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High Speed Motors
The Theory Hasn’t Changed . . . But The Product Has
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The Theory - Maxwell’s Equations (c. 1862)
d
B.ds
∫∫
dt s
c
d
=
H
.
dl
D.ds + ∫∫ J .ds
∫c
∫∫
dt s
s
∫ E.dl = −
(Faraday’s law)
(Maxwell-Ampère law)
∫∫ D.ds = ∫∫∫ ρdv
(Gauss’s law)
∫∫ B.ds = 0
(Gauss’s law - magnetic)
v
s
s
1866 – Ernst Werner Siemens
First “dynamo machine”
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. . . And The Rotor Turned
 Three phase winding in the stator
 Rotating magnetic field
 Rotating magnetic field
 Induces current to flow in the rotor
 Induced current produces second magnetic field
 Rotor ‘chases’ rotating magnetic field
 Synchronous motor
 Add ‘additional’ electromagnets so it catches up and synchronizes!
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Confused By Standards?
500 kVA
≥500kVA
Synchronous machines
API 546 4th Edition
Annex I – 2017?
High Speed Motors
API 546 3rd
‘Custom’
API 541 5th
2 pole WPII
2 pole TEFC
‘Standard’
≥500HP
API 547 1st
Vertical
250 – 3000HP 4/6/8p
“Non-critical”
IEEE 841 2009
≤500HP, ≤4kV, TEFC
H & V, A/F brgs
HP 1
kW
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250
185
500
375
800 1250
600 930
3000
2240
10000
Now metric
100000
Design Objectives
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Flexible designs suited to most direct drive applications
Simple installation
Reliable
Reduced maintenance
Low operating costs
Environmentally friendly
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Applications
 Compressors
 Gas pipeline
 Process
 Gas injection
 Pumps
 Boiler feed pump
 Water injection
 Pipeline
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 Expanders
 Generators
 Motor/generators
 Others
 Traditional motor (3,600rpm or slower) gear
driven
 Traditional gas/steam turbine direct drive
Why High Speed?
 Physically smaller motor
 Footprint and mass
 Eliminates gearbox
 Smaller footprint
 Reduced (or eliminated) lube oil requirements
 Eliminates low speed/high torque coupling
 Improved reliability
 Fewer components (vs. conventional ASD)
 Higher efficiency (vs. conventional ASD)
 Replace direct drive gas turbines, steam turbines or expanders
 Reduced emissions/improved efficiency/reduced maintenance
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Defining the Envelope
Speed
Mechanical
stresses
Rotor
dynamics
Shaft/rotor dia
Rotor length
Rotor volume
Torque
Power
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Cooling
system
Motor Capabilities 2 - 90MW
Induction
2-30MW
Synchronous
15-60MW, 6,400rpm max
Synchronous
60-90MW, 3,600rpm max
18,000
Speed (rpm)
16,000
14,000
12,000
10,000
8,000
6,000
4,000
2,000
10
20
30
40
50
Power (MW)
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60
70
80
90
Conceptual Design
Application-specific
cooling
(open, air-air, air-water)
Flange mounted
bearings sleeve or
magnetic
Cage induction rotor
solid forged shaft
Stator designed for
Drive converter operation
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Shaft-mounted fans
or auxiliary blowers
Cage Induction Rotor
 Special rotor designs required for above 170 m/sec
 Patented technology up to 250 m/sec
 Diffusion bonding/hot isostatic pressing (HIP)
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Mechanical Design
 Minimum number of individual components
 100% bonding of copper/solid steel to form a solid body
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Attention to Detail
 Lightweight Kevlar blades
maximum efficiency
 ƒ
Optimum setting with bayonet
connection
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Electrical Design
 Complete motor-converter system is
optimized
 ƒ
Components optimized for high frequency
 ƒ
Demanding technical requirements utilizing
established production technologies and
standard modules where practical
 Combined testing BEFORE arriving at site
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Rotor Balance is Key
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Power
HS-Modyn Product Family
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rpm
‘Conventional’ Enclosures
 ƒ
Self-ventilated with shaft-mounted fans
 ƒ
Force-ventilated with blower-motors mounted on the motor
 ƒ
Customized versions
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FCCU @ US Refinery
 3,4 MW, 6,300rpm
 TEWAC
 Class I Division 2
 2R AMBs
 API 541, NEMA
 Inconel coated rotor
 H2SO4 atmosphere
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Gas Pipeline
 12 MW constant 7,000 to 9,500 rpm
 Ducted (TEPV)
 Class I, Division 2
 Sleeve bearings
 API 541, NEMA
 Torsional analysis for the complete string by
Siemens
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Alky Compressor - Hawaii
 3,75 MW, 5,300 rpm
 TEAAC
 Class I, Division 2
 Sleeve bearings
 API 541, NEMA
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Integrated Options
Canned solution
Liquid-cooled
stator
Gas-cooled rotor
Liquid-tolerant
HV insulation
Inconel rotor
coating
∆P compensation
across can
Single shaft
7.5MW 12,200rpm
Delivered 2006
2R+1A AMB
Process gascooled solution
Gas-cooled stator
Gas-cooled rotor
Gas-tolerant
HV insulation
Inconel rotor
coating
Closed loop
cooling
Flexible coupling
4R+1A AMB
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10MW 10,000rpm
Delivered 2013
ASDs for High Speed Induction Motors
SINAMICS
PERFECT
HARMONY
GH180
SINAMICS
PERFECT
HARMONY
GH150
180 kVA – 15.5 MVA
4 MVA - 13.3 MVA
Output voltage
2.3 - 11 kV
Output voltage
4.16 - 7.2 kV
Multi-cell voltagesource DC link
converter
Multi-cell
voltage-source
inverter (VSI)
LV IGBT
air-/ water cooled
LV-IGBT
water-cooled
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SINAMICS
GM150
SINAMICS
SM150
1 - 13 MVA (IGBT) 3.4 – 7.2 MVA (IGBT)
5 - 21 MVA (IGCT) 5 – 31.5 MVA (IGCT)
Output voltage
2.3 – 4.16 kV
Output voltage
3.3 kV (IGCT & IGBT)
4.16 kV (IGBT)
SINAMICS
SM120 CM
SINAMICS
GL150
SINAMICS
SL150
7.2 / 6.5 MVA
2.8 - 85 MVA per unit
(higher power ratings
on request)
3 - 40 MVA
Output voltage
4.16 kV / 6,6 kV
Output voltage
1.4 – 10.3 kV
Output voltage
1.5 – 4 kV
Load-commutated
inverter (LCI)
Cycloconverter (CSI)
Thyristor
air/water cooled
Thyristor
air/water cooled
M2C 3 level NPC /
3-level NPC voltage- 3-level NPC voltagediode bridge voltagesource DC link
source DC link
source DC link
converter
converter
converter
HV IGBT
(air/water cooled)
IGCT
(water cooled)
HV IGBT
(air/water cooled)
IGCT
(water cooled)
LV / HV IGBT
water cooled
Synchronous
 Based on conventional solid cylindrical
2 pole rotor
 Solid cylindrical 4 pole option available
when dictated by rotor dynamics
 Outboard exciter for easy maintenance
 Excitation control managed by ASD
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Conventional AC-Fed Exciter
Exciter
Field
Exciter
Armature
Motor
Field Winding
D1 D2 D3
Varistor
D4 D5 D6
Stationary
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Rotating
LNG Compressor Motor
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79MW, 3,000rpm
4 pole solid cylindrical
120 T
Full load back-to-back test
Size
Mass
Pulsating torques
Interharmonics
Rotor dynamics
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Back-To-Back Testing
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Double-Ended Motor
 23 MW, 600 to 6,300rpm
 TEWAC
 EExP II B T3
 IEC & DEP
 Sinamics GL150
 8 x AMBs
 6R + 2A
Compressor #1
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Motor
Compressor #2
ASDs for High Speed Synchronous Motors
SINAMICS
PERFECT
HARMONY
GH180
SINAMICS
PERFECT
HARMONY
GH150
180 kVA – 15.5 MVA
4 MVA - 13.3 MVA
Output voltage
2.3 - 11 kV
Output voltage
4.16 - 7.2 kV
Multi-cell voltagesource DC link
converter
Multi-cell
voltage-source
inverter (VSI)
LV IGBT
air-/ water cooled
LV-IGBT
water-cooled
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SINAMICS
GM150
SINAMICS
SM150
1 - 13 MVA (IGBT) 3.4 – 7.2 MVA (IGBT)
5 - 21 MVA (IGCT) 5 – 31.5 MVA (IGCT)
Output voltage
2.3 – 4.16 kV
Output voltage
3.3 kV (IGCT & IGBT)
4.16 kV (IGBT)
SINAMICS
SM120 CM
SINAMICS
GL150
SINAMICS
SL150
7.2 / 6.5 MVA
2.8 - 85 MVA per unit
(higher power ratings
on request)
3 - 40 MVA
Output voltage
4.16 kV / 6,6 kV
Output voltage
1.4 – 10.3 kV
Output voltage
1.5 – 4 kV
Load-commutated
inverter (LCI)
Cycloconverter (CSI)
Thyristor
air/water cooled
Thyristor
air/water cooled
M2C 3 level NPC /
3-level NPC voltage- 3-level NPC voltagediode bridge voltagesource DC link
source DC link
source DC link
converter
converter
converter
HV IGBT
(air/water cooled)
IGCT
(water cooled)
HV IGBT
(air/water cooled)
IGCT
(water cooled)
LV / HV IGBT
water cooled
SIMOTICS Active Magnetic Bearings (AMB)
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Available on both induction and synchronous
AMB’s levitate a rotating shaft and permit relative motion without friction or wear
Consist of an electromagnet assembly, a set of power amplifiers and a controller
Gap sensors provide feedback to control the position of the rotor
Each is equipped with a back-up bearing for emergency operation
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AMB Features
 Standard electronics
 300,000 units per year
 Customized HMI
 Wide range of bearings and inverters
 Easy purchasing/replacement of standard
drive hardware
 Extensive built-in system diagnostics
 Conformity to relevant ISO, DIN, IEC and
API standards
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‘Conventional’ High Speed
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Induction only
Sleeve or anti-friction bearings
Aluminum die cast or copper bar
Forced cooling for higher speeds
500 frame – max 1,500 HP, max 6,000 rpm
 12½ inch center height
 580 frame – max 2,600 HP, max 5,300 rpm
 14½ inch center height
 680 frame – max 3,700 HP, max 4,200 rpm
 17 inch center height
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WPII, 508 frame
6.5rpm – 5,600rpm
‘Conventional’ High Speed
Conventional cast
iron frame
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Modified
ventilation/cooling
circuit
Modified end
bracket
Modified bearing
design
‘Conventional’ High Speed
Light-weight die
cast aluminum
core
Solid aluminum die cast
end rings eliminated
traditional fan blades and
balance lugs
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Separate
balancing planes
close to the core
Eliminated shaft mounted fans
– separate auxiliary cooling
“Not-So-Conventional” High Speed
Custom
fabricated end
bracket
Custom
fabricated
frame
2 or 4 lobe or
tilting pad
bearings
Small HIP rotor
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Proven Experience
Induction
Synchronous
18,000
Speed (rpm)
16,000
14,000
12,000
10,000
8,000
6,000
4,000
2,000
10
20
30
40
50
Power (MW)
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60
70
80
90
Thank You For Your Time
Mark Chisholm
Principal Business Developer
Chemicals & Air Separation
Large Drives
500 Hunt Valley Road
New Kensington, PA 15068
USA
Mobile: +1 (412) 389-7469
[email protected]
siemens.com
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