, G
IOL = 10 mA, VCC = 5V
IOL = 5 mA, VCC = 3V
0.7
0.5
VOL1
Output Low Voltage(3),
Port B
IOL = 20 mA, VCC = 5V
IOL = 10 mA, VCC = 3V
0.7
0.5
VOH
Output High Voltage(4),
Port A, C, D, E, F, G
IOH = -10 mA, VCC = 5V
IOH = -5 mA, VCC = 3V
4.2
2.3
VOH1
Output High Voltage(4),
Port B
IOH = -20 mA, VCC = 5V
IOH = -10 mA, VCC = 3V
4.2
2.3
IIL
Input Leakage
Current I/O Pin
VCC = 5.5V, pin low
(absolute value)
IIH
Input Leakage
Current I/O Pin
VCC = 5.5V, pin high
(absolute value)
RRST
Reset Pull-up Resistor
30
60
RPU
I/O Pin Pull-up Resistor
20
50
V
VCC + 0.5
1
µA
1
kΩ
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TA = -40°C to 85°C, VCC = 1.8V to 5.5V (unless otherwise noted) (Continued)
Symbol
Parameter
Condition
Power Supply Current(5)
ICC
(6)
Power-save mode
Power-down mode(6)
Typ.
Max.
Active 1 MHz, VCC = 2V
0.35
0.44
Active 4 MHz, VCC = 3V
2.3
2.5
Active 8 MHz, VCC = 5V
8.4
9.5
Idle 1 MHz, VCC = 2V
0.1
0.2
Idle 4 MHz, VCC = 3V
0,7
0.8
Idle 8 MHz, VCC = 5V
3.0
3.3
32 kHz TOSC enabled,
VCC = 1.8V
0.55
1.6
32 kHz TOSC enabled,
VCC = 3V
0.8
2.6
WDT enabled, VCC = 3V
6
10
WDT disabled, VCC = 3V
0.2
2
<10
40
mV
50
nA
VACIO
Analog Comparator
Input Offset Voltage
VCC = 5V
Vin = VCC/2
IACLK
Analog Comparator
Input Leakage Current
VCC = 5V
Vin = VCC/2
tACPD
Analog Comparator
Propagation Delay
VCC = 2.7V
VCC = 4.0V
Note:
Min.
Units
mA
-50
750
500
µA
ns
1. “Max” means the highest value where the pin is guaranteed to be read as low.
2. “Min” means the lowest value where the pin is guaranteed to be read as high.
3. Although each I/O port can sink more than the test conditions (20 mA at VCC = 5V, 10 mA at VCC = 3V for Port B and 10 mA
at VCC = 5V, 5 mA at VCC = 3V for all other ports) under steady state conditions (non-transient), the following must be
observed:
TQFP and QFN/MLF Package:
1] The sum of all IOL, for all ports, should not exceed 400 mA.
2] The sum of all IOL, for ports A0 - A7, C4 - C7, G2 should not exceed 100 mA.
3] The sum of all IOL, for ports B0 - B7, E0 - E7, G3 - G5 should not exceed 100 mA.
4] The sum of all IOL, for ports D0 - D7, C0 - C3, G0 - G1 should not exceed 100 mA.
5] The sum of all IOL, for ports F0 - F7, should not exceed 100 mA.
If IOL exceeds the test condition, VOL may exceed the related specification. Pins are not guaranteed to sink current greater
than the listed test condition.
4. Although each I/O port can source more than the test conditions (20 mA at VCC = 5V, 10 mA at VCC = 3V for Port B and 10
mA at VCC = 5V, 5 mA at VCC = 3V for all other ports) under steady state conditions (non-transient), the following must be
observed:
TQFP and QFN/MLF Package:
1] The sum of all IOH, for all ports, should not exceed 400 mA.
2] The sum of all IOH, for ports A0 - A7, C4 - C7, G2 should not exceed 100 mA.
3] The sum of all IOH, for ports B0 - B7, E0 - E7, G3 - G5 should not exceed 100 mA.
4] The sum of all IOH, for ports D0 - D7, C0 - C3, G0 - G1 should not exceed 100 mA.
5] The sum of all IOH, for ports F0 - F7, should not exceed 100 mA.
If IOH exceeds the test condition, VOH may exceed the related specification. Pins are not guaranteed to source current
greater than the listed test condition.
5. All bits set in the ”Power Reduction Register” on page 42.
6. Typical values at 25°C. Maximum values are characterized values and not test limits in production.
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28.3
Speed Grades
Maximum frequency is depending on VCC. As shown in Figure 28-1 and Figure 28-2 on page
332, the Maximum Frequency vs. VCC curve is linear between 1.8V < VCC < 4.5V. To calculate
the maximum frequency at a given voltage in this interval, use this equation:
Frequency = a • ( V – Vx ) + Fy
To calculate required voltage for a given frequency, use this equation::
Voltage = b • ( F – Fy ) + Vx
Table 28-1.
Constants used to calculate maximum speed vs. VCC
Voltage and Frequency range
2.7 < VCC < 4.5 or 8 < Frq < 16
a
b
8/1.8
1.8/8
1.8 < VCC < 2.7 or 4 < Frq < 8
Vx
Fy
2.7
8
1.8
4
8
At 3 Volt, this gives: Frequency = -------- • ( 3 – 2.7 ) + 8 = 9.33
1.8
Thus, when VCC = 3V, maximum frequency will be 9.33 MHz.
1.8
At 6 MHz this gives: Voltage = -------- • ( 6 – 4 ) + 1.8 = 2.25
8
Thus, a maximum frequency of 6 MHz requires VCC = 2.25V.
Figure 28-1. Maximum Frequency vs. VCC, ATmega169PV
8 MHz
Safe Operating Area
4 MHz
1.8V
2.7V
5.5V
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ATmega169P
Figure 28-2. Maximum Frequency vs. VCC, ATmega169P
16 MHz
8 MHz
Safe Operating Area
2.7V
28.4
28.4.1
4.5V
5.5V
Clock Characteristics
Calibrated Internal RC Oscillator Accuracy
Table 28-2.
Calibration Accuracy of Internal RC Oscillator
Factory Calibration
Frequency
VCC
8.0 MHz
3V
Temperature
Calibration Accuracy
25°C
±10%
-40°C - 85°C
±1%
(1)
User Calibration
Notes:
28.4.2
1.8V - 5.5V
2.7V - 5.5V(2)
7.3 MHz - 8.1 MHz
1. Voltage range for ATmega169PV.
2. Voltage range for ATmega169P.
External Clock Drive Waveforms
Figure 28-3. External Clock Drive Waveforms
V IH1
V IL1
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ATmega169P
28.4.3
External Clock Drive
Table 28-3.
External Clock Drive
VCC = 1.8V - 5.5V
28.5
VCC = 2.7V - 5.5V
VCC = 4.5V - 5.5V
Symbol
Parameter
Min.
Max.
Min.
Max.
Min.
Max.
Units
1/tCLCL
Oscillator
Frequency
0
1
0
8
0
16
MHz
tCLCL
Clock Period
1000
125
62.5
tCHCX
High Time
400
50
25
tCLCX
Low Time
400
50
25
tCLCH
Rise Time
2.0
1.6
0.5
tCHCL
Fall Time
2.0
1.6
0.5
ΔtCLCL
Change in period
from one clock
cycle to the next
2
2
2
ns
μs
%
System and Reset Characteristics
Table 28-4.
Symbol
VPOT
Reset, Brown-out,and Internal Voltage Characteristics
Parameter
Condition
Min
Typ
Max
Power-on Reset Threshold
Voltage (rising)
TA = -40°C
to 85°C
0.7
1.0
1.4
Power-on Reset Threshold
Voltage (falling)(1)
TA = -40°C
to 85°C
0.05
0.9
1.3
Units
V
VPSR
Power-on Reset Slope Rate
VRST
RESET Pin Threshold Voltage
VCC = 3V
tRST
Minimum pulse width on RESET
Pin
VCC = 3V
0.1
4.5
V/ms
0.2VCC
0.9VCC
V
2.5
µs
VHYST
Brown-out Detector Hysteresis
50
mV
tBOD
Min Pulse Width on Brown-out
Reset
2
µs
VBG
Bandgap reference voltage
VCC = 2.7V,
TA = 25°C
tBG
Bandgap reference start-up time
IBG
Bandgap reference current
consumption
Note:
1.0
1.1
1.2
V
VCC = 2.7V,
TA = 25°C
40
70
µs
VCC = 2.7V,
TA = 25°C
15
µA
1. The Power-on Reset will not work unless the supply voltage has been below VPOT (falling)
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ATmega169P
Table 28-5.
BODLEVEL Fuse Coding(1)
BODLEVEL 2..0 Fuses
Min VBOT
Typ VBOT
111
Max VBOT
Units
BOD Disabled
110
1.7
1.8
2.0
101
2.5
2.7
2.9
100
4.1
4.3
4.5
V
011
010
Reserved
001
000
Note:
28.6
1. VBOT may be below nominal minimum operating voltage for some devices. For devices where
this is the case, the device is tested down to VCC = VBOT during the production test. This guarantees that a Brown-Out Reset will occur before VCC drops to a voltage where correct
operation of the microcontroller is no longer guaranteed. The test is performed using
BODLEVEL = 110 for ATmega169V.
SPI Timing Characteristics
See Figure 28-4 on page 335 and Figure 28-5 on page 335 for details.
Table 28-6.
SPI Timing Parameters
Description
Mode
1
SCK period
Master
See Table 18-5 on
page 166
2
SCK high/low
Master
50% duty cycle
3
Rise/Fall time
Master
3.6
4
Setup
Master
10
5
Hold
Master
10
6
Out to SCK
Master
0.5 • tsck
7
SCK to out
Master
10
8
SCK to out high
Master
10
9
SS low to out
Slave
15
10
SCK period
(1)
Min
Slave
4 • tck
2 • tck
11
SCK high/low
Slave
12
Rise/Fall time
Slave
13
Setup
Slave
10
14
Hold
Slave
tck
15
SCK to out
Slave
16
SCK to SS high
Slave
17
SS high to tri-state
Slave
18
SS low to SCK
Slave
Typ
1.6
15
Max
ns
µs
ns
20
10
20 • tck
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ATmega169P
Note:
1. In SPI Programming mode the minimum SCK high/low period is:
- 2 tCLCL for fCK < 12 MHz
- 3 tCLCL for fCK > 12 MHz
Figure 28-4. SPI Interface Timing Requirements (Master Mode)
SS
6
1
SCK
(CPOL = 0)
2
2
SCK
(CPOL = 1)
4
MISO
(Data Input)
5
3
MSB
...
LSB
8
7
MOSI
(Data Output)
MSB
...
LSB
Figure 28-5. SPI Interface Timing Requirements (Slave Mode)
SS
10
9
16
SCK
(CPOL = 0)
11
11
SCK
(CPOL = 1)
13
MOSI
(Data Input)
14
12
MSB
...
LSB
15
MISO
(Data Output)
MSB
17
...
LSB
X
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ATmega169P
28.7
ADC Characteristics – Preliminary Data
Table 28-7.
Symbol
ADC Characteristics
Parameter
Condition
Min
Typ
Max
Units
Single Ended Conversion
10
Differential Conversion
8
Single Ended Conversion
VREF = 4V, VCC = 4V,
ADC clock = 200 kHz
2
Single Ended Conversion
VREF = 4V, VCC = 4V,
ADC clock = 1 MHz
4.5
Single Ended Conversion
VREF = 4V, VCC = 4V,
ADC clock = 200 kHz
Noise Reduction Mode
2
Single Ended Conversion
VREF = 4V, VCC = 4V,
ADC clock = 1 MHz
Noise Reduction Mode
4.5
Integral Non-Linearity (INL)
Single Ended Conversion
VREF = 4V, VCC = 4V,
ADC clock = 200 kHz
0.5
Differential Non-Linearity (DNL)
Single Ended Conversion
VREF = 4V, VCC = 4V,
ADC clock = 200 kHz
0.25
Gain Error
Single Ended Conversion
VREF = 4V, VCC = 4V,
ADC clock = 200 kHz
2
Offset Error
Single Ended Conversion
VREF = 4V, VCC = 4V,
ADC clock = 200 kHz
2
Conversion Time
Free Running Conversion
13
260
µs
Clock Frequency
Single Ended Conversion
50
1000
kHz
VCC - 0.3
VCC + 0.3
Single Ended Conversion
1.0
AVCC
Differential Conversion
1.0
AVCC - 0.5
Single Ended Channels
GND
VREF
Differential Channels
GND
AVCC
GND
VREF
-0.85VREF
VREF
Resolution
Absolute accuracy
(Including INL, DNL,
quantization error, gain and
offset error)
AVCC
Analog Supply Voltage
VREF
Reference Voltage
Bits
LSB
Pin Input Voltage
VIN
Single Ended Channels
Input Range
Differential Channels
(1)
Single Ended Channels
2.5
V
38.5
Input Bandwidth
kHz
Differential Channels
4
336
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ATmega169P
Table 28-7.
Symbol
ADC Characteristics
Parameter
Condition
Min
Typ
Max
Units
1.0
1.1
1.2
V
VINT
Internal Voltage Reference
RREF
Reference Input Resistance
32
kΩ
RAIN
Analog Input Resistance
100
MΩ
Note:
1. Voltage difference between channels.
28.8
LCD Controller Characteristics
Table 28-8.
Symbol
ILCD
LCD Controller Characteristics
Parameter
Condition
LCD Driver Current
Total for All COM and SEG pins
Min
Typ
6
RSEG
SEG Driver Output Impedance
10
RCOM
COM Driver Output Impedance
2
Max
Units
µA
kΩ
337
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ATmega169P
29. Typical Characteristics
The following charts show typical behavior. These figures are not tested during manufacturing.
All current consumption measurements are performed with all I/O pins configured as inputs and
with internal pull-ups enabled. A sine wave generator with rail-to-rail output is used as clock
source.
All Active- and Idle current consumption measurements are done with all bits in the PRR register
set and thus, the corresponding I/O modules are turned off. Also the Analog Comparator is disabled during these measurements. Table 29-1 on page 343 and Table 29-2 on page 343 show
the additional current consumption compared to ICC Active and ICC Idle for every I/O module controlled by the Power Reduction Register. See ”Power Reduction Register” on page 42 for details.
The power consumption in Power-down mode is independent of clock selection.
The current consumption is a function of several factors such as: operating voltage, operating
frequency, loading of I/O pins, switching rate of I/O pins, code executed and ambient temperature. The dominating factors are operating voltage and frequency.
The current drawn from capacitive loaded pins may be estimated (for one pin) as CL*VCC*f where
CL = load capacitance, VCC = operating voltage and f = average switching frequency of I/O pin.
The parts are characterized at frequencies higher than test limits. Parts are not guaranteed to
function properly at frequencies higher than the ordering code indicates.
The difference between current consumption in Power-down mode with Watchdog Timer
enabled and Power-down mode with Watchdog Timer disabled represents the differential current drawn by the Watchdog Timer.
29.1
Active Supply Current
Figure 29-1. Active Supply Current vs. Frequency (0.1 MHz - 1.0 MHz)
1.6
5.5V
1.4
5.0V
1.2
4.5V
ICC (mA)
1
4.0V
0.8
3.3V
0.6
2.7V
0.4
1.8V
0.2
0
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
Frequency (MHz)
338
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ATmega169P
Figure 29-2. Active Supply Current vs. Frequency
(1 MHz
MHz - 20 MHz)
1 MHz - 20
25
5.5V
20
5.0V
ICC (mA)
4.5V
15
4.0V
10
3.3V
5
2.7V
1.8V
0
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
Frequency (MHz)
Figure 29-3. Active Supply Current vs. VCC (Internal RC Oscillator, 8 MHz
10
85°C
25°C
-40°C
9
8
ICC (mA)
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
4
4.5
5
5.5
VCC (V)
339
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ATmega169P
Figure 29-4. Active Supply Current vs. VCC (Internal RC Oscillator, 1 MHz)
2
85°C
25°C
-40°C
1.8
1.6
ICC (mA)
1.4
1.2
1
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
4
4.5
5
5.5
VCC (V)
Figure 29-5. Active Supply Current vs. VCC (32 kHz Watch Crystal)
50.0
25°C
45.0
40.0
ICC (µ A)
35.0
30.0
25.0
20.0
15.0
10.0
5.0
0.0
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
4
4.5
5
5.5
VCC (V)
340
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ATmega169P
29.2
Idle Supply Current
Figure 29-6. Idle Supply Current vs. Frequency
0.1 MHz(0.1
- 1.0 MHz
MHz - 1.0 MHz)
0.5
0.45
5.5V
0.4
5.0V
ICC (mA)
0.35
4.5V
0.3
4.0V
0.25
0.2
3.3V
0.15
2.7V
0.1
1.8V
0.05
0
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
Frequency (MHz)
Figure 29-7. Idle Supply Current vs. Frequency
(1- MHz
1 MHz
20 MHz- 20 MHz)
10
9
5.5V
ICC (mA)
8
7
5.0V
6
4.5V
5
4.0V
4
3
3.3V
2
2.7V
1
1.8V
0
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
Frequency (MHz)
341
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ATmega169P
Figure 29-8. Idle Supply Current vs. VCC (Internal RC Oscillator, 8 MHz)
4
85°C
25°C
-40°C
3.5
3
ICC (mA)
2.5
2
1.5
1
0.5
0
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
4
4.5
5
5.5
VCC (V)
Figure 29-9. Idle Supply Current vs. VCC (Internal RC Oscillator, 1 MHz)
0.7
85°C
25°C
-40°C
0.6
ICC (mA)
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
4
4.5
5
5.5
VCC (V)
342
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ATmega169P
Figure 29-10. Idle Supply Current vs. VCC (32 kHz Watch Crystal)
14
25°C
12
I CC (µ A)
10
8
6
4
2
0
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
4
4.5
5
5.5
VCC (V)
29.3
Supply Current of I/O modules
The tables and formulas below can be used to calculate the additional current consumption for
the different I/O modules in Active and Idle mode. The enabling or disabling of the I/O modules
are controlled by the Power Reduction Register. See ”Power Reduction Register” on page 42 for
details.
Table 29-1.
PRR bit
Additional Current Consumption for the different I/O modules (absolute values)
Typical numbers
VCC = 2V, F = 1 MHz
VCC = 3V, F = 4 MHz
VCC = 5V, F = 8 MHz
PRADC
18 µA
116 µA
495 µA
PRUSART0
11 µA
79 µA
313 µA
PRSPI
10 µA
72 µA
283 µA
PRTIM1
19 µA
117 µA
481 µA
PRLCD
4 µA
32 µA
105 µA
Table 29-2.
Additional Current Consumption (percentage) in Active and Idle mode
PRR bit
Additional Current consumption
compared to Active with external clock
(see Figure 29-1 on page 338 and
Figure 29-2 on page 339)
Additional Current consumption
compared to Idle with external clock
(see Figure 29-6 on page 341 and
Figure 29-7 on page 341)
PRADC
5.6%
18.7%
PRUSART0
3.7%
12.4%
343
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ATmega169P
Table 29-2.
Additional Current Consumption (percentage) in Active and Idle mode
Additional Current consumption
compared to Active with external clock
(see Figure 29-1 on page 338 and
Figure 29-2 on page 339)
PRR bit
Additional Current consumption
compared to Idle with external clock
(see Figure 29-6 on page 341 and
Figure 29-7 on page 341)
PRSPI
3.2%
10.8%
PRTIM1
5.6%
18.6%
PRLCD
12.5%
41.7%
It is possible to calculate the typical current consumption based on the numbers from Table 29-2
on page 343 for other VCC and frequency settings than listed in Table 29-1 on page 343.
29.3.0.1
Example 1
Calculate the expected current consumption in idle mode with USART0, TIMER1, and SPI
enabled at VCC = 3.0V and F = 1 MHz. From Table 29-2 on page 343, second column, we see
that we need to add 12.4% for the USART0, 10.8% for the SPI, and 18.6% for the TIMER1 module. Reading from Figure 29-6 on page 341, we find that the idle current consumption is ~0.18
mA at VCC = 3.0V and F = 1 MHz. The total current consumption in idle mode with USART0,
TIMER1, and SPI enabled, gives:
I CC total ≈ 0.18mA • ( 1 + 0.124 + 0.108 + 0.186 ) ≈ 0.26mA
29.4
Power-down Supply Current
Figure 29-11. Power-down Supply Current vs. VCC (Watchdog Timer Disabled)
1.60
1.40
85°C
1.20
I CC (µ A)
1.00
-40°C
0.80
25°C
0.60
0.40
0.20
0.00
1.5
2.0
2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0
4.5
5.0
5.5
VCC (V)
344
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ATmega169P
Figure 29-12. Power-down Supply Current
vs. TIMER
VCC (Watchdog
Timer Enabled)
WATCHDOG
ENABLED
20
85°C
-40°C
25°C
18
16
14
ICC (µA)
12
10
8
6
4
2
0
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
4
4.5
5
5.5
VCC (V)
29.5
Power-save Supply Current
Figure 29-13. Power-save Supply Current vs. VCC (Watchdog Timer Disabled)
3.50
3.00
85°C
ICC (µA)
2.50
-40°C
25°C
2.00
1.50
1.00
0.50
0.00
1.5
2.0
2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0
4.5
5.0
5.5
VCC (V)
The differential current consumption between Power-save with WD disabled and 32 kHz TOSC
represents the current drawn by Timer/Counter2.
345
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ATmega169P
29.6
Standby Supply Current
Figure 29-14. Standby Supply Current vs. VCC (32 kHz Watch Crystal, Watchdog Timer
Disabled)
2.50
85°C
2.00
25°C
I CC (µ A)
-40°C
1.50
1.00
0.50
0.00
1.5
2.0
2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0
4.5
5.0
5.5
VCC (V)
Figure 29-15. Standby Supply Current vs. VCC (455 kHz Resonator, Watchdog Timer Disabled)
70
60
ICC (µA)
50
40
30
20
10
0
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
4
4.5
5
5.5
VCC (V)
346
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ATmega169P
Figure 29-16. Standby Supply Current vs. VCC (1 MHz Resonator, Watchdog Timer Disabled)
60
50
ICC (µA)
40
30
20
10
0
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
4
4.5
5
5.5
VCC (V)
Figure 29-17. Standby Supply Current vs. VCC (2 MHz Resonator, Watchdog Timer Disabled)
90
80
70
I CC (µ A)
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
4
4.5
5
5.5
VCC (V)
347
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ATmega169P
Figure 29-18. Standby Supply Current vs. VCC (2 MHz Xtal, Watchdog Timer Disabled)
80
70
60
I CC (µ A )
50
40
30
20
10
0
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
4
4.5
5
5.5
VCC (V)
Figure 29-19. Standby Supply Current vs. VCC (4 MHz Resonator, Watchdog Timer Disabled)
140
120
I CC (µ A )
100
80
60
40
20
0
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
4
4.5
5
5.5
VCC (V)
348
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ATmega169P
Figure 29-20. Standby Supply Current vs. VCC (4 MHz Xtal, Watchdog Timer Disabled)
140
120
ICC (µA)
100
80
60
40
20
0
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
4
4.5
5
5.5
VCC (V)
Figure 29-21. Standby Supply Current vs. VCC (6 MHz Resonator, Watchdog Timer Disabled)
160
140
120
ICC (µA)
100
80
60
40
20
0
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
4
4.5
5
5.5
VCC (V)
349
8018P–AVR–08/10
ATmega169P
Figure 29-22. Standby Supply Current vs. VCC (6 MHz Xtal, Watchdog Timer Disabled)
180
160
140
ICC (µA)
120
100
80
60
40
20
0
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
4
4.5
5
5.5
VCC (V)
29.7
Pin Pull-up
Figure 29-23. I/O Pin Pull-up Resistor Current vs. Input Voltage (VCC = 5V)
I/O PIN PULL-UP RESISTOR CURRENT vs. INPUT VOLTAGE
Vcc = 5V
160
85°C
140
120
25°C
-40°C
IIO (µA)
100
80
60
40
20
0
0
1
2
3
4
5
VIO (V)
350
8018P–AVR–08/10
ATmega169P
Figure 29-24. I/O Pin Pull-up Resistor Current vs. Input Voltage (VCC = 2.7V)
90
80
25°C
85°C
70
-40°C
IIO (µA)
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
VIO (V)
Figure 29-25. I/O Pin Pull-up Resistor Current vs. Input Voltage (VCC = 1.8V)
60
50
85°C
25°C
IOP (µA)
40
-40°C
30
20
10
0
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
1.2
1.4
1.6
1.8
2
VOP (V)
351
8018P–AVR–08/10
ATmega169P
Figure 29-26. Reset Pull-up Resistor CurrentVcc
vs.
Reset Pin Voltage (VCC = 5V)
= 5V
120
-40°C
25°C
100
85°C
IRESET (µA)
80
60
40
20
0
0
1
2
3
4
5
VRESET (V)
Figure 29-27. Reset Pull-up Resistor Current vs. Reset Pin Voltage (VCC = 2.7V)
70
60
-40°C
25°C
IRESET (µA)
50
85°C
40
30
20
10
0
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
VRESET (V)
352
8018P–AVR–08/10
ATmega169P
Figure 29-28. Reset Pull-up Resistor Current vs. Reset Pin Voltage (VCC = 1.8V)
40
-40°C
35
25°C
30
IRESET (µA)
85°C
25
20
15
10
5
0
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
1.2
1.4
1.6
1.8
2
VRESET (V)
29.8
Pin Driver Strength
Figure 29-29. I/O Pin Source Current vs. Output Voltage, Ports A, C, D, E, F, G (VCC = 5V)
70
60
-40°C
IOH (mA)
50
25°C
85°C
40
30
20
10
0
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
VOH (V)
353
8018P–AVR–08/10
ATmega169P
Figure 29-30. I/O Pin Source Current vs. Output
Ports A, C, D, E, F, G (VCC = 2.7V)
Vcc = Voltage,
2.7V
25
-40°C
25°C
20
IOH (mA)
85°C
15
10
5
0
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
VOH (V)
Figure 29-31. I/O Pin Source Current vs. Output
Ports A, C, D, E, F, G (VCC = 1.8V)
Vcc = Voltage,
1.8V
8
-40°C
7
25°C
6
85°C
IOH (mA)
5
4
3
2
1
0
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
1.2
1.4
1.6
1.8
2
VOH (V)
354
8018P–AVR–08/10
ATmega169P
Figure 29-32. I/O Pin Source Current vs. Output Voltage, Port B (VCC= 5V)
80
70
-40°C
60
25°C
85°C
IOH (mA)
50
40
30
20
10
0
0
1
2
3
4
VOH (V)
Figure 29-33. I/O Pin Source Current vs. Output
Port B (VCC = 2.7V)
Vcc = Voltage,
2.7V
35
30
-40°C
25°C
25
IOH (mA)
85°C
20
15
10
5
0
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
VOH (V)
355
8018P–AVR–08/10
ATmega169P
Figure 29-34. I/O Pin Source Current vs. Output
Port B (VCC = 1.8V)
Vcc = Voltage,
1.8V
10
-40°C
9
25°C
8
85°C
IOH (mA)
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
1.2
1.4
1.6
1.8
2
VOH (V)
Figure 29-35. I/O Pin Sink Current vs. Output Voltage, Ports A, C, D, E, F, G (VCC = 5V)
50
-40°C
IOL (mA)
45
40
25°C
35
85°C
30
25
20
15
10
5
0
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
1.2
1.4
1.6
1.8
2
VOL (V)
356
8018P–AVR–08/10
ATmega169P
Figure 29-36. I/O Pin Sink Current vs. Output Voltage, Ports A, C, D, E, F, G (VCC = 2.7V)
20
-40°C
18
16
25°C
IOL (mA)
14
85°C
12
10
8
6
4
2
0
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
1.2
1.4
1.6
1.8
2
VOL (V)
Figure 29-37. I/O Pin Sink Current vs. Output Voltage, Ports A, C, D, E, F, G (VCC = 1.8V)
7
-40°C
6
25°C
IOL (mA)
5
85°C
4
3
2
1
0
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
1.2
1.4
1.6
1.8
2
VOL (V)
357
8018P–AVR–08/10
ATmega169P
Figure 29-38. I/O Pin Sink Current vs. Output Voltage, Port B (VCC = 5V)
90
80
-40°C
70
25°C
IOL (mA)
60
85°C
50
40
30
20
10
0
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
1.2
1.4
1.6
1.8
2
VOL (V)
Figure 29-39. I/O Pin Sink Current vs. Output Voltage, Port B (VCC = 2.7V)
35
-40°C
30
25°C
25
IOL (mA)
85°C
20
15
10
5
0
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
1.2
1.4
1.6
1.8
2
VOL (V)
358
8018P–AVR–08/10
ATmega169P
Figure 29-40. I/O Pin Sink Current vs. Output Voltage, Port B (VCC = 1.8V)
12
-40°C
10
25°C
8
I OL (m A )
85°C
6
4
2
0
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
1.2
1.4
1.6
1.8
2
VOL (V)
29.9
Pin Thresholds and Hysteresis
Figure 29-41. I/O Pin Input Threshold Voltage vs. VCC (VIH, I/O Pin Read as “1”)
85°C
25°C
-40°C
3
2.5
Threshold (V)
2
1.5
1
0.5
0
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
4
4.5
5
5.5
VCC (V)
359
8018P–AVR–08/10
ATmega169P
Figure 29-42. I/O Pin Input Threshold Voltage
VCC
VIL, I/O PINvs.
READ
AS (V
'0' IL, I/O Pin Read as “0”)
3
85°C
25°C
-40°C
2.5
Threshold (V)
2
1.5
1
0.5
0
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
4
4.5
5
5.5
VCC (V)
Figure 29-43. I/O Pin Input Hysteresis vs. VCC
0.6
-40°C
0.5
25°C
Input hysteresis ( V)
0.4
85°C
0.3
0.2
0.1
0
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
4
4.5
5
5.5
VCC (V)
360
8018P–AVR–08/10
ATmega169P
Figure 29-44. Reset Input Threshold Voltage vs. VCC (VIH,Reset Pin Read as “1”)
2.5
Threshold (V)
2
1.5
-40°C
25°C
85°C
1
0.5
0
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
4
4.5
5
5.5
VCC (V)
Figure 29-45. Reset Input
Threshold
Voltage vs.VOLTAGE
VCC (VIL,Reset
RESET
INPUT THRESHOLD
vs. VCC Pin Read as “0”)
VIL, RESET PIN READ AS '0'
85°C
25°C
-40°C
2.5
2.5
2
1.5
Threshold (V)
Threshold (V)
2
1.5
-40°C
25°C
1
85°C
1
0.5
0.5
0
1.5
0
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
4
4.5
5
5.5
VCC (V)
2
2.5
3
3.5
4
4.5
5
5.5
VCC (V)
361
8018P–AVR–08/10
ATmega169P
Figure 29-46. Reset Input Pin Hysteresis vs. VCC
0.7
-40°C
0.6
Input hysteresis ( V)
0.5
25°C
0.4
0.3
85°C
0.2
0.1
0
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
4
4.5
5
5.5
VCC (V)
29.10 BOD Thresholds and Analog Comparator Offset
Figure 29-47. BOD Thresholds vs. Temperature (BOD Level is 4.3V)
4.6
4.5
Rising VCC
Threshol d ( V )
4.4
Falling VCC
4.3
4.2
4.1
4
-50
-40
-30
-20
-10
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
Temperature (°C)
362
8018P–AVR–08/10
ATmega169P
Figure 29-48. BOD Thresholds vs. Temperature
BODLEVEL(BOD
IS 2.7VLevel is 2.7V)
3
2.9
Rising VCC
Threshol d ( V )
2.8
Falling VCC
2.7
2.6
2.5
2.4
-50
-40
-30
-20
-10
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
Temperature (°C)
Figure 29-49. BOD Thresholds vs. Temperature
(BOD
Level is 1.8V)
BODLEVEL
IS 1.8V
2.1
2
Rising VCC
Threshol d ( V )
1.9
1.8
Falling VCC
1.7
1.6
1.5
-50
-40
-30
-20
-10
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
Temperature (°C)
363
8018P–AVR–08/10
ATmega169P
Figure 29-50. Bandgap Voltage vs. VCC
CC
1.14
Bandgap Voltage ( V )
1.13
1.12
85°C
25°C
1.11
-40°C
1.1
1.09
1.08
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
4
4.5
5
5.5
Vcc (V)
Figure 29-51. Analog Comparator Offset Voltage
vs. Common Mode Voltage (VCC = 5V)
CC
0.008
85°C
25°C
Comparator Offset Voltage ( V )
0.006
-40°C
0.004
0.002
0
-0.002
-0.004
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
4
4.5
5
Common Mode Voltage (V)
364
8018P–AVR–08/10
ATmega169P
Figure 29-52. Analog Comparator Offset Voltage
vs. Common Mode Voltage (VCC = 2.7V)
CC
0.003
85°C
Comparator Offset Voltage ( V )
0.002
25°C
0.001
-40°C
0
-0.001
-0.002
-0.003
-0.004
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
Common Mode Voltage (V)
29.11 Internal Oscillator Speed
Figure 29-53. Oscillator Current vs. VCC (32 kHz Watch Crystal)
I CC (µ A)
1.00
0.90
85°C
0.80
25°C
0.70
-40°C
0.60
0.50
0.40
0.30
0.20
0.10
0.00
1.5
2.0
2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0
4.5
5.0
5.5
VCC (V)
365
8018P–AVR–08/10
ATmega169P
Figure 29-54. Watchdog Oscillator Frequency vs. VCC
1200
-40°C
25°C
85°C
1150
1100
FRC (kHz)
1050
1000
950
900
850
800
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
4
4.5
5
5.5
VCC (V)
Figure 29-55.
Calibrated8MHz
8 MHz
RC
Oscillator Frequency
vs. Temperature
CALIBRATED
RC
OSCILLATOR
FREQUENCY
vs. TEMPERATURE
8.8
8.6
8.4
F RC (MHz)
8.2
8
7.8
7.6
7.4
1.8V
2.7V
4.0V
5.5V
7.2
-60
-40
-20
0
20
40
60
80
100
Ta (°C)
366
8018P–AVR–08/10
ATmega169P
Figure 29-56. Calibrated 8 MHz RC Oscillator Frequency vs. VCC
10
9.5
FRC (MHz)
9
8.5
85°C
8
25°C
7.5
-40°C
7
6.5
6
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
4
4.5
5
5.5
VCC (V)
Figure CALIBRATED
29-57. Calibrated
8 MHz
Oscillator Frequency
vs. Osccal
Value
8 MHz
RCRC
OSCILLATOR
FREQUENCY
vs. OSCCAL
VALUE
16
85°C
25°C
-40°C
14
F RC (M Hz)
12
10
8
6
4
0
16
32
48
64
80
96
112 128 144 160 176 192 208 224 240 256
OSCCAL VALUE
367
8018P–AVR–08/10
ATmega169P
29.12 Current Consumption of Peripheral Units
Figure 29-58. Brownout Detector Current vs. VCC
30
-40°C
85°C
25°C
25
ICC (µA)
20
15
10
5
0
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
4
4.5
5
5.5
VCC (V)
Figure 29-59. ADC Current vs. VCC (AREF = AVCC)
CC
350
-40°C
25°C
85°C
300
ICC (µA)
250
200
150
100
50
0
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
4
4.5
5
5.5
VCC (V)
368
8018P–AVR–08/10
ATmega169P
Figure 29-60. AREF External Reference Current vs. VCC
CC
85°C
25°C
-40°C
160
140
120
IAREF (µA)
100
80
60
40
20
0
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
4
4.5
5
5.5
VCC (V)
The differential current consumption between Power-save with WD disabled and 32 kHz TOSC
represents the current drawn by Timer/Counter2.
Figure 29-61. Watchdog Timer Current vs. VCC
16
85°C
25°C
-40°C
14
12
ICC (µA)
10
8
6
4
2
0
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
4
4.5
5
5.5
VCC (V)
369
8018P–AVR–08/10
ATmega169P
Figure 29-62. Analog Comparator Current vs. VCC
120
100
-40°C
80
25°C
I CC (µ A )
85°C
60
40
20
0
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
4
4.5
5
5.5
VCC (V)
Figure 29-63. Programming Current vs. VCC
25
-40°C
20
25°C
ICC (mA)
15
85°C
10
5
0
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
4
4.5
5
5.5
VCC (V)
370
8018P–AVR–08/10
ATmega169P
29.13 Current Consumption in Reset and Reset Pulsewidth
Figure 29-64. Reset Supply Current vs. VCC (0.1 MHz - 1.0 MHz, Excluding Current Through
The Reset Pull-up)
0.18
5.5V
I CC (mA )
0.16
0.14
5.0V
0.12
4.5V
0.1
4.0V
0.08
3.3V
0.06
2.7V
0.04
1.8V
0.02
0
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
Frequency (MHz)
Figure 29-65. Reset Supply Current vs. VCC (1 MHz - 20 MHz, Excluding Current Through The
Reset Pull-up)
I CC (mA )
3.5
3
5.5V
2.5
5.0V
4.5V
2
4.0V
1.5
1
3.3V
0.5
2.7V
1.8V
0
0
2
4
6
8 10
12
14
16
18
20
Frequency (MHz)
371
8018P–AVR–08/10
ATmega169P
Figure 29-66. Minimum Reset Pulse Width vs. VCC
2500
Pulsewidth (ns)
2000
1500
1000
500
85°C
25°C
-40°C
0
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
4
4.5
5
5.5
VCC (V)
372
8018P–AVR–08/10
ATmega169P
30. Register Summary
Address
Name
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
(0xFF)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
Page
(0xFE)
LCDDR18
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
SEG324
251
(0xFD)
LCDDR17
SEG323
SEG322
SEG321
SEG320
SEG319
SEG318
SEG317
SEG316
251
(0xFC)
LCDDR16
SEG315
SEG314
SEG313
SEG312
SEG311
SEG310
SEG309
SEG308
251
(0xFB)
LCDDR15
SEG307
SEG306
SEG305
SEG304
SEG303
SEG302
SEG301
SEG300
251
(0xFA)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xF9)
LCDDR13
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
SEG224
251
(0xF8)
LCDDR12
SEG223
SEG222
SEG221
SEG220
SEG219
SEG218
SEG217
SEG216
251
(0xF7)
LCDDR11
SEG215
SEG214
SEG213
SEG212
SEG211
SEG210
SEG209
SEG208
251
(0xF6)
LCDDR10
SEG207
SEG206
SEG205
SEG204
SEG203
SEG202
SEG201
SEG200
251
(0xF5)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xF4)
LCDDR8
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
SEG124
251
(0xF3)
LCDDR7
SEG123
SEG122
SEG121
SEG120
SEG119
SEG118
SEG117
SEG116
251
(0xF2)
LCDDR6
SEG115
SEG114
SEG113
SEG112
SEG111
SEG110
SEG109
SEG108
251
(0xF1)
LCDDR5
SEG107
SEG106
SEG105
SEG104
SEG103
SEG102
SEG101
SEG100
251
(0xF0)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xEF)
LCDDR3
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
SEG024
(0xEE)
LCDDR2
SEG023
SEG022
SEG021
SEG020
SEG019
SEG018
SEG017
SEG016
251
(0xED)
LCDDR1
SEG015
SEG014
SEG013
SEG012
SEG011
SEG010
SEG09
SEG008
251
(0xEC)
LCDDR0
SEG007
SEG006
SEG005
SEG004
SEG003
SEG002
SEG001
SEG000
251
(0xEB)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xEA)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xE9)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xE8)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xE7)
LCDCCR
LCDDC2
LCDDC1
LCDDC0
LCDMDT
LCDCC3
LCDCC2
LCDCC1
LCDCC0
250
(0xE6)
LCDFRR
–
LCDPS2
LCDPS1
LCDPS0
–
LCDCD2
LCDCD1
LCDCD0
248
(0xE5)
LCDCRB
LCDCS
LCD2B
LCDMUX1
LCDMUX0
–
LCDPM2
LCDPM1
LCDPM0
247
(0xE4)
LCDCRA
LCDEN
LCDAB
–
LCDIF
LCDIE
LCDBD
LCDCCD
LCDBL
246
(0xE3)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xE2)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xE1)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xE0)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xDF)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xDE)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xDD)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xDC)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xDB)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xDA)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xD9)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xD8)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xD7)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xD6)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xD5)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xD4)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xD3)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xD2)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xD1)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xD0)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xCF)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xCE)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xCD)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xCC)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xCB)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xCA)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xC9)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xC8)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xC7)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xC6)
UDR0
(0xC5)
UBRRH0
(0xC4)
UBRRL0
(0xC3)
Reserved
(0xC2)
(0xC1)
(0xC0)
USART0 I/O Data Register
194
USART0 Baud Rate Register High
198
USART0 Baud Rate Register Low
–
–
UCSR0C
–
UCSR0B
RXCIE0
UCSR0A
RXC0
251
198
–
–
–
–
–
–
UMSEL0
UPM01
UPM00
USBS0
UCSZ01
UCSZ00
UCPOL0
TXCIE0
UDRIE0
RXEN0
TXEN0
UCSZ02
RXB80
TXB80
194
TXC0
UDRE0
FE0
DOR0
UPE0
U2X0
MPCM0
194
194
373
8018P–AVR–08/10
ATmega169P
Address
Name
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
(0xBF)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
Page
(0xBE)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xBD)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xBC)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xBB)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xBA)
USIDR
(0xB9)
USISR
USISIF
USIOIF
USIPF
USIDC
USICNT3
USICNT2
USICNT1
USICNT0
207
(0xB8)
USICR
USISIE
USIOIE
USIWM1
USIWM0
USICS1
USICS0
USICLK
USITC
208
(0xB7)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
USI Data Register
207
(0xB6)
ASSR
–
–
–
EXCLK
AS2
TCN2UB
OCR2UB
TCR2UB
(0xB5)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
156
(0xB4)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xB3)
OCR2A
Timer/Counter2 Output Compare Register A
155
(0xB2)
TCNT2
Timer/Counter2 (8-bit)
155
(0xB1)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xB0)
TCCR2A
FOC2A
WGM20
COM2A1
COM2A0
WGM21
CS22
CS21
CS20
(0xAF)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
153
(0xAE)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xAD)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xAC)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xAB)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xAA)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xA9)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xA8)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xA7)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xA6)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xA5)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xA4)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xA3)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xA2)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xA1)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xA0)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0x9F)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0x9E)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0x9D)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0x9C)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0x9B)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0x9A)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0x99)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0x98)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0x97)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0x96)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0x95)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0x94)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0x93)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0x92)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0x91)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0x90)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0x8F)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0x8E)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0x8D)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0x8C)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0x8B)
OCR1BH
Timer/Counter1 - Output Compare Register B High Byte
132
(0x8A)
OCR1BL
Timer/Counter1 - Output Compare Register B Low Byte
132
(0x89)
OCR1AH
Timer/Counter1 - Output Compare Register A High Byte
132
(0x88)
OCR1AL
Timer/Counter1 - Output Compare Register A Low Byte
132
(0x87)
ICR1H
Timer/Counter1 - Input Capture Register High Byte
133
(0x86)
ICR1L
Timer/Counter1 - Input Capture Register Low Byte
133
(0x85)
TCNT1H
Timer/Counter1 - Counter Register High Byte
132
(0x84)
TCNT1L
Timer/Counter1 - Counter Register Low Byte
132
(0x83)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0x82)
TCCR1C
FOC1A
FOC1B
–
–
–
–
–
–
131
(0x81)
TCCR1B
ICNC1
ICES1
–
WGM13
WGM12
CS12
CS11
CS10
130
128
–
(0x80)
TCCR1A
COM1A1
COM1A0
COM1B1
COM1B0
–
–
WGM11
WGM10
(0x7F)
DIDR1
–
–
–
–
–
–
AIN1D
AIN0D
215
(0x7E)
DIDR0
ADC7D
ADC6D
ADC5D
ADC4D
ADC3D
ADC2D
ADC1D
ADC0D
233
374
8018P–AVR–08/10
ATmega169P
Address
Name
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
(0x7D)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0x7C)
ADMUX
REFS1
REFS0
ADLAR
MUX4
MUX3
MUX2
MUX1
MUX0
229
(0x7B)
ADCSRB
–
ACME
–
–
–
ADTS2
ADTS1
ADTS0
214, 233
(0x7A)
ADCSRA
ADEN
ADSC
ADATE
ADIF
ADIE
ADPS2
ADPS1
ADPS0
(0x79)
ADCH
ADC Data Register High byte
Page
231
232
(0x78)
ADCL
(0x77)
Reserved
–
–
–
ADC Data Register Low byte
–
–
–
–
–
232
(0x76)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0x75)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0x74)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0x73)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0x72)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0x71)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0x70)
TIMSK2
–
–
–
–
–
–
OCIE2A
TOIE2
(0x6F)
TIMSK1
–
–
ICIE1
–
–
OCIE1B
OCIE1A
TOIE1
133
(0x6E)
TIMSK0
–
–
–
–
–
–
OCIE0A
TOIE0
104
(0x6D)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0x6C)
PCMSK1
PCINT15
PCINT14
PCINT13
PCINT12
PCINT11
PCINT10
PCINT9
PCINT8
63
(0x6B)
PCMSK0
PCINT7
PCINT6
PCINT5
PCINT4
PCINT3
PCINT2
PCINT1
PCINT0
64
(0x6A)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0x69)
EICRA
–
–
–
–
–
–
ISC01
ISC00
(0x68)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0x67)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0x66)
OSCCAL
(0x65)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
Oscillator Calibration Register
156
62
38
(0x64)
PRR
–
–
–
PRLCD
PRTIM1
PRSPI
PRUSART0
PRADC
(0x63)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
45
(0x62)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0x61)
CLKPR
CLKPCE
–
–
–
CLKPS3
CLKPS2
CLKPS1
CLKPS0
38
(0x60)
WDTCR
–
–
–
WDCE
WDE
WDP2
WDP1
WDP0
54
0x3F (0x5F)
SREG
I
T
H
S
V
N
Z
C
13
0x3E (0x5E)
SPH
–
–
–
–
–
SP10
SP9
SP8
13
0x3D (0x5D)
SPL
SP7
SP6
SP5
SP4
SP3
SP2
SP1
SP0
13
0x3C (0x5C)
Reserved
0x3B (0x5B)
Reserved
0x3A (0x5A)
Reserved
0x39 (0x59)
Reserved
294
0x38 (0x58)
Reserved
0x37 (0x57)
SPMCSR
SPMIE
RWWSB
–
RWWSRE
BLBSET
PGWRT
PGERS
SPMEN
0x36 (0x56)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
0x35 (0x55)
MCUCR
JTD
–
–
PUD
–
–
IVSEL
IVCE
60, 88, 279
0x34 (0x54)
MCUSR
–
–
–
JTRF
WDRF
BORF
EXTRF
PORF
279
0x33 (0x53)
SMCR
–
–
–
–
SM2
SM1
SM0
SE
45
0x32 (0x52)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
0x31 (0x51)
OCDR
IDRD/OCDR7
OCDR6
OCDR5
OCDR4
OCDR3
OCDR2
OCDR1
OCDR0
258
0x30 (0x50)
ACSR
ACD
ACBG
ACO
ACI
ACIE
ACIC
ACIS1
ACIS0
214
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
0x2F (0x4F)
Reserved
0x2E (0x4E)
SPDR
0x2D (0x4D)
SPSR
SPIF
WCOL
–
0x2C (0x4C)
SPCR
SPIE
SPE
DORD
0x2B (0x4B)
GPIOR2
General Purpose I/O Register 2
0x2A (0x4A)
GPIOR1
General Purpose I/O Register 1
0x29 (0x49)
Reserved
–
–
–
0x28 (0x48)
Reserved
–
–
–
0x27 (0x47)
OCR0A
Timer/Counter0 Output Compare Register A
0x26 (0x46)
TCNT0
Timer/Counter0 (8 Bit)
0x25 (0x45)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
0x24 (0x44)
TCCR0A
FOC0A
WGM00
COM0A1
COM0A0
WGM01
CS02
CS01
CS00
102
0x23 (0x43)
GTCCR
TSM
–
–
–
–
–
PSR2
PSR10
137, 157
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
EEAR8
28
SPI Data Register
167
–
–
–
–
SPI2X
166
MSTR
CPOL
CPHA
SPR1
SPR0
165
28
28
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
104
104
–
–
0x22 (0x42)
EEARH
0x21 (0x41)
EEARL
EEPROM Address Register Low Byte
28
0x20 (0x40)
EEDR
EEPROM Data Register
29
0x1F (0x3F)
EECR
0x1E (0x3E)
GPIOR0
–
–
–
–
0x1D (0x3D)
EIMSK
PCIE1
PCIE0
–
–
0x1C (0x3C)
EIFR
PCIF1
PCIF0
–
–
EERIE
EEMWE
EEWE
EERE
29
–
–
–
INT0
62
–
–
–
INTF0
63
General Purpose I/O Register 0
28
375
8018P–AVR–08/10
ATmega169P
Address
Name
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
0x1B (0x3B)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
Page
0x1A (0x3A)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
0x19 (0x39)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
0x18 (0x38)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
0x17 (0x37)
TIFR2
–
–
–
–
–
–
OCF2A
TOV2
156
0x16 (0x36)
TIFR1
–
–
ICF1
–
–
OCF1B
OCF1A
TOV1
134
0x15 (0x35)
TIFR0
–
–
–
–
–
–
OCF0A
TOV0
105
0x14 (0x34)
PORTG
–
–
PORTG5
PORTG4
PORTG3
PORTG2
PORTG1
PORTG0
90
0x13 (0x33)
DDRG
–
–
DDG5
DDG4
DDG3
DDG2
DDG1
DDG0
90
0x12 (0x32)
PING
–
–
PING5
PING4
PING3
PING2
PING1
PING0
90
0x11 (0x31)
PORTF
PORTF7
PORTF6
PORTF5
PORTF4
PORTF3
PORTF2
PORTF1
PORTF0
90
0x10 (0x30)
DDRF
DDF7
DDF6
DDF5
DDF4
DDF3
DDF2
DDF1
DDF0
90
0x0F (0x2F)
PINF
PINF7
PINF6
PINF5
PINF4
PINF3
PINF2
PINF1
PINF0
90
0x0E (0x2E)
PORTE
PORTE7
PORTE6
PORTE5
PORTE4
PORTE3
PORTE2
PORTE1
PORTE0
89
0x0D (0x2D)
DDRE
DDE7
DDE6
DDE5
DDE4
DDE3
DDE2
DDE1
DDE0
89
0x0C (0x2C)
PINE
PINE7
PINE6
PINE5
PINE4
PINE3
PINE2
PINE1
PINE0
90
0x0B (0x2B)
PORTD
PORTD7
PORTD6
PORTD5
PORTD4
PORTD3
PORTD2
PORTD1
PORTD0
89
0x0A (0x2A)
DDRD
DDD7
DDD6
DDD5
DDD4
DDD3
DDD2
DDD1
DDD0
89
0x09 (0x29)
PIND
PIND7
PIND6
PIND5
PIND4
PIND3
PIND2
PIND1
PIND0
89
0x08 (0x28)
PORTC
PORTC7
PORTC6
PORTC5
PORTC4
PORTC3
PORTC2
PORTC1
PORTC0
89
0x07 (0x27)
DDRC
DDC7
DDC6
DDC5
DDC4
DDC3
DDC2
DDC1
DDC0
89
0x06 (0x26)
PINC
PINC7
PINC6
PINC5
PINC4
PINC3
PINC2
PINC1
PINC0
89
0x05 (0x25)
PORTB
PORTB7
PORTB6
PORTB5
PORTB4
PORTB3
PORTB2
PORTB1
PORTB0
88
0x04 (0x24)
DDRB
DDB7
DDB6
DDB5
DDB4
DDB3
DDB2
DDB1
DDB0
88
0x03 (0x23)
PINB
PINB7
PINB6
PINB5
PINB4
PINB3
PINB2
PINB1
PINB0
88
0x02 (0x22)
PORTA
PORTA7
PORTA6
PORTA5
PORTA4
PORTA3
PORTA2
PORTA1
PORTA0
88
0x01 (0x21)
DDRA
DDA7
DDA6
DDA5
DDA4
DDA3
DDA2
DDA1
DDA0
88
0x00 (0x20)
PINA
PINA7
PINA6
PINA5
PINA4
PINA3
PINA2
PINA1
PINA0
88
Note:
1. For compatibility with future devices, reserved bits should be written to zero if accessed. Reserved I/O memory addresses
should never be written.
2. I/O Registers within the address range 0x00 - 0x1F are directly bit-accessible using the SBI and CBI instructions. In these
registers, the value of single bits can be checked by using the SBIS and SBIC instructions.
3. Some of the Status Flags are cleared by writing a logical one to them. Note that, unlike most other AVRs, the CBI and SBI
instructions will only operate on the specified bit, and can therefore be used on registers containing such Status Flags. The
CBI and SBI instructions work with registers 0x00 to 0x1F only.
4. When using the I/O specific commands IN and OUT, the I/O addresses 0x00 - 0x3F must be used. When addressing I/O
Registers as data space using LD and ST instructions, 0x20 must be added to these addresses. The ATmega169P is a complex microcontroller with more peripheral units than can be supported within the 64 location reserved in Opcode for the IN
and OUT instructions. For the Extended I/O space from 0x60 - 0xFF in SRAM, only the ST/STS/STD and LD/LDS/LDD
instructions can be used.
376
8018P–AVR–08/10
ATmega169P
31. Instruction Set Summary
Mnemonics
Operands
Description
Operation
Flags
#Clocks
ARITHMETIC AND LOGIC INSTRUCTIONS
ADD
Rd, Rr
Add two Registers
Rd ← Rd + Rr
Z,C,N,V,H
ADC
Rd, Rr
Add with Carry two Registers
Rd ← Rd + Rr + C
Z,C,N,V,H
1
ADIW
Rdl,K
Add Immediate to Word
Rdh:Rdl ← Rdh:Rdl + K
Z,C,N,V,S
2
SUB
Rd, Rr
Subtract two Registers
Rd ← Rd - Rr
Z,C,N,V,H
1
SUBI
Rd, K
Subtract Constant from Register
Rd ← Rd - K
Z,C,N,V,H
1
SBC
Rd, Rr
Subtract with Carry two Registers
Rd ← Rd - Rr - C
Z,C,N,V,H
1
SBCI
Rd, K
Subtract with Carry Constant from Reg.
Rd ← Rd - K - C
Z,C,N,V,H
1
SBIW
Rdl,K
Subtract Immediate from Word
Rdh:Rdl ← Rdh:Rdl - K
Z,C,N,V,S
2
AND
Rd, Rr
Logical AND Registers
Rd ← Rd • Rr
Z,N,V
1
ANDI
Rd, K
Logical AND Register and Constant
Rd ← Rd • K
Z,N,V
1
OR
Rd, Rr
Logical OR Registers
Rd ← Rd v Rr
Z,N,V
1
ORI
Rd, K
Logical OR Register and Constant
Rd ← Rd v K
Z,N,V
1
EOR
Rd, Rr
Exclusive OR Registers
Rd ← Rd ⊕ Rr
Z,N,V
1
1
COM
Rd
One’s Complement
Rd ← 0xFF − Rd
Z,C,N,V
1
NEG
Rd
Two’s Complement
Rd ← 0x00 − Rd
Z,C,N,V,H
1
SBR
Rd,K
Set Bit(s) in Register
Rd ← Rd v K
Z,N,V
1
CBR
Rd,K
Clear Bit(s) in Register
Rd ← Rd • (0xFF - K)
Z,N,V
1
INC
Rd
Increment
Rd ← Rd + 1
Z,N,V
1
DEC
Rd
Decrement
Rd ← Rd − 1
Z,N,V
1
TST
Rd
Test for Zero or Minus
Rd ← Rd • Rd
Z,N,V
1
CLR
Rd
Clear Register
Rd ← Rd ⊕ Rd
Z,N,V
1
SER
Rd
Set Register
Rd ← 0xFF
None
1
MUL
Rd, Rr
Multiply Unsigned
R1:R0 ← Rd x Rr
Z,C
2
MULS
Rd, Rr
Multiply Signed
R1:R0 ← Rd x Rr
Z,C
2
MULSU
Rd, Rr
Multiply Signed with Unsigned
R1:R0 ← Rd x Rr
Z,C
2
FMUL
Rd, Rr
Fractional Multiply Unsigned
R1:R0 ← (Rd x Rr) <<
1
R1:R0 ← (Rd x Rr) << 1
R1:R0 ← (Rd x Rr) << 1
Z,C
2
Z,C
2
Z,C
2
2
FMULS
Rd, Rr
Fractional Multiply Signed
FMULSU
Rd, Rr
Fractional Multiply Signed with Unsigned
BRANCH INSTRUCTIONS
RJMP
k
IJMP
Relative Jump
PC ← PC + k + 1
None
Indirect Jump to (Z)
PC ← Z
None
2
JMP
k
Direct Jump
PC ← k
None
3
RCALL
k
Relative Subroutine Call
PC ← PC + k + 1
None
3
Indirect Call to (Z)
PC ← Z
None
3
Direct Subroutine Call
PC ← k
None
4
RET
Subroutine Return
PC ← STACK
None
4
RETI
Interrupt Return
PC ← STACK
I
4
ICALL
CALL
k
CPSE
Rd,Rr
Compare, Skip if Equal
if (Rd = Rr) PC ← PC + 2 or 3
None
CP
Rd,Rr
Compare
Rd − Rr
Z, N,V,C,H
1
CPC
Rd,Rr
Compare with Carry
Rd − Rr − C
Z, N,V,C,H
1
CPI
Rd,K
Compare Register with Immediate
Rd − K
Z, N,V,C,H
SBRC
Rr, b
Skip if Bit in Register Cleared
if (Rr(b)=0) PC ← PC + 2 or 3
None
1/2/3
1/2/3
1
SBRS
Rr, b
Skip if Bit in Register is Set
if (Rr(b)=1) PC ← PC + 2 or 3
None
1/2/3
SBIC
P, b
Skip if Bit in I/O Register Cleared
if (P(b)=0) PC ← PC + 2 or 3
None
1/2/3
SBIS
P, b
Skip if Bit in I/O Register is Set
if (P(b)=1) PC ← PC + 2 or 3
None
1/2/3
BRBS
s, k
Branch if Status Flag Set
if (SREG(s) = 1) then PC←PC+k + 1
None
1/2
BRBC
s, k
Branch if Status Flag Cleared
if (SREG(s) = 0) then PC←PC+k + 1
None
1/2
BREQ
k
Branch if Equal
if (Z = 1) then PC ← PC + k + 1
None
1/2
BRNE
k
Branch if Not Equal
if (Z = 0) then PC ← PC + k + 1
None
1/2
BRCS
k
Branch if Carry Set
if (C = 1) then PC ← PC + k + 1
None
1/2
BRCC
k
Branch if Carry Cleared
if (C = 0) then PC ← PC + k + 1
None
1/2
BRSH
k
Branch if Same or Higher
if (C = 0) then PC ← PC + k + 1
None
1/2
BRLO
k
Branch if Lower
if (C = 1) then PC ← PC + k + 1
None
1/2
BRMI
k
Branch if Minus
if (N = 1) then PC ← PC + k + 1
None
1/2
BRPL
k
Branch if Plus
if (N = 0) then PC ← PC + k + 1
None
1/2
BRGE
k
Branch if Greater or Equal, Signed
if (N ⊕ V= 0) then PC ← PC + k + 1
None
1/2
BRLT
k
Branch if Less Than Zero, Signed
if (N ⊕ V= 1) then PC ← PC + k + 1
None
1/2
BRHS
k
Branch if Half Carry Flag Set
if (H = 1) then PC ← PC + k + 1
None
1/2
BRHC
k
Branch if Half Carry Flag Cleared
if (H = 0) then PC ← PC + k + 1
None
1/2
BRTS
k
Branch if T Flag Set
if (T = 1) then PC ← PC + k + 1
None
1/2
BRTC
k
Branch if T Flag Cleared
if (T = 0) then PC ← PC + k + 1
None
1/2
BRVS
k
Branch if Overflow Flag is Set
if (V = 1) then PC ← PC + k + 1
None
1/2
377
8018P–AVR–08/10
ATmega169P
Mnemonics
Operands
Description
Operation
Flags
#Clocks
BRVC
k
Branch if Overflow Flag is Cleared
if (V = 0) then PC ← PC + k + 1
None
1/2
BRIE
k
Branch if Interrupt Enabled
if ( I = 1) then PC ← PC + k + 1
None
1/2
BRID
k
Branch if Interrupt Disabled
if ( I = 0) then PC ← PC + k + 1
None
1/2
BIT AND BIT-TEST INSTRUCTIONS
SBI
P,b
Set Bit in I/O Register
I/O(P,b) ← 1
None
2
CBI
P,b
Clear Bit in I/O Register
I/O(P,b) ← 0
None
2
LSL
Rd
Logical Shift Left
Rd(n+1) ← Rd(n), Rd(0) ← 0
Z,C,N,V
1
LSR
Rd
Logical Shift Right
Rd(n) ← Rd(n+1), Rd(7) ← 0
Z,C,N,V
1
ROL
Rd
Rotate Left Through Carry
Rd(0)←C,Rd(n+1)← Rd(n),C←Rd(7)
Z,C,N,V
1
ROR
Rd
Rotate Right Through Carry
Rd(7)←C,Rd(n)← Rd(n+1),C←Rd(0)
Z,C,N,V
1
ASR
Rd
Arithmetic Shift Right
Rd(n) ← Rd(n+1), n=0..6
Z,C,N,V
1
SWAP
Rd
Swap Nibbles
Rd(3..0)←Rd(7..4),Rd(7..4)←Rd(3..0)
None
1
BSET
s
Flag Set
SREG(s) ← 1
SREG(s)
1
BCLR
s
Flag Clear
SREG(s) ← 0
SREG(s)
1
BST
Rr, b
Bit Store from Register to T
T ← Rr(b)
T
1
BLD
Rd, b
Bit load from T to Register
Rd(b) ← T
None
1
SEC
Set Carry
C←1
C
1
CLC
Clear Carry
C←0
C
1
SEN
Set Negative Flag
N←1
N
1
CLN
Clear Negative Flag
N←0
N
1
SEZ
Set Zero Flag
Z←1
Z
1
CLZ
Clear Zero Flag
Z←0
Z
1
SEI
Global Interrupt Enable
I←1
I
1
CLI
Global Interrupt Disable
I←0
I
1
SES
Set Signed Test Flag
S←1
S
1
CLS
Clear Signed Test Flag
S←0
S
1
SEV
Set Twos Complement Overflow.
V←1
V
1
CLV
Clear Twos Complement Overflow
V←0
V
1
SET
Set T in SREG
T←1
T
1
CLT
Clear T in SREG
T←0
T
1
SEH
CLH
Set Half Carry Flag in SREG
Clear Half Carry Flag in SREG
H←1
H←0
H
H
1
1
Rd ← Rr
Rd+1:Rd ← Rr+1:Rr
None
1
None
1
1
DATA TRANSFER INSTRUCTIONS
MOV
Rd, Rr
Move Between Registers
MOVW
Rd, Rr
Copy Register Word
LDI
Rd, K
Load Immediate
Rd ← K
None
LD
Rd, X
Load Indirect
Rd ← (X)
None
2
LD
Rd, X+
Load Indirect and Post-Inc.
Rd ← (X), X ← X + 1
None
2
2
LD
Rd, - X
Load Indirect and Pre-Dec.
X ← X - 1, Rd ← (X)
None
LD
Rd, Y
Load Indirect
Rd ← (Y)
None
2
LD
Rd, Y+
Load Indirect and Post-Inc.
Rd ← (Y), Y ← Y + 1
None
2
LD
Rd, - Y
Load Indirect and Pre-Dec.
Y ← Y - 1, Rd ← (Y)
None
2
LDD
Rd,Y+q
Load Indirect with Displacement
Rd ← (Y + q)
None
2
LD
Rd, Z
Load Indirect
Rd ← (Z)
None
2
LD
Rd, Z+
Load Indirect and Post-Inc.
Rd ← (Z), Z ← Z+1
None
2
LD
Rd, -Z
Load Indirect and Pre-Dec.
Z ← Z - 1, Rd ← (Z)
None
2
LDD
Rd, Z+q
Load Indirect with Displacement
Rd ← (Z + q)
None
2
LDS
Rd, k
Load Direct from SRAM
Rd ← (k)
None
2
ST
X, Rr
Store Indirect
(X) ← Rr
None
2
ST
X+, Rr
Store Indirect and Post-Inc.
(X) ← Rr, X ← X + 1
None
2
ST
- X, Rr
Store Indirect and Pre-Dec.
X ← X - 1, (X) ← Rr
None
2
ST
Y, Rr
Store Indirect
(Y) ← Rr
None
2
ST
Y+, Rr
Store Indirect and Post-Inc.
(Y) ← Rr, Y ← Y + 1
None
2
ST
- Y, Rr
Store Indirect and Pre-Dec.
Y ← Y - 1, (Y) ← Rr
None
2
STD
Y+q,Rr
Store Indirect with Displacement
(Y + q) ← Rr
None
2
ST
Z, Rr
Store Indirect
(Z) ← Rr
None
2
ST
Z+, Rr
Store Indirect and Post-Inc.
(Z) ← Rr, Z ← Z + 1
None
2
ST
-Z, Rr
Store Indirect and Pre-Dec.
Z ← Z - 1, (Z) ← Rr
None
2
STD
Z+q,Rr
Store Indirect with Displacement
(Z + q) ← Rr
None
2
STS
k, Rr
Store Direct to SRAM
(k) ← Rr
None
2
Load Program Memory
R0 ← (Z)
None
3
LPM
LPM
Rd, Z
Load Program Memory
Rd ← (Z)
None
3
LPM
Rd, Z+
Load Program Memory and Post-Inc
Rd ← (Z), Z ← Z+1
None
3
Store Program Memory
(Z) ← R1:R0
None
-
IN
Rd, P
In Port
Rd ← P
None
1
OUT
P, Rr
Out Port
P ← Rr
None
1
SPM
378
8018P–AVR–08/10
ATmega169P
Mnemonics
Operands
Description
Operation
Flags
#Clocks
PUSH
Rr
Push Register on Stack
STACK ← Rr
None
2
POP
Rd
Pop Register from Stack
Rd ← STACK
None
2
MCU CONTROL INSTRUCTIONS
NOP
No Operation
None
1
SLEEP
Sleep
(see specific descr. for Sleep function)
None
1
WDR
BREAK
Watchdog Reset
Break
(see specific descr. for WDR/timer)
For On-chip Debug Only
None
None
1
N/A
379
8018P–AVR–08/10
ATmega169P
32. Ordering Information
Speed (MHz)(3)
Power Supply
8
16
Notes:
Ordering Code
Package(1)(2)
Operation Range
1.8V - 5.5V
ATmega169PV-8AU
ATmega169PV-8MU
ATmega169PV-8MCH
64A
64M1
64MC
Industrial
(-40°C to 85°C)
2.7V - 5.5V
ATmega169P-16AU
ATmega169P-16MU
ATmega169P-16MCH
64A
64M1
64MC
Industrial
(-40°C to 85°C)
1. This device can also be supplied in wafer form. Please contact your local Atmel sales office for detailed ordering information
and minimum quantities.
2. Pb-free packaging, complies to the European Directive for Restriction of Hazardous Substances (RoHS directive). Also
Halide free and fully Green.
3. For Speed vs. VCC, see Figure 28-1 on page 331 and Figure 28-2 on page 332.
Package Type
64A
64-Lead, Thin (1.0 mm) Plastic Gull Wing Quad Flat Package (TQFP)
64M1
64-pad, 9 × 9 × 1.0 mm body, lead pitch 0.50 mm, Quad Flat No-Lead/Micro Lead Frame Package (QFN/MLF)
64MC
64-lead (2-row Staggered), 7 × 7 × 1.0 mm body, 4.0 × 4.0 mm Exposed Pad, Quad Flat No-Lead Package (QFN)
380
8018P–AVR–08/10
ATmega169P
33. Packaging Information
33.1
64A
PIN 1
B
PIN 1 IDENTIFIER
E1
e
E
D1
D
C
0°~7°
A1
A2
A
L
COMMON DIMENSIONS
(Unit of Measure = mm)
MIN
NOM
MAX
A
–
–
1.20
A1
0.05
–
0.15
A2
0.95
1.00
1.05
D
15.75
16.00
16.25
D1
13.90
14.00
14.10
E
15.75
16.00
16.25
E1
13.90
14.00
14.10
B
0.30
–
0.45
C
0.09
–
0.20
L
0.45
–
0.75
SYMBOL
Notes:
1.This package conforms to JEDEC reference MS-026, Variation AEB.
2. Dimensions D1 and E1 do not include mold protrusion. Allowable
protrusion is 0.25 mm per side. Dimensions D1 and E1 are maximum
plastic body size dimensions including mold mismatch.
3. Lead coplanarity is 0.10 mm maximum.
e
NOTE
Note 2
Note 2
0.80 TYP
10/5/2001
R
2325 Orchard Parkway
San Jose, CA 95131
TITLE
64A, 64-lead, 14 x 14 mm Body Size, 1.0 mm Body Thickness,
0.8 mm Lead Pitch, Thin Profile Plastic Quad Flat Package (TQFP)
DRAWING NO.
REV.
64A
B
381
8018P–AVR–08/10
ATmega169P
33.2
64M1
D
Marked Pin# 1 ID
E
C
SEATING PLANE
A1
TOP VIEW
A
K
0.08 C
L
Pin #1 Corner
D2
1
2
3
Option A
SIDE VIEW
Pin #1
Triangle
COMMON DIMENSIONS
(Unit of Measure = mm)
E2
Option B
K
Option C
b
e
Pin #1
Chamfer
(C 0.30)
Pin #1
Notch
(0.20 R)
BOTTOM VIEW
Note: 1. JEDEC Standard MO-220, (SAW Singulation) Fig. 1, VMMD.
2. Dimension and tolerance conform to ASMEY14.5M-1994.
SYMBOL
MIN
A
0.80
0.90
1.00
A1
–
0.02
0.05
b
0.18
0.25
0.30
D
8.90
9.00
9.10
D2
5.20
5.40
5.60
E
8.90
9.00
9.10
E2
5.20
5.40
5.60
e
NOM
MAX
NOTE
0.50 BSC
L
0.35
0.40
0.45
K
1.25
1.40
1.55
5/25/06
R
2325 Orchard Parkway
San Jose, CA 95131
TITLE
64M1, 64-pad, 9 x 9 x 1.0 mm Body, Lead Pitch 0.50 mm,
5.40 mm Exposed Pad, Micro Lead Frame Package (MLF)
DRAWING NO.
64M1
REV.
G
382
8018P–AVR–08/10
ATmega169P
33.3
64MC
C
Pin 1 ID
D
SIDE VIEW
y
A1
E
A
TOP VIEW
eT
eT/2
L
eR
A26
A34
B23
B30
COMMON DIMENSIONS
(Unit of Measure = mm)
A1
A25
B1
B22
R0.20
0.40
b
D2
SYMBOL
MIN
NOM
MAX
A
0.80
0.90
1.00
A1
0.00
0.02
0.05
b
0.18
0.23
0.28
C
eT
B7
B16
A8
A18
A9
A17
L
(0.18) REF
B8
B15
E2
K
BOTTOM VIEW
1. The terminal #1 ID is a Laser-marked Feature.
Note:
Package Drawing Contact:
packagedrawings@atmel.com
(0.1) REF
NOTE
0.20 REF
D
6.90
7.00
7.10
D2
3.95
4.00
4.05
E
6.90
7.00
7.10
E2
3.95
4.00
4.05
eT
–
0.65
–
eR
–
0.65
–
K
0.20
–
–
L
0.35
0.40
0.45
y
0.00
–
0.075
GPC
TITLE
64MC, 64QFN (2-Row Staggered),
ZXC
7 x 7 x 1.00 mm Body, 4.0 x 4.0 mm Exposed Pad,
Quad Flat No Lead Package
(REF)
10/3/07
DRAWING NO. REV.
64MC
A
383
8018P–AVR–08/10
ATmega169P
34. Errata
34.1
ATmega169P Rev. G
No known errata.
34.2
ATmega169P Rev. A to F
Not sampled.
384
8018P–AVR–08/10
ATmega169P
35. Datasheet Revision History
Please note that the referring page numbers in this section are referring to this document. The
referring revision in this section are referring to the document revision.
35.1
Rev. 8018P 08/10
1.
2.
3.
35.2
Rev. 8018O 10/09
1.
2.
35.3
35.5
35.6
Changed datasheet status to “Mature”
Added Capacitance for Low-frequency Crystal Oscillator, Table 8-5 on page 33.
Rev. 8018N 08/09
1.
35.4
Status changed to active
EEPROM minimum wait delay, Table 27-15 on page 312, has been changed from 9.0
ms to 3.6 ms
Datasheet layout and technical terminology updated
Updated ”Ordering Information” on page 380, MCU replaced by MCH.
Rev. 8018M 07/09
1.
Updated the last page with new Atmel’s addresses.
1.
2.
Updated package information in ”Features” on page 1.
Added ”Pinout - DRQFN” on page 3:
• The Staggered QFN is named Dual Row QFN (DRQFN).
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
Updated package information in ”Features” on page 1.
Removed “Disclaimer” from section ”Pin Configurations” on page 2
Added ”64MC (DRQFN) Pinout ATmega169P” on page 3
Added ”Data Retention” on page 9.
Updated ”Stack Pointer” on page 13.
Updated ”Low-frequency Crystal Oscillator” on page 34.
Updated ”USART Register Description” on page 194, register descriptions and tables.
Updated ”UCSRnB – USART Control and Status Register n B” on page 195.
Updated VIL2 in ”DC Characteristics” on page 329, by removing 0.2VCC from the table.
Rev. L 08/08
Rev. K 06/08
385
8018P–AVR–08/10
ATmega169P
35.7
35.8
35.9
10.
11.
12.
Replaced Figure 29-36 on page 357 by a correct one.
Updated ”Ordering Information” on page 380.
Added ”64MC” on page 383 package to ”Packaging Information” on page 381.
1.
2.
3.
Updated ”Features” on page 1.
Added ”Minimizing Power Consumption” on page 237 in the LCD section.
Updated ”System and Reset Characteristics” on page 333.
1.
2.
3.
Updated ”Low-frequency Crystal Oscillator” on page 34.
Updated Table 8-8 on page 35, Table 8-9 on page 35, Table 8-10 on page 35, Table
28-7 on page 336.
Updated note in Table 28-7 on page 336.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
All characterization data moved to ”Electrical Characteristics” on page 329.
Updated ”Calibrated Internal RC Oscillator” on page 32.
Updated ”System Control and Reset” on page 47.
Added note to Table 27-16 on page 314.
Updated ”LCD Controller Characteristics” on page 337.
1.
Updated ”LCD Controller Characteristics” on page 337.
1.
2.
Updated ”DC Characteristics” on page 329.
Updated Table 13-19 on page 84.
1.
2.
3.
4.
Updated ”Low-frequency Crystal Oscillator” on page 34.
Updated ”Device Identification Register” on page 260.
Updated ”Signature Bytes” on page 299.
Added Table 27-6 on page 299.
Rev. J 08/07
Rev. I 11/06
Rev. H 09/06
35.10 Rev. G 08/06
35.11 Rev. F 08/06
35.12 Rev. E 08/06
386
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35.13 Rev. D 07/06
1.
2.
3.
4.
5
6.
7.
8.
9.
Updated ”Register Description for I/O-Ports” on page 88.
Updated ”Fast PWM Mode” on page 97.
Updated ”Fast PWM Mode” on page 120.
Updated Table 14-2 on page 102, Table 14-4 on page 103, Table 15-3 on page 129,
Table 15-4 on page 130, Table 17-2 on page 153 and Table 17-4 on page 154.
Updated ”UCSRnC – USART Control and Status Register n C” on page 196.
Updated Features in ”USI – Universal Serial Interface” on page 199.
Added ”Clock speed considerations.” on page 206.
Updated Features in ”LCD Controller” on page 234.
Updated ”Register Summary” on page 373.
1.
2.
3.
4.
Updated typos.
Updated ”Calibrated Internal RC Oscillator” on page 32.
Updated ”OSCCAL – Oscillator Calibration Register” on page 38.
Added Table 28-2 on page 332.
1.
Updated ”Calibrated Internal RC Oscillator” on page 32.
1.
Initial revision.
35.14 Rev. C 06/06
35.15 Rev. B 04/06
35.16 Rev. A 03/06
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Table of Contents
Features ..................................................................................................... 1
1
Pin Configurations ................................................................................... 2
1.1Pinout - TQFP/QFN/MLF ...........................................................................................2
1.2Pinout - DRQFN ........................................................................................................3
2
Overview ................................................................................................... 4
2.1Block Diagram ...........................................................................................................4
2.2Pin Descriptions ........................................................................................................6
3
Resources ................................................................................................. 9
4
Data Retention .......................................................................................... 9
5
About Code Examples ........................................................................... 10
6
AVR CPU Core ........................................................................................ 11
6.1Introduction ..............................................................................................................11
6.2Architectural Overview ............................................................................................11
6.3ALU – Arithmetic Logic Unit ....................................................................................12
6.4Stack Pointer ...........................................................................................................13
6.5Instruction Execution Timing ...................................................................................14
6.6Reset and Interrupt Handling ..................................................................................15
6.7Status Register ........................................................................................................17
6.8General Purpose Register File ................................................................................18
7
AVR Memories ........................................................................................ 20
7.1In-System Reprogrammable Flash Program Memory .............................................20
7.2SRAM Data Memory ...............................................................................................21
7.3EEPROM Data Memory ..........................................................................................23
7.4I/O Memory ..............................................................................................................27
7.5General Purpose I/O Registers ...............................................................................28
7.6EEPROM Register Description ................................................................................28
8
System Clock and Clock Options ......................................................... 30
8.1Clock Systems and their Distribution .......................................................................30
8.2Clock Sources .........................................................................................................31
8.3Default Clock Source ...............................................................................................32
8.4Calibrated Internal RC Oscillator .............................................................................32
8.5Crystal Oscillator .....................................................................................................33
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8.6Low-frequency Crystal Oscillator .............................................................................34
8.7External Clock .........................................................................................................36
8.8Timer/Counter Oscillator .........................................................................................37
8.9Clock Output Buffer .................................................................................................37
8.10System Clock Prescaler ........................................................................................37
8.11Register Description ..............................................................................................38
9
Power Management and Sleep Modes ................................................. 40
9.1Sleep Modes ...........................................................................................................40
9.2Idle Mode .................................................................................................................41
9.3ADC Noise Reduction Mode ...................................................................................41
9.4Power-down Mode ..................................................................................................41
9.5Power-save Mode ...................................................................................................42
9.6Standby Mode .........................................................................................................42
9.7Power Reduction Register .......................................................................................42
9.8Minimizing Power Consumption ..............................................................................43
9.9Register Description ................................................................................................45
10 System Control and Reset .................................................................... 47
10.1Resetting the AVR .................................................................................................47
10.2Reset Sources .......................................................................................................47
10.3Internal Voltage Reference ....................................................................................51
10.4Watchdog Timer ....................................................................................................51
10.5Register Description ..............................................................................................54
11 Interrupts ................................................................................................ 56
11.1Interrupt Vectors in ATmega169P .........................................................................56
11.2Moving Interrupts Between Application and Boot Space ......................................59
12 External Interrupts ................................................................................. 61
12.1Pin Change Interrupt Timing .................................................................................61
12.2Register Description ..............................................................................................62
13 I/O-Ports .................................................................................................. 65
13.1Overview ...............................................................................................................65
13.2Ports as General Digital I/O ...................................................................................66
13.3Alternate Port Functions ........................................................................................71
13.4Register Description for I/O-Ports ..........................................................................88
14 8-bit Timer/Counter0 with PWM ............................................................ 91
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14.1Features ................................................................................................................91
14.2Overview ...............................................................................................................91
14.3Timer/Counter Clock Sources ...............................................................................92
14.4Counter Unit ..........................................................................................................92
14.5Output Compare Unit ............................................................................................93
14.6Compare Match Output Unit ..................................................................................95
14.7Modes of Operation ...............................................................................................96
14.8Timer/Counter Timing Diagrams .........................................................................100
14.98-bit Timer/Counter Register Description ............................................................102
15 16-bit Timer/Counter1 .......................................................................... 106
15.1Features ..............................................................................................................106
15.2Overview .............................................................................................................106
15.3Accessing 16-bit Registers ..................................................................................109
15.4Timer/Counter Clock Sources .............................................................................111
15.5Counter Unit ........................................................................................................112
15.6Input Capture Unit ...............................................................................................113
15.7Output Compare Units .........................................................................................115
15.8Compare Match Output Unit ................................................................................117
15.9Modes of Operation .............................................................................................118
15.10Timer/Counter Timing Diagrams .......................................................................126
15.1116-bit Timer/Counter Register Description ........................................................128
16 Timer/Counter0 and Timer/Counter1 Prescalers .............................. 135
16.1Prescaler Reset ...................................................................................................135
16.2Internal Clock Source ..........................................................................................135
16.3External Clock Source .........................................................................................135
16.4Register Description ............................................................................................137
17 8-bit Timer/Counter2 with PWM and Asynchronous Operation ...... 138
17.1Overview .............................................................................................................138
17.2Timer/Counter Clock Sources .............................................................................139
17.3Counter Unit ........................................................................................................139
17.4Output Compare Unit ..........................................................................................140
17.5Compare Match Output Unit ................................................................................142
17.6Modes of Operation .............................................................................................143
17.7Timer/Counter Timing Diagrams .........................................................................148
17.8Asynchronous operation of the Timer/Counter ....................................................150
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17.9Timer/Counter Prescaler .....................................................................................152
17.108-bit Timer/Counter Register Description ..........................................................153
18 SPI – Serial Peripheral Interface ......................................................... 158
18.1Features ..............................................................................................................158
18.2Overview .............................................................................................................158
18.3SS Pin Functionality ............................................................................................163
18.4Data Modes .........................................................................................................164
18.5Register Description ............................................................................................165
19 USART ................................................................................................... 168
19.1Features ..............................................................................................................168
19.2Overview .............................................................................................................168
19.3Clock Generation .................................................................................................170
19.4Frame Formats ....................................................................................................173
19.5USART Initialization ............................................................................................175
19.6Data Transmission – The USART Transmitter ....................................................177
19.7Data Reception – The USART Receiver .............................................................180
19.8Asynchronous Data Reception ............................................................................185
19.9Multi-processor Communication Mode ................................................................188
19.10Examples of Baud Rate Setting ........................................................................190
19.11USART Register Description .............................................................................194
20 USI – Universal Serial Interface .......................................................... 199
20.1Overview .............................................................................................................199
20.2Functional Descriptions .......................................................................................200
20.3Alternative USI Usage .........................................................................................206
20.4USI Register Descriptions ...................................................................................207
21 AC - Analog Comparator ..................................................................... 212
21.1Analog Comparator Multiplexed Input .................................................................213
21.2Analog Comparator Register Description ............................................................214
22 ADC - Analog to Digital Converter ..................................................... 216
22.1Features ..............................................................................................................216
22.2Overview .............................................................................................................216
22.3Operation .............................................................................................................217
22.4Starting a Conversion ..........................................................................................218
22.5Prescaling and Conversion Timing ......................................................................219
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22.6Changing Channel or Reference Selection .........................................................221
22.7ADC Noise Canceler ...........................................................................................222
22.8ADC Conversion Result ......................................................................................227
22.9ADC Register Description ...................................................................................229
23 LCD Controller ..................................................................................... 234
23.1Features ..............................................................................................................234
23.2Overview .............................................................................................................234
23.3Mode of Operation ...............................................................................................237
23.4LCD Usage ..........................................................................................................242
23.5LCD Register Description ....................................................................................246
24 JTAG Interface and On-chip Debug System ..................................... 252
24.1Overview .............................................................................................................252
24.2TAP – Test Access Port ......................................................................................253
24.3TAP Controller .....................................................................................................255
24.4Using the Boundary-scan Chain ..........................................................................256
24.5Using the On-chip Debug System .......................................................................256
24.6On-chip Debug Specific JTAG Instructions .........................................................257
24.7On-chip Debug Related Register in I/O Memory .................................................258
24.8Using the JTAG Programming Capabilities .........................................................258
24.9Bibliography .........................................................................................................258
25 IEEE 1149.1 (JTAG) Boundary-scan ................................................... 259
25.1Features ..............................................................................................................259
25.2System Overview ................................................................................................259
25.3Data Registers .....................................................................................................260
25.4Boundary-scan Specific JTAG Instructions .........................................................261
25.5Boundary-scan Chain ..........................................................................................262
25.6Boundary-scan Order ..........................................................................................272
25.7Boundary-scan Description Language Files ........................................................278
25.8Boundary-scan Related Register in I/O Memory .................................................279
26 Boot Loader Support – Read-While-Write Self-Programming ......... 280
26.1Features ..............................................................................................................280
26.2Overview .............................................................................................................280
26.3Application and Boot Loader Flash Sections .......................................................280
26.4Read-While-Write and No Read-While-Write Flash Sections ..............................281
26.5Boot Loader Lock Bits .........................................................................................284
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26.6Entering the Boot Loader Program ......................................................................285
26.7Addressing the Flash During Self-Programming .................................................286
26.8Self-Programming the Flash ................................................................................287
26.9Register Description ............................................................................................294
27 Memory Programming ......................................................................... 296
27.1Program And Data Memory Lock Bits .................................................................296
27.2Fuse Bits .............................................................................................................297
27.3Signature Bytes ...................................................................................................299
27.4Calibration Byte ...................................................................................................299
27.5Page Size ............................................................................................................299
27.6Parallel Programming Parameters, Pin Mapping, and Commands .....................299
27.7Parallel Programming ..........................................................................................302
27.8Serial Downloading .............................................................................................310
27.9Programming via the JTAG Interface ..................................................................316
28 Electrical Characteristics .................................................................... 329
28.1Absolute Maximum Ratings* ...............................................................................329
28.2DC Characteristics ..............................................................................................329
28.3Speed Grades .....................................................................................................331
28.4Clock Characteristics ...........................................................................................332
28.5System and Reset Characteristics ......................................................................333
28.6SPI Timing Characteristics ..................................................................................334
28.7ADC Characteristics – Preliminary Data ..............................................................336
28.8LCD Controller Characteristics ............................................................................337
29 Typical Characteristics ........................................................................ 338
29.1Active Supply Current ..........................................................................................338
29.2Idle Supply Current ..............................................................................................341
29.3Supply Current of I/O modules ............................................................................343
29.4Power-down Supply Current ...............................................................................344
29.5Power-save Supply Current ................................................................................345
29.6Standby Supply Current ......................................................................................346
29.7Pin Pull-up ...........................................................................................................350
29.8Pin Driver Strength ..............................................................................................353
29.9Pin Thresholds and Hysteresis ............................................................................359
29.10BOD Thresholds and Analog Comparator Offset ..............................................362
29.11Internal Oscillator Speed ...................................................................................365
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29.12Current Consumption of Peripheral Units ..........................................................368
29.13Current Consumption in Reset and Reset Pulsewidth ......................................371
30 Register Summary ............................................................................... 373
31 Instruction Set Summary .................................................................... 377
32 Ordering Information ........................................................................... 380
33 Packaging Information ........................................................................ 381
33.164A ......................................................................................................................381
33.264M1 ...................................................................................................................382
33.364MC ...................................................................................................................383
34 Errata ..................................................................................................... 384
34.1ATmega169P Rev. G ..........................................................................................384
34.2ATmega169P Rev. A to F ...................................................................................384
35 Datasheet Revision History ................................................................ 385
35.1Rev. 8018P 08/10 ................................................................................................385
35.2Rev. 8018O 10/09 ...............................................................................................385
35.3Rev. 8018N 08/09 ...............................................................................................385
35.4Rev. 8018M 07/09 ...............................................................................................385
35.5Rev. L 08/08 ........................................................................................................385
35.6Rev. K 06/08 ........................................................................................................385
35.7Rev. J 08/07 ........................................................................................................386
35.8Rev. I 11/06 .........................................................................................................386
35.9Rev. H 09/06 .......................................................................................................386
35.10Rev. G 08/06 .....................................................................................................386
35.11Rev. F 08/06 ......................................................................................................386
35.12Rev. E 08/06 ......................................................................................................386
35.13Rev. D 07/06 .....................................................................................................387
35.14Rev. C 06/06 .....................................................................................................387
35.15Rev. B 04/06 ......................................................................................................387
35.16Rev. A 03/06 ......................................................................................................387
Table of Contents....................................................................................... i
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8018O–AVR–10/09
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8018O–AVR–10/09