INFINEON SDA5250M

ICs for Consumer Electronics
TVTEXT 8-Bit Microcontroller, ROMless-Version:
SDA 5250
TVTEXT 8-Bit Microcontroller, ROM-Versions:
SDA 5251
SDA 5252
SDA 5254
SDA 5255
Preliminary Data Sheet 1998-04-08
SDA 525x
Revision History:
Current Version: 1998-04-08
Previous Version:
User’s Manual 06.97
Page
Page
(in previous (in current
Version)
Version)
Subjects (major changes since last revision)
The layout of the document has been completely updated.
Edition 1998-04-08
Published by Siemens AG,
Bereich Halbleiter, MarketingKommunikation, Balanstraße 73,
81541 München
© Siemens AG 1998.
All Rights Reserved.
Attention please!
As far as patents or other rights of third parties are concerned, liability is only assumed for components, not for applications, processes
and circuits implemented within components or assemblies.
The information describes the type of component and shall not be considered as assured characteristics.
Terms of delivery and rights to change design reserved.
For questions on technology, delivery and prices please contact the Semiconductor Group Offices in Germany or the Siemens Companies
and Representatives worldwide (see address list).
Due to technical requirements components may contain dangerous substances. For information on the types in question please contact
your nearest Siemens Office, Semiconductor Group.
Siemens AG is an approved CECC manufacturer.
Packing
Please use the recycling operators known to you. We can also help you Ð get in touch with your nearest sales office. By agreement we
will take packing material back, if it is sorted. You must bear the costs of transport.
For packing material that is returned to us unsorted or which we are not obliged to accept, we shall have to invoice you for any costs incurred.
Components used in life-support devices or systems must be expressly authorized for such purpose!
Critical components1 of the Semiconductor Group of Siemens AG, may only be used in life-support devices or systems2 with the express
written approval of the Semiconductor Group of Siemens AG.
1 A critical component is a component used in a life-support device or system whose failure can reasonably be expected to cause the
failure of that life-support device or system, or to affect its safety or effectiveness of that device or system.
2 Life support devices or systems are intended (a) to be implanted in the human body, or (b) to support and/or maintain and sustain human life. If they fail, it is reasonable to assume that the health of the user may be endangered.
SDA 525x
Table of Contents
Page
1
General Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5
2
Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5
3
Block Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7
4
4.1
4.2
4.3
4.4
Pin Configurations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8
Pin Configuration P-MQFP-80-1 (ROMless-Version) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8
Pin Configuration P-SDIP-52-1 (ROM-Versions) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9
Pin Configuration P-MQFP-64-1 (ROM-Versions) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10
Pin Configuration P-LCC-84-2 (Emulator-Version) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11
5
Pin Functions (ROM- and ROMless-Version) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12
6
6.1
6.1.1
6.1.2
6.1.3
6.1.4
6.2
6.2.1
6.2.2
6.2.3
6.2.4
6.2.5
6.2.6
6.2.7
6.2.8
6.2.9
6.2.10
6.3
6.3.1
6.3.1.1
6.3.1.2
6.3.1.3
6.3.2
6.3.2.1
6.3.2.2
6.3.2.3
6.3.3
6.3.3.1
6.3.4
6.3.4.1
Functional Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16
Acquisition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16
TTX/VPS Slicer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16
Acquisition Hardware . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16
Memory Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17
Acquisition Control Registers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18
Display Generator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20
Display Format and Timing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20
Display Cursor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20
Flash . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20
Full Screen Background Colour . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20
Clear Page Logic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20
Display Page Addressing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21
Character Generator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .22
On Screen Display (OSD) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .22
Display Special Function Registers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .24
Sandcastle Decoder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .33
Microcontroller . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .42
Architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .42
CPU-Hardware . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .43
CPU-Timing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .46
Addressing Modes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .47
Memory Organization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .49
Program Memory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .49
Internal Data RAM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .55
Special Function Registers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .56
Interrupt System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .62
Interrupt Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .62
Interrupt Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .63
Interrupt Nesting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .71
Semiconductor Group
3
1998-04-08
SDA 525x
Table of Contents
Page
6.3.4.2
6.3.4.3
6.3.4.4
6.3.5
6.3.6
6.3.7
6.3.8
6.3.9
6.3.10
6.3.10.1
6.3.10.2
6.3.10.3
6.3.10.4
6.3.10.5
6.3.11
6.3.12
6.3.13
6.3.14
6.3.14.1
6.3.14.2
6.3.14.3
6.3.15
External Interrupts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .72
Interrupt Task Function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .74
Response Time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .74
Processor Reset and Initialization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .75
Ports and I/O-Pins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .78
General Purpose Timers/Counters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .80
Watchdog Timer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .87
Capture Compare Timer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .90
Serial Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .91
Multiprocessor Communication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .93
Baud Rates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .94
More about Mode 0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .95
More about Mode 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .95
More about Modes 2 and 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .96
Pulse Width Modulation Unit (PWM) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .106
Analog Digital Converter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .112
Advanced Function Register . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .115
Instruction Set . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .116
Notes on Data Addressing Modes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .116
Notes on Program Addressing Modes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .116
Instruction Set Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .117
Instruction Opcodes in Hexadecimal Order . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .122
7
7.1
7.2
7.3
Electrical Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .129
Absolute Maximum Ratings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .129
DC-Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .129
AC-Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .131
8
Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .136
9
Package Outlines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .137
10
Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .141
Semiconductor Group
4
1998-04-08
SDA 525x
1
General Description
The SDA 525x contains a slicer for TTX, VPS and WSS, an accelerating acquisition
hardware modul, a display generator for “Level 1” TTX data and an 8 bit microcontroller
running at 333 ns cycle time. The controller with dedicated hardware guarantees
flexibility, does most of the internal processing of TTX acquisition, transfers data to/from
the external memory interface and receives/transmits data via I2C and UART user
interfaces. The block diagram shows the internal organization of the SDA 525x. The
Slicer combined with dedicated hardware stores TTX data in a VBI buffer of 1 Kbyte. The
microcontroller firmware does the total acquisition task (hamming- and parity-checks,
page search and evaluation of header control bits) once per field.
2
Features
Acquisition
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Feature selection via special function register
Simultaneous reception of TTX, VPS and WSS
Fixed framing code for VPS and TTX
Acquisition during VBI
Direct access to VBI RAM buffer
Acquisition of packets X/26, X/27, 8/30 (firmware)
Assistance of all relevant checks (firmware)
1-bit framing code error tolerance (switchable)
Display
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Features selectable via special function register
50/60 Hz display
Level 1 serial attribute display pages
Blanking and contrast reduction output
8 direct addressable display pages for SDA 5250, SDA 5254 and SDA 5255
1 direct addressable display page for SDA 5251 and SDA 5252
12 × 10 character matrix
96 character ROM (standard G0 character set)
143 national option characters for 11 languages
288 characters for X/26 display
64 block mosaic graphic characters
32 characters for OSD in expanded character ROM + 32 characters inside OSD box
Conceal/reveal
Transparent foreground/background - inside/outside of a box
Contrast reduction inside/outside of a box
Cursor (colour changes from foreground to background colour)
Flash (flash rate 1s)
Semiconductor Group
5
1998-04-08
SDA 525x
• Programmable horizontal and vertical sync delay
• Full screen background colour in outer screen
• Double size / double width / double height characters
Synchronization
• Display synchronization to sandcastle or Horizontal Sync (HS) and Vertical Sync (VS)
with start-stop-oscillator
• Independent clock systems for acquisition, display and controller
Microcontroller
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
8 bit C500-CPU (8051 compatible)
18 MHz internal clock
0.33 µs instruction cycle
Parallel 8-bit data and 16...19 - bit address bus (ROMless-Version)
Eight 16-bit data pointer registers (DPTR)
Two 16-bit timers
Watchdog timer
Capture compare timer for infrared remote control decoding
Serial interface (UART)
256 bytes on-chip RAM
8 Kbyte on-chip display-RAM (access via MOVX) for SDA 5250, SDA 5254 and
SDA 5255
1 Kbyte on-chip display-RAM (access via MOVX) for SDA 5251 and SDA 5252
1 Kbyte on-chip TVT/VPS-Acquisition-buffer-RAM (access via MOVX)
1 Kbyte on-chip extended-RAM (access via MOVX) for SDA 5250, SDA 5254 and
SDA 5255
6 channel 8-bit pulse width modulation unit
2 channel 14-bit pulse width modulation unit
4 multiplexed ADC inputs with 8-bit resolution
One 8-bit I/O port with open drain output and optional I2C-Bus emulation (PORT 0)
Two 8-bit multifunctional I/O ports (PORT 1, PORT 3)
One 4-bit port working as digital or analog inputs (PORT 2)
One 2-bit I/O port with optional functions
One 3-bit I/O port with optional RAM/ROM address expansion up to 512 Kbyte
(ROMless-Version)
– P-SDIP-52-1 Package or P-MQFP-64-1 for ROM-Versions (SDA 5251, SDA 5252,
SDA 5254, SDA 5255)
– P-MQFP-80-1 Package for ROMless-Version (SDA 5250 M)
– P-LCC-84-2 Package for Emulator-Version (SDA 5250)
– 5 V Supply Voltage
Semiconductor Group
6
1998-04-08
SDA 525x
Capture
Compare
Timer
Watchdog
Timer
LCIN
LCOUT
Display
Timing
TTC
VTX, VPS
Slicer
VS
HS / SC
Block Diagram
CVBS
FIL1SLC
FIL2SLC
FIL3SLC
Ι REF
3
Acquisition
Character
ROM
448 * 12 * 10
TTD
R
G
B
BLAN
COR
Display
Generator
ADC
PWM
P3
P2
P1
P0
XTAL1, XTAL2
CPU
Extended
Data
RAM
1 K Byte
3)
Program
Memory
ROM
1)
RD, WR
PSEN, ALE
D (7:0)
A (16:0)
P4.1 (A18), P4.0 (A17)
C500
Memory
Management
Unit
(MMU)
2)
Dual Port
Interface
Dual Port
Interface
VBI Buffer
1 K Byte
Display
RAM
4)
1) Only ROM Version
2) Only ROMless Version
3) Only SDA 5250, SDA 5254
and SDA 5255
4) 8 KByte for SDA 5250,
SDA 5254 and SDA 5255
1 KByte for SDA 5251,
SDA 5252
UEB08124
Figure 1
Block Diagram
Semiconductor Group
7
1998-04-08
SDA 525x
P0.5
P0.6
P0.7
P2.3
P2.2
P2.1
P2.0
60
61
BLAN
B
G
R
D3
D2
D4
D1
Pin Configuration P-MQFP-80-1 (ROMless-Version)
COR
4.1
V DD
V SS
Pin Configurations
P0.4
P0.3
P0.2
P0.1
P0.0
VS/P4.7
HS/SC
LCOUT
LCIN
4
50
41
40
V SSA
FIL3
FIL1
FIL2
70
SDA 5250 M
30
V DDA
Ι REF
80
21
20
XTAL2
XTAL1
RST
ALE
A17 / P4.0
A16
A18 / P4.1
10
N.C.
P3.1
P3.0
P1.7
P1.6
P1.5
P1.4
P1.3
P1.2
P1.1
P1.0
1
V SS
V DD
CVBS
P3.7
P3.6
P3.5
P3.4
P3.3
P3.2
D5
D0
D6
A0
D7
A1
A2
A10
A3
A4
A11
A5
A9
A6
A8
A7
A13
A12
A14
A15
UEP08125
Figure 2
Pin Configuration P-MQFP-80-1 (ROMless-Version)
(top view)
Semiconductor Group
8
1998-04-08
SDA 525x
4.2
Pin Configuration P-SDIP-52-1 (ROM-Versions)
P3.1
1
52
P3.0
P0.7
2
51
COR
P0.6
3
50
BLAN
P0.5
4
49
B
P0.4
5
48
G
P0.3
6
47
R
P0.2
7
46
VS / P4.7
P0.1
8
45
HS / SC
P0.0
9
44
P3.2
V SS
10
43
P3.4
V DD
11
42
P3.5
XTAL1
12
41
P3.6
40
P3.7
39
LCOUT
SDA 5251
SDA 5252
SDA 5254
SDA 5255
XTAL2
13
P4.0
14
RST
15
38
LCIN
P1.7
16
37
V DD
P1.6
17
36
P3.3
P1.5
18
35
V SS
P1.4
19
34
P2.0
P1.3
20
33
P2.1
P1.2
21
32
P2.2
P1.1
22
31
P2.3
P1.0
23
30
CVBS
V SSA
24
29
Ι REF
FIL3
25
28
V DDA
FIL1
26
27
FIL2
UEP08126
Figure 3
Pin Configuration P-SDIP-52-1 (ROM-Versions)
(top view)
Semiconductor Group
9
1998-04-08
SDA 525x
P0.1
P0.0
VSS
VDD
VSS
XTAL1
VDD
XTAL2
P4.0
RST
N.C.
P1.7
N.C.
P1.6
P1.5
Pin Configuration P-MQFP-64-1 (ROM-Versions)
P1.4
4.3
48 47 46 45 44 43 42 41 40 39 38 37 36 35 34 33
N.C.
49
32
N.C.
P1.3
50
31
P0.2
P1.2
51
30
P0.3
P1.1
52
29
P0.4
P1.0
VSSA
53
28
P0.5
54
27
P0.6
FIL3
55
26
P0.7
FIL1
56
25
P3.1
FIL2
VDDA
57
24
P3.0
23
COR
I REF
59
22
BLAN
CVBS
60
21
B
P2.3
61
20
G
P2.2
62
19
R
P2.1
63
18
VS/P4.7
N.C.
64
17
N.C.
SDA 5251M
SDA 5252M
SDA 5254M
SDA 5255M
HS/SC
P3.2
P3.4
P3.5
9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16
N.C.
8
N.C.
7
P3.6
6
P3.7
5
LCOUT
4
LCIN
VSS
VSS
3
VDD
2
P3.3
VDD
1
P2.0
58
UEP09858
Figure 4
Pin Configuration P-MQFP-64-1 (ROM-Versions)
(top view)
Semiconductor Group
10
1998-04-08
SDA 525x
Pin Configuration P-LCC-84-2 (Emulator-Version)
P0.5
P0.4
P0.3
P0.2
P0.1
P0.0
VS /P4.7/ODD-EVEN
HS/SC
LCOUT
LCIN
VDD
VSS
COR
BLAN
B
G
R
D3
D2
D4
D1
4.4
53 52 51 50 49 48 47 46 45 44 43 42 41 40 39 38 37 36 35 34 33
P0.6
P0.7
STOP_OCF
ENE
P2.3/ANA3
P2.2/ANA2
P2.1/ANA1
P2.0/ANA0
VSSA
FIL3
FIL1
FIL2
VDDA
Ι REF
CVBS
P3.7
P3.6
P3.5
P3.4
P3.3
P3.2
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
SDA 5250
D5
D0
D6
A0
D7
A1
A2
A10
A3
PSEN
A4
A11
A5
A9
A6
A8
A7
A13
A12
A14
A15
1 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
P1.1
P1.0
VSS
VDD
XTAL2
XTAL1
RST
WR
RD
ALE
A17/P4.0
A16
A18/P4.1
P1.2
P3.1
P3.0/ODD-EVEN
P1.7
P1.6
P1.5
P1.4
P1.3
75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84
32
31
30
29
28
27
26
25
24
23
22
21
20
19
18
17
16
15
14
13
12
UEP10154_B
Figure 5
Pin Configuration P-LCC-84-2 (Emulator-Version)
(top view)
Semiconductor Group
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1998-04-08
SDA 525x
5
Pin Functions (ROM- and ROMless-Version)
Table 1
Pin Functions (ROM- and ROMless-Version)
Symbol Pin No.
P-SDIP52-1
Pin No.
P-MQFP64-1
Pin No.
P-MQFP80-1
Pin No.
Input (I)
Function
P-LCC-84- Output (O)
2
Supply (S)
P0.0
P0.1
P0.2
P0.3
P0.4
P0.5
P0.6
P0.7
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
34
33
31
30
29
28
27
26
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
I/O
I/O
I/O
I/O
I/O
I/O
I/O
I/O
Port 0 is an 8-bit open drain
bidirectional I/O port. Port 0 pins
that have 1s written to them float; in
this state they can be used as highimpedance inputs (e.g. for software
driven I2C Bus).
P1.0
P1.1
P1.2
P1.3
P1.4
P1.5
P1.6
P1.7
23
22
21
20
19
18
17
16
53
52
51
50
48
47
46
44
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
84
83
82
81
80
79
78
77
I/O
I/O
I/O
I/O
I/O
I/O
I/O
I/O
Port 1 is an 8-bit bidirectional
multifunctional I/O port with internal
pullup resistors. Port 1 pins that
have 1s written to them are pulled
high by the internal pullup resistors
and in that state can be used as
inputs.
The secondary functions of port 1
pins are:
Port bits P1.0 - P1.5 contain the
6 output channels of the 8-bit pulse
width modulation unit.
Port bits P1.6 - P1.7 contain the two
output channels of the 14-bit pulse
width modulation unit.
P2.0
P2.1
P2.2
P2.3
34
33
32
31
1
63
62
61
67
66
65
64
61
60
59
58
I
I
I
I
P2.0 - P2.3 are working as digital or
analog inputs.
XTAL2 13
40
14
3
O
Output of the inverting oscillator
amplifier.
To drive the device from an external
clock source, XTAL1 should be
driven, while XTAL2 is left open.
XTAL1 12
39
15
4
I
Input to the inverting oscillator
amplifier
RST
42
16
5
I
A low level on this pin resets the
processor
15
Semiconductor Group
12
1998-04-08
SDA 525x
Table 1
Pin Functions (ROM- and ROMless-Version) (cont’d)
Symbol Pin No.
P-SDIP52-1
Pin No.
P-MQFP64-1
Pin No.
P-MQFP80-1
Pin No.
Input (I)
Function
P-LCC-84- Output (O)
2
Supply (S)
VDD
11, 37
13, 51
2, 43
S
Power supply voltage
VSS
10, 35
5, 6,
37, 38
2, 3,
35, 36
12, 50
1, 42
S
Ground (0 V)
R
G
B
BLAN
COR
47
48
49
50
51
19
20
21
22
23
45
46
47
48
49
37
38
39
40
41
O
O
O
O
O
Red colour signal output
Green colour signal output
Blue colour signal output
Blanking output
Contrast Reduction output
P3.0
P3.1
P3.2
P3.3
P3.4
P3.5
P3.6
P3.7
52
1
44
36
43
42
41
40
24
25
15
4
14
13
10
9
3
2
80
79
78
77
76
75
76
75
74
73
72
71
70
69
I/O
I/O
I/O
I/O
I/O
I/O
I/O
I/O
Port 3 is an 8-bit bidirectional I/O
port with internal pullup resistors.
Port 3 pins that have 1s written to
them are pulled high by the internal
pullup resistors and in that state can
be used as inputs.
It also contains the interrupt, timer
and serial port input pins. The
output latch corresponding to a
secondary function must be
programmed to a one (1) for that
function to operate.
The secondary functions are
assigned to the pins of port 3 as
follows:
- INT0 (P3.2): interrupt 0
input/timer 0 gate control input
- INT1 (P3.3): interrupt 1
input/timer 1 gate control input
- T0 (P3.4): counter 0 input
- T1 (P3.5): counter 1 input
- RXD(P3.6): serial port receive
line
- TXT(P3.7): serial port transmit
line
Attention: P3.6 must not be kept to
‘0’ during reset, otherwise a special
test mode will be activated.
Semiconductor Group
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1998-04-08
SDA 525x
Table 1
Pin Functions (ROM- and ROMless-Version) (cont’d)
Symbol Pin No.
P-SDIP52-1
Pin No.
P-MQFP64-1
Pin No.
P-MQFP80-1
Pin No.
Input (I)
Function
P-LCC-84- Output (O)
2
Supply (S)
HS/SC 45
16
54
46
I
VS/P4.7 46
18
55
47
I/O
CVBS
P4.0
P4.1
30
14
–
60
41
–
74
18
20
68
9
11
I
I/O
I/O
IREF
29
59
73
67
I
Reference current input for slicer
PLLS
VDDA
28
58
72
66
S
VSSA
24
54
68
62
S
Analog Supply Voltage for Slicer
and ADC
Analog Ground for Slicer and ADC
FIL1
26
56
70
64
I/O
PLL loop filter I/O for TTX slicing
FIL2
27
57
71
65
I/O
PLL loop filter I/O for VPS/WSS
slicing
FIL3
25
55
69
63
I/O
PLL loop filter I/O for
TTX/VPS/WSS data slicing
7
8
52
53
44
45
I
O
LCIN and LCOUT are used to
connect the external display dot
clock frequency reference.
LCIN
38
LC-OUT 39
Semiconductor Group
14
Horizontal sync input (alternative
sandcastle sync input) for display
Vertical sync input for display
(alternative Port 4.7)
CVBS (video signal) input
Port 4.0 is a bidirectional I/O port
with internal pullup resistors. Port 4
pins that have 1s written to them are
pulled high by the internal pullup
resistors and in that state can be
used as inputs.
Attention: P4.0 must not be kept to
‘0’ during reset, otherwise a special
test mode will be activated.
1998-04-08
SDA 525x
Table 2
Additional PINS for ROMless-Version
Symbol
Pin Nr.
P-MQFP-80-1
Pin Nr.
P-LCC-84-2
Input (I)
Output (O)
Supply (S)
Function
A0
A1
A2
A3
A4
A5
A6
A7
A8
A9
A10
A11
A12
A13
A14
A15
A16
37
35
34
32
31
29
27
25
26
28
33
30
23
24
22
21
19
29
27
26
24
22
20
18
16
17
19
25
21
14
15
13
12
10
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
Address bus for external
memory
D0
D1
D2
D3
D4
D5
D6
D7
39
41
43
44
42
40
38
36
31
33
35
36
34
32
30
28
I/O
I/O
I/O
I/O
I/O
I/O
I/O
I/O
Data bus for external memory
STOP_OCF
ENE
RD
WR
ALE
PSEN
–
–
–
–
17
–
56
57
7
6
8
23
I/O
I
O
O
O
O
Control Signals for data
memory extension and
emulation.
Semiconductor Group
15
1998-04-08
SDA 525x
6
Functional Description
6.1
Acquisition
6.1.1
TTX/VPS Slicer
The slicer extracts horizontal and vertical sync information and TTX data from the CVBS
signal. The slicer includes an analog circuit for sync filtering and data slicing. Further
there are two analog PLLs for system clock generation for both TTX and VPS. Therefore
the slicer is able to receive both TTX and VPS in succeeding lines of a vertical blanking
interval. A third data-PLL shifts the phase of the system clock for data sampling. The
internal slicer timing signals are generated from the VPS-PLL.
6.1.2
Acquisition Hardware
The acquisition hardware transforms the sliced bit stream into a byte stream. A framing
code check follows to identify a TTX or VPS line. If the framing code error tolerance is
enabled then one-bit errors will be allowed.
For each line in the VBI in which a framingcode is detected, a maximum of 42 bytes
(VPS: 26 bytes) plus a status word are stored in the VBI-buffer. After framing code
detection a status word is generated which informs about the type of data received (TTX
or VPS) and the signal quality of the TV channel. Chapter “Acquisition Status Word”
on page 17 shows the format of this status word. The horizontal and vertical windows in
which TTX or VPS data are accepted and checked for framing code errors are generated
automatically. The VBI buffer data will be analyzed (Hamming, parity and acquisition) by
the microcontroller and stored in the dual port display RAM or the external RAM, if
selected. This analysis is repeated for every field.
Semiconductor Group
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1998-04-08
SDA 525x
Acquisition Status Word
TTX/VPS
FCER
FCOK
LIN.4
LIN.3
LIN.2
LIN.1
LIN.0
LIN.(4...0)
number of TV line in which data was received. This information
can be used to realize a “software data entry window”. 6 ≤ LIN.
(4...0) ≤ 22
FCOK
1 = Framing code OK (VPS or TTX). This bit is set always by
hardware, because lines with valid framing codes are
stored only. This bit is reset by software in VBI-buffer. If
reset, it indicates that this line was already processed.
FCER
1 = The framing code for TTX lines was accepted with 1-biterror. For VPS lines this bit has no meaning.
0 = For TTX lines the framing code E4H was detected.
TTX/VPS
1 = A valid TTX framing code was detected and the data-PLL
is locked to the TTX frequency.
0 = A valid VPS framing code was detected and the data-PLL
is locked to the VPS frequency.
6.1.3
Memory Interface
The acquisition dual port interface manages the VBI memory write access request from
the acquisition hardware and an asynchronous memory access request from the
microcontroller. The acquisition hardware delivers the address and data and then a
request to the interface. The access of acquisition hardware and controller is under a
special arbiter control. The end of data is indicated by the bit LIN24ST in SFR ACQSIR.
Semiconductor Group
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1998-04-08
SDA 525x
6.1.4
Acquisition Control Registers
The following sections gives an overview about special function registers ACQMS_1,
ACQMS_2 and ACQSIR, with which slicer and acquisition can be controlled:
Acquisition Mode and Status Register ACQMS_1
Acquisition Mode and Status
Register
ACQMS_1
SFR-Address C1H
Default after reset: 00H
(MSB)
0
(LSB)
0
VPSE
0
CRIC.1
CRIC.0
ENERT
TTXE
TTXE
1:
enable TTX in lines 6 - 22
ENERT
1:
allow 1 bit error for TTX
CRIC.1 ... CRIC.0
00:
01:
10:
11:
The CRI is not included in FRC
last 2 bits of CRI are included in the FRC
last 4 bits of CRI are included in the FRC
last 8 bits of CRI are included in the FRC
VPSE
1:
enable VPS in line 16. Text-reception in this line is
automatically disabled
Comments
Bits 4, 6 and 7 are not defined, must be set to 0
Acquisition Mode and Status Register ACQMS_2
Acquisition Mode and Status
Register
ACQMS_2
SFR-Address C2H
Default after reset: 00H
(MSB)
TEST.7
(LSB)
TEST.6
Comments
Semiconductor Group
TEST.5
TEST.4
TEST.3
TEST.2
TEST.1
TEST.0
all bits have to be set to 0. Setting any of these bits will switch
on special slicer test modes for production test
18
1998-04-08
SDA 525x
Acquisition-Sync-Interrupt-Register ACQSIR
Acquisition-Sync-InterruptRegister
ACQSIR
SFR-Address C0H
Default after reset: 00H
(MSB)
(LSB)
EVENEN EVENST LIN24EN LIN24ST AVIREN
AVIRST
AHIREN
AHIRST
AHIRST
1 = acquisition horizontal sync interrupt request. This bit is set
by the positive edge of HS. It must be reset by software.
AHIREN
1 = enable acquisition horizontal sync interrupt request.
AVIRST
1 = acquisition vertical sync interrupt request. This bit is set by
the positive edge of VS. It must be reset by software.
AVIREN
1 = enable acquisition vertical sync interrupt request.
LIN24ST
1 = acquisition line 24 interrupt request. Acquisition hardware
processing in VBI interval is finished. This bit assists the
synchronization of acquisition software to the ACQTiming. It is set by hardware at the beginning of line 24
and the corresponding line of 2nd field. It is reset by
software.
LIN24EN
1 = enable acquisition line 24 interrupt request.
EVENST
1 = even field interrupt. Must be reset by software.
EVENEN
1 = enable even field interrupt requests.
Comments
None
Semiconductor Group
19
1998-04-08
SDA 525x
6.2
Display Generator
The display features of SDA525x are similar to the Siemens SDA5248 TTX controller.
The display generator reads character addresses and control characters from the
display memory, selects the pixel information from the character ROM and translates it
into RGB values corresponding to the World Standard Teletext Norm. The national
option character bits for 11 languages inclusive X/26 characters are also supported.
6.2.1
Display Format and Timing
A page consists of 25 rows of 40 characters each. One character covers a matrix of
12 horizontal and 10 vertical pixels. The pixel frequency should be 12 MHz
corresponding to 1 µs for one character and 40 µs for one row. A total of 250 TV lines
are used for TTX display. The display can be shifted horizontally from 0 µs to 21.33 µs
with respect to HS and vertically from line 1 (314) to line 64 (377) with respect to VS. The
display position is determined by the registers DHD and DVD.
Note: To avoid interferences between the subharmonics of the 18 MHz controller clock
and the 12 MHz pixel clock, a pixel clock of about 11,5 MHz is recommended.
6.2.2
Display Cursor
A cursor is available which changes foreground to background colour for one character.
Cursor flash can be realized via software enabling/disabling the cursor. The cursor
position is defined by cursor position registers DCRP and DCCP.
6.2.3
Flash
A character background flash (character is changed to background colour) is realized by
hardware. The flash frequency is 1 Hz with a duty cycle of 32:18.
6.2.4
Full Screen Background Colour
The SDA 525x delivers the new full screen background colour feature. Special function
register SFR DTIM(7-5) includes three bits which define the default background colour
for the inner and outer screen area.
6.2.5
Clear Page Logic
The clear page logic generates a signal which is interpreted by the character generator
to identify non displayable rows. In row 25 specific information is stored by the
microcontroller indicating which of the rows 0 - 24 should be interpreted as erased during
character generation. At the beginning of each row the special control characters are
read from the display memory (see Table 3).
Semiconductor Group
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1998-04-08
SDA 525x
Table 3
Clear Page Bits
row 25 /column:
D7
D6
D5
D4
D3
D2
D1
D0
0
ER7
ER6
ER5
ER4
ER3
ER2
ER1
ER0
1
ER15
ER14
ER13
ER12
ER11
ER10
ER9
ER8
2
ER23
ER22
ER21
ER20
ER19
ER18
ER17
ER16
3
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
ER24
ER24...ER0 = 1:
row is interpreted as a blanked row
ER24...ER0 = 0:
row is received and displayed
6.2.6
Display Page Addressing
The display generator hardware generates a row/column address for the display
memory. Because there is a binary to row/column address translation between display
generator and memory, the OSD programmer has to take care of this. The relationship
between row/column and binary address in memory is shown in Table 4.
Table 4
Row/Column to Binary Translation Table
C0
...
C31
C32
...
C39
Row0
00H
...
1FH
3F8H
...
3FFH
Row1
20H
...
3FH
3F0H
...
3F7H
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
Row23
2E0H
...
2FFH
340H
...
347H
Row24
300H
...
31FH
338H
...
33FH
Row25
320H
...
337H
.
.
.
Semiconductor Group
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1998-04-08
SDA 525x
6.2.7
Character Generator
The character generator includes the character and control code decoder, the RAM
interface and the RGB-, BLAN- and COR-signal generator. The display generator reads
data from the display RAM and calculates appropriate data which drives the RGB output
pins. The pixel clock is generated by a start-stop-oscillator. The synchronization of
display and pixel clock is done via external sandcastle or HS and VS signals. For 60 Hz
display the number of lines per character can be reduced to 9 or 8. In this case pixel
information of line 10 or 9 plus 10 are rejected. With this mode combined with the
variable vertical offset it is possible to generate NTSC displays with 25 rows.
Characters with a binary value < 32 are interpreted as control characters. For binary
values ≥ 32 a ROM character is selected through the addition of the character address,
the language setting in SFR, the europe designation and the graphics control bits
delivered from the control bit decoder.
A total of 64 OSD characters and 64 mosaic graphics characters are available. OSD
characters with addresses 80...SFH can be displayed together with 60 lower case
characters because there is no memory overlapping with any other characters. OSD
characters with addresses 60...7FH can only be displayed if bit OSD in SFR LANGC is
set (see diagrams: Physical Address Space and Vertical Address Space).
Figures 6 - 13 shows the character ROM contents.
The control byte decoder analyses the serial attributes from the display memory and
generates control clocks for the RGB logic and the character address decoder. The
interpretation of control characters is corresponding to World Standard Teletext norm.
Table 5 shows the characters and the appearance on the screen.
The RGB logic combines data from the character address decoder, control byte decoder
and settings from the SFR registers and generates signal R, G, B, BLAN and COR.
6.2.8
On Screen Display (OSD)
A display page in the display memory can also be used for on screen displays. It should
be recognized that all serial attributes of a normal text page are also valid for an OSD
display. Therefore if double height is selected anywhere in a normal text page, row n and
row n-1 (upper row) should be saved and overwritten by OSD data in order to generate
a correct display. Switching back to text display is accomplished by rewriting the text
data to the page. The same procedure is needed for the “erase row bits” in row 25. By
means of enable box bits, transparent control bits and the serial attribute “OSD”, the
OSD screen can be controlled fully independent of the normal text page. The serial
OSD-bit toggles the screen between normal display and OSD.
Semiconductor Group
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1998-04-08
SDA 525x
Table 5
Serial Control Bytes
B7, B6, B5, B4
0
1
0
Alpha Black
Mosaic Black
1
Alpha Red
Mosaic Red
2
Alpha Green
Mosaic Green
3
Alpha Yellow
Mosaic Yellow
4
Alpha Blue
Mosaic Blue
5
Alpha Magenta
Mosaic Magenta
6
Alpha Cyan
Mosaic Cyan
B3, B2, B1, B0
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)
(1)
7
Alpha White
Mosaic White
8
Flash
Conceal(2)
9
Steady(1,2)
Contiguous Mosaic(1,2)
A
End Box (1,3)
Separated Mosaic(2)
B
Start Box (3)
OSD(5)
C
Normal Height(1,2)
Black Background(2)
D
Double Height
New Background (2)
E
Double Width(4)
Hold Mosaic(2)
F
Double Size(4)
Release Mosaic(1)
Reset state at begin of each row.
Takes effect with control character. Other control characters takes effect in the next character field.
Two identical control characters are transmitted in sequence. The effect begins between the control
characters.
Can only be activated if SFR DMOD.0 is set to ‘1’, otherwise no influence.
Toggle; takes effect with next character (on), takes effect with control character (off).
Semiconductor Group
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1998-04-08
SDA 525x
6.2.9
Display Special Function Registers
The display generator includes 9 registers to select the different formats and functions.
Display Horizontal Delay Register DHD
Display Horizontal Delay
Register
DHD
SFR-Address C3H
Default after reset: 00H
(MSB)
HD.7
(LSB)
HD.6
HD.5
HD.4
HD.3
HD.2
HD.1
HD.0
HD.7 ... HD.0
variable negative horizontal display offset relative to positive
edge of HS in pixel units.
Comments
None
Display Vertical Delay Register DVD
Display Vertical Delay
Register
DVD
SFR-Address C4H
Default after reset: 00H
(MSB)
–
(LSB)
–
VD.5
VD.4
VD.3
VD.2
VD.1
VD.0
VD.5 ... VD.0
variable negative vertical display offset relative to positive
edge of VS in HS units.
Comments
None
Semiconductor Group
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1998-04-08
SDA 525x
Display Transparent Control Register DTCR
Display Transparent Control
Register
DTCR
SFR-Address C5H
Default after reset: 00H
(MSB)
CORI
(LSB)
CORO
ICRP
IBP
TRFI
TRFO
TRBI
TRBO
TRBO
1 = Transparent Background Colors outside Box and OSD.
TRBI
1 = Transparent Background Colors inside Box or OSD.
TRFO
1 = Transparent Foreground Colors outside Box and OSD.
TRFI
1 = Transparent Foreground Colors inside Box or OSD.
IBP
1 = Invert Blanking Polarity. Blanking is active high.
0 = Blanking is active low.
ICRP
1 = Invert Contrast Reduction Polarity. COR is active high.
0 = COR is active low.
CORO
1 = Contrast Reduction for Background Color outside Box
and outside OSD.
CORI
1 = Contrast Reduction for Background Color inside Box or
inside OSD.
Note: Outside of a box means outside of a box opened by control code sequence ‘0B,0B’
and outside of an OSD-Box opened by control code ‘1B’.
Inside a box means inside of a box opened by control code sequence ‘0B,0B’ or
inside an OSD-Box opened by control code ‘1B’.
Comments
Semiconductor Group
For further Transparent Modes see SFR DCRP.
25
1998-04-08
SDA 525x
Display Mode Register DMOD
Display Mode Register
DMOD
SFR-Address D6H
Default after reset: XXXX0000B
(MSB)
–
(LSB)
–
–
–
0
0
0
DSDW
DSDW
if set, displaying Double Size and Double Width characters is
enabled
if cleared, control codes 0EH and 0FH have no effect
Bit 1 to 3
have always to be written with ‘0’
Bit 4 to 7
not implemented, to be written with ‘0’
Note: This register is not readable. Thus, do not use read-modify-write operations like
ANL, ORL to modify this register.
Display Feature Double Size and Double Width
Double Size and Double Width are selectable via serial attributes. The control codes are
‘0E’ for Double Width and ‘0F’ for Double Size. Now, there are 4 control codes available,
to modify the character size:
Control Name
Code
0C
0D
0E
0F
Normal Size
Double Height
Double Width
Double Size
Effect
Side Effects
No stretching
Vertical character stretching
Horizontal character stretching
Horizontal and vertical
stretching
any activated stretching off
horizontal stretching off
vertical stretching off
None
Since Double Width and Double Size control codes should not be interpreted by a pure
level 1 text-decoder, this size attributes have to be enabled by setting SFR-bit DSDW.
Double Width and Double Size characters are accomplished by skipping every second
character code after setting any of this following attributes where the remaining
displayable characters are stretched horizontally and thus conceating the character.
Although every second character is hidden, these codes will take effect if they are control
characters.
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1998-04-08
SDA 525x
Display Mode Register 1 DMODE1
Display Mode Register 1
DMODE1
SFR-Address C6H
Default after reset: 00H
(MSB)
ST_TOP
(LSB)
ST_DIS
CON
DH.1
DH.0
BD_24
BD_1_23
BD_0
BD_0
1 = Box characters in row 0 are ignored.
0 = Box characters in row 0 are displayed.
BD_1_23
1 = Box characters in row 1 - 23 are ignored.
0 = Box characters in row 1 - 23 are displayed.
BD_24
1 = Box characters in status row are ignored.
0 = Box characters in status row are allowed.
DH.1 ... DH.0
00 = Normal row display.
01 = Rows 0 - 11 are displayed in double height. Status row
is displayed in normal height.
10 = Rows 12 - 23 are displayed in double height. Status row
is displayed in normal height.
11 = Not defined.
CON
1 = Concealed characters are visible.
0 = Concealed characters are not visible.
ST_DIS
1 = Status row is handled as blanked row.
0 = Status row is displayed.
ST_TOP
1 = Status row is displayed in row 0 of display.
0 = Status row is displayed in row 24 of display.
Comments
Only boxes opened by the control code sequence 0BH,
0BH will be influenced, an OSD-Box (opened by control
code 1BH) will not be affected.
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SDA 525x
Display Mode Register 2 DMODE2
Display Mode Register 2
DMODE2
SFR-Address C7H
Default after reset: 00H
(MSB)
DTEST.2
(LSB)
DTEST.1
DTEST.0
DCHAP.2
DCHAP.1
DCHAP.0
C10
C7
C7
1 = Header is handled as erased row (Suppress Header).
C10
1 = Rows 1 - 23 are handled as erased rows (Inhibit Display).
DCHAP.2..0
selects one of eight display chapters.
DTEST.0
Not defined, must be set to 0.
DTEST.1
Not defined, must be set to 0.
DTEST.2
Not defined, must be set to 0.
Comments
For 1-page-versions (SDA 5251, SDA 5252) the bits
DCHAP.2..0 have to be set to ‘0’.
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SDA 525x
Language Control Register LANGC
Language Control Register
LANGC
SFR-Address C9H
Default after reset: 00H
(MSB)
OSD_64
(LSB)
LANGC.6
LANGC.5
LANGC.4
LANGC.3
LANGC.2
LANGC.1
LANGC.0
LANGC.4... LANGC.0
Language selection for text outside of an OSD window.
00000 : German
01010 : English
01011 : Scandinavian
01100 : Italian
01101 : French
01110 : Spanish
11001 : Turkish
11010 : Rumanian
11011 : Hungarian
11100 : Czechish
11101 : Polish
11110 : Serbian
others : Not defined
LANGC.6... LANGC.5
00: West european special characters are addressable.
01: West european special characters are addressable
(Turkish).
10: East european special characters are addressable.
11: Not defined.
OSD_64
1:
0:
Comments
Semiconductor Group
64 OSD character mode on. If the serial attribute OSD is
set a total of 64 OSD characters is available. The lower
case G0 characters can not be used.
32 OSD character mode on. Only OSD characters in
ROM column 8 and 9 are available if serial attribute OSD
is set. Outside an OSD box all 64 OSD characters are
available (see Figure 12).
see Diagrams ‘x’ and ‘y’ Physical and Vertical address spaces
29
1998-04-08
SDA 525x
Display Cursor Column Position Register DCCP
Display Cursor Column
Position Register
DCCP
SFR-Address CAH
Default after reset: 00H
(MSB)
–
(LSB)
DC_EN
DCCP.5
DCCP.4
DCCP.3
DCCP.2
DC_EN
1 = Display Cursor Enable.
0 = Display Cursor Disable.
DCCP.5...DCCP.0
Active cursor column position.
DCCP.5...0 = 0D: column 1 on screen.
Bit 7
reserved, should be set to ‘0’.
Comments
None
DCCP.1
DCCP.0
Display Cursor Row Position Register DCRP
Display Cursor Row Position
Register
DCRP
SFR-Address CBH
Default after reset: 00H
(MSB)
TRBOS
(LSB)
COROS
–
DCRP.4
DCRP.3
DCRP.2
DCRP.1
DCRP.0
DCRP.4...DCRP.0
defines row of active cursor position.
TRBOS
1 = The outer screen display area appears transparent
0 = The outer screen display area gets the background colour
defined in register DTIM
COROS
1 = Contrast reduction outer screen
Bit 5
reserved, should be set to ‘0’.
Comments
bits TRBOS and COROS thematically belong to the SFR
DTCR
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SDA 525x
Display Timing Control Register DTIM
Display Timing Control
Register
DTIM
SFR-Address CCH
Default after reset: 00H
(MSB)
BG_R
(LSB)
BG_G
LIN8
LIN9
SANDC
EO_VS
EO_P30
BG_R
BG_G
BG_B
BG_B
EO_P30
EO_VS
SANDC
LIN9
LIN8
1 = 8 line character mode (higher priority than LIN9).
1 = 9 line character mode.
1 = horizontal and vertical synchronization accepts sandcastle
pulse from pad HS/SC.
0 = horizontal and vertical synchronization accepts HS and
VS pulses from pads HS/SC and VS respectively.
1 = The ODD/EVEN-signal evaluated from CVBS is enabled
on Pin VS.
0 = ODD/EVEN function is disabled.
1 = The ODD/EVEN-signal evaluated from CVBS is enabled
on Pin P3.0.
0 = ODD/EVEN function is disabled.
BG_R BG_G BG_B
BG_R BG_G BG_B
black
0
0
0
yellow 1
1
0
red
1
0
0
violet
1
0
1
green
0
1
0
cyan
0
1
1
blue
0
0
1
white
1
1
1
outer screen background colour
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SDA 525x
Teletext-Sync-Interrupt-Register TTXSIR
Teletext-Sync-InterruptRegister
TTXSIR
SFR-Address C8H
Default after reset: 00H
(MSB)
–
(LSB)
VSY
HSY
PCLK
DVIREN
DVIRST
DHIREN
DHIRST
DHIRST
1 = display horizontal sync interrupt request (set by positive
edge of HS, reset by software).
DHIREN
1 = enable display horizontal sync interrupt requests.
DVIRST
1 = display vertical sync interrupt request (set by positive edge
of VS, reset by software).
DVIREN
1 = enable display vertical sync interrupt requests.
PCLK
Reflects state of internal pixel clock.
HSY
Reflects state of HS-signal decoded by SC-decoder
VSY
Reflects state of VS-signal decoded by SC-decoder
(SANDC=1).
Reflects state of VS-pin (SANDC=0).
Bit 7
reserved, should be set to ‘0’
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SDA 525x
6.2.10
Sandcastle Decoder
To fit the requirements of various applications the input circuit of the sandcastle decoder
is programmable. Both slicing levels (VSCH, VSCL2) which are important for proper SCdecoder function can be varied in a range of about 0.9 V and in addition there is the
possibility to increase the implemented hysteresis by 0.3 V typically. Further noise
reduction and spike rejection on pin SC is accomplished by using a digital filter following
the input circuitry. See Figure 41 on page 133 for further information on VSCH and VSCL2.
Sandcastle Control Register SCCON
Sandcastle Control Register
SCCON
SFR-Address CEH
Default after reset: 00H
(MSB)
0
(LSB)
SCCH.2
SCCH.1
SCCH.0
0
SCCL.2
SCCL.1
SCCL1...0
00 = set VSCL2 to lowest level (1.0 V typ.)
01 = increase VSCL2 by 0.3 V (typ.)
10 = increase VSCL2 by 0.6 V (typ.)
11 = increase VSCL2 by 0.9 V (typ.)
SCL.2
0 = hysteresis VSCL2 set to 0.3 V (typ.)
1 = increase hysteresis VSCL2 by 0.6 V (typ.)
SCCH1...0
00 = set VSCH to lowest level 3.0 V (typ.)
01 = increase VSCH by 0.3 V (typ.)
10 = increase VSCH by 0.6 V (typ.)
11 = increase VSCH by 0.9 V (typ.)
SCCH.2
0 = hysteresis VSCH set to 0.3 V (typ.)
1 = increase hysteresis VSCH by 0.6 V
Attention
Bits 3 and 7 have to be set to ‘0’.
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SDA 525x
3/0
2/0
4/0
5/0
6/0
NO
7/0
NO
2/1
3/1
4/1
5/1
6/1
7/1
2/2
3/2
4/2
5/2
6/2
7/2
3/3
4/3
5/3
6/3
7/3
3/4
4/4
5/4
6/4
7/4
2/5
3/5
4/5
5/5
6/5
7/5
2/6
3/6
4/6
5/6
6/6
7/6
2/7
3/7
4/7
5/7
6/7
7/7
2/8
3/8
4/8
5/8
6/8
7/8
2/9
3/9
4/9
5/9
6/9
7/9
2/A
3/F
4/A
5/A
6/A
7/A
2/B
3/B
4/B
5/B
6/B
7/B
2/3
NO
2/4
NO
NO
2/C
3/C
4/C
5/C
NO
6/C
7/C
NO
2/D
3/D
4/D
5/D
NO
6/D
7/D
NO
2/E
3/E
4/E
5/E
NO
6/E
7/E
NO
2/F
3/F
4/F
5/F
NO
6/F
7/F
NO
UED08127
Figure 6
G0 Character Set
Note: NO = hardware mapped national option character
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SDA 525x
A/0
B/0
C/0
D/0
E/0
F/0
A/1
B/1
C/1
D/1
E/1
F/1
A/2
B/2
C/2
D/2
E/2
F/2
A/3
B/3
C/3
D/3
E/3
F/3
A/4
B/4
C/4
D/4
E/4
F/4
A/5
B/5
C/5
D/5
E/5
F/5
A/6
B/6
C/6
D/6
E/6
F/6
A/7
B/7
C/7
D/7
E/7
F/7
A/8
B/8
C/8
D/8
E/8
F/8
A/9
B/9
C/9
D/9
E/9
F/9
A/A
B/A
C/A
D/A
E/A
F/A
A/B
B/B
C/B
D/B
E/B
F/B
A/C
B/C
C/C
D/C
E/C
F/C
A/D
B/D
C/D
D/D
E/D
F/D
A/E
B/E
C/E
D/E
E/E
F/E
A/F
B/F
C/F
D/F
E/F
F/F
UED08128
Figure 7
Character Set West Europe
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SDA 525x
A/0
B/0
C/0
D/0
E/0
F/0
A/1
B/1
C/1
D/1
E/1
F/1
A/2
B/2
C/2
D/2
E/2
F/2
A/3
B/3
C/3
D/3
E/3
F/3
A/4
B/4
C/4
D/4
E/4
F/4
A/5
B/5
C/5
D/5
E/5
F/5
A/6
B/6
C/6
D/6
E/6
F/6
A/7
B/7
C/7
D/7
E/7
F/7
A/8
B/8
C/8
D/8
E/8
F/8
A/9
B/9
C/9
D/9
E/9
F/9
A/A
B/A
C/A
D/A
E/A
F/A
A/B
B/B
C/B
D/B
E/B
F/B
A/C
B/C
C/C
D/C
E/C
F/C
A/D
B/D
C/D
D/D
E/D
F/D
A/E
B/E
C/E
D/E
E/E
F/E
A/F
B/F
C/F
D/F
E/F
F/F
UED08129
Figure 8
Character Set West Europe (Turkish)
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SDA 525x
A/0
B/0
C/0
D/0
E/0
F/0
A/1
B/1
C/1
D/1
E/1
F/1
A/2
B/2
C/2
D/2
E/2
F/2
A/3
B/3
C/3
D/3
E/3
F/3
A/4
B/4
C/4
D/4
E/4
F/4
A/5
B/5
C/5
D/5
E/5
F/5
A/6
B/6
C/6
D/6
E/6
F/6
A/7
B/7
C/7
D/7
E/7
F/7
A/8
B/8
C/8
D/8
E/8
F/8
A/9
B/9
C/9
D/9
E/9
F/9
A/A
B/A
C/A
D/A
E/A
F/A
A/B
B/B
C/B
D/B
E/B
F/B
A/C
B/C
C/C
D/C
E/C
F/C
A/D
B/D
C/D
D/D
E/D
F/D
A/E
B/E
C/E
D/E
E/E
F/E
A/F
B/F
C/F
D/F
E/F
F/F
UED08130
Figure 9
Character Set East Europe
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SDA 525x
German
English
2/3
2/3
Scandinavian
2/3
Italian
2/4
2/4
2/4
2/4
2/4
2/4
4/0
4/0
4/0
4/0
4/0
4/0
5/B
5/B
5/B
5/B
5/B
5/B
5/C
5/C
5/C
5/C
5/C
5/C
5/D
5/D
5/D
5/D
5/D
5/D
5/E
5/E
5/E
5/E
5/E
5/E
5/F
5/F
5/F
5/F
5/F
5/F
6/0
6/0
6/0
6/0
6/0
6/0
7/B
7/B
7/B
7/B
7/B
7/B
7/C
7/C
7/C
7/C
7/C
7/C
7/D
7/D
7/D
7/D
7/D
7/D
7/E
7/E
7/E
7/E
7/E
7/E
Spanish
French
2/3
2/3
2/3
UED08131
Figure 10
National Option Characters I
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SDA 525x
Turkish
Polish
2/3
2/3
Czechian
2/3
2/4
2/4
2/4
2/4
2/4
4/0
4/0
4/0
4/0
4/0
5/B
5/B
5/B
5/B
5/B
5/C
5/C
5/C
5/C
5/C
5/D
5/D
5/D
5/D
5/D
5/E
5/E
5/E
5/E
5/E
5/F
5/F
5/F
5/F
5/F
6/0
6/0
6/0
6/0
6/0
7/B
7/B
7/B
7/B
7/B
7/C
7/C
7/C
7/C
7/C
7/D
7/D
7/D
7/D
7/D
7/E
7/E
7/E
7/E
7/E
Romanian
2/3
Serbian
2/3
UED08132
Figure 11
National Option Characters II
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SDA 525x
6/0
7/0
8/0
9/0
6/1
7/1
8/1
9/1
6/2
7/2
8/2
9/2
6/3
7/3
8/3
9/3
6/4
7/4
8/4
9/4
6/5
7/5
8/5
9/5
6/6
7/6
8/6
9/6
6/7
7/7
8/7
9/7
6/8
7/8
8/8
9/8
6/9
7/9
8/9
9/9
6/A
7/A
8/A
9/A
6/B
7/B
8/B
9/B
6/C
7/C
8/C
9/C
6/D
7/D
8/D
9/D
6/E
7/E
8/E
9/E
6/F
7/F
8/F
9/F
UED08133
Figure 12
OSD Characters Set (these characters are customized and thus left blank on this page)
Note: Characters ... to ... can only be used inside an OSD box.
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SDA 525x
2/0
3/0
6/0
7/0
2/1
3/1
6/1
7/1
2/2
3/2
6/2
7/2
2/3
3/3
6/3
7/3
2/4
3/4
6/4
7/4
2/5
3/5
6/5
7/5
2/6
3/6
6/6
7/6
2/7
3/7
6/7
7/7
2/8
3/8
6/8
7/8
2/9
3/9
6/9
7/9
2/A
3/F
6/A
7/A
2/B
3/B
6/B
7/B
2/C
3/C
6/C
7/C
2/D
3/D
6/D
7/D
2/E
3/E
6/E
7/E
2/F
3/F
6/F
7/F
UED08134
Figure 13
Graphics Character Set
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SDA 525x
6.3
Microcontroller
6.3.1
Architecture
The CPU manipulates operands in two memory spaces: the program memory space,
and the data memory space. The program memory address space is provided to
accommodate relocatable code.
The data memory address space is divided into the 256-byte internal data RAM, XRAM
(extended data memory, accessible with MOVX-instructions) and the 128-byte Special
Function Register (SFR) address spaces. Four register banks (each bank has eight
registers), 128 addressable bits, and the stack reside in the internal data RAM. The stack
depth is limited only by the available internal data RAM. It’s location is determined by the
8-bit stack pointer. All registers except the program counter and the four 8-register banks
reside in the special function register address space. These memory mapped registers
include arithmetic registers, pointers, I/O-ports, registers for the interrupt system, timers,
pulse width modulator and serial channel. Many locations in the SFR-address space are
addressable as bits.
Note that reading from unused locations within data memory will yield undefined data.
Conditional branches are performed relative to the 16 bit program counter. The registerindirect jump permits branching relative to a 16-bit base register with an offset provided
by an 8-bit index register. Sixteen-bit jumps and calls permit branching to any location in
the memory address space.
The processor as five methods for addressing source operands: register, direct, registerindirect, immediate, and base-register plus index-register indirect addressing.
The first three methods can be used for addressing destination operands. Most
instructions have a “destination, source” field that specifies the data type, addressing
methods and operands involved. For operations other than moves, the destination
operand is also a source operand.
Registers in the four 8-register banks can be accessed through register, direct, or
register-indirect addressing; the lower 128 bytes of internal data RAM through direct or
register-indirect addressing, the upper 128 bytes of internal data RAM through registerindirect addressing; and the special function registers through direct addressing. Lookup tables resident in program memory can be accessed through base-register plus
index-register indirect addressing.
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SDA 525x
6.3.1.1
CPU-Hardware
Instruction Decoder
Each program instruction is decoded by the instruction decoder. This unit generates the
internal signals that control the functions of each unit within the CPU-section. These
signals control the sources and destination of data, as well as the function of the
Arithmetic/Logic Unit (ALU).
Program Control Section
The program control section controls the sequence in which the instructions stored in
program memory are executed. The conditional branch logic enables conditions internal
and external to the processor to cause a change in the sequence of program execution.
The 16-bit program counter holds the address of the instruction to be executed. It is
manipulated with the control transfer instructions listed in Chapter “Instruction Set” on
page 116.
Internal Data RAM
The internal data RAM provides a 256-byte scratch pad memory, which includes four
register banks and 128 direct addressable software flags. Each register bank contains
registers R0 – R7. The addressable flags are located in the 16-byte locations starting at
byte address 32 and ending with byte location 47 of the RAM-address space.
In addition to this standard internal data RAM the processor contains an extended
internal RAM. It can be considered as a part of an external data memory. It is referenced
by MOVX-instructions (MOVX A, @DPTR), the memory map is shown in Figure 21.
Arithmetic/Logic Unit (ALU)
The arithmetic section of the processor performs many data manipulation functions and
includes the Arithmetic/Logic Unit (ALU) and the A, B and PSW-registers. The ALU
accepts 8-bit data words from one or two sources and generates an 8-bit result under
the control of the instruction decoder. The ALU performs the arithmetic operations of
add, subtract, multiply, divide, increment, decrement, BCD-decimal-add-adjust and
compare, and the logic operations of and, or, exclusive-or, complement and rotate (right,
left, or nibble swap).
The A-register is the accumulator, the B-register is dedicated during multiply and divide
and serves as both a source and a destination. During all other operations the B-register
is simply another location of the special function register space and may be used for any
purpose.
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SDA 525x
Boolean Processor
The Boolean processor is an integral part of the processor architecture. It is an
independent bit processor with its own instruction set, its own accumulator (the carry
flag) and its own bit- addressable RAM and I/O. The bit manipulation instructions allow
the direct addressing of 128 bits within the internal data RAM and several bits within the
special function registers. The special function registers which have addresses exactly
divisible by eight contain directly addressable bits.
The Boolean processor can perform, on any addressable bit, the bit operations of set,
clear, complement, jump-if-set, jump-if-not-set, jump-if-set then-clear and move to/from
carry. Between any addressable bit (or its complement) and the carry flag it can perform
the bit operation of logical AND or logical OR with the result returned to the carry flag.
Program Status Word Register (PSW)
The PSW-flags record processor status information and control the operation of the
processor. The carry (CY), auxiliary carry (AC), two user flags (F0 and F1), register bank
select (RS0 and RS1), overflow (OV) and parity (P) flags reside in the program status
word register. These flags are bit-memory-mapped within the byte-memory-mapped
PSW. The CY, AC, and OV flags generally reflect the status of the latest arithmetic
operations. The CY-flag is also the Boolean accumulator for bit operations. The P-flag
always reflects the parity of the A-register. F0 and F1 are general purpose flags which
are pushed onto the stack as part of a PSW-save. The two register bank select bits (RS1
and RS0) determine which one of the four register banks is selected as follows:
Table 6
Program Status Word Register
RS1
RS0
Register Bank
Register Location
0
0
1
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
2
3
00H – 07H
08H – 0FH
10H – 17H
18H – 1FH
Program Status Word PSW
Program Status Word
PSW
SFR-Address D0H
(MSB)
CY
(LSB)
AC
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F0
RS1
RS0
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OV
F1
P
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SDA 525x
Stack Pointer (SP)
The 8-bit stack pointer contains the address at which the last byte was pushed onto the
stack. This is also the address of the next byte that will be popped. The SP is
incremented during a push. SP can be read or written to under software control. The
stack may be located anywhere within the internal data RAM address space and may be
as large as 256 bytes.
Data Pointer Register (DPTR)
The 16-bit Data Pointer Register DPTR is the concatenation of registers DPH (highorder byte) and DPL (low-order byte). The DPTR is used in register-indirect addressing
to move program memory constants and to access the extended data memory. DPTR
may be manipulated as one 16-bit register or as two independent 8-bit registers DPL and
DPH.
Eight data pointer registers are available, the active one is selected by a special function
register (DPSEL).
Port 0, Port 1, Port 2, Port 3, Port 4
The five ports provide 26 I/O-lines and 5 input-lines to interface to the external world. All
five ports are both byte and bit addressable. Port 0 is used for binary l/O and as clock
and data line of a software driven I2C bus. Port 1 provides eight PWM- output channels
as alternate functions while port 2.0 - 2.3 are digital or analog inputs. Port 3 contains
special control signals. Port 4 will usually be selected as memory extension interface
(ROM-less version only).
Interrupt Logic
Controlled by three special function registers (IE, IP0 and IP1) the interrupt logic
provides several interrupt vectors. Each of them may be assigned to high or low priority
(see Chapter “Interrupt System” on page 62).
Timer/Counter 0/1
Two general purpose 16-bit timers/counters are controlled by the special function
registers TMOD and TCON (see Chapter “General Purpose Timers/Counters” on
page 80).
Serial Interface
A full duplex serial interface is provided where one of three operation modes may be
selected. The serial interface is controlled by two special function registers (SCON,
SBUF) as described in Chapter “Serial Interface” on page 91.
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Watchdog Timer
For software- and hardware security, a watchdog timer is supplied, which resets the
processor, if not cleared by software within a maximum time period.
Pulse Width Modulation Unit
Up to six lines of port 1 may be used as 8-bit PWM-outputs and two lines of port 1 may
be used as 14-bit PWM-output. The PWM-logic is controlled by registers
PWCOMP0 … 7, PWCL, PWCH, PWME, PWEXT6, PWEXT7 (see Chapter “Pulse
Width Modulation Unit (PWM)” on page 106).
Capture Compare Timer
For easy decoding of infrared remote control signals, a dedicated timer is available (see
Chapter “Capture Compare Timer” on page 90).
6.3.1.2
CPU-Timing
Timing generation is completely self-contained, except for the frequency reference
which can be a crystal or external clock source. The on-board oscillator is a parallel antiresonant circuit. There is a divide-by-6 internal timing which leads to a minimum
instruction cycle of 0.33 µs with an 18-MHz crystal. The XTAL2-pin is the output of a
high-gain amplifier, while XTAL1 is its input. A crystal connected between XTAL1 and
XTAL2 provides the feedback and phase shift required for oscillation.
A machine cycle consists of 6 oscillator periods (software selectable). Most instructions
execute in one cycle. MUL (multiply) and DIV (divide) are the only instructions that take
more than two cycles to complete. They take four cycles.
To reduce the power consumption, the internal clock frequency can be divided by two,
which slows down the processor operations.
This slow down mode is entered by setting SFR-Bit CDC in register AFR.
Note: All timing values and diagrams in this specification refer to an inactivated clock
divider (CDC = 0).
Note: Slow down mode should only be used if teletext reception and the display are
disabled. Otherwise processing of the incoming text data might be incomplete and
the display structure will be corrupted.
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SDA 525x
.. 2
CDC = 1
Internal
Chip Clock
OSC
.. 6
CDC = 0
Machine Cycles,
Instruction Cycles
UES05470
Figure 14
CPU-Timing
Note: For CDC see Chapter “Advanced Function Register” on page 115.
6.3.1.3
Addressing Modes
There are five general addressing modes operating on bytes. One of these five
addressing modes, however, operates on both bytes and bits:
–
–
–
–
–
Register
Direct (both bytes and bits)
Register indirect
Immediate
Base-register plus index-register indirect
The following section summarizes, which memory spaces may be accessed by each of
the addressing modes:
Register Addressing
R0 – R7
ACC, B, CY (bit), DPTR
Direct Addressing
RAM (low part)
Special Function Registers
Register-Indirect Addressing
RAM (@R1, @R0, SP)
Immediate Addressing
Program Memory
Base-Register plus Index-Register Indirect Addressing
Program Memory (@DPTR + A, @PC + A)
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Register Addressing
Register addressing accesses the eight working registers (R0 – R7) of the selected
register bank. The PSW-register flags RS1 and RS0 determine which register bank is
enabled. The least significant three bits of the instruction opcode indicate which register
is to be used. ACC, B, DPTR and CY, the Boolean processor accumulator, can also be
addressed as registers.
Direct Addressing
Direct byte addressing specifies an on-chip RAM-location (only low part) or a special
function register. Direct addressing is the only method of accessing the special function
registers. An additional byte is appended to the instruction opcode to provide the
memory location address. The highest-order bit of this byte selects one of two groups of
addresses: values between 0 and 127 (00H – 7FH) access internal RAM-locations, while
values between 128 and 255 (80H – 0FFH) access one of the special function registers.
Register-Indirect Addressing
Register-indirect addressing uses the contents of either R0 or R1 (in the selected
register bank) as a pointer to locations in the 256 bytes of internal RAM. Note that the
special function registers are not accessable by this method.
Execution of PUSH- and POP-instructions also use register-indirect addressing. The
stack pointer may reside anywhere in internal RAM.
Immediate Addressing
Immediate addressing allows constants to be part of the opcode instruction in program
memory.
An additional byte is appended to the instruction to hold the source variable. In the
assembly language and instruction set, a number sign (#) precedes the value to be used,
which may refer to a constant, an expression, or a symbolic name.
Base-Register plus Index Register-Indirect Addressing
Base-register plus index register-indirect addressing allows a byte to be accessed from
program memory via an indirect move from the location whose address is the sum of a
base register (DPTR or PC) and index register, ACC. This mode facilitates accessing to
look-up-table resident in program memory.
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6.3.2
Memory Organization
The processor memory is organized into two address spaces. The memory spaces are:
– Program memory address space
– 256 byte plus 128-byte internal data memory address space
– Extended internal data memory (XRAM) for storing teletext and display data.
A 16-bit program counter and a dedicated banking logic provide the processor with its
512-Kbyte addressing capabilities (for ROM-less versions, up to 19 address lines are
available). The program counter allows the user to execute calls and branches to any
location within the program memory space. There are no instructions that permit
program execution to move from the program memory space to any of the data memory
space.
6.3.2.1
Program Memory
Certain locations in program memory are reserved for specific programs. Locations 0000
through 0002 are reserved for the initialization program. Following reset, the CPU
always begins execution at location 0000. Locations 0003 through 0051 are reserved for
the seven interrupt-request service programs as indicated in Table 7.
Table 7
Source
Address
External Interrupt 0
Timer 0 Overflow
External Interrupt 1
Timer 1 Overflow
Serial Interface
Teletext Sync Signals
Analog Digital Converter
03
11
19
27
35
43
51
(03H)
(0BH)
(13H)
(1BH)
(23H)
(2BH)
(33H)
Depending on the selected type, the user can access a part of the internal/external ROM
for the application software. Please note that another part of the Program Memory is
reserved for the TTX firmware.
Table 8
Type
Available User ROM Space
SDA 5250
SDA 5251
SDA 5252
SDA 5254
SDA 5255
480
8
16
16
24
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Kbyte
Kbyte
Kbyte
Kbyte
Kbyte
externally
internally
internally
internally
internally
1998-04-08
SDA 525x
Memory Extension (ROMless version only)
The processor is prepared to extend its external program memory space up to
512 Kbytes (Figure 15 and 16). For easy handling of existing software and assemblers
this space is split into 8 banks of 64 Kbytes each. The extension concept, based on the
standard 64 K addressing ability, is provided for high effective and easy memory access
with minimum software overhead. There is also no need caring about bank organization
during subroutine processing or interrupts. This is done through address bits A16 – 18,
which are controlled by a special internal circuitry, performing a “delayed banking”. The
operations to the extended memory spaces are controlled by two additional special
function registers called MEX1 and MEX2 (Figure 17). The address bits A17 and A18
are implemented at port 4. Programs, using only 128-Kbytes program memory space,
may switch the address function off by setting bits NB, IB and bits MB to ‘1’ followed by
a LJMP. Then port 4 will work properly in port mode. Whenever full address mode is
desired, port 4 bits have to be kept on ‘1’ (Table 9). After reset all CB are ‘0’ and P4
latches are set to ‘1’, resulting a ‘0’ at the port 4 pins.
Banking of Program Memory
After reset the bits for current bank (CB) and next bank (NB) are set to zero. This way
the processor starts the same as any 8051 controller at address 00000H. Whenever a
jump to another bank is required, the software has to change the bits NB16 – 18 for
initializing the bank exchange (bits CB16 – 18 are read only). After operating the next
LJMP instruction the NB16 – 18 bits (next bank) are copied to CB16 – 18 (current bank)
and will appear at A16 – 18. Only LJMP will do this.
P0
D
P1
D
EPROM
SDA 5250
P2
P3
A
P4
PSEN
A
OE
Alternative
Connections
UES05663
Figure 15
Connecting External Program Memory
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SDA 525x
524287
458751
393215
327679
7
262143
6
196607
5
131071
4
65535
3
2
1
Bank 0
458752
393216
327680
262144
196608
131072
65536
0000
UEC04716
Figure 16
Bank Organization
MEX1 (94H):
Bank Control
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
–
CB18
CB17
CB16
–
NB18
NB17
NB16
MEX2 (95H):
Mode Control
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
MM
MB18
MB17
MB16
SF
IB18
IB17
IB16
CB
NB
MM
MB
SF
IB
= Current Bank
= Next Bank
= Memory Mode
= Memory Bank
= Stack Full
= Interrupt Bank
Read only; CBx = Ax
R/W
R/W; 1 = use MB
R/W
Read only; 1 = full
R/W
Figure 17
Register Bits MEX1 / MEX2
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Table 9
Port 4 Configuration
CB
P4 Latch
P4 Out
Comment
0
0
0
x
0
1
0
Address
1
0
0
P4
1
1
1
Addr / P4
MOVC-Handling
MOVC-instructions may operate in two different modes, that are selected by bit MM in
MEX2. On MM = 0 MOVC will access the current bank. On MM = 1 the bits MB16 – 18
will appear at A16 – A18 during MOVC.
Bank 3
Bank 2
DPTR
PC
MM=1, MB16-17 =3, CB 16-17 =2
UEC04717
Figure 18
PC and DPTR on Different Banks
CALLs and Interrupts
For flexible use of CALL and interrupts the control logic holds an own 32 levels-six-bitstack. Whenever a LCALL or ACALL occurs, CB16 – 18 and NB16 – 18 (MEX1) is
copied to this stack and the memory extension stackpointer is incremented. Then
NB16 – 18 is copied to CB16 – 18. Leaving subroutines through RET or RETI
decrements the stack pointer and reads the old NB and CB contents from the stack. All
six bits are required for saving to prevent conflicts on interrupt events. One additional
feature simplifies the handling of interrupts: on occurrence the bits IB16 – 18 within
MEX2 are copied to CB16 – 18 and NB16 – 18 after pushing their old contents on the
stack. This way programmers can place their ISR (Interrupt Service Routine) on specific
banks. After reset MM, MB16 – 18 and IB16 – 18 are set to zero.
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In order to prevent loss of program control during deep subroutine nesting a warning bit
“SF” (Stack Full) is set in MEX2 whenever a memory extension stack depth overflow is
imminent. For example Figure 19 shows the data flows at the memory extension stack
during a LCALL. All three bits of NB are copied to the position CB and NB of the next
higher stack level (now the current MEX1) while the last CB and NB are held on the
stack. Returning from subroutine through RET the memory extension stack pointer
decrements and CB and NB of MEX1 has the same contents as before LCALL.
Before
CB
NB
010
110
’LCALL’
After
MEX1
MEX1
010
MEX1:
110
CB 18,17,16
CB
NB
110
010
110
110
NB 18,17,16
UEC04718
Figure 19
Processing LCALL (same as ACALL)
Examples
The standard sequence jumping from one bank to another is simply preceding a “MOV
MEX1,#”- instruction to an “LJMP / LCALL” as shown in Figure 19. To operate programs
up to 512 Kbytes with standard assemblers or from C the program can be split into
sections, modules or files, that will each run in their own bank. Referencing banks to
each other (jumps, calls, data moves) may be done by a simple preprocessing of the
source programs or object files. Users, going to program a 512-Kbyte EPROM in
assembler, may proceed like this:
1. Build up to eight assembler source files (max. 64 K), inter bank operations will refer to
dummy labels.
2. Do assembler runs on each block and generate label lists.
3. Preprocessing: substitute the inter bank labels in the source files with absolute 64 K
addresses.
4. Second and final assembler runs on each block, generate Hex files.
5. Append the Hex files in right order.
6. Program an EPROM.
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More comfortable programming, e. g. based on C-programs, require similar processing
of the source programs or object files with respect to special considerations of the
compiler.
Figure 20 shows an assembler program run, performing the following actions:
1. Start at bank 0 at 00000.
2. Set ISR-page to bank 2.
3. Jump to bank 1 at address 25.
4. Being interrupted to bank 2 ISR.
5. Call a subprogram at bank 2 address 43.
6. After return read data from bank 2.
Bank 2
Bank 1
Bank 0
ORG 13
ORG 25
ORG 40
0025:
;set ISR Bank = Bank 2
0040:
;Prepare jumping
;from
;Bank 0 to Bank 1
0043:
MOV MEX1,#1
0046:
LJMP 25
;’25’ is a substitution
of Primary Labels
transformed to an
Absolute Address at
Bank 2
;ISR on
;Bank 2
PRGM1: MOV...
;Prepare
;Calling PRGM2
;on Bank 2
PRGM0:
MOV MEX2,#02
0013:
0040:
MOV MEX1,#2
0080:
LCALL 43
Interrupt
;Fetch Data from Bank 2
;(and update ISR-Bank
pointer)
0150:
0153:
0156:
MOV MEX2,#0A2 H
MOV DPTR,#100
MOVC A, @DPTR
RETI
ORG 43
0043:
PRGM2:
0060:
;Execute PRGM2
RET
ORG 100
0100:
BYTE 44 H
to AKKU
UEC04719
Figure 20
Program Example
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6.3.2.2
Internal Data RAM
The internal data memory is divided into four blocks: the lower 128 byte of RAM, the
upper 128 byte of RAM, the 128-byte Special Function Register (SFR) area and the up
to 10 Kbyte additional RAM (Figure 21). Because the upper RAM-area and the SFRarea share the same address locations, they are accessed through different addressing
modes.
The internal data RAM-address space is 0 to 255. Four banks of eight registers each
occupy locations 0 through 31. Only one of these banks may be enabled at a time
through a two-bit field in the PSW. In addition, 128-bit locations of the on-chip RAM are
accessible through direct addressing.
These bits reside in internal data RAM at byte locations 32 through 47, as shown in
Table 11. The lower 128 bytes of internal data RAM can be accessed through direct or
register-indirect addressing, the upper 128 bytes of internal data RAM through registerindirect addressing and the special function registers through direct addressing.The
stack can be located anywhere in the internal data RAM-address space. The stack depth
is limited only by the available internal data RAM, thanks to an 8-bit relocatable stack
pointer. The stack is used for storing the program counter during subroutine calls and
may also be used for passing parameters. Any byte of internal data RAM or special
function registers accessible through direct addressing can be pushed/popped.
An additional on-chip RAM-space called “XRAM” extends the internal RAM-capacity.
The up to 10 Kbytes of XRAM are accessed by MOVX @DPTR. XRAM is located in the
upper area of the address space. 1 Kbyte of the XRAM, called VBI Buffer, is reserved
for storing teletext data and another up to 8 Kbyte of the XRAM, called Display Chapters,
are reserved for storing up to 8 display chapters (see Figure 21). Unused memory area
of the VBI Buffer and the Display Chapters can be used by the controller as general RAM
space.
:
Table 10
XRAM Address Space
Function
Byte Address (hex.)
VBI Buffer
F400 - F7FF
Display Chapter 0 - 7
C000 - DFFF(1)
CPU XRAM
F800 - FBFF(2)
(1)
(2)
SDA 5251, SDA 5252 C000 - C3FF only
SDA 5250, SDA 5254 and SDA 5255 only
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6.3.2.3
Special Function Registers
The special function register address space resides between addresses 128 and 255.
All registers except the program counter and the four banks of eight working registers
reside here. Memory mapping the special function registers allows them to be accessed
as easily as the internal RAM. As such, they can be operated on by most instructions. A
complete list of the special function registers is given in Table 13.
In addition, many bit locations within the special function register address space can be
accessed using direct addressing. These direct addressable bits are located at byte
addresses divisible by eight as shown in Table 12.
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SDA 525x
255
255
64511
Special
Function
Registers
Internal
DATA
RAM
128
127
Addressable
Bits in
RAM
(128 Bits)
127
120
7
0
32
31
R7
24
R0
16
Internal
DATA
RAM
53248
53247
BANK 2
52224
52223
BANK 1
R0
R7
0
BANK 3
54272
54271
R0
R7
8
62464
57343
55296
55295
R7
Registers
VBI
Buffer
56320
56319
128
48
47
Addressable
Bits
in SFRs
63488
63487
51200
51199
BANK 0
Controller
Work
Space
R0
50176
50175
49152
Display
Chapter
7
Display
Chapter
6
Display
Chapter
5
Display
Chapter
4
Additional
Internal
DATA
RAM
(XRAM)
Display
Chapter
3
Display
Chapter
2
Display
Chapter
1
Display
Chapter
0
UED05467
SDA 5250, SDA 5254
and SDA 5255 only
Figure 21
Internal Data Memory Address Space
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SDA 525x
Table 11
Internal RAM-Bit Addresses
RAM
Byte
(MSB)
(LSB)
256
≈
≈
FFH
47
7F
7E
7D
7C
7B
7A
79
78
2FH
46
77
76
75
74
73
72
71
70
2EH
45
6F
6E
6D
6C
6B
6A
69
68
2DH
44
67
66
65
64
63
62
61
60
2CH
43
5F
5E
5D
5C
5B
5A
59
58
2BH
42
57
56
55
54
53
52
51
50
2AH
41
4F
4E
4D
4C
4B
4A
49
48
29H
40
47
46
45
44
43
42
41
40
28H
39
3F
3E
3D
3C
3B
3A
39
38
27H
38
37
36
35
34
33
32
31
30
26H
37
2F
2E
2D
2C
2B
2A
29
28
25H
36
27
26
25
24
23
22
21
20
24H
35
1F
1E
1D
1C
1B
1A
19
18
23H
34
17
16
15
14
13
12
11
10
22H
33
0F
0E
0D
0C
0B
0A
09
08
21H
32
07
06
05
04
03
02
01
00
20H
31
1FH
Bank 3
24
18H
23
17H
Bank 2
16
10H
15
0FH
Bank 1
8
08H
7
07H
Bank 0
00H
0
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SDA 525x
Table 12
Special Function Register Bit Address Space
Direct
Byte
Address
Hardware
Register
Symbol
Bit Address
F8H
FF
FE
FD
FC
FB
FA
F9
F8
PWME
F0H
F7
F6
F5
F4
F3
F2
F1
F0
B
E8H
–
–
–
–
–
–
E9
E8
P4
E0H
E7
E6
E5
E4
E3
E2
E1
E0
ACC
D8H
DF
DE
DD
DC
DB
–
D9
D8
ADCON
D0H
D7
D6
D5
D4
D3
D2
D1
D0
PSW
C8H
–
CE
CD
CC
CB
CA
C9
C8
TTXSIR
C0H
C7
C6
C5
C4
C3
C2
C1
C0
ACQSIR
B8H
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
B0H
B7
B6
B5
B4
B3
B2
B1
B0
P3
A8H
AF
AE
AD
AC
AB
AA
A9
A8
IE
A0H
–
–
–
–
A3
A2
A1
A0
P2
98H
9F
9E
9D
9C
9B
9A
99
98
SCON
90H
97
96
95
94
93
92
91
90
P1
88H
8F
8E
8D
8C
8B
8A
89
88
TCON
80H
87
86
85
84
83
82
81
80
P0
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SDA 525x
Table 13
Special Function Register Overview
Special Function Register
Description
Symbolic
Name
Address
Location
(hex.)
Address
Location
(dec.)
Bit Address Initial
MSB … LSB Value after
(hex.)
Reset
(hex./bin.)
Arithmetic Registers
Accumulator
B-Register
Program Status Word
ACC, A
B
PSW
E0
F0
D0
224
240
208
E7 - E0
F7 - F0
D7 - D0
00
00
00
System Control Registers
Stack Pointer
Data Pointer (high byte)
Data Pointer (low byte)
Data Pointer Select
Power Control
SP
DPH
DPL
DPSEL
PCON
81
83
82
A2
87
129
131
130
162
135
–
–
–
–
07
00
00
xxxxx000
000xxx00
I/O-Port Registers
Port 0
Port 1
Port 2
Port 3
Port 4
P0
P1
P2
P3
P4
80
90
A0
B0
E8
128
144
160
176
232
87 - 80
97 - 90
A3 - A0
B7 - B0
E9 - E8
FF
FF
FF
FF
xxxxxx00
Interrupt Control Registers
Interrupt Enable Flags
Interrupt Priority Flags
Interrupt Priority Flags
Interrupt Control
IE
IP0
IP1
IRCON
A8
A9
AA
A8
168
169
170
171
AF - A8
–
–
–
00
00
00
xxxx0101
Timer 0/1 Registers
Timer 0/1 Mode Register
Timer 0/1 Control Register
Timer 1 (high byte)
Timer 0 (high byte)
Timer 1 (low byte)
Timer 0 (low byte)
TMOD
TCON
TH1
TH0
TL1
TL0
89
88
8D
8C
8B
8A
137
136
141
140
139
138
–
8F - 88
–
–
–
–
00
00
00
00
00
00
Watchdog Timer Registers
Watchdog Control Register
Watchdog Reload Register
Watchdog Low Byte
Watchdog High Byte
WDCON
WDTREL
WDTL
WDTH
A7
86
84
85
167
134
132
133
–
–
–
–
00
00
00
00
RELL
RELH
CAPL
CAPH
IRTCON
E1
E2
E3
E4
E5
225
226
227
228
229
–
–
–
–
–
xx
xx
xx
xx
00
Capture Compare Timer
Registers
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Table 13
Special Function Register Overview (cont’d)
Special Function Register
Description
Symbolic
Name
Address
Location
(hex.)
Address
Location
(dec.)
Bit Address Initial
MSB … LSB Value after
(hex.)
Reset
(hex./bin.)
Analog Digital Converter
ADC-Control Register
ADC-Data Register
ADC-Start Register
ADCON
ADDAT
DAPR
D8
D9
DA
216
217
218
DF - D8
–
–
00
00
xx
Pulse Width Modulator
Registers
Enable Register
Counter Register (low byte)
Counter Register (high byte)
Compare Register 0
Compare Register 1
Compare Register 2
Compare Register 3
Compare Register 4
Compare Register 5
PWM 14 Compare Reg. 0
PWM 14 Extension Reg. 0
PWM 14 Compare Reg. 1
PWM 14 Extension Reg. 1
PWME
PWCL
PWCH
PWCOMP0
PWCOMP1
PWCOMP2
PWCOMP3
PWCOMP4
PWCOMP5
PWCOMP6
PWEXT6
PWCOMP7
PWEXT7
F8
F7
F9
F1
F2
F3
F4
F5
F6
FB
FA
FD
FC
248
247
249
241
242
243
244
245
246
251
250
253
252
FF - F8
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
00
00
00
FF
FF
FF
FF
FF
FF
FF
FF
FF
FF
Serial Interface Registers
Serial Control Register
Serial Data Register
SCON
SBUF
98
99
144
145
9F - 98
–
00
xx
Advanced Function Register
AFR
A6
166
–
00xxxxxx
Slicer Control Registers
Acq. Sync Interrupt Register
Acquisition Mode Register 1
Acquisition Mode Register 2
ACQSIR
ACQMS_1
ACQMS_2
C0
C1
C2
192
193
194
C7 - C0
–
–
00
00
00
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Table 13
Special Function Register Overview (cont’d)
Special Function Register
Description
Symbolic
Name
Address
Location
(hex.)
Address
Location
(dec.)
Bit Address Initial
MSB … LSB Value after
(hex.)
Reset
(hex./bin.)
Display Control Registers
Horizontal Delay
Vertical Delay
Transparent Control
Mode 1 Register
Mode 2 Register
Sync Interrupt Request Reg.
Language Control
Cursor Column Position
Cursor Row Position
Display Timing Control
Sandcastle Control
Display Mode
DHD
DVD
DTCR
DMODE1
DMODE2
TTXSIR
LANGC
DCCP
DCRP
DTIM
SCCON
DMOD
C3
C4
C5
C6
C7
C8
C9
CA
CB
CC
CE
D6
195
196
197
198
199
200
201
202
203
204
206
214
–
–
–
–
–
CF - C8
–
–
–
–
–
–
6.3.3
00
00
00
00
00
00
00
00
00
00
00
x0
Interrupt System
External events and the real-time on-chip peripherals require CPU-service
asynchronous to the execution of any particular section of code. To couple the
asynchronous activities of these functions to normal program execution, a sophisticated
multiple-source, four-priority-level, nested interrupt system is provided. Interrupt
response delay ranges from 0,89 µs to 2.33 µs when using an 18-MHz clock (see
Chapter “Advanced Function Register” on page 115).
6.3.3.1
Interrupt Sources
The processor acknowledges interrupt requests from seven sources: two from external
sources via the INT0 and INT1 pins, one from each of the two internal counters, one from
the serial I/O-port, one from teletext sync signals and one from the analog digital
converter. Each of the seven sources can be assigned to either of four priority levels and
can be independently enabled and disabled. Additionally, all enabled sources can be
globally disabled or enabled.
Interrupts result in a transfer of control to a new program location. Each interrupt vectors
to a separate location in program memory for its service program. The program servicing
the request begins at this address. The starting address (interrupt vector) of the interrupt
service program for each interrupt source is shown in the Table 14.
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Table 14
Interrupt Source
Starting Address
External Request 0
Internal Timer/Counter 0
External Request 1
Internal Timer/Counter 1
Serial Interface
Teletext Sync Signals
Analog Digital Converter
03
11
19
27
35
43
51
6.3.4
(03H)
(0BH)
(13H)
(1BH)
(23H)
(2BH)
(33H)
Interrupt Control
The information flags, which control the entire interrupt system, are stored in following
special function registers:
IE
IP0
IP1
IRCON
TCON
SCON
TTXSIR
ACQSIR
ADCON
Interrupt Enable Register
Interrupt Priority Register 1
Interrupt Priority Register 2
Interrupt Control
Timer/Counter Control Register
Serial Control Register
Sync Interrupt Request Register
Acquisition Sync Interrupt Register
ADC-Control Register
A8H
A9H
AAH
ABH
88H
98H
C8H
C0H
D8H
The interrupt system is shown diagrammatically in Figure 23.
A source requests an interrupt by setting its associated interrupt request flag in the
TCON, SCON, TTXSIR, ACQSIR or ADCON- register, as described in detail in
Table 15.
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Table 15
Interrupt Source
Request Flag
Bit Location
External Request 0
Internal Timer/Counter 0
External Request 1
Internal Timer/Counter 1
Serial Interface
Teletext Sync Signals
IE0
TF0
IE1
TF1
RI/TI
DVIRST
DHIRST
EVENST
LIN24ST
AVIRST
AHIRST
IADC
TCON.1
TCON.5
TCON.3
TCON.7
SCON.0/.1
TTXSIR.2
TTXSIR.0
ACQSIR.6
ACQSIR.4
ACQSIR.2
ACQSIR.0
ADCON.5
Analog Digital Converter
The timer 0 and timer 1 interrupts are generated by TF0 and TF1, which are set by a
rollover in their respective timer/counter register, except for timer 0 in mode 3.
The serial interface interrupt (receive or transmit) is generated when flag RI or TI is set.
RI or TI will be set, when a byte has been received or transmitted over the serial port.
For details see Chapter “More about Mode 0” on page 95, Chapter “More about
Mode 1” on page 95 and Chapter “More about Modes 2 and 3” on page 96.
The teletext sync signal interrupt is generated by setting and enabling at least one of six
possible signal sources: two signals from the display clock system (V and H) and 4
signals from the acquisition clock system (start of even field, start of ACQ- line 24 in each
field, V and H) as shown in Figure 22. The teletext sync signal interrupt is synchronous
to the respective acquisition or display clock system. Thus clock synchronous software
timers can be realized.
The analog digital converter interrupt is generated on completion of the analog digital
conversion.
Within the IE-register there are eight addressable flags. Seven flags enable/disable the
seven interrupt sources when set/cleared. Setting/clearing the eighth flag permits a
global enable/disable of all enabled interrupt requests.
All the bits that generate interrupts can be set or cleared by software, with the same
result as though they had been set or cleared by hardware. That is, interrupts can be
generated or pending interrupt requests can be cancelled by software.
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TTXSIR.2
Display V
Display H
Start of
EVEN FIELD
Start of
ACQ Line 24
(each field)
ACQ V
ACQ H
TTXSIR.3
Display
V Interrupt
DVIRST
DVIREN
TTXSIR.0
TTXSIR.1
Display
H Interrupt
DHIRST
DHIREN
ACQSIR.6
ACQ
EVEN FIELD
Interrupt
EVENST
ACQSIR.7
ACQSIR.4
ACQ
Line 24
Interrupt
LIN24ST
ACQSIR.5
ACQSIR.2
ACQSIR.3
<_
EVENEN
Teletext
Sync
Signal
Interrupt
TSI
LIN24EN
ACQ
V Interrupt
AVIRST
AVIREN
ACQSIR.0
ACQSIR.1
ACQ
H Interrupt
AHIRST
AHIREN
UES05463
Figure 22
Teletext Sync Signal Interrupt System
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Input Level and
Interrupt
Request Flag
Registers:
INT 0
Interrupt ENABLE
Register:
Source
ENABLE
TCON.1
IE.0
IE 0
EX 0
TCON.5
IE.1
TF 0
ET 0
TCON.3
IE.2
IE 1
EX 1
TCON.7
IE.3
TF 1
ET 1
Interrupt
Priority
Registers:
Global
ENABLE
IE.7
IP1.0
IP0.0
External
Interrupt
RQST 0
Highest
Priority Level
Lowest
Priority Level
IP1.1
IP0.1
IP1.2
IP0.2
IP1.3
IP0.3
IP1.4
IP0.4
IP1.5
IP0.5
IP1.6
IP0.6
Internal
Timer 0
External
Interrupt
RQST 1
Internal
Timer 1
SCON 1/0
Internal
Serial
Port
RI/TI
IE.4
ICCON.4
IE.5
Priority Sequence
INT 1
ES
Internal
Ι2 C
IIN
ADCON.5
Internal
Analog
Digital
Converter IADC
EIC
EA
IE.6
EAD
EA
UES05465
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
SEVEN INTERRUPT SOURCES
EACH INTERRUPT CAN BE INDIVIDUALLY ENABLED/DISABLED
ENABLED INTERRUPTS CAN BE GLOBALLY ENABLED/DISABLED
EACH INTERRUPT CAN BE ASSIGNED TO EITHER OF FOUR PRIORITY LEVELS
EACH INTERRUPT VECTORS TO A SEPARATE LOCATION IN PROGRAM MEMORY
INTERRUPT NESTING TO FOUR LEVELS
EXTERNAL INTERRUPT REQUESTS CAN BE PROGRAMMED TO BE LEVEL- OR
TRANSITION-ACTIVATED
Figure 23
Interrupt System
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Teletext Sync Interrupt Request Register TTXSIR
Teletext Sync Interrupt
Request Register
TTXSIR
SFR-Address C8H
Default after reset: 00H
(MSB)
–
(LSB)
VSY
HSY
PCLK
DVIREN
DVIRST
DHIREN
DHIRST
VSY, HSY, PCLK
These bits are no interrupt bits. They are described in
Chapter “Display Special Function Registers” on
page 24.
DVIREN
Enables or disables the display vertical sync interrupt request.
If DVIREN = 1, this interrupt will be enabled.
DVIRST
Display vertical sync interrupt request flag. Set by the rising
edge of the display vertical sync pulse. Must be cleared by
software.
DHIREN
Enables or disables the display horizontal sync interrupt
request.
If DHIREN = 1, this interrupt will be enabled.
DHIRST
Display horizontal sync interrupt request flag. Set by the rising
edge of the display horizontal sync pulse. Must be cleared by
software.
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Acquisition Sync Interrupt Request Register ACQSIR
Acquisition Sync Interrupt
Request Register
ACQSIR
SFR-Address C0H
Default after reset: 00H
(MSB)
(LSB)
EVENEN EVENST LIN24EN LIN24ST AVIREN
AVIRST
AHIREN
AHIRST
EVENEN
Enables or disables the even field interrupt request.
If EVENEN = 1, this interrupt will be enabled.
EVENST
Even field interrupt request flag. Set at the start of even field
(field 1).
Must be cleared by software.
LIN24EN
Enables or disables the acquisition line 24 interrupt request.
If LIN24EN = 1, this interrupt will be enabled.
LIN24ST
Acquisition line 24 interrupt request flag. Set at the start of
acquisition line 24 in each field. Must be cleared by software.
AVIREN
Enables or disables the acquisition vertical sync interrupt
request.
If AVIREN = 1, this interrupt will be enabled.
AVIRST
Acquisition vertical sync interrupt request flag. Set by the
rising edge of the acquisition vertical sync pulse. Must be
cleared by software.
AHIREN
Enables or disables the acquisition horizontal sync interrupt
request.
If AHIREN = 1, this interrupt will be enabled.
AHIRST
Acquisition horizontal sync interrupt request flag. Set by the
rising edge of the acquisition horizontal sync pulse. Must be
cleared by software.
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Interrupt Enable Register IE
Interrupt Enable Register
IE
SFR-Address A8H
Default after reset: 00H
(MSB)
EA
(LSB)
EADC
ETSI
ES
ET1
EX1
ET0
EX0
EA
Enables or disables all interrupts. If EA = 0, no interrupt will be
acknowledged.
If EA = 1, each interrupt source is individually enabled or
disabled by setting or clearing its enable bit.
EADC
Enables or disables the analog digital converter interrupt. If
EADC = 1, this interrupt will be enabled.
ETSI
Enables or disables the teletext sync interrupts. If ETSI = 1,
this interrupt will be enabled.
ES
Enables or disables the serial interface interrupt. If ES = 1, this
interrupt will be enabled.
ET1
Enables or disables the timer 1 overflow interrupt. If ET1 = 1,
the timer 1 interrupt will be enabled.
EX1
Enables or disables external interrupt 1. If EX1 = 1, external
interrupt 1 will be enabled.
ET0
Enables or disables the timer 0 overflow interrupt. If ET0 = 1,
the timer 0 interrupt will be enabled.
EX0
Enables or disables external interrupt 0. If EX0 = 1, external
interrupt 0 will be enabled.
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Interrupt Priority Register IP0 and IP1
Interrupt Priority Register
IP0
SFR-Address A9H
Default after reset: 00H
(MSB)
–
(LSB)
IP0.6
IP0.5
IP0.4
Interrupt Priority Register
IP0.3
IP0.2
IP1
IP0.1
IP0.0
SFR-Address AAH
Default after reset: 00H
(MSB)
–
(LSB)
IP1.6
IP1.5
IP1.4
IP1.3
IP1.2
IP1.1
IP1.0
Corresponding bit-locations in both registers are used to set the interrupt priority level of
an interrupt.
Table 16
IP1.X
IP0.X
Function
0
0
Set priority level 0 (lowest)
0
1
Set priority level 1
1
0
Set priority level 2
1
1
Set priority level 3 (highest)
Table 17
Bit
Corresponding Interrupt
IP1.0 / IP0.0
IE0
IP1.1 / IP0.1
TF0
IP1.2 / IP0.2
IE1
IP1.3 / IP0.3
TF1
IP1.4 / IP0.4
RI/TI
IP1.5 / IP0.5
DVIRST/ DHIRST/ EVENST/ LIN24ST/AVIRST/AHIRST
IP1.6 / IP0.6
IADC
Setting/clearing a bit in the IP-registers establishes its associated interrupt request
priority level. If a low-priority level interrupt is being serviced, a higher-priority level
interrupt will interrupt it. However, an interrupt source cannot interrupt a service program
of the same or higher priority level.
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If two requests of different priority levels are received simultaneously, the request of
higher priority level will be serviced. If requests of the same priority level are received
simultaneously, an internal polling sequence determines which request is serviced. Thus
within each priority level there is a second priority structure determined by the polling
sequence, see in Table 18.
Table 18
Source
Priority within Level
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
(highest)
7.
IE0
TF0
IE1
TF1
RI/TI
DVIRST
DHIRST
EVENST
LIN24ST
AVIRST
AHIRST
IADC
(lowest)
Note that the “priority within level” structure is only used to resolve simultaneous
requests of the same priority level.
6.3.4.1
Interrupt Nesting
The process whereby a higher-level interrupt request interrupts a lower-level interrupt
service program is called nesting. In this case the address of the next instruction in the
lower-priority service program is pushed onto the stack, the stack pointer is incremented
by two and processor control is transferred to the program memory location of the first
instruction of the higher-level service program. The last instruction of the higher-priority
interrupt service program must be a RETI-instruction. This instruction clears the higher
“priority-level-active” flip-flop. RETI also returns processor control to the next instruction
of the lower-level interrupt service program. Since the lower “priority-level-active” flipflop has remained set, higher priority interrupts are re-enabled while further lower-priority
interrupts remain disabled.
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6.3.4.2
External Interrupts
The external interrupt request inputs (INT0 and INT1) can be programmed for either
transition- activated or level-activated operation. Control of the external interrupts is
provided by the four low- order bits of TCON as shown in the follow section.
When IT0 and IT1 are set to one, interrupt requests on INT0 and INT1 are transitionactivated (high-to-low), else they are low-level activated. IE0 and IE1 are the interrupt
request flags. These flags are set when their corresponding interrupt request inputs at
INT0 and INT1, respectively, are low when sampled by the processor and the transitionactivated scheme is selected by IT0 and IT1.
Function of Lower Nibble Bits in TCON
Timer and Interrupt Control
Register
TCON
SFR-Address 88H
Default after reset: 00H
(MSB)
TF1
(LSB)
TR1
TF0
TR0
IE1
IT1
IE0
IT0
TCON.4 – TCON.7
See Chapter “General Purpose Timers/Counters” on
page 80.
IE1
Interrupt 1 edge flag. Set by hardware when external interrupt
edge detected. Cleared when interrupt processed.
IT1
Interrupt 1 type control bit. Set/cleared by software to specify
falling edge/low level triggered external interrupts. IT1 = 1
selects transition-activated external interrupts.
IE0
Interrupt 0 edge flag. Set by hardware when external interrupt
edge detected. Cleared when interrupt processed.
IT0
Interrupt 0 type control bit. Set/cleared by software to specify
falling edge/low level triggered external interrupts. IT0 = 1
selects transition-activated external interrupts.
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Interrupt Control Register
IRCON
SFR-Address ABH
Default after reset: XXXX0101B
(MSB)
–
(LSB)
–
–
–
EX1R
EX1F
EX0R
EX0F
EX1R
if set, EX1-interrupt detection on rising edge at Pin P3.3
EX1F
if set, EX1-interrupt detection on falling edge at Pin P3.3
EX0R
if set, EX0-interrupt detection on rising edge at Pin P3.2
EX0F
if set, EX0-interrupt detection on falling edge at Pin P3.2
– Transition-Activated Interrupts
(IT0 = 1, IT1 = 1)
The IE0, IE1 flags are set by a transition at INT0, INT1, respectively; they are cleared
during entering the corresponding interrupt service routine.
For transition-activated operation, the input must remain active for more than six
oscillator periods, but needs not to be synchronous with the oscillator. The opposite
transition of a transition-activated input may occur at any time after the six oscillator
period latching time, but the input must remain inactive for six oscillator periods before
reactivation.
– Level-Activated Interrupts
(IT0 = 0, IT1 = 0)
The IE0, IE1 flags are set whenever INT0, INT1 are respectively sampled at low level.
Sampling INT0, INT1 at high level clears IE0, IE1, respectively.
For level-activated operation, if the input is active during the sampling that occurs seven
oscillator periods before the end of the instruction in progress, an interrupt subroutine
call is made. The level-activated input needs to be low only during the sampling that
occurs seven oscillator periods before the end of the instruction in progress and may
remain low during the entire execution of the service program. However, the input must
be deactivated before the service routine is completed to avoid invoking a second
interrupt, or else another interrupt will be generated.
Extension of Standard 8051 Interrupt Logic
For more flexibility, the SDA 525x family provides a new feature in detection EX0 and
EX1 in edge-triggered mode. Now there is the possibility to trigger an interrupt on the
falling and / or rising edge at the dedicated Port3-Pin. Therefore, an additional register
IRCON has been defined, which is described on the top.
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6.3.4.3
Interrupt Task Function
The processor records the active priority level(s) by setting internal flip-flop(s). Each
interrupt level has its own flip-flop. The flip-flop corresponding to the interrupt level being
serviced is reset when the processor executes a RETI-instruction.
The sequence of events for an interrupt is:
– A source provokes an interrupt by setting its associated interrupt request bit to let the
processor know an interrupt condition has occurred.
– The interrupt request is conditioned by bits in the interrupt enable and interrupt priority
registers.
– The processor acknowledges the interrupt by setting one of the four internal “prioritylevel active” flip-flops and performing a hardware subroutine call. This call pushes the
PC (but not the PSW) onto the stack and, for some sources, clears the interrupt
request flag.
– The service program is executed.
– Control is returned to the main program when the RETI-instruction is executed. The
RETI- instruction also clears one of the internal “priority-level active” flip-flops.
The interrupt request flags IE0, IE1, TF0 and TF1 are cleared when the processor
transfers control to the first instruction of the interrupt service program. The RI/TI,
DVIRST, DHIRST, EVENST, LIN24ST, AVIRST, AHIRST and IADC-interrupt request
flags must be cleared as part of the respective interrupt service program.
6.3.4.4
Response Time
The highest-priority interrupt request gets serviced at the end of the instruction in
progress unless the request is made in the last seven (CDC=0) oscillator periods of the
instruction in progress. Under this circumstance, the next instruction will also execute
before the interrupt's subroutine call is made.
If a request is active and conditions are right for it to be acknowledged, a hardware
subroutine call to the requested service routine will be the next instruction to be
executed. The call itself takes two cycles. Thus, a minimum of three complete machine
cycles elapse between activation of an external interrupt request and the beginning of
execution of the first instruction of the service routine. If the instruction in progress is not
in its final cycle, the additional wait time cannot be more than 3 cycles, since the longest
instructions (MUL and DIV) are only 4 cycles long, and if the instruction in progress is
RETI or an access to IE or IP0 and IP1, the additional wait time cannot be more than 5
cycles (a maximum of one more cycle to complete the instruction in progress, plus 4
cycles to complete the next instruction if the instruction is MUL or DIV). Thus, in a singleinterrupt system, the response time is always more than 3 cycles and less than 8 cycles
(approximately 2.33 µs at 18-MHz operation). Note, that a machine cycle can consist of
12 oscillator periods (CDC = 1) or only six oscillator periods (CDC = 0) (see
Chapter “Advanced Function Register” on page 115). Examples of the best and
worst case conditions are illustrated in Table 19.
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Table 19
Instruction
Time (Oscillator Periods)
Best Case
External interrupt generated immediately
2+ε
before (best) / after (worst) the pin is
sampled (time until end of bus cycle).
Worst Case
[1 + ε]
2–ε
[1 – ε]
[6]
12
[6]
48
[24]
Current or next instruction finishes in
12-[6-] oscillator periods
12
Next instruction is MUL or DIV
don’t care
Internal latency for hardware subroutine
call
24
[12]
24
[12]
38
[19]
86
[43]
Note: values without brackets apply for CDC = 1 and values in brackets for CDC = 0
(see Chapter “Advanced Function Register” on page 115).
If an interrupt of equal or higher priority level is already in progress, the additional wait
time obviously depends on the nature of the other interrupt's service routine.
6.3.5
Processor Reset and Initialization
Processor initialization is accomplished with activation of the RST pin, which is the input
to a Schmitt Trigger. To reset the processor, this pin should be held low for at least four
machine cycles, while the oscillator is running stable. Upon powering up, RST should be
held low for at least 10 ms after the power supply stabilizes to allow the oscillator to
stabilize. Crystal operation below 6 MHz will increase the time necessary to hold RST
low. Two machine cycles after receiving of RST, the processor ceases from instruction
execution and remains dormant for the duration of the pulse. The high-going transition
then initiates a sequence which requires approximately one machine cycle to execute
before normal operation commences with the instruction at absolute location 0000H.
Program memory locations 0000H through 0002H are reserved for the initialization
routine of the microcomputer. This sequence ends with registers initialized as shown in
Chapter “Memory Organization” on page 49.
After the processor is reset, all ports are written with one (1). Outputs are undefined until
the reset period is complete.
An automatic reset can be obtained when VDD is turned on by connecting the RST-pin to
VSS through a 10 µF capacitor, providing the VDD rise time does not exceed a millisecond
and the oscillator start-up time does not exceed 10 milliseconds. When power comes on,
the current drawn by RST-pin starts to charge the capacitor. The voltage VRST at RST-pin
is the capacitor voltage, and increases to VDD as the capacitor charges. The larger the
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capacitor, the more slowly VRST decreases. VRST must remain below the lower threshold of
the Schmitt Trigger long enough to effect a complete reset. The time required is the
oscillator start-up time plus 4 machine cycles.
Attention: While reset is active and at least four machine cycles after rising edge of
RST, ALE, P4.0 and P3.6 should not be pulled down externally. Otherwise a special
production test mode is entered.
VDD
VDD
RST
VRST
10 µF
VSS
VSS
UES04722
Figure 24
Power-On Reset Circuit
Power-Down Operations
The controller provides two modes in which power consumption can be significantly
reduced.
– Idle mode. The CPU is gated off from the oscillator. All peripherals are still provided
with the clock and are able to work.
– Power-down mode. Operation of the controller is turned off. This mode is used to save
the contents of internal RAM with a very low standby current.
Both modes are entered by software. Special function register PCON is used to enter
one of these modes.
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Power Control Register PCON
Power Control Register
PCON
SFR-Address 87H
Default after reset: 000xxx00
(MSB)
SMOD
(LSB)
PDS
IDLS
–
–
–
PDE
IDLE
PDS
Power-down start bit. The instruction that sets the PDS-flag is
the last instruction before entering the power down mode.
IDLS
IDLE start bit. The instruction that sets the PDS-flag is the last
instruction before entering the idle mode.
PDE
Power-down enable bit. When set, starting the power-down
mode is enabled.
IDLE
Idle enable bit. When set, starting the idle mode is enabled.
SMOD
Baud rate control for serial interface; if set, the baud rate is
doubled.
Entering the idle mode is done by two consecutive instructions immediately following
each other. The first instruction has to set bit IDLE (PCON.0) and must not set bit IDLS
(PCON.5). The following instruction has to set bit IDLS (PCON.5) and must not set bit
IDLE (PCON.0). Bits IDLE and IDLS will automatically be cleared after having been set.
This double-instruction sequence is implemented to minimize the chance of
unintentionally entering the idle mode. The following instruction sequence may serve as
an example:
ORL
PCON,#00000001B
Set bit IDLE, bit IDLS must not be set.
ORL
PCON,#00100000B
Set bit IDLS, bit IDLE must not be set.
The instruction that sets bit IDLS is the last instruction executed before going into idle
mode.
The idle mode can be terminated by activation of any enabled interrupt (or a hardware
reset). The CPU-operation is resumed, the interrupt will be serviced and the next
instruction to be executed after RETI-instruction will be the one following the instruction
that set the bit IDLS. The port state and the contents of SFRs are held during idle mode.
Entering the power-down mode is done by two consecutive instructions immediately
following each other. The first instruction has to set bit PDE (PCON.1) and must not set
bit PDS (PCON.6). The following instruction has to set bit PDS (PCON.6) and must not
set bit PDE (PCON.1). Bits PDE and PDS will automatically be cleared after having been
set. This double-instruction sequence is implemented to minimize the chance of
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unintentionally entering the power-down mode. The following instruction sequence may
serve as an example:
ORL
PCON,#00000010B
Set bit PDE, bit PDS must not be set.
ORL
PCON,#01000000B
Set bit PDS, bit PDE must not be set.
The instruction that sets bit PDS is the last instruction executed before going into powerdown mode.
If idle mode and power-down mode are invoked simultaneously, the power-down mode
takes precedence.
The only exit from power-down mode is a hardware reset. The reset will redefine all
SFRs, but will not change the contents of internal RAM.
6.3.6
Ports and I/O-Pins
There are 26 I/O-pins configured as three 8-bit ports, one 4-bit-port (P2.0 – 2.3) and one
2-bit port (P4.0 – 4.1, P4.1 for ROM-less version only). Each pin can be individually and
independently programmed as input or output and each can be configured dynamically.
An instruction that uses a port's bit/byte as a source operand reads a value that is the
logical AND of the last value written to the bit/byte and the polarity being applied to the
pin/pins by an external device (this assumes that none of the processor's electrical
specifications are being violated). An instruction that reads a bit/byte, operates on the
content, and writes the result back to the bit/byte, reads the last value written to the
bit/byte instead of the logic level at the pin/pins. Pins comprising a single port can be
made a mixed collection of inputs and outputs by writing a “one” to each pin that is to be
an input. Each time an instruction uses a port as the destination, the operation must write
“ones” to those bits that correspond to the input pins. An input to a port pin needs not to
be synchronized to the oscillator.
All the port latches have “one” s written to them by the reset function. If a “zero” is
subsequently written to a port latch, it can be reconfigured as an input by writing a “one”
to it.
The instructions that perform a read of, operation on, and write to a port's bit/byte are
INC, DEC, CPL, JBC, SETB, CLR, MOV P.X, CJNE, DJNZ, ANL, ORL, and XRL. The
source read by these operations is the last value that was written to the port, without
regard to the levels being applied at the pins. This insures that bits written to a “one” (for
use as inputs) are not inadvertently cleared.
Port 0 has an open-drain output. Writing a “one” to the bit latch leaves the output
transistor off, so the pin floats.
In that condition it can be used as a high-impedance input. Port 0 is considered “true
bidirectional”, because when configured as an input it floats.
Ports 1, 3 and 4 have “quasi-bidirectional” output drivers which comprise an internal
pullup resistor of 10 kΩ to 40 kΩ. When configured as inputs they pull high and will
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source current when externally
Characteristics” on page 129).
pulled
low
(for
details
see
Chapter “DC-
In ports P1, P3 and P4 the output drivers provide source current for one oscillator period
if, and only if, software updates the bit in the output latch from a “zero” to an “one”.
Sourcing current only on “zero to one” transition prevents a pin, programmed as an input,
from sourcing current into the external device that is driving the input pin.
Secondary functions can be selected individually and independently for the pins of port
1 and 3. Further information on port 1's secondary functions is given in Chapter “Pulse
Width Modulation Unit (PWM)” on page 106. P3 generates the secondary control
signals automatically as long as the pin corresponding to the appropriate signal is
programmed as an input, i. e. if the corresponding bit latch in the P3 special function
register contains a “one”.
The following alternate functions can be selected when using the corresponding P3 pins:
P3.0
ODD/EVEN
(ODD/EVEN-indicator output)
P3.2
INT0
(external interrupt 0)
P3.3
INT1
(external interrupt 1)
P3.4
T0
(Timer/Counter 0 external input)
P3.5
T1
(Timer/Counter 1 external input)
P3.6
RXD
(serial port receive line)
P3.7
TXD
(serial port transmit line)
Read Modify-Write Feature
“Read-modify-write” commands are instructions that read a value, possibly change it,
and then rewrite it to the latch. When the destination operand is a port or a port bit, these
instructions read the latch rather than the pin. The read-modify-write instructions are
listed in Table 20.
The read-modify-write instructions are directed to the latch rather than the pin in order to
avoid a possible misinterpretation of the voltage level at the pin. For example, a port bit
might be used to drive the base of a transistor. When a “one” is written to the bit, the
transistor is turned on.
If the CPU then reads the same port bit at the pin rather than the latch, it will read the
base voltage of the transistor and interpret it as a 0. Reading the latch rather than the
pin will return the correct value of “one”.
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Table 20
Read-Modify-Write Instructions
Mnemonic
Description
Example
ANL
ORL
XRL
JBC
CPL
INC
DEC
DJNZ
MOV PX.Y, C(1)
CLR PX.Y(1)
SET PX.Y(1)
logical AND
logical OR
logical EX – OR
jump if bit = 1 and clear bit
complement bit
increment
decrement
decrement and jump if not zero
move carry bit to bit Y of Port X
clear bit Y of Port X
set bit Y of Port X
ANL P1, A
ORL P2, A
XRL P3, A
JBC P1.1, LABEL
CPL P3.0
INC P1
DEC P1
DJNZ P3, LABEL
MOV P1.7, C
CLR P2.6
SET P3.5
(1)
The instruction reads the port byte (all 8 bits), modifies the addressed bit, then writes the new byte back to the latch
6.3.7
General Purpose Timers/Counters
Two independent general purpose 16-bit timers/ counters are integrated for use in
measuring time intervals, measuring pulse widths, counting events, and causing
periodic (repetitive) interrupts. Either can be configured to operate as timer or event
counter.
In the “timer” function, the registers TLx and/or THx (x = 0, 1) are incremented once
every machine cycle. Thus, one can think of it as counting machine cycles.
A machine cycle consists of 6 or 12 oscillator periods. This depends on the setting of bit
CDC in the Advanced Function Register AFR of the special function registers (see
Chapter “Advanced Function Register” on page 115). For CDC = 1 a machine cycle
consists of 12 oscillator periods and for CDC = 0 of 6 oscillator periods.
In the “counter” function, the registers TLx and/or THx (x = 0, 1) are incremented in
response to a 1-to-0 transition at its corresponding external input pin, T0 or T1. In this
function, the external input is sampled during every machine cycle. When the samples
show a high in one cycle and a low in the next cycle, the count is incremented. The new
count value appears in the register during the cycle following the one in which the
transition was detected. Since it takes 2 machine cycles (24 oscillator periods for
CDC = 1 or 12 oscillator periods for CDC = 0) to recognize a 1-to-0 transition, the
maximum count rate is 1/24 of the oscillator frequency for CDC = 1 or 1/12 of the
oscillator frequency for CDC = 0. There are no restrictions on the duty cycle of the
external input signal, but to ensure that a given level is sampled at least once before it
changes, it should be held for at least one full machine cycle.
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Timer/Counter 0: Mode Selection
Timer/counter 0 can be configured in one of four operating modes, which are selected
by bit-pairs (M1, M0) in TMOD-register (see page 83).
– Mode 0
Putting timer/counter 0 into mode 0 makes it look like an 8048 timer, which is an 8-bit
counter with a divide-by-32 prescaler. Figure 25 shows the mode 0 operation as it
applies to timer 0.
In this mode, the timer register is configured as a 13-bit register. As the count rolls over
from all 1 s to all 0 s, it sets the timer interrupt flag TF0. The counted input is enabled to
the timer when TR0 = 1 and either GATE = 0 or INT0 = 1. (Setting GATE = 1 allows the
timer to be controlled by external input INT0, to facilitate pulse width measurements.)
TR0 is a control bit in the special function register TCON (see page 84). GATE is
contained in register TMOD (see page 83).
The 13-bit register consists of all 8 bits of TH0 and the lower 5 bits of TL0. The upper 3
bits of TL0 are indeterminate and should be ignored. Setting the run flag (TR0) does not
clear the registers.
– Mode 1
Mode 1 is the same as mode 0, except that the timer/counter 0 register is being run with
all 16 bits.
– Mode 2
Mode 2 configures the timer/counter 0 register as an 8-bit counter (TL0) with automatic
reload, as shown on see page 83. Overflow from TL0 not only sets TF0, but also reloads
TL0 with the contents of TH0, which is preset by software. The reload leaves TH0
unchanged.
– Mode 3
Timer/counter 0 in mode 3 establishes TL0 and TH0 as two separate counters. The logic
for mode 3 on timer 0 is shown in Figure 27. TL0 uses the timer 0 control bits: C/T,
GATE, TR0, INT0 and TF0. TH0 is locked into a timer function (counting machine cycles)
and takes over the use of TR1 and TF1 from timer 1. Thus, TH0 now controls the “timer
1” interrupt.
Mode 3 is provided for applications requiring an extra 8-bit timer or counter. With timer
0 in mode 3, the processor can operate as if it has three timers/counters. When timer 0
is in mode 3, timer 1 can be turned on and off by switching it out of and into its own mode
3, or can still be used in any application not requiring an interrupt.
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Timer/Counter 1: Mode Selection
Timer/counter 1 can also be configured in one of four modes, which are selected by its
own bitpairs (M1, M0) in TMOD-register.
The serial port receives a pulse each time that timer/counter 1 overflows. This pulse rate
is divided to generate the transmission rate of the serial port.
Modes 0 and 1 are the same as for counter 0.
– Mode 2
The “reload” mode is reserved to determine the frequency of the serial clock signal (not
implemented).
– Mode 3
When counter 1's mode is reprogrammed to mode 3 (from mode 0, 1 or 2), it disables
the increment counter. This mode is provided as an alternative to using the TR1 bit (in
TCON-register) to start and stop timer/counter 1.
Configuring the Timer/Counter Input
The use of the timer/counter is determined by two 8-bit registers, TMOD (timer mode)
and TCON (timer control), as shown on page 83 and 84. The input to the counter
circuitry is from an external reference (for use as a counter), or from the on-chip oscillator
(for use as a timer), depending on whether TMOD's C/T-bit is set or cleared,
respectively. When used as a time base, the on-chip oscillator frequency is divided by
twelve or six (see Figure 25, 26 and 26) before being used as the counter input. When
TMOD's GATE bit is set (1), the external reference input (T1, T0) or the oscillator input
is gated to the counter conditional upon a second external input (INT0), (INT1) being
high. When the GATE bit is zero (0), the external reference, or oscillator input, is
unconditionally enabled. In either case, the normal interrupt function of INT0 and INT1
is not affected by the counter's operation. If enabled, an interrupt will occur when the
input at INT0 or INT1 is low. The counters are enabled for incrementing when TCON's
TR1 and TR0 bits are set. When the counters overflow, the TF1 and TF0 bits in TCON
get set, and interrupt requests are generated.
The counter circuitry counts up to all 1's and then overflows to either 0's or the reload
value. Upon overflow, TF1 or TF0 is set. When an instruction changes the timer's mode
or alters its control bits, the actual change occurs at the end of the instruction's
execution.
The T1 and T0 inputs are sampled near the falling-edge of ALE in the tenth, twentysecond, thirty-fourth and forty-sixth oscillator periods of the instruction-in-progress
(CDC=1). Thus, an external reference's high and low times must each have a minimum
duration of twelve oscillator periods for CDC = 1 or six oscillator periods for CDC = 0.
There is a twelve (CDC = 1) or six (CDC = 0) oscillator period delay from the time when
a toggled input (transition from high to low) is sampled to the time when the counter is
incremented.
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Timer/Counter Mode Register
Timer 0/1 Mode Register
TMOD
SFR-Address 89H
Default after reset: 00H
(MSB)
GATE
(LSB)
C/T
M1
M0
GATE
Timer 1
C/T
M1
M0
Timer 0
GATE
Gating control when set. Timer/counter “x” is enabled only
while “INTx” pin is high and “TRx” control bit is set. When
cleared, timer “x” is enabled, whenever “TRx” control bit is set.
C/T
Timer or counter selector. Cleared for timer operation (input
from internal system clock). Set for Counter operation (input
from “Tx” input pin).
Table 21
M1
M0
Operating Mode
0
0
0
1
1
0
1
1
SAB 8048 timer: “TLx” serves as five-bit prescaler.
16-bit timer/counter: “THx” and “TLx” are cascaded, there is no
prescaler.
8-bit auto-reload timer/counter: “THx” holds a value which is to be
reloaded into “TLx” each time it overflows.
(Timer 0) TL0 is an eight-bit timer/counter controlled by the standard
timer 0 control bits; TH0 is an eight-bit timer only controlled
by timer 1 control bits.
(Timer 1) timer/counter 1 is stopped.
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Timer/Counter Control Register
Timer 0/1 Mode Register
TCON
SFR-Address 88H
Default after reset: 00H
(MSB)
TF1
(LSB)
TR1
TF0
TR0
IE1
IT1
IE0
IT0
TF1
Timer 1 overflow flag. Set by hardware on timer/counter
overflow. Cleared by hardware when processor vectors to
interrupt routine.
TR1
Timer 1 run control bit. Set/cleared by software to turn
timer/counter on/off.
TF0
Timer 0 overflow flag. Set by hardware on timer/counter
overflow. Cleared by hardware when processor vectors to
interrupt routine.
TR0
Timer 0 run control bit. Set/cleared by software to turn
timer/counter on/off.
IE1
Interrupt 1 edge flag. Set by hardware when external interrupt
edge detected. Cleared when interrupt processed.
IT1
Interrupt 1 type control bit. Set/cleared by software to specify
edge/low level triggered external interrupts.
IE0
Interrupt 0 edge flag. Set by hardware when external interrupt
edge detected. Cleared when interrupt processed.
IT0
Interrupt 0 type control bit. Set/cleared by software to specify
edge/low level triggered external interrupts.
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.. 6
CDC = 0
Machine Cycles
.. 12
OSC
CDC = 1
C/T = 0
TL0
(5 Bits)
C/T = 1
TF0
Interrupt
Control
T0 Pin
TR0
Gate
TH0
(8 Bits)
1
&
<_1
UES04602
INT0 Pin
Figure 25
Timer/Counter 0 Mode 0: 13-Bit Counter
.. 6
OSC
CDC = 0
Machine Cycles
.. 12
CDC = 1
C/T = 0
TL0
(8 Bits)
C/T = 1
Interrupt
Control
T0 Pin
TR0
Gate
TF0
1
&
Reload
<_1
TH0
(8 Bits)
INT0 Pin
UES04603
Figure 26
Timer/Counter 0 Mode 2: 8-Bit Auto-Reload
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.. 6
OSC
CDC = 0
Machine Cycles
.. 12
fm
CDC = 1
fm
C/T = 0
C/T = 1
TF 0
Interrupt
TH0
(8 Bits)
TF1
Interrupt
Control
T0 Pin
TR0
Gate
TL0
(8 Bits)
1
&
<_1
INT0 Pin
fm
TR 1
Control
UES04604
Figure 27
Timer/Counter 0 Mode 3: Two 8-Bit Counters
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6.3.8
Watchdog Timer
To protect the systems against software upset, the user's program has to clear this
watchdog within a previously programmed time period. If the software fails to do this
periodical refresh of the watchdog timer, an internal hardware reset will be initiated. The
software can be designed so that the watchdog times out if the program does not work
properly.
The watchdog timer is a 15-bit timer, which is incremented by a count rate of either
fCYCLE/2 or fCYCLE/128. The latter is enabled by setting bit WDTREL.7. Note, that fCYCLE
can be fQuarz/12 for CDC = 1 or fQuarz/6 for CDC = 0 (see Chapter “Advanced Function
Register” on page 115). Immediately after start, the watchdog timer is initialized to the
reload value programmed to WDTREL.0 – WDTREL.6. After an external reset register
WDTREL is cleared to 00H. The lower seven bits of WDTREL can be loaded by software
at any time.
The watchdog timer is started by software by setting bit SWDT in special function
register WDCON (bit 6). If the counter is stopped, and WDTREL is loaded with a new
value, WDTH (high-byte of the watchdog timer) is updated immediately. WDTL (low-byte
of the watchdog timer) is always zero, if the counter is stopped. Once started the
watchdog timer cannot be stopped by software but can only be refreshed to the reload
value by first setting bit WDT (AFR.6) and by the next instruction setting SWDT
(WDCON.6). Bit WDT will automatically be cleared during the third machine cycle after
having been set. This double instruction refresh of the watchdog timer is implemented to
minimize the chance of an unintentional reset of the watchdog.
If the software fails to clear the watchdog in time, an internally generated watchdog reset
is entered at the counter state 7FFFH. The duration of the reset signal then depends on
the prescaler selection. This internal reset differs from an external reset only in so far as
the watchdog timer is not disabled and bit WDTS (WDCON.7) is set. Bit WDTS allows
the software to examine from which source the reset was activated. The watchdog timer
status flag can also be cleared by software.
With WDTREL = 80H and an oscillator frequency of 18 MHz the maximum time period is
about 0.7 s for CDC = 0 and about 1.4 s for CDC = 1.
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Watchdog Timer Control Bits
Watchdog Timer Reload
Register
WDTREL
SFR-Address 86H
Default after reset: 00H
(MSB)
(LSB)
WDTREL.7 WDTREL.6 WDTREL.5 WDTREL.4 WDTREL.3 WDTREL.2 WDTREL.1 WDTREL.0
WDTREL.7
Prescaler bit. When set, the watchdog is clocked through an
additional divide-by-64 prescaler.
WDTREL.0 WDTREL.6
Seven bit reload value for the high-byte of the watchdog timer.
This value is loaded to the WDT when a refresh is triggered by
a consecutive setting of bits WDT and SWDT.
Watchdog Timer Control
Register
WDCON
SFR-Address A7H
Default after reset: 00H
(MSB)
WDTS
(LSB)
SWDT
–
–
–
–
–
–
WDTS
Watchdog timer reset flag. If bit WDTS is ‘1’ after reset, the
reset has been initiated by the watchdog timer. After external
reset, WDTS is reset to ‘0’.
SWDT
Watchdog timer start flag. Set to activate the watchdog timer.
When directly set after setting WDT, a watchdog timer refresh
is performed.
WDCON.0 - WDCON.5 Reserved.
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Advanced Function Register AFR
Advanced Function Register
AFR
SFR-Address A6H
Default after reset: 00xxxxxxB
(MSB)
CDC
(LSB)
WDT
0
0
0
0
0
0
CDC
See Chapter “Advanced Function Register” on page 115.
WDT
Watchdog timer refresh flag. Set to initiate a refresh of the
watchdog timer. Must be set directly before SWDT
(WDCON.6) is set to the watchdog timer.
AFR.0 - AFR.5
Reserved, always to be written with ‘0’.
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6.3.9
Capture Compare Timer
For easier infrared signal decoding, an additional Capture Compare Timer is
implemented. A functional overview is given in following feature list:
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
16-Bit-Counter with 2 or 3 prescaler bits selectable via SFR
Counting rate: internal clock (18 MHz)
Counter reloadable, prescaler bits reload with ‘0’
Capture function
Timer polling mode
P3.3 or P3.2 selectable as capture input
Capture on rising and/or falling edge
Overflow-Bit
Infrared Timer Control Register IRTCON
Infrared Timer Control
Register
IRTCON
SFR-Address E5H
Default after reset: 00H
(MSB)
OV
(LSB)
PR
PLG
REL
RUN
RISE
FALL
SEL
OV
will be set by hardware, if counter overflow has occurred; must
be cleared by software
PR
if cleared, 2-bit prescaler; if set, 3-bit prescaler
PLG
if set, Timer polling mode selected, capture function is
automatically disabled, reading capture registers will now
show current timer value
REL
if set, counter will be reloaded simultaneously with capture
event
RUN
run/stop the counter
RISE
capture (and if REL=‘1’, reload) on rising edge
FALL
capture (and if REL=‘1’, reload) on falling edge
SEL
if set, P3.3 is selected for capture input, otherwise P3.2
Note: If counter is halted, a counter-reload with the contents of the reload registers is
forced by hardware to give the counter a starting value.
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The registers RELH and RELL (SFR-address E2H and E1H) are the reload registers,
CAPH and CAPL (SFR-addresses E4H and E3H) are the corresponding capture
registers. The reset value of these registers is undefined.
6.3.10
Serial Interface
The serial port is full duplex, meaning it can transmit and receive simultaneously. It is
also receive-buffered, meaning it can commence reception of a second byte before a
previously received byte has been read from the receive register (however, if the first
byte still hasn't been read by the time reception of the second byte is complete, one of
the bytes will be lost). The serial port receive and transmit registers are both accessed
at special function register SBUF. Writing to SBUF loads the transmit register, and
reading SBUF accesses a physically separate receive register.
The frequencies and baud rates described in this chapter depend on the internal system
clock, used by the serial interface. The internal system clock frequency of the serial
interface is defined by the oscillator frequency fOSC and the setting of bit CDC in the
Advanced Function Register AFR of the special function registers (see
Chapter “Advanced Function Register” on page 115).
The serial port can operate in 4 modes:
Mode 0:
Serial data enters and exits through RxD (P3.6). TxD (P3.7) outputs the shift
clock.
Mode 1:
10 bits are transmitted (through TxD) or received (through RxD): a start
bit (0), 8 data bits (LSB first), and a stop bit (1). On reception, the stop bit
goes into RB8 in special function register SCON. The baud rate is variable.
Mode 2:
11 bits are transmitted (through TxD) or received (through RxD): a start
bit (0), 8 data bits (LSB first), a programmable 9th data bit, and a stop bit (1).
On transmission, the 9th data bit (TB8 in SCON) can be assigned the value
of 0 or 1. Or, for example, the parity bit (P, in the PSW) could be moved into
TB8. On reception, the 9th data bit goes into RB8 in the special function
register SCON, while the stop bit is ignored. The baud rate is programmable
via SFR-Bit SMOD.
Mode 3:
11 bits are transmitted (through TxD) or received (through RxD): a start
bit (0), 8 data bits (LSB first), a programmable 9th data bit and a stop bit (1 ).
In fact, mode 3 is the same as mode 2 in all respects except the baud rate.
The baud rate in mode 3 is variable.
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Serial Port Control Register SCON
Serial Port Control Register
SCON
SFR-Address 98H
Default after reset: 00H
(MSB)
SM0
(LSB)
SM1
SM2
REN
TB8
RB8
TI
RI
SM0
SM1
Serial Port Mode Selection, see Table 22.
SM2
Enables the multiprocessor communication feature in
modes 2 and 3. In mode 2 or 3, if SM2 is set to 1 then RI will
not be activated if the received 9th data bit (RB8) is 0. In
mode 1, if SM2 = 1 then RI will not be activated if a valid stop
bit was not received. In mode 0, SM2 should be 0.
REN
Enables serial reception. Set by software to enable reception.
Cleared by software to disable reception.
TB8
Is the 9th data bit that will be transmitted in modes 2 and 3. Set
or cleared by software as desired.
RB8
In modes 2 and 3, is the 9th data bit that was received. In
mode 1, if SM2 = 0, RB8 is the stop bit that was received. In
mode 0, RB8 is not used.
TI
Is the transmit interrupt flag. Set by hardware at the end of the
8th bit time in mode 0, or at the beginning of the stop bit in the
other modes, in any serial transmission. Must be cleared by
software.
RI
Is the receive interrupt flag. Set by hardware at the end of the
8th bit time in mode 0, or halfway through stop bit time in the
other modes, in any serial reception. Must be cleared by
software.
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Table 22
Serial Port Mode Selection
SM0
SM1
Mode
Description
Baud Rate (CDC = 0)
0
0
0
Shift Reg.
fOSC/6
0
1
1
8-bit UART
Variable
1
0
2
9-bit UART
fOSC/32, fOSC/16
1
1
3
9-bit UART
Variable
In all four modes, transmission is initiated by any instruction that uses SBUF as a
destination register. Reception is initiated in mode 0 by the condition Rl = 0 and
REN = 1. Reception is initiated in the other modes by the incoming start bit if REN = 1.
The control, mode, and status bits of the serial port in special function register SCON are
illustrated on page 92.
6.3.10.1
Multiprocessor Communication
Modes 2 and 3 of the serial interface of the controller have a special provision for
multiprocessor communication. In these modes, 9 data bits are received. The 9th one
goes into RB8. Then comes a stop bit. The port can be programmed such that when the
stop bit is received, the serial port interrupt will be activated only if RB8 = 1. This feature
is enabled by setting bit SM2 in SCON. A way to use this feature in multiprocessor
communications is as follows.
When the master processor wants to transmit a block of data to one of the several
slaves, it first sends out an address byte which identifies the target slave. An address
byte differs from a data byte in that the 9th bit is 1 in an address byte and 0 in a data
byte. With SM2 = 1, no slave will be interrupted by a data byte. An address byte
however, will interrupt all slaves, so that each slave can examine the received byte and
see if it is being addressed. The addressed slave will clear its SM2 bit and prepare to
receive the data bytes that will be coming. The slaves that weren't addressed leave their
SM2s set and go on about their business, ignoring the coming data bytes.
SM2 has no effect in mode 0, and in mode 1 can be used to check the validity of the stop
bit. In a mode 1 reception, if SM2 = 1, the receive interrupt will not be activated unless a
valid stop bit is received.
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6.3.10.2
Baud Rates
The baud rate in mode 0 is fixed:
f OSC
Mode 0 baud rate = -------------6
The baud rate in mode 2 depends on the value of bit SMOD in special function register
PCON (bit 7). If SMOD = 0 (which is the value on reset), the baud rate is 1/32 of the
oscillator frequency. If SMOD = 1, the baud rate is 1/16 of the oscillator frequency.
SMOD
2
Mode 2 baud rate = ------------------ × f OSC
32
The baud rates in modes 1 and 3 are determined by the timer 1 overflow rate or can be
generated by the internal baud rate generator.
When timer 1 is used as the baud rate generator, the baud rates in modes 1 and 3 are
determined by the timer 1 overflow rate and the value of SMOD as follows:
SMOD
2
Mode 1, 3 baud rate = ------------------ × Time 1 overflow
16
The timer 1 interrupt should be disabled in this application. The timer itself can be
configured for either “timer” or “counter” operation, and in any of the 3 running modes.
In the most typical applications, it is configured for “timer” operation, in the auto-reload
mode (high nibble of TMOD = 0010B). In that case, the baud rate is given by the formula:
SMOD
f OSC
2
Mode 1, 3 baud rate = ------------------ × --------------------------------------------16
12 × ( 256 Ð TH1 )
One can achieve very low baud rates with timer 1 by leaving the timer 1 interrupt
enabled, configuring the timer to run as a 16-bit timer (high nibble of TMOD = 0001B),
and using the timer 1 interrupt to do a 16-bit software reload.
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6.3.10.3
More about Mode 0
Serial data enters and exits through RxD. TxD outputs the shift clock. 8 bits are
transmitted/ received: 8 data bits (LSB first).
Figure 28 shows a simplified functional diagram of the serial port in mode 0, and
associated timing.
Transmission is initiated by any instruction that uses SBUF as a destination register. The
“write-to SBUF” signal also loads a 1 into the 9th bit position of the transmit shift register
and tells the TX-control block to commence a transmission. The internal timing is such
that one full machine cycle will elapse between “write-to-SBUF” and activation of SEND.
SEND enables the output of the shift register to the alternate output function line of P3.6,
and also enables SHIFT CLOCK to the alternate output function, line of P3.7. At the end
of every machine cycle in which SEND is active, the contents of the transmit shift register
is shifted one position to the right.
As data bits shift out to the right, zeros come in from the left. When the MSB of the data
byte is at the output position of the shift register, then the 1 that was initially loaded into
the 9th position, is just left of the MSB, and all positions to the left of that contain zeros.
This condition flags the TX-control block to do one last shift and then deactivate SEND
and set Tl. Both of these actions occur in the 10th machine cycle after “write-to-SBUF”.
Reception is initiated by the condition REN = 1 and Rl = 0. At the end of the next
machine cycle, the RX-control unit writes the bits ‘1111 1110’ to the receive shift register,
and the next clock phase activates RECEIVE.
RECEIVE enables SHIFT CLOCK to the alternate output function line of P3.7. At the end
of every machine cycle in which RECEIVE is active, the contents of the Receive Shift
register are shifted one position to the left. The value that comes in from the right is the
value that was sampled at the P3.6 pin in the same machine cycle.
As data bits come in from the right, 1 s shift out to the left. When the 0 that was initially
loaded into the rightmost position arrives at the leftmost position in the shift register, it
flags the RX-control block to do one last shift and load SBUF. In the 10th machine cycle
after the write to SCON that cleared Rl, RECEIVE is cleared and Rl is set.
6.3.10.4
More about Mode 1
Ten bits are transmitted (through TxD), or received (through RxD): a start bit (0), 8 data
bits (LSB first) and a stop bit (1). On reception, the stop bit goes into RB8 in SCON.
The baud rate is determined by the timer 1 overflow rate.
Figure 30 shows a simplified functional diagram of the serial port in mode 1, and
associated timings for transmit and receive.
Transmission is initiated by any instruction that uses SBUF as a destination register. The
“write-to SBUF” signal also loads a ‘1’ into the 9th bit position of the transmit shift register
and flags the TX- control block that a transmission is requested. Transmission actually
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commences at the beginning of the machine cycle following the next rollover in the
divide-by-16 counter (thus, the bit times are synchronized to the divide-by-16 counter,
not to the “write-to-SBUF” signal).
The transmission begins with activation of SEND, which puts the start bit to TxD. One bit
time later, DATA is activated, which enables the output bit of the transmit shift register
to TxD. The first shift pulse occurs one bit time after that.
As data bits shift out to the right, zeros are clocked in from the left. When the MSB of the
data byte is at the output position of the shift register, then the 1 that was initially loaded
into the 9th position is just left of the MSB, and all positions to the left of that contain
zeros. This condition flags the TX-control unit to do one last shift and then deactivate
SEND and set Tl. This occurs at the 10th divide-by-16 rollover after “write-to-SBUF”.
Reception is initiated by a detected 1-to-0 transition at RxD. For this purpose RxD is
sampled at a rate of 16 times whatever baud rate has been established. When a
transition is detected, the divide-by-16 counter is immediately reset, and 1 FFH is written
into the input shift register. Resetting the divide-by-16 counter aligns its rollovers with the
boundaries of the incoming bit times.
The 16 states of the counter divide each bit time into 16ths. At the 7th, 8th and 9th
counter states of each bit time, the bit detector samples the value of RxD. The value
accepted is the value that was seen in at least 2 of the 3 samples. This is done for noise
rejection. If the value accepted during the first bit time is not 0, the receive circuits are
reset and the unit goes back looking for another 1-to-0 transition. This is to provide
rejection of false start bits. If the start bit proves valid, it is shifted into the input shift
register, and reception of the rest of the frame will proceed.
As data bits come in from the right, 1 s shift out to the left. When the start bit arrives at
the leftmost position in the shift register (which in mode 1 is a 9-bit register), it flags the
RX-control block to do one last shift, load SBUF and RB8, and set Rl. The signal to load
SBUF and RB8, and to set Rl, will be generated if, and only if, the following conditions
are met at the time the final shift pulse is generated:
1. Rl = 0, and
2. either SM2 = 0 or the received stop bit = 1
If either of these two conditions is not met, the received frame is irretrievably lost. If both
conditions are met, the stop bit goes into RB8, the 8 data bits go into SBUF and Rl is
activated. At this time, no matter whether the above conditions are met or not, the unit
goes back looking for a 1-to-0-transition in RxD.
6.3.10.5
More about Modes 2 and 3
11 bits are transmitted (through TxD), or received (through RxD): a start bit (0), 8 data
bits (LSB first), a programmable 9th data bit, and a stop bit, (1). On transmission, the 9th
data bit (TB8) can be assigned the value of 0 or 1. On reception, the 9th data bit goes
into RB8 in SCON.
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Figures 32 and 34 show a functional diagram of the serial port in modes 2 and 3 and
associated timings. The receive portion is exactly the same as in mode 1. The transmit
portion differs from mode 1 only in the 9th bit of the transmit shift register.
Transmission is initiated by any instruction that uses SBUF as a destination register. The
“write-to- SBUF” signal also loads TB8 into the 9th bit position of the transmit shift
register and flags the TX- control unit that a transmission is requested. Transmission
commences at the beginning of the machine cycle following the next rollover in the
divide-by-16 counter (thus, the bit times are synchronized to the divide-by-16 counter,
not to the “write-to-SBUF” signal).
The transmission begins with activation of SEND, which puts the start bit to TxD. One bit
time later, DATA is activated which enables the output bit of the transmit shift register to
TxD. The first shift pulse occurs one bit time after that. The first shift clocks a 1 (the stop
bit) into the 9th bit position of the shift register. Thereafter, only zeros are clocked in.
Thus, as data bits shift out to the right, zeros are clocked in from the left. When TB8 is
at the output position of the shift register, then the stop bit is just left of the TB8, and all
positions to the left of that contain zeros.
This condition flags the TX-control unit to do one last shift and then deactivate SEND
and set Tl. This occurs at the 11th divide-by-16 rollover after “write-to-SBUF”.
Reception is initiated by a detected 1-to-0 transition at RxD. For this purpose RxD is
sampled at a rate of 16 times whatever baud rate has been established. When a
transition is detected, the divide-by-16 counter is immediately reset, and 1FFH is written
to the input shift register.
At the 7th, 8th, and 9th counter states of each bit time, the bit detector samples the value
of RxD. The value accepted is the value that was seen in at least 2 of the 3 samples. If
the value accepted during the first bit time is not 0, the receive circuits are reset and the
unit goes back looking for another 1-to-0 transition. If the start bit proves valid, it is shifted
into the input shift register, and reception of the rest of the frame will proceed. As data
bits come in from the right, 1 s shift out to the left. When the start bit arrives at the
leftmost position in the shift register (which in modes 2 and 3 is a 9-bit register), it flags
the RX-control block to do one last shift, load SBUF and RB8, and set Rl. The signal to
load SBUF and RB8, and to set Rl, will be generated if, and only if, the following
conditions are met at the time the final shift pulse is generated:
1. Rl = 0, and
2. either SM2 = 0 or the received 9th data bit = 1
If either of these two conditions is not met, the received frame is irretrievably lost, and Rl
is not set. If both conditions are met, the received 9th data bit goes into RB8, the first 8
data bits go into SBUF. One bit time later, no matter whether the above conditions are
met or not, the unit goes back looking for a 1-to-0-transition at the RxD input.
Note that the value of the received stop bit is irrelevant to SBUF, RB8 or Rl.
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Internal Bus
1
Write
to
SBUF
D
S
&
Q
SBUF
RxD
P3.6 Alt.
Output
Function
Shift
CL
Zero Detector
Start
TX Control
Clock
TX Clock
TI
&
TxD
P3.7 Alt.
Output
Function
Shift
Clock
&
RI
<_ 1
<_ 1
Serial
Port
Interrupt
REN
Send
RI
Start
Receive
RX Control
RX Clock
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 Shift
Input Shift Register
Shift
Load
SBUF
RxD
P3.6 Alt.
Input
Function
SBUF
Read
SBUF
Internal Bus
UES04726
Figure 28
Serial Port Mode 0, Functional Diagram
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Semiconductor Group
99
TxD (Shift Clock)
RxD (Data In)
Shift
D0
D0
D1
D1
D2
D2
D3
D3
D4
D4
D5
D5
D6
D6
D7
D7
Transmit
Receive
RI
Write to SCON
(Clear RI)
TI
TxD (Shift Clock)
RxD (Data Out)
Shift
Send
Write to SBUF
Receive
UED04727
SDA 525x
Figure 29
Serial Port Mode 0, Timing
1998-04-08
SDA 525x
Internal Bus
1
Write
to
SBUF
S
D
&
Q
SBUF
CL
<_ 1
TxD
Zero Detector
Shift
Start
Data
TX Control
Timer1 Overflow
.. 16
TX Clock
SMOD=1
Serial
Port
Interrupt
.. 2
SMOD=0
(PCON.7)
TI
Send
RI
Load
SBUF
<_ 1
.. 16
Sample
1-to-0
Transition
Detector
RX Clock
Start
RX Control
1FFH Shift
Bit
Detector
Input Shift Register
(9 Bits)
RxD
Shift
Load
SBUF
SBUF
Read
SBUF
Internal Bus
UES04728
Figure 30
Serial Port Mode 1, Functional Diagram
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Semiconductor Group
TI
TxD
Shift
Data
Send
101
RI
Shift
Bit Detector
Sample Times
RxD
RX Clock
Write to SBUF
TX Clock
Start
Bit
D0
Start
Bit
÷ 16 Reset
D1
D0
D2
D1
D3
D2
D4
D3
D5
D4
D6
D5
D7
D6
Stop
Bit
D7
Stop
Bit
Transmit
UED04729
SDA 525x
Receive
Figure 31
Serial Port Mode 1, Timing
1998-04-08
SDA 525x
Internal Bus
TB8
Write
to
SBUF
Q
S
&
SBUF
<_ 1
TxD
D
CL
Phase 2 CLK
.. 16
Zero Detector
Stop Bit Gen.
Shift
Start
TX Control
Data
TX Clock
TI
Send
RI
Load
SBUF
SMOD=1
Serial
Port
Interrupt
.. 2
SMOD=0
(PCON.7)
<_ 1
.. 16
Sample
1-to-0
Transition
Detector
RX Clock
Start
RX Control
1FFH Shift
Bit
Detector
Input Shift Register
(9 Bits)
RxD
Shift
Load
SBUF
SBUF
Read
SBUF
Internal Bus
UES04730
Figure 32
Serial Port Mode 2, Functional Diagram
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Semiconductor Group
103
RI
Shift
Bit Detector
Sample Times
RxD
RX Clock
Stop Bit Gen.
TI
TxD
Shift
Data
Send
Write to SBUF
TX Clock
Start
Bit
D0
Start
Bit
÷ 16 Reset
D1
D0
D2
D1
D3
D2
D4
D3
D5
D4
D6
D5
D7
D6
TB8
D7
Stop
Bit
RB8
Transmit
UED04731
Stop
Bit
SDA 525x
Receive
Figure 33
Serial Port Mode 2, Timing
1998-04-08
SDA 525x
Internal Bus
TB8
Write
to
SBUF
S
D
&
Q
SBUF
CL
<_ 1
TxD
Zero Detector
Shift
Start
Data
TX Control
Timer1 Overflow
.. 16
TX Clock
SMOD=1
Serial
Port
Interrupt
.. 2
SMOD=0
(PCON.7)
TI
Send
RI
Load
SBUF
<_ 1
.. 16
Sample
1-to-0
Transition
Detector
RX Clock
Start
RX Control
1FFH Shift
Bit
Detector
Input Shift Register
(9 Bits)
RxD
Shift
Load
SBUF
SBUF
Read
SBUF
Internal Bus
UES04732
Figure 34
Serial Port Mode 3, Functional Diagram
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Semiconductor Group
TI
TxD
Shift
Data
Send
105
RI
Shift
Bit Detector
Sample Times
RxD
RX Clock
Write to SBUF
TX Clock
Start
Bit
D0
Start
Bit
÷ 16 Reset
D1
D0
D2
D1
D3
D2
D4
D3
D5
D4
D6
D5
D7
D6
TB8
D7
Stop
Bit
RB8
Transmit
UED04733
Stop
Bit
SDA 525x
Receive
Figure 35
Serial Port Mode 3, Timing
1998-04-08
SDA 525x
6.3.11
Pulse Width Modulation Unit (PWM)
The on-chip-PWM unit consists of 6 quasi-8-Bit and 2 quasi-14-Bit PWM channels.
Controlled via special function registers, each channel can be enabled individually.
The base frequency of an 8-Bit channel is derived from the overflow of a 6-Bit counter
which counts internal clocks. On every counter overflow, the enabled PWM lines will be
set to one (exception: compare values are zero) and will be reset when the 6 MSBs of
the PWCOMPx-register match the counter value. To get an overall resolution of 8 bit, the
high-time is stretched periodically, depending on the 2 LSBs of the PWCOMPx-register.
For example, if PWCOMPx[1:0] is ‘10’, the high-time will be stretched in every second
base cycle.
This type of PWM channel is called “6 plus 2”.
Table 23
Effect of PWCOMPx-Bits for 8-Bit PWM
PWCOMPx
Cycle Number ‘Stretched’
Bit 1
Bit 0
1,3
2
‘stretched’
Cycle 0
Cycle 1
Cycle 2
Cycle 3
Figure 36
Simplified Example with PWCOMPx[1:0]= ‘10’
The function of an 14-Bit channel is very similar. Here, an 8-Bit counter gives the base
frequency. All 8 bits of the PWCOMPx registers are compared with the counter value,
and the value in PWEXTx register gives the number of stretchings within 64 successive
base cycles. Thus, this type of PWM channel is called “8 plus 6”. The Table 24 shows
the influence of the PWEXTx register bits on cycles to be stretched.
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Table 24
Effect of PWEXTx-Bits for 14-Bit PWM
PWEXTx
Cycle Number ‘Stretched’
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
1,3,5,7,...,59,61,63
2,6,10,...,54,58,62
4,12,20,...,52,60
8,24,40,56
16,48
32
no effect
no effect
Table 25
Base frequencies
PWM Resolution
Base Frequency
8 bit
fOSC/ 2CDC x 64
14 bit
fOSC/ 2CDC x 256
Further Details of the PWM Unit
The PWM-output channels are placed as alternate functions to the eight lines of port 1.
P1.0 ... P1.5 contain the 6 output channels with 8-bit resolution and P1.6 ... P1.7 the 2
output channels with 14-bit resolution. Each PWM-channel can be individually switched
between PWM-function and port function.
The six 8-bit compare registers PWCOMP0 – PWCOMP5 are located at SFR-addresses
0F1H – 0F6H. The two 14-bit compare registers consist each of an 8-bit register
PWCOMP6 or PWCOMP7 and of a six-bit extension register PWEXT6 or PWEXT7, all
located at SFR-addresses 0FAH – 0FDH. They contain the modulation ratios of the
output signals, which are related to the maximum, defined by the counter’s resolution.
These compare registers are double buffered and a new compare value will only be
taken into the main register, after the next timer overflow or if the PWM-timer is stopped.
The PWM-timer registers located at SFR-address F7 and F9H contain the actual value
of the PWM-counter low byte and high byte and can only be read by the CPU. Every
compare register, which is not employed for the PWM-output can be used as an
additional register. This is not allowed for register PWME.
The internal timer of the PWM unit is running as long as at least one PWM-channel is
enabled by the PWM-Enable Register PWME.
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SDA 525x
PWM-Enable Register PWME
PWM-Enable Register
PWME
SFR-Address F8H
Default after reset: 00H
(MSB)
E7
E7 - E0
(LSB)
E6
E5
E4
E3
E2
E1
E0
=0
The corresponding PWM-channel is disabled. P1.i functions
as normal bidirectional I/O-port.
=1
He corresponding PWM-channel is enabled. E0...E5 are
channels with 8-bit resolution, while E6 and E7 are channels
with 14-bit resolution.
PWM Compare Registers PWCOMP 0 - 5
PWM Compare Registers
PWCOMP 0 - 5
SFR-Address F1H-F6H
Default after reset: 00H
(MSB)
Bit 7
(LSB)
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
Bit 7 - Bit 2
This bits define the high time of the output. If all bits are 0, the
high time is 0 internal clocks. If all bits are 1, the high time is
63 internal clocks.
Bit 1
If this bit is set, every second PWM-Cycle is stretched by one
internal clock, regardless of the settings of Bit7...Bit2.
Bit 0
If this bit is set, every fourth PWM-Cycle is stretched by one
internal clock, regardless of the settings of Bit7...Bit2.
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PWM Compare Registers PWCOMP 6, 7
PWM Compare Registers
PWCOMP 6, 7
SFR-Address FBH,FDH
Default after reset: 00H
(MSB)
Bit 7
(LSB)
Bit 6
Bit 7 - Bit 0
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
This bits define the high time of the output. If all bits are 0, the
high time is 0 internal clocks. If all bits are 1, the high time is
255 internal clocks.
PWM Extension Registers PWEXT 6, 7
PWM Extension Registers
SFR-Address FAH,FCH
PWEXT 6, 7
Default after reset: 00H
(MSB)
Bit 7
(LSB)
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
Bit 7
If this bit is set, every second PWM-Cycle is stretched by one
internal clock.
Bit 6
If this bit is set, every fourth PWM-Cycle is stretched by one
internal clock.
Bit 5
If this bit is set, every eighth PWM-Cycle is stretched by one
internal clock.
Bit 4
If this bit is set, every 16th PWM-Cycle is stretched by one
internal clock.
Bit 3
If this bit is set, every 32th PWM-Cycle is stretched by one
internal clock.
Bit 2
If this bit is set, every 64th PWM-Cycle is stretched by one
internal clock.
Bit 1, Bit 0
This bits have to be set to 0.
Note: The described operation is independent of the setting of PWCOMP6 or
PWCOMP7.
The stretch operation is interleaved between PWM-Cycles.
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SDA 525x
PWM Low Counter Registers PWCL
PWM Low Counter Registers
PWCL
SFR-Address F7H
Default after reset: 00H
(MSB)
Bit 7
(LSB)
Bit 6
Bit 7 - Bit 0
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
This bits are the low order 8 Bits of the 14 Bit PWM-Counter.
This register can only be read.
PWM High Counter Registers PWCH
PWM High Counter Registers
PWCH
SFR-Address F9H
Default after reset: 00H
(MSB)
Bit 7
(LSB)
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
Bit 7, Bit 6
This bits are undefined.
Bit 5 - Bit 0
This bits are the high order 6 Bits of the 14 Bit PWM-Counter.
This register can only be read.
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SDA 525x
PWM-Timer
E7
E6
Enable Register
E1
E0
PWM-Channel 0 8 Bit
P 1.0
PWM-Channel 1 8 Bit
P 1.1
PWM-Channel 2 8 Bit
P 1.2
PWM-Channel 3 8 Bit
P 1.3
PWM-Channel 4 8 Bit
P 1.4
PWM-Channel 5 8 Bit
P 1.5
PWM-Channel 6 14 Bit
P 1.6
PWM-Channel 7 14 Bit
P 1.7
8
UED09860
Internal
Bus
Figure 37
Block Diagram of Pulse Width Modulation Unit
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SDA 525x
6.3.12
Analog Digital Converter
The controller provides an A/D-converter with the following features:
–
–
–
–
4 multiplexed input channels, which can also be used as digital inputs
8-bit resolution
8.89 to 28.4 µs conversion time for 18 MHz oscillator frequency
Analog reference voltages supplied by pins VDDA and VSSA
The conversion time depends on the internal master clock, used by the ADC. The clockfrequency of the internal ADC master clock is defined by the external quartz (oscillator
frequency fOSC), the setting of bit CDC in the Advanced Function Register AFR of the
special function registers (SFR) (see Chapter “Advanced Function Register” on
page 115), and the setting of bit PSC in the ADC Control Register ADCON (SFR). Both
bits are software switches to activate or deactivate clock dividers by 2. The conversion
time further depends on the sample time, adjustable by bit STADC (ADC-Control
Register ADCON).
The conversion time can be calculated by:
2 × STADC
CDC
PSC
(2
+ 4 ) × 32 × 2
×2
t conversion = ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------f OSC
For the conversion, the method of successive approximation via capacitor array is used.
There are three user-accessible special function registers: ADCON, ADDAT and DAPR.
Special function register ADCON is used to set the operation modes, to check the status
and to select one of four input channels. ADCON contains two mode bits. Bit ADM is
used to choose the single or continuous conversion method. In single conversion mode
(ADM = 0) only one conversion is performed after starting, while in continuous
conversion mode (ADM = 1) a new conversion is automatically started on completion of
the previous one. The busy flag BSY (ADCON.4) is automatically set when a conversion
is in progress. After completion of the conversion it is reset by hardware. This flag can
be read only, a write has no effect. MX0 and MX1 are used to select one of 4 A/Dchannels. With PSC a divide by two prescaler for the internal master clock of the ADC
can be activated. For PSC = 0 the internal chip-clock is used as master clock for the
ADC. For PSC = 1 the internal chip-clock is divided by two before being used as master
clock for the ADC. With bit STADC the sample time of the ADC can be varied. Bit
STADC = 0 selects the normal sample time (sample time of 2 ADC master clock cycles),
while for STADC = 1 the sample time is slowed down by a factor of 4 (sample time of 8
ADC master clock cycles) e.g. for high-impedance input signals.
The special function register ADDAT holds the converted digital 8-bit data result. The
data remains in ADDAT until it is overwritten by the next converted data. ADDAT can be
read or written under software control. A start of conversion is triggered by a write-to
DAPR instruction. The data written must be 00H.
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SDA 525x
Machine Cycles,
Instruction Cycles
÷6
PSC = 0
CDC = 1
÷2
Internal
Chip Clock
OSC
Internal
System Clock
for ADC
÷2
CDC = 0
PSC = 1
UES09861
Figure 38
Internal System Clock of the ADC
ADC-Start Register DAPR
ADC-Start Register
DAPR
SFR-Address DAH
Default after reset: 00H
(MSB)
–
(LSB)
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
Only the address of DAPR is used to decode a start-of-conversion signal. No bits are
implemented. A read from DAPR might show random values.
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SDA 525x
ADC-Control Register ADCON
ADC-Control Register
ADCON
SFR-Address D8H
Default after reset: 00H
(MSB)
PSC
(LSB)
STADC
IADC
BSY
ADM
0
MX1
MX0
This register is bit addressable.
PSC
Prescaler control: PSC = 0 for prescaler not active. Internal
master clock of ADC is equal to the internal chip clock.
PSC = 1 for prescaler active. Internal master clock of ADC is
at half the internal chip clock.
STADC
ADC sample time adjustment: STADC = 0 for normal sample
time. STADC = 1 for fourfold sample time.
IADC
ADC interrupt request flag. Set on completion of ADconversion. Must be cleared by software.
BSY
Busy flag; = 1, during conversion.
ADM
ADC-conversion mode: ADM = 0 for single and ADM = 1 for
continuous conversion.
ADCON.2
Always to be written with ‘0’.
MX1, MX0
ADC-channel select.
Table 26
ADC-Channel Select
MX1
MX0
Selected Channel
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
0
2
1
1
3
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SDA 525x
ADC-Data Register ADDAT
ADC-Data Register
ADDAT
SFR-Address D9H
Default after reset: undefined
(MSB)
AD7
(LSB)
AD6
AD (7-0)
6.3.13
AD5
AD4
AD3
AD2
AD1
AD0
8-Bit Analog Data Value
Advanced Function Register
Advanced Function Register
AFR
SFR-Address A6H
Default after reset: 00xxxxxxB
(MSB)
CDC
(LSB)
WDT
0
0
0
0
0
0
CDC
Clock divider control bit. If set, the clock divider is on. The
internal clock frequency is half the external oscillator
frequency. If cleared, the clock divider is off. The internal clock
frequency is equal to the external oscillator frequency. This
feature can be used to reduce power dissipation by reducing
the internal clock frequency by a factor of two.
WDT
See Chapter “Watchdog Timer” on page 87.
AFR.0 – AFR.5
Reserved, always to be written with ‘0’.
The machine cycle time is controlled by bit CDC too. For CDC = 1 a machine cycle
consists of 12 oscillator cycles and for CDC = 0 of six oscillator cycles (see Figure 14).
Semiconductor Group
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SDA 525x
6.3.14
Instruction Set
The assembly language uses the same instruction set and the same instruction opcodes
as the 8051 microcomputer family.
6.3.14.1
Notes on Data Addressing Modes
Rn
–
Working register R0 – R7.
direct
–
128 internal RAM-locations, any I/O-port, control or status register.
@Ri
–
Indirect internal RAM-location addressed by register R0 or R1.
#data
–
8-bit constant included in instruction.
#data 16
–
16-bit constant included as bytes 2 & 3 of instruction.
bit
–
128 software flags, any I/O-pin, control or status bit in special
function registers.
Operations working on external data memory (MOVX …) are used to access the
extended internal data RAM (XRAM).
6.3.14.2
Notes on Program Addressing Modes
addr 16
–
Destination address for LCALL & LJMP may be anywhere within the
program memory address space.
addr 11
–
Destination address for ACALL & AJMP will be within the same
2 Kbyte of the following instruction.
rel
–
SJMP and all conditional jumps include an 8-bit offset byte. Range is
+ 127/ – 128 bytes relative to first byte of the following instruction.
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SDA 525x
6.3.14.3
Instruction Set Description
Table 27
Arithmetic Operations
Mnemonic
Description
Byte
ADD
A, Rn
Add register to Accumulator
1
ADD
A, direct
Add direct byte to Accumulator
2
ADD
A, @Ri
Add indirect RAM to Accumulator
1
ADD
A, #data
Add immediate data to Accumulator
2
ADDC A, Rn
Add register to Accumulator with Carry flag
1
ADDC A, direct
Add direct byte to A with Carry flag
2
ADDC A, @Ri
Add indirect RAM to A with Carry flag
1
ADDC A, #data
Add immediate data to A with Carry flag
2
SUBB
A, Rn
Subtract register from A with Borrow
1
SUBB
A, direct
Subtract direct byte from A with Borrow
2
SUBB
A, @Ri
Subtract indirect RAM from A with Borrow
1
SUBB
A, #data
Subtract immediate data from A with Borrow
2
INC
A
Increment Accumulator
1
INC
Rn
Increment register
1
INC
direct
Increment direct byte
2
INC
@Ri
Increment indirect RAM
1
DEC
A
Decrement Accumulator
1
DEC
Rn
Decrement register
1
DEC
direct
Decrement direct byte
2
DEC
@Ri
Decrement indirect RAM
1
INC
DPTR
Increment Data Pointer
1
MUL
AB
Multiply A & B
1
DIV
AB
Divide A & B
1
DA
A
Decimal Adjust Accumulator
1
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SDA 525x
Table 28
Logical Operations
Mnemonic
Description
Byte
ANL
A, Rn
AND register to Accumulator
1
ANL
A, direct
AND direct byte to Accumulator
2
ANL
A, @Ri
AND indirect RAM to Accumulator
1
ANL
A, #data
AND immediate data to Accumulator
2
ANL
direct, A
AND Accumulator to direct byte
2
ANL
direct, #data
AND immediate data to direct byte
3
ORL
A, Rn
OR register to Accumulator
1
ORL
A, direct
OR direct byte to Accumulator
2
ORL
A, @Ri
OR indirect RAM to Accumulator
1
ORL
A, #data
OR immediate data to Accumulator
2
ORL
direct, A
OR Accumulator to direct byte
2
ORL
direct, #data
OR immediate data to direct byte
3
XRL
A, Rn
Exclusive-OR register to Accumulator
1
XRL
A, direct
Exclusive-OR direct byte to Accumulator
2
XRL
A, @Ri
Exclusive-OR indirect RAM to Accumulator
1
XRL
A, #data
Exclusive-OR immediate data to Accumulator
2
XRL
direct, A
Exclusive-OR Accumulator to direct byte
2
XRL
direct, #data
Exclusive-OR immediate data to direct
3
CLR
A
Clear Accumulator
1
CPL
A
Complement Accumulator
1
RL
A
Rotate Accumulator left
1
RLC
A
Rotate A left through the Carry flag
1
RR
A
Rotate Accumulator right
1
RRC
A
Rotate A right through Carry flag
1
Swap nibbles within the Accumulator
1
SWAP A
Semiconductor Group
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SDA 525x
Table 29
Data Transfer Operations
Mnemonic
Description
Byte
MOV
A, Rn
Move register to Accumulator
1
MOV
A, direct
Move direct byte to Accumulator
2
MOV
A, @Ri
Move indirect RAM to Accumulator
1
MOV
A, #data
Move immediate data to Accumulator
2
MOV
Rn, A
Move Accumulator to register
1
MOV
Rn, direct
Move direct byte to register
2
MOV
Rn, #data
Move immediate data to register
2
MOV
direct, A
Move Accumulator to direct byte
2
MOV
direct, Rn
Move register to direct byte
2
MOV
direct, direct
Move direct byte to direct
3
MOV
direct, @Ri
Move indirect RAM to direct byte
2
MOV
direct, #data
Move immediate data to direct byte
3
MOV
@Ri, A
Move Accumulator to indirect RAM
1
MOV
@Ri, direct
Move direct byte to indirect RAM
2
MOV
@Ri, #data
Move immediate data to indirect RAM
2
MOV
DPTR, #data 16
Load Data Pointer with a 16-bit constant
3
MOVC [email protected] + DPTR
Move Code byte relative to DPTR to Accumulator
1
MOVC [email protected] + PC
Move Code byte relative to PC to Accumulator
1
MOVX A, @Ri
Move External RAM (8-bit addr) to Accumulator1)
1
MOVX A, @DPTR
Move External RAM (16-bit addr) to Accumulator
1
MOVX @Ri, A
1)
Move A to External RAM (8-bit addr)
1
MOVX @DPTR, A
Move A to External RAM (16-bit addr)
1
PUSH direct
Push direct byte onto stack
2
POP
direct
Pop direct byte from stack
2
XCH
A, Rn
Exchange register with Accumulator
1
XCH
A, direct
Exchange direct byte with Accumulator
2
XCH
A, @Ri
Exchange indirect RAM with Accumulator
1
Exchange low-order digital indirect RAM with A1)
1
XCHD A, @Ri
1)
not applicable for the SDA525x
Semiconductor Group
119
1998-04-08
SDA 525x
Table 30
Boolean Variable Manipulation
Mnemonic
Description
Byte
CLR
C
Clear Carry flag
1
CLR
bit
Clear direct bit
2
SETB
C
Set Carry flag
1
SETB
bit
Set direct bit
2
CPL
C
Complement Carry flag
1
CPL
bit
Complement direct bit
2
ANL
C, bit
AND direct bit to Carry flag
2
ANL
C, /bit
AND complement of direct bit to Carry
2
ORL
C, bit
OR direct bit to Carry flag
2
ORL
C, /bit
OR complement of direct bit to Carry
2
MOV
C, bit
Move direct bit to Carry flag
2
MOV
bit, C
Move Carry flag to direct bit
2
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SDA 525x
Table 31
Program and Machine Control Operations
Mnemonic
Description
Byte
ACALL addr 11
Absolute subroutine call
2
LCALL addr 16
Long subroutine call
3
RET
Return from subroutine
1
RETI
Return from interrupt
1
AJMP
addr 11
Absolute jump
2
LJMP
addr 16
Long jump
3
SJMP
rel
Short jump (relative addr)
2
JMP
@A + DPTR
Jump indirect relative to the DPTR
1
JZ
rel
Jump if Accumulator is zero
2
JNZ
rel
Jump if Accumulator is not zero
2
JC
rel
Jump if Carry flag is set
2
JNC
rel
Jump if Carry flag is not set
2
JB
bit, rel
Jump if direct bit set
3
JNB
bit, rel
Jump if direct bit not set
3
JBC
bit, rel
Jump if direct bit is set and clear bit
3
CJNE
A, direct rel
Compare direct to A and jump if not equal
3
CJNE
A, #data, rel
Compare immediate to A and jump if not equal
3
CJNE
Rn, #data, rel
Compare immediate to register and jump if not equal 3
CJNE
@Ri, #data, rel
Compare immediate to indirect and jump if not equal 3
DJNZ
Rn, rel
Decrement register and jump if not zero
2
DJNZ
direct, rel
Decrement direct and jump if not zero
3
No operation
1
NOP
Semiconductor Group
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SDA 525x
6.3.15
Instruction Opcodes in Hexadecimal Order
Table 32
Instruction Opcodes in Hexadecimal Order
Hex Code Number of Bytes
00
01
02
03
04
05
06
07
08
09
0A
0B
0C
0D
0E
0F
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
1A
1B
1C
1D
1E
1F
20
21
22
23
24
1
2
3
1
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
3
2
3
1
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
3
2
1
1
2
Semiconductor Group
Mnemonic
NOP
AJMP
LJMP
RR
INC
INC
INC
INC
INC
INC
INC
INC
INC
INC
INC
INC
JBC
ACALL
LCALL
RRC
DEC
DEC
DEC
DEC
DEC
DEC
DEC
DEC
DEC
DEC
DEC
DEC
JB
AJMP
RET
RL
ADD
122
Operands
code addr
code addr
A
A
data addr
@R0
@R1
R0
R1
R2
R3
R4
R5
R6
R7
bit addr, code addr
code addr
code addr
A
A
data addr
@R0
@R1
R0
R1
R2
R3
R4
R5
R6
R7
bit addr, code addr
code addr
A
A, #data
1998-04-08
SDA 525x
Table 32
Instruction Opcodes in Hexadecimal Order (cont’d)
Hex Code Number of Bytes
25
26
27
28
29
2A
2B
2C
2D
2E
2F
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
3A
3B
3C
3D
3E
3F
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
4A
4B
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
3
2
1
1
2
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
2
2
3
2
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
Semiconductor Group
Mnemonic
Operands
ADD
ADD
ADD
ADD
ADD
ADD
ADD
ADD
ADD
ADD
ADD
JNB
ACALL
RETI
RLC
ADDC
ADDC
ADDC
ADDC
ADDC
ADDC
ADDC
ADDC
ADDC
ADDC
ADDC
ADDC
JC
AJMP
ORL
ORL
ORL
ORL
ORL
ORL
ORL
ORL
ORL
ORL
A, data addr
A, @R0
A, @R1
A, R0
A, R1
A, R2
A, R3
A, R4
A, R5
A, R6
A, R7
bit addr, code addr
code addr
123
A
A, #data
A, data addr
A, @R0
A, @R1
A, R0
A, R1
A, R2
A, R3
A, R4
A, R5
A, R6
A, R7
code addr
code addr
data addr., A
data addr, #data
A, #data
A, data addr
A, @R0
A, @R1
A, R0
A, R1
A, R2
A, R3
1998-04-08
SDA 525x
Table 32
Instruction Opcodes in Hexadecimal Order (cont’d)
Hex Code Number of Bytes
4C
4D
4E
4F
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
5A
5B
5C
5D
5E
5F
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
6A
6B
6C
6D
6E
6F
70
71
72
1
1
1
1
2
2
2
3
2
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
2
2
3
2
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
2
2
Semiconductor Group
Mnemonic
Operands
ORL
ORL
ORL
ORL
JNC
ACALL
ANL
ANL
ANL
ANL
ANL
ANL
ANL
ANL
ANL
ANL
ANL
ANL
ANL
ANL
JZ
AJMP
XRL
XRL
XRL
XRL
XRL
XRL
XRL
XRL
XRL
XRL
XRL
XRL
XRL
XRL
JNZ
ACALL
ORL
A, R4
A, R5
A, R6
A, R7
code addr
code addr
data addr, A
data addr, #data
A, #data
A, data addr
A, @R0
A, @R1
A, R0
A, R1
A, R2
A, R3
A, R4
A, R5
A, R6
A, R7
code addr
code addr.
data addr, A
data addr, #data
A, #data
A, data addr
A, @R0
A, @R1
A, R0
A, R1
A, R2
A, R3
A, R4
A, R5
A, R6
A, R7
code addr
code addr
C, bit addr
124
1998-04-08
SDA 525x
Table 32
Instruction Opcodes in Hexadecimal Order (cont’d)
Hex Code Number of Bytes
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
7A
7B
7C
7D
7E
7F
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
8A
8B
8C
8D
8E
8F
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
1
2
3
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
1
1
3
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
3
2
2
1
2
2
1
1
1
1
Semiconductor Group
Mnemonic
Operands
JMP
MOV
MOV
MOV
MOV
MOV
MOV
MOV
MOV
MOV
MOV
MOV
MOV
SJMP
AJMP
ANL
MOVC
DIV
MOV
MOV
MOV
MOV
MOV
MOV
MOV
MOV
MOV
MOV
MOV
MOV
ACALL
MOV
MOVC
SUBB
SUBB
SUBB
SUBB
SUBB
SUBB
@A + DPTR
A, #data
data addr, #data
@R0, #data
@R1, #data
R0, #data
R1, #data
R2, #data
R3, #data
R4, #data
R5, #data
R6, #data
R7, #data
code addr
code addr
C, bit addr
A, @A + PC
AB
data addr, data addr
data addr, @R0
data addr, @R1
data addr, R0
data addr, R1
data addr, R2
data addr, R3
data addr, R4
data addr, R5
data addr, R6
data addr, R7
DPTR, #data 16
code addr
bit addr, C
A, @A + DPTR
A, #data
A, data addr
A, @R0
A, @R1
A, R0
A, R1
125
1998-04-08
SDA 525x
Table 32
Instruction Opcodes in Hexadecimal Order (cont’d)
Hex Code Number of Bytes
9A
9B
9C
9D
9E
9F
A0
A1
A2
A3
A4
A5
A6
A7
A8
A9
AA
AB
AC
AD
AE
AF
B0
B1
B2
B3
B4
B5
B6
B7
B8
B9
BA
BB
BC
BD
BE
BF
C0
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
2
2
1
1
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
1
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
2
Semiconductor Group
Mnemonic
Operands
SUBB
SUBB
SUBB
SUBB
SUBB
SUBB
ORL
AJMP
MOV
INC
MUL
reserved
MOV
MOV
MOV
MOV
MOV
MOV
MOV
MOV
MOV
MOV
ANL
ACALL
CPL
CPL
CJNE
CJNE
CJNE
CJNE
CJNE
CJNE
CJNE
CJNE
CJNE
CJNE
CJNE
CJNE
PUSH
A, R2
A, R3
A, R4
A, R5
A, R6
A, R7
C, /bit addr
code addr
C, bit addr
DPTR
AB
126
@R0, data addr
@R1, data addr
R0, data addr
R1, data addr
R2, data addr
R3, data addr
R4, data addr
R5, data addr
R6, data addr
R7, data addr
C, /bit addr
code addr
bit addr
C
A, #data, code addr
A, data addr, code addr
@R0, #data, code addr
@R1, #data, code addr
R0, #data, code addr
R1, #data, code addr
R2, #data, code addr
R3, #data, code addr
R4, #data, code addr
R5, #data, code addr
R6, #data, code addr
R7, #data, code addr
data addr
1998-04-08
SDA 525x
Table 32
Instruction Opcodes in Hexadecimal Order (cont’d)
Hex Code Number of Bytes
C1
C2
C3
C4
C5
C6
C7
C8
C9
CA
CB
CC
CD
CE
CF
D0
D1
D2
D3
D4
D5
D6
D7
D8
D9
DA
DB
DC
DD
DE
DF
E0
E1
E2
E3
E4
E5
E6
E7
2
2
1
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
2
2
1
1
3
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
1
2
1
2
1
1
Semiconductor Group
Mnemonic
Operands
AJMP
CLR
CLR
SWAP
XCH
XCH
XCH
XCH
XCH
XCH
XCH
XCH
XCH
XCH
XCH
POP
ACALL
SETB
SETB
DA
DJNZ
not applicable
not applicable
DJNZ
DJNZ
DJNZ
DJNZ
DJNZ
DJNZ
DJNZ
DJNZ
MOVX
AJMP
not applicable
not applicable
CLR
MOV
MOV
MOV
code addr
bit addr
C
A
A, data addr
A, @R0
A, @R1
A, R0
A, R1
A, R2
A, R3
A, R4
A, R5
A, R6
A, R7
data addr
code addr
bit addr
C
A
data addr, code addr
127
R0, code addr
R1, code addr
R2, code addr
R3, code addr
R4, code addr
R5, code addr
R6, code addr
R7, code addr
A, @DPTR
code addr
A
A, data addr
A, @R0
A, @R1
1998-04-08
SDA 525x
Table 32
Instruction Opcodes in Hexadecimal Order (cont’d)
Hex Code Number of Bytes
E8
E9
EA
EB
EC
ED
EE
EF
F0
F1
F2
F3
F4
F5
F6
F7
F8
F9
FA
FB
FC
FD
FE
FF
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
Semiconductor Group
Mnemonic
Operands
MOV
MOV
MOV
MOV
MOV
MOV
MOV
MOV
MOVX
ACALL
not applicable
not applicable
CPL
MOV
MOV
MOV
MOV
MOV
MOV
MOV
MOV
MOV
MOV
MOV
A, R0
A, R1
A, R2
A, R3
A, R4
A, R5
A, R6
A, R7
@DPTR, A
code addr
128
A
data addr, A
@R0, A
@R1, A
R0, A
R1, A
R2, A
R3, A
R4, A
R5, A
R6, A
R7, A
1998-04-08
SDA 525x
7
Electrical Characteristics
7.1
Absolute Maximum Ratings
Table 33
Parameter
Symbol
Limit Values
Unit
Voltage on any pin with respect to ground
(VSS)
VS
– 0.5 to 7
V
Power dissipation
Ptot
1
W
Ambient temperature under bias
TA
0 to 70
°C
Storage temperature
Tstg
– 65 to 125
°C
7.2
DC-Characteristics
Table 34
DC-Characteristics
TA = 0 to 70 °C; VDD = 5 V ± 10 %, VSS = 0 V(CL = 80 pF)
Parameter
Symbol
Limit Values
min.
max.
Units Test
Condition
L-input voltage (all except
SC)
VIL
– 0.5
0.8
V
H-input voltage
(all except XTAL1, SC)
VIH
2.0
VDD + 0.5
V
H-input voltage
(XTAL1,LCIN)
VIH1
0.7 VDD
VDD + 0.5
V
L-output voltage
VOL
–
0.45
V
IOL = 3.2 mA
H-output voltage (ports 1 – 4 VOH
in port-mode)
2.4
–
V
IOH = – 40 µA
H-output voltage (all except
ports in port-mode)
VOH1
2.4
–
V
IOH = –1.6 mA
Logical 0 input current
(ports 1 – 4, RST,VS)
IIL1
– 50
µA
VIN = 0.45 V
Input leakage current (port 0, ILI
port 2, HS/SC)
±1
µA
0.45 V ≤ VIN
≤ VDD
Power supply current
IDD
(Sum of VDD- and VDDA-Pins)
85
mA
VDD = 5 V;
fOSC = 18 MHz
Idle current
IIDLE
(Sum of VDD- and VDDA-Pins)
45
mA
VDD = 5 V;
fOSC = 18 MHz
Semiconductor Group
129
1998-04-08
SDA 525x
Table 34
DC-Characteristics (cont’d)
TA = 0 to 70 °C; VDD = 5 V ± 10 %, VSS = 0 V(CL = 80 pF)
Parameter
Symbol
Limit Values
min.
max.
Units Test
Condition
Power down current
IPD
(Sum of VDD- and VDDA-Pins)
1.5
mA
VDD = 5 V
Pin capacitance
CIO
10
pF
fC = 1 MHz
H-SC voltage
VSCH
1)
VDD + 0.5
V
L-SC voltage 1
VSCL1
– 0.5
1)
V
L-SC voltage 2
VSCL2
1)
1)
V
Analog input capacitance
CI
45
pF
ADC-total unadjusted error
TUE
t.b.d.
LSB
Analog ground voltage
VSSA
VSS
VSS
V
Analog reference voltage
VDDA
VDD
VDD
V
Analog input voltage
VAI
VSS – 0.2
VDD + 0.2
V
Video input signal level
VCVBS
0.7
2.0
V
Synchron signal amplitude
VSYNC
0.2
1.0
V
Data amplitude
VDAT
0.3
1.0
V
1)
adjustable, see Chapter “Sandcastle Decoder” on page 33 and figure 41.
Semiconductor Group
130
1998-04-08
SDA 525x
7.3
AC-Characteristics
External Clock Drive XTAL1 / Quartz Clock Drive XTAL1 - XTAL2
Table 35
TA = 0 to 70 °C; VDD = 5 V ± 10 %, VSS = 0 V (CL = 80 pF)
Parameter
Symbol
Limit Values
Unit
Fixed internal Clock
1/tCLCL = 18 MHz
min.
max.
Cycle time
tCY
6 tCLCL
–
ns
Address out to valid instr in
tAVIV
–
2.3. x tCLCL
ns
Oscillator period
tCLCL
55.6
–
ns
External clock high time
tCHCX
13
–
ns
External clock low time
tCLCX
13
–
ns
External clock rise time
tCLCH
–
13
ns
External clock fall time
tCHCL
–
13
ns
t CHCX
VDD-0.5
t CLCH
t CHCL
0.7 VDD
0.2 VDD-0.1
t CLCX
t CLCL
UED04735
Figure 39
External Clock Cycle
Semiconductor Group
131
1998-04-08
SDA 525x
t CY
t ALAH
ALE
t ALIV
D
Inst IN
t PXIX
t PXAV
Inst IN
Inst IN
t AVIV
A
A0-16
A0-16
UED04734
Figure 40
Program Memory Read Cycle
Semiconductor Group
132
1998-04-08
SDA 525x
OSD-Input/Output Timing
Table 36
Parameter
Symbol
Limit Values
Fixed DOT Clock
fDOT = 12 MHz
min.
Unit
max.
L-sandcastle time
tSCL
15
µs
H-sandcastle time
tSCH
3
µs
Horizontal offset
tHO
tSCH
µs
Pixel width
tDOT
83
ns
t VO
t SCL
SC
VSCH
VSCL 2
VSCL 1
t HO
t SCH
R, G, B, BLAN, COR
t DOT
t LINE
UET05095
Figure 41
OSD-Input/Output Timing
Semiconductor Group
133
1998-04-08
SDA 525x
Display-Generator-Timing
Table 37
TA = 0 to 70 °C; VDD = 5 V ± 10 %, VSS = 0 V
Parameter
Symbol
Limit Values
min.
Unit
max.
Hsync width
tHHHL
2.8 / 1.41)
–
µs
End of visible screen area to
Hsync ‘1’
tVLHH
0
–
ns
Start of visible screen area to
Hsync ‘0’
tHLVH
0
–
ns
Delay between Hsync and
R/G/B/BLAN/COR-lines
tHHCL
25
100
ns
1)
default after reset is 2.8 µs; if bit 7 in SFR 0CDH is set, the second value is valid
Horizontal
Flyback
Visible Area
tHHHL
HS applied
to SDA525x
tVLHH
tHLVH
tHHCL
R/G/B/BLAN/
COR
Figure 42
Horizontal Sync-Timing
Semiconductor Group
134
1998-04-08
SDA 525x
AC-Testing Input, Output, Float Waveforms
AC testing inputs are driven at VDD – 0.5 V for a logic ‘1’ and at 0.45 V for a logic ‘0’.
Timing measurements are made at VIHmin for a logic ‘1’ and at VIHmax for a logic ‘0’. For
timing purposes a port pin is no longer floating, when a 100 mV change from load voltage
occurs.
VDD - 0.5 V
0.2 VDD + 0.9
Test Points
0.2 VDD - 0.1
0.45 V
VLOAD + 0.1 V
VLOAD
VLOAD- 0.1 V
VOH - 0.1 V
Timing Reference
Points
VOL + 0.1 V
UED04592
Figure 43
I/O-Waveform for AC-Tests
Semiconductor Group
135
1998-04-08
SDA 525x
8
Applications
EPROM
A17, A18
A
A0...A16
D0...D7
D
P0.0-7
33 pF
XTAL1
P1.0-7
P2.0-3
18 MHz
P3.0-7
8
I/O Port 0 (Open-Drain)
8
I/O Port 1 (PWM)
4
Input Port 2 (ADC)
8
I/O Port 3
33 pF
330 nF
XTAL2
2.2 k Ω
CVBS (1VPP)
CVBS
470 k Ω
+5 V
8.2 k Ω
150 pF
6.8 k Ω 33 nF
RST
10 µF
FIL1
SDA 525x
6.8 k Ω 33 nF
FIL2
39 pF
8.2 k Ω 220 nF
FIL3
LCIN
6.8 µH
R/G/B
39 pF
BLAN/COR
LCOUT
max. tolerance
of LC-circuit
Ι REF
82 k Ω
3
2
Sandcastle
SC
VDD
VSS
10 µF
+5 V
Only ROMless
UED09863
Figure 44
Application Circuit for 50 Hz Field Frequency
Semiconductor Group
136
1998-04-08
SDA 525x
9
Package Outlines
1.78
1.3 max
0.46 ±0.1
0.25
M
52x
52
1
0.25 ±0.05
14.02 ±0.25
15.24 +1.7
27
26
46.1 -0.3
0.25 max
GPD05262
Index Marking
Sorts of Packing
Package outlines for tubes, trays etc. are contained in our
Data Book “Package Information”.
SMD = Surface Mounted Device
Semiconductor Group
15.24 +0.7
3.43 -0.4
0.5 min
4.83 max
P-SDIP-52-1
Plastic Shrink Dual In-line Package
137
Dimensions in mm
1998-04-08
SDA 525x
GPL05620
P-LCC-84-2
(Plastic Leaded Chip Carrier)
Sorts of Packing
Package outlines for tubes, trays etc. are contained in our
Data Book “Package Information”.
SMD = Surface Mounted Device
Semiconductor Group
138
Dimensions in mm
1998-04-08
SDA 525x
GPM05250
P-MQFP-64-1
(Plastic Metric Quad Flat Package)
Sorts of Packing
Package outlines for tubes, trays etc. are contained in our
Data Book “Package Information”.
SMD = Surface Mounted Device
Semiconductor Group
139
Dimensions in mm
1998-04-08
SDA 525x
0.65
0.3 ±0.08
H
7˚max
0.15 +0.08
-0.02
0.25 min
2 +0.1
-0.05
2.45 max
P-MQFP-80-1
(Plastic Metric Quad Flat Package)
0.88
C
0.1
12.35
0.12
17.2
0.2 A-B D 80x
0.2 A-B D H 4x
14
1)
M
A-B D C 80x
D
B
14 1)
17.2
A
0.6x45˚
1) Does not include plastic or metal protrusions of 0.25 max per side
Sorts of Packing
Package outlines for tubes, trays etc. are contained in our
Data Book “Package Information”.
SMD = Surface Mounted Device
Semiconductor Group
140
GPM05249
80
1
Index Marking
Dimensions in mm
1998-04-08
SDA 525x
10
Index
A
ACC, A 60
AC-Characteristics 131
ACQMS_1 61
ACQMS_2 61
ACQSIR 19, 61
Acquisition 5, 16
Acquisition Control Registers 18
Acquisition hardware 16
Acquistion Mode and Status Register 18
ADC-Control Register 114
ADC-Data Register 115
ADCON 61, 114
ADC-Start Register 113
ADDAT 61, 115
Addressing Modes 47
Advanced Function Register 89, 115
AFR 89, 115
Analog Digital Converter 61
Applications 136
Architecture 42
Arithmetic Operations 117
Arithmetic Registers 60
B
B 60
Banking 50
Base-Register plus Index Register-Indirect
Addressing 48
Baud Rates 94
Block Diagram 7
Boolean Variable Manipulation 120
C
CAPH 60
CAPL 60
Capture Compare Timer 46, 90
Capture Compare Timer Registers
Character generator 22
Clear page logic 20
CPU-Hardware 43
CPU-Timing 46
Semiconductor Group
60
D
DAPR 61, 113
Data Pointer 45
Data Transfer Operations 119
DC-Characteristics 129
DCCP 62
DCRP 62
DHD 62
Direct Addressing 48
Display 5
Display Control Registers 62
Display cursor 20
Display format and timing 20
Display generator 20
Display page addressing 21
Display special function registers
Display-Generator-Timing 133
DMOD 62
DMODE1 62
DMODE2 62
Double Size 26
Double Width 26
DPH 60
DPL 60
DPSEL 60
DPTR 45
DTCR 62
DTIM 62
DVD 62
E
External Interrupts
72
F
Features 5
Flash 20
Full screen background colour
Functional description 16
20
G
General Purpose Timers/Counters
H
Horizontal Sync-Timing
141
24
80
134
1998-04-08
SDA 525x
I
I/O-Port Registers 60
IE 60
Immediate Addressing 48
Infrared Timer Control Register 90
Instruction Opcodes in Hexadecimal Order
122
Instruction Set 116
Instruction Set Description 117
Internal Data Memory Address Space 57
Internal Data RAM 43, 55
Interrupt Control 63
Interrupt Control Registers 60
Interrupt Logic 45
Interrupt Nesting 71
Interrupt Sources 62
Interrupt System 62, 66
IP0 60
IP1 60
IRCON 60
IRTCON 60
L
LANGC 29, 62
Language Control Register
Logical Operations 118
29
M
Memory Extension 50
Memory Interface 17
Memory Organization 49
Microcontroller 6, 42
Multiprocessor Communication
O
On Screen Display 22
OSD 22
OSD-Input/Output Timing
P
P0
P1
P2
P3
P4
60
60
60
60
60
Semiconductor Group
133
93
Package Outlines 137
PCON 60, 77
Pin Configuration 8
Pin Functions 12
Plastic Package 137
P-LCC-84-2 138
P-LCC-84-2 Package 6
P-MQFP-64-1 6, 139
P-MQFP-80-1 140
P-MQFP-80-1 Package 6
Port 0 45
Port 1 45
Port 2 45
Port 3 45
Port 4 45
Ports and I/O-Pins 78
Power Control Register 77
Power-Down Operations 76
Priority within Level 71
Processor Reset 75
Program and Machine Control Operations
121
Program Memory 49
Program Status Word 44
P-SDIP-52-1 137
P-SDIP-52-1 Package 6
PSW 44, 60
Pulse Width Modulation Unit 46, 106
Pulse Width Modulator Registers 61
PWCH 61, 111
PWCL 61
PWCOMP 0-5 108
PWCOMP0 61
PWCOMP1 61
PWCOMP2 61
PWCOMP3 61
PWCOMP4 61
PWCOMP5 61
PWCOMP6 61
PWCOMP7 61
PWEXT6 61
PWEXT7 61
PWM 106
142
1998-04-08
SDA 525x
Timer 0/1 Registers 60
Timer/Counter 0 81
Timer/Counter 0/1 45
Timer/Counter 1 82
TL0 60
TL1 60
TMOD 60, 83, 84
TTXSIR 62, 67
PWM Compare Registers 108
PWM High Counter Registers 111
PWME 61, 108
PWM-Enable Register 108
R
Read-Modify-Write 80
Register Addressing 48
Register-Indirect Addressing
RELH 60
RELL 60
Response Time 74
48
V
VTX/VPS slicer
S
Sandcastle Control Register 33
Sandcastle Decoder 33
SBUF 61
SCCON 33, 62
SCON 61, 92
Serial Interface 45, 91
Serial Interface Registers 61
Serial Port Control Register 92
Serial Port Mode 0 98
Serial Port Mode 1 100
Serial Port Mode 2 102
Serial Port Mode 3 104
Serial Port Mode Selection 93
Slicer Control Registers 61
SP 45, 60
Special Function Register Bit Address
Space 59
Special Function Register Overview 60
Stack Pointer 45
Synchronisation 6
System Control Registers 60
16
W
Watchdog Timer 46, 87
Watchdog Timer Control Register
Watchdog Timer Registers 60
Watchdog Timer Reload Register
Waveforms 135
WDCON 60
WDTH 60
WDTL 60
WDTREL 60, 88
88
88
T
TCON 60
Teletext Sync Interrupt Request Register
67
Teletext Sync Signal Interrupt System 65
Teletext-Sync-Interrupt-Register 32
TH0 60
TH1 60
Semiconductor Group
143
1998-04-08