M AN843 Speed Control of 3-Phase Induction Motor Using PIC18 Microcontrollers Author: Padmaraja Yedamale Microchip Technology Inc. INTRODUCTION Induction motors are the most widely used motors for appliances, industrial control, and automation; hence, they are often called the workhorse of the motion industry. They are robust, reliable, and durable. When power is supplied to an induction motor at the recommended specifications, it runs at its rated speed. However, many applications need variable speed operations. For example, a washing machine may use different speeds for each wash cycle. Historically, mechanical gear systems were used to obtain variable speed. Recently, electronic power and control systems have matured to allow these components to be used for motor control in place of mechanical gears. These electronics not only control the motor’s speed, but can improve the motor’s dynamic and steady state characteristics. In addition, electronics can reduce the system’s average power consumption and noise generation of the motor. Induction motor control is complex due to its nonlinear characteristics. While there are different methods for control, Variable Voltage Variable Frequency (VVVF) or V/f is the most common method of speed control in open loop. This method is most suitable for applications without position control requirements or the need for high accuracy of speed control. Examples of these applications include heating, air conditioning, fans and blowers. V/f control can be implemented by using low cost PICmicro microcontrollers, rather than using costly digital signal processors (DSPs). Many PICmicro microcontrollers have two hardware PWMs, one less than the three required to control a 3-phase induction motor. In this application note, we will generate a third PWM in software, using a general purpose timer and an I/O pin resource that are readily available on the PICmicro microcontroller. This application note also covers the basics of induction motors and different types of induction motors. Note: Refer to Appendix C for glossary of technical terms. 2002 Microchip Technology Inc. Induction Motor Basics NAMEPLATE PARAMETERS A typical nameplate of an induction motor lists the following parameters: • • • • • • • • • Rated terminal supply voltage in Volts Rated frequency of the supply in Hz Rated current in Amps Base speed in RPM Power rating in Watts or Horsepower (HP) Rated torque in Newton Meters or Pound-Inches Slip speed in RPM, or slip frequency in Hz Winding insulation type - Class A, B, F or H Type of stator connection (for 3-phase only), star (Y) or delta (∆) When the rated voltage and frequency are applied to the terminals of an induction motor, it draws the rated current (or corresponding power) and runs at base speed and can deliver the rated torque. MOTOR ROTATION When the rated AC supply is applied to the stator windings, it generates a magnetic flux of constant magnitude, rotating at synchronous speed. The flux passes through the air gap, sweeps past the rotor surface and through the stationary rotor conductors. An electromotive force (EMF) is induced in the rotor conductors due to the relative speed differences between the rotating flux and stationary conductors. The frequency of the induced EMF is the same as the supply frequency. Its magnitude is proportional to the relative velocity between the flux and the conductors. Since the rotor bars are shorted at the ends, the EMF induced produces a current in the rotor conductors. The direction of the rotor current opposes the relative velocity between rotating flux produced by stator and stationary rotor conductors (per Lenz's law). To reduce the relative speed, the rotor starts rotating in the same direction as that of flux and tries to catch up with the rotating flux. But in practice, the rotor never succeeds in 'catching up' to the stator field. So, the rotor runs slower than the speed of the stator field. This difference in speed is called slip speed. This slip speed depends upon the mechanical load on the motor shaft. DS00843A-page 1 AN843 The frequency and speed of the motor, with respect to the input supply, is called the synchronous frequency and synchronous speed. Synchronous speed is directly proportional to the ratio of supply frequency and number of poles in the motor. Synchronous speed of an induction motor is shown in Equation 1. Note 1: Percentage of slip varies with load on the motor shaft. 2: As the load increases, the slip also increases. INDUCTION MOTOR TYPES EQUATION 1: Based on the construction of the rotor, induction motors are broadly classified in two categories: squirrel cage motors and slip ring motors. The stator construction is the same in both motors. Synchronous Speed (Ns) = 120 x F/P where: F = rated frequency of the motor P = number of poles in the motor Squirrel Cage Motor Note 1: The number of poles is the number of parallel paths for current flow in the stator. 2: The number of poles is always an even number to balance the current flow. 3: 4-pole motors are the most widely used motors. Synchronous speed is the speed at which the stator flux rotates. Rotor flux rotates slower than synchronous speed by the slip speed. This speed is called the base speed. The speed listed on the motor nameplate is the base speed. Some manufacturers also provide the slip as a percentage of synchronous speed as shown in Equation 2. Base Speed N = Synchronous Speed – Slip Speed (Synchronous Speed – Base Speed) x 100 Synchronous Speed FIGURE 1: a) b) EQUATION 2: Percent Slip = Almost 90% of induction motors are squirrel cage motors. This is because the squirrel cage motor has a simple and rugged construction. The rotor consists of a cylindrical laminated core with axially placed parallel slots for carrying the conductors. Each slot carries a copper, aluminum, or alloy bar. If the slots are semiclosed, then these bars are inserted from the ends. These rotor bars are permanently short-circuited at both ends by means of the end rings, as shown in Figure 1. This total assembly resembles the look of a squirrel cage, which gives the motor its name. The rotor slots are not exactly parallel to the shaft. Instead, they are given a skew for two main reasons: To make the motor run quietly by reducing the magnetic hum. To help reduce the locking tendency of the rotor. Rotor teeth tend to remain locked under the stator teeth due to direct magnetic attraction between the two. This happens if the number of stator teeth are equal to the number of rotor teeth. TYPICAL SQUIRREL CAGE ROTOR Conductors End rings Shaft Bearings Skewed Slots DS00843A-page 2 2002 Microchip Technology Inc. AN843 Slip Ring Motors The windings on the rotor are terminated to three insulated slip rings mounted on the shaft with brushes resting on them. This allows an introduction of an external resistor to the rotor winding. The external resistor can be used to boost the starting torque of the motor and change the speed-torque characteristic. When running under normal conditions, the slip rings are shortcircuited, using an external metal collar, which is pushed along the shaft to connect the rings. So, in normal conditions, the slip ring motor functions like a squirrel cage motor. SPEED-TORQUE CHARACTERISTICS OF INDUCTION MOTORS Figure 2 shows the typical speed-torque characteristics of an induction motor. The X axis shows speed and slip. The Y axis shows the torque and current. The characteristics are drawn with rated voltage and frequency supplied to the stator. During start-up, the motor typically draws up to seven times the rated current. This high current is a result of stator and rotor flux, the losses in the stator and rotor windings, and losses in the bearings due to friction. This high starting current overcomes these components and produces the momentum to rotate the rotor. At start-up, the motor delivers 1.5 times the rated torque of the motor. This starting torque is also called locked rotor torque (LRT). As the speed increases, the current drawn by the motor reduces slightly (see Figure 2). FIGURE 2: The current drops significantly when the motor speed approaches ~80% of the rated speed. At base speed, the motor draws the rated current and delivers the rated torque. At base speed, if the load on the motor shaft is increased beyond its rated torque, the speed starts dropping and slip increases. When the motor is running at approximately 80% of the synchronous speed, the load can increase up to 2.5 times the rated torque. This torque is called breakdown torque. If the load on the motor is increased further, it will not be able to take any further load and the motor will stall. In addition, when the load is increased beyond the rated load, the load current increases following the current characteristic path. Due to this higher current flow in the windings, inherent losses in the windings increase as well. This leads to a higher temperature in the motor windings. Motor windings can withstand different temperatures, based on the class of insulation used in the windings and cooling system used in the motor. Some motor manufacturers provide the data on overload capacity and load over duty cycle. If the motor is overloaded for longer than recommended, then the motor may burn out. As seen in the speed-torque characteristics, torque is highly nonlinear as the speed varies. In many applications, the speed needs to be varied, which makes the torque vary. We will discuss a simple open loop method of speed control called, Variable Voltage Variable Frequency (VVVF or V/f) in this application note. SPEED-TORQUE CHARACTERISTICS OF INDUCTION MOTORS Current Torque Breakdown Torque Locked Rotor Torque Torque Current Full Load Torque TRATED IRATED Pull-up Torque NB NS Slip Speed 2002 Microchip Technology Inc. DS00843A-page 3 AN843 V/f CONTROL THEORY EQUATION 3: As we can see in the speed-torque characteristics, the induction motor draws the rated current and delivers the rated torque at the base speed. When the load is increased (over-rated load), while running at base speed, the speed drops and the slip increases. As we have seen in the earlier section, the motor can take up to 2.5 times the rated torque with around 20% drop in the speed. Any further increase of load on the shaft can stall the motor. The torque developed by the motor is directly proportional to the magnetic field produced by the stator. So, the voltage applied to the stator is directly proportional to the product of stator flux and angular velocity. This makes the flux produced by the stator proportional to the ratio of applied voltage and frequency of supply. By varying the frequency, the speed of the motor can be varied. Therefore, by varying the voltage and frequency by the same ratio, flux and hence, the torque can be kept constant throughout the speed range. FIGURE 3: Stator Voltage (V) ∝ [Stator Flux(φ)] x [Angular Velocity (ω)] V ∝ φ x 2πf φ ∝ V/f This makes constant V/f the most common speed control of an induction motor. Figure 3 shows the relation between the voltage and torque versus frequency. Figure 3 demonstrates voltage and frequency being increased up to the base speed. At base speed, the voltage and frequency reach the rated values as listed in the nameplate. We can drive the motor beyond base speed by increasing the frequency further. However, the voltage applied cannot be increased beyond the rated voltage. Therefore, only the frequency can be increased, which results in the field weakening and the torque available being reduced. Above base speed, the factors governing torque become complex, since friction and windage losses increase significantly at higher speeds. Hence, the torque curve becomes nonlinear with respect to speed or frequency. SPEED-TORQUE CHARACTERISTICS WITH V/f CONTROL Voltage Voltage Vrated Torque Torque oltage Voltage Vmin fmin frated(base speed) fmax Frequency Frequency DS00843A-page 4 2002 Microchip Technology Inc. AN843 IMPLEMENTATION time, a maximum of three switches will be on, either one upper and two lower switches, or two upper and one lower switch. Power Standard AC supply is converted to a DC voltage by using a 3-phase diode bridge rectifier. A capacitor filters the ripple in the DC bus. This DC bus is used to generate a variable voltage and variable frequency power supply. A voltage source power inverter is used to convert the DC bus to the required AC voltage and frequency. In summary, the power section consists of a power rectifier, filter capacitor, and power inverter. The motor is connected to the inverter as shown in Figure 4. The power inverter has 6 switches that are controlled in order to generate an AC output from the DC input. PWM signals generated from the microcontroller control these 6 switches. The phase voltage is determined by the duty cycle of the PWM signals. In FIGURE 4: When the switches are on, current flows from the DC bus to the motor winding. Because the motor windings are highly inductive in nature, they hold electric energy in the form of current. This current needs to be dissipated while switches are off. Diodes connected across the switches give a path for the current to dissipate when the switches are off. These diodes are also called freewheeling diodes. Upper and lower switches of the same limb should not be switched on at the same time. This will prevent the DC bus supply from being shorted. A dead time is given between switching off the upper switch and switching on the lower switch and vice versa. This ensures that both switches are not conductive when they change states from on to off, or vice versa. 3-PHASE INVERTER BRIDGE DC+ PWM1 PWM2 PWM3 Motor PWM4 PWM5 PWM6 DC- 2002 Microchip Technology Inc. DS00843A-page 5 AN843 Control To derive a varying AC voltage from the power inverter, pulse width modulation (PWM) is required to control the duration of the switches’ ON and OFF times. Three PWMs are required to control the upper three switches of the power inverter. The lower switches are controlled by the inverted PWM signals of the corresponding upper switch. A dead time is given between switching off the upper switch and switching on the lower switch and vice versa, to avoid shorting the DC bus. PIC18XXX2 has two 10-bit PWMs implemented in the hardware. The PWM frequency can be set using the PR2 register. This frequency is common for both PWMs. The upper eight bits of duty cycle are set using the register CCPRxL. The lower two bits are set in CCPxCON<5:4>. The third PWM is generated in the software and output to a port pin. SOFTWARE PWM IMPLEMENTATION Timer2 is an 8-bit timer used to control the timing of hardware PWMs. The main processor is interrupted when the Timer2 value matches the PR2 value, if a corresponding interrupt enable bit is set. Timer1 is used for setting the duty cycle of the software PWM (PWM3). In the Timer2 to PR2 match Interrupt Service Routine (ISR), the port pin designated for PWM3 is set to high. Also, the Timer1 is loaded with the value which corresponds to the PWM3 duty cycle. In Timer1 overflow interrupt, the port pin designated for PWM3 is cleared. As a result, the software and hardware PWMs have the same frequency. The software PWM will lag by a fixed delay compared to the hardware PWMs. To minimize the phase lag, the Timer2 to PR2 match interrupt should be given highest priority while checking for the interrupt flags in the ISR. FIGURE 5: The ISR has a fixed entry latency of 3 instruction cycles. If the interrupt is due to the Timer2 to PR2 match then it takes 3 instruction cycles to check the flag and branch to the code section where the Timer2 to PR2 match task is present. Therefore, this makes a minimum of six instruction cycles delay, or phase shift between the hardware PWM and software PWM, as shown in Figure 5. The falling edge of software PWM trails the hardware PWM by 8 instruction cycles. In the ISR, the TMR2 to PR2 match has a higher priority than the Timer1 overflow interrupt. Thus, the control checks for TMR2 to PR2 match interrupt first. This adds 2 instruction cycles when the interrupt is caused by Timer1 overflow, making a total delay of 8 instruction cycles. Figure 5 shows the hardware PWM and PWM generated by software for the same duty cycle. A sine table is created in the program memory, which is transferred to the data memory upon initialization. Three registers are used as the offset to the table. Each of these registers will point to one of the values in the table, such that they will have a 120 degrees phase shift to each other as shown in the Figure 6. This forms three sine waves, with 120 degrees phase shift to each other. After every Timer0 overflow interrupt, the value pointed to by the offset registers on the sine table is read. The value read from the table is scaled based on the motor frequency input, by multiplying by the frequency input value to find the ratio of PWM, with respect to the maximum DC bus. This value is loaded to the corresponding PWM duty cycle registers. Subsequently, the offset registers are updated for next access. If the direction key is set to the motor to reverse rotation, then PWM1 and PWM2 duty cycle values are loaded to PWM2 and PWM1 duty cycle registers, respectively. Typical code section of accessing and scaling of the PWM duty cycle is as shown in Example 1. TIMING DIAGRAM OF HARDWARE AND SOFTWARE PWMS TMR2 to PR2 Match Timer1 Overflow Hardware PWM Software PWM 6 Cycles Delay 8 Cycles Delay DS00843A-page 6 2002 Microchip Technology Inc. AN843 FIGURE 6: REALIZATION OF 3-PHASE SINE WAVEFORM FROM A SINE TABLE Sine table+offset1 Sine table+offset2 Sine table+offset3 DC+ DC- 2002 Microchip Technology Inc. DS00843A-page 7 AN843 EXAMPLE 1: SINE TABLE UPDATE ;********************************************************************************************** ;This routine updates the PWM duty cycle value according to the offset to the table by ;0-120-240 degrees. ;This routine scales the PWM value from the table based on the frequency to keep V/F constant. ;********************************************************************************************** lfsr FSR0,(SINE_TABLE) ;Initialization of FSR0 to point the starting location of ;Sine table ;---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------UPDATE_PWM_DUTYCYCLES movf TABLE_OFFSET1,W ;Offset1 value is loaded to WREG movf PLUSW0,W ;Read the value from the table start location + offset1 bz PWM1_IS_0 mulwf FREQUENCY ;Table value X Frequency to scale the table value movff PRODH,CCPR1L_TEMP ;based on the frequency bra UPDATE_PWM2 PWM1_IS_0 clrf CCPR1L_TEMP ;Clear the PWM1 duty cycle register ;---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------UPDATE_PWM2 movf TABLE_OFFSET2,W ;Offset2 value is loaded to WREG movf PLUSW0,W ;Read the value from the table start location + offset2 bz PWM2_IS_0 ; mulwf FREQUENCY ; Table value X Frequency to scale the table value movff PRODH,CCPR2L_TEMP ;based on the frequency bra UPDATE_PWM3 PWM2_IS_0 clrf CCPR2L_TEMP ;Clear the PWM2 duty cycle register ;---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------UPDATE_PWM3 movf TABLE_OFFSET3,W ;Offset2 value is loaded to WREG movf PLUSW0,W ;Read the value from the table start location + offset3 bz PWM3_IS_0 mulwf FREQUENCY ;Table value X Frequency to scale the table value comf PRODH,PWM3_DUTYCYCLE;based on the frequency bra SET_PWM12 PWM3_IS_0 clrf PWM3_DUTYCYCLE ;Clear the PWM3 duty cycle register ;--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------SET_PWM12 btfss FLAGS,MOTOR_DIRECTION ;Is the motor direction = Reverse? bra ROTATE_REVERSE ;Yes movff CCPR1L_TEMP,CCPR1L ;No, Forward movff CCPR2L_TEMP,CCPR2L ;Load PWM1 & PWM2 to duty cycle registers bsf PORT_LED1,LED1 ;LED1-ON indicating motor running forward return ;---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ROTATE_REVERSE ;Motor direction reverse movff CCPR2L_TEMP,CCPR1L ;Load PWM1 & PWM2 to duty cycle registers movff CCPR1L_TEMP,CCPR2L bcf PORT_LED1,LED1;LED1-OFF indicating motor running reverse return ;---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- DS00843A-page 8 2002 Microchip Technology Inc. AN843 The three PWMs are connected to the driver chip (IR21362). These three PWMs switch the upper three switches of the power inverter. The lower switches are controlled by the inverted PWM signals of the corresponding upper switch. The driver chip generates 200 ns of dead time between upper and lower switches of all phases. quency, and the number of sine table entries. New PWM duty cycles are loaded to the corresponding duty cycle registers during the Timer0 overflow Interrupt Service Routine. So, the duty cycle will remain the same until the next Timer0 overflow interrupt occurs, as shown in Figure 7. A potentiometer connected to a 10-bit ADC channel on the PICmicro microcontroller determines the motor speed. The microcontroller uses the ADC results to calculate the duty cycle of the PWMs and thus, the motor frequency. The ADC is checked every 2.2 milliseconds, which provides smooth frequency transitions. Timer0 is used for the timing of the motor frequency. The Timer0 period is based on the ADC result, the main crystal fre- EQUATION 4: FIGURE 7: Timer0 Reload Value = FFFFh – FOSC 4 Sine samples per cycle x Timer0 Prescaler x ADC TIMER0 OVERFLOW AND PWM Timer2 to PR2 match Interrupt Timer1 overflow Interrupt Timer0 overflow Interrupt Average voltage Volts Volts Time Time 2002 Microchip Technology Inc. DS00843A-page 9 AN843 System Overview time between the respective higher and lower PWMs. This driver needs an enable signal, which is controlled by the microcontroller. The IGBT driver has two FAULT monitoring circuits, one for over current and the second for under voltage. Upon any of these FAULTS, the outputs are driven low and the FAULT pin shows that a FAULT has occurred. If the FAULT is due to the over current, it can be automatically reset after a fixed time delay, based on the resistor and capacitor time constant connected to the RCIN pin of the driver. Figure 8 shows an overall block diagram of the power and control circuit. A potentiometer is connected to AD Channel 0. The PICmicro microcontroller reads this input periodically to get the new speed or frequency reference. Based on this AD result, the firmware determines the scaling factor for the PWM duty cycle. The Timer0 reload value is calculated based on this input to determine the motor frequency. PWM1 and PWM2 are the hardware PWMs (CCP1 and CCP2). PWM3 is the PWM generated by software. The output of these three PWMs are given to the higher and lower input pins of the IGBT driver as shown in Figure 8. The IGBT driver has inverters on the lower input pins and adds dead- FIGURE 8: The main 3-phase supply is rectified by using the 3-phase diode bridge rectifier. The DC ripple is filtered by using an electrolytic capacitor. This DC bus is connected to the IGBTs for inverting it to a V/f supply. BLOCK DIAGRAM OF 3-PHASE INDUCTION MOTOR CONTROL 3-Phase AC Input 3-Phase Diode Bridge Rectifier Capacitor Potentiometer Fwd/Rev Run/Stop ADC PWM1 PWM2 PWM3 PIC18XXX En FAULT HIN1 HIN2 HIN3 LIN1 LIN2 LIN3 En HOut1 IGBTH1 HOut2 IGBTH2 HOut3 IGBTH3 LOut1 IGBTL1 IGBT Driver LOut2 IGBTL2 LOut3 IGBTL3 FAULT CONCLUSION To control the speed of a 3-phase induction motor in open loop, supply voltage and frequency need to be varied with constant ratio to each other. A low cost solution of this control can be implemented in a PICmicro microcontroller. This requires three PWMs to control a 3-phase inverter bridge. Many PICmicro microcontrollers have two hardware PWMs. The third PWM is generated in software and output to a port pin. DS00843A-page 10 3-Phase Induction Motor 3-Phase Inverter TABLE 1: MEMORY REQUIREMENTS Memory Bytes Program 0.9 Kbytes Data 36 bytes 2002 Microchip Technology Inc. AN843 APPENDIX A: TABLE A-1: TEST RESULTS TEST RESULTS Test # Set Frequency (Hz) Set Speed (RPM) Actual Speed (RPM) Speed Regulation (%) 1 7.75 223 208 -1.875 2 10.5 302 286 -0.89 3 13.25 381 375 -0.33 4 16.75 482 490 +0.44 5 19.0 546 548 +0.11 6 20.75 597 590 +0.39 7 24.0 690 668 -1.22 8 27.0 776 743 -1.83 9 29.0 834 834 0.0 10 33.0 949 922 -1.5 11 38.0 1092 1078 0.78 12 45.75 1315 1307 -0.44 13 55.5 1596 1579 -0.94 14 58.25 1675 1644 -1.72 15 60 1725 1712 -0.72 Above tests are conducted on the motor with the following specifications: • • • • • • Terminal voltage: 208-220 Volts Frequency: 60 Hz Horsepower: ½ HP Speed: 1725 RPM Current: 2.0 Amps Frame: 56 NEMA 2002 Microchip Technology Inc. DS00843A-page 11 DS00843A-page 12 C14 R8 S2 4.7K +5V R1 U1-32,31 4.7K U2-7 0.1 µF 0.1 µF 0.1 µF U1-12,12 C22 FAULT C11 VDD 0.1 µF 1N914 D5 C10 4 3 R3 4.7K S1 R9 MCLR S3 4.7K R10 10K VSS EN FAULT RB5 RB6 RB7 LED1 LED2 S2 S1 AN0 MCLR VSS VSS 20 19 26 25 24 23 18 17 16 15 OSC1 C13 15 pF 15 pF OSC1 C12 20 MHz Y1 RC3 RC2 RC1 RXD TXD R2 5K OSC1 OSC2 OSC2 13 OSC2 14 PIC18F452 RA0 RA1 RA2 RA3 RA4 RA5 RB0 RB1 RB2 RB3 RB4 RB5 RB6 RB7 S2 2 3 4 5 6 7 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 1 RE2 RE1 RE0 RD7 RD6 RD5 RD4 RD3 RD2 RD1 RD0 RC7 RC6 RC5 RC4 RC3 RC2 RC1 RC0 10 9 8 30 29 28 27 22 CCW CW AN0 LED2 LED1 VSS OSC2 OSC1 LED1 LED2 S2 S1 AN0 MCLR VDD RA0 RA1 RA2 RA3 RA4 RA5 MCLR VDD R5 470 470 R6 U2 RC0 RC1 RC2 RC3 RC4 RC5 RC6 RC7 RB0 RB1 RB2 RB3 RB4 RB5 RB6 RB7 D2 D1 PIC16C73 8 VSS 19 VSS 10 OSC2 9 OSC1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 20 18 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 TXD RXD RC1 RC2 RC3 21 22 23 24 EN 25 FAULT 26 RB5 27 RB6 28 RB7 FIGURE B-1: MCLR VDD U1 APPENDIX B: VDD 1 2 S1 +5V 11 VDD 32 VDD AN843 MOTOR CONTROL SCHEMATICS CONTROL AND DISPLAY 2002 Microchip Technology Inc. 2002 Microchip Technology Inc. 10K 6.8K R22 CN5 1 2 Optional C23 0.1 µF C24 100 µF 1 IN COM 2 0.1 µF C25 OUT 3 LM340T-5.0 VR2 R40 D6 470 +5V VSS VDD Jumper FIGURE B-2: R7 +20V AN843 POWER SUPPLY DS00843A-page 13 EN FAULT RC2 RC1 RC3 R21 +5V C21 R20 +20V C26 1 3 5 7 9 11 J1 2 4 6 8 10 12 1 VCC RCIN FAULT EN ITRIP VB1 HIN1 HIN2 HIN3 LIN1 LIN2 LIN3 HO1 27 VSS 12 COM 13 A D14 A K C18 D15 LO2 15 19 HO3 LO3 14 LO1 16 HO2 23 C17 +20V K K D13 A C16 11 8 10 9 28 2 3 4 5 6 7 U3 IR21362_DIP28 VS1 VB2 VS2 VB3 VS3 26 24 22 20 18 DS00843A-page 14 C20 M3 M2 M1 C19 R18 1 2 R19 CN6 1Ω, 2W R17 C15 K A D4 R16 K A D8 R15 K A D9 R14 K A D10 R13 K A D11 R12 K A D12 R11 CN3 C7 AC1 AC2 AC3 P6 1 2 3 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 U6 C1 AGND P3 +20V CPV364M4U C31 C32 C30 P4 P5 R28 R29 R27 U5 C28 C29 C27 R23 R24 R25 C8 C9 D7 470 R41 M1 M2 M3 CN2 1 DC+ 2 3 DC- CN1 1 2 3 1 2 3 CN4 FIGURE B-3: P1 P2 +20V AN843 POWER SECTION 2002 Microchip Technology Inc. AN843 APPENDIX C: GLOSSARY Air Gap Locked Rotor Torque Starting torque of the motor. Uniform gap between the stator and rotor. Pull-up Torque Angular Velocity Torque available on the rotor at around 20% of base speed. Velocity in radians (2π x frequency). Rotor Asynchronous Motor Rotating part of the motor. Type of motor in which the flux generated by the stator and rotor have different frequencies. Slip Speed Base Speed Synchronous speed minus base speed. Speed specified on the nameplate of an induction motor. Stator Break Down Torque Synchronous Motor Maximum torque on the speed-torque characteristics at approximately 80% of base speed. Type of motor in which the flux generated by the stator and rotor have the same frequencies. The phase may be shifted. EMF Stationary part of the motor. Electromotive Force. The potential generated by a current carrying conductor when it is exposed to magnetic field. EMF is measured in volts. Synchronous Speed Full Load Torque Torque Rated torque of the motor as specified on the nameplate. Rotating force in Newton-Meters or Pound-Inches. Speed of the motor corresponding to the rated frequency. IGBT Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor. Lenz’s Law The Electromotive force (EMF) induced in a conductor moving perpendicular to a magnetic field tends to oppose that motion. 2002 Microchip Technology Inc. DS00843A-page 15 AN843 APPENDIX D: SOFTWARE DISCUSSED IN THIS TECHNICAL BRIEF Because of its overall length, a complete source file listing is not provided. The complete source code is available as a single WinZip archive file, which may be downloaded from the Microchip corporate web site at: www.microchip.com DS00843A-page 16 2002 Microchip Technology Inc. Note the following details of the code protection feature on PICmicro® MCUs. • • • • • • The PICmicro family meets the specifications contained in the Microchip Data Sheet. Microchip believes that its family of PICmicro microcontrollers is one of the most secure products of its kind on the market today, when used in the intended manner and under normal conditions. There are dishonest and possibly illegal methods used to breach the code protection feature. All of these methods, to our knowledge, require using the PICmicro microcontroller in a manner outside the operating specifications contained in the data sheet. The person doing so may be engaged in theft of intellectual property. Microchip is willing to work with the customer who is concerned about the integrity of their code. Neither Microchip nor any other semiconductor manufacturer can guarantee the security of their code. Code protection does not mean that we are guaranteeing the product as “unbreakable”. Code protection is constantly evolving. We at Microchip are committed to continuously improving the code protection features of our product. 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Trademarks The Microchip name and logo, the Microchip logo, FilterLab, KEELOQ, microID, MPLAB, PIC, PICmicro, PICMASTER, PICSTART, PRO MATE, SEEVAL and The Embedded Control Solutions Company are registered trademarks of Microchip Technology Incorporated in the U.S.A. and other countries. dsPIC, ECONOMONITOR, FanSense, FlexROM, fuzzyLAB, In-Circuit Serial Programming, ICSP, ICEPIC, microPort, Migratable Memory, MPASM, MPLIB, MPLINK, MPSIM, MXDEV, MXLAB, PICC, PICDEM, PICDEM.net, rfPIC, Select Mode and Total Endurance are trademarks of Microchip Technology Incorporated in the U.S.A. Serialized Quick Turn Programming (SQTP) is a service mark of Microchip Technology Incorporated in the U.S.A. All other trademarks mentioned herein are property of their respective companies. © 2002, Microchip Technology Incorporated, Printed in the U.S.A., All Rights Reserved. Printed on recycled paper. Microchip received QS-9000 quality system certification for its worldwide headquarters, design and wafer fabrication facilities in Chandler and Tempe, Arizona in July 1999 and Mountain View, California in March 2002. The Company’s quality system processes and procedures are QS-9000 compliant for its PICmicro® 8-bit MCUs, KEELOQ® code hopping devices, Serial EEPROMs, microperipherals, non-volatile memory and analog products. In addition, Microchip’s quality system for the design and manufacture of development systems is ISO 9001 certified. 2002 Microchip Technology Inc. DS00843A - page 17 M WORLDWIDE SALES AND SERVICE AMERICAS ASIA/PACIFIC Japan Corporate Office Australia 2355 West Chandler Blvd. Chandler, AZ 85224-6199 Tel: 480-792-7200 Fax: 480-792-7277 Technical Support: 480-792-7627 Web Address: http://www.microchip.com Microchip Technology Australia Pty Ltd Suite 22, 41 Rawson Street Epping 2121, NSW Australia Tel: 61-2-9868-6733 Fax: 61-2-9868-6755 Microchip Technology Japan K.K. Benex S-1 6F 3-18-20, Shinyokohama Kohoku-Ku, Yokohama-shi Kanagawa, 222-0033, Japan Tel: 81-45-471- 6166 Fax: 81-45-471-6122 Rocky Mountain China - Beijing 2355 West Chandler Blvd. Chandler, AZ 85224-6199 Tel: 480-792-7966 Fax: 480-792-4338 Microchip Technology Consulting (Shanghai) Co., Ltd., Beijing Liaison Office Unit 915 Bei Hai Wan Tai Bldg. No. 6 Chaoyangmen Beidajie Beijing, 100027, No. China Tel: 86-10-85282100 Fax: 86-10-85282104 Atlanta 500 Sugar Mill Road, Suite 200B Atlanta, GA 30350 Tel: 770-640-0034 Fax: 770-640-0307 Boston 2 Lan Drive, Suite 120 Westford, MA 01886 Tel: 978-692-3848 Fax: 978-692-3821 Chicago 333 Pierce Road, Suite 180 Itasca, IL 60143 Tel: 630-285-0071 Fax: 630-285-0075 Dallas 4570 Westgrove Drive, Suite 160 Addison, TX 75001 Tel: 972-818-7423 Fax: 972-818-2924 Detroit Tri-Atria Office Building 32255 Northwestern Highway, Suite 190 Farmington Hills, MI 48334 Tel: 248-538-2250 Fax: 248-538-2260 Kokomo 2767 S. Albright Road Kokomo, Indiana 46902 Tel: 765-864-8360 Fax: 765-864-8387 Los Angeles 18201 Von Karman, Suite 1090 Irvine, CA 92612 Tel: 949-263-1888 Fax: 949-263-1338 China - Chengdu Microchip Technology Consulting (Shanghai) Co., Ltd., Chengdu Liaison Office Rm. 2401, 24th Floor, Ming Xing Financial Tower No. 88 TIDU Street Chengdu 610016, China Tel: 86-28-86766200 Fax: 86-28-86766599 China - Fuzhou Microchip Technology Consulting (Shanghai) Co., Ltd., Fuzhou Liaison Office Unit 28F, World Trade Plaza No. 71 Wusi Road Fuzhou 350001, China Tel: 86-591-7503506 Fax: 86-591-7503521 China - Shanghai Microchip Technology Consulting (Shanghai) Co., Ltd. Room 701, Bldg. B Far East International Plaza No. 317 Xian Xia Road Shanghai, 200051 Tel: 86-21-6275-5700 Fax: 86-21-6275-5060 China - Shenzhen 150 Motor Parkway, Suite 202 Hauppauge, NY 11788 Tel: 631-273-5305 Fax: 631-273-5335 Microchip Technology Consulting (Shanghai) Co., Ltd., Shenzhen Liaison Office Rm. 1315, 13/F, Shenzhen Kerry Centre, Renminnan Lu Shenzhen 518001, China Tel: 86-755-2350361 Fax: 86-755-2366086 San Jose China - Hong Kong SAR Microchip Technology Inc. 2107 North First Street, Suite 590 San Jose, CA 95131 Tel: 408-436-7950 Fax: 408-436-7955 Microchip Technology Hongkong Ltd. Unit 901-6, Tower 2, Metroplaza 223 Hing Fong Road Kwai Fong, N.T., Hong Kong Tel: 852-2401-1200 Fax: 852-2401-3431 New York Toronto 6285 Northam Drive, Suite 108 Mississauga, Ontario L4V 1X5, Canada Tel: 905-673-0699 Fax: 905-673-6509 India Microchip Technology Inc. India Liaison Office Divyasree Chambers 1 Floor, Wing A (A3/A4) No. 11, O’Shaugnessey Road Bangalore, 560 025, India Tel: 91-80-2290061 Fax: 91-80-2290062 Korea Microchip Technology Korea 168-1, Youngbo Bldg. 3 Floor Samsung-Dong, Kangnam-Ku Seoul, Korea 135-882 Tel: 82-2-554-7200 Fax: 82-2-558-5934 Singapore Microchip Technology Singapore Pte Ltd. 200 Middle Road #07-02 Prime Centre Singapore, 188980 Tel: 65-6334-8870 Fax: 65-6334-8850 Taiwan Microchip Technology (Barbados) Inc., Taiwan Branch 11F-3, No. 207 Tung Hua North Road Taipei, 105, Taiwan Tel: 886-2-2717-7175 Fax: 886-2-2545-0139 EUROPE Austria Microchip Technology Austria GmbH Durisolstrasse 2 A-4600 Wels Austria Tel: 43-7242-2244-399 Fax: 43-7242-2244-393 Denmark Microchip Technology Nordic ApS Regus Business Centre Lautrup hoj 1-3 Ballerup DK-2750 Denmark Tel: 45 4420 9895 Fax: 45 4420 9910 France Microchip Technology SARL Parc d’Activite du Moulin de Massy 43 Rue du Saule Trapu Batiment A - ler Etage 91300 Massy, France Tel: 33-1-69-53-63-20 Fax: 33-1-69-30-90-79 Germany Microchip Technology GmbH Gustav-Heinemann Ring 125 D-81739 Munich, Germany Tel: 49-89-627-144 0 Fax: 49-89-627-144-44 Italy Microchip Technology SRL Centro Direzionale Colleoni Palazzo Taurus 1 V. Le Colleoni 1 20041 Agrate Brianza Milan, Italy Tel: 39-039-65791-1 Fax: 39-039-6899883 United Kingdom Microchip Ltd. 505 Eskdale Road Winnersh Triangle Wokingham Berkshire, England RG41 5TU Tel: 44 118 921 5869 Fax: 44-118 921-5820 05/16/02 DS00843A-page 18 2002 Microchip Technology Inc.