Active Multipliers & Dividers to Simplify Synthesizers

ACTIVE MULTIPLIERS & DIVIDERS
TO SIMPLIFY SYNTHESIZERS
17
FEATURED ARTICLES
COVER FEATURE
ACTIVE MULTIPLIERS
AND DIVIDERS
TO SIMPLIFY
SYNTHESIZERS
M
odern frequency synthesis uses a
combination of frequency multiplication and frequency division to generate the required data and carrier signals for
microwave radio and radar applications. Frequency multiplication increases the carrier
frequency while increasing the phase noise of
the carrier by 20log(N), where N is the multiplication factor. Conversely, frequency division
decreases the carrier frequency and changes
the phase noise of the carrier by 20log(1/M),
where M is the division ratio.
For the most part, frequency dividers are
used in a phase-locked loop (PLL) to divide
the voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO) output
frequency down to the reference frequency in
order to achieve phase/frequency locking.
These devices are traditionally digital circuits
and for high divide ratios (greater than 16) operate at input frequencies less than ∼2 GHz.
At higher frequencies, digital frequency dividers are available in binary division ratios
(/2, /4, /8…) up to approximately 14 GHz. A
new class of GaAs/InGaP heterojunction bipolar transistor (HBT) active frequency dividers
offering odd division ratios (/3 and /5), high in-
put frequency (up to 8 GHz) and wide input
power range (–15 to +10 dBm) are now available in low cost plastic packages providing the
designer with more flexibility in synthesizer
architecture.
Frequency multipliers, on the other hand,
are most commonly used after the VCO to increase the carrier frequency to the radio or
radar transmit/receive frequency. Various devices are utilized to achieve frequency multiplication, including Schottky diodes, step recovery
diodes, balanced rectifiers (frequency doublers) and saturated amplifiers. The advantages
and drawbacks of each approach are well
known. A new class of GaAs/InGaP HBT active
multipliers offering conversion gain, wide input
power range (–15 to +10 dBm), high output
frequency (up to 16 GHz) and high multiplication factors (× 4, × 8 and × 16) are now available in low cost plastic packages that will dramatically simplify the design and implementation of X- and Ku-band synthesizers.
HITTITE MICROWAVE CORP.
Chelmsford, MA
Reprinted with permission of MICROWAVE JOURNAL from the November 2002 issue.
©
2002 Horizon House Publications, Inc.
®
17 - 32
For price, delivery, and to place orders, please contact Hittite Microwave Corporation:
20 Alpha Road, Chelmsford, MA 01824 Phone: 978-250-3343 Fax: 978-250-3373
Order On-line at www.hittite.com
ACTIVE MULTIPLIERS & DIVIDERS
TO SIMPLIFY SYNTHESIZERS
17
STANDARD FREQUENCY
MULTIPLIER PRODUCTS
Four new active frequency multipliHMC331
ers have been added to the company’s
HMC205
family of surface-mount frequency dou10
blers. Figure 1 depicts the frequency
coverage of the passive and active frequency multiplier line. The models
HMC204
HMC370LP4
3
HMC370LP4 and HMC443LP4 are active ×4 frequency multipliers with outHMC443LP4
HMC189
put frequencies at X- and Ku-band, respectively. The models HMC444LP4
HMC187
and HMC445LP4 have output frequenHMC444LP4
cies in the 10 to 11 GHz frequency
1
range. Inspection of data reveals that the
HMC445LP4
new active multipliers are suitable for
X2
X4
X8
X16
the OC-192 fiber optic market, military
radar and the microwave radio markets.
1
3
10
40
The key performance parameters of
OUTPUT FREQUENCY (GHz)
the active multipliers are summarized in
Table 1. The HMC445LP4 multiplier
▲ Fig. 1 Frequency multiplier operating range.
will convert an OC-12 clock frequency
directly to OC-192 with up to +7 dBm
output power operating from +5 V and consuming only 78
mA of current. Similarly, the HMC444LP4 and
N/C N/C N/C N/C N/C
VCC
HMC443LP4 devices will convert OC-24 and OC-48
24
23
22
21
20
19
clock frequencies to OC-192 while using only 68 mA and
52 mA of current, respectively. All four active multipliers
are supplied in 4.0 × 4.0 × 1.0 mm leadless surface18 N/C
N/C
1
mount QFN plastic packages compatible with automated
assembly and reflow soldering processes.
17 N/C
N/C
2
INPUT FREQUENCY (GHz)
20
× 16
16
RFOUT
4
15
GND
N/C
5
14
N/C
N/C
6
13
N/C
RFIN
3
GND
7
8
9
10
11
12
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
PACKAGE
BASE
GND
TOP VIEW
▲ Fig. 2
The HMC445LP4 functional block diagram.
FEATURED ARTICLES
COVER FEATURE
HBT ACTIVE MULTIPLIER ADVANTAGES
Active multipliers designed in GaAs/InGaP HBT technology operate on single positive (+5 V) bias, with low
current (< 80 mA) and low residual phase noise (–130 to
–140 dBc/Hz at 100 kHz) at frequencies > 16 GHz. The
input and output of the HMC445LP4 multiplier is singleended, as shown in Figure 2. The only required external
component is a bypass capacitor on the Vcc pin.
The ×16 architecture is implemented as a series of ×2
active multiplication stages. Each stage has integrated filtering for optimum subharmonic performance. This filtering circuit results in the narrow-bandwidth nature of the
active multiplier line and is responsible for the excellent
harmonic and subharmonic rejection of > 20 dB, as shown
in the output spectrum of Figure 3. Since these filtering
TABLE I
ACTIVE MULTIPLIER PERFORMANCE PARAMETERS
Part
Number
Function
Input Frequency
(MHz)
Output Frequency
(GHz)
Input Power
(dBm)
Output Power
(dBm)
SSB
Phase Noise
at 100 kHz
(dBc/Hz)
HMC445LP4
X16 active
618.75 to 687.50
9.9 to 11.2
–15 to +5
+4 to +7
–130
HMC444LP4
X8 active
1237.5 to 1400.0
9.9 to 11.2
–15 to +5
+3 to +6
–136
HMC443LP4
X4 active
2450 to 2800
9.8 to 11.2
–15 to +5
+1 to +4
–142
HMC370LP4
X4 active
3600 to 4100
14.4 to 16.4
–15 to +5
–4 to 0
–140
For price, delivery, and to place orders, please contact Hittite Microwave Corporation:
20 Alpha Road, Chelmsford, MA 01824 Phone: 978-250-3343 Fax: 978-250-3373
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17 - 33
ACTIVE MULTIPLIERS & DIVIDERS
TO SIMPLIFY SYNTHESIZERS
17
OUTPUT POWER (dBm)
▲ Fig. 3
circuits are designed specifically based on the input frequency band, they can be easily scaled to create active
multipliers operating at other frequencies.
Output power of the HMC445LP4 device is flat over a
wide range of input power, as shown in Figure 4. The insensitivity of output power to input power variation results in natural AM suppression and coupled with excellent power flatness vs. temperature further simplifies synthesizer architecture by minimizing the need for limiting
amplifiers or gain control.
10
0
−10
−20
−30
−40
−50
−60
10 14 18 22
6
FREQUENCY (GHz)
2
26
The HMC445LP4 multiplier’s output spectrum.
OUTPUT POWER (dBm)
FEATURED ARTICLES
COVER FEATURE
+5 dBm
−5 dBm
−20 dBm
10
8
6
4
2
0
9.6
10.0 10.4 10.8 11.2 11.6
OUTPUT FREQUENCY (GHz)
▲ Fig. 4
The HMC445LP4 multiplier’s output power
vs. input drive level.
HMC338
SUB HARMONIC
MIXER
R I
L
IF OUT
R I
L
HMC187MS8
×2
PLL
28 to
14 to
16 GHz 32 GHz
×4
1.75 to
2 GHz
REF
HMC370LP4
L
I R
IF IN
L
I R
HMC338
SUB HARMONIC
MIXER
▲ Fig. 5
Typical 16 GHz multiplier application.
B
A
AN EXAMPLE 16 GHz APPLICATION
A typical application of the HMC370LP4 active ×4
multiplier as an LO generator for a microwave radio is
shown in Figure 5. LO chains for microwave radios in the
28 to 32 GHz band typically begin with an L-band source
that is frequency multiplied to the transmit band through
successive stages of amplification and frequency doubling.
With the availability of low cost subharmonically pumped
mixers for the 28 to 32 GHz band, the designer is only required to generate a 14 to 16 GHz LO signal at –5 dBm.
A passive doubler solution to this problem would require
three stages of amplification/doubling with each successive stage increasing in cost due to the drive level and filtering requirements. With the wide input drive range of
the HMC370LP4 multiplier, the entire chain can be replaced with one passive doubler and one active ×4 multiplier with no additional amplification or filtering.
STANDARD ACTIVE DIVIDER PRODUCTS
The company has expanded its line of digital frequency
dividers with the addition of the models HMC437MS8G
(/3) and HMC438MS8G (/5) that operate over a DC to 7
GHz frequency range.
The key performance parameters of the company’s family of GaAs/InGaP HBT frequency dividers are summarized
in Table 2. The HMC437MS8G and HMC438MS8G operate from a single +5 V supply, have differential inputs/outputs and consume 69 and 80 mA of DC current, respectively. Both new dividers are supplied in 3.0 × 4.9 × 1.0 mm surface-mount plastic packages compatible with automated
assembly and reflow soldering processes.
HBT DIGITAL DIVIDER ADVANTAGES
Digital dividers designed in GaAs/InGaP HBT technology operate on single positive (+5 V) bias, with low current
TABLE II
FREQUENCY DIVIDER PERFORMANCE PARAMETERS
Function
Input
Frequency
(MHz)
Output
Frequency
(GHz)
HMC364S8G
÷2
DC to 12.5
HMC437MS8G
÷3
DC to 7.0
HMC365S8G
÷4
HMC438MS8G
HMC363S8G
Part
Number
17 - 34
Input
Power
(dBm)
Output
Power
(dBm)
SSB Phase Noise
at 100 kHz
(dBc/Hz)
DC to 6.25
–10 to +5
–8 to +5
–145
DC to 2.60
–10 to +10
–4 to –1
–153
DC to 13.0
DC to 3.25
–15 to +10
+2 to +5
–151
÷5
DC to 7.0
DC to 1.60
–12 to +12
–4 to –1
–153
÷8
DC to 12.0
DC to 1.50
–15 to +10
–9 to –6
–153
For price, delivery, and to place orders, please contact Hittite Microwave Corporation:
20 Alpha Road, Chelmsford, MA 01824 Phone: 978-250-3343 Fax: 978-250-3373
Order On-line at www.hittite.com
ACTIVE MULTIPLIERS & DIVIDERS
TO SIMPLIFY SYNTHESIZERS
17
(< 80 mA) and low residual phase
noise (–145 to –153 dBc/Hz at 100
kHz) at frequencies up to 13 GHz.
The input and output of the
HMC437MS8G and HMC438MS8G
dividers feature differential inputs, as
VCC
1
IN
2
HMC438MS8G divider is shown in
Figure 9. The 40 percent duty cycle
results in an output frequency spectrum that has low (< –10 dBc) harmonics (Figure 10). In sharp contrast, a digital counter set to divide by
five typically maintains the input carrier pulse width and hence has approximately a 10 percent duty cycle
resulting in the rich harmonics shown
in Figure 11. Since the fifth harmonic of the output is also equal to the input frequency, the HMC438MS8G
device has excellent feedthru suppression, as shown in Figure 12.
shown in Figure 6, but can be operated single-ended as well.
The low residual output phase
noise and wide input power operating
range are shown in Figures 7 and 8.
The output waveform of the
8
NC
7
OUT
÷5
3
6
OUT
GND
4
5
GND
AN EXAMPLE
5 GHz APPLICATION
A typical application of the
HMC437MS8G /3 divider as an LO
generator for a mobile phone base
The HMC438MS8G divider’s functional block diagram.
5
0
−20
−40
−60
−80
−100
−120
−140
−160
102
0
−5
−10
103
104 105
106
OFFSET FREQUENCY (Hz)
107
POWER (dBc)
SSB PHASE NOISE (dBc/Hz)
▲ Fig. 6
IN
FEATURED ARTICLES
COVER FEATURE
−15
−20
−25
▲ Fig. 7
The HMC438MS8G divider’s SSB
residual phase noise at Pin = 0 dBm,
Fin = 6 GHz and T = 25°C.
−30
3 5
3/
5
3
4/
5
5
2/
1/
3
2
3
5
5
3
4/
5
2
3/
5
2/
1/
2
1
1
2
2
5
4/
5
3/
5
5
2/
1/
1
RECOMMENDED
OPERATING WINDOW
4
FREQUENCY (NORMALIZED TO INPUT)
▲ Fig. 10
Harmonic content of an ideal /5 divider with 40 percent duty cycle.
0
2 3 4 5 6 7 8
INPUT FREQUENCY (GHz)
9
−5
−10
POWER (dBc)
The HMC438MS8G divider’s
input sensitivity.
400
300
200
100
−100
−25
−35
Output voltage waveform
of the HMC438MS8G /5 divider
at Pin = 0 dBm, fout = 882 MHz and T = 25°C.
3 5
3/
5
3
4/
5
5
2/
1/
3
3
3
5
4/
3/
5
2
2
5
5
1/
2/
2
2
2
5
4/
1
5
3/
1
5
2/
1/
1
5
−40
1
25.5
5
2/
5
3/
5
4/
5
23.5
24.5
TIME (ns)
1/
−200
▲ Fig. 9
−20
−30
0
−300
22.5
−15
1
1
▲ Fig. 8
OUTPUT AMPLITUDE (mV)
1
1
5
2/
5
3/
5
4/
5
−40
1/
INPUT POWER (dBm)
−35
20
15
10
5
0
−5
−10
−15
−20
0
4
FREQUENCY (NORMALIZED TO INPUT)
▲ Fig. 11
Harmonic content of an ideal /5 counter with 10 percent duty cycle.
For price, delivery, and to place orders, please contact Hittite Microwave Corporation:
20 Alpha Road, Chelmsford, MA 01824 Phone: 978-250-3343 Fax: 978-250-3373
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17 - 35
ACTIVE MULTIPLIERS & DIVIDERS
TO SIMPLIFY SYNTHESIZERS
17
Pfeedthrough
2nd HARMONIC
3rd HARMONIC
R I
L
0
600 MHz
−10
−20
PLL
−40
−50
0
÷3
5.4 GHz
−30
÷3
HMC437MS8G
REF
÷2
1
2 3 4 5 6 7 8
INPUT FREQUENCY (GHz)
9
▲ Fig. 12
Output harmonics and
feedthrough suppression
of the HMC438MS8G /5 divider
at Pin = 0 dBm and T = 25°C.
station is shown in Figure 13. LO
chains for base station applications
typically begin with a UHF VCO
locked to a crystal frequency source
that is frequency multiplied and amplified to the transmit/receive frequency. With the availability of low
cost, low noise C-band VCOs and
high frequency dividers, the same LO
signal can be generated by a C-Band
VCO and frequency division. In the
example shown, a 5.4 GHz VCO output directly drives two successive /3
dividers to create the required 600
MHz LO frequency. The entire frequency generation chain consists of
three low cost plastic-packaged components with no intermediate amplification or filtering stages.
HMC2575
▲ Fig. 13
Base station application block diagram.
1 MHz, the divider residual phase
noise (bottom curve) limits the output phase noise to approximately
–154 dBc/Hz.
VCO PHASE AT 5.4 GHz
PHASE NOISE AT 600 MHz
DIVIDER PHASE NOISE
SSB PHASE NOISE (dBc/Hz)
OUTPUT LEVEL (dBm)
FEATURED ARTICLES
COVER FEATURE
0
−20
−40
−60
−80
−100
−120
−140
−160
102
▲ Fig. 14
104
105
103
FREQUENCY (Hz)
106
Base station LO phase noise.
The 600 MHz LO phase noise is
shown in Figure 14. The VCO phase
noise (top curve) is reduced through
frequency division by 20log(1/9) =
–19 dB. At carrier offsets greater than
CONCLUSION
A family of active frequency multipliers and frequency dividers has
been introduced that allows the synthesizer designer to take new approaches to solving traditional microwave radio and radar application
problems. These GaAs/InGaP HBT
devices are available in low cost plastic packages operating from single
+5 V supplies. Conversion gain and
excellent harmonic/subharmonic suppression minimize external support
circuitry. Product samples and connectorized evaluation boards are
available on request directly from the
factory or online at www.hittite.com.
*Reprinted with the permission of Microwave Journal.
17 - 36
For price, delivery, and to place orders, please contact Hittite Microwave Corporation:
20 Alpha Road, Chelmsford, MA 01824 Phone: 978-250-3343 Fax: 978-250-3373
Order On-line at www.hittite.com
ACTIVE MULTIPLIERS & DIVIDERS
TO SIMPLIFY SYNTHESIZERS
17
FEATURED ARTICLES
Notes:
For price, delivery, and to place orders, please contact Hittite Microwave Corporation:
20 Alpha Road, Chelmsford, MA 01824 Phone: 978-250-3343 Fax: 978-250-3373
Order On-line at www.hittite.com
17 - 37
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