EE-269: A Beginner’s Guide to Ethernet 802.3 (Rev. 1) PDF

Engineer-to-Engineer Note
a
EE-269
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A Beginner’s Guide to Ethernet 802.3
Contributed by Ralf Neuhaus
Introduction
This EE-Note provides an overview of the
Ethernet specification and some popular
protocols that can be used “on top of” an
Ethernet driver. The goal is to provide the reader
with the fundamentals of the protocols and the
hardware. The figures and explanations will
provide excellent guidance for anyone starting
off on Ethernet. This EE-Note does not show any
software implementations such as a TCP/IP
stack, but will simplify their use.
Additionally, this EE-Note serves as the
theoretical complement to the Ethernet MAC
chapter of the ADSP-BF537 Blackfin®
Processor Hardware Reference [16] and to the
Rev 1 – June 6, 2005
EE-Note Ethernet Network Interface for ADSPBF535 Blackfin Processors (EE-214). [17]
History
The Ethernet Sourcebook, ed. Robyn E.
Shotwell (New York: North-Holland, 1985), title
page.
When we talk about “Ethernet”, we refer to the
implementation methods of layer 1 and layer 2 of
the Open Systems Interconnection model
(OSI model).
These layers form the physical layer for various
Ethernet hardware implementations, while the
other OSI layers are implemented in software.
``The diagram ... was
drawn by Dr. Robert M.
Metcalfe in 1976 to
present Ethernet ... to the
National
Computer
Conference in June of
that year. On the drawing
are the original terms for
describing
Ethernet.
Since then other terms
have come into usage
among
Ethernet
enthusiasts.'”
Figure 1. Ethernet History
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OSI Model
The OSI model provides a standard description
or "reference model" for how messages should
be transmitted between any two points in a
telecommunication network.
Layer
7
OSI model
TCP/IP model
Application
Layer
Application
6
Presentation
Layer
5
Session
Layer
4
Transport
Layer
Transport
3
Network
Layer
Internet
2
Data Link
Layer
Network
1
Physical
Layer
It consists of seven layers and each layer
describes the status of the communications, e.g.,
Ethernet.
Figure 2 compares the OSI model with the
TCP/IP model and its protocols.
TCP/IP protocols
NFS
HTTP
FTP
SMTP
Name
Server
XDR
RPC
Transmission Control
Protocol TCP
User Data Protocol
UDP
Internet Protocol IP
Ethernet
IEEE 802.3
twisted
Pair
optical
fiber
Token Ring
DQDB
coaxial cable
Figure 2. Comparison between OSI and TCP/IP Models
TCP/IP Model
The TCP/IP model consists of four layers.
Network Layer
The Network layer combines the Data Link layer
and Physical layer, including the twisted pair
cable, the Physical layer device (PHY), and the
Ethernet Media Access Controller (MAC).
Internet Layer
The Internet layer consists primarily of a
software implementation. The IP header is
evaluated or generated by software.
UDP is a very simple protocol and is perfect for
streaming sequences (e.g., audio or video).
TCP is a highly reliable host-to-host protocol for
a controlled connection. TCP is appropriate for
applications that require guaranteed delivery.
Application Layer
The Application layer includes all available
software implementations (e.g., FTP, HTTP,
SMTP, DNS, …) that make up the lower layers.
These applications can work only in combination
with the API of TCP or UDP, which form the
software implementation of the Transport layer.
Transport Layer
The Transport layer defines what should be done
with the data. This layer is based on the
following two popular protocols:
A Beginner’s Guide to Ethernet 802.3 (EE-269)
TCP/IP Protocols
The third column of Figure 2 shows possible
ways (combinations of sub protocols and
Page 2 of 26
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physical medium) to build a stack. For instance,
FTP, HTTP, or SMTP applications can use TCP,
IP, Ethernet IEEE 802.3, and the twisted-pair
cable as one way.
10Mbit/s
| ---------10Base2
|----------10Base5
|----------10Base-T
|----------FOIRL Æ 10Base-F
There are many more protocols
established as shown in Figure 2.
|--------------10Base-FB
|--------------10Base-FP
|--------------10Base-FL
RFCs
100Mbit/s
RFCs (request for comments) are very popular in
|----------100Base-T4
the Ethernet community and form a type of
regulation system. RFCs describe many of the
Internet protocols as well as standards,
procedures, rules, algorithms, and strategies for
the communication and network area. An RFC
starts as a recommendation; after successful
discussion, it is then approved by the Internet
community.
After
publication,
this
recommendation will be mostly accepted by the
market. For instance, decisions of the IAB
(Internet Architecture Board) are always
published as RCFs.
|----------100Base-X
|--------------100Base-TX
|--------------100Base-FX
1000Mbit/s
|----------1000Base-T
|----------1000Base-X
|--------------1000Base-SX
|--------------1000Base-LX
|--------------1000Base-CX
legend :
2 = thin coaxial
S = short wavelength
The most important protocols are:
5 = thick coaxial
L = long wavelength
RFC 768 User Data Protocol
T = twisted pair
C = short copper cable
RFC 793 Transmission Control Protocol
F = fiber optics
RFC 791 Internet Protocol
RFC 792 Internet Control Massage Protocol
RFC 826 Address Resolution Protocol
RFCs are one of the main ingredients which
contribute to the success story of the Ethernet.
Ethernet Family Tree
The Ethernet family tree (Figure 3) gives an
overview about the class with the reference to the
transport medium. This EE-Note described
10Base-T and 100Base-TX Ethernet only.
A Beginner’s Guide to Ethernet 802.3 (EE-269)
FOIRL = Fiber Optic Inter-Repeater Link
Figure 3. Ethernet Family Tree
Hardware
This section goes deeper in the Physical and Data
Link layer of the OSI model. It also describes the
RJ45 jack, Magnetic, Power over Ethernet (PoE),
and Media Independent Interface (MII) interface.
All frequencies are shown in detail to provide the
reader with a feeling of the signal chain in the
Physical layer and the Data Link layer.
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Overview
Figure 4 shows layer 1 and layer 2 in detail and
describe all sub-layers of the PHY. For further
information, refer to specification IEEE802.32002.
Generally, PHYs work in layer 1, and
Ethernet MACs are placed in layer 2.
depends on the medium only, such as 10BaseT
and 100BaseTX (speed) or 100BaseTX and
100BaseFX (twisted pair - optical), and so on.
This EE-Note describes focuses on the 10BaseT
and the 100BaseTX standards. These standards
use the following coding mechanisms.
10Mbit/s
= Manchester coding
100Mbit/s = 4B/5B coding
Manchester (PCS layer):
802.3 Ethernet uses Manchester Phase Encoding
(MPE) as the support medium for 10BaseT
systems.
A data bit '1' from the level-encoded signal is
represented by a full cycle of the inverted signal
from the master clock, which matches with the '0'
to '1' rise of the phase-encoded signal (i.e., -V in
the first half and +V in the second half of the
signal.
Figure 4. PHY and MAC Layer 100-Mbit Network
*
MII is optional for 10 Mb/s DTEs and for 100 Mb/s systems and
is not specified for 1 Mb/s systems.
** PMD is specified for 100BASE-X only; 100BASE-T4 does not
use this layer.
*** AUTONEG is optional.
The data bit '0' from the level-encoded signal is
represented by a full normal cycle of the master
clock, which gives the '1' to '0' fall of the phaseencoded signal (i.e., +V in the first half and -V in
the second half of the signal.
The standard connection between the MAC and
PHY is the Media Independent Interface (MII).
MII Interface is described later in this document
after the description of PHY tasks. For 10Mbit/s
networks, the PHY works with the Manchester
encode and decode mechanism. In 100-Mbit/s
networks, the supporting tasks are 4B/5B encode
and
decode,
scrambling,
non-return-tozero/inverted (NRZI) coding, and MLT-3
conversion. Auto-Negotiation is based in the
AUTONEG level and works all the time.
Coding Methods
Figure 4 (PHY and MAC layer) shows layer 1 in
detail, It includes the PCS, PMA, PMD, and
Auto-Negotiation units. All these units are
supported by the PHY. The active component
A Beginner’s Guide to Ethernet 802.3 (EE-269)
Figure 5. Manchester Phase Encoding
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Figure 5 shows how MPE operates. The example
at the bottom of the diagram indicates how the
digital bit stream 10110 is encoded.
A transition in the middle of each bit makes it
possible to synchronize the sender and receiver.
At any instant, it can be in one of three states:
transmitting a 0 bit (-0.85V), transmitting a 1 bit
(0.85V) or idle (0 volts). Having a normal clock
signal as well as an inverted clock signal leads to
regular
transitions,
this
means
that
synchronization of clocks is easily achieved even
if there are a series of 0s or 1s. This results in
highly reliable data transmission. The master
clock speed for Manchester encoding always
matches the data speed. This determines the
carrier signal frequency; so, for 10Mbit/s
Ethernet, the carrier is 10 MHz.[11]
NRZI (PMA Layer)
With the introduction of the new 100Base-TX
standard, the coding method switched from
Manchester coding to a non-return-tozero/inverted (NRZI) method.
Logical 1s are now represented by signal edges.
If the signal polarity does not alter, this indicates
a logical 0.
With NRZI, a 1 bit is represented by either
0 volts or +V volts, depending on the previous
level. If the previous voltage was 0 volts, the 1
bit will be represented by +V volts; however, if
the previous voltage was +V volts, the 1 bit will
be represented by 0 volts. A 0 bit is represented
by whatever voltage level was used previously.
This means that only a 1 bit can 'invert' the
voltage and a 0 bit has no effect on the voltage (it
remains the same as the previous bit, whatever
that voltage was).
This can be demonstrated in the following
examples for the binary patterns 10110 and
11111.
A Beginner’s Guide to Ethernet 802.3 (EE-269)
Figure 6. NRZI Coding
Note that a '1' inverts the voltage, and a '0' leaves
it where it is. This means that the encoding is
different for the same binary pattern, depending
on the voltage starting point.
The bandwidth usage is minimized with NRZI,
and frequent voltage changes are required for
clock synchronization.
With fiber, there are no issues with power output,
enabling the use of a higher clock frequency.
With copper, NRZI is not acceptable.[1]
4B/5B Coding Method (PCS Layer)
Obviously, the NRZI method causes less signal
edges than Manchester coding. This condition is
welcome when increasing the bit rate from
10Mbit/s to 100Mbit/s. Zero data has no signal
edges, resulting in new challenges to the clock
synchronization at the receiver side.
To guarantee a minimum of signal edge to the
receiver, the data is not converted into NRZI
form directly. Rather, every 4-bit nibble is
converted into a 5-bit word first. The 5-bit words
provide 25 (32) different bit patterns rather than
just 24 (16). As shown in Table 1, 16 patterns are
used for data coding and seven more patterns
have special meaning. Patterns with fewer than
two 1s are not used at all. This so-called 4B/5B
coding scheme guarantees at least two signal
edges per 5-bit word.
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Code type
4B Code
Name
5B Symbol
data
0000
0
11110
data
0001
1
01001
data
0010
2
10100
data
0011
3
10101
data
0100
4
01010
data
0101
5
01011
data
0110
6
01110
data
0111
7
01111
data
1000
8
10010
data
1001
9
10011
data
1010
A
10110
data
1011
B
10111
data
1100
C
11010
data
1101
D
11011
data
1110
E
11100
data
1111
F
11101
Idle
undefined
I
11111
Start of stream
0101
J
11000
Start of stream
0101
K
10001
End of stream
undefined
T
01101
End of stream
undefined
R
00111
Transmit error
undefined
H
00111
Invalid code
undefined
V
00000
Invalid code
undefined
V
00001
Invalid code
undefined
V
00010
Invalid code
undefined
V
00011
Invalid code
undefined
V
00100
Invalid code
undefined
V
00101
Invalid code
undefined
V
00110
Invalid code
undefined
V
01000
Invalid code
undefined
V
10000
Invalid code
undefined
V
11001
Table 1. 4B/5B Coding
A Beginner’s Guide to Ethernet 802.3 (EE-269)
If we use same procedure for the
100Mbit/s system as used for the
10Mbit/s system, the frequency would
increase up to 125 MHz because of the
additional 5th of the 4B/5B encoding.
The additional implementation of the
Non-Return-to-Zero/Inverted
(NRZI)
feature reduces the maximum frequency
to 62.5 MHz.
Figure 10 shows an overview of all
possible frequencies (theoretical PHY
block diagram in 100Base-TX mode)..
The data sequence in Figure 7 shows the bit
constellation without transformation and
scrambling (i.e., without any alterations).
Due to the changes from 4- to 5-bit data, we get
additional groups. These groups are either 16
data (from 0 to F) or commands with names from
I to H (see Table 1). All other 5-bit combinations
are invalid codes with the name V. Some may be
reserved candidates to represent new codes in the
future.
Start of Stream and End of Stream
The 10Mbit Ethernet does not recognize any
other bit constellations as data, except the Start
of Frame Delimiter command (SFD). With
100Mbit Ethernet, there are more control
commands present (see Table 1) with the
possibility to reduce the dc portions while
sending idle symbols “1111” to the lines. For
declaration of the valid data packet, the “start of
stream” and “end of stream” commands will be
embedded all the time. The gain is less dc
portions on the line and the idle symbols will
used for synchronizations. Figure 7 shows the
complete data stream on the line, with idle
symbols, start of stream (SSD), preamble with
SFD, data on the MAC layer, and the end of
stream data (ESD).[1]
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7Bytes
10101010
SFD
10101010
10101011
JK
Idle
Signal
TR
SSD
Preamble/SFD
7+1Byte
Dst-Addr
6Bytes
Src-Addr
6Bytes
Lenght
2Bytes
CRC
4Byte
Data
46 - 1500 Byte
ESD
Idle
Signal
Data MAC layer
Data on the line
Figure 7. Bytes on the Line, 100Mbit/s
MLT3 and Scrambling (PMD Layer)
The 100Base-TX transfers data with Multilevel
Threshold-3 (MLT3) mechanism at the line.
Three values (+1, 0, and -.1) are possible to code
from NRZI signal and vice versa. The benefit of
the MLT3 method is to half the NRZI transfer
frequency from 62.5 MHz to 31.25 MHz.
In 100Base-TX transmission requires scrambling
to reduce the radiated emissions on the twistedpair cable, but Scrambler and Descrambler are
disabled for 10Base-T operation.[18]
The side-stream scrambler polynomials are
generated by the Physical Medium Depend
(PMD) and has the following equations
gM (x) = 1+ x13 + x33 for master
gM (x) = 1+ x20 + x33 for slave
The implementation of master and slave PHY
side-stream scramblers is made possible by using
a linear-feedback shift register. For an
implementation of this feature, refer to the data
sheet of your favorite PHY.[12]
Comparing Manchester Code, 4B/5B Code, and
MLT-3
All bits will be transformed with NRZI,
MLT-3, and scrambling methods;
therefore, you cannot measure this (e.g.,
with an oscilloscope) at the line.
A Beginner’s Guide to Ethernet 802.3 (EE-269)
clock
bits
0
1
1
1
0
1
0
0
Manchester
Code
NRZI-Code
A
NRZI
and MLT-3
0
-A
Figure 8. Manchester vs. NRZI-Code [9]
The Manchester code changes its value after
each bit of the signal. The NRZI code does the
same with its limited subsequent numbers of
zeros changes the bit deterministic. The 4B/5Bit
coding method used only two subsequent zeros
exempted “Start of Stream” (see Table 1).
The combination of the NRZI and MLT-3
methods reduces the frequency once more, so
that the maximum frequency goes down to
31.25 MHz.
With the behavior of these coding methods, a
clock recovery is always possible. Thus, for
10/100Mbit/s networks (Manchester or 4B/5B
with MLT-3), no additionally clock sources are
necessary.
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One of the most common causes of
performance issues on 10/100Mbit/s
Ethernet links is when one port on the
link operates at half-duplex while the
other port operates at full-duplex.
CSMA/CD
CSMA/CD is supported by the PHY and is
required for networking in case of multiple
accesses.
„
CS = carrier sense
„
MA = multiple access
„
CD = Collision detection
Carrier sense controls the line if there is traffic. If
CS detects the line as free, data transfer can be
started.
If other devices started at the same time, MA is
designed to yield a stable network. The Ethernet
network was designed such that multiple
accesses are normal.
CD detects this multiple access, waits a time
(random number), and gives the command to
restart the procedure of a new data transfer.
Modes: Half Duplex and Full Duplex
Half Duplex
Half duplex is a mode of operation with
CSMA/CD support of a local area network
(LAN) in which Data Terminal Equipment
(DTEs) contend for access to a shared medium.
Multiple, simultaneous transmissions in a halfduplex mode CSMA/CD LAN result in
interference, which requires resolution by the
CSMA/CD access control protocol.
provided that the Physical Layer is capable of
supporting simultaneous transmission and
reception
without
interference
(without
CSMA/CD).
The different modes are described in these IEEE
specifications:
Half-Duplex: 10 MBit/s
(IEEE 802.3)
Full-Duplex: 100 MBit/s
(IEEE 802.3u)
Full-Duplex: Gigabit-Ethernet (IEEE 802.3ab)
is Full-Duplex transfer with all
four pairs
Auto-Negotiation
The Auto-Negotiation function automatically
configures the PHY to optimal link parameters
based on the capabilities of its link partners.[15]
The twisted-pair Auto-Negotiation system
defined in Clause 28 of the standard 802.3-2002
has since been extended to include all three
speeds of Ethernet supported over twisted-pair
cable: 10Mbit/s 10Base-T, 100Mbit/s 100BaseTX and 1000 Mbit/s 1000Base-T. The physical
signaling portion of all three twisted-pair systems
uses the same Auto-Negotiation signaling
standard. While Auto-Negotiation can be
disabled on 10Base-T and 100Base-TX links, it
is required on 1000Base-T systems since Gigabit
Ethernet systems use Auto-Negotiation to
establish the master-slave signal timing control
required to make the link operational.
NLP’s
FLP
Full Duplex
Full duplex is a mode of operation of a network
or Physical Medium Attachment (PMA) that
supports duplex transmission as defined in IEEE
100. Within the scope of this standard, this mode
of
operation
allows
for
simultaneous
communication between a pair of stations,
A Beginner’s Guide to Ethernet 802.3 (EE-269)
Figure 9. Link Pulses
With Auto-Negotiation in place, all three speeds
of twisted-pair Ethernet can determine the
common set of options supported between a pair
of "link partners". Twisted-pair link partners can
Page 8 of 26
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use Auto-Negotiation to figure out the highest
speed that they each support, for example, as
well as automatically setting full-duplex
operation if both ends support that mode.
Auto-Negotiation takes place using Fast Link
Pulse (FLP) signals. These signals are a modified
version of the Normal Link Pulse (NLP) signals
used to verify link integrity. The FLP signals are
generated automatically at power-up, or may be
selected manually through the management
interface to an Auto-Negotiation device. The
FLP signals are used to send information about
device capabilities. The Auto-Negotiation
protocol contains rules for device configuration
based on this information.[10]
Auto-Negotiation Priority
If two Auto-Negotiation devices with multiple
capabilities are connected together, they find
their highest performance mode of operation
based on a priority Table 2, because both
variants are compatible with the first pulse.
The priorities are listed in Table 2 and are ranked
from the highest to the lowest. The full-duplex
mode of operation is given higher priority than
the original (half-duplex) Ethernet, since a fullduplex system can send more data than a halfduplex link operating at the same speed.
Therefore, if the devices at both ends of the link
can support full-duplex operation, and if they
also both support Auto-Negotiation of this
A Beginner’s Guide to Ethernet 802.3 (EE-269)
capability, they will automatically configure
themselves for the higher performance fullduplex mode.
A
100Base-TX Full Duplex
B
100Base-T4
C
100Base-TX
D
10Base-T Full Duplex
E
10Base-T
Table 2. Auto-Negotiation Priority Resolution
The Auto-Negotiation protocol contains
a set of priorities which result in the
devices selecting their highest common
set of abilities. For instance, if both
devices on the link can support 10BaseT and 100Base-TX, the AutoNegotiation protocol at both ends will
connect using the 100Base-TX mode
instead of 10Base-T.[10]
Theoretical Block Diagram of a PHY
The MII and PHY signal chain includes some
different frequencies and data transformations.
Figure 10 shows all possible frequencies and all
blocks of data changes as well. It is merely a
theoretical drawing, but it is representative of the
signal chain of a 100Base-TX data stream in
general.
Page 9 of 26
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PHY
MAC
100BASE-TX Transmitter
4B/5B
encoder
25MHz
by 5 bits
Scrambler
and PISO
125MHz
NRZI
Converter
MLT-3
Converter
NRZI
62,5MHz
MLT-3
TX
31.25MHz Driver
Collosion
MLT-3
31.25MHz
PISO = parallel in serial out
AutoNegotiation
and Link
MII 25MHz
MII
by 4 bits
CSMA/
CD
Manage
ment
magn
etics
MLT-3
RJ45
100BASE-TX Receiver
4B/5B
Decoder
25MHz
by 5 bits
Descrambl
er and
SIPO
125MHz
Clock&Data
recovery
(NRZI
Converter)
NRZI
62,5
MHz
MLT-3
Converter
MLT-3
31.25MHz
RX
Driver
SIPO = serial in parallel out
Figure 10. Theoretical PHY Block Diagram in 100Base-TX Mode
Some PHYs duplex these pins with the
PHY address in order to reduce the pin
count. In this case, internal logic figures
out the PHY address during powerup/reset.
Registers of a MII-Compatible PHY
Each PHY has several registers for its
configuration. The registers are split into IEEEcompliant registers and vendor-specific registers.
For instance, the first 16 registers are compliant
to IEEE, but it depends on the supported features
how many registers are included. This is also
valid for the vendor-specific register; this means
that the number of the included registers depends
on the supported functions of the device. The
vendor-specific registers start from address 16
until address 32, in general.
The registers are accessible via MII Interface
using the Station Management pins. It is a
synchronous serial interface with a clock (MDC)
and a data (MDIO) wire. For more information,
refer to MII Interface later in this EE-Note.
RJ45 and Twisted-Pair Cable
The Medium Dependent Interface (MDI) shown
in Figure 4 uses twisted-pair cable or optical
cable as the transfer medium. The RJ45 jack in
combination with twisted cable is widely used
due to its suppleness, price, and future-proof of
speed. The optical variant is more expensive
because of its need for optical switches, optical
cables, etc.
LED
The PHY can indicate the status of the system
using LEDs. By setting the appropriate registers,
the LEDs will show useful system information,
(e.g., indications for Speed-, Link-, Transmit-,
Receive-, Collision, Duplex Status, and so on).
1: TX +
3: RX +
2: TX -
6: RX –
Figure 11. RJ45 Connector
A Beginner’s Guide to Ethernet 802.3 (EE-269)
Page 10 of 26
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RJ45 connectors are designed for full-duplex
transfers, which means a simultaneously transfer
of transmit and receive data. This is possible
because the connector has two pairs of wires, and
one pair is always needed for one direction
(differential voltage principle). Figure 11 shows
the RJ45 jack in detail.[9]
Crossover Cable
A crossover cable is required for direct
connection between two devices (e.g., server and
client connection) without a switch. Figure 12
shows the pin and color description of the normal
cable as well as the crossover cable. With these
colors, it is easy to distinguish between normal
and crossover cable. For instance, a direct
connection between two PCs (or some
connections of Hubs) requires a crossover cable.
The wires are crossed, so a transfer interface can
reach the receive interface, and vice versa.
0V – (+2.8V)
+
&
-2.8V– 0V
Figure 13. Principle of Twisted-Pair Cable
((+data) +(+noise))-((-data)–(+noise))=2x data
The twisted-pair cable yields an
amplified data signal, and noise does not
influence the data quality.
Can the Same Twisted-Pair Cable be Used for
10Mbit and 100Mbit Ethernet?
The Internet structure is designed to use twistedpair cable for both 10Mbit/s and 100Mbit/s
Ethernet networks. This is possible, because the
protocols changed to 4/5 coding with additional
NRZ-I and MLT-3 transforming for 100Mbit/s
Ethernet, Therefore, the working frequencies
went down to nominal 31.25 MHz on the line.
Magnetics
Figure 12. Cross-Over Cable vs. Normal Cable
What are the Benefits of Using Twisted-Pair Cable?
This system is based on the differential voltage
principle. That means the data is split into two
signals. The twisted-pair cables are the transport
medium. At the end, a comparator circuit
combines the signals together. The following
equation shows that the noise will be abrogated.
A Beginner’s Guide to Ethernet 802.3 (EE-269)
An isolation-magnetic for each RJ45 connector is
required by the IEEE standard. This magnetic
isolates and offsets the signal voltage from MAC
and from RJ45 to protect the MAC and other
devices (e.g., switches) from being damaged by
high voltage at the line. Some RJ45 jacks have
already included the magnetic. For example,
HALO Electronics offers FastJack™ connectors
with integrated high-performance magnetics.
These connectors have a small industry-standard
connector design and work on some EZ-KIT Lite
daughter cards. Figure 14 shows the pin
description of this RJ45 connector with
integrated magnetics.[14]
Page 11 of 26
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Resistive Power Discovery
Resistive power discovery is a method to protect
the PDs while the PSE controls periodically the
line for a 25K-ohm terminating resistor as well
as the present current. If the minimum current is
less than 5 mA-10 mA, the PSE recognizes this
as unplugged PoE devices and stops the support
of power immediately.
Figure 14. Magnetics of the RJ45 Connector
(HALO FastJack™ Series)
Power over Ethernet PoE
Power over Ethernet (PoE) is adapted for
systems in low-power designs (e.g., Webcams
and sensors) and a specified maximum supply
voltage of 48 V dc (IEEE802.3af). PoE systems
contain the Power Sourcing Equipment (PSE)
and Powered Device (PD) and have a
recommended maximum cable length of 100 m.
The maximal power consumption is 15.4 W with
a maximal current of 350 mA for each
consuming device. The cable type is
recommended to CAT-5 with RJ45 jack. PoE is
possible because the two pin pairs of the RJ45
jack are reserved in 10BaseT (10 MBit/s) and
100BaseTX (100 MBit/s) systems. These four
pins will be used for PoE as shown in
Figure 15.[9]
Classes
State
Power supply,
PSE (max)
Take-off power,
PD (max)
0
default
15,4W
0,44W – 12,95W
1
optional
4,0W
0,44W – 3,84W
2
optional
7,0W
3,84W – 6,49W
3
optional
15,4W
6,49W – 12,95W
Table 3. PoE Power Classes
MII Interface
The Media Independent Interface (MII) is an 18pin interface and is designed for communications
between PHY and MAC layers in 10Mbit and
100Mbit Ethernet networks. The transceiver
(PHY) can be connected directly or with cables
and connectors (maximum distance of 50 cm).
MII Connector: Size and Type:
The standard describes a subminiature-Dconnector for the MII, which has 40 pins and is
50 mm x 15 mm. Figure 16 shows this connector.
For a detailed description of this connector, refer
to IEC 1076-3-1001:1995.
20
40
1
21
Figure 16. Miniature-D MII Connector
Table 4 shows the pin descriptions of a
subminiature-D connector.
Figure 15. PoE Connection
A Beginner’s Guide to Ethernet 802.3 (EE-269)
Page 12 of 26
a
Pin
Signal
Pin
Signal
Pin Signal Pin Signal
1
PWR
11
TX_ER
21
PWR
31
Gnd
2
MDIO
12 TX_CLK
22
Gnd
32
Gnd
3
MDC
13
TX_EN
23
Gnd
33
Gnd
4
RXD3
14
TXD3
24
Gnd
34
Gnd
5
RXD2
15
TXD2
25
Gnd
35
Gnd
6
RXD1
16
TXD1
26
Gnd
36
Gnd
7
RXD0
17
TXD0
27
Gnd
37
Gnd
8
RX_DV
18
COL
28
Gnd
38
Gnd
9
RX_CLK
19
CRS
29
Gnd
39
Gnd
10
RX_ER
20
PWR
30
Gnd
40
PWR
Table 4. MII Connector Pin Description
MII
TX_EN
transmit
TXD[3:0]
The TX_CLK signal is generated by the PHY. The
TXD[3:0] and TX_EN signals are generated by the
Reconciliation sub-layer after every group of
four data transactions from the MAC sub-layer to
request the transmission of four data bits on the
physical medium or to stop transmission.
Synchronization between the PHY and the
Reconciliation sub-layer is achieved by way of
the RX_CLK signal (refer to IEEE802.3).
The data transfers between Ethernet MAC and
external PHY are 4 bit (nibble) in each direction,
and the clock frequencies (TCLK and RCLK) are:
Æ 2.5 MHz
„
10Mbit/s
„
100Mbit/s Æ 25 MHz
The transceiver has two status signals for
communications: Transmit Enable (TX_EN) and
Transmit Error (TX_ER). These signals are shown
in Table 5.
TX_EN TX_ER
TXD[3:0]
Description
TX_ER
0
0
0000 - 1111
Interframe gap
TX_CLK
0
1
0000 - 1111
Reserve
1
0
0000 - 1111
Send data
1
1
0000 - 1111
Initiate send error
COL
receive
CSR
RX_DV
Table 5. Transmit Status Signals
RXD[3:0]
On the other side, the receive interface has more
status signals, as described in Table 6.
RX_ER
RX_CLK
RX_EN
RX_ER
RXD[3:0]
0
0
0000 - 1111
Interframe gap
0
1
0000 - 1111
Interframe gap
0
1
0001 - 1101
reserved
Figure 17. Description MII
0
1
1110
Error of the carrier
The standard MII interfaces of an Ethernet MAC
(Figure 17) has three blocks (Transmit, Receive,
and Management). The Management block is
used to configure the PHY only, the other blocks
are used for data transfers, as defined in the
10BaseT
(10 MBit/s)
and
100BaseTX
(100 MBit/s) standard.
0
1
1111
reserved
1
0
0000 - 1111
normal data receive
1
1
0000 - 1111
error receive of data
Data I/O (MDIO)
Data Clock (MDC)
Manage
ment
A Beginner’s Guide to Ethernet 802.3 (EE-269)
Description
Table 6. Receive Status Signals
Page 13 of 26
a
RMII (reduced MII) uses only two data
lines for transmit (TXD[1:0]) and two
for receive (RX[1:0]). This requires
twice the transfer rate:
Protocol Structure
Overview of Layers
This section delves into the structure and
description of the following layers:
10Mbit/s Æ 5 MHz
100Mbit/s Æ 50 MHz
„
MAC layer
„
IP layer
„
UDP layer
„
TCP layer
application layer
DATA
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------DATA
TCP-Header
respectively
UDP-Header
transport layer
DATA
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------DATA
IP Header
TCP/UDP-Header
network layer
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- MAC Header
DATA
IP Header
TCP/UDP-Header
data link layer
FCS
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------100Mbit physical layer
JK
Idle
Signal
TR
SSD
Preamble/SFD
7+1Byte
MAC
Header
IP
Header
TCP/UDP
Header
Data
FCS
ESD
Idle
Signal
Figure 18. Header Structure and Preamble
To understand the Ethernet data stream, it is
essential to know that each layer has its own
structure of headers and data. All implemented
layers analyze or generate the header and passes
A Beginner’s Guide to Ethernet 802.3 (EE-269)
this to the upper or lower layer, depending upon
whether the stack stays in receive or transmit
mode.
Page 14 of 26
a
In transmit mode, the stack gets the data from the
upper layer and builds its a header around this.
Then it passes this information to the lower
layer, which performs the same procedure as the
upper layer, and so forth.
MAC Header
MAC
Header
In receive mode, the layer gets data from the
lower layer, analyzes it, extracts data, and passes
it to the upper layer, and so on.
For the current layers, the gray fields are
always data (see Figure 18). It’s yet
describes with the header name because
of the overview and comprehension.
Physical Layer
Figure 19 shows preamble length. It contains
8 bytes to prepare the data stream. The first
7 bytes provides the synchronization of the PHY
and the 8th byte (SFD). The bit combination “11”
signals the start of value data.
In the physical layer, the DST field
(MAC header) is preceded by a 7-byte
preamble and a 1-byte Start of Frame
Delimiter (SFD).
Pream
ble
MAC
Header
TCP/UDPHeader
10101010
DATA
10101010
7Bytes
Trailer
10101011
SFD
Figure 19. Preamble
IP
Header
DST 6Byte
TCP/UDPHeader
SRC 6Byte
Trailer
DATA
LEN/TYP
2Byte
14Bytes
Figure 20. MAC Header
Figure 20 describes the length of the MAC
header. In the 14-byte MAC header, the first six
bytes are the destination address, the second six
bytes are the source address, and the last two
bytes include the length or the type of service.
Ethernet II uses this field for TYPE information
(note that the IEEE802.3-2002 standard reserved
this field for length information). The difference
between these two frames is quite clear because
numbers from 0-1500 are length numbers and are
related to IEEE802.3-2002. Numbers above 1500
relate to Ethernet II. Table 7 provides an
overview of popular protocols.
EthernetType
Decimal
Protocol
0-05DC
0-1500
Ethernet length
0600
1536
XEROX IDP
0800
2048
IP
0805
2053
X.25
0806
2054
ARP
8035
32821
RARP
809B
32923
AppleTalk
8137
33079
Novell
8138
33080
Novell
Table 7. Overview of the TYP/LENGTH Field in the
MAC Header [13]
Trailer of the MAC Layer
The Trailer field (Figure 21) contains the FCS
Field and the Extension field. This includes the
A Beginner’s Guide to Ethernet 802.3 (EE-269)
Page 15 of 26
a
checksum for verifying the data stream. The
cyclic redundancy check (CRC) length field of
the trailer is 4 bytes long and is generated by the
MAC.[8]
(The first bit of the Destination Address field
corresponds to the x(n–1) term, and the last
bit of the data field corresponds to the x0
term.)
Typically, the content of the Extension
field is zero, except when the
minFrameSize is smaller than the
slotTime (see Figure 22).
3. M(x) is multiplied by 32 and divided by
G(x), producing a remainder R(x) of degree
≤31.
MAC
Header
IP
Header
TCP/UDPHeader
5. The bit sequence is complemented, and the
result is the CRC.
Trailer
DATA
4. The coefficients of R(x) are considered to be
a 32-bit sequence.
Figure 21. Physical Layer Trailer
The 32 bits of the CRC value are placed in the
frame check sequence field so that the x31 term
is the leftmost bit of the first octet, and the x0
term is the rightmost bit of the last octet. (Thus,
the bits of the CRC are transmitted in the order
x31, x30,…, x1, x0). For details, refer to the
IEEE802.3-2002 specification.
Frame Check Sequence (FCS) Field
Frame Check Sequence Validation
xxxxxxxx
xxxxxxxx
Extension
4Bytes
A cyclic redundancy check (CRC) is used by
transmit and receive algorithms to generate a
CRC value for the FCS field. The frame check
sequence (FCS) field contains a 4-octet (32-bit)
cyclic redundancy check (CRC) value. This
value is computed as a function of the contents of
the source address, destination address,
type/length and data (i.e., all fields except the
preamble, SFD, FCS, and extension). The
encoding is defined by the following polynomial.
G(x) = x32 + x26 + x23 + x22 + x16 + x12 + x11
+ x10 + x8 + x7 + x5 + x4 + x2 + x + 1
Mathematically, the CRC value corresponding to
a given frame, as defined by the following
procedure:
1. The first 32
complemented.
bits
of
the
frame
are
2. The n bits of the frame are then considered to
be the coefficients of a polynomial M(x) of
degree n–1.
A Beginner’s Guide to Ethernet 802.3 (EE-269)
FCS validation is essentially identical to FCS
generation. If the bits of the incoming frame
(exclusive of the FCS field itself) do not generate
a CRC value identical to the received CRC, an
error has occurred and the frame is identified as
invalid.
Extension Field
The Extension field follows the FCS field, and is
made up of a sequence of extension bits, which
are readily distinguished from data bits. The
length of the field is in the range of zero to
(slotTime–minFrameSize) bits, inclusive. The
contents of the Extension field are not included
in the FCS computation. These extension bits are
necessary because the CSMA/CD Media Access
mechanism requires that a minimum frame
length of minFrameSize bits be transmitted. If
the slotTime is less than minFrameSize, the
CSMA/CD appends extra bits in units of octets.
The carrier extension is used in half-duplex
mode only.
The Extension field may have a length of greater
than zero when slotTime is smaller than
Page 16 of 26
a
minFrameSize. The length of the Extension field
will be zero under all other conditions. For
Preamble
SFD
DST
SRC
details,
refer
specification.
TYP/Length
to
Data
the
IEEE802.3-2002
FCS
Extension
minFrameSize
slotTime
Figure 22. Frame with Carrier Extension
Invalid MAC Frame
If the MAC frame meets any of the following
conditions, it is considered to be invalid:
„
The frame length is inconsistent with the
length value specified in the length/type
field. If the length/type field contains a type
value above 1536 (0x600), the frame length
is assumed to be consistent with this field and
should not be considered an invalid frame on
this basis.
„
It is not an integral number of octets in
length.
„
The bits of the incoming frame (exclusive of
the FCS field itself) do not generate a CRC
value identical to the one received. The
contents of invalid MAC frames shall not be
passed MAC Control sub-layers. The
occurrence of invalid MAC frames may be
communicated to network management.[12]
Field Name
min
Size
max
Size
min w/o
Preamble
max w/o
Preamble
Preamble
7
7
SFD
1
1
DST
6
6
6
6
SRC
6
6
6
6
Type/Length
2
2
2
2
Data
46
1500
46
1500
Checksum
4
4
4
4
Total
72
1526
64
1518
Table 8. Minimal and Maximal Byte Counts
The minimum size for a data packet sent
over Ethernet 802.3u is 70 bytes, and
the maximum size is 1524 bytes.
Figure 23 and Table 8 give an overview of the
traffic on the line. The calculation of the
minimum bytes is:
18 Bytes = MAC Header + Trailer
MAC
Header
IP
Header
TCP/UDPHeader
DATA
Trailer
The maximum calculation, Min Traffic, is:
18Bytes + Datamin = 18Bytes + 46Bytes
= 64Bytes
14Byte
20Byte
24Byte
DATA
4Byte
46Byte(min) ---------- 1500Byte (max)
The maximum calculation, Max Traffic is:
18Bytes + Data max = 18Bytes + 1500Bytes
= 1518Bytes
Figure 23. Bytes of Data Stream
A Beginner’s Guide to Ethernet 802.3 (EE-269)
Page 17 of 26
a
Internet Layers
IP (Internet Protocol)
ARP (Address Resolution Protocol)
Level 3 of the OSI model also includes the ARP,
which is one part of the basic network system.
The ARP organizes groups of MAC addresses
via a stack. The stack table contains the IP
addresses with its familiar MAC-Addresses. The
system administrator specifies how long the
MAC addresses will be present (stay time). Stay
time is limited in the stack and is normally a
manner of two days. When this time is reached,
the MAC addresses with its IP addresses will be
deleted. By means of this behavior, the Stack is
always minimized.
The basic function works as follows. If anybody
starts a request with a “URL”, the MAC address
is not usually well-known. With the assistance of
the name server, the “URL” is dissolved to its IP
address, but the header still does not contain the
MAC address; instead, the value 0xFFFFFF is
placed on its place. Next, the router starts a
Broadcast to the sub-level where the IP address
shows, and each device takes this request in
these sub-levels. Only the right devices
recognize this request (because of the fitted IP
address) and send back its IP and MAC
address.[5]
ICMP (Internet Control Message Protocol)
Typically, ICMP messages report errors in the
processing of datagrams and use the basic
support of IP as if it were a higher level protocol.
However, ICMP is actually an integral part of IP,
and must be implemented by every IP module
The ICMP is used from gateways to hosts (and
between hosts) to report errors and make routing
suggestions.[3]
A Beginner’s Guide to Ethernet 802.3 (EE-269)
IP Header
TCP/UDP-Header
DATA
20Byte
20Byte
Data
Version
IHL
Type of
Service
Indentification
Time to Live
Total Length
Flags
Protocol
Fragment
Offset
Header Checksum
Source Address
Destination Address
0
16
32 Bit
Figure 24. IP Header
Version: 4 bits
The Version field indicates the format of the
Internet header. This document shows version 4.
IHL: 4 bits
Internet Header Length is the length of the
Internet header in 32-bit words; thus, it points to
the beginning of the data. Note that the minimum
value for a correct header is 5.
Type of Service: 8 bits
Type of Service provides an indication of the
abstract parameters of the quality of service
desired. These parameters are to be used to guide
the selection of the actual service parameters
when transmitting a datagram through a
particular network.
Total Length: 16 bits
Total Length is the length of the datagram,
measured in octets, including Internet header and
data. This field allows the length of a datagram
to be up to 65535 octets. Such long datagrams
are impractical for most hosts and networks. All
hosts must be prepared to accept datagrams of up
to 576 octets (whether they arrive whole or in
Page 18 of 26
a
fragments). It is recommended that hosts only
send datagrams larger than 576 octets if they
have assurance that the destination is prepared to
accept the larger datagrams.
Source Address: 32 bits
Identification: 16 bits
e.g. Class C ; 192.168.0.0
This is an identifying value assigned by the
sender to aid in assembling the fragments of a
datagram.
TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol and
Internet Protocol)
Flags: 3 bits
Bit
Name
Comment
0
reserved
1
DF
0 = may fragment
1 = don’t fragment
2
MF
0 = last fragment
1 = more fragments
must be zero
Table 9. Various Control Flags
Fragment Offset: 13 bits
This field indicates where in the datagram this
fragment belongs.
Time to Live: 8 bits
This field indicates the maximum time the
datagram is allowed to remain in the Internet
system. If this field contains the value zero, the
datagram must be destroyed.
Protocol: 8 bits
This field indicates the next level protocol used
in the data portion of the Internet datagram. The
values for various protocols are specified in
"Assigned Numbers".[12]
Header Checksum: 16 bits
This is a checksum on the header only. Since
some header fields change (e.g., time to live),
this is re-computed and verified at each point that
the Internet header is processed.
e.g. Class A, localhost ; 127.0.0.0
Destination Address: 32 bits
TCP is intended as a highly reliable host-to-host
protocol. It runs on top of IP and provides a
connection-oriented service between the sender
and the receiver. TCP provides guaranteed
delivery, ensuring that the packets are delivered
in sequence. The underlying network IP is highly
unreliable and does not provide any guarantee
for TCP. In order to provide reliability between
the sender and the receiver, TCP uses various
mechanisms, such as sequence numbers,
acknowledgments, 3-way handshakes, and
timers. Table 10 lists all states. Figure 25 details
the state machine.
Closed
FIN Wait 1
Listen
FIN Wait 2
SYN Read
Time Wait
SYN Send
Close Wait
Estab
Last Ack
Closing
Table 10. TCP States
Figure 25 shows the TCP connecting state
diagram, which is described in RFC793. The
arrows are the obligatory direction, and its
descriptions symbolize the control bits of the IP
header as shown in Figure 24. Only the control
bits and the correct acknowledge number gives
the possibility to reach the next state. This
acknowledges number includes the IP header as
well.
Checksum Algorithm
The checksum field is the 16-bit one's
complement of the one's complement sum of all
16-bit words in the header.
A Beginner’s Guide to Ethernet 802.3 (EE-269)
Page 19 of 26
a
Closed
SYN
Rcvd
Listen
send SYN,ACK
rcv ACK of SYN
snd FIN
Estab
rcv FIN
send Ack
Closing
FIN
rcv ACK of FIN
Wait-2
Send ACK
Wait
send FIN
Last
Ack
Time
rcv FIN
Close
close
Send ACK
x
Send
send Ack
rcv FIN
rcv ACK of FIN
SYN
rcv SYN,ACK
Send FIN
Wait-1
close
rcv SYN
send Ack
close
FIN
send
send SYN
send Ack
close
send SYN
close
passive open
rcv SYN
Active open
rcv ACK of FIN
x
Timeout = 2*MSL
Wait
Send ACK
Figure 25. TCP State Diagram
The next section describes the principle of a
handshake mechanism.
Three-Way Handshake
Most network protocols follow the classical
three-way handshake to establish or terminate
connections over a not-so-reliable link. "A"
initiates a connection to "B" by sending a
message. "B" responds with an acknowledgment.
At this point, "A" sends another message back to
"B", confirming that "A" received the
acknowledgment from "B". When "B" receives
A Beginner’s Guide to Ethernet 802.3 (EE-269)
the second message from "A" (confirming B's
ACK), "A" and "B" connect successfully. The
three-way handshake is used by TCP to establish
connections and to terminate connections. When
hosts "A" and "B" want to communicate using
TCP, they must establish a connection using the
three-way handshake. Termination or closing a
connection is also executed using the three-way
handshake.
The hosts on either end identify their TCP
connection with the other using a combination of
IP-address and port number. Upon receiving the
Page 20 of 26
a
first segment from the remote host, a table entry
is created, containing all the parameters
necessary to identify the connection.
Connection Setup
TCP uses the three-way-handshake to set up a
successful connection. When host "A" wants to
open a connection to host "B", "A" sends an
initial segment to "B". This initial segment has
the Initial Sequence Number (ISN) required by
"B" to send data to "A". This initial segment is
identified by the SYN bit set to 1 in the TCP
header. If the SYN bit is set, the 32-bit sequence
number in the header is interpreted as the ISN. In
all other cases (when the SYN bit is not set), the
32-bit sequence number identifies the sequence
number of the first data byte contained in that
segment. Upon receiving the SYN from "A", "B"
must respond with another SYN, and
acknowledge the SYN sent by "A". This is
indicated by SYN+ACK in the state machine
diagram.
Figure 27. Connection Release in TCP
Some TCP/IP stacks go a different way
for releasing the connection while
sending a RESET bit. This cause the
command to release this connection and
move immediately to CLOSED state
again.
TCP Timers
Timers are closely knit with the TCP states.
Some values, but not all, are specified by the
RFC. Some timers are left open to individual
implementations. This document will examine
timers relevant to the discussion, including
timers at connection establishment and timers at
connection termination.
Connection Establishment Timer
Figure 26. Initial Connection Establishment
Connection Release
Connection release in TCP also uses the threeway handshake. Connection release uses the FIN
in place of the SYN.
A Beginner’s Guide to Ethernet 802.3 (EE-269)
This timer is associated with the opening of a
connection. It is started when the SYN is sent
during the initial connection setup. In most TCP
implementations, the value of this timer is set to
75 seconds. If a time-out occurs, the connection
is aborted.
FIN_WAIT Timer
A FIN_WAIT_2 timer is started when a transition
from the FIN_WAIT_1 state to the FIN_WAIT_2
state occurs. The value of this timer is 10
minutes. A TCP segment with a FIN bit set is
expected in the FIN_WAIT_2 state. If a packet
with a FIN bit set is received, the timer is
cancelled. On expiration of the timer, it is
restarted with a value of 75 seconds. If no packet
Page 21 of 26
a
with the FIN bit arrives within this period, the
connection is dropped.
TCP Datagram Structure
TIME_WAIT Timer
A Time-wait timer is started when the connection
enters the TIME-WAIT state. This allows the
removal from the network of all the segments in
transit. The value of the timer is usually set to 2
minutes. On expiration of the timer, the
connection is terminated.
IP Header
TCP-Header
DATA
20Byte
20Byte
Data
KEEP_ALIVE Timer
Usually, TCP does not transmit anything over the
connection when there is no data to send. There
is no way of distinguishing this silence from the
case when the connection is broken. A keep-alive
timer can be set to permit TCP to periodically
check whether the other end of the connection is
still active. The default value of this timer is 2
hours. After the timer expiration, probes are sent
to the remote end. If the remote does not respond
to the probes, the connection is dropped.
Problems with the TCP State Machine
The TCP state machine is shown in Figure 25
with a fixed state for all connection. Each
connection logically starts in the CLOSED state,
and makes transitions as shown in the diagram.
After the connection is terminated, TCP returns
to the CLOSED state. For a detailed description
of the state machine, refer to RFC 793. It is easy
to exploit a few flaws in the state machines, and
create denial-of-service attacks. All denial-ofservice attacks try to stall the TCP state machine
in a particular state, either indefinitely or for a
finite time.[4]
Source Port
Destination Port
Sequence Number
Acknowledgment Number
Data
Offse
t
Reser
ved
U A P R S F
R C S S Y I
G K H T N N
Checksum
Window
Urgent Pointer
Options
Padding
16
0
32Bit
Figure 28. TCP Header
The standard TCP header includes 20
bytes, but may be increased to a
maximum of 60 bytes via the “Options”
fields.
Source Port: 16 bits
This is the source port number.
Destination Port: 16 bits
This is the destination port number.
Sequence Number: 32 bits
This is the sequence number of the first data
octet in this segment (except when SYN is
present). If SYN is present, the sequence number
is the initial sequence number (ISN) and the first
data octet is ISN+1.
Acknowledgment Number: 32 bits
If the ACK control bit is set, this field contains
the value of the next sequence number that the
A Beginner’s Guide to Ethernet 802.3 (EE-269)
Page 22 of 26
a
sender of the segment expects to receive. Once a
connection is established, this is always sent.
Data Offset: 4 bit
This is the number of 32-bit words in the TCP
header. It indicates where the data begins. The
TCP header (even one including options) is an
integral number of 32 bits long.
Reserved: 6 bits
These are reserved for future use and must be
zero.
Control Bits: 6 bits (from left to right):
„
URG: Urgent Pointer field significant
„
ACK: Acknowledgment field significant
„
PSH: Push Function
„
RST: Reset the connection
„
SYN: Synchronize sequence numbers
„
FIN: No more data from sender
Window: 16 bits
This is the number of data octets beginning with
the one indicated in the acknowledgment field
which the sender of this segment is willing to
accept.
Checksum: 16 bits
The checksum field is the 16-bit one's
complement of the one's complement sum of all
16-bit words in the header and text. If a segment
contains an odd number of header and text octets
to be checksummed, the last octet is padded on
the right with zeros to form a 16-bit word for
checksum purposes. The pad is not transmitted as
part of the segment. While computing the
checksum, the checksum field itself is replaced
with zeros.
pointer points to the sequence number of the
octet following the urgent data. This field is
interpreted only in segments with the URG
control bit set.
Options: variable
Options, which may occupy space at the end of
the TCP header, are a multiple of 8 bits in length.
All options are included in the checksum.
UDP
The User Datagram Protocol (UDP) offers only a
minimal transport service, non-guaranteed
datagram delivery, and gives applications direct
access to the datagram service of the IP layer.
UDP is used by applications that do not require
the level of service of TCP or that wish to use
communications services (e.g., multicast or
broadcast delivery) not available from TCP.
UDP is almost a null protocol; the only services
it provides over IP are “checksumming” of data
and multiplexing by port number. Therefore, an
application program running over UDP must deal
directly with end-to-end communication
problems that a connection-oriented protocol
would have handled (e.g., retransmission for
reliable
delivery,
“packetization”
and
reassembly, flow control, congestion avoidance,
etc.) when required. The fairly complex coupling
between IP and TCP will be mirrored in the
coupling between UDP and many applications
using UDP.[2]
Urgent Pointer: 16 bits
This field communicates the current value of the
urgent pointer as a positive offset from the
sequence number in this segment. The urgent
A Beginner’s Guide to Ethernet 802.3 (EE-269)
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a
UDP Datagram Structure
Applications Layers Protocols
IP Header
UDP-Header
DATA
20Byte
8Byte
Data
Source Port
Destination Port
Length
Checksum
0
16
32Bit
Figure 29. UDP Header
Source Port
Source port is an optional field. When
meaningful, it indicates the port of the sending
process.
With so many emerging applications come
different demands and many kinds of Internet
protocols. For example, FTP is used for data
transfers, HTTP is required to display some Web
pages, and SMTP is used to send e-mails.
Figure 2 merely shows a couple of application
protocols, because lists of all protocols are not
meaningful here due to the diversity of
applications. In general, you can distinguish
between a server application and a client
application. Servers are described as daemons
(e.g., HTTPd), and clients normally do not
include the character “d” (e.g., HTTP). This is
important, because servers and clients must
understand the same protocol but their tasks are
very diverse. In general, servers have to serve
more clients; as a management system, servers
should provide sources of information like a kind
of database with file systems and so on. Thus,
source code size is bigger than a client
application.
Destination Port
Destination port has a meaning within the
context of a particular Internet destination
address.
Length:
Length is the length in octets of this user
datagram, including this header and the data.
(This means the minimum value of the length is
eight.)
Checksum
Checksum is the 16-bit one's complement of the
one's complement sum of a pseudo header of
information from the IP header, the UDP header,
and the data, padded with zero octets at the end
(if necessary) to make a multiple of two octets.
A Beginner’s Guide to Ethernet 802.3 (EE-269)
Conclusion
The higher protocols are not described in this
EE-Note, otherwise; this EE-Note would be
enormously long. A good reference source is the
Internet, because it is one of the best and fastest
ways to get more details and information.
Always use RFCs for successful implementations
in both software and hardware projects.
Some useful hyperlinks that can help you design
Ethernet applications follow:
Page 24 of 26
a
References
[1] Data Encoding Techniques (http://www.rhyshaden.com/encoding.htm). Rhys B Haden, East Sussex.
[2] User Datagram Protocol (RFC 768). Aug 1980. J. Postel ISI 28.
[3] Internet Control Message Protocol (RFC 792). Sep 1981. J. Postel, Network Working Group.
[4] Transmission Control Protocol (RFC 793). Sep 1981. Information Sciences Institute, University of Southern California.
[5] An Ethernet Address Resolution Protocol (RFC 826). Nov 1982. David C. Plummer, Network Working Group.
[6] TCP/IP Security (http://www.linuxsecurity.com/resource_files/documentation/tcpip-security.html). Guardian Digital, Inc.
[7] RFC Source Book (http://www.networksorcery.com/enp/default0602.htm). Network Sorcery, Inc.
[8] Ethernet References (http://www.geocities.com/SiliconValley/Haven/4824/ethernet.html). William F. Alexander.
[9] Grundlagen Computernetzwerke (http://www.netzmafia.de/skripten/netze/).
Jürgen Plate, University of Applied Sciences, Munich.
[10] Auto-Negotiation (http://www.ethermanage.com/ethernet/autoneg.html). Charles Spurgeon, Bellereti.
[11] Principles of Data Communications: Manchester Phase Encoding (http://www.it.jcu.edu.au/Subjects/cp3070/20022/resources/Lectures/2_DirectLinkNetworksNotes-2.pdf). School of Information Technology, James Cook University.
[12] IEEE Std 802.3-2002 Standard for Information Technology. IEEE Standards Association.
[13] Ethernet. Jan 2002. Jörg Rech, Verlag Heinz Heise.
[14] FastJack™ Single Port 10/100BASE-TX RJ45 Connectors. Rev 7/03. Halo Electronics. Inc.
[15] LAN83C185 Datasheet. Rev 0.8, Nov 2004. SMSC.
[16] ADSP-BF537 Blackfin Processor Hardware Reference. Prelim Rev 1.1, Jan 2005. Analog Devices Inc.
[17] Ethernet Network Interface for ADSP-BF535 Blackfin Processors (EE-214). Dec 2003. Analog Devices Inc.
[18] L80227 10BASE-T/100BASE-TX Ethernet PHY Technical Manual. Oct 2002. LSI Logic Corporation.
Network Sniffer
This tool shows exactly the data of the networking traffic. It is ideal for people working with binaries.
-
ETHEREAL
o
-
http://www.tcpdump.org
, a free network analyzer for Unix
WINDUMP
o
-
, a free Windows und Unix software
TCPDUMP
o
-
http://www.ethereal.com
http://netgroup-serv.polito.it/windump/
, a free version of tcpdump for Windows machines
ANALYZER
o
http://analyzer.polito.it
, a free Windows software (Netgroup, Pilotecnico di Torino)
A Beginner’s Guide to Ethernet 802.3 (EE-269)
Page 25 of 26
a
RFC Source Books
These web pages are very useful for searching RFCs. Normally, you will find a small description of each
RFC and a download .TXT file of the original version.
o
o
http://www.rfc-editor.org
http://www.networksorcery.com
Figures and Tables References
20 -MAC Header
Figures
1 - Ethernet History
21 - Physical Layer Trailer
2 - Comparison between OSI and TCP/IP Models
22 - Frame with Carrier Extension
3 - Ethernet History
23 - Bytes of Data Stream
4 - PHY and MAC Layer 100-Mbit Network
24 - IP Header
5 - Manchester Phase Encoding
25 - TCP State Diagram
6 - NRZI Coding
26 - Initial Connection Establishment
7 - Bytes on the Line, 100Mbit/s
27 - Connection Release in TCP
8 - Manchester vs. NRZI-Code [9]
28 - TCP Header
9 - Link Pulses
29 - UDP Header
10 -Theoretical PHY Block Diagram in 100Base-TX Mode
11- RJ45 Connector
Tables
1 - 4B/5B Coding
12 - Cross-Over Cable vs. Normal Cable
2 - Auto-Negotiation Priority Resolution
13 - Principle of Twisted-Pair Cable
3 - PoE Power Classes
14 - Magnetics of the RJ45 Connector
(HALO FastJack™ Series)
4 - MII Connector Pin Description
5 - Transmit Status Signals
15 - PoE Connection
6 - Receive Status Signals
16 - Miniature-D MII Connector
17 - Description MII
7 - Overview of the TYP/LENGTH Field in the MAC
Header [13]
18 - Header Structure and Preamble
8 - Minimal and Maximal Byte Counts
19 -Preamble
9 - Various Control Flags
Document History
Revision
Description
Rev 1 – June 06, 2005
by R. Neuhaus
Initial Release
A Beginner’s Guide to Ethernet 802.3 (EE-269)
Page 26 of 26
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