INFINEON SDA6000

Users Man u a l , Versi o n 2 .1 , Jun e 2 0 0 0
S DA 6 0 0 0
Tel e t e x t Dec oder w i t h
E m b e d d e d 16-bi t
C o n t r o lle r M2
IC s fo r Cons um e r s
N e v e r
s t o p
t h i n k i n g .
Edition 2000-06-15
Published by Infineon Technologies AG,
St.-Martin-Strasse 53,
D-81541 München, Germany
© Infineon Technologies AG 2000.
All Rights Reserved.
Attention please!
The information herein is given to describe certain components and shall not be considered as warranted
characteristics.
Terms of delivery and rights to technical change reserved.
We hereby disclaim any and all warranties, including but not limited to warranties of non-infringement, regarding
circuits, descriptions and charts stated herein.
Infineon Technologies is an approved CECC manufacturer.
Information
For further information on technology, delivery terms and conditions and prices please contact your nearest
Infineon Technologies Office in Germany or our Infineon Technologies Representatives worldwide (see address
list).
Warnings
Due to technical requirements components may contain dangerous substances. For information on the types in
question please contact your nearest Infineon Technologies Office.
Infineon Technologies Components may only be used in life-support devices or systems with the express written
approval of Infineon Technologies, if a failure of such components can reasonably be expected to cause the failure
of that life-support device or system, or to affect the safety or effectiveness of that device or system. Life support
devices or systems are intended to be implanted in the human body, or to support and/or maintain and sustain
and/or protect human life. If they fail, it is reasonable to assume that the health of the user or other persons may
be endangered.
Contents
Overview
Pin Description
Architectural Overview
C16X Microcontroller
Interrupt and Trap Function
System Control & Configuration
Peripherals
Clock System
Sync System
Display Generator
D/A Converter
Slicer and Acquisition
Register Overview
Elelctrical Characteristics
Users Man u a l , Versi o n 2 .1 , Jun e 2 0 0 0
SDA 6000
Te l e t ex t Dec od e r w i t h E m b e d de d
16 -bi t Cont rolle r
IC s fo r Cons um e r s
N e v e r
s t o p
t h i n k i n g .
SDA 6000
Revision History:
Current Version: 2000-06-15
Previous Version:
08.99
Page
Subjects (major changes since last revision)
Complete Update of Controller & Peripheral Spec --> Detailed Version
ASC: Autobaud Detection Feature included
IC: New Description
GPT: New Description
IIC changed to I2C
For questions on technology, delivery and prices please contact the Infineon Technologies Offices
in Germany or the Infineon Technologies Companies and Representatives worldwide:
see our webpage at http://www.infineon.com
Contents
Overview
SDA 6000
Table of Contents
Page
1
1.1
1.2
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 - 3
Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 - 7
Logic Symbol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 - 9
2
2.1
2.2
Pin Descriptions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 - 3
Pin Diagram (top view) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 - 3
Pin Definitions and Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 - 4
3
Architectural Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 - 3
4
4.1
4.2
4.3
4.3.1
4.3.2
4.3.3
4.3.4
4.4
4.4.1
4.4.2
4.5
4.5.1
4.5.2
4.5.3
4.6
4.6.1
4.6.2
4.6.3
4.6.4
C16X Microcontroller . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 - 3
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 - 3
Memory Organization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 - 5
On-Chip Microcontroller RAM and SFR Area . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 - 7
System Stack . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 - 9
General Purpose Registers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 - 9
PEC Source and Destination Pointers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 - 10
Special Function Registers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 - 11
External Memory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 - 12
SDRAM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 - 13
External Static Memory Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 - 13
External Bus Interface (EBI). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 - 13
Memory Mapping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 - 16
Register Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 - 19
Crossing Memory Boundaries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 - 23
Central Processing Unit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 - 24
Instruction Pipelining . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 - 26
Bit-Handling and Bit-Protection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 - 32
Instruction State Times . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 - 33
CPU Special Function Registers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 - 34
5
5.1
5.1.1
5.1.2
5.2
5.2.1
5.2.2
5.2.3
5.2.4
5.2.5
5.3
5.3.1
Interrupt and Trap Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 - 3
Interrupt System Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 - 3
Interrupt Allocation Table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 - 4
Hardware Traps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 - 6
Operation of the PEC Channels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 - 13
Prioritization of Interrupt and PEC Service Requests . . . . . . . . . . . 5 - 20
Saving the Status during Interrupt Service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 - 22
Interrupt Response Times . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 - 23
PEC Response Times . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 - 25
Fast Interrupts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 - 27
Trap Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 - 28
External Interrupt Source Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 - 33
Users Manual
i-3
2000-06-15
SDA 6000
Table of Contents
Page
6
6.1
6.1.1
6.1.2
6.1.3
6.2
6.3
6.4
6.5
6.6
6.7
6.8
6.9
6.9.1
6.9.2
6.10
System Control & Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 - 3
System Reset . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 - 3
Behavior of I/Os during Reset . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 - 5
Reset Values for the Controller Core Registers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 - 5
The Internal RAM after Reset . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 - 5
System Start-up Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 - 5
Register Write Protection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 - 8
Power Reduction Modes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 - 12
Dedicated Pins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 - 15
XBUS Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 - 17
Watchdog Timer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 - 17
Bootstrap Loader . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 - 21
Identification Registers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 - 23
System Identification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 - 23
CPU Identification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 - 26
Parallel Ports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 - 27
7
7.1
7.1.1
7.1.1.1
7.1.2
7.1.2.1
7.1.2.2
7.1.2.3
7.1.3
7.1.4
7.2
7.2.1
7.2.2
7.3
7.3.1
7.3.1.1
7.3.1.2
7.3.1.3
7.3.2
7.3.2.1
7.3.2.2
7.3.2.3
7.3.3
7.3.3.1
7.3.3.2
7.3.4
Peripherals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 - 3
General Purpose Timer Unit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 - 3
Functional Description of Timer Block 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 - 3
Timer Concatenation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 - 14
Functional Description of Timer Block 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 - 19
Core Timer T6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 - 20
Auxiliary Timer T5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 - 21
Timer Concatenation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 - 22
GPT Registers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 - 26
Interrupts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 - 37
Real-time Clock . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 - 39
General Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 - 39
Register Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 - 41
Asynchronous/Synchronous Serial Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 - 46
Asynchronous Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 - 49
Asynchronous Data Frames . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 - 51
Asynchronous Transmission . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 - 53
Asynchronous Reception . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 - 54
Synchronous Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 - 56
Synchronous Transmission . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 - 57
Synchronous Reception . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 - 58
Synchronous Timing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 - 58
Baud Rate Generation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 - 59
Baud Rates in Asynchronous Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 - 60
Baud Rates in Synchronous Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 - 63
Autobaud Detection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 - 63
Users Manual
i-4
2000-06-15
SDA 6000
Table of Contents
Page
7.3.4.1
7.3.4.2
7.3.4.3
7.3.5
7.3.6
7.3.7
7.4
7.4.1
7.4.2
7.4.3
7.4.4
7.4.5
7.4.6
7.4.7
7.5
7.5.1
7.5.2
7.5.3
7.5.4
7.6
7.6.1
7.6.2
Serial Frames for Autobaud Detection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 - 64
Baud Rate Selection and Calculation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 - 67
Overwriting Registers on Successful Autobaud Detection . . . . . 7 - 69
ASC Hardware Error Detection Capabilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 - 70
Interrupts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 - 71
Register Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 - 72
High Speed Synchronous Serial Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 - 82
Full-Duplex Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 - 86
Half Duplex Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 - 89
Continuous Transfers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 - 90
Port Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 - 91
Baud Rate Generation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 - 91
Error Detection Mechanisms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 - 92
Register Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 - 95
I2C-Bus Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 - 99
Operational Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 - 100
The Physical I2C-Bus Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 - 100
Functional Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 - 103
Registers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 - 105
Analog Digital Converter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 - 118
Power Down and Wake Up . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 - 119
Register Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 - 119
8
8.1
8.2
Clock System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 - 3
General Function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 - 3
Register Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 - 4
9
9.1
9.1.1
9.1.2
9.2
Sync System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
General Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Screen Resolution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Sync Interrupts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Register Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10
10.1
10.2
10.3
10.3.1
10.3.2
10.3.3
10.4
10.4.1
10.4.2
10.5
Display Generator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 - 3
General Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 - 3
Screen Alignments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 - 3
Layer Concept . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 - 5
Overlapped Layers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 - 6
Embedded Layers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 - 8
Transparency in Screen Background Area . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 - 9
Input and Output Formats . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 - 11
Input Formats . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 - 12
Output Formats . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 - 13
Initialization of Memory Transfers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 - 17
Users Manual
i-5
9-3
9-3
9-3
9-5
9-6
2000-06-15
SDA 6000
Table of Contents
Page
10.5.1
10.5.2
10.5.3
10.6
10.6.1
10.7
10.7.1
10.7.2
10.7.3
10.7.4
10.7.5
10.7.6
10.7.7
10.7.8
10.7.9
10.7.10
10.7.11
10.7.12
10.7.13
Transfer Modes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Transfer Areas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Italic Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Register Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Special Function Registers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Description of Graphic Accelerator Instructions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Screen Attributes (SAR) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Startaddress of Layer 1 (FBR) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Size of Layer 1 (FSR) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Startaddress of Layer 2 (DBR) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Size of Layer 2 (DSR) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Display Coordinates of Layer 2 (DCR) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Contents of CLUT (CLR) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Clipping Coordinates (CUR and CBR) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Source Descriptor for Data Transfer (SDR) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Source Size of Transferred Memory Area (TSR) . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Destination Size of Transferred Memory Area (TDR) . . . . . . . . . .
Offset of Transferred Memory Area (TOR) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Attributes of Transfer (TAR) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11
11.1
D/A Converter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 - 3
Register Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 - 3
12
12.1
12.2
12.2.1
12.2.2
12.3
12.4
12.4.1
12.4.2
12.4.3
12.5
12.5.1
12.5.2
Slicer and Acquisition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 - 3
General Function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 - 3
Slicer Architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 - 3
Distortion Processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 - 5
Data Separation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 - 6
H/V-Synchronization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 - 6
Acquisition Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 - 6
FC-Check . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 - 7
Interrupts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 - 8
VBI Buffer and Memory Organization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 - 8
Register Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 - 9
RAM Registers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 - 12
Recommended Parameter Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 - 25
13
13.1
13.2
13.3
13.4
13.4.1
13.4.2
Register Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 - 3
Register Description Format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 - 3
CPU General Purpose Registers (GPRs) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 - 4
Registers ordered by Context . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 - 5
Registers Ordered by Address . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 - 13
Registers in SFR Area . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 - 14
Registers in ESFR Area . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 - 15
Users Manual
i-6
10 - 17
10 - 20
10 - 25
10 - 27
10 - 27
10 - 30
10 - 32
10 - 35
10 - 35
10 - 36
10 - 36
10 - 37
10 - 38
10 - 38
10 - 40
10 - 41
10 - 42
10 - 43
10 - 44
2000-06-15
SDA 6000
Table of Contents
14
14.1
14.2
14.3
14.4
14.5
Page
Electrical Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 - 3
Absolute Maximum Ratings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 - 3
Operating Range . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 - 3
DC Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 - 4
Timings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 - 10
Package Outlines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 - 11
Users Manual
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2000-06-15
SDA 6000
List of Figures
Figure 1-1
Figure 1-2
Figure 2-1
Figure 3-1
Figure 4-1
Figure 4-2
Figure 4-3
Figure 4-4
Figure 4-5
Figure 4-6
Figure 4-7
Figure 4-8
Figure 4-9
Figure 4-10
Figure 4-11
Figure 4-12
Figure 4-13
Figure 4-14
Figure 4-15
Figure 4-16
Figure 4-17
Figure 5-1
Figure 5-2
Figure 5-3
Figure 5-4
Figure 5-5
Figure 6-1
Figure 6-2
Figure 6-3
Figure 6-4
Figure 6-5
Figure 7-1
Figure 7-2
Figure 7-3
Figure 7-4
Figure 7-5
Figure 7-6
Figure 7-7
Figure 7-8
Figure 7-9
Figure 7-10
Figure 7-11
Users Manual
Page
M2 Tool Flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 - 5
Logic Symbol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 - 9
Pin Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 - 3
M2 Top Level Block Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 - 3
M2 Memory Path Block Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 - 6
Storage of Words, Byte and Bits in a Byte Organized Memory . . . . 4 - 7
Internal RAM Areas and SFR Areas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 - 8
Location of the PEC Pointers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 - 11
External Memory Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 - 14
Interlocked Access Cycles to ROM and SDRAM. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 - 15
Interlocked Access Cycles to two SDRAM Banks . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 - 16
Memory Mapping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 - 17
Four-Phase Handshake . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 - 21
CPU Block Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 - 25
Sequential Instruction Pipelining . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 - 28
Standard Branch Instruction Pipelining . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 - 28
Cache Jump Instruction Pipelining. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 - 29
Addressing via the Code Segment Pointer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 - 42
Addressing via the Data Page Pointers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 - 44
Register Bank Selection via Register CP. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 - 45
Implicit CP Use by Short GPR Addressing Modes. . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 - 46
Priority Levels and PEC Channels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 - 10
Mapping of PEC Offset Pointers into the Internal RAM . . . . . . . . . 5 - 19
Task Status Saved on the System Stack . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 - 22
Pipeline Diagram for Interrupt Response Time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 - 23
Pipeline Diagram for PEC Response Time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 - 26
State Machine for Security Level Switching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 - 11
Transitions between Idle Mode and Active Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 - 14
WDT Block Diagram. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 - 18
Bootstrap Loader Sequence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 - 22
Portlogic Register Overview. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 - 27
Structure of Timer Block 1 Core Timer T3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 - 4
Block Diagram of Core Timer T3 in Timer Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 - 7
Block Diagram of Core Timer T3 in Gated Timer Mode. . . . . . . . . . 7 - 7
Block Diagram of Core Timer T3 in Counter Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 - 8
Block Diagram of Core Timer T3 in Incremental Interface Mode . . . 7 - 9
Interfacing the Encoder to the Microcontroller . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 - 10
Evaluation of the Incremental Encoder Signals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 - 11
Evaluation of the Incremental Encoder Signals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 - 12
Block Diagram of an Auxiliary Timer in Counter Mode . . . . . . . . . 7 - 13
Concatenation of Core Timer T3 and an Auxiliary Timer . . . . . . . . 7 - 15
GPT1 Auxiliary Timer in Reload Mode. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 - 16
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2000-06-15
SDA 6000
List of Figures
Figure 7-12
Figure 7-13
Figure 7-14
Figure 7-15
Figure 7-16
Figure 7-17
Figure 7-18
Figure 7-19
Figure 7-20
Figure 7-21
Figure 7-22
Figure 7-23
Figure 7-24
Figure 7-25
Figure 7-26
Figure 7-27
Figure 7-28
Figure 7-29
Figure 7-30
Figure 7-31
Figure 7-32
Figure 7-33
Figure 7-34
Figure 7-35
Figure 7-36
Figure 7-37
Figure 7-38
Figure 7-39
Figure 7-40
Figure 7-41
Figure 7-42
Figure 7-43
Figure 7-44
Figure 7-45
Figure 7-46
Figure 7-47
Figure 8-1
Figure 9-1
Figure 9-2
Figure 10-1
Users Manual
Page
GPT1 Timer Reload Configuration for PWM Generation . . . . . . . . 7 - 17
Auxiliary Timer of Timer Block 1 in Capture Mode. . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 - 18
Structure of Timer Block 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 - 19
Block Diagram of Core Timer T6 in Timer Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 - 21
Concatenation of Core Timer T6 and Auxiliary Timer T5. . . . . . . . 7 - 22
Timer Block 2 Register CAPREL in Capture Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 - 23
Timer Block 2 Register CAPREL in Reload Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 - 24
Timer Block 2 Register CAPREL in Capture-And-Reload Mode . . 7 - 25
RTC Register Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 - 39
RTC Block Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 - 40
Block Diagram of the ASC0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 - 47
ASC Register Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 - 48
Asynchronous Mode of Serial Channel ASC0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 - 50
Asynchronous 8-Bit Frames. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 - 51
Asynchronous 9-Bit Frames. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 - 52
IrDA Frame Encoding/Decoding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 - 53
Fixed IrDA Pulse Generation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 - 55
RXD/TXD Data Path in Asynchronous Modes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 - 56
Synchronous Mode of Serial Channel ASC0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 - 57
ASC0 Synchronous Mode Waveforms. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 - 59
ASC0 Baud Rate Generator Circuitry in Asynchronous Modes . . . 7 - 61
ASC0 Baud Rate Generator Circuitry in Synchronous Mode. . . . . 7 - 63
ASC_P3 Asynchronous Mode Block Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 - 64
Two-Byte Serial Frames with ASCII ‘at’ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 - 65
Two-Byte Serial Frames with ASCII ‘AT’ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 - 66
ASC0 Interrupt Generation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 - 72
SFRs and Port Pins Associated with the SSC0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 - 83
Synchronous Serial Channel SSC0 Block Diagram. . . . . . . . . . . . 7 - 84
Serial Clock Phase and Polarity Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 - 86
SSC0 Full Duplex Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 - 87
SSC Half Duplex Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 - 90
SSC0 Baud Rate Generator. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 - 91
SSC0 Error Interrupt Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 - 93
I2C Bus Line Connections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 - 100
Physical Bus Configuration Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 - 102
SFRs and Port Pins Associated with the A/D Converter . . . . . . . 7 - 118
Clock System in M2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 - 3
M2’s Display Timing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 - 4
Priority of Clamp Phase, Screen Background
and Pixel Layer Area . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 - 11
Display Regions and Alignments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 - 4
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2000-06-15
SDA 6000
List of Figures
Figure 10-2
Figure 10-3
Figure 10-4
Figure 10-5
Figure 10-6
Figure 10-7
Figure 10-8
Figure 10-9
Figure 10-10
Figure 10-11
Figure 10-12
Figure 10-13
Figure 10-14
Figure 10-15
Figure 10-16
Figure 10-17
Figure 10-18
Figure 10-19
Figure 10-20
Figure 10-21
Figure 10-22
Figure 12-1
Figure 12-2
Figure 14-1
Figure 14-2
Users Manual
Page
Behavior of Blank Pin for Consecutive Frames
in ‘Meshed’ Regions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 - 5
Priority of Layers in Overlapped Layer Mode. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 - 6
Priority of Layers in Embedded Layer Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 - 9
Format of 1-bitplane Bitmap. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 - 12
Format of 2-bitplane Bitmap. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 - 12
Format of 4-bitplane Bitmap. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 - 12
Format of 8-bitplane Bitmap. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 - 13
Overview on SRU. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 - 13
2-bit Pixel Format for Use in Frame Buffer. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 - 14
8-bit Pixel Format for Use in Frame Buffer. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 - 14
16-bit Pixel Format (4:4:4:2/TTX) for Use in Frame Buffer . . . . . 10 - 15
Internally Generated Flash Signals in Different Flash Phases. . . 10 - 16
16-bit Pixel Format (5:6:5) for Use in Frame Buffer . . . . . . . . . . . 10 - 16
Overview of GA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 - 17
Use of Register Settings to Specify Source Area. . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 - 22
Use of Register Settings to Specify Destination
and Clipping Area. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 - 25
Result for a Non-italic Transferred Memory Area
in Frame Buffer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 - 25
Result for a Italic Transferred Memory Area in Frame Buffer . . . 10 - 26
Result for an Italic Transferred Memory Area
at D/A Converter Output. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 - 26
Organization of GAIs in the External SDRAM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 - 30
GAI Instruction Format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 - 31
Block Diagram of Digital Slicer and Acquisition Interface . . . . . . . 12 - 4
VBI Buffer: General Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 - 9
H/V - Sync-Timing (Sync-master mode) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 - 10
VCS -Timing (Sync-master mode) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 - 10
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SDA 6000
Preface
M2 is a 16-bit controller based on Infineon’s C16x core with embedded teletext and
graphic controller functions. M2 can be used for a wide range of TV and OSD
applications. This document provides complete reference information on the hardware
of M2.
Organization of this Document
This Users Manual is divided into 14 chapters. It is organized as follows:
• Chapter 1, Overview
Gives a general description of the product and lists the key features.
• Chapter 2, Pin Description
Lists pin locations with associated signals, categorizes signals according to function,
and describes signals.
• Chapter 3, Architectural Overview
Gives an overview on the hardware architecture and explains the dataflow within M2.
• Chapter 4, C16X Microcontroller
Gives a detailed explanation of the 16-bit µC architecture.
• Chapter 5, Interrupt and Trap Functions,
Explains the powerful C166 Interrupt facilities.
• Chapter 6, System Control & Configuration
Describes how to configure and control the complete µC system and the Power
Management Unit.
• Chapter 7, Peripherals
Describes the peripherals (serial buses and timers modules) of the micro.
• Chapter 8 & 9, Clock System & Sync System
Describes how clocks & syncs for the display generator are generated.
• Chapter 10 & 11, Display Generator and D/A Converter
Explains the architecture and programming possibilities of the unit which generates
the RGB signals.
• Chapter 12, Acquisition and Slicer
Describes features and functionality of the data caption unit.
• Chapter 13, Register Overview
Summarizes all HW-registers of M2.
• Chapter 14, Electrical Characteristics
Lists all important AC and DC values and the maximum operating conditions of M2.
Users Manual
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SDA 6000
Related Documentation
For easier understanding of this specification it is recommended to read the
documentation listed in the following table. Moreover it gives an overview of the software
drivers which are available for M2.
Document Name
Document Purpose
Appl. Note “Initialization and
Bootstraploader of M2”
System integration support
Users Manual
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SDA 6000
Overview
1
Overview
M2 is designed to provide absolute top performance for a wide spectrum of teletext and
graphic applications in standard and high end TV-sets and VCRs. M2 contains a data
caption unit, a display unit and a high performance Infineon C16x based microcontroller
(so that M2 becomes a one chip TV-controller) an up to level 3.5 teletext decoder and
display processor with enhanced graphic accelerator capabilities. It is not only optimized
for teletext usage but also, due to its extremely efficient architecture, can be used as a
universal graphic engine.
M2 is able to support a wide range of standards like PAL, NTSC or applications like
Teletext, VPS, WSS, Chinatext, Closed Caption and EPG (Electronic Program Guide).
With the support of a huge number of variable character sets and graphic capabilities a
wide range of OSD applications are also open for M2.
A new flexible data caption system enables M2 to slice most data, making the IC an
universal data decoder. The digital slicer concept contains measurement circuitries that
help identify bad signal conditions and therefore support the automatic compensation of
the most common signal disturbances. M2’s enhanced data caption control logic allows
individual programming, which means that every line can carry an individual service to
be sliced and stored in the memory.
The display generation of M2 is based on frame buffer technology. A frame buffer
concept displays information which is individually stored for each pixel, allowing greater
flexibility with screen menus. Proportional fonts, asian characters and even HTML
browsers are just some examples of applications that can now be supported.
Thus, with the M2, the process of generation and display of on-screen graphics is split
up into two independent tasks. The generation of the image in the frame buffer is
supported by a hardware graphics accelerator which frees the CPU from power intensive
address calculations. The graphics accelerator ‘prints’ the characters, at the desired
‘screen’ position, into the frame buffer memory based on a display list provided by the
software.
The second part of the display generator (the screen refresh unit) then reads the frame
buffer according to the programmed display mode and screen refresh rate and converts
the pixel information into an analog RGB signal.
Furthermore, M2 has implemented an RGB-DAC for a maximum color resolution of
state-of-the-art up to 65536 colors, so that the complete graphic functionality is
implemented as a system on chip. The screen resolution is programmable up to SVGA,
to cover today’s and tomorrow’s applications, only limited by the available memory
(64 Mbit) and the maximum pixel clock frequency (50 MHz).
The memory architecture is based on the concept of a unified memory - placing program
code, variables, application data, bitmaps and data captured from the analog TV signal’s
vertical blanking interval (VBI) in the same physical memory. M2’s external bus interface
Users Manual
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SDA 6000
Overview
supports SDRAMs as well as ROMs or FLASH ROMs. The organization of the memory
is linear, so that it is easy to program the chip for graphic purposes.
The SW development environment “MATE” is available to simplify and speed up the
development of the software and displayed information. MATE stands for: M2 Advanced
Tool Environment. Using MATE, two primary goals are achieved: shorter Time-toMarket and improved SW qualitiy. In detail:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Re-usability
Target independent development
Verification and validation before targeting
General test concept
Documentation
Graphical interface design for non-programmers
Modular and open tool chain, configurable by customer
MATE uses available Infineon C166 microcontroller family standard tools as well as a
dedicated M2 tools.
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SDA 6000
Overview
SIE-MATE Tool Concept:
Fast Prototyping on the PC
New Tool Generation
User Interface
Object Editor
User Interface
Simulator
Events and
Action Editor
Converter Display data
info M2 formatted data,
Object Library Manager
C Compiler
C Code
Generator
Object Code
C Sources
Dedicated
M2 Libraries
C166-Available
RTOS
Linker/Locator
Debugging
PC Simulator + EVA Board
Embedded System M2
M2 - the 16 Bit MC, TTX/EPG/TeleWeb, High End OSD Engine
UEB11114
Figure 1-1
Users Manual
M2 Tool Flow
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SDA 6000
Overview
Standard Tool Chain
For the M2 software development (documentation, coding, debugging and test) the
Infineon C166 microcontroller family standard tools can be used: These are ASCII editor,
structogram editor, compiler, assembler, linker. Debugging is supported by low-priced
ROM-Monitor debuggers or the OCDS (On Chip Debug Support) debugger.
M2 Dedicated Tools
Special tools are primarily available for platform independent M2 software development
and secondly to generate data and control code for the M2 graphical user interface (GDI)
without having knowledge of M2 hardware. These are:
•
•
•
•
•
Display Generator Simulator
Teletext Data Slicer Simulator
GDI (Graphical Device Interface)
Teletext Decoder and Display Software for Level 1.5 and Level 2.5
Mate Display Builder for management, editing, handling and generation of all
necessary data to display OSD’s
• Evaluation Board Simulator to connect a C166 EVA Board to the M2 simulation
The M2 software is written in ANSI-C to fulfil the platform independent development. The
ported software is code and runtime optimized. The layers of the modular architecture
are separated by application program interfaces which ensure independent handling of
the modules.
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Teletext Decoder with Embedded 16-bit Controller
M2
Version 2.0
1.1
SDA 6000
CMOS
Features
General
• Level 1.5, 2.5, 3.5 WST Display Compatible
• Fast External Bus Interface for SDRAM (Up to
8 MByte) and ROM or Flash-ROM (Up to 4 MByte)
P-MQFP-128-2
• Embedded General Purpose 16 Bit CPU (Also used
as TV-System Controller, C16x Compatible)
• Display Generation Based on Pixel Memory
• Program Code also Executable From External
SDRAM
• Embedded Refresh Controller for External SDRAM
• Enhanced Programmable Low Power Modes
• Single 6 MHz Crystal Oscillator
• Multinorm H/V-Display Synchronization in Master or Slave Mode
• Free Programmable Pixel Clock from 10 MHz to 50 MHz
• Pixel Clock Independent from CPU Clock
• 3 × 6 Bits RGB-DACs On-Chip
• Supply Voltage 2.5 and 3.3 V
• P-MQFP-128 Package
Microcontroller Features
•
•
•
•
•
•
16-bit C166-CPU Kernel (C16x Compatible)
60 ns Instruction Cycle Time
2 KBytes Dual Ported IRAM
2 KBytes XRAM On-chip
General Purpose Timer Units (GPT1 and GPT2).
Asynchronous/Synchronous Serial Interface (ASC0) with IrDA Support. Full-duplex
Asynchronous Up To 2 MBaud or Half-duplex Synchronous up to 4.1 MBaud.
Type
Package
SDA 6000
P-MQFP-128-2
Users Manual
1-7
2000-06-15
SDA 6000
Overview
• High-speed Synchronous Serial Interface (SSC). Full- and Half-duplex synchronous
up to 16.5 Mbaud
• 3 Independent, HW-supported Multi Master/Slave I2C Channels at 400 Kbit/s
• 16-Bit Watchdog Timer (WDT)
• Real Time Clock (RTC)
• On Chip Debug Support (OCDS)
• 4-Channel 8-bit A/D Converter
• 42 Multiple Purpose Ports
• 8 External Interrupts
• 33 Interrupt Nodes
Display Features
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
OSD size from 0 to 2046 (0 to 1023) pixels in horizontal (vertical) direction
Frame Buffer Based Display
2 HW Display Layers
Support of Double Page Level 2.5 TTX in 100 Hz Systems
Support of Transparency for both Layers Pixel by Pixel
User Programmable Pixel Frequency from 10.0 MHz to 50 MHz
Up to 65536 Displayable Colors in one Frame
DMA Functionality
Graphic Accelerator Functions (Draw Lines, Draw and Fill Rectangle, etc.)
1, 2, 4 or 8-bit Bitmaps (up to 256 out of 4096 colors)
12 bit/16 bit RGB Mode for Display of up to 65535 Colors
HW-support for Proportional Characters
HW-support for Italic Characters
User Definable Character Fonts
Fast Blanking and Contrast Reduction Output
Acquisition Features
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Two Independent Data Slicers (One Multistandard Slicer + one WSS-only Slicer)
Parallel Multi-norm Slicing (TTX, VPS, WSS, CC, G+)
Four Different Framing Codes Available
Data Caption only Limited by available Memory
Programmable VBI-buffer
Full Channel Data Slicing Supported
Fully Digital Signal Processing
Noise Measurement and Controlled Noise Compensation
Attenuation Measurement and Compensation
Group Delay Measurement and Compensation
Exact Decoding of Echo Disturbed Signals
Users Manual
1-8
2000-06-15
SDA 6000
Overview
1.2
Logic Symbol
VSS
VDD(3.3 V)
Address
16 Bit
XTAL1
XTAL2
RSTIN
Data
16 Bit
CVBS1A
CVBS1B
CVBS2
Port 2
8 Bit
R
G
B
Port 3
15 Bit
COR
BLANK
M2
HSYNC
Port 4
6 Bit
VSYNC
RD
Port 5
6 Bit
WR
CSROM
CSSDRAM
Port 6
7 Bit
MEMCLK
UDQM
LDQM
JTAG
4 Bit
CLKEN
VSS
VDD(2.5 V)
UEL11115
Figure 1-2
Users Manual
Logic Symbol
1-9
2000-06-15
Pin Description
SDA 6000
Pin Descriptions
2
Pin Descriptions
2.1
Pin Diagram (top view)
D10
D12
D2
VDD33-6
VSS33-6
P3.9
P3.8
P3.7
P3.6
P3.5
P3.4
P3.3
P3.2
P3.1
P3.0
RSTIN
D11
D3
D4
VDD25-2
VSS25-2
VDD33-7
VSS33-7
96
95
94
93
92
91
90
89
88
87
86
85
84
83
82
81
80
79
78
77
76
75
74
73
72
71
70
69
68
67
66
65
P6.1
P6.0
P5.15
P5.14
P3.15
P3.13
P3.12
P3.11
P3.10
P-MQFP-128-2
P6.2
P6.3
P6.4
P6.5
P6.6
VSYNC
HSYNC
COR/RSTOUT
BLANK/CORBLA
VDD33-8
VSS33-8
XTAL1
XTAL2
VSSA-1
VDDA-1
R
G
B
VSSA-2
VDDA-2
CVBS2
VSSA-3
VDDA-3
CVBS1B
CVBS1A
VSSA-4
VDDA-4
64
63
62
61
60
59
58
57
56
55
54
53
52
51
50
49
48
47
46
45
44
43
42
41
40
39
38
37
36
35
34
33
P-MQFP-128-2
M2
D5
D9
D13
VDD33-5
VSS33-5
D1
D6
D8
D14
D0
D7
VDD33-4
VSS33-4
D15
WR
LDQM
UDQM
RD
CSROM
CLKEN
CSSDRAM
MEMCLK
VDD33-3
VSS33-3
A15/CAS
A14/RAS
A13
A0
A1
A2
A3
A4
Figure 2-1
Users Manual
VSS33-2
VDD33-2
P4.0/A16
A8
A7
A9
A6
A5
A10
A11
A12
VSS25-1
VDD25-1
P4.5/CS3
P4.4/A20
P4.3/A19
P4.2/A18
P4.1/A17
VSS33-1
VDD33-1
TCK
TMS
TDI
TDO
P2.8
P2.9
P2.10
P2.11
P2.12
P2.13
P2.14
P2.15
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
P5.0
P5.1
P5.2
P5.3
TMODE
97
98
99
100
101
102
103
104
105
106
107
108
109
110
111
112
113
114
115
116
117
118
119
120
121
122
123
124
125
126
127
128
UEP11116
Pin Configuration
2-3
2000-06-15
SDA 6000
Pin Descriptions
2.2
Pin Definitions and Functions
Table 2-1
Pin Definition and Functions
Pin
No.
Pin Name
Second
Function
Dir.
Function
37
A0
R0/C0
O
Address bit (All addresses are word
addresses)/SDRAM Address bit
36
A1
R1/C1
O
Address bit/SDRAM address bit
35
A2
R2/C2
O
Address bit/SDRAM address bit
34
A3
R3/C3
O
Address bit/SDRAM address bit
33
A4
R4/C4
O
Address bit/SDRAM address bit
27
A5
R5/C5
O
Address bit/SDRAM address bit
26
A6
R6/C6
O
Address bit/SDRAM address bit
24
A7
R7/C7
O
Address bit/SDRAM address bit
23
A8
R8
O
Address bit/SDRAM address bit
25
A9
R9
O
Address bit/SDRAM address bit
28
A10
R10
O
Address bit/SDRAM address bit
29
A11
R11
O
Address bit/SDRAM address bit
30
A12
R12
O
Address bit/SDRAM address bit
38
A13
R13
O
Address bit/SDRAM address bit
39
A14
RAS
O
Address bit/
Row address strobe for SDRAM access
40
A15
CAS
O
Address bit/
Column address strobe for SDRAM access
55
D0
–
I/O
Data bit
59
D1
–
I/O
Data bit
65
D2
–
I/O
Data bit
71
D3
–
I/O
Data bit
70
D4
–
I/O
Data bit
64
D5
–
I/O
Data bit
58
D6
–
I/O
Data bit
54
D7
–
I/O
Data bit
57
D8
–
I/O
Data bit
63
D9
–
I/O
Data bit
Users Manual
2-4
2000-06-15
SDA 6000
Pin Descriptions
Table 2-1
Pin Definition and Functions (cont’d)
Pin
No.
Pin Name
Second
Function
Dir.
Function
67
D10
–
I/O
Data bit
72
D11
–
I/O
Data bit
66
D12
–
I/O
Data bit
62
D13
–
I/O
Data bit
56
D14
–
I/O
Data bit
51
D15
–
I/O
Data bit
47
RD
–
O
External memory read strobe for ROM. RD is
activated for every external instruction or data
read access.
46
CSROM
–
O
Chip select signal for ROM device
44
CSSDRAM –
O
Chip select signal for SDRAM device
43
MEMCLK
–
O
Clock for SDRAM
45
CLKEN
–
O
Enable for memory clock
50
WR
–
O
Memory write strobe
22
P4.0
A16
O
General purpose output port/Address bit
19
P4.1
A17
O
General purpose output port/Address bit
18
P4.2
A18
O
General purpose output port/Address bit
17
P4.3
A19
O
General purpose output port/Address bit
16
P4.4
A20
O
General purpose output port/Address bit
15
P4.5
CS3
O
General purpose output port/Chip select
signal for second external static memory
49
LDQM
–
O
Write disable for low byte
48
UDQM
–
O
Write disable for high byte
109
XTAL2
–
O
Output of the oscillator amplifier circuit
108
XTAL1
–
I
Input of the oscillator amplifier circuit
73
RSTIN
–
I
Reset input pin
121
CVBS1A
–
I
CVBS signal inputs for full service data slicing
120
CVBS1B
–
I
Ground for CVBS1A (differential input)
117
CVBS2
–
I
CVBS signal inputs for WSS data slicing
112
R
–
O
Analog output for red channel
Users Manual
2-5
2000-06-15
SDA 6000
Pin Descriptions
Table 2-1
Pin Definition and Functions (cont’d)
Pin
No.
Pin Name
Second
Function
Dir.
Function
113
G
–
O
Analog output for green channel
114
B
–
O
Analog output for blue channel
104
COR
RSTOUT
O
Output for contrast reduction/Reset output
105
BLANK
CORBLA
O
Fast blanking signal/Three-level signal for
contrast reduction + fast blanking
103
HSYNC
–
I/O
Horizontal sync In/output
102
VSYNC
VCS
I/O
Vertical sync In/output/Composite sync output
5
P2.8
EX0IN
I/O
General purpose I/O port/External interrupt 0
6
P2.9
EX1IN
I/O
General purpose I/O port/External interrupt 1
7
P2.10
EX2IN
I/O
General purpose I/O port/External interrupt 2
8
P2.11
EX3IN
I/O
General purpose I/O port/External interrupt 3
9
P2.12
EX4IN
I/O
General purpose I/O port/External interrupt 4
10
P2.13
EX5IN
I/O
General purpose I/O port/External interrupt 5
11
P2.14
EX6IN
I/O
General purpose I/O port/External interrupt 6
12
P2.15
EX7IN
I/O
General purpose I/O port/External interrupt 7
74
P3.0
SCL0
I/O
General purpose I/O port/I2C Bus clock line 0
75
P3.1
SDA0
I/O
General purpose I/O port/I2C Bus data line 0
76
P3.2
CAPIN
I/O
General purpose I/O port/GPT2 register
CAPREL
77
P3.3
T3OUT
I/O
General purpose I/O port/GPT1 timer T3
toggle
78
P3.4
T3EUD
I/O
General purpose I/O port/GPT1 timer T3 ext.
up/down
79
P3.5
T4IN
I/O
General purpose I/O port/GPT1 timer T4 input
for count/gate/reload/capture
80
P3.6
T3IN
I/O
General purpose I/O port/GPT1 timer T3
count/gate input
81
P3.7
T2IN
I/O
General purpose I/O port/GPT1 timer T2 input
for count/gate/reload/capture
82
P3.8
MRST
I/O
General purpose I/O port/SSC masterreceiver/slave-transmit I/O
Users Manual
2-6
2000-06-15
SDA 6000
Pin Descriptions
Table 2-1
Pin Definition and Functions (cont’d)
Pin
No.
Pin Name
Second
Function
Dir.
Function
83
P3.9
MTSR
I/O
General purpose I/O port/SSC mastertransmit/slave-receiver O/I
88
P3.10
TxD0
I/O
General purpose I/O port/ASC0 clock/data
output
89
P3.11
RxD0
I/O
General purpose I/O port/ASC0 data input
(asynchronous) or I/O (synchronous.)
90
P3.12
–
I/O
General purpose I/O port
91
P3.13
SCLK
I/O
General purpose I/O port/SSC master clock
output/slave clock input
92
P3.15
–
I/O
General purpose I/O port
124
P5.0
AN.0
I
General purpose I/O port/Analog input for
A/D-converter
125
P5.1
AN.1
I
General purpose I/O port/Analog input for
A/D-converter
126
P5.2
AN.2
I
General purpose I/O port/Analog input for
A/D-converter
127
P5.3
AN.3
I
General purpose I/O port/Analog input for
A/D-converter
93
P5.14
T4EUD
I/O
General purpose I/O port/GPT1 timer T4
ext.up/down ctrl. input
94
P5.15
T2EUD
I/O
General purpose I/O port/GPT1 timer T2
ext.up/down ctrl. input
95
P6.0
TRIG_IN
I/O
General purpose I/O port/Trigger input-signal
for ‘On Chip Debug System’ (OCDS)
96
P6.1
TRIG_OUT I/O
General purpose I/O port/Trigger outputsignal for ‘On Chip Debug System’ (OCDS)
97
P6.2
–
I/O
General purpose I/O port
98
P6.3
SCL1
I/O
General purpose I/O port/I2C bus clock line 1
99
P6.4
SDA1
I/O
General purpose I/O port/I2C bus data line 1
100
P6.5
–
I/O
General purpose I/O port
101
P6.6
SDA2
I/O
General purpose I/O port/I2C bus data line 2
1
TCK
–
I
Clock for JTAG interface
3
TDI
–
I
Data input for JTAG interface
Users Manual
2-7
2000-06-15
SDA 6000
Pin Descriptions
Table 2-1
Pin Definition and Functions (cont’d)
Pin
No.
Pin Name
Second
Function
Dir.
Function
4
TDO
–
O
Data output for JTAG interface
2
TMS
–
I
Control signal for JTAG interface
128
TMODE
–
I
Testmode pin1)
110
VSSA-1
VDDA-1
VSSA2-4
–
S
Analog ground
–
S
Analog power (for PLL and DAC) (2.5 V)
–
S
Analog ground
VDDA2-4
–
S
Analog power (for ADCs) (2.5 V)
20, 86 VSS25 1-2
–
S
Digital ground (for digital core)
21, 87 VDD25 1-2
–
S
Digital power (for digital core) (2.5 V)
13, 31, VSS33 1-8
41, 52,
60, 68,
84,
107
–
S
Digital ground for pads
14, 32, VDD33 1-8
42, 53,
61, 69,
85,
106
–
S
Digital power (for pads) (3.3 V)
111
115,
118,
122
116,
119,
123
1)
(Must be kept to “0” in application.)
Users Manual
2-8
2000-06-15
Architectural Overview
Figure 3-1
Users Manual
Data
16
Addr.
GA
3-3
SRU
3
16
16
ACQ
3 x 6 Bit
DAC
FIFO
External
Bus
Interface
Slicer2
Slicer1
AMI
H
V
D-Sync
XRAM
2 Kbyte
D-Cache
6
Port 5
4Channel
ADC
7-bit
16
Boot
ROM
Ι-Cache
SPI
SSC
15
Port 3
16
Instr./Data
USART
ASC
X-BUS
32
T4
T3
8
T6
GPT2
T5
Port 2
GPT1
T2
Instr./Data
8
Port 4
Ι C
2
RTC
36 nodes (8 ext.)
PEC
Interrupt Controller
CPU-Core
C166
7
Port 6
Watchdog
Data
Data
UEB10716
16
16
4
JTAG
OCDS
OSC
(6 MHz)
Internal
RAM
2 Kbyte
XTAL
3
16...21
CVBS2
CVBS1
SDA 6000
Architectural Overview
Architectural Overview
M2 Top Level Block Diagram
2000-06-15
SDA 6000
Architectural Overview
The architecture of M2 comprises of a 16-bit microcontroller which is derived from the
well known Infineon Technologies C16x controller family. Due to the core philosophy of
M2, the architecture of the CPU core is the same as described in other Infineon
Technologies C16x derivatives.
The CPU, with its peripherals, can be used on one hand to perform all TV controlling
tasks, and on the other hand to process the data, sliced by the slicer, and the acquisition
unit according to the TTX standard. Furthermore it is used to generate an “instruction list”
for the graphic accelerator which supports the CPU by generating the display.
M2 has integrated two digital slicers for two independent CVBS signals. One slicer is
used to capture the data (e.g. Teletext or EPG) from the main channel, the other slicer
can be used to slice the WSS information from a different channel, which is helpful e.g.
to support PIP applications in 16:9 TVs. Both slicers separate the data from the analog
signal and perform the bit synchronization and framing code selection before the data is
stored in a programmable VBI buffer in the external RAM. Capturing and storing the raw
data in the RAM does not need any CPU power.
M2’s display concept has improved in comparison to the common known state of the art
Teletext-ICs. The display concept is based on a pixel orientated attribute definition
instead of the former character orientated attribute definition.
For the processing of this new pixel based attribute definition the display generator
architecture is divided in two subblocks: the graphic accelerator (GA) and the screen
refresh unit (SRU).
The graphic accelerator is used to modify the frame buffer. From an abstract point of
view, the graphic accelerator is a DMA which is optimized for OSD functionality, so e.g.
bitmaps can be copied to the frame buffer. The graphic accelerator is used to draw
rectangles, parallelograms, horizontal, vertical and diagonal lines. The user does not
need to access the graphic accelerator directly, thanks to an easy to handle SW-GDI
function which is available with the M2 hardware.
The DMA functionality of the display generator (DG) supports the pixel transfer between
any address of entire external memory. The teletext and graphic capabilities can be used
simultaneously, so that M2 can combine teletext information with e.g. background
images and advanced high resolution OSD graphics.
M2 uses the frame buffer located in external memory so every bitmap can be placed at
any location on the screen. The contents of the frame buffer does not have to be set up
in real time. The duration of the set up of the screen depends on the contents of the
displayed information.
M2 supports two hardware display layers. To refresh the screen the M2 reads and mixes
two independent pixel sources simultaneously.
Different formats of the pixels which are part of different applications (e.g. Teletext
formats, 12-bit RGB or 16-bit RGB values) can be stored in the same frame buffer at the
same time.
Users Manual
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2000-06-15
SDA 6000
Architectural Overview
The screen refresh unit is used to read the frame buffer pixel by pixel in real time and to
process the transparency and RGB data. A color look up table (CLUT) can be used to
get the RGB data of the current pixel. Afterwards the RGB data is transferred to the D/A
converter. The blank signal and contrast reduction signal (COR) is also processed for
each pixel by the SRU and transferred to the corresponding output pins.
The pixel, line and field frequencies are widely programmable so that the sync system
can be used from low end 50 Hz to high end 100 HZ TV applications as well as for any
other standard.
The on chip clock system provides the M2 with its basic clock signals. Independent
clock domains are provided for the embedded controller, the bus interface and the
display system. The pixel clock can vary between 10 MHz and 50 MHz.
Due to the unified memory architecture of M2, a new bus concept is implemented. An
arbiter handles the bus requests from the different request sources. These are:
•
•
•
•
•
•
Slicer 1 requests (normally used as a TTX slicer)
Slicer 2 requests (used as a WSS slicer)
Graphic accelerator requests
Screen refresh unit requests
Data requests from the CPU via XBUS
Instruction requests via the CPU program bus
For exploiting the full computational power of the controller core the code of time critical
routines can be stored in one bank of the external SDRAM separated from all display
information (frame buffer, character set etc.). An instruction cache (I-CACHE) is used
for buffering instruction words in order to minimize the probability of wait states to occur
when the microcontroller is interfering with the display generator (DG) for access rights
to the external memory devices. The data cache (D-CACHE) serves for operand reads
and writes via the XBUS from/to external memory devices.
The external bus interface (EBI) features interleaved access cycles to one or two static
external memory devices (ROM, Flash-ROM or SRAM) with a total maximum size of
4 MByte and one PC100 compliant (Intel standard) SDRAM device (16 MBit organized
as 2 memory banks or 64 MBit organized as 4 memory banks).
For TV controlling tasks M2 provides three serial interfaces (I2C, ASC, SSC), two
general purpose timers, (GPT1, GPT2), a real time clock (RTC), a watch dog timer
(WDT), an A/D converter and eight external interrupts.
Users Manual
3-5
2000-06-15
C16X Microcontroller
SDA 6000
C16X Microcontroller
4
C16X Microcontroller
4.1
Overview
M2’s microcontroller and its peripherals are based on a Cell-Based Core (CBC) which is
compatible to the well known C166 architecture.
In M2, the CPU and its peripherals are generally clocked with 33.33 MHz which results
in an instruction cycle time of 60 ns. The implementation of the microcontroller within M2
deviates from other known C16x derivates since the controller’s XBUS is not used as the
external bus. All external access cycles of the microcontroller, the display generator and
the acquisition unit are performed via a high performance time interlocking SDRAM bus.
The external bus interface (EBI) manages the arbitration procedure for access cycles to
the external synchronous DRAM in parallel to an external static memory (ROM or
FLASH; for more details refer to Chapter 4.4).
Due to the realtime critical bus bandwidth requirements of the display generator,
unpredictable wait-states for the controller may occur. These wait-states do not destroy
the overall average system performance, because they are mostly buffered by the CPU
related instruction and data buffers. Nevertheless they can influence, for example, the
worst disconnection response time.
Emulation is now performed by an on-chip debug module which can be accessed by a
JTAG interface.
The following microcontroller peripherals are implemented:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
2 KByte IRAM (System RAM)
2 KByte XRAM (XBUS located)
32 Interrupt Nodes
General Purpose Timer Units (GPT1 and GPT2)
Real Time Clock (RTC)
Asynchronous/Synchronous Serial Interface (ASC0)
High-Speed Synchronous Serial Interface (SSC)
I2C Bus Interface (I2C)
4-Channel 8-bit A/D Converter (ADC)
Watchdog Timer (WDT)
On-Chip Debug Support Module (OCDS)
42 Multiple Purpose Ports
Central Processing Unit
The CPU executes the C166 instruction set (with the extensions of the C167 products).
Its main features are the following:
• 4-stage pipeline (Fetch, Decode, Execute and Write-Back).
• 16 × 16-bit General Purpose Registers
• 16-bit Arithmetic and Logic Unit
Users Manual
4-3
2000-06-15
SDA 6000
C16X Microcontroller
• Barrel shifter
• Bit processing capability
• Hardware support for multiply and divide instructions
Internal RAM (IRAM)
The internal dual-port RAM is the physical support for the General Purpose Registers,
the system stack and the PEC pointers. Due to its close connections with the CPU, the
internal RAM provides fast access to these resources. As the GPR bank can be mapped
anywhere in the internal RAM through a base pointer (Context Pointer CP), fast context
switching is allowed. The internal RAM is mapped in the memory space of the CPU and
can be used also to store user variables or code.
Interrupt Controller
Up to 32 interrupt sources can be managed by the Interrupt Controller through a multiple
priority system which provides the user with the ability to customize the interrupt
handling.
The interrupt system of M2 includes a Peripheral Event Controller (PEC). This processor
performs single-cycle interrupt-driven byte or word transfers between any two locations
in the entire memory space of M2.
In M2, the PEC functionalities are extended by the External PEC which allows an
external device to trigger a PEC transfer while providing the source and destination
pointers. New features also include the packet transfer mode and the channel link mode.
Besides user interrupts, the Interrupt Controller provides mechanisms to process
exceptions or error conditions, so-called “hardware traps”, that arise during program
execution.
System Control Unit
M2’s System Control Unit (CSCU) is used to control system specific tasks such as reset
control or power management within an on-chip system built around the core. The power
management features of the CSCU provide effective means to realize standby
conditions for the system with an optimum balance between power reduction, peripheral
operation and system functionality. The CSCU also provides an interface to the Clock
Generation Unit (CGU) and is able to control the operation of the Real Time Clock (RTC).
The CSCU includes the following functions:
•
•
•
•
•
•
System configuration control
Reset sequence control
External interrupt and frequency output control
Watchdog timer module
General XBUS peripherals control
Power management additional to the standard Idle and Power Down modes
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• Control interface for Clock Generation Unit
• Identification register block for chip and CSCU identification
OCDS
The On-Chip Debug System allows the detection of specific events during user program
execution through software and hardware breakpoints. An additional communication
module allows communication between the OCDS and an external debugger, through a
standard JTAG port. This communication is performed in parallel to program execution.
4.2
Memory Organization
In normal operation mode the memory space of the CPU is configured in a “Von
Neumann” architecture. This means that code and data are accessed within the same
memory areas, i. e. external memory, internal controller memory (IRAM), the address
areas for integrated XBUS peripherals (I2C, internal XBUS memory (XRAM)) and the
special function register areas (SFR, ESFR) are mapped into one common address
space of 16 MBytes. This address space is arranged as 256 segments of 64 KBytes
each and each segment is again subdivided into four data pages of 16 KBytes each.
All internal memory areas and the address space of the integrated XBUS peripherals are
mapped to segment 0. Code and data may be stored in any part of the memory, except
for the SFR blocks, which can not be used for instructions. Despite this equivalence of
code and data, proper partitioning is necessary to make use of the full bandwidth of the
memory system.
The integrated C16x controller communicates via 2 busses with the memory interface.
In normal operation mode access to segments 00H to 41H (excluding internal memory
areas) is mapped to the read only program memory bus (PMBUS), whereas access to
segments 42H to FFH is mapped to the XBUS. In bootstrap loader mode (BSLMode)
instruction fetches to external memory areas via PMBUS are redirected to the internal
bootstrap loader ROM (BSLROM). Operand (data) accesses remain unchanged.
The PMBUS is connected to the instruction cache (ICACHE) which operates as readahead FIFO (see Figure 4-1). The data cache (DCACHE) which is connected to the
XBUS holds a maximum of 4 words corresponding to one SDRAM burst. Accesses of
DCACHE, ICACHE and the acquisition unit (ACQ) are joined within the acquisition
memory interface (AMI) and directed to the external bus interface (EBI). Redirections via
ESFR REDIR (instruction fetches only) and ESFR REDIR1 are done in the AMI (see
Chapter 4.5.1). The EBI joins AMI and display generator (DG) accesses and reads data
from or writes data to the external static and dynamic memory devices (see Chapter 4.5
for further information). In case of cache miss wait states are inserted until the data is
ready. IRAM, XRAM and the special function register areas can be accessed without
wait states.
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External
Memory
M2
DG
SDRAM
Boot ROM
PMBUS
ROM1
ICACHE
EBI
C16X
XBUS
AMI
DCACHE
ROM2
ACQ
UED11214
Figure 4-1
M2 Memory Path Block Diagram
All memory locations are byte and word readable. The internal memories (IRAM, XRAM)
and the external dynamic memory (SDRAM) are byte and word writable, but external
static memory is only word writable. Bytes are stored at even or odd byte addresses.
Words are stored in ascending memory locations, with the low byte at an even byte
address being followed by the high byte at the next odd byte address. Double words
(instructions only) are stored in ascending memory locations as two subsequent words.
Single bits are always stored in the specific bit position at a word address. Bit position 0
is the least significant bit of the byte at an even byte address and bit position 15 is the
most significant bit of the byte at the next odd byte address. Bit addressing is supported
by a part of the special function registers, a part of the IRAM and the general purpose
registers (GPRs).
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Figure 4-2
Storage of Words, Byte and Bits in a Byte Organized Memory
Note: Byte units forming a single word or a double word must always be stored within
the same physical (internal, external, ROM, RAM) and organizational (page,
segment) memory area.
4.3
On-Chip Microcontroller RAM and SFR Area
The IRAM/SFR area is located within data page 3, and provides access to 2 KByte of
dual ported IRAM and two 512 Byte blocks of Special Function Registers (SFRs).
The internal RAM (IRAM) serves several purposes:
•
•
•
•
•
System Stack (Programmable Size)
General Purpose Register Banks (GPRs)
Source and Destination Pointers for the Peripheral Event Controller (PEC)
Variable and other data storage, or
Code storage
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RAM / SFR Area
4 Kbytes
Segment 0
64 Kbytes
RAM / SFR Area
Ι 2C
XRAM
00’FFFF H
00’FFFF H
00’F000 H
SFR Area
00’FE00 H
00’E800 H
00’E000 H
Page 3
00’C000 H
2 Kbyte
Page 2
IRAM
00’FA00 H
00’8000 H
Page 1
00’F600 H
00’4000 H
Reserved
00’F200 H
Page 0
ESFR Area
00’F000 H
00’0000 H
UED11213
Figure 4-3
Internal RAM Areas and SFR Areas
Note: The upper 256 bytes of SFR area, ESFR area and IRAM are bit-addressable (see
shaded blocks in Figure 4-3).
Code accesses are always made through even byte addresses. The highest possible
code storage location in the IRAM is either 00’FDFEH for single word instructions, or
00’FDFCH for double word instructions. The respective location must contain a branch
instruction (unconditional), because sequential boundary crossings from IRAM to the
SFR area are not supported and cause erroneous results.
Any word and byte data in the IRAM can be accessed via indirect or long 16-bit
addressing modes if the selected DPP register points to page 3. Any word data access
is made through an even byte address. The highest possible word data storage location
in the IRAM is 00’FDFEH. For PEC data transfers, the IRAM can be accessed
independent of the contents of the DPP registers via the PEC source and destination
pointers.
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The upper 256 Byte of the IRAM (00’FD00H through 00’FDFFH) and the GPRs of the
current bank are provided for single bit storage, and thus they are bit addressable.
4.3.1
System Stack
The system stack may be defined within the IRAM. The size of the system stack is
controlled by bit field STKSZ in the SYSCON register (see table below).
<STKSZ>
Stack Size
(Words)
Internal RAM Addresses (Words)
000B
256
00’FBFEH … 00’FA00H (Default after Reset)
001B
128
00’FBFEH … 00’FB00H
010B
64
00’FBFEH … 00’FB80H
011B
32
00’FBFEH … 00’FBC0H
100B
512
00’FBFEH … 00’F800H
101B
–
Reserved. Do not use this combination.
110B
–
Reserved. Do not use this combination.
111B
1024
00’FDFEH … 00’F600H (Note: No circular stack)
For all system stack operations, the IRAM is accessed via the Stack Pointer (SP)
register. The stack grows downward from higher to lower RAM address locations. Only
word accesses are supported by the system stack. A stack overflow (STKOV) and a
stack underflow (STKUN) register are provided to control the lower and upper limits of
the selected stack area. These two stack boundary registers can be used not only for
protection against data destruction, but also to implement flushing and filling a circular
stack with a hardware supported system stack (except for option ‘111’).
4.3.2
General Purpose Registers
The General Purpose Registers (GPRs) use a block of 16 consecutive words within the
IRAM. The Context Pointer (CP) register determines the base address of the currently
active register bank. This register bank may consist of up to 16 word GPRs (R0, R1, …,
R15) and/or of up to 16 byte GPRs (RL0, RH0, …, RL7, RH7). The sixteen byte GPRs
are mapped onto the first eight word GPRs (see Table 4-1).
In contrast to the system stack, a register bank grows from lower towards higher address
locations and occupies a maximum space of 32 Byte. The GPRs are accessed via short
2-, 4- or 8-bit addressing modes using the Context Pointer (CP) register as a base
address (independent of the current DPP register contents). In addition, each bit in the
currently active register bank can be accessed individually.
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Table 4-1
Mapping of General Purpose Registers to RAM Addresses
Internal RAM
Address
Byte Registers
Word Register
<CP> + 1EH
–
R15
<CP> + 1CH
–
R14
<CP> + 1AH
–
R13
<CP> + 18H
–
R12
<CP> + 16H
–
R11
<CP> + 14H
–
R10
<CP> + 12H
–
R9
<CP> + 10H
–
R8
<CP> + 0EH
RH7
RL7
R7
<CP> + 0CH
RH6
RL6
R6
<CP> + 0AH
RH5
RL5
R5
<CP> + 08H
RH4
RL4
R4
<CP> + 06H
RH3
RL3
R3
<CP> + 04H
RH2
RL2
R2
<CP> + 02H
RH1
RL1
R1
<CP> + 00H
RH0
RL0
R0
M2 supports fast register bank (context) switching. Multiple register banks can physically
exist within the IRAM at the same time. However, only the register bank selected by the
Context Pointer register (CP) is active at a given time. Selecting a new active register
bank is simply done by updating the CP register. A particular Switch Context (SCXT)
instruction performs register bank switching and automatically saves the previous
context. The number of implemented register banks (arbitrary sizes) is only limited by
the size of the available internal RAM.
4.3.3
PEC Source and Destination Pointers
The 16 word locations in the IRAM from 00’FCE0H to 00’FCFEH (just below the bitaddressable section) are provided as source and destination offset address pointers for
data transfers on the eight PEC channels. Each channel uses a pair of pointers stored
in two subsequent word locations, with the source pointer (SRCPx) on the lower and the
destination pointer (DSTPx) on the higher word address (x = 7 … 0). In M2, these
pointers are used to specify the address offset within the segment, and the destination /
source segment numbers are specified in designated SFRs (see Chapter 5.2).
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00’FD00 H
00’FCFE H
DSTP7
00’FCFE H
00’FCFC H
SRCP7
00’FCE0 H
00’FDDE H
PEC
Source
and
Destination
Pointers
Internal
RAM
00’FCE2 H
DSTP0
00’F600 H
00’FCE0 H
SRCP0
00’F5FE H
MCD02266
Figure 4-4
Location of the PEC Pointers
Whenever a PEC data transfer is performed, the pair of source and destination pointers,
which is selected by the specified PEC channel number, is accessed independent of the
current DPP register contents; the locations referred to by these pointers are also
accessed independent of the current DPP register contents. If a PEC channel is not
used, the corresponding pointer locations are available and can be used for word or byte
data storage.
4.3.4
Special Function Registers
The so-called Special Function Registers (SFRs) are provided to control internal
functions of M2 (CPU, bus interface, Interrupt Controller, OCDS) or peripherals
connected to the Peripheral Bus. These SFRs are arranged within two areas of
512 Bytes each. The first register block, the SFR area, is located in the 512 Bytes above
the internal RAM (00’FFFFH … 00’FE00H); the second register block, the Extended SFR
(ESFR) area, is located in the 512 Bytes below the IRAM (00’F1FFH … 00’F000H).
Special function registers can be addressed via indirect and long 16-bit addressing
modes. Using an 8-bit offset together with an implicit base address allows word SFRs
and their respective low bytes to be addressed. However, this does not work for the
respective high bytes!
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Note: Writing to any byte of an SFR causes the non-addressed complementary byte to
be cleared!
The upper half of each register block is bit-addressable, so the respective control/status
bits can directly be modified or checked using bit addressing.
When accessing registers in the ESFR area using 8-bit addresses or direct bit
addressing, an Extend Register (EXTR) instruction is first required to switch the short
addressing mechanism from the standard SFR area to the Extended SFR area. This is
not required for 16-bit and indirect addresses. The GPRs R15 … R0 are duplicated, i.e.
they are accessible within both register blocks via short 2-, 4- or 8-bit addresses without
switching.
ESFR_SWITCH_EXAMPLE:
EXTR
#4
MOV
ODP2, #data16
BFLDL DP6, #mask, #data8
BSET
DP1H.7
MOV
T8REL, R1
;Switch to ESFR area for next 4 instr.
;ODP2 uses 8-bit reg addressing
;Bit addressing for bit fields
;Bit addressing for single bits
;T8REL uses 16-bit mem address,
;R1 is duplicated into the ESFR space
;(EXTR is not required for this access)
;----
;-------------------
;The scope of the EXTR #4 instruction…
; … ends here!
MOV
T8REL, R1
;T8REL uses 16-bit mem address,
;R1 is accessed via the SFR space
In order to minimize the use of the EXTR instructions the ESFR area primarily holds
registers which are required mainly for initialization and mode selection. Registers that
need to be accessed frequently are allocated, wherever possible, to the standard SFR
area.
Note: The tools are equipped to monitor accesses to the ESFR area and will
automatically insert EXTR instructions or issue a warning in case of missing or
excessive EXTR instructions.
4.4
External Memory
M2 provides an external bus interface (EBI) to access an external SDRAM, together with
an external static memory device (ROM or SRAM). To optimize the overall system
performance, access to both memory types is interlocked. Because of high performance
requirements M2 provides only one bus type (Demultiplexed 16-bit Bus). Depending on
the reset configuration (refer to Chapter 6.1) an external ROM/SRAM size from
128 KByte up to 4 MByte can be chosen. Although external addresses (represented by
pins A0 … A20) are always word addresses, byte accesses to the SDRAM are possible
by using mask signals LDQM and UDQM.
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4.4.1
SDRAM
PC SDRAM compliant (Intel standard) memory devices with 2 or 8 MByte and a
minimum clock period of 10 ns (latency 3) may be connected to M2’s external memory
bus.
Supported data organizations are given below:
Memory Size
# SDRAM
Banks
# Bank
Addresses
# Row
Addresses
# Column
Addresses
2 MByte
2
1
11
8
8 MByte
4
2
12
8
The external SDRAM connected to M2 is a multifunctional, byte or word addressable
device which can be used for frame buffers, character sets, pixel graphics, acquisitions,
microcontroller workspace and any other data storage purposes.
Using a 100 MHz external memory bus the theoretical optimum memory bandwidth is
limited to 200 MByte/s. In order to keep the sustainable memory bandwidth as close to
the optimum as possible, the bank oriented architecture of SDRAM devices has to be
exploited. Basically, display related information should be separated from controller
related data items.
The following allocation is recommended for a 2 bank, 2 MByte device:
• “Display Bank”: Both Frame Buffers, Character Set, Pixel Graphic, Graphic
Accelerator Instructions (GAI), Application Data (i.e. TTX, EPG, …)
• “Controller Bank”: Instruction Code, VBI-buffer, Application Data (i.e. TTX, EPG, …)
The suggested allocation leads to best performance results since it reduces the number
of time consuming row commands on the SDRAM.
4.4.2
External Static Memory Devices
M2 supports access to external ROM, Flash ROM and SRAM devices which provide a
read cycle time tRC < 120 ns. Only 16-bit word access is supported. The maximum
memory size is limited by the number of external address lines. Up to 21 external
address lines are configurable, thus devices providing up to 4 MByte of static external
memory can be connected to M2.
4.5
External Bus Interface (EBI).
The EBI handles access channels to four SDRAM banks within one SDRAM device and
up to two static memory devices at 100 MHz. (For lower requirements the clock
frequency can be reduced to 66 MHz, refer to Chapter 8). A maximum of three external
memory devices is supported.
Figure 4-5 shows the possible configurations.
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2...8 MByte
SDRAM
(2...4 banks)
ROM
or
Flash-ROM
128 KByte...4 MByte
ROM
or
Flash-ROM
128 KByte...4 MByte
M2
UEB11118
Figure 4-5
External Memory Configuration
The interlocking execution of access cycles to different memory modules is supported.
All external SDRAM access cycles must be executed with a pre-defined burst length
BL = 4 and latency 3. Write access cycles, which modify less than four SDRAM
locations, are achieved by activating mask control signals L/UDQM.
The integrated refresh controller of the EBI checks for the compliance of refresh periods
and executes refresh operations on the SDRAM devices. The configuration of different
external SDRAM types can be controlled by a special SW driver as well as refresh
modes and power down features. The microcontroller and the acquisition unit use a
common interface to the EBI. A separate connection to the EBI is provided for the display
generator. The EBI performs an arbitration procedure for granting right access to either
of the request sources. But granting right access to one source does not exclude
requests initiated by the other source from being served. A maximum of two access
requests from a source may be served consecutively if the other source is addressing
an SDRAM location. Up to four consecutive access cycles from the same source are
served if the other source is addressing an external ROM device.
The following figures show typical timing diagrams that may be observed on the external
bus. The first figure presents the interlocked execution of access cycles to the external
ROM and a SDRAM device. The other figure resumes the situation when both sources
address locations are in different SDRAM banks. Detailed timings and the specification
of setup and hold conditions can be found in Chapter 14.
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MEMCLK
CSSDRAM
Act
RAS
Read
Write
CAS
WR
A(21:0)
ca
ra
ROM_Adr
SDRAM Data
ra
ROM Data
D(15:0)
CSROM
RD
UET11119
Figure 4-6
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MEMCLK
Pre
Act
Act
Pre
Act
RAS
Read
Read
Read
ca
ca
Read
CAS
SDRAM: 16 MBit, 2 Banks
A (9:0)
ra
A10
ra
ra
ra
ra
Bank 1
A11
ca
ra
Bank 0
b1
b1
b1
b0
b0 b1
b1
A (9:0)
ra
ca
ca
ra
ca
ra
A10
ra
ra
ra
A11
ra
ra
ra
b1
SDRAM: 64 MBit, 4 Banks
Bank Y
Bank X
by
by
Precharge
Activate
A(13:12)
by
by
Activate
dx
D(15:0)
6
7
8
1
dy
2
3
bx by
bx
4
1
Precharge
dy
2
3
4
5
by
Activate
dx
6
7
8
1
zo
UET11120
Figure 4-7
4.5.1
Interlocked Access Cycles to two SDRAM Banks
Memory Mapping
Mapping of memory locations from the address space of the C16x to physical addresses
(and chip selects) occurs in 4 steps (all addresses shown below are byte addresses
unless otherwise noted). Figure 4-8 gives a coarse depiction (without redirection) of the
mapping process in normal operation mode.
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EBI
Address-Space
C16X
Address-Space
EBI
Address-Space
FF’FFFF H
FF’FFFF H
D
D
XBUS
80’0000 H
80’0000 H
S2
60’0000 H
S2
S1
41’0000 H
41’0000 H
40’0000 H
41’0000 H
40’0000 H
PMBUS
A
C
01’8000 H
00’8000 H
00’0000 H
00’0000 H
B
Figure 4-8
S1
UED11212
Memory Mapping
from C16x address-space to EBI address-space for 1 64MBit SDRAM (D)
and 2 16MBit static memory devices (S1, S2) is shown on the left (XBUS/
PMBUS overlap). The right part shows the mapping for 1 64MBit SDRAM
(D) and 2 32MBit static memory devices (S1, S2) (no XBUS/PMBUS
overlap). Redirection via REDIR/REDIR1 is not shown. The exclusion of
the address space for internal memories B leads to 1 segment in physical
memory that is either addressable only via PMBUS A or not addressable
at all C. To get access to these segments use REDIR1.
a) Internal mapping of the C16x:
Access to segments 0 to 64 selects the PMBUS. The address range (00’0000H ...
40’FFFFH) is mapped to the range 00’0000H ... 3F’FFFFH shown to the ICACHE,
thus omitting the internal memories, the special function register areas and the
XBUS peripheral address space contained the range 00’8000H ... 01’7FFFH:
• C16x addresses
00’0000H ... 00’7FFFH are mapped to 00’0000H ... 00’7FFFH
• C16x addresses
01’8000H ... 40’FFFFH are mapped to 00’8000H ... 3F’FFFFH
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Access to segments 65 to 255 selects the XBUS. This address range (41’0000H ...
FF’FFFFH) is not remapped by the C16x.
b) Mapping by caches:
In normal operation mode the address requested by the controller is not altered by
ICACHE and DCACHE. In bootstrap loader mode, instruction fetches via the
ICACHE are mapped to the boot ROM by the ICACHE:
• Address
is mapped to
address mod 40H
Operand reads via ICACHE and all accesses via DCACHE are passed unaltered
to the AMI.
c) Mapping and redirection in AMI:
Address mapping in AMIdepends on the settings of the ESFRs REDIR and REDIR1
as well as on the total amount of static memory. The mapping is done in the
following order:
1) Check for redirection via REDIR1: If the requested address lies in segment 255
the segment address is replaced by the low byte of REDIR1.
2) Check for redirection via REDIR: If the address resulting from step1 lies in the
address range specified by REDIR, the address is shifted to SDRAM area:
• Address
is mapped to
80’0000H + address – REDIR_LOWER × 16 kBytes
3) If the total amount of static memeory in 4 MBytes or less (i.e. SALSEL ≠ “111”
or SALSEL = “111” and no second device present) and the address resulting from
step 2 is below 4 MBytes the address is shifted by 4 MBytes:
• Address
is mapped to
address + 40’0000H
This means that the address ranges 02’0000H ... 40’FFFFH (PMBUS) and 41’0000H
... 7F’FFFFH (XBUS) in the address space of the C16x are mapped to the same
physical memory. The overlap allows to make use of 2 independent busses for
code (PMBUS) and data (XBUS) for fast parallel access.
If the total amount of static memory is 8 MBytes (i.e. SALSEL = “111” and a second
device is present) no further mapping occurs.
d) Mapping to addresses of specific physical devices by EBI:
1) dynamic memory:
• addresses 80’0000H ... FF’FFFFH (9F’FFFFH) access the 64MBit (16 MBit) SDRAM
(CSSDRAM)
2) static memory:
In the total amount of static memory is 4 MBytes or less (see above) the requests
of the AMI or the DG in the address range 40’0000H ... 7F’FFFFH are passed to the
external static memory devices according to the SALSEL and CSENA settings (see
Chapter 6.1). The address range 00’0000H ... 3F’FFFFH must not be used. If the
total amount of the static memory is 8 MBytes there is no reserved address range:
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• Addresses 00’0000H ... 3F’FFFFH access the first static memory device (CSROM)
• Addresses 40’0000H ... 7F’FFFFH access the second static memory device (CS3)
The addresses shown on the external address lines of M2 are word oriented,
starting at 0 for each device.
The External Bus Interface (EBI) provides a special mode, the “EBI direct mode”, where
the control pins to the SDRAM device are directly controlled by the CPU while the HW
finite state machines of the EBI are bypassed. “EBI direct mode” is used for
accomplishing operations on the SDRAM such as the execution of the requisite
initialization sequence, power down mode entry/exit etc. When executing a direct mode
command the EBI shifts the contents of register EBIDIR into the SDRAM control lines.
The INFINEON SDRAM driver (refer to document list) provides appropriate functions for
executing operations in direct mode.
4.5.2
Register Description
Access cycles to addresses specified by bit fields REDIR_LOWER and REDIR_UPPER
are redirected by hardware to the SDRAM area. The area to which the specified range
is mapped, starts at the base address (80’0000H) of the SDRAM. The range for
redirection is selected in groups of 16 KByte. Using the REDIR register, access cycles
to ROM located routines may be redirected to copies of these routines in the SDRAM.
REDIR
15
14
Reset Value: 0000H
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
REDIR_UPPER (7:0)
5
4
3
2
1
0
REDIR_LOWER (7:0)
rw
Bit
6
rw
Function
REDIR_LOWER Base address of selected range in the ROM Area
(7:0)
Bitfield REDIR_LOWER specifies the MSBs of the base address of
the selected range.
REDIR_UPPER
(7:0)
Upper address of selected range in the ROM Area (exclusive)
Bitfield REDIR_UPPER specifies the MSBs of the first no longer
redirected 16 KBytes.
To gain access to memory areas covered by the read only PMBUS or to areas not
accessible at all (see Figure 4-8) accesses to segment 255 can be redirected to any
other segment in EBI address space.
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REDIR1
15
14
Reset Value: 00FFH
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
-
4
3
2
1
0
REDIR1_SEG (7:0)
rw
Bit
Function
REDIR1_SEG
(7:0)
For access to segment 255, the segment part of the address is
replaced by REDIR1_SEG.
The configuration of the “External Bus Interface” and its operation mode is defined with
the EBICON register.
EBICON
15
14
-
Reset Value: 0000H
13
12
-
-
-
11
10
-
-
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
-
-
-
-
-
-
REF
EN
SDR
SZE
ED
MA
ED
MR
r
rw
rw
Bit
Function
EDMR
EBI Direct Mode Request Flag
‘0’: EBI direct mode is disabled
‘1’: EBI direct mode is enabled
r
Note: This bit is only used for EBI direct mode.
EDMA
EBI Direct Mode Acknowledge Flag
‘0’: The EBI has not (yet) entered direct mode
‘1’: The EBI has entered direct mode
Note: This bit is only used for EBI direct mode.
SDRSZE
SDRAM Size
‘0’: 16 MBit (2 × 2048 × 256 × 2B), 2 banks (bank = adr_11)
‘1’: 64 MBit (4 × 4096 × 256 × 2B), 4 banks (bank = adr_13:12)
REFEN
Refresh Controller Enable Bit
‘0’: Refresh controller for SDRAM is disabled
‘1’: Refresh controller for SDRAM is enabled
The EDMR request flag and the hardware controlled acknowledge flag EDMA are used
during “EBI direct mode” for implementing a four-phase handshake which guarantees
that each direct mode command is executed exactly once by the EBI.
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Phase
I
II
III
IV
EDMR
EDMA
UET11123
Figure 4-9
Four-Phase Handshake
• Phase I: The controller requests a direct mode command which has not yet been
executed by the EBI. The controller must not reset the EDMR bit until the EBI
acknowledges the EDMA bit (EDMA polling required).
• Phase II: The EBI acknowledges the EDMA bit after executing the requested direct
mode command. The EBI will not reset the EDMA bit before the requested EDMR bit
is reset.
• Phase III: The requested EDMR bit is reset while the acknowledged EDMA bit is still
valid. This phase will only take one EBI clock period (no EDMA polling required).
• Phase IV: EBI is waiting for the next direct mode request.
When executing a direct mode command the EBI shifts the contents of register EBIDIR
into the external control pins of the SDRAM.
EBIDIR
15
Reset Value: 0000H
14
-
13
12
-
-
-
11
10
-
-
9
8
7
6
-
-
-
-
5
4
3
CLK
EN
CS
_N
RAS
_N
rw
rw
rw
Bit
Function
ADR_10
Control Bit for Address Pin A10 in Direct Mode
WR_N
Control Bit for Pin WR in Direct Mode
CAS_N
Control Bit for Pin CAS (A15) in Direct Mode
RAS_N
Control Bit for Pin RAS (A14) in Direct Mode
CS_N
Control Bit for Pin CSSDRAM in Direct Mode
CLKEN
Control Bit for Pin CLKEN in Direct Mode
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0
CAS
_N
WR
_N
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The setting required for initiating a certain command on the SDRAM has to be written to
the EBIDIR register before the direct mode request, the EDMR bit in the EBICON
register is asserted.
The following table shows the commands that may be executed in direct mode along
with the associated settings of the EBIDIR register.
CLKEN CLKEN CS_N RAS_N CAS_N WE_N ADR_10
n-1
n
Device deselect
DSEL
1
dc1)
1
dc
dc
dc
dc
No Operation
NOP
1
dc
0
1
1
1
dc
Precharge all banks
PALL
1
dc
0
0
1
0
1
Auto refresh
CBR
1
1
0
0
0
1
dc
Self refresh entry
SELFRSH
1
0
0
0
0
1
dc
Self refresh exit
SELFRSHX
0
1
1
dc
dc
dc
dc
Power down entry
PWRDN
1
0
dc
dc
dc
dc
dc
Power down exit
PWRDNX
0
1
1
dc
dc
dc
dc
Mode register set
MRS
1
dc
0
0
0
0
0
1)
dc = don’t care
The MRS command (mode register set) is used to program the SDRAM for the desired
operating mode. When executing the MRS command, address lines A11-A10 encode
the operating mode. M2 then issues a hardwired pattern that sets the SDRAM to latency
mode 3, wrap type linear and burst length 4.
For the correct handling of access cycles the user has to provide the EBI with information
about the external memory configuration and memory sizes. The combination of reset
configuration and the SDRSZE bit of the EBICON register includes all the information
needed. Based on these inputs the EBI constructs its internal address map for allocating
ROM devices and SDRAM banks.
The external memory configuration is defined with bit CSENA of the RP0H register (refer
to Chapter 6.1). The memory configuration controls the correct behavior of pin CS3.
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.
Bit
Function
CSENA
Chip Select Enable
‘0’: CS3 is active for 2nd ROM device
‘1’: CS3 is inactive
The allocation of address ranges for the SDRAM banks is controlled through the
SDRSZE bit.
SDRSZE = ‘0’ (16 MBit): Address Ranges of Banks
Bank
Address Range
Bank1
80’0000H - 8F’FFFFH
Bank2
90’0000H - 9F’FFFFH
SDRSZE = ‘1’ (64 MBit): Address Ranges of Banks
Bank
Address Range
Bank1
80’0000H - 9F’FFFFH
Bank2
A0’0000H - BF’FFFFH
Bank3
C0’0000H - DF’FFFFH
Bank4
E0’0000H - FF’FFFFH
If a second ROM device is enabled, its base address depends on the maximum size of
both ROM devices as defined within bit field SALSEL of register RP0H during reset.
.
Base Address of 2nd ROM Device
SALSEL
Physical Base Address
‘111’
2nd ROM device not possible
‘110’
20’0000H
‘101’
10’0000H
‘100’
08’0000H
‘011’
04’0000H
others
02’0000H
4.5.3
Crossing Memory Boundaries
The address space of M2 is implicitly divided into equally sized blocks of different
granularity and into logical memory areas. Crossing the boundaries between these
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blocks (code or data) or areas requires special attention to ensure that the controller
executes the desired operations.
Memory Areas are partitions of the address space that represent different kinds of
memory (if provided at all). These memory areas are the internal RAM/SFR area, the
program memory (if available), the on-chip X-Peripherals (if integrated) and the external
memory.
Accessing subsequent data locations that belong to different memory areas is no
problem. However, when executing code, the different memory areas must be switched
explicitly via branch instructions. Sequential boundary crossing is not supported and
leads to erroneous results.
Note: Changing from the external memory area to the internal RAM/SFR area takes
place within segment 0.
Segments are contiguous blocks of 64 KByte each. They are referenced via the code
segment pointer CSP for code fetches and via an explicit segment number for data
accesses overriding the standard DPP scheme.
During code fetching segments are not changed automatically, but rather must be
switched explicitly. The instructions JMPS, CALLS and RETS will do this.
In larger sequential programs make sure that the highest used code location of a
segment contains an unconditional branch instruction to the respective following
segment, to prevent the prefetcher from trying to leave the current segment.
Data Pages are contiguous blocks of 16 KByte each. They are referenced via the data
page pointers DPP3…0 and via an explicit data page number for data accesses
overriding the standard DPP scheme. Each DPP register can select one of the 1024
possible data pages. The DPP register that is used for the current access is selected via
the two upper bits of the 16-bit data address. Subsequent 16-bit data addresses that
cross the 16 KByte data page boundaries will therefore use different data page pointers,
while the physical locations need not be subsequent within memory.
4.6
Central Processing Unit
Basic tasks of the CPU are to fetch and decode instructions, to supply operands for the
arithmetic and logic unit (ALU), to perform operations on these operands in the ALU, and
to store the previously calculated results.
Since a four stage pipeline is implemented in M2, up to four instructions can be
processed in parallel. Most instructions of M2 are executed in one machine cycles
(2 CPU clock cycles) due to this parallelism. This chapter describes how the pipeline
works for sequential and branch instructions in general, and which hardware provisions
have been made, in particular, to speed up the execution of jump instructions. The
description of the general instruction timing includes standard and exceptional timing.
For instruction and operand fetches, the CPU is connected to the different areas
(external memory, program memory, internal dual-port RAM or (E)SFR area) either
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internally or through the interfaces of the CPU (XBUS, program memory bus or
peripheral bus). Where the program memory bus and the peripheral bus are tightly
coupled to the CPU, XBUS accesses are performed, if possible, in parallel while the
CPU continues operating. If data is required but not yet available or if a new XBUS
access is requested by the CPU before a previous access has been completed, the CPU
will be held until the request can be satisfied.
CPU
Internal
RAM
SP
STKOV
STKUN
MDH
MDL
R15
Exec. Unit
Instr. Ptr.
Instr. Reg.
Mul/Div-HW
Bit-Mask Gen
General
4-Stage
Pipeline
R15
Purpose
ALU
32
ROM
16
(16-bit)
Barrel - Shifter
Registers
R0
PSW
SYSCON
Context Ptr.
BUSCON 0
BUSCON 1
BUSCON 2
BUSCON 3
BUSCON 4
ADDRSEL 1
ADDRSEL 2
ADDRSEL 3
ADDRSEL 4
Data Page Ptr.
Code Seg. Ptr.
R0
16
MCB02147
Figure 4-10 CPU Block Diagram
Peripheral units are connected to the CPU by the peripheral bus or the XBUS and can
work practically independent of the CPU. Data and control information is interchanged
between the CPU and these peripherals by Special Function Registers (SFRs) or
external memory locations, depending on to which bus they are connected. Whenever
peripherals need a non-deterministic CPU action, the Interrupt Controller compares all
pending peripheral service requests with each other and prioritizes one of them. If the
priority of the current CPU operation is lower than the priority of the selected peripheral
request, an interrupt will occur.
Basically, there are two types of interrupt processing:
• Standard interrupt processing forces the CPU to save the current program status
and the return address to the stack before branching to the interrupt vector jump table.
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• PEC interrupt processing steals just one machine cycle from the current CPU
activity to perform a single data transfer via the on-chip Peripheral Event Controller
(PEC).
System errors detected during program execution (so-called hardware traps) are also
processed as standard interrupts with a very high priority.
Besides its normal operation there are the following particular CPU states:
• Reset state: Any reset (hardware, software, watchdog) forces the CPU into a
predefined active state.
• IDLE state: The clock signal to the CPU itself is switched off, while the clocks for the
peripherals keep running.
• POWER DOWN state: All of the on-chip clocks are switched off.
A transition into an active CPU state is forced by an interrupt (if in IDLE mode) or by a
reset (if in POWER DOWN mode).
The IDLE, POWER DOWN and RESET states can be entered by particular system
control instructions.
A set of Special Function Registers is dedicated to the functions of the CPU core:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
General System Configuration:
CPU Status Indication and Control:
Code Access Control:
Data Paging Control:
GPRs Access Control:
System Stack Access Control:
Multiply and Divide Support:
ALU Constants Support:
4.6.1
SYSCON (RP0H)
PSW
IP, CSP
DPP0, DPP1, DPP2, DPP3
CP
SP, STKUN, STKOV
MDL, MDH, MDC
ZEROS, ONES
Instruction Pipelining
The instruction pipeline of the CPU separates instruction processing into four stages,
and each one has an individual task:
1st –>FETCH:
In this stage the instruction selected by the Instruction Pointer (IP) and the Code
Segment Pointer (CSP) is fetched from either the program memory, internal RAM, or
external memory.
2nd –>DECODE:
In this stage the instructions are decoded and, if required, the operand addresses are
calculated and the respective operands are fetched. For all instructions, which implicitly
access the system stack, the SP register is either decremented or incremented, as
specified. For branch instructions the Instruction Pointer and the Code Segment Pointer
are updated to the desired branch target address (provided that the branch is taken).
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3rd –>EXECUTE:
In this stage an operation is performed on the previously fetched operands in the ALU.
In addition, the condition flags in the PSW register are updated, as specified by the
instruction. All explicit writes to the SFR memory space and all auto-increment or autodecrement writes to GPRs used as indirect address pointers are also performed during
the execute stage of an instruction.
4th –>WRITE BACK:
In this stage all external operands and the remaining operands within the internal RAM
space are written back.
A particularity of the CPU are the so-called imported instructions. These imported
instructions are internally generated by the machine to provide the time needed to
process instructions which cannot be processed within one machine cycle. They are
automatically imported into the decoding stage of the pipeline, and then they pass
through the remaining stages like all standard instructions. Program interrupts are also
performed by means of imported instructions. Although these internally imported
instructions will not be noticed in reality, they are introduced here to ease the explanation
of the pipeline in the following:
Sequential Instruction Processing
Each single instruction has to pass through each of the four pipeline stages regardless
of whether all possible stage operations are performed or not. Since passing through
one pipeline stage takes at least one machine cycle, any isolated instruction takes at
least four machine cycles to be completed. Pipelining, however, allows parallel (i.e.
simultaneous) processing of up to four instructions. Thus, most of the instructions seem
to be processed during one machine cycle as soon as the pipeline has been filled once
after reset (see Figure 4-11).
Instruction pipelining increases the average instruction throughput considered over a
certain period of time. In the following, any execution time specification of an instruction
always refers to the average execution time due to pipelined parallel instruction
processing.
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1 Machine Cycle
I1
FETCH
DECODE
I2
I3
I4
I5
I6
I1
I2
I3
I4
I5
I1
I2
I3
I4
I1
I2
I3
EXECUTE
WRITEBACK
Time
UED11124
Figure 4-11 Sequential Instruction Pipelining
Standard Branch Instruction Processing
Instruction pipelining helps to speed up sequential program processing. When a branch
is taken, the instruction which has been fetched in advance is usually not the instruction
which must be decoded next. Thus, at least one additional machine cycle is normally
required to fetch the branch target instruction. This extra machine cycle is provided by
means of an imported instruction (see Figure 4-12).
1 Machine Cycle
Injection
BRANCH
I n+2
I TARGET
I TARGET+1
I TARGET+2
I TARGET+3
DECODE
In
BRANCH
( I INJECT)
I TARGET
I TARGET+1
I TARGET+2
EXECUTE
...
In
BRANCH
( I INJECT)
I TARGET
I TARGET+1
WRITEBACK
...
...
In
BRANCH
( I INJECT)
I TARGET
FETCH
Time
UED11125
Figure 4-12 Standard Branch Instruction Pipelining
If a conditional branch is not taken, there is no deviation from the sequential program
flow, and thus no extra time is required. In this case, the instruction following the branch
instruction will enter the decoding stage of the pipeline at the beginning of the next
machine cycle after decoding the conditional branch instruction.
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Cache Jump Instruction Processing
The CPU incorporates a jump cache to optimize conditional jumps, which are processed
repeatedly within a loop. Whenever a jump on cache is taken, the extra time to fetch the
branch target instruction can be saved, therefore causing the corresponding cache jump
instruction to need only one machine cycle.
This performance is achieved by the following mechanism:
Whenever a cache jump instruction passes through the decode stage of the pipeline for
the first time (and provided that the jump condition is met), the jump target instruction is
fetched as usual, causing a time delay of one machine cycle. In contrast to standard
branch instructions, however, the target instruction of a cache jump instruction (JMPA,
JMPR, JB, JBC, JNB, JNBS) is additionally stored in the cache after having been
fetched.
After repeatedly following each execution of the same cache jump instruction, the jump
target instruction is not fetched from program memory but taken from the cache and
immediately imported into the decoding stage of the pipeline (see Figure 4-13).
A time saving jump on cache is always taken after the second and any further
occurrence of the same cache jump instruction, unless an instruction, which has the
fundamental capability of changing the CSP register contents (JMPS, CALLS, RETS,
TRAP, RETI), or any standard interrupt has been processed during the period of time
between two following occurrences of the same cache jump instruction.
Injection of Cached
Target Instruction
Injection
1 Machine Cycle
I n+2
I TARGET
I TARGET+1
I n+2
I TARGET+1
I TARGET+2
DECODE
Cache Jmp
( I INJECT)
I TARGET
Cache Jmp
I TARGET
I TARGET+1
EXECUTE
In
Cache Jmp
( I INJECT)
In
Cache Jmp
I TARGET
WRITEBACK
...
In
Cache Jmp
...
In
Cache Jmp
FETCH
Repeated Loop Iteration
1st Loop Iteration
UED11126
Figure 4-13 Cache Jump Instruction Pipelining
Particular Pipeline Effects
Since up to four different instructions are processed simultaneously, additional hardware
has been used in the CPU to consider all causal dependencies which may exist on
instructions in different pipeline stages without a loss of performance. This extra
hardware (i.e. for “forwarding” operand read and write values) resolves most of the
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possible conflicts (e.g. multiple usage of buses) in a time optimized way and thus usually
avoids the pipeline being noticed by the user. However, there are some very rare cases,
where the CPU, being a pipelined machine, requires attention by the programmer. In
these cases the delays caused by pipeline conflicts can be used for other instructions in
order to optimize performance.
Context Pointer Updating
An instruction which calculates a physical GPR operand address via the CP register, is
mostly not capable of using a new CP value, which is to be updated by an immediately
preceding instruction. Thus, to make sure that the new CP value is used, at least one
instruction must be inserted between a CP-changing and a subsequent GPR-using
instruction, as shown in the following example:
In
In+1
In+2
: SCXT CP, #0FC00h
: ….
: MOV
R0, #dataX
; select a new context
; must not be an instruction using a GPR
; write to GPR 0 in the new context
Data Page Pointer Updating
An instruction, which calculates a physical operand address via a particular DPPn (n = 0
to 3) register, is mostly not capable of using a new DPPn register value, which is to be
updated by an immediately preceding instruction. Thus, to make sure that the new DPPn
register value is used, at least one instruction must be inserted between a DPPnchanging instruction and a subsequent instruction which implicitly uses DPPn via a long
or indirect addressing mode, as shown in the following example:
In
In+1
In+2
: MOV
: ….
: MOV
DPP0, #4
; select data page 4 via DPP0
; must not be an instruction using DPP0
DPP0:0000H, R1; move contents of R1 to address location
01’0000H
; (in data page 4) supposed segmentation
is enabled
Explicit Stack Pointer Updating
None of the RET, RETI, RETS, RETP or POP instructions are capable of correctly using
a new SP register value, which is to be updated by an immediately preceding instruction.
Thus, in order to use the new SP register value without erroneously performed stack
accesses, at least one instruction must be inserted between an explicitly SP-writing and
any subsequent just mentioned implicitly SP-using instructions, as shown in the
following example:
In
In+1
: MOV
: ….
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; must not be an instruction popping
operands
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In+2
: POP
R0
; pop word value from new top of stack into
R0
Note: Conflicts with instructions writing to the stack (PUSH, CALL, SCXT) are solved
internally by the CPU logic.
Controlling Interrupts
Software modifications (implicit or explicit) of the PSW are done in the execute phase of
the respective instructions. In order to maintain fast interrupt responses, however, the
current interrupt prioritization round does not consider these changes, i.e. an interrupt
request may be acknowledged after the instruction that disables interrupts via IEN or
ILVL or after the subsequent instructions. Timecritical instruction sequences therefore
should not begin directly after the instruction disabling interrupts, as shown in the
following example:
INT_OFF:
BCLR IEN
IN-1
CRIT_1ST: IN
...
CRIT_LAST:IN+x
INT_ON:
BSET IEN
; globally disable interrupts
; non-critical instruction
; begin of uninterruptable critical sequence
; end of uninterruptable critical sequence
; globally re-enable interrupts
Note: The described delay of 1 instruction also applies for enabling the interrupts system
i.e. no interrupt requests are acknowledged until the instruction after the enabling
instruction.
Changing the System Configuration
The instruction following an instruction that changes the system configuration via
register SYSCON (e.g. the mapping of the program memory, segmentation, stack size)
cannot use the new resources (e.g. program memory or stack). In these cases an
instruction that does not access these resources should be inserted. Code accesses to
the new program memory area are only possible after an absolute branch to this area.
Note: As a rule, instructions that change program memory mapping should be executed
from internal RAM or external / XBUS memory.
BUSCON/ADDRSEL and XBCON/XADRS
The instruction following an instruction that changes the properties of an external / XBUS
address area cannot access operands within the new area. In these cases an instruction
that does not access this address area should be inserted. Code accesses to the new
address area should be made after an absolute branch to this area.
Note: As a rule, instructions that change external bus properties should not be executed
from the respective external memory area.
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Timing
Instruction pipelining reduces the average instruction processing time on a wide scale
(usually from four to one machine cycles). However, there are some rare cases where a
particular pipeline situation causes the processing time for a single instruction to be
extended either by a half or by one machine cycle. Although this additional time
represents only a tiny part of the total program execution time, it might be of interest to
avoid these pipeline-caused time delays in time critical program modules.
Besides a general execution time description, the following section provides some hints
on how to optimize time-critical program parts with regard to such pipeline-caused timing
particularities.
4.6.2
Bit-Handling and Bit-Protection
The CPU provides several mechanisms to manipulate bits. These mechanisms either
manipulate software flags within the internal RAM, control on-chip peripherals via control
bits in their respective SFRs or control IO functions via port pins.
The instructions BSET, BCLR, BAND, BOR, BXOR, BMOV, BMOVN explicitly set or
clear specific bits. The instructions BFLDL and BFLDH allow the manipulation of up to
8 bits of a specific byte at one time. The instructions JBC and JNBS implicitly clear or set
the specified bit when the jump is taken. The instructions JB and JNB (also conditional
jump instructions that refer to flags) evaluate the specified bit to determine if the jump is
to be taken.
Note: Bit operations on undefined bit locations will always read a bit value of ‘0’, while
the write access will not effect the respective bit location.
All instructions that manipulate single bits or bit groups internally use a read-modify-write
sequence that accesses the whole word, which contains the specified bit(s).
This method has several consequences:
• Bits can only be modified within the internal address areas, i.e. internal RAM and
SFRs. External locations cannot be used with bit instructions.
The upper 256 bytes of the SFR area, the ESFR area and the internal RAM are bitaddressable (see Chapter 4.2), i.e. those register bits located within the respective
sections can be directly manipulated using bit instructions. The other SFRs must be
byte/word accessed.
Note: All GPRs are bit-addressable independent of the allocation of the register bank via
the context pointer CP. Even GPRs which are allocated to not bit-addressable
RAM locations provide this feature.
• The read-modify-write approach may be critical with hardware-effected bits. In these
cases the hardware may change specific bits while the read-modify-write operation is
in progress, where the writeback would overwrite the new bit value generated by the
hardware. The solution is either the implemented hardware protection (see below) or
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realization through special programming (see “Particular Pipeline Effects” on
page 4-29).
Protected bits are not changed during the read-modify-write sequence, i.e. when
hardware sets e.g. an interrupt request flag between the read and the write of the readmodify-write sequence. The hardware protection logic guarantees that only the intended
bit(s) is/are effected by the write-back operation.
Note: If a conflict occurs between a bit manipulation generated by hardware and an
intended software access the software access has priority and determines the
final value of the respective bit.
4.6.3
Instruction State Times
Basically, the time needed to execute an instruction depends on where the instruction is
fetched from, and where possible operands are read from or written to. The fastest
processing mode of M2 is the execution of a program fetched from the program memory.
In this case most of the instructions can be processed within just one machine cycle,
which is also the general minimum execution time.
This section summarizes the execution times in a very condensed way. A detailed
description of the execution times for the various instructions and the specific exceptions
can be found in the “C16x Family Instruction Set Manual”.
The table below shows the minimum execution times required to process an M2
instruction fetched from the program memory, the internal RAM or from external / XBUS
memory. These execution times apply to most of the M2 instructions - except some of
the branches, the multiplication, the division and a special move instruction. In case of
program execution from the program memory there is no execution time dependency on
the instruction length except for some special branch situations. The numbers in the
table are in units of CPU clock cycles and assume no wait-states.
Table 4-2
Minimum Execution Times
Instruction Fetch
Word Operand Access
Memory Area
Word
Instruction
Doubleword
Instruction
Read from
Write to
Internal code memory
2
2
2
–
Internal RAM
6
8
0/1
0
16-bit Demux Bus
2
4
2
2
16-bit Mux Bus
3
6
3
3
Execution from the internal RAM provides flexibility in terms of loadable and modifiable
code on the account of execution time.
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Execution from external memory strongly depends on the selected bus mode and the
programming of the bus cycles (wait-states).
The operand and instruction accesses listed below can extend the execution time of an
instruction:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Internal code memory operand reads (same for byte and word operand reads)
Internal RAM operand reads via indirect addressing modes
Internal SFR operand reads immediately after writing
External operand reads
External operand writes
Jumps to non-aligned double word instructions in the program memory space
Testing Branch Conditions immediately after PSW writes
4.6.4
CPU Special Function Registers
The CPU requires a set of Special Function Registers (SFRs) to maintain the system
state information, to supply the ALU with register-addressable constants and to control
system and bus configuration, multiply and divide ALU operations, code memory
segmentation, data memory paging, and accesses to the General Purpose Registers
and the System Stack.
The access mechanism for these SFRs in the CPU core is identical to the access
mechanism for any other SFR. Since all SFRs can simply be controlled by means of any
instruction, which is capable of addressing the SFR memory space, a lot of flexibility has
been gained, without the need to create a set of system-specific instructions.
Note, however, that there are user access restrictions for some of the CPU core SFRs
to ensure proper processor operations. The instruction pointer IP and code segment
pointer CSP cannot be accessed directly. They can only be changed indirectly via
branch instructions.
The PSW, SP, and MDC registers can not only be modified explicitly by the programmer,
but also implicitly by the CPU during normal instruction processing. Note that any explicit
write request (via software) to an SFR supersedes a simultaneous modification by
hardware of the same register.
Note: Any write operation to a single byte of an SFR clears the non-addressed
complementary byte within the specified SFR.
Non-implemented (reserved) SFR bits cannot be modified, and will always supply
a read value of '0'.
System Configuration Register SYSCON
This bit-addressable register provides general system configuration and control
functions. The reset value for register SYSCON depends on the state of the PORT4 pins
during reset.
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SYSCON
15
14
Reset Value: 0400H
13
12
11
10
STKSZ(2..0)
ROM
S1
SGT
DIS
ROM
EN
rw
rw
rw
rw
9
8
7
-
-
-
6
CS
CFG
rw
5
4
3
2
-
-
RSO
EN
XPEN
rw
rw
1
0
-
-
Bit
Function
XPEN
XBUS Peripheral Enable Bit
‘0’: Accesses to the on-chip X-Peripherals and their functions are
disabled.
‘1’: The on-chip X-Peripherals are enabled and can be accessed.
RSOEN
Reset Output Enable Bit
‘0’: The contrast reduction signal is driven on pin 104.
‘1’: The reset output signal is driven on pin 104, i.e. pin 104 is pulled
low during internal reset sequence.
Note: Refer also to Chapter 6.7
CSCFG
Select Line Configuration Control
‘0’: Latched select line mode for X-Peripherals.
‘1’: Select lines for access cycles via XBUS are directly derived from
the address lines.
Note: CSCFG = ‘1’ is recommended. The effect of the switch is not
visible at an external interface.
ROMEN
PM-Bus Enable Bit
‘0’: PM-Bus disabled: accesses to the ROM area use the XBUS.
‘1’: PM-Bus enabled: PM-Bus enabled for access cycles to the ROM
area.
Note: The recommended value ROMEN = ‘1’ is set by hardware during
reset.
SGTDIS
Users Manual
Segmentation Disable/Enable Control
‘0’: Segmentation enabled (CSP is saved/restored during interrupt
entry/exit).
‘1’: Segmentation disabled (Only IP is saved/restored).
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Bit
Function
ROMS1
Internal ROM Mapping
‘0’: External ROM area mapped to segment 0
(00’0000H … 00’7FFFH)
‘1’: External ROM area mapped to segment 1
(01’0000H … 01’7FFFH).
Note: ROMS1 = ‘0’ is recommended.
STKSZ
(2 … 0)
System Stack Size
Selects the size of the system stack (in the internal RAM) from 32 to
1024 words.
Note: Register SYSCON cannot be changed after execution of the EINIT instruction.
Segmentation Disable/Enable Control (SGTDIS)
Bit SGTDIS allows to select either the segmented or non-segmented memory mode.
In non-segmented memory mode (SGTDIS = ‘1’) it is assumed that the code address
space is restricted to 64 KBytes (segment 0) and thus 16 bits are sufficient to represent
all code addresses. For implicit stack operations (CALL or RET) the CSP register is
totally ignored and only the IP is saved to and restored from the stack.
In segmented memory mode (SGTDIS = ‘0’) it is assumed that the whole address space
is available for instructions. For implicit stack operations (CALL or RET) the CSP register
and the IP are saved to and restored from the stack. After reset the segmented memory
mode is selected.
Note: Bit SGTDIS controls if the CSP register is pushed onto the system stack in
addition to the IP register before an interrupt service routine is entered, and it is
repopped when the interrupt service routine is left again.
System Stack Size (STKSZ)
This bitfield defines the size of the physical system stack, which is located in the internal
RAM of M2. An area of 32 … 512 words or all of the internal RAM may be dedicated to
the system stack. A so-called “circular stack” mechanism allows the use of a bigger
virtual stack than this dedicated RAM area.
The Processor Status Word PSW
This bit-addressable register reflects the current state of the microcontroller. Two groups
of bits represent the current ALU status, and the current CPU interrupt status. A separate
bit (USR0) within register PSW is provided as a general purpose user flag.
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PSW
15
Reset Value: 0000H
14
13
ILVL(3..0)
rw
12
11
10
9
8
7
IEN
HLD
EN
-
-
-
rw
rw
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
USR0
MUL
IP
E
Z
V
C
N
rw
rw
rw
rw
rw
rw
rw
Bit
Function
N
Negative Result
Set, when the result of an ALU operation is negative.
C
Carry Flag
Set, when the result of an ALU operation produces a carry bit.
V
Overflow Result
Set, when the result of an ALU operation produces an overflow.
Z
Zero Flag
Set, when the result of an ALU operation is zero.
E
End of Table Flag
Set, when the source operand of an instruction is 8000H or 80H.
MULIP
Multiplication/Division In Progress
‘0’: There is no multiplication/division in progress.
‘1’: A multiplication/division has been interrupted.
USR0
User General Purpose Flag
May be used by the application software.
HLDEN,
ILVL, IEN
Interrupt and EBC Control Fields
Define the response to interrupt requests and enable external bus
arbitration.
ALU Status (N, C, V, Z, E, MULIP)
The condition flags (N, C, V, Z, E) within the PSW indicate the ALU status after the last
recently performed ALU operation. They are set by most of the instructions due to
specific rules, which depend on the ALU or data movement operation performed by an
instruction.
After execution of an instruction which explicitly updates the PSW register, the condition
flags cannot be interpreted as described in the following, because any explicit write to
the PSW register supersedes the condition flag values, which are implicitly generated by
the CPU. Explicitly reading the PSW register provides a read value that represents the
state of the PSW register after execution of the immediately preceding instruction.
Note: After reset, all of the ALU status bits are cleared.
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• N-Flag: For most of the ALU operations, the N-flag is set to ‘1’ if the most significant
bit of the result contains a ‘1’, otherwise it is cleared. In the case of integer operations
the N-flag can be interpreted as the sign bit of the result (negative: N = ‘1’, positive:
N = ‘0’). Negative numbers are always represented as the 2’s complement of the
corresponding positive number. The range of signed numbers extends from ‘–8000H’
to ‘+7FFFH’ for the word data type, or from ‘–80H’ to ‘+7FH’ for the byte data type. For
Boolean bit operations with only one operand, the N-flag represents the previous state
of the specified bit. For Boolean bit operations with two operands, the N-flag
represents the logical XORing of the two specified bits.
• C-Flag: After an addition, the C-flag indicates that a carry from the most significant bit
of the specified word or byte data type has been generated. After a subtraction or a
comparison, the C-flag indicates a borrow, which represents the logical negation of a
carry for the addition.
This means that the C-flag is set to ‘1’ if no carry from the most significant bit of the
specified word or byte data type has been generated during a subtraction, which is
performed internally by the ALU as a 2’s complement addition, and the C-flag is
cleared when this complement addition causes a carry.
The C-flag is always cleared for logical, multiply and divide ALU operations, because
these operations cannot cause a carry.
For shift and rotate operations the C-flag represents the value of the bit last shifted
out. If a shift count of zero is specified, the C-flag will be cleared. The C-flag is also
cleared for a prioritized ALU operation because a ‘1’ is never shifted out of the MSB
during the normalization of an operand.
For Boolean bit operations with only one operand the C-flag is always cleared. For
Boolean bit operations with two operands the C-flag represents the logical ANDing of
the two specified bits.
• V-Flag: For addition, subtraction and 2’s complementation the V-flag is always set to
‘1’, if the result overflows the maximum range of signed numbers, which are
representable by either 16 bits for word operations (‘–8000H’ to ‘+7FFFH’), or by 8 bits
for byte operations (‘–80H’ to ‘+7FH’), otherwise the V-flag is cleared. Note that the
result of an integer addition, integer subtraction, or 2’s complement is not valid if the
V-flag indicates an arithmetic overflow.
For multiplication and division the V-flag is set to ‘1’ if the result cannot be represented
in a word data type, otherwise it is cleared. Note that a division by zero will always
cause an overflow. In contrast to the result of a division, the result of a multiplication
is valid regardless of whether the V-flag is set to ‘1’ or not.
Since logical ALU operations cannot produce an invalid result, the V-flag is cleared by
these operations.
The V-flag is also used as a “Sticky Bit” for rotate right and shift right operations. By
only using the C-flag, a rounding error caused by a shift right operation can be
estimated up to a quantity of one half of the LSB of the result. In conjunction with the
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V-flag, the C-flag allows the evaluation of the rounding error with a finer resolution
(see Table 4-3).
For Boolean bit operations with only one operand the V-flag is always cleared. For
Boolean bit operations with two operands the V-flag represents the logical ORing of
the two specified bits.
Table 4-3
Shift Right Rounding Error Evaluation
C-Flag
V-Flag
Rounding Error Quantity
0
0
1
1
0
1
0
1
- No rounding error
0 < Rounding error
Rounding error
Rounding error
< 1/2 LSB
= 1/2 LSB
> 1/2 LSB
• Z-Flag: The Z-flag is normally set to ‘1’ if the result of an ALU operation equals zero,
otherwise it is cleared.
For the addition and subtraction with carry, the Z-flag is only set to ‘1’ if the Z-flag
already contains a ‘1’ and the result of the current ALU operation additionally equals
zero. This mechanism is provided for the support of multiple precision calculations.
For Boolean bit operations with only one operand the Z-flag represents the logical
negation of the previous state of the specified bit. For Boolean bit operations with two
operands the Z-flag represents the logical NORing of the two specified bits. For the
prioritized ALU operation the Z-flag indicates whether the second operand is zero or
not.
• E-Flag: The E-flag can be altered by instructions, which perform ALU or data
movement operations. The E-flag is cleared by those instructions which cannot be
reasonably used for table search operations. In all other cases the E-flag is set
depending on the value of the source operand to signify whether the end of a search
table is reached or not. If the value of the source operand of an instruction equals the
lowest negative number, which is representable by the data format of the
corresponding instruction (‘8000H’ for the word data type, or ‘80H’ for the byte data
type), the E-flag is set to ‘1’, otherwise it is cleared.
• MULIP-Flag: The MULIP-flag will be set to ‘1’ by hardware upon entry to an interrupt
service routine, when a multiply or divide ALU operation was interrupted before
completion. Depending on the state of the MULIP bit, the hardware decides whether
multiplication or division must be continued or not after the end of an interrupt service.
The MULIP bit is overwritten with the contents of the stacked MULIP-flag when the
return-from-interrupt-instruction (RETI) is executed. This normally means that the
MULIP-flag is cleared again after that.
Note: The MULIP flag is a part of the task environment. When the interrupting service
routine does not return to the interrupted multiply/divide instruction (i.e. as in the
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case of a task scheduler that switches between independent tasks), the MULIP
flag must be saved as part of the task environment and must be updated
accordingly for the new task before this task is entered.
CPU Interrupt Status (IEN, ILVL)
The Interrupt Enable bit allows for global enabling (IEN = ‘1’) or disabling (IEN = ‘0’) of
interrupts. The four-bit Interrupt Level field (ILVL) specifies the priority of the current CPU
activity. The interrupt level is updated by hardware upon entry into an interrupt service
routine, but it can also be modified via software to prevent other interrupts from being
acknowledged. In case an interrupt level ‘15’ has been assigned to the CPU, it has the
highest possible priority, and thus the current CPU operation cannot be interrupted
except by hardware traps or external non-maskable interrupts. For details please refer
to Chapter 5.
After reset all interrupts are globally disabled, and the lowest priority (ILVL = 0) is
assigned to the initial CPU activity.
The Instruction Pointer IP
This register determines the 16-bit intra-segment address of the currently fetched
instruction within the code segment selected by the CSP register. The IP register is not
mapped into the M2’s address space, and thus it is not directly accessible by the
programmer. The IP can, however, be modified indirectly via the stack by means of a
return instruction.
The IP register is implicitly updated by the CPU for branch instructions and after
instruction fetch operations.
IP
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
Reset Value: 0000H
3
2
1
0
ip (15..0)
r/w
Bit
Function
ip(15 … 0)
Specifies the intra segment offset, from where the current instruction is
to be fetched. IP refers to the current segment <SEGNR>.
The Code Segment Pointer CSP
This non-bit addressable register selects the code segment being used at run-time to
access instructions. The lower 8 bits of register CSP select one of up to 256 segments
of 64 KBytes each, while the upper 8 bits are reserved for future use.
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CSP
15 14
-
-
13
-
-
12
-
-
11
-
-
10
-
-
9
-
-
8
-
-
7
-
6
5
Reset Value: 0000H
3
2
1
0
4
SEGNR(7..0)
-
r
Bit
Function
SEGNR
(7 … 0)
Segment Number
Specifies the code segment, from where the current instruction is to be
fetched. SEGNR is ignored when segmentation is disabled.
Code memory addresses are generated by directly extending the 16-bit contents of the
IP register by the contents of the CSP register, as shown in Figure 4-14.
In case of the segmented memory mode the selected number of segment address bits
(via bit field SALSEL) of the CSP register is output on the respective segment address
pins of Port 4 for all external code accesses. For non-segmented memory mode the
content of this register is not significant, because all code accesses are automatically
restricted to segment 0.
Note: The CSP register can only be read but not written by data operations. It is,
however, modified either directly by means of the JMPS and CALLS instructions,
or indirectly via the stack by means of the RETS and RETI instructions.
Upon the acceptance of an interrupt or the execution of a software TRAP
instruction, the CSP register is automatically set to zero.
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CSP Register
Code Segment
FF’FFFF H
255
254
1
0
15
IP Register
0
15
0
FE’0000 H
01’0000 H
24/20/18-Bit Physical Code Address
00’0000 H
MCA02265
Figure 4-14 Addressing via the Code Segment Pointer
Note: When segmentation is disabled, the IP value is used directly as the 16-bit address.
The Data Page Pointers DPP0, DPP1, DPP2, DPP3
These four non-bit addressable registers select up to four different data pages being
active simultaneously at run-time. The lower 10 bits of each DPP register select one of
the 1024 possible 16-Kbyte data pages while the upper 6 bits are reserved for future use.
The DPP registers allow access to the entire memory space in pages of 16 Kbytes each.
DPP0
15 14
-
-
DPP1
15 14
-
-
13
-
-
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8
7
6
5
-
4
DPP0PN
rw
10
-
-
9
-
11
-
-
10
-
-
12
-
-
11
-
-
13
-
-
12
Reset Value: 0000H
3
2
1
0
9
8
7
-
6
5
4
Reset Value: 0001H
3
2
1
0
DPP1PN
-
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DPP2
15 14
-
-
DPP3
15 14
-
-
13
-
-
9
8
7
6
5
-
-
rw
10
-
4
DPP2PN
-
11
-
-
10
-
-
12
-
-
11
-
-
13
-
-
12
Reset Value: 0002H
3
2
1
0
9
8
7
-
6
5
4
Reset Value: 0003H
3
2
1
0
DPP3PN
-
rw
Bit
Function
DPPxPN
Data Page Number of DPPx
Specifies the data page selected via DPPx. Only the least significant two
bits of DPPx are significant, when segmentation is disabled.
The DPP registers are implicitly used whenever data accesses to any memory location
are made via indirect or direct long 16-bit addressing modes (except for override
accesses via EXTended instructions and PEC data transfers). After reset, the Data Page
Pointers are initialized in a way that all indirect or direct long 16-bit addresses result in
identical 18-bit addresses. This allows access to data pages 3 … 0 within segment 0 as
shown in the figure below. If the user does not want to use any data paging, no further
action is required.
Data paging is performed by concatenating the lower 14 bits of an indirect or direct long
16-bit address with the contents of the DPP register selected by the upper two bits of the
16-bit address. The contents of the selected DPP register specify one of the 1024
possible data pages. This data page base address, together with the 14-bit page offset,
forms the physical 24-bit address (selectable part is driven to the address pins).
In case of non-segmented memory mode, only the two least significant bits of the
implicitly selected DPP register are used to generate the physical address. Thus,
extreme care should be taken when changing the content of a DPP register if a nonsegmented memory model is selected, because otherwise unexpected results could
occur.
In case of the segmented memory mode the selected number of segment address bits
(via bit field SALSEL) of the respective DPP register is output on the respective segment
address pins of Port 4 for all external data accesses.
A DPP register can be updated via any instruction, which is capable of modifying an
SFR.
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Note: Due to the internal instruction pipeline, a new DPP value is not yet usable for the
operand address calculation of the instruction immediately following the updating
of the DPP register by the instruction.
16-Bit Data Address
15 14
0
1023
1022
1021
DPP Registers
3
DPP3-11
2
DPP2-10
1
DPP1-01
0
DPP0-00
14-Bit
Intra-Page Address
(concatenated with
content of DPPx).
Affer reset or with segmentation disabled the DPP registers select data pages 3...0.
All of the internal memory is accessible in these cases.
MCA02264
Figure 4-15 Addressing via the Data Page Pointers
The Context Pointer CP
This non-bit addressable register is used to select the current register context. This
means that the CP register value determines the address of the first General Purpose
Register (GPR) within the current register bank of up to 16 word and/or byte GPRs.
CP
15
14
13
12
1
1
1
1
r
r
r
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
Reset Value: FC00H
3
2
1
0
cp
r
rw
0
r
Bit
Function
cp
Modifiable Portion of Register CP
Specifies the (word) base address of the current register bank.
When writing a value to register CP with bits CP.11 … CP.9 = ‘000’, bits
CP.11 … CP.10 are set to ‘11’ by hardware, in all other cases all bits of
bit field “cp” receive the written value.
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Note: It is the user's responsibility that the physical GPR address specified via CP
register plus short GPR address must always be an internal RAM location. If this
condition is not met, unexpected results may occur.
• Do not set CP below the IRAM start address, i.e. 00’FA00H/00’F600H/00’F200H
(1/2/3KB)
• Do not set CP above 00’FDFEH
• Be careful when using the upper GPRs with CP above 00’FDE0H
The CP register can be updated via any instruction which is capable of modifying an
SFR.
Note: Due to the internal instruction pipeline, a new CP value is not yet usable for GPR
address calculations of the instruction immediately following the instruction
updating the CP register.
The Switch Context instruction (SCXT) allows the saving of the contents of the CP
register onto the stack and updating of it with a new value in just one machine cycle.
Figure 4-16 Register Bank Selection via Register CP
Several addressing modes use the CP register implicitly for address calculations. The
addressing modes mentioned below are described in the “C16x Family Instruction Set
Manual”.
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Short 4-Bit GPR Addresses (mnemonic: Rw or Rb) specify an address relative to the
memory location specified by the contents of the CP register, i.e. the base of the current
register bank.
Depending on whether a relative word (Rw) or byte (Rb) GPR address is specified, the
short 4-bit GPR address is sometimes multiplied by two before it is added to the contents
of the CP register (see Figure 4-17). Thus, in this way, both byte and word GPR
accesses are possible.
GPRs used as indirect address pointers are always word accessed. For some
instructions only the first four GPRs can be used as indirect address pointers. These
GPRs are specified by short 2-bit GPR addresses. The respective physical address
calculation is identical to that for the short 4-bit GPR addresses.
Short 8-Bit Register Addresses (mnemonic: reg or bitoff), within a range from F0H to
FFH, interpret the four least significant bits as short 4-bit GPR addresses, while the four
most significant bits are ignored. The respective physical GPR address calculation is
identical to that for the short 4-bit GPR addresses. For single bit accesses on a GPR, the
GPR's word address is calculated as described above, but the position of the bit within
the word is specified by a separate additional 4-bit value.
Figure 4-17 Implicit CP Use by Short GPR Addressing Modes
The Stack Pointer SP
This non-bit addressable register is used to point to the top of the internal system stack
(TOS). The SP register is pre-decremented whenever data is to be pushed onto the
stack, and it is post-incremented whenever data is to be popped from the stack. Thus,
the system stack grows from higher to lower memory locations.
Since the least significant bit of the SP register is tied to ‘0’, and bits 15 through 12 are
tied to ‘1’ by hardware, the SP register can only contain values from F000H to FFFEH.
This allows access to a physical stack within the internal RAM of the M2. A virtual stack
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(usually bigger) can be realized via software. This mechanism is supported by the
STKOV and STKUN registers (see respective descriptions below).
The SP register can be updated via any instruction, which is capable of modifying an
SFR.
Note: Due to the internal instruction pipeline, a POP or RETURN instruction must not
immediately follow an instruction updating the SP register.
SP
15
14
13
12
1
1
1
1
r
r
r
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
Reset Value: FC00H
3
2
1
0
sp
r
0
rw
r
Bit
Function
sp
Modifiable portion of register SP
Specifies the top of the internal system stack.
The Stack Overflow Pointer STKOV
This non-bit addressable register is compared against the SP register after each
operation, which pushes data onto the system stack (e.g. PUSH and CALL instructions
or interrupts) and after each subtraction from the SP register. If the contents of the SP
register are less than the content of the STKOV register, a stack overflow hardware trap
will occur.
Since the least significant bit of register STKOV is tied to ‘0’ and bits 15 through 12 are
tied to ‘1’ by hardware, the STKOV register can only contain values from F000H to
FFFEH.
STKOV
15 14
1
r
13
12
1
1
1
r
r
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
Reset Value: FA00H
3
2
1
0
stkov
r
rw
Bit
Function
stkov
Modifiable portion of register STKOV
Specifies the lower limit of the internal system stack.
0
r
The Stack Overflow Trap (entered when (SP) < (STKOV)) may be used in two different
ways:
• Fatal error indication treats the stack overflow as a system error through the
associated trap service routine. Under these circumstances data in the bottom of the
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stack may have been overwritten by the status information stacked upon the stack
overflow trap service.
• Automatic system stack flushing allows the use of the system stack as a “Stack
Cache” for a bigger external user stack. In this case the STKOV register should be
initialized to a value which represents the desired lowest Top of Stack address plus
12 according to the selected maximum stack size. This takes into consideration the
worst case that could occur, when a stack overflow condition is only detected during
entry into an interrupt service routine. Then, six additional stack word locations are
required to push IP, PSW, and CSP for both the interrupt service routine and the
hardware trap service routine.
The Stack Underflow Pointer STKUN
This non-bit addressable register is compared against the SP register after each
operation, which pops data from the system stack (e.g. POP and RET instructions) and
after each addition to the SP register. If the content of the SP register is greater than the
content of the STKUN register, a stack underflow hardware trap will occur.
Since the least significant bit of register STKUN is tied to ‘0’ and bits 15 through 12 are
tied to ‘1’ by hardware, the STKUN register can only contain values from F000H to
FFFEH.
STKUN
15 14
1
r
13
12
1
1
1
r
r
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
Reset Value: FC00H
3
2
1
0
stkun
r
rw
Bit
Function
stkun
Modifiable portion of register STKUN
Specifies the upper limit of the internal system stack.
0
r
The Stack Underflow Trap (entered when (SP) > (STKUN)) may be used in two different
ways:
• Fatal error indication treats the stack underflow as a system error through the
associated trap service routine.
• Automatic system stack refilling allows the use of the system stack as a “Stack
Cache” for a bigger external user stack. In this case the STKUN register should be
initialized to a value which represents the desired highest Bottom of Stack address.
Scope of Stack Limit Control
The stack limit control, realized by the register pair STKOV and STKUN, detects cases
where the stack pointer SP is moved outside the defined stack area either by ADD or
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SUB instructions or by PUSH or POP operations (explicit or implicit, i.e. CALL or RET
instructions).
This control mechanism is not triggered, i.e. no stack trap is generated, when
• the stack pointer SP is directly updated via MOV instructions
• the limits of the stack area (STKOV, STKUN) are changed, so that SP is outside of
the new limits.
The Multiply/Divide High Register MDH
This register is a part of the 32-bit multiply/divide register, which is implicitly used by the
CPU, when it performs a multiplication or a division. After a multiplication, this non-bit
addressable register represents the high order 16 bits of the 32-bit result. For long
division, the MDH register must be loaded with the high order 16 bits of the 32-bit
dividend before the division is started. After any division, the MDH register represents
the 16-bit remainder.
MDH
15 14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
Reset Value: 0000H
3
2
1
0
mdh
rw
Bit
Function
mdh
Specifies the high order 16 bits of the 32-bit multiply and divide register
MD.
Whenever this register is updated via software, the Multiply/Divide Register In Use
(MDRIU) flag in the Multiply/Divide Control register (MDC) is set to ‘1’.
When multiplication or division is interrupted before its completion and when a new
multiply or divide operation is to be performed within the interrupt service routine, the
MDH register must be saved along with the MDL and MDC registers to avoid erroneous
results.
The Multiply/Divide Low Register MDL
This register is a part of the 32-bit multiply/divide register which is implicitly used by the
CPU when it performs a multiplication or a division. After multiplication, this non-bit
addressable register represents the low order 16 bits of the 32-bit result. For long
division, the MDL register must be loaded with the low order 16 bits of the 32-bit dividend
before the division is started. After any division, the MDL register represents the 16-bit
quotient.
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MDL
15 14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
Reset Value: 0000H
3
2
1
0
mdl
rw
Bit
Function
mdl
Specifies the low order 16 bits of the 32-bit multiply and divide register
MD.
Whenever this register is updated via software, the Multiply/Divide Register In Use
(MDRIU) flag in the Multiply/Divide Control register (MDC) is set to ‘1’. The MDRIU flag
is cleared whenever the MDL register is read via software.
When multiplication or division is interrupted before its completion and when a new
multiply or divide operation is to be performed within the interrupt service routine, the
MDL register must be saved along with the MDH and MDC registers to avoid erroneous
results.
The Multiply/Divide Control Register MDC
This bit addressable 16-bit register is implicitly used by the CPU when it performs
multiplication or division. It is used to store the required control information for the
corresponding multiply or divide operations. The MDC register is updated by hardware
during each single cycle of a multiply or divide instruction.
MDC
15 14
-
-
13
-
-
12
-
-
11
-
-
10
9
-
-
8
-
-
-
7
-
-
6
!!
5
!!
4
!!
MDR
IU
Reset Value: 0000H
3
2
1
0
!!
!!
!!
!!
r(w) r(w) r(w) r(w) r(w) r(w) r(w) r(w)
Bit
Function
MDRIU
Multiply/Divide Register In Use
‘0’: Cleared, when register MDL is read via software.
‘1’: Set when the MDL or MDH register is written via software, or when
a multiply or divide instruction is executed.
!!
Internal Machine Status
The multiply/divide unit uses these bits to control internal operations.
Never modify these bits without saving and restoring the MDC register.
When division or multiplication is interrupted before its completion and the multiply/divide
unit is required, the MDC register must first be saved along with the MDH and MDL
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registers (to be able to restart the interrupted operation later), and then it must be cleared
to prepare it for the new calculation. After the completion of the new division or
multiplication the state of the interrupted multiply or divide operation must be restored.
The MDRIU flag is the only portion of the MDC register which might be of interest to the
user. The remaining portions of the MDC register are reserved for dedicated use by the
hardware, and should never be modified by the user in any way other than described
above. Otherwise a correct continuation of an interrupted multiply or divide operation
cannot be guaranteed.
The Constant Zeros Register ZEROS
All bits of this bit-addressable register are fixed to ‘0’ by hardware. This register can be
read only. The ZEROS register can be used as a register-addressable constant of all
zeros, i.e. for bit manipulation or mask generation. It can be accessed via any instruction
which is capable of addressing an SFR.
ZEROS
15 14
0
r
13
12
11
10
0
0
0
0
0
r
r
r
r
r
9
8
0
r
7
0
r
6
0
r
5
0
r
Reset Value: 0000H
3
2
1
0
4
0
r
0
r
0
r
0
r
0
r
0
r
The Constant Ones Register ONES
All bits of this bit-addressable register are fixed to ‘1’ by hardware. This register can be
read only. The ONES register can be used as a register-addressable constant of all
ones, i.e. for bit manipulation or mask generation. It can be accessed via any instruction
which is capable of addressing an SFR.
ONES (FF1EH / 8FH)
15 14 13 12 11
1
r
1
r
1
r
1
r
10
1
r
9
1
r
8
1
r
7
1
r
6
1
r
5
1
r
4
1
r
Reset Value: FFFFH
3
2
1
0
1
r
1
r
1
r
1
r
1
r
Note: Register SYSCON cannot be changed after execution of the EINIT instruction.
Identification Register Block
All new derivatives of 16-bit microcontrollers provide a set of identification registers that
offer information on the HW-status of the chip.The ID registers are read only registers.
They are placed in the extended SFR area.
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IDCHIP
15 14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
CHIPID(7..0)
CHIPREVNU(7..0)
r
r
1
0
Bit
Function
CHIPREVNU
(7 … 0)
Device Revision Code
Identifies the device step where the first release is marked ‘01H’.
CHIPID
(7 … 0)
Device Identification
Identifies the device name.
IDMANUF
15 14 13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
-
MANUF
1
-
0
-
-
r
Bit
Function
MANUF
JEDEC Normalized Manufacturer Code
0C1H: Infineon Technologies
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SDA 6000
Interrupt and Trap Functions
5
Interrupt and Trap Functions
The C166 architecture supports several mechanisms for fast and flexible response to
service requests that can be generated from various sources either by the CPU itself or
external, i.e. peripherals connected to the XBUS or the PD bus.
These mechanisms include:
Normal Interrupt Processing
The CPU temporarily suspends the current program execution and branches to an
interrupt service routine in order to service an interrupt requesting device. The current
program status (IP, PSW, also CSP in segmentation mode) is saved on the internal
system stack. A prioritization scheme with 16 priority levels allows the user to specify the
order in which multiple interrupt requests are to be handled.
Interrupt Processing via the Peripheral Event Controller (PEC)
A faster alternative to normal software controlled interrupt processing is to service an
interrupt requesting device with the integrated Peripheral Event Controller (PEC).
Triggered by an interrupt request, the PEC performs a single word or byte data transfer
between any two locations in the whole memory space through one of nine
programmable PEC Service Channels. During a PEC transfer the normal program
execution of the CPU is halted for just 1 instruction cycle. No internal program status
information needs to be saved. The same prioritization scheme is used for PEC service
as for normal interrupt processing. PEC transfers share the 2 highest priority levels.
M2 enhances the functionalities of the original C166 PEC with the following features:
• PEC range extended to the entire memory space,
• new chaining mechanism between pairs of PEC channels.
Trap Functions
Trap functions are activated in response to special conditions that occur during the
execution of instructions. Several hardware trap functions are provided for handling
erroneous conditions and exceptions that arise during the execution of an instruction.
Hardware traps always have highest priority and cause immediate system reaction. The
software trap function is invoked by the TRAP instruction, which generates a software
interrupt for a specified interrupt vector. For all types of traps the current program status
is saved on the system stack.
5.1
Interrupt System Structure
M2 provides up to 33 separate interrupt nodes that may be assigned to 16 priority levels.
Each node is associated with an interrupt input line in the Interrupt System Interface of
the CPU. In order to support modular and consistent software design techniques, all
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Interrupt and Trap Functions
interrupt nodes are supplied with a separate interrupt control register and interrupt
vector. The control register contains the interrupt request flag, the interrupt enable bit,
and the interrupt priority of the associated node.
The C166 architecture provides a vectored interrupt system. In this system specific
vector locations in the memory space are reserved for the reset, trap, and interrupt
service functions. Whenever a request occurs, the CPU branches to the location that is
associated with the respective interrupt source. This allows direct identification of the
source that caused the request. The only exceptions are the class B hardware traps,
which all share the same interrupt vector. The status flags in the Trap Flag Register
(TFR) can then be used to determine which exception caused the trap. For the special
software TRAP instruction, the vector address is specified by the operand field of the
instruction, which is a seven bit trap number.
The reserved vector locations build a jump table in the low end of the address space
(segment 0). The jump table is made up of the appropriate jump instructions that transfer
control to the interrupt or trap service routines, which may be located anywhere within
the address space. The entries of the jump table are located at the lowest addresses in
code segment 0 of the address space. Each entry occupies 2 words, except for the reset
vector and the hardware trap vectors which occupy 4 or 8 words.
5.1.1
Interrupt Allocation Table
M2 provides 33 separate interrupt nodes that may be assigned to 16 priority levels. In
addition to the standard peripheral and external interrupts, there are some teletext
related interrupts which support the realtime processing of the sliced data and the
generation of the graphical data. Its fast external interrupt inputs are sampled every 3 ns
and are even able to recognize very short external signals.
The Table 5-1 lists all sources that are capable of requesting interrupt or PEC service in
M2, the associated interrupt vectors, their locations and the associated trap numbers. It
also lists the mnemonics of the affected interrupt request flags and their corresponding
interrupt enable flags. The mnemonics are composed of a part that specifies the
respective source, followed by a part that specifies their function (IR = Interrupt Request
flag, IE = Interrupt Enable flag).
Table 5-1
Interrupt Allocation Table
Source of Interrupt or PEC
Service Request
Interrupt
Control
Register
Address of Interrupt
Control
Vector
Register
Location
Trap
Number
External Interrupt 0
EX0IC
00’FF88H
00’0060H
18H/24D
External Interrupt 1
EX1IC
00’FF8AH
00’0064H
19H/25D
External Interrupt 2
EX2IC
00’FF8CH
00’0068H
1AH/26D
External Interrupt 3
EX3IC
00’FF8EH
00’006CH
1BH/27D
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Interrupt and Trap Functions
Table 5-1
Interrupt Allocation Table (cont’d)
Source of Interrupt or PEC
Service Request
Interrupt
Control
Register
Address of Interrupt
Control
Vector
Register
Location
Trap
Number
External Interrupt 4
EX4IC
00’FF90H
00’0070H
1CH/28D
External Interrupt 5
EX5IC
00’FF92H
00’0074H
1DH/29D
External Interrupt 6
EX6IC
00’FF94H
00’0078H
1EH/30D
External Interrupt 7
EX7IC
00’FF96H
00’007CH
1FH/31D
GPT1 Timer 2
T2IC
00’FF60H
00’0088H
22H/34D
GPT1 Timer 3
T3IC
00’FF62H
00’008CH
23H/35D
GPT1 Timer 4
T4IC
00’FF64H
00’0090H
24H/36D
GPT2 Timer 5
T5IC
00’FF66H
00’0094H
25H/37D
GPT2 Timer 6
T6IC
00’FF68H
00’0098H
26H/38D
GPT2 CAPREL Register
CRIC
00’FF6AH
00’009CH
27H/39D
A/D1 Conversion Complete
ADC1IC
00’FF98H
00’00A0H
28H/40D
A/D2 Conversion Complete
ADC2IC
00’FF9AH
00’00A4H
29H/40D
ASC0 Transmit
S0TIC
00’FF6CH
00’00A8H
2AH/42D
ASC0 Transmit Buffer
S0TBIC
00’F19CH
00’011CH
47H/71D
ASC0 Receive
S0RIC
00’FF6EH
00’00ACH
2BH/43D
ASC0 Autobaud Detection Start ABSTAIC
00’FF9EH
00’0084H
21H/33D
ASC0 Autobaud Detection Stop ABSTOIC
00’F17AH
00’00F4H
3DH/61D
ASC0 Error
S0EIC
00’FF70H
00’00B0H
2CH/44D
SSC Transmit
SSCTIC
00’FF72H
00’00B4H
2DH/45D
SSC Receive
SSCRIC
00’FF74H
00’00B8H
2EH/46D
SSC Error
SSCEIC
00’FF76H
00’00BCH
2FH/47D
I2C Data Transfer Event
I2CTIC
00’F194H
00’0118H
46H/70D
I2C Protocol Event
I2CPIC
00’F18CH
00’0114H
45H/69D
I2C Transmission End Event
I2CTEIC
00’F184H
00’0110H
44H/68D
ADC Wake Up
ADWIC
00’F178H
00’00F0H
3CH/60D
ACQ Interrupt *
ACQIC
00’F176H
00’00ECH
3BH/59D
Display Vertical Sync *
VSDISIC
00’F174H
00’00E8H
3AH/58D
Display Horizontal Sync *
HSDISIC
00’F172H
00’00E4H
39H/57D
Graphic Acc. Finished *
GAFIC
00’FF9CH
00’0080H
20H/32D
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Interrupt and Trap Functions
Table 5-1
Interrupt Allocation Table (cont’d)
Source of Interrupt or PEC
Service Request
Interrupt
Control
Register
Address of Interrupt
Control
Vector
Register
Location
Trap
Number
Realtime Clock
RTCIC
00’F19EH
00’010CH
43H/67D
PECC Link IRQ
PECCLIC
00’F180H
00’004CH
4CH/76D
Note: Each entry of the interrupt vector table provides room for two word instructions or
one doubleword instruction. The respective vector location results from multiplying
the trap number by 4 (4 bytes per entry).
Note: * = Interrupts relevant for acquisition and graphic support.
5.1.2
Hardware Traps
The Table 5-2 lists the vector locations for hardware traps and the corresponding status
flags in the TFR register. It also lists the priorities of trap service for cases where more
than one trap condition might be detected within the same instruction. After any reset,
program execution starts at the reset vector at location 00’0000H. Reset conditions have
priority over every other system activity and therefore have the highest priority (trap
priority IV).
Software traps may be initiated to any vector location between 00’0000H and 00’01FCH.
A service routine entered via a software TRAP instruction is always executed on the
current CPU priority level which is indicated in bit field ILVL in register PSW. This means
that routines entered via the software TRAP instruction can be interrupted by all
hardware traps or higher level interrupt requests.
Table 5-2
Exception Condition
Trap
Flag
Trap
Vector
Vector
Location
Trap
Number
Trap
Priority
–
RESET
RESET
RESET
00’0000H
00’0000H
00’0000H
00H
00H
00H
IV
IV
IV
Debug Hardware Trap
DEBUG
DTRAP
00’0020H
08H
III
Class A Hardware Traps:
Non-Maskable Interrupt
Stack Overflow
Stack Underflow
NMI
STKOF
STKUF
NMITRAP 00’0008H
STOTRAP 00’0010H
STUTRAP 00’0018H
02H
04H
06H
II
II
II
Reset Functions:
Hardware Reset
Software Reset
Watchdog Timer
Overflow
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Interrupt and Trap Functions
Table 5-2
(cont’d)
Exception Condition
Trap
Vector
Vector
Location
Trap
Number
Trap
Priority
UNDOPC BTRAP
PRTFLT BTRAP
00’0028H
00’0028H
0AH
0AH
I
I
ILLOPA
BTRAP
00’0028H
0AH
I
ILLINA
ILLBUS
BTRAP
BTRAP
00’0028H
00’0028H
0AH
0AH
I
I
Reserved
–
–
[2CH – 3CH] [0BH – 0FH] –
Software Traps
TRAP Instruction
–
–
Any
Any
Current
[00’0000H – [00H – 7FH] CPU
00’01FCH]
Priority
in steps
of 4H
Class B Hardware Traps:
Undefined Opcode
Protected Instruction
Fault
Illegal Word Operand
Access
Illegal Instruction Access
Illegal External Bus
Access
Trap
Flag
Normal Interrupt Processing and PEC Service
During each instruction cycle one out of all sources which require PEC or interrupt
processing is selected according to its interrupt priority. This prioritization of interrupts
and PEC requests is programmable in two levels. Each requesting source can be
assigned to a specific priority. A second level (called “group priority”) allows the
specification of an internal order for simultaneous requests from a group of different
sources on the same priority level. At the end of each instruction cycle the one source
request with the highest current priority will be determined by the interrupt system. This
request will then be serviced if its priority is higher than the current CPU priority in the
PSW register.
Interrupt System Register
Description Interrupt processing is controlled globally by the PSW register through a
general interrupt enable bit (IEN) and the CPU priority field (ILVL). Additionally the
different interrupt sources are controlled individually by their specific interrupt control
registers (… IC). Thus, the acceptance of requests by the CPU is determined by both
the individual interrupt control registers and the PSW. PEC services are controlled by the
respective PECCx register and the source and destination pointers, which specify the
task of the respective PEC service channel.
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Interrupt Control Registers
All interrupt control registers are organized identically. The lower 8 bits of an interrupt
control register contain the complete interrupt status information of the associated
source which is required during one round of prioritization; the upper 8 bits of the
respective register are reserved. All interrupt control registers are bit-addressable and
all bits can be read or written via software. This allows each interrupt source to be
programmed or modified with just one instruction. When accessing interrupt control
registers through instructions which operate on word data types, their upper 8 bits
(15 … 8) will return zeros when read, and will discard written data.
Note: The layout of the Interrupt Control registers shown below applies to each xxIC
register, where xx stands for the mnemonic for the respective source.
Interrupt Node Sharing
The interrupt controller of M2 can be configured to control up to 33 different sources. If
there is a need for a greater number of interrupt sources to be managed, interrupt
requests may share the same interrupt node. In this case, all the sources on the same
node share the priority level defined by the corresponding Interrupt Control register xxIC
and may be globally enabled/disabled by the IE bit of this register.
Arbitration between sources connected to the same node must be performed by the
interrupt handler associated with this node. For low rate requests, the software overhead
is not critical.
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Interrupt and Trap Functions
xxIC
15
-
Reset Value: - - 00H
14
-
13
-
12
-
11
-
10
-
9
-
8
-
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
xxIR
xxIE
ILVL
GLVL
rw
rw
rw
rw
Bit
Function
GLVL
Group Level
Defines the internal order for simultaneous requests of the same priority.
3:
Highest group priority
0:
Lowest group priority
ILVL
Interrupt Priority Level
Defines the priority level for the arbitration of requests.
FH: Highest priority level
0H: Lowest priority level
xxIE
Interrupt Enable Control Bit (individually enables/disables a specific
source)
‘0’: Interrupt request is disabled
‘1’: Interrupt Request is enabled
xxIR
Interrupt Request Flag
‘0’: No request pending
‘1’: This source has raised an interrupt request
The Interrupt Request Flag is set by hardware whenever a service request from the
respective source occurs. It is cleared automatically upon entry into the interrupt service
routine or upon a PEC service. In the case of PEC service, the Interrupt Request flag
remains set if the COUNT field in register PECCx of the selected PEC channel
decrements to zero. This allows a normal CPU interrupt to respond to a completed PEC
block transfer.
Note: Modifying the Interrupt Request flag via software causes the same effect as if it
had been set or cleared by hardware.
Interrupt Priority Level and Group Level
The four bits of an ILVL bit field specify the priority level of a service request for the
arbitration of simultaneous requests. The priority increases with the numerical value of
ILVL, so 0000B is the lowest and 1111B is the highest priority level.
When more than one interrupt request on a specific level becomes active at the same
time, the values in the respective GLVL bit fields are used for second level arbitration to
select one request for servicing. Again the group priority increases with the numerical
value of GLVL, so 00B is the lowest and 11B is the highest group priority.
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Note: All interrupt request sources that are enabled and programmed to the same
priority level must always be programmed to different group priorities. Otherwise
an incorrect interrupt vector will be generated.
Upon entry into the interrupt service routine the priority level of the source that won the
arbitration and who’s priority level is higher than the current CPU level, is copied into the
ILVL bit field of register PSW after pushing the old PSW contents onto the stack.
The interrupt system of M2 allows nesting of up to 15 interrupt service routines of
different priority levels (level 0 cannot be arbitrated).
Interrupt requests that are programmed to priority levels 15 or 14 (i.e., ILVL = 111XB) will
be serviced by the PEC unless the COUNT field of the associated PECC register
contains zero. In this case the request will instead be serviced by normal interrupt
processing. Interrupt requests that are programmed to priority levels 13 through 1 will
always be serviced by normal interrupt processing.
Note: Priority level 0000B is the default level of the CPU. Therefore a request on level 0
will never be serviced, because it can never interrupt the CPU. However, an
enabled interrupt request on level 0000B will terminate the Idle mode and
reactivate the CPU.
For interrupt requests which are to be serviced by the PEC, the associated PEC channel
number is derived from the respective ILVL (LSB) and GLVL (see Figure 5-1). So
programming a source to priority level 15 (ILVL = 1111B) selects the PEC channel group
7 … 4, programming a source to priority level 14 (ILVL = 1110B) selects the PEC
channel group 3 … 0. The actual PEC channel number is then determined by the GLVL
group priority field.
Interrupt
Control Register
ILVL
PEC Control
GLVL
PEC Channel #
UED11127
Figure 5-1
Priority Levels and PEC Channels
Simultaneous requests for PEC channels are prioritized according to the PEC channel
number, where channel 0 has lowest and channel 8 has highest priority.
Note: All sources that request PEC service must be programmed to different PEC
channels. Otherwise an incorrect PEC channel may be activated.
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The table below shows a few examples of each action executed with each particular
programming of an interrupt control register.
Priority Level
Type of Service
ILVL
GLVL
COUNT = 00H
COUNT ≠ 00H
1111
11
CPU interrupt,
level 15, group priority 3
PEC service,
channel 7
1111
10
CPU interrupt,
level 15, group priority 2
PEC service,
channel 6
1110
10
CPU interrupt,
level 14, group priority 2
PEC service,
channel 2
1101
10
CPU interrupt,
level 13, group priority 2
CPU interrupt,
level 13, group priority 2
0001
11
CPU interrupt,
level 1, group priority 3
CPU interrupt,
level 1, group priority 3
0001
00
CPU interrupt,
level 1, group priority 0
CPU interrupt,
level 1, group priority 0
0000
XX
No service!
No service!
Note: All requests on levels 13 … 1 cannot initiate PEC transfers. They are always
serviced by an interrupt service routine. No PECC register is associated and no
COUNT field is checked.
Interrupt Control Functions in the PSW
The Processor Status Word (PSW) is functionally divided into 2 parts: the lower byte of
the PSW basically represents the arithmetic status of the CPU, the upper byte of the
PSW controls the interrupt system of M2 and the arbitration mechanism for the external
bus interface.
Note: Pipeline effects have to be considered when enabling/disabling interrupt requests
via modifications of register PSW.
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Interrupt and Trap Functions
PSW
15
Reset Value: 0000H
14
13
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
ILVL
IEN
HLD
EN
-
-
-
USR0
MUL
IP
E
Z
V
C
N
rw
rw
rw
-
-
-
rw
rw
rw
rw
rw
rw
rw
Bit
12
Function
N, C, V, Z, E, CPU status flags (Described in Chapter 4.6)
MULIP,
Define the current status of the CPU (ALU, multiplication unit).
USR0
HLDEN
HOLD Enable (Enables External Bus Arbitration)
0:
Bus arbitration disabled, P6.7 ... P6.5 may be used for general
purpose IO
1:
Bus arbitration enabled, P6.7 ... P6.5 serve as BREQ, HLDA,
HOLD, resp.
ILVL
CPU Priority Level
Defines the current priority level for the CPU
FH: Highest priority level
0H: Lowest priority level
IEN
Interrupt Enable Control Bit (globally enables/disables interrupt
requests)
‘0’: Interrupt requests are disabled
‘1’: Interrupt requests are enabled
CPU Priority ILVL defines the current level for the operation of the CPU. This bit field
reflects the priority level of the routine that is currently being executed. Upon entry into
an interrupt service routine, this bit field is updated with the priority level of the request
that is being serviced. The PSW is saved on the system stack before. The CPU level
determines the minimum interrupt priority level that will be serviced. Any request on the
same or lower level will not be acknowledged.
The current CPU priority level may be adjusted via software, to control which interrupt
request sources will be acknowledged.
PEC transfers do not really interrupt the CPU, but rather “steal” a single cycle, so PEC
services do not influence the ILVL field in the PSW.
Hardware traps switch the CPU level to maximum priority (i.e. 15) so no interrupt or PEC
requests will be acknowledged while an exception trap service routine is being executed.
Note: The TRAP instruction does not change the CPU level, so software invoked trap
service routines may be interrupted by higher requests.
Interrupt Enable bit IEN globally enables or disables PEC operations and the
acceptance of interrupts by the CPU. When IEN is cleared, no new interrupt requests
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are accepted by the CPU. However requests that have already entered the pipeline at
that time will be processed. When IEN is set to ‘1’, all interrupt sources, which have been
individually enabled by the interrupt enable bits in their associated control registers, are
globally enabled.
Note: Traps are non-maskable and are therefore not affected by the IEN bit.
5.2
Operation of the PEC Channels
M2’s Peripheral Event Controller (PEC) provides 8 PEC service channels, which move
a single byte or word between two locations in the entire memory space. Packet
transfers are provided with channels 0 and 1. This is the fastest possible interrupt
response and in many cases is sufficient to service the respective peripheral request
(e.g. serial channels, etc.). Each channel is controlled by a dedicated PEC Channel
Counter/Control register (PECCx) and a pair of pointers for the source (SRCPx) and
destination (DSTPx) of the data transfer.
The PECC registers control the action that is performed by the respective PEC channel.
Compared to existing C16x architectures, the PEC transfer function is enhanced by
extended functionality. The extended PEC functions are defined as follows:
• Source pointer and destination pointer are extended to 24-bit pointer, thus enabling
PEC controlled data transfers between any two locations within the total address
space. Both 8-bit segment numbers of every source/destination pointer pair are
defined in one 16-bit SFR register; thus, 8 PEC segment number registers are
available for the 8 PEC channels.
• For every two channels a chaining feature is provided. When enabled in the PEC
control register, a termination interrupt of one channel will automatically switch
transfer control to the other channel of the channel pair.
Extended PEC Channel Control
The PEC control registers with the extended functionality and their application for new
PEC control are defined as follows:
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PECCx
15
Reset Value: 0000H
14
-
13
-
-
12
11
CLT
CL
rw
rw
10
9
INC(1..0)
rw
8
7
6
5
4
3
BWT
COUNT (7...0)
rw
rw
2
1
Bit
Function
COUNT
(7 … 0)
PEC Transfer Count
Counts PEC transfers (bytes or words) and influences the channel’s
action.
BWT
Byte / Word Transfer Selection
0:
Transfer a Word.
1:
Transfer a Byte.
INC(1 … 0)
Increment Control
(Modification of SRCPx or DSTPx)
0 0: Pointers are not modified.
0 1: Increment DSTPx by 1 or 2.
1 0: Increment SRCPx by 1 or 2.
1 1: Reserved. Do not use this combination.
CL
Channel Link Control
0:
PEC channels work independent
1:
Pairs of channels are linked together
CLT
Channel Link Toggle State
0:
Even numbered PEC channel of linked channels active
1:
Odd numbered PEC channel of linked channels active
Table 5-3
PEC Control Register Addresses
0
Register
Address
Reg. Space
Register
Address
Reg. Space
PECC0
FEC0H / 60H
SFR
PECC4
FEC8H / 64H
SFR
PECC1
FEC2H / 61H
SFR
PECC5
FECAH / 65H
SFR
PECC2
FEC4H / 62H
SFR
PECC6
FECCH / 66H
SFR
PECC3
FEC6H / 63H
SFR
PECC7
FECEH / 67H
SFR
Byte/Word Transfer bit BWT controls, if a byte or a word is moved during a PEC
service cycle. This selection controls the transferred data size and the increment step for
the modified pointer.
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Increment Control Field INC controls, if one of the PEC pointers is incremented after
the PEC transfer. However, it is not possible to increment both pointers. If the pointers
are not modified (INC = ‘00’) the respective channel will always move data from the
same source to the same destination.
Note: The reserved combination ‘11’ is changed to ‘10’ by hardware. However, it is not
recommended to use this combination.
The PEC Transfer Count Field COUNT controls the action of a respective PEC channel,
where the content of bit field COUNT, at the time the request is activated, selects the
action. COUNT may allow a specified number of PEC transfers, unlimited transfers or
no PEC service at all.
The table below summarizes, how the COUNT field itself, the interrupt requests flag IR
and the PEC channel action depends on the previous content of COUNT.
Previous
COUNT
Modified
COUNT
IR after PEC Action of PEC Channel
service
and Comments
FFH
FFH
‘0’
Move a Byte / Word
Continuous transfer mode, i.e. COUNT is not
modified
FEH … 02H FDH … 01H ‘0’
Move a Byte / Word and decrement COUNT
01H
00H
‘1’
Move a Byte / Word
Leave request flag set, which triggers another
request
00H
00H
(‘1’)
No action!
Activate interrupt service routine rather than
PEC channel.
The PEC transfer counter allows the servicing of a specified number of requests by the
respective PEC channel, and then (when COUNT reaches 00H) activates the interrupt
service routine, which is associated with the priority level. After each PEC transfer the
COUNT field is decremented and the request flag is cleared to indicate that the request
has been serviced.
Continuous transfers are selected by the value FFH in bit field COUNT. In this case
COUNT is not modified and the respective PEC channel services any request until it is
disabled again.
When COUNT is decremented from 01H to 00H after a transfer the request flag is not
cleared, which generates another request from the same source. When COUNT already
contains the value 00H, the respective PEC channel remains idle and the associated
interrupt service routine is activated instead. This provides a choice if a level 15 or 14
request is to be serviced by the PEC or by the interrupt service routine.
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Note: PEC transfers are only executed if their priority level is higher than the CPU level,
i.e. only PEC channels 7 … 4 are processed, while the CPU executes on level 14.
All interrupt request sources that are enabled and programmed for PEC service
should use different channels. Otherwise only one transfer will be performed for
all simultaneous requests. When COUNT is decremented to 00H, and the CPU is
interrupted, an incorrect interrupt vector will be generated.
Channel Link Mode for Data Chaining
Data chaining with linked PEC channels is enabled if the channel link control bit in
PECCx register is set to ‘1’ either in one or both PEC channel control registers of a
channel pair. In this case, two PEC channels are linked together and handle chained
block transfers alternatively to each other. The whole data transfer is divided into several
block transfers where each block is controlled by one PEC channel of a channel pair.
When a data block is completely transferred a channel link interrupt is generated and
the PEC service request processing is automatically switched to the “other” PEC
channel of the channel-pair. Thus, PEC service requests addressed to a linked PEC
channel are either handled by linked PEC channel A or by linked PEC channel B. This
channel toggle allows the setting up of shadow and multiple buffers for PEC transfers by
changing pointer and count values of one channel while the other channel is active. The
following table lists the channels that can be linked together, and the channel numbers
to address the linked channels.
Linked PEC Channels
Linked PEC Channel
PEC Channel
A
PEC Channel
B
channel 0
channel 1
channel 0
channel 2
channel 3
channel 2
channel 4
channel 5
channel 4
channel 6
channel 7
channel 6
For each pair of linked channels an internal channel flag, the channel link toggle flag
CLT, identifies which of the two PEC channels will serve the next PEC request. The CLT
flag is indicated in both PECCx registers of the two linked PEC channels, where the CLT
bit in channel B is always inverse to the CLT bit in channel A. The very first transfer is
always started with the channel A if the CLT bit is not otherwise programmed before. The
CLT bit is only valid in the case of linked PEC channels, indicated by the CL bits of linked
channels. If linking is not enabled, the CLT bit of both channels is always zero.
The internal channel link flag CLT toggles, and the other channel begins servicing with
the next request if the “old” channel stops the service (COUNT = 0), and if the new
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channel has in its PEC control register the enabled CL flag and if its transfer count is
more than zero.
Note: With the last transfer of a block transfer (COUNT = 0), the channel link control flag
CL of that channel is cleared in its PECCx register. If the CL channel link flag of
the new (chained) PEC control register is found to be zero, the whole data transfer
is finished and the channel link interrupt is coincidentally a termination interrupt.
The channel link mode is finished and the internal channel toggle flag is cleared
after the last transfer of the block, if the CL flags of both pair channels are cleared.
Additional Interrupt Request Node for Channel Link Interrupts
The PEC unit has one dedicated service request node (trap number) for all channel link
interrupts. This service request node requests CPU interrupt service in case of one or
more channel link request flags and the respective enable control bit being set in the
channel link interrupt subnode control register (CLISNC). These flags indicate a channel
link interrupt condition of linked PEC channels (A and B channels) which requires
support from the CPU. The following channel link interrupt conditions requesting CPU
service are possible:
• In single transfer mode a COUNT value change from 01H to 00H in a linked PEC
channel and CL flag is set in the respective PEC control register.
In this case the CPU service is requested to update the PEC control and pointer registers
while the next block transfer is executed (the whole transfer is divided into separately
controlled block transfers). The last block transfer is determined by the missing link bit
in the new (linked) PEC control register. If a new service request hits a linked channel
with count equal to zero and channel link flag disabled, a standard interrupt, as known
from standard PEC channels, is performed.
The channel link interrupt subnode register CLISNC is defined as follows:
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CLISNC
15
-
14
Reset Value: 0000H
13
12
C6
IR
C6
IE
rw
rw
-
11
10
-
-
9
8
7
6
C4
IR
C4
IE
-
-
rw
rw
5
4
3
2
C2
IR
C2
IE
-
-
rw
rw
1
0
C0
IR
C0
IE
rw
rw
Bit
Function
xxIE
PEC Channel Link Interrupt Enable Control Bit
(individually enables/disables a specific channel pair interrupt request)
‘0’: PEC interrupt request is disabled
‘1’:
PEC interrupt request is enabled
xxIR
PEC Channel Service Request Flag
‘0’: No channel link service request pending
‘1’: This source (channel pair) has raised an request to service a PEC
channel after channel linking
The source and destination pointers specifiy the locations between which the data is
to be moved. PEC transfers can be performed between any locations in the entire
memory space of the M2. For each of the 8 PEC channels, the source and destination
addresses are specified by a 8-bit segment number and a 16-bit offset. The source and
destination segment numbers, respectively PECSSN and PECDSN, are stored in a SFR
associated with each channel (PECSNx, see description below). The offset pointers for
the source and destination address do not reside in specific SFRs, but are mapped into
the internal RAM of the M2 just below the bit-addressable area (see Figure 5-2).
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DSTP7
00’FCFE H
DSTP3
00’FCEE H
SRCP7
00’FCFC H
SRCP3
00’FCEC H
DSTP6
00’FCFA H
DSTP2
00’FCEA H
SRCP6
00’FCF8 H
SRCP2
00’FCE8 H
DSTP5
00’FCF6 H
DSTP1
00’FCE6 H
SRCP5
00’FCF4 H
SRCP1
00’FCE4 H
DSTP4
00’FCF2 H
DSTP0
00’FCE2 H
SRCP4
00’FCF0 H
SRCP0
00’FCE0 H
UED11128
Figure 5-2
Mapping of PEC Offset Pointers into the Internal RAM
The pointer locations for inactive PEC channels may be used for general data storage.
Only the required pointers occupy RAM locations.
PECSNx
15
14
Reset Value: 0000H
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
PECDSN (7...0)
PECSSN (7...0)
rw
rw
2
1
0
Bit
Function
PECSSN
(7 … 0)
PEC Source Segment Number
8-bit Segment Number (address bits A23 … 16) used for addressing the
source of the respective PEC transfer.
PECDSN
(7 … 0)
PEC Destination Segment Number
8-bit Segment Number (address bits A23 … 16) used for addressing the
destination of the respective PEC transfer.
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Table 5-4
PEC Segment Number Register Addresses
Register
Address
Reg. Space
Register
Address
Reg. Space
PECSN0
FED0H / 68H
SFR
PECSN4
FED8H / 6CH SFR
PECSN1
FED2H / 69H
SFR
PECSN5
FEDAH / 6DH SFR
PECSN2
FED4H / 6AH
SFR
PECSN6
FEDCH / 6EH SFR
PECSN3
FED6H / 6BH
SFR
PECSN7
FEDEH / 6FH SFR
If a word data transfer is selected for a specific PEC channel (i.e. BWT = ‘0’), the
respective source and destination pointers must both contain a valid word address which
points to an even byte boundary. Otherwise the Illegal Word Access trap will be invoked
when this channel is used.
5.2.1
Prioritization of Interrupt and PEC Service Requests
Interrupt and PEC service requests from all sources can be enabled so they are
arbitrated and serviced (if they win), or they may be disabled so their requests are
disregarded and not serviced.
Enabling and disabling interrupt requests may be done via three mechanisms:
Control Bits allow the switching of each individual source to “ON” or “OFF” so that it may
generate a request or not. The control bits (xxIE) are located in the respective interrupt
control registers. All interrupt requests can generally be enabled or disabled via the IEN
bit in register PSW. This control bit is the “main switch” that selects whether requests
from any source are accepted or not.
For a specific request to be arbitrated the respective source’s enable bit and the global
enable bit must both be set.
The Priority Level automatically selects a certain group of interrupt requests that will be
acknowledged, disclosing all other requests. The priority level of the source that won the
arbitration is compared with the CPU’s current level and the source is only serviced if its
level is higher than the current CPU level. Changing the CPU level to a specific value via
software blocks all requests on the same or a lower level. An interrupt source that is
assigned to level 0 will be disabled and never be serviced.
The ATOMIC and EXTend instructions automatically disable all interrupt requests for
the duration of the following 1 … 4 instructions. This is useful e.g. for semaphore
handling and does not require re-enabling the interrupt system after the inseparable
instruction sequence.
Interrupt Class Management
An interrupt class covers a set of interrupt sources with the same importance, i.e. the
same priority from the system’s viewpoint. Interrupts of the same class must not interrupt
each other. M2 supports this function with two features:
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Classes with up to 4 members can be established by using the same interrupt priority
(ILVL) and assigning a dedicated group level (GLVL) to each member. This functionality
is built-in and handled automatically by the interrupt controller.
Classes with more than 4 members can be established by using a number of adjacent
interrupt priorities (ILVL) and the respective group levels (4 per ILVL). Each interrupt
service routine within this class sets the CPU level to the highest interrupt priority within
the class. All requests from the same or any lower level are blocked now, i.e. no request
of this class will be accepted.
The example below establishes 3 interrupt classes which cover 2 or 3 interrupt priorities,
depending on the number of members in a class. A level 6 interrupt disables all other
sources in class 2 by changing the current CPU level to 8, which is the highest priority
(ILVL) in class 2. Class 1 requests or PEC requests are still serviced in this case.
The 24 interrupt sources (excluding PEC requests) are assigned to 3 classes of priority
rather than to 7 different levels, as the hardware support would do.
Table 5-5
ILVL
(Priority
Software controlled Interrupt Classes (Example)
GLVL
3
2
1
Interpretation
0
15
PEC service on up to 8 channels
14
13
12
X
11
X
X
X
X
Interrupt Class 1
5 sources on 2 levels
Interrupt Class 2
9 sources on 3 levels
10
9
8
X
X
X
X
7
X
X
X
X
6
X
5
X
X
X
X
4
X
Interrupt Class 3
5 sources on 2 levels
3
2
1
0
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5.2.2
Saving the Status during Interrupt Service
Before an interrupt request that has been arbitrated is actually serviced, the status of the
current task is automatically saved on the system stack. The CPU status (PSW) is saved
along with the location, where the execution of the interrupted task is resumed after
returning from the service routine. This return location is specified through the Instruction
Pointer (IP) and, in case of a segmented memory model, the Code Segment Pointer
(CSP). Bit SGTDIS in register SYSCON controls how the return location is stored.
The system stack first receives the PSW, followed by the IP (unsegmented) or the CSP
and then IP (segmented mode). This optimizes the usage of the system stack, if
segmentation is disabled.
The CPU priority field (ILVL in PSW) is updated with the priority of the interrupt request
that is to be serviced, so the CPU now executes on the new level. If multiplication or
division was in progress at the time the interrupt request was acknowledged bit MULIP
in register PSW is set to ‘1’. In this case the return location that is saved on the stack is
not the next instruction in the instruction flow, but rather the multiply or divide instruction
itself, as this instruction has been interrupted and will be completed after returning from
the service routine.
Figure 5-3
Task Status Saved on the System Stack
The interrupt request flag of the source that is being serviced is cleared. The IP is loaded
with the vector associated with the requesting source (the CSP is cleared in case of
segmentation) and the first instruction of the service routine is fetched from the
respective vector location, which is expected to branch to the service routine itself. The
data page pointers and the context pointer are not affected.
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When the interrupt service routine is left (RETI is executed), the status information is
popped from the system stack in reverse order, taking into account the value of bit
SGTDIS.
Context Switching
An interrupt service routine usually saves all the registers it uses on the stack, and
restores them before returning. The more registers a routine uses, the more time is
wasted with saving and restoring. The M2 allows the complete bank of CPU registers
(GPRs) to switch with a single instruction, so the service routine executes within its own,
separate context.
The instruction “SCXT CP, #New_Bank” pushes the contents of the context pointer (CP)
on the system stack and loads CP with the immediate value “New_Bank”, which selects
a new register bank. The service routine may now use its “own registers”. This register
bank is preserved when the service routine terminates, i.e. its contents are available on
the next call.
Before returning (RETI) the previous CP is simply POPped from the system stack, which
returns the registers to the original bank.
Note: The first instruction following the SCXT instruction must not use a GPR.
Resources that are used by the interrupting program must eventually be saved and
restored, e.g. the DPPs and the registers of the MUL/DIV unit.
5.2.3
Interrupt Response Times
The interrupt response time defines the time from an interrupt request flag of an enabled
interrupt source being set until the first instruction (I1) is fetched from the interrupt vector
location. The basic interrupt response time for the M2 is 3 instruction cycles.
Pipeline Stage
Cycle 1
Cycle 2
Cycle 3
Cycle 4
N
N+1
N+2
I1
DECODE
N-1
N
TRAP (1)
TRAP (2)
EXECUTE
N-2
N-1
N
TRAP
WRITEBACK
N-3
N-2
N-1
N
FETCH
Interrupt Response Time
IR-Flag
1
0
UED11129
Figure 5-4
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All instructions in the pipeline, including instruction N (during which the interrupt request
flag is set), are completed before entering the service routine. The actual execution time
for these instructions (e.g. wait-states) therefore influences the interrupt response time.
In Figure 5-4 the respective interrupt request flag is set in cycle 1 (the fetching of
instruction N). The indicated source wins the prioritization round (during cycle 2). In
cycle 3 a TRAP instruction is injected into the decode stage of the pipeline, replacing
instruction N+1 and clearing the source's interrupt request flag to ‘0’. Cycle 4 completes
the injected TRAP instruction (save PSW, IP and CSP, if in segmented mode) and
fetches the first instruction (I1) from the respective vector location.
All instructions that entered the pipeline, after the setting of the interrupt request flag
(N+1, N+2), will be executed after returning from the interrupt service routine.
The minimum interrupt response time is 5 states (10 TCL). This requires program
execution from the internal code memory, no external operand read requests and setting
the interrupt request flag during the last state of an instruction cycle. When the interrupt
request flag is set during the first state of an instruction cycle, the minimum interrupt
response time under these conditions is 6 state times (12 TCL).
The interrupt response time is increased by all delays of the instructions in the pipeline
that are executed before entering the service routine (including N).
• When internal hold conditions between instruction pairs N-2/N-1 or N-1/N occur, or
when instruction N explicitly writes to the PSW or the SP, the minimum interrupt
response time may be extended by 1 state time for each of these conditions.
• When instruction N reads an operand from the internal code memory, or when N is a
call, return, trap, or MOV Rn, [Rm+ #data16] instruction, the minimum interrupt
response time may be extended by 2 state times during internal code memory
program execution.
• In case instruction N reads the PSW and instruction N-1 effects the condition flags,
the interrupt response time may be extended by 2 state times.
The worst case interrupt response time during internal code memory program execution
adds 12 state times (24 TCL).
Any reference to external locations increases the interrupt response time due to pipeline
related access priorities. The following conditions have to be considered:
• Instruction fetch from an external location
• Operand read from an external location
• Result write-back to an external location
There are a number of combinations depending on where the instructions, source and
destination operands are located. Note, however, that only access conflicts contribute to
the delay.
A few examples illustrate these delays:
• The worst case interrupt response time, including external accesses, will occur when
instructions N, N+1 and N+2 are executed out of external memory, instructions N-1
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and N require external operand read accesses, instructions N-3 through N write back
external operands, and the interrupt vector also points to an external location. In this
case the interrupt response time is the time needed to perform 9 word bus accesses,
because instruction I1 cannot be fetched via the external bus until all write, fetch and
read requests from preceding instructions in the pipeline are terminated.
• When the interrupt vector, of the example above, is pointing into the internal code
memory, the interrupt response time is 7 word bus accesses plus 2 states because
the fetching of instruction I1 from internal code memory can start earlier.
• When instructions N, N+1 and N+2 are executed out of the external memory and the
interrupt vector points to an external location, but all operands for instructions N-3
through N are in internal memory, then the interrupt response time is the time needed
to perform 3 word bus accesses.
• When the interrupt vector, of the example above, is pointing into the internal code
memory, the interrupt response time is 1 word bus access plus 4 states.
After an interrupt service routine has been terminated by executing the RETI instruction,
and if further interrupts are pending, the next interrupt service routine will not be entered
until at least two instruction cycles of the program that was interrupted have been
executed. In most cases two instructions will be executed during this time. Only one
instruction will typically be executed if the first instruction following the RETI instruction
is a branch instruction (without cache hit), if it reads an operand from internal code
memory, or if it is executed out of the internal RAM.
Note: A bus access, in this context, includes all delays which can occur during an
external bus cycle.
5.2.4
PEC Response Times
The PEC response time defines the time between an interrupt request flag of an enabled
interrupt source being set and the PEC data transfer being started. The basic PEC
response time for the M2 is 2 instruction cycles.
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Pipeline Stage
Cycle 1
Cycle 2
Cycle 3
Cycle 4
N
N+1
N+2
N+2
DECODE
N-1
N
PEC
N+1
EXECUTE
N-2
N-1
N
PEC
WRITEBACK
N-3
N-2
N-1
N
FETCH
PEC Response Time
IR-Flag
1
0
UED11130
Figure 5-5
Pipeline Diagram for PEC Response Time
In Figure 5-5, the respective interrupt request flag is set in cycle 1 (fetching instruction
N). The indicated source wins the prioritization round (during cycle 2). In cycle 3 a PEC
transfer “instruction” is imported into the decode stage of the pipeline, suspending
instruction N+1 and clearing the source’s interrupt request flag to ‘0’. Cycle 4 completes
the imported PEC transfer and resumes the execution of instruction N+1.
All instructions that entered the pipeline after setting of the interrupt request flag (N+1,
N+2) will be executed after the PEC data transfer.
Note: When instruction N reads any of the PEC control registers PECC7 … PECC0,
while a PEC request wins the current round of prioritization, the round is repeated
and the PEC data transfer is started one cycle later.
The minimum PEC response time is 3 states (6 TCL). This requires program execution
from the internal code memory, no external operand read requests and setting the
interrupt request flag during the last state of an instruction cycle. When the interrupt
request flag is set during the first state of an instruction cycle, the minimum PEC
response time under these conditions is 4 state times (8 TCL).
The PEC response time is increased by all delays of the instructions in the pipeline which
are executed before starting the data transfer (including N).
• When internal hold conditions between instruction pairs N-2/N-1 or N-1/N occur, the
minimum PEC response time may be extended by 1 state time for each of these
conditions.
• When instruction N reads an operand from the internal code memory, or when N is a
call, return, trap, or MOV Rn, [Rm+ #data16] instruction, the minimum PEC response
time may be extended by 2 state times during internal code memory program
execution.
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• If instruction N reads the PSW and instruction N-1 effects the condition flags, the PEC
response time may additionally be extended by 2 state times.
The worst case PEC response time during internal code memory program execution
adds to 9 state times (18 TCL).
Any reference to external locations increases the PEC response time due to pipeline
related access priorities. The following conditions have to be considered:
• Instruction fetch from an external location
• Operand read from an external location
• Result write-back to an external location
There are a number of combinations depending on where the instructions, source and
destination operands are located. Note, however, that only access conflicts contribute to
the delay.
A few examples illustrate these delays:
• The worst case interrupt response time, including external accesses, will occur when
instructions N and N+1 are executed out of external memory, instructions N-1 and N
require external operand read accesses and instructions N-3, N-2 and N-1 write back
external operands. In this case the PEC response time is the time needed to perform
7 word bus accesses.
• When instructions N and N+1 are executed out of the external memory, but all
operands for instructions N-3 through N-1 are in internal memory, then the PEC
response time is the time needed to perform 1 word bus access plus 2 state times.
Once a request for PEC service has been acknowledged by the CPU, the execution of
the next instruction is delayed by 2 state times plus the additional time it might take to
fetch the source operand from internal code memory or external memory and to write the
destination operand over the external bus in an external program environment.
Note: A bus access, in this context, includes all delays which can occur during an
external bus cycle.
For an EPEC request, the basic response time is 3 instruction cycles. The minimum
response time is reached when the request occurs at the end of an instruction cycle. In
this case the response time is 5 states (10 TCL). All the conditions described below that
may increase the response time apply to the EPEC.
5.2.5
Fast Interrupts
The interrupt inputs are sampled every 8 states (16 TCL), i.e. external events are
scanned and detected in timeframes of 16 TCL. M2 provides 8 interrupt inputs that are
sampled every 2 TCL, so external events are captured faster than with standard interrupt
inputs.
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The 8 lines can be programmed individually to this fast interrupt mode, where the trigger
transition (rising, falling or both) can also be selected. The External Interrupt Control
register EXICON controls this feature for all 8 signals.
EXICON (F1C0H / E0H)
15
14
13
12
Reset Value: 0000H
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
EXI7ES
EXI6ES
EXI5ES
EXI4ES
EXI3ES
EXI2ES
EXI1ES
EXI0ES
rw
rw
rw
rw
rw
rw
rw
rw
Bit
Function
EXIxES
External Interrupt x Edge Selection Field (x = 7 … 0)
0 0: Fast external interrupts disabled: standard mode
0 1: Interrupt on positive edge (rising)
1 0: Interrupt on negative edge (falling)
1 1: Interrupt on any edge (rising or falling)
Note: The fast external interrupt inputs are sampled every 2 TCL. The interrupt request
arbitration and processing, however, is executed every 8 TCL.
In Sleep mode, no clock is available for sampling, but interrupt request detection is still
possible on fast interrupt request lines using asynchronous logic.
5.3
Trap Functions
Traps interrupt the current execution similar to standard interrupts. However, trap
functions offer the possibility to bypass the interrupt system’s prioritization process in
cases where immediate system reaction is required. Trap functions are not maskable
and always have priority over interrupt requests on any priority level.
M2 provides two different kinds of trapping mechanisms. Hardware traps are triggered
by events that occur during program execution (e.g. illegal access or undefined opcode),
software traps are initiated via an instruction within the current execution flow.
Software Traps
The TRAP instruction is used to cause a software call to an interrupt service routine. The
trap number that is specified in the operand field of the trap instruction determines which
vector location in the address range from 00’0000H through 00’01FCH will be branched.
Executing a TRAP instruction causes a similar effect as if an interrupt at the same vector
had occurred. PSW, CSP (in segmentation mode), and IP are pushed on the internal
system stack and a jump is taken to the specified vector location. When segmentation is
enabled and a trap is executed, the CSP for the trap service routine is set to code
segment 0. No Interrupt Request flags are affected by the TRAP instruction. The
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interrupt service routine called by a TRAP instruction must be terminated with a RETI
(return from interrupt) instruction to ensure correct operation.
Note: The CPU level in register PSW is not modified by the TRAP instruction, so the
service routine is executed on the same priority level from which it was invoked.
Therefore, the service routine entered by the TRAP instruction can be interrupted
by other traps or higher priority interrupts, other than when triggered by a
hardware trap.
Hardware Traps
Hardware traps are issued by faults or specific system states that occur during runtime
of a program (not identified at assembly time). A hardware trap may also be triggered
intentionally, e.g. to emulate additional instructions by generating an Illegal Opcode trap
or to enter the OCDS Software Debug Mode. M2 distinguishes eight different hardware
trap functions. When a hardware trap condition has been detected, the CPU branches
to the trap vector location for the respective trap condition. Depending on the trap
condition, the instruction which caused the trap is either completed or cancelled (i.e. it
has no effect on the system state) before the trap handling routine is entered.
Hardware traps are non-maskable and always have priority over every other CPU
activity. If several hardware trap conditions are detected within the same instruction
cycle, the highest priority trap is serviced (see Table 5-1).
PSW, CSP (in segmentation mode), and IP are pushed on the internal system stack and
the CPU level in the PSW register is set to the highest possible priority level (i.e. level
15), disabling all interrupts. The CSP is set to code segment zero, if segmentation is
enabled. A trap service routine must be terminated with the RETI instruction.
The nine hardware trap functions of M2 are divided into two classes:
Class A traps are
• external Non-Maskable Interrupt (NMI)
• Stack Overflow
• Stack Underflow trap
These traps share the same trap priority, but have an individual vector address.
Class B traps are
•
•
•
•
•
Undefined Opcode
Protection Fault
Illegal Word Operand Access
Illegal Instruction Access
Illegal External Bus Access Trap
These traps share the same trap priority and vector address.
The Debug Trap (see chapter x “OCDS”) is set apart and has its own individual priority
and vector address.
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The bit-addressable Trap Flag Register (TFR) allows a trap service routine to identify the
kind of trap which caused the exception. Each trap function is indicated by a separate
request flag. When a hardware trap occurs, the corresponding request flag in the TFR
register is set to ‘1’.
TFR
Reset Value: 0000H
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
-
STK
OF
STK
UF
DE
BUG
-
-
-
-
UND
OPC
-
-
-
PRT
FLT
ILL
OPA
ILL
INA
ILL
BUS
rw
rw
rw
rw
-
-
-
-
rw
-
-
-
rw
rw
rw
rw
Bit
Function
ILLBUS
Illegal External Bus Access Flag
An external access has been attempted without a defined external bus.
ILLINA
Illegal Instruction Access Flag
A branch to an odd address has been attempted.
ILLOPA
Illegal Word Operand Access Flag
A word operand access (read or write) to an odd address has been
attempted.
PRTFLT
Protection Fault Flag
A protected instruction with an illegal format has been detected.
UNDOPC
Undefined Opcode Flag
The currently decoded instruction has no valid M2 opcode.
DEBUG
Debug Trap Flag
A debug event programmed to trigger a Debug Trap has been detected
by the OCDS.
STKUF
Stack Underflow Flag
The current stack pointer value exceeds the content of register STKUN.
STKOF
Stack Overflow Flag
The current stack pointer value falls below the content of register
STKOV.
Note: The trap service routine must clear the respective trap flag, otherwise a new trap
will be requested after exiting the service routine. Setting a trap request flag by
software causes the same effects as if it had been set by hardware.
The reset functions (hardware, software, watchdog) may be regarded as a type of trap.
Reset functions have the highest system priority (trap priority IV).
The Debug Trap has the second highest priority (trap priority III) and can interrupt any
class A or class B trap. If a class A or class B trap and a Debug Trap occur at the same
time, both flags are set in the TFR but the Debug Trap is executed first.
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Class A traps have the third highest priority (trap priority II), class B traps are on the 4rd
rank so a class A trap can interrupt a class B trap. If more than one class A trap occurs
at a time, they are prioritized internally, with the NMI trap on the highest and the stack
underflow trap on the lowest priority.
All class B traps have the same trap priority (trap priority I). When several class B traps
are activated at a time, the corresponding flags in the TFR register are set and the trap
service routine is entered. Since all class B traps have the same vector, the priority of
service of simultaneously occurring class B traps is determined by software in the trap
service routine.
A class A trap occurring during the execution of a class B trap service routine will be
serviced immediately. However, during the execution of a class A trap service routine,
any class B trap which occurs will not be serviced until the class A trap service routine
is exited with a RETI instruction. In this case, the occurrence of the class B trap condition
is stored in the TFR register, but the IP value of the instruction which caused this trap is
lost.
In the case where e.g. an Undefined Opcode trap (class B) occurs simultaneously with
an NMI trap (class A), both the NMI and the UNDOPC flag is set, the IP of the instruction
with the undefined opcode is pushed onto the system stack, but the NMI trap is
executed. After returning from the NMI service routine, the IP is popped from the stack
and immediately pushed again because of the pending UNDOPC trap.
Debug Trap
The OCDS may be programmed to trigger a Debug Trap when a debug event (match of
data/address comparison, execution of DEBUG instruction, event on brk_in_n input)
rises. This is normally used to call a monitor routine (software debug mode) for
debugging purposes. Normal program execution resumes when a regular RETI
instruction is executed, which ends the monitor routine. This trap has the highest priority
(except for reset functions) but the monitor routine can reduce its own priority by writing
the ILVL field in the PSW.
External NMI Trap
Whenever a high to low transition on the designated nmi_n pin (Non-Maskable Interrupt)
is detected, the NMI flag in the TFR register is set and the CPU will enter the NMI trap
routine. The IP value pushed on the system stack is the address of the instruction
following the one after which normal processing was interrupted by the NMI trap.
Note: The nmi_n pin is sampled with every CPU clock cycle to detect transitions.
Stack Overflow Trap
Whenever the stack pointer is decremented to a value which is less than the value in the
stack overflow register STKOV, the STKOF flag in the TFR register is set and the CPU
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will enter the stack overflow trap routine. Which IP value will be pushed onto the system
stack depends on which operation caused the decrement of the SP. When an implicit
decrement of the SP is made through a PUSH or CALL instruction, or upon interrupt or
trap entry, the IP value pushed is the address of the following instruction. When the SP
is decremented by a subtract instruction, the IP value pushed represents the instruction
address following the post subtract-instruction command.
To recover from stack overflow it must be ensured that there is enough excess space on
the stack to save the current system state twice (PSW, IP, in segmented mode also
CSP). Otherwise, a system reset should be generated.
Stack Underflow Trap
Whenever the stack pointer is incremented to a value which is greater than the value in
the stack underflow register STKUN, the STKUF flag is set in the TFR register and the
CPU will enter the stack underflow trap routine. Again, which IP value will be pushed
onto the system stack depends on which operation caused the increment of the SP.
When an implicit increment of the SP is made through a POP or return instruction, the
IP value pushed is the address of the following instruction. When the SP is incremented
by an add instruction, the pushed IP value represents the instruction address following
the post add-instruction command.
Undefined Opcode Trap
When the instruction currently decoded by the CPU does not contain a valid M2 opcode,
the UNDOPC flag is set in register TFR and the CPU enters the undefined opcode trap
routine. The IP value pushed onto the system stack is the address of the instruction that
caused the trap.
This can be used to emulate unimplemented instructions. The trap service routine can
examine the faulting instruction to decode operands for unimplemented opcodes based
on the stacked IP. In order to resume processing, the stacked IP value must be
incremented by the size of the undefined instruction, which is determined by the user,
before a RETI instruction is executed.
Protection Fault Trap
Whenever one of the special protected instructions is executed where the opcode of that
instruction is not repeated twice in the second word of the instruction, and the byte
following the opcode is not the complement of the opcode, the PRTFLT flag in register
TFR is set and the CPU enters the protection fault trap routine. The protected
instructions include DISWDT, EINIT, IDLE, PWRDN, SRST, and SRVWDT. The IP value
pushed onto the system stack for the protection fault trap is the address of the instruction
that caused the trap.
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Illegal Word Operand Access Trap
Whenever a word operand read or write access is attempted to an odd byte address, the
ILLOPA flag in the TFR register is set and the CPU enters the illegal word operand
access trap routine. The IP value pushed onto the system stack is the address of the
instruction following the one which caused the trap.
Illegal Instruction Access Trap
Whenever a branch is made to an odd byte address, the ILLINA flag in the TFR register
is set, and the CPU enters the illegal instruction access trap routine. The IP value pushed
onto the system stack is the illegal odd target address of the branch instruction.
Illegal External Bus Access Trap
Whenever the CPU requests an external instruction fetch, data read or data write, and
no external bus configuration has been specified, the ILLBUS flag in the TFR register is
set, and the CPU enters the illegal bus access trap routine. The IP value pushed onto
the system stack is the address of the instruction following the one which caused the
trap.
5.3.1
External Interrupt Source Control
Fast external interrupts may also have interrupt sources selected from other peripherals.
This function is very advantageous in Slow Down or in Sleep mode if, for example, the
A/D converter input shall be used to wakeup the system. The register EXISEL is used to
switch alternate interrupt sources to the interrupt controller.
The EXISEL register is defined as follows:
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EXISEL
15 14
13
EXI7SS
rw
12
11
EXI6SS
10
EXI5SS
rw
rw
9
8
EXI4SS
7
6
EXI3SS
rw
rw
5
4
EXI2SS
rw
ResetValue:0000H
3
2
1
0
EXI1SS
rw
Bit
Function
EXIxSS
External Interrupt x Source Selection Field (x = 7 … 0)
0 0: Input from default pin
0 1: Input from “alternate source”
1 0: Input from default pin ORed with “alternate source”
1 1: Input from default pin ANDed with “alternate source”
Fast
Interrupt
Alternate Source (input FEIxIN_B)
0
ADWINT
1
Reserved
2
Reserved
3
Reserved
4
Reserved
5
Reserved
6
Reserved
7
Reserved
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SDA 6000
System Control & Configuration
6
System Control & Configuration
M2 has extended features for system level control and configuration. Most of these
features are now handled by a new block inside the M2 which is the System Control Unit
(SCU). The SCU is used to control system-level tasks such as reset control, clock control
and power management. It is implemented to ease compatibility of new M2 based
products with already existing C16x derivatives.
M2 provides the following functions for system control and configuration:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
System and Controller Core reset function
System and Controller Core start-up configuration
Configuration Registers protection
Clock Management functions
Power Management modes (Idle, Sleep, Power Down)
Watchdog timer
Identification registers for Core (CPU, SCU, OCDS) and system (manufacturer, chip
version, memory) identification
These functions are explained in further details in the following paragraphs.
6.1
System Reset
The internal system reset function provides the initialization of the M2 into a defined
default state and is invoked either by asserting a hardware reset signal on pin RSTIN
(Hardware Reset Input), upon the execution of the SRST instruction (Software Reset) or
by an overflow of the watchdog timer.
Whenever one of these conditions occurs, the CBC is reset into its predefined default
state through an internal reset procedure. When a reset, other than a watchdog reset, is
initiated, pending internal hold states are cancelled and any external bus cycle is aborted
(see description).
After the reset condition is removed, M2 will start program execution from memory
location 00’0000H in code segment zero. This start location will typically hold a branch
instruction to the start of a software initialization routine for the configuration of
peripherals and M2 SFRs.
M2 recognizes the following reset conditions.
Reset Type
Short-cut
Condition
Power-on Reset
PONR
Power-on
Short Hardware Reset
SHWR
16 TCL < tRSTIN ≤ 2048 TCL
Long Hardware Reset
LHWR
tRSTIN > 2048 TCL
Watchdog Timer Reset
WDTR
WDT overflow
Software Reset
SWR
SRST command
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Reset conditions are indicated in the WDTCON register.
Hardware Reset
A hardware reset is triggered asynchronously by a falling edge of the reset input signal,
RSTIN. To ensure the recognition of the RSTIN signal, it must be held low for at least
2 CPU clock cycles, assuming the clock input signal is stable. Also, shorter RSTIN
pulses may trigger a hardware reset, however, this is not recommended. The internal
reset condition is prolonged until one of the following conditions arises:
• the rising edge of the RSTIN signal, or
• the termination of the reset sequence, if RSTIN was deasserted before, or
• the termination of the lengthening conditions.
After termination of the reset state, program execution will start.
Three different kinds of hardware reset conditions are considered:
• Power-on Reset
A complete power-on reset requires an active RSTIN time until a stable clock signal
is available. The on-chip oscillator needs about 2 ms to stabilize.
• Long Hardware Reset
A long hardware reset requires an RSTIN active time longer than the duration of the
internal reset sequence. The duration of the internal reset sequence is 2056 TCL.
After the internal reset sequence has been completed, the RSTIN input is sampled.
As long as the reset input is still active the internal reset condition is prolonged.
Accordingly, the internal hardware reset (HWRST) is active until the external reset on
the RSTIN input becomes inactive.
Note: The hardware reset is also used as a wake up from power down state; in this case
the internal system reset will be lengthened (execution of 1. instruction delayed)
until the oscillator and PLL have been stabilized.
• Short Hardware Reset
The RSTIN active time of a short hardware reset is between 16 TCL and 2056 TCL.
If the RSTIN signal is active for at least 16 TCL clock cycles the internal reset
sequence is started (see below). In case of a short HW-reset, the internal HWRST
signal is prolonged until the reset sequence is finished.
Software Reset
The reset sequence can be triggered at any time via the protected instruction SRST
(Software Reset). This instruction can be executed deliberately within a program, e.g. to
leave bootstrap loader mode, or upon a hardware trap that reveals a system failure.
Watchdog Timer Reset
When the watchdog timer is not disabled during the initialization or serviced regularly
during program execution it will overflow and trigger the reset sequence. Other than
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System Control & Configuration
hardware and software reset the watchdog reset completes a running external bus or XBus cycle.
6.1.1
Behavior of I/Os during Reset
During the internal reset sequence all of the M2’s I/O pins are configured as inputs by
clearing the associated direction registers and switching their pin drivers to the high
impedance state. This ensures that the M2 and external devices will not try to drive the
same pin to different levels. Outputs are generally driven to their expected inactive state
during reset. Output pins driven to ‘0’ are: A13 … A0; MEMCLK, CLKEN, XTAL2, COR,
BLANK and TDO. Output pins driven to ‘1’ are: A15 (CAS),A14 (RAS), RD, CSROM,
CSDRAM, WR, P4.5(CS3), P4.4 … P4.0, LDQM and UDQM.
6.1.2
Reset Values for the Controller Core Registers
During the reset sequence the registers of the C166 CBC are preset with a default value.
Most C166 CBC SFRs are cleared to zero, so the interrupt system is off after reset. A
few exceptions to this rule provide a first pre-initialization, which is either fixed or
controlled by input pins.
DPP1:
DPP2:
DPP3:
CP:
STKUN:
STKOV:
SP:
SYSCON:
BUSCON0:
ONES:
6.1.3
0001H (points to data page 1)
0002H (points to data page 2)
0003H (points to data page 3)
FC00H
FC00H
FA00H
FC00H
0400H (set according to start-up configuration)
15B7H (set according to start-up configuration)
FFFFH (fixed value)
The Internal RAM after Reset
The contents of the internal RAM are not affected by a reset. However, after a power-on
reset, the contents of the internal RAM are undefined. This implies that the GPRs
(R15 … R0) and the PEC source and destination pointers (SRCP7 … SRCP0,
DSTP7 … DSTP0), which are mapped into the internal RAM, are also unchanged after
a warm reset, software reset or watchdog reset, but are undefined after a power-on
reset.
6.2
System Start-up Configuration
Although most of the programmable features of the M2 are either selected during the
initialization routine or repeatedly during program execution, there are some features
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that must be selected earlier, because they are used for the first access of the program
execution.
The system start-up configuration is determined by the level on PORT4 at the end of the
internal reset sequence. During reset internal pull-up devices are active on PORT4 lines,
so their input level is high, if the respective pin is left open, or is low, if the respective pin
is connected to an external pull-down device. The value FFFFH on PORT4 will select the
default configuration during reset. If a particular configuration is required, the
corresponding line(s) should be driven low according to the coding of the selections, as
shown below. Registers SYSCON and BUSCON0 are initialized according to the
selected configuration.
Pins that control the operation of the internal control logic and reserved pins are
evaluated only during a hardware triggered reset sequence. Pins that influence the
configuration of the M2 are evaluated during any reset sequence, e.g. also during
software and watchdog timer triggered resets.
The configuration input via PORT4 is latched in register RP0H for subsequent evaluation
by software.
RP0H
Reset Value: 00XXH
15
14
13
12
0
0
0
0
11
10
0
0
9
8
7
6
0
0
1
1
5
4
3
SALSEL(2..0)
2
1
1
0
CS
ENA
1
r
Bit
Function
CSENA
Chip Select Lines Selection
Number of external ROMs.
Description of possible selections: see table below (Start up
Configuration)
SALSEL
(2 … 0)
Segment Address Lines Selection
Number of active segment address outputs.
Description of possible selections: see table below (Start up
Configuration)
Bootstrap Loader Mode
Pin P4.0 (BSL) activates the on-chip bootstrap loader, when low, during reset. The
bootstrap loader allows the start code to move into the internal RAM of the M2 via the
serial interface ASC0. The M2 will remain in bootstrap loader mode until a hardware
reset with P4.0 high or a software reset.
Default: The M2 starts fetching code from location 00’0000H, the bootstrap loader is off.
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Chip Select Line
Pin P4.1 (CSENA) defines the external memory configuration. When pulled low it
enables chip select 3 (CS3) (a second ROM device is assumed).
RP0H.1 = ‘0’ denotes the memory configuration with only one ROM device while
RP0H.1 = ‘1’ indicates availability of the 2nd ROM device.
Note: CS3 status cannot be changed via software after reset.
Segment Address Lines
The status of Pins P4.5 … P4.3 (SALSEL) during reset defines the number of active
segment address lines. This allows the selection which pins of Port 4 drive address lines
and which are used for general purpose I/O. The three bits are latched in register RP0H.
Depending on the system architecture the required address space is chosen and
accessible right from the start, so the initialization routine can directly access all
locations without prior programming. The required pins of Port 4 are automatically
switched to address output mode.
During runtime the configured number of segment address line can be read from bit field
RP0H.5 (= SALSEL.2) … RP0H.3 (= SALSEL.0).
SALSEL
Segment Address Lines
Directly Accessible Address Space
111
A20, A19, A18, A17, A16
4 MByte (Default without pull-downs)
110
A19, A18, A17, A16
2 MByte
101
A18, A17, A16
1 MByte
100
A17, A16
512 KByte
011
A16
256 KByte
010
–
128 KByte
001
–
128 KByte
000
–
128 KByte
Default: 5-bit segment address (A20 … A16) allowing access to 4 MByte.
Note: The selected number of segment address lines cannot be changed via software
after reset.
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6.3
Register Write Protection
The System Control Unit (SCU) provides two different protection types of
configuration registers:
• Unprotected Registers
• Protectable Registers
The unprotected registers allow the reading and writing (if not read-only) of register
values without any restrictions. However, the write access of the protectable registers
(security registers) can be programmed for three different modes of security level,
whereas the read access is always unprotected:
• Write Protected Mode
• Low Protected Mode
• Unprotected Mode
In write protected mode, the registers can not be accessed by a write command.
However, in low protected mode, the registers can be written with a special command
sequence (see description below). If the registers are set to unprotected mode, all write
accesses are possible.
Some register controlled functions and modes which are critical for M2’s operation are
locked after the execution of EINIT, so these vital system functions cannot be changed
inadvertently e.g. by software errors. However, as these security registers also control
the power management, they need to be accessed during operation to select the
appropriate mode.
The switching between the different security levels is controlled by a state machine. By
using a password and command sequence the security levels can be changed. After
reset the unprotected mode is always automatically selected. The EINIT command
switches the security level automatically to protected mode.
The low protected mode is especially important for a standby state of the application.
This mode allows fast accesses within 2 commands to the protected registers without
removing the protection completely.
Security Level Switching
Two registers are provided for switching the security level, the security level command
register SCUSLC and the security level status register SCUSLS. The security level
command register SCUSLC is used to control the state machine for switching the
security level. The SCUSLC register is loaded with the different commands of the
command sequence necessary to control a change in the security level. It is also used
for the one unlock command, which is necessary in the low protected mode to access
one protected register. The commands of the (unlock) command sequence are
characterized by certain pattern words (such as AAAAH) or by patterns combined with
an 8-bit password. For command definition see the following state diagram (Figure 6-1).
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The new password is defined with command 3 and stored in the according 8-bit field in
the SCUSLS register.
The SCUSLC register is defined as follows
SCUSLC
15
14
Reset Value: 0000H
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
COMMAND
rw
Bit
Function
Command
Code of Command to be Executed
Command 0: ‘AAAAH’
Command 1: ‘5554H’
Command 2: ‘96 & inverse password’
Command 3: ‘000b’ & new level & ‘000b’ & new password
Command 4: ‘8EH’ & inverse password (Command 4 unlocks protected
registers for one write access if current security level is in
low protected mode.)
The security level status register SCUSLS is a read only register which shows the
current password, the actual security level and the state of the switching state machine.
The SCUSLS is defined as follows:
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System Control & Configuration
SCUSLS
15
14
Reset Value: 0000H
13
STATE
r
Bit
12
11
SL
10
9
8
-
-
-
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
PASSWORD
r
r
Function
PASSWORD Current Password
SL
Current Security Level
‘00’: Unprotected Write Mode
‘01’: Low Protected Mode
‘10’: Reserved
‘11’: Write Protected Mode
STATE
Current State
‘000’: State 0 = Wait for Command 0.
‘001’: State 1 = Wait for Command 1.
‘010’: State 2 = Wait for Command 2.
‘011’: State 3 = Wait for new security level and new password
(Command 3).
‘100’: State 4 = Protected registers are unlocked. Write access to one
register is possible (only in low protected mode).
‘101’: Reserved
‘110’: Reserved
‘111’: Reserved
The following registers are defined as protected (security) registers:
• SYSCON1
• SYSCON2
• SYSCON3
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The following state diagram shows the state machine for security level switching and for
unlock command execution in low protected mode:
Command 4
and Low Protected Mode
Any SCU
Register Write Access
State 4
Command 0
State 0
Command 1
or any other SCU
Register Write Access
State 1
Command 2
or any other SCU
Register Write Access
Command 1
State 3
Command 2
Reset
Command 3 1)
or any other SCU
Register Write Access
State 2
UED11131
Figure 6-1
Note:
State Machine for Security Level Switching
1)
The new security level and password are valid, only if the security level
command register is accessed.
c_SCU is an abbreviation for “write access to any SCU register”, i.e. write access to any
of the following registers:
SYSCON1, SYSCON2, SCUSLC, SCUSLS, RP0H, XPERCON, WDT, WDTCON,
EXICON, EXISEL, ISNC, FOCON, SYSCON3
Note: The FOCON and SYSCON3 registers do not provide any function within the M2.
Nevertheless they are implemented in the system control unit of the embedded
microcontroller and write access to the associated addresses will influence the
state machine for security level switching.
Write Access in Low Protected Mode
The write access in low protected mode is also done via a command sequence. First the
specific command 4 (see Figure 6-1) has to be written to register SCUSLC with the
current password. After this command, all security registers are unlocked until the next
write access to any SCU register is done. Read access is always possible to all registers
of the SCU and will not influence the command sequences. In register SCUSCS the
actual status of the command state machine can always be read.
It is recommended to use an atomic sequence for all command sequences.
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6.4
Power Reduction Modes
Three power reduction modes with different levels of power reduction, which may be
entered under software control, have been implemented in M2:
Idle Mode: The CPU is stopped, while the peripherals including watchdog timer continue
their operation at low clock frequency.
Sleep Mode: CPU, peripherals and PLL are completely turned off. The controller ADC
operates in wake-up mode. The real-time-clock is still in operation.
Power Down Mode: All modules are turned off.
Mode
Normal
Idle
Sleep
Power Down
Oscillator
on
on
on
off
PLL
on
on
off
off
CPU
33 MHz
3 MHz/
stopped
no clock/
stopped
no clock/
stopped
33 MHz1)
3 MHz2)
3 MHz2)
off
RTC
3 MHz
3 MHz
3 MHz
off
Peripherals
33 MHz
3 MHz
off
off
100/66 MHz3)
off
off
off
CADC
Bus Interface
1)
Conversion mode
2)
Wake up mode
3)
Depending on value of CLKCON (see Chapter 8)
In the table above clocking frequencies have been specified, indicating that power
reduction is achieved by means of clock-gating. None of the power supplies are
internally switched, neither may voltage be turned off at the supply pins.
M2’s power management functions are supplemented by a Real Time Clock (RTC) timer
with optional periodic wake-up from idle mode. The periodic wake-up combines the
reduced power consumption in power reduction modes with a high level of system
availability. External signals and events can be scanned (at a lower rate) by periodically
activating the CPU and selected peripherals which then return to power-save mode after
a short time. This greatly reduces the system’s average power consumption.
Entering and Terminating Idle and Sleep Mode
All three modes are entered by writing register SLEEPCON (see register definition
below) and issuing the IDLE instruction. All external bus actions are completed before
entry to Idle, Sleep or Power Down mode. Normal operation is resumed after Idle mode
upon any interrupt request. To return from Sleep mode, external, wake up- or RTCUsers Manual
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interrupt requests can be used. Power down mode can only be terminated with hardware
reset.
To prevent unintentional entry into Idle mode, the IDLE instruction has been
implemented as a protected 32-bit instruction.
Mode
Entry by …
Exit by …
Idle
Sleep
Power Down
writing SLEEPCON and issuing IDLE instruction
any interrupt
request
external, wake up- or RTCIRQ
HW-reset
Idle mode is terminated by interrupt requests from any enabled interrupt source whose
individual Interrupt Enable flag was set before the Idle mode was entered, regardless of
bit IEN.
For a request selected for CPU interrupt service, the associated interrupt service routine
is entered if the priority level of the requesting source is higher than the current CPU
priority and the interrupt system is globally enabled. After the RETI (Return from
Interrupt) instruction of the interrupt service routine is executed the CPU continues
executing the program with the instruction following the IDLE instruction. Otherwise, if
the interrupt request cannot be serviced because of a too low priority or a globally
disabled interrupt system the CPU immediately resumes normal program execution with
the instruction following the IDLE instruction.
For a request which was programmed for PEC service, a PEC data transfer is performed
if the priority level of this request is higher than the current CPU priority and the interrupt
system is globally enabled. After the PEC data transfer has been completed the CPU
remains in Idle mode. Otherwise, if the PEC request cannot be serviced because of a
too low priority or a globally disabled interrupt system, the CPU does not remain in Idle
mode but continues program execution with the instruction following the IDLE
instruction.
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Denied
CPU Interrupt Request
Accepted
Active
Mode
IDLE Instruction
Idle
Mode
Denied PEC Request
Executed
PEC Request
UED11132
Figure 6-2
Transitions between Idle Mode and Active Mode
Any interrupt request, whose individual Interrupt Enable flag was set before Idle mode
was entered, will terminate Idle mode regardless of the current CPU priority. The CPU
will not go back into Idle mode when a CPU interrupt request is detected, even when the
interrupt was not serviced because of a higher CPU priority or a globally disabled
interrupt system (IEN = ‘0’). The CPU will only go back into Idle mode when the interrupt
system is globally enabled (IEN = ‘1’) and a PEC service on a priority level higher than
the current CPU level is requested and executed.
Note: An interrupt request which is individually enabled and assigned to priority level 0
will terminate Idle mode. However, the associated interrupt vector will not be
accessed.
The watchdog timer may be used to monitor the Idle mode: an internal reset will be
generated if no interrupt request occurs before the watchdog timer overflows. To prevent
the watchdog timer from overflowing during Idle mode it must be programmed to a
reasonable time interval before Idle mode is entered.
Power Down Mode
Clocking of all internal blocks is stopped in Power Down Mode, the contents of the
internal RAMs, however, are preserved through the voltage supplied via the VDD pins.
The watchdog timer is stopped in Power Down Mode. This mode can only be terminated
by an external hardware reset, e.g. by asserting a low level on the RSTIN pin. This reset
will initialize all SFRs and ports to their default state, but will not change the contents of
the internal RAMs.
SDRAM Refreshing
Before entering into one of the power save modes the external SDRAM must be put into
self-refresh-mode by use of register EBIDIR (see Chapter 4.5).
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Status of Output Pins during Idle and Power Down Mode
During Idle mode the CPU is stopped, while all peripherals continue their operation in
the same way previously described. Therefore all ports pins, which are configured as
general purpose output pins, output the last data value which was written to their port
output latches. If the alternate output function of a port pin is used by a peripheral, the
state of the pin is determined by the operation of the peripheral.
Port 4 outputs the segment address for the last access on the pins that were selected
during reset, otherwise the output pins of Port 4 represent the port latch data.
During Power Down mode the oscillator and the clocks to the CPU and peripherals are
turned off. Like in idle mode, all port pins, which are configured as general purpose
output pins, output the last data value which was written to their port output latches.
When the alternate output function of a port pin is used by a peripheral the state of this
pin is determined by the last action of the peripheral before the clocks were switched off.
SYSCON1
15
-
14
Reset Value: 0001H
13
12
-
-
-
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
0
SLEEPCON
rw
Bit
Function
SLEEPCON
Power Save Mode Selection
00: Idle Mode
01: Sleep Mode
10: reserved
11: Power Down Mode
Note: This register is a protected register; it’s security level is automatically set to full
write protection after execution of the EINIT instruction.
6.5
Dedicated Pins
M2 has different dedicated Pins than other controllers of C16X family. The following
dedicated pins are not available: ALE, READY, EA, NMI. The following table explains
M2 specific dedicated pins.
The external read strobe RD controls the output drivers of external memory or
peripherals when M2 reads data from these external devices. During reset an internal
pull-up ensures an inactive (high) level on the RD output.
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Pin(s)
Function
RD
External Read Strobe
WR
Write Enable Strobe for SDRAM
LDQM, UDQM
Byte Mask Signals for SDRAM
XTAL1, XTAL2
Oscillator Input/Output
RSTIN
Reset Input Pin
CSDRAM, CSROM, CS3
Chip Select Signals
MEMCLK, CLKEN
Clock Signals for SDRAM
CVBS1, CVBS2
CVBS Input Signals
R, G, B
Analog RGB Output
CORBLA
Contrast Reduction and Blanking Pin
HSYNC, VSYNC
Sync Inputs/Outputs for the Display
The external write strobe WR controls the data transfer from the M2 to an external
memory. During reset an internal pull-up ensures an inactive (high) level on the WR
output.
Byte mask signals LDQM and UDQM control the byte access to an external SDRAM
according to the PC100 specification. These pins are active if either the high byte or the
low byte of a 16-bit word are written.
The oscillator input XTAL1 and output XTAL2 connect the internal oscillator to the
external crystal. The oscillator provides an inverter and a feedback element. An external
TTL clock signal may be fed to the input XTAL1, leaving XTAL2 open.
By using the RSTIN pin M2 can be put into the well defined reset condition either at
power-up or upon external events like a hardware failure or manual reset. The internal
reset signal can be driven on output pin RSTOUT/COR.
The chipselect signals CSDRAM, CSROM, CS3 are for general control of external
memories. During reset an internal pull-up ensures an inactive (high) level on these
outputs. CS3 can be used for a ROM.
Signals MEMCLK, CLKEN are used to provide a clock and an enable signal for an
external SDRAM. During reset an internal pull-down ensures an inactive (low) level on
these outputs.
CVBS1A, CVBS1B and CVBS2 can carry two analog composite video signals and act
as inputs for the two data slicers. The video signal on channel 1 can be either differential
(CVBS1A and CVBS1B) or single-ended (CVBS1A, CVBS1B to ground).
R, G, B are analog outputs from the display generator.
CORBLA is a signal which indicates whether a pixel created by M2 should be displayed
or mixed with external video source (blanking function). At the same time this signal
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System Control & Configuration
carries information on contrast reduction of this pixel. Alternatively BLANK can be
generated as a separate output signal. COR can be generated separately as well, in
which case no RSTOUT is available.
HSYNC and VSYNC are bidirectional pins which are used to synchronize M2 to an
external video source or to deliver a stable horizontal and vertical sync timing to external
components.
6.6
XBUS Configuration
Although the XBUS is not visible at the chip boundary, some registers have to be set to
guarantee correct operation. The user has to program the XBUS-registers in the
following way:
Register
Value
SYSCON
E444H
XADRS1
0E03H
XADRS2
0E83H
XADRS3 - XADRS6 (not used)
0000H
ADDRSEL1 - ADDRSEL4 (not used)
0000H
XBCON1
05BFH
XBCON2
05BFH
XBCON3 - XBCON6 (not used)
0000H
BUSCON0
15B7H
BUSCON1 - BUSCON4 (not used)
0000H
XPERCON
0003H
6.7
Watchdog Timer
The watchdog timer is a 16-bit up counter which can be clocked with the CPU clock
(fCPU), either divided by 2 or divided by 128. This 16-bit timer is realized as two
concatenated 8-bit timers (see Figure 6-3). The upper 8 bits of the watchdog timer can
be preset to a user-programmable value via a watchdog service access in order to vary
the watchdog expire time. The lower 8 bits are reset on each service access.
The following figure shows the WDT block diagram:
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WDT Control
Clear
÷2
MUX
fWDT
WDTREL
WDT Low Byte
WDT High Byte
WDTR
÷ 128
DISWDT
WDTIN
UEB11133
Figure 6-3
WDT Block Diagram
The current count value of the Watchdog Timer is contained in the Watchdog Timer
Register WDT, which is a non-bitaddressable read-only register. The operation of the
Watchdog Timer is controlled by its bitaddressable Watchdog Timer Control Register
WDTCON. This register specifies the reload value for the high byte of the timer and
selects the input clock prescaling factor.
After any software reset, external hardware reset (see note), or watchdog timer reset,
the watchdog timer is enabled and starts counting up from 0000H with the frequency
fCPU/2. The input frequency may be switched to fCPU/128 by setting bit WDTIN. The
watchdog timer can be disabled via the instruction DISWDT (Disable Watchdog Timer).
Instruction DISWDT is a protected 32-bit instruction which will ONLY be executed during
the time between a reset and execution of either the EINIT (End of Initialization) or the
SRVWDT (Service Watchdog Timer) instruction. Either one of these instructions
disables the execution of DISWDT.
When the watchdog timer is not disabled via instruction DISWDT it will continue counting
up, even during Idle Mode. If it is not serviced by the SRVWDT instruction by the time
the count reaches FFFFH the watchdog timer will overflow and cause an internal reset.
In this case the Watchdog Timer Reset Indication Flag (WDTR) in register WDTCON will
be set.
To prevent the watchdog timer from overflowing, it must be serviced periodically by the
user software. The watchdog timer is serviced with the instruction SRVWDT, which is a
protected 32-bit instruction. Servicing the watchdog timer clears the low byte and reloads
the high byte of the watchdog time WDT register with the preset value in bit field
WDTREL, which is the high byte of the WDTCON register. Servicing the watchdog timer
will also reset the WDTR bit. After being serviced the watchdog timer continues counting
up from the value (<WDTREL> × 28). Instruction SRVWDT has been encoded in such
a way that the chance of unintentionally servicing the watchdog timer (e.g. by fetching
and executing a bit pattern from a wrong location) is minimized. When instruction
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SRVWDT does not match the format for protected instructions, the Protection Fault Trap
will be entered, rather than the instruction being executed.
The time period for an overflow of the watchdog timer is programmable in two ways:
• The input frequency of the watchdog timer can be selected via bit WDTIN in register
WDTCON
to be either fCPU/2 or fCPU/128.
• The reload value WDTREL for the high byte of WDT can be programmed in register
WDTCON.
The period PWDT between servicing the watchdog timer and the next overflow can
therefore be determined by the following formula:
PWDT = (2(1 + <WDTIN> × 6) × (216 – <WDTREL> × 28))/fCPU
[1]
Table 6-1 marks the possible ranges for the watchdog time which can be achieved using
a certain CPU clock. Some numbers are rounded to 3 significant digits.
Table 6-1
Watchdog Time Ranges
Prescaler for fCPU
Reload Value
in WDTREL
2 (WDTIN = ‘0’)
128 (WDTIN = ‘1’)
33.33 MHz
3 MHz
33.33 MHz
3 MHz
FFH
25.6 µs
32.0 µs
1.64 ms
2.05 ms
7FH
3.3 ms
4.13 ms
211 ms
264 ms
00H
6.55 ms
8.19 ms
419 ms
524 ms
Note: For safety reasons, the user is advised to rewrite WDTCON each time before the
watchdog timer is serviced.
Here is the description of the Watchdog timer SFRs.
WDTCON
15
14
Reset Value: 00XXH
13
12
11
WDTREL(7 .. 0)
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
-
-
-
LHW
R
SHW
R
r
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SW
R
r
1
0
WDT
R
WDT
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Bit
Function
WDTIN
Watchdog Timer Input Frequency Selection
0:
Input frequency is fCPU/2
1:
Input frequency is fCPU/128
WDTR
Watchdog Timer Reset Indication Flag
Cleared by a hardware reset or by the SRVWDT instruction.
SWR
Software Reset Indication Flag
SHWR
Short Hardware Reset Indication Flag
LHWR
Long Hardware Reset Indication Flag
WDTREL
(7 … 0)
Watchdog Timer Reload Value
(for the high byte of WDT)
Note: The reset value depends on the reset source (see description below).
The execution of EINIT clears the reset indication flags.
Note: When the reset output is enabled pin RSTOUT will be pulled low for the duration
of the internal reset sequence upon a watchdog timer reset.
WDT Timer Register
The WDT register contains the current count value of the Watchdog Timer.
WDT
15
Reset Value: 0000H
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
WDT(15 .. 0)
r
Note: This register in a read-only register. Write access can be performed to this
register, during test mode only.
Reset Source Indication
The reset indication flags in register WDTCON provide information on the source of the
last reset. As M2 starts executing from location 00’0000H after any possible reset event,
the initialization software may check these flags in order to determine if the recent reset
event was triggered by an external hardware signal (via RSTIN), by software itself or by
an overflow of the watchdog timer. The initialization (and also the further operation) of
the microcontroller system can thus be adapted to the respective circumstances, e.g. a
special routine may verify the software integrity after a watchdog timer reset.
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The reset indication flags are not mutually exclusive, e.g. more than one flag may be set
after reset depending on its source. The table below summarizes the possible
combinations:
Table 6-2
Reset Indication Flag Combinations
Reset Indication Flags
Reset Source
LHWR
SHWR
SWR
WDTR
Long Hardware Reset
X
X
X
–
Short Hardware Reset
*
X
X
–
Software Reset
*
*
X
–
Watchdog Timer Reset
*
*
X
X
Note: *) When the reset output is enabled, the indicated flags are also set in the
respective reset case. The WDTCON reset value will then be different from the
table value.
Note: The listed reset values for WDTCON assume the reserved bits as ‘0’.
Long Hardware Reset is indicated when the RSTIN input is still sampled low (active) at
the end of a hardware triggered internal reset sequence.
Short Hardware Reset is indicated when the RSTIN input is sampled high (inactive) at
the end of a hardware triggered internal reset sequence.
Software Reset is indicated after a reset triggered by the execution of instruction SRST.
Watchdog Timer Reset is indicated after a reset triggered by an overflow of the
watchdog timer.
Note: When reset output is enabled the RSTOUT pin is pulled low for the duration of the
internal reset sequence upon any sort of reset.
Therefore a long hardware reset (LHWR) will be recognized in any case.
6.8
Bootstrap Loader
The bootstrap loader of M2 works in the same way as implemented in other C16x
derivatives. It provides a mechanism to load the start-up program, which is executed
after reset, via a serial interface (ASC). In this case no external (ROM) memory is
required.
The bootstrap loader moves code/data into the internal RAM, but it is also possible to
transfer data via the serial interface into an external RAM using a second level loader
routine.
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RSTIN
P4.0
1)
2)
4)
RxD0
3)
TxD0
CSP:IP
Int. Boot ROM BSL-routine
32 bytes
User Software
BSL initialization time, > 1.5 µ s @ fCPU = 33 MHz
Zero byte (1 start bit, eight ’0’ data bits, 1 stop bit), sent by host
3)
Identification byte (D5H ) sent by M2
4)
32 bytes of code/data, sent by host
1)
2)
UET11134
Figure 6-4
Bootstrap Loader Sequence
The M2 enters BSL mode, if pin P4.0 is sampled low at the end of a hardware reset.
When M2 has entered BSL mode, the following configuration is automatically set (values
that deviate from the normal reset values, are marked):
Watchdog Timer:
Register SYSCON:
Context Pointer CP:
Register STKUN:
Stack Pointer SP:
Register STKOV:
Register S0CON:
Register BUSCON0:
Register S0BG:
P3.10/TXD0:
DP3.10:
Disabled
0C00H
FA00H
FA40H
FA40H
FA0CH 0 <-> C
8001H
according to start-up config.
according to ‘00’ byte
‘1 ’
‘1 ’
Other than after a normal reset the watchdog timer is disabled, therefore the bootstrap
loading sequence is not time limited. Pin TXD0 is configured as output. The configuration
(e.g. the accessibility) of the M2’s memory areas after reset in Bootstrap-Loader mode
differs from the standard case. Accesses to the external ROM area are partly redirected,
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while the M2 is in BSL mode. All code fetches to segment 0 are made from the special
Boot-ROM, while data accesses read from the external user ROM.
6.9
Identification Registers
A set of 8 identification registers are provided to offer information on the chip as
manufacturer, chip type and its memory (EEPROM, OTP, DRAM or Flash memory)
properties, and information on the CSCU (type of module, redesign state).
The ID registers are read only registers. These registers are:
•
•
•
•
•
IDMANUF, for manufacturer and department identification,
IDCHIP, for device identification and revision code,
IDMEM, for identification of on-chip program memory (type, size),
IDMEM2, for identification of additional EEPROM, OTP, DRAM or Flash memory,
IDPROG, for identification of programming/erasing voltage of on-chip program
memory,
• IDRT, redesign tracking register for identification of revisions and laser cuts.
Besides, some other registers provide identification of some parts of the M2. These
registers are hardwired inside the M2.
• CPUID, for CPU identification,
• IDSCU, for CSCU identification,
• DIPX version bit field, for OCDS identification.
6.9.1
System Identification
These identific ID register description
IDMANUF
15
14
Users Manual
Reset Value: XXXXH
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
MANUF
DEPT
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Bit
Function
MANUF
Manufacturer
This is the JEDEC normalized manufacturer code.
0C1H: Infineon Technologies
020H: SGS-Thomson
DEPT
Department
Indicates the department within Infineon Technologies.
00H:
HL MC
01H:
HL CAD Macrocells
02H:
HL IT
IDCHIP
15
Reset Value: XXXXH
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
CHIPID
Chip Revision Number
r
r
1
Bit
Function
Revision
Device Revision Code
Identifies the device step where the first release is marked ‘01H’.
CHIPID
Device Identification
Identifies the device name. Please refer to the association table.
IDMEM
15
Reset Value: XXXXH
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
Type
Size
r
r
4
IDMEM2
15
0
3
2
1
0
Reset Value: XXXXH
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
Type
Size
r
r
4
3
2
1
0
Note: IDMEM2 describes the second block of (program) memory. E.g. a device may
contain Flash and EEPROM or DRAM sections. Static RAM modules are not
described with ID registers.
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Bit
Function
Size
Size of On-chip Program Memory
The size of the implemented program memory in terms of 4 K blocks, i.e.
Memory-size = <Size> × 4 KByte.
Type
Type of On-chip Program Memory
Identifies the memory type on this silicon.
0H: ROMless
1H: Mask ROM
2H: EPROM
3H: Flash
4H: OTP
5H: EEPROM
6H: DRAM/SRAM
IDPROG
15
14
Reset Value: XXXXH
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
PROGVPP
PROGVDD
r
r
2
1
0
Bit
Function
PROGVDD
Programming VDD Voltage1)
The voltage of the standard power supply pins required when
programming or erasing (if applicable) the on-chip program memory.
Formula: VDD = 20 × <PROGVDD>/256 [V]
PROGVPP
Programming VPP Voltage1)
The voltage of the special programming power supply (if existent)
required to program or erase (if applicable) the on-chip program
memory. Formula: VPP = 20 × <PROGVPP>/256 [V]
Note:
1)
Devices that incorporate memories which cannot be programmed outside the
factory will indicate ‘00H’ in both bit fields.
IDRT
Reset Value: XXXXH
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
LC
RA
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
RIX
r
r
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
r
0
Note: The Redesign Tracing register IDRT is not commonly specified. It is protected
against standard read accesses via the function testmode (Testmode A).
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SDA 6000
System Control & Configuration
Bit
Function
RIX
Redesign Index
0:
This device is the original “Revision”.
else: This device has experienced minor changes that are not reflected
to the customer by the “Revision” bit field.
RA
Redundancy Activation
0:
This device is as it was manufactured.
1:
Redundant memory structures have been activated.
LC
Laser Correction
0:
This device is as it was manufactured.
1:
This device has been laser corrected.
6.9.2
CPU Identification
The CPU is identified by the CPUID register. This register is only implemented on
STARLIB versions of the M2 Rev. 2.0.
CPUID
Reset Value: 0061H
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
7
6
5
4
3
CBC Rev.
-
-
Bit
Function
CBC Rev.
CBC Revision number
currently 011B
Core ID
Core Identification number
for the C166 CBC the value is 00001B
2
1
0
Core ID
-
-
-
r
The SCU provides a specific read-only identification register for its own module type and
revision identification.
IDSCU
15
Reset Value: 0000H
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
SCU Module Number
5
4
3
2
1
0
SCU Revision Number
r
r
For Rev. 2.0 derivatives, the current value is 0000H.
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2000-06-15
SDA 6000
System Control & Configuration
6.10
Parallel Ports
M2 provides up to 30 input/outputs, 6 output and 6 input multiple purpose ports. All port
lines are bit-addressable, and all input/output lines are individually (bit-wise)
programmable as inputs or outputs via direction registers. The I/O ports are true
bidirectional ports which are switched to high impedance state when configured as
inputs. The output drivers of two I/O ports can be configured (pin by pin) for push/pull
operation or open-drain operation via control registers. During the internal reset, all port
pins are configured as inputs. Most of the port lines have programmable alternate input
or output functions associated with them (GPT1/GPT2, external interrupts, I2C-bus,
analog inputs for A/D converter, SSC-interface or ASC-interface). All port lines that are
not used for these alternate functions may be used as general purpose I/O lines. Ports
of M2 are 3.3 V tolerant and can deliver a 3.3 V output voltage (refer also to Chapter 14).
Data Input/ Output
Registers
Direction Control
Registers
P2
DP2
P3
DP3
Open Drain Control
Registers
Special Control
Registers
ODP3
P4
P5BEN
P5
P6
ODP6
DP6
ALTSELOP6
UEA11135
Figure 6-5
Portlogic Register Overview
Port 0
Port 0 does not exist due to the dedicated memory bus structure of M2.
Port 1
Port 1 does not exist due to the dedicated memory bus structure of M2.
Port 2
Port 2 is an 8-bit bidirectional I/O port which can also serve as fast external interrupt input
(sample rate is 30 ns).
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SDA 6000
System Control & Configuration
P2
15
Reset Value: 0000H
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
P2.15 P2.14
P2.13 P2.12 P2.11 P2.10
P2.9
P2.8
rw
rw
rw
rw
rw
rw
rw
rw
Bit
Function
P2.y
Port data register P2 bit y.
DP2
Reset Value: 0000H
15
14
13
12
11
10
DP2.
15
DP2.
14
DP2.
13
DP2.
12
DP2.
11
DP2.
10
rw
rw
rw
rw
rw
rw
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
DP2.
9
DP2.
8
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
rw
rw
Bit
Function
DP2.y
Port direction register DP2 bit y
DP2.y = 0: Port line P2.y is an input (high-impedance).
DP2.y = 1: Port line P2.y is an output.
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2000-06-15
SDA 6000
System Control & Configuration
Port 3
If this 15-bit port is used for general purpose I/O, the direction of each line can be
configured via the corresponding direction register DP3. All port lines can be switched
into push/pull or open drain mode via the open drain control register ODP3. Due to pin
limitations register bit P3.14 is not connected to any pin.
P3
15
Reset Value: 0000H
14
P3.15
-
rw
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
P3.13 P3.12 P3.11 P3.10
P3.9
P3.8
P3.7
P3.6
P3.5
P3.4
P3.3
P3.2
P3.1
P3.0
rw
rw
rw
rw
rw
rw
rw
rw
rw
rw
rw
rw
rw
rw
Bit
Function
P3.y
Port data register P3 bit y.
Note: Register bit P3.14 is not connected to an I/O pin.
DP3
15
Reset Value: 0000H
14
DP3.
15
rw
-
-
13
12
11
10
DP3.
13
DP3.
12
DP3.
11
DP3.
10
rw
rw
rw
rw
9
8
7
DP3.
9
DP3.
8
DP3.
7
rw
rw
rw
6
5
4
3
DP3.
6
DP3.
5
DP3.
4
DP3.
3
rw
rw
rw
rw
Bit
Function
DP3.y
Port direction register DP3 bit y
DP3.y = 0: Port line P3.y is an input (high-impedance).
DP3.y = 1: Port line P3.y is an output.
ODP3
15
1
0
DP3.
2
DP3.
1
DP3.
0
rw
rw
rw
Reset Value: 0000H
14
ODP3.
15
rw
2
-
-
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
ODP3. ODP3. ODP3. ODP3. ODP3. ODP3. ODP3. ODP3. ODP3. ODP3. ODP3. ODP3. ODP3. ODP3.
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
rw
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rw
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6 - 29
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2000-06-15
SDA 6000
System Control & Configuration
Bit
Function
ODP3.y
Port 3 Open Drain control register bit y
ODP3.y = 0: Port line P3.y output driver in push/pull mode.
ODP3.y = 1: Port line P3.y output driver in open drain mode.
Alternate Functions of Port 3
The pins of Port 3 serve various functions which include external timer control lines and
the 3 serial interfaces.
The table below summarizes the alternate functions of Port 3.
Port 3 Pin Alternate Function
P3.0
P3.1
P3.2
P3.3
P3.4
P3.5
P3.6
P3.7
P3.8
P3.9
P3.10
P3.11
P3.12
P3.13
P3.14
P3.15
SCL0
SDA0
CAPIN
T3OUT
T3EUD
T4IN
T3IN
T2IN
MRST
MTSR
TxD0
RxD0
--SCLK
--LED2
I2C - bus clock line 0
I2C - bus data line 0
GPT2 capture input
Timer 3 Toggle output
Timer 3 External Up/Down input
Timer 4 Count input
Timer 3 Count input
Timer 2 Count input
SSC Master receive/Slave transmit
SSC Master transmit/Slave receive
ASC0 Transmit data output
ASC0 Receive data input
No alternate function
SSC Shift Clock input/output
Not implemented. No pin assigned!
No alternate function
Port 4
Port 4 is a 6-bit output port. Because of its high frequency requirements in the alternate
function mode, it has different electrical characteristics than the other ports.
During reset, the user specific portion of the system start-up configuration is input via
Port 4. The complete configuration (user specific as well as hardwired settings) can be
read at runtime from register RP0H. For a detailed description refer to Chapter 6.1.
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SDA 6000
System Control & Configuration
P4L (during reset)
15
-
14
13
12
-
-
-
Reset Value: XXXXH
11
10
-
-
9
8
7
6
-
-
-
-
5
P4L.5
r
4
3
r
r
Function
P4L.0
BSLENA (Boot Strap Load Enable)
P4L.0 = 1: Boot strap loader enabled
P4L.0 = 0: Boot strap loader disabled
P4L.1
CSENA (Chip Select Enable)
P4L.1 = 1: P4.5 configured as general purpose pin
P4L.1 = 0: P4.5 configured as CS3
P4L.2
Reserved
P4L.(5 … 3)
SALSEL(2 … 0) (Select Number of Address Lines)
see explanation below
P4
-
1
0
P4L.4 P4L.3 P4L.2 P4L.1 P4L.0
Bit
15
2
r
r
r
Reset Value: 0000H
14
13
12
-
-
-
11
10
-
-
9
8
7
6
-
-
-
-
Bit
Function
P4.y
Port data register P4 bit.y
5
4
3
P4.5
P4.4
P4.3
rw
rw
rw
2
1
0
P4.2
P4.1
P4.0
rw
rw
rw
Alternate Functions of Port 4
During external bus cycles that use segmentation (e.g. an address space above
128 KByte), a number of Port 4 pins may output the segment address lines and activate
the third chip select signal (A(20 … 16) and CS3). The number of pins that is used for
segment address output determines the external address space which is directly
accessible. The other pins of Port 4 (if any) may be used for general purpose output. If
segment address lines are selected, the alternate function of Port 4 may be necessary
to access e.g. external memory directly after reset. For this reason Port 4 will be
automatically switched to this alternate function.
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SDA 6000
System Control & Configuration
The number of segment address lines is selected via P4 during reset. The selected value
can be read from bit field SALSEL and CSENA of register RP0H e.g. in order to check
the configuration during run time.
Port 4 Altern.
Altern.
Altern.
Altern.
Altern.
SALSEL = 010 or
Pin
Function
Function
Function
Function
Function
001 or 000
SALSEL = 111 SALSEL = 110 SALSEL = 101 SALSEL = 100 SALSEL = 011
P4.0
A16
A16
A16
A16
A16
Gen. Purp. I/O
P4.1
A17
A17
A17
A17
Gen. Purp. I/O
Gen. Purp. I/O
P4.2
A18
A18
A18
Gen. Purp. I/O
Gen. Purp. I/O
Gen. Purp. I/O
P4.3
A19
A19
Gen. Purp. I/O
Gen. Purp. I/O
Gen. Purp. I/O
Gen. Purp. I/O
P4.4
A20
Gen. Purp. I/O
Gen. Purp. I/O
Gen. Purp. I/O
Gen. Purp. I/O
Gen. Purp. I/O
Port 4 Pin
Altern. Function
CSENA = 0
Altern. Function
CSENA = 1
P4.5
CS3
Gen. Purp. I/O
Port 5
Port 5 is a 6-bit input port.
P5
15
Reset Value: 0000H
14
13
12
-
-
P5.15 P5.14
r
11
10
-
-
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
-
-
-
-
-
-
P5.3
P5.2
r
r
r
Bit
Function
P5.y
Port data register P5 bit y (read only).
2
1
0
P5.1
P5.0
r
r
Alternate Functions of Port 5
Port 5.3 … P5.0 is also connected to the input multiplexer of the A/D Converter. These
lines can accept analog signals (AN3 … AN0) that can be converted by the ADC. Port
5.15 and 5.14 also serve as external timer control lines for GPT1 and GPT2.
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SDA 6000
System Control & Configuration
Port 5 Pin Alternate Function
ANA0
ANA1
ANA2
ANA3
T4EUD
T2EUD
P5.0
P5.1
P5.2
P5.3
P5.14
P5.15
Analog Input 0 (Wake Up Function)
Analog Input 1
Analog Input 2
Analog Input 3
Timer 4 External Up/Down Input
Timer 2 External Up/Down Input
P5BEN
15
Reset Value: 0000H
14
-
13
12
-
-
-
11
10
-
-
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
-
-
-
-
-
-
P5B
EN.3
rw
Bit
Function
P5BEN.y
Input Functionality Control Bit
P5BEN.y = 0: Analog Input Functionality.
P5BEN.y = 1: Digital Input Functionality.
2
1
0
P5B
EN.2
P5B
EN.1
P5B
EN.0
rw
rw
rw
Port 6
If this 7-bit port is used for general purpose I/O, the direction of each line can be
configured via the corresponding direction register DP6. The port lines can be switched
into push/pull or open drain mode via the open drain control register ODP6.
P6
15
-
Reset Value: 0000H
14
13
12
-
-
-
11
10
-
-
9
8
7
-
-
-
Bit
Function
P6.y
Port data register P6 bit y.
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6 - 33
6
5
4
3
P6.6
P6.5
P6.4
P6.3
rw
rw
rw
rw
2
1
0
P6.2
P6.1
P6.0
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2000-06-15
SDA 6000
System Control & Configuration
DP6
15
-
Reset Value: 0000H
14
13
12
-
-
-
11
10
-
-
9
8
7
-
-
-
6
5
4
3
rw
rw
rw
Bit
Function
DP6.y
Port direction register DP6 bit y.
DP6.y = 0: Port line P6.y is an input (high-impedance).
DP6.y = 1: Port line P6.y is an output.
ODP6
-
1
0
DP6.6 DP6.5 DP6.4 DP6.3 DP6.2 DP6.1 DP6.0
rw
15
2
rw
rw
rw
Reset Value: 0000H
14
13
12
-
-
-
11
10
-
-
9
8
7
-
-
-
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
ODP6. ODP6. ODP6. ODP6. ODP6. ODP6. ODP6.
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
rw
rw
rw
rw
rw
Bit
Function
ODP6.y
Port 6 Open Drain control register bit y
ODP6.y = 0: Port line P6.y output driver in push/pull mode
ODP6.y = 1: Port line P6.y output driver in open drain mode
rw
rw
Alternate Functions of Port 6
The table below summarizes the alternate functions of Port 6.
Port 6 Pin Alternate Function
P6.0
P6.1
P6.2
P6.3
P6.4
P6.5
P6.6
TRIG_IN
TRIG_OUT
SCL1
SDA1
SDA2
Users Manual
Trigger Input for Emulation
Trigger output for Emulation
no alternate function
I2C Bus Clock Line 1
I2C Bus Data Line 1
no alternate function
I2C Bus Data Line 2
6 - 34
2000-06-15
SDA 6000
System Control & Configuration
ALTSEL0P6
15
-
14
Reset Value: 0000H
13
12
-
-
-
11
10
-
-
9
8
7
-
-
-
6
5
4
3
SEL
P6.6
SEL
P6.5
SEL
P6.4
SEL
P6.3
rw
rw
rw
rw
2
1
0
SEL
P6.2
SEL
P6.1
SEL
P6.0
rw
rw
rw
Bit
Function
SELP6.y
Alternate Function Control Bit
SELP6.y = 0: General Purpose Port Functionality enabled for Line P6.y.
SELP6.y = 1: Alternate Function enabled for Line P6.y.
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Peripherals
SDA 6000
Peripherals
7
Peripherals
All of the peripherals described in the following paragraphs are clocked with the same
clock as the CPU (fhw_clk). Depending on the mode (normal or Idle), this frequency is
33.33 MHz or 3 MHz.
7.1
General Purpose Timer Unit
The General Purpose Timer Unit (GPT) represents very flexible multifunctional timer
structures which may be used for timing, event counting, pulse width measurement,
pulse generation, frequency multiplication, and other purposes. They incorporate five
16-bit timers that are grouped into the two timer blocks GPT1 and GPT2. Each timer in
each block may operate independently in a number of different modes such as gated
timer or counter mode, or may be concatenated with another timer of the same block.
Block 1 contains 3 timers/counters with a maximum resolution of fhw_clk/4. The auxiliary
timers of GPT1 may be optionally configured as reload or capture registers for the core
timer.
Block 2 contains 2 timers/counters with a maximum resolution of fhw_clk/2. An additional
CAPREL register supports capture and reload operations with extended functionality,
and its core timer T6 may be concatenated with the timers from the CAPCOM unit (T0
and T1).
The following enumeration summarizes all features to be supported:
Timer Block 1:
•
•
•
•
•
fhw_clk/4 maximum resolution
3 independent timers/counters
Timers/counters can be concatenated
4 operating modes (timer, gated timer, counter, incremental)
Separate interrupt nodes
Timer Block 2:
•
•
•
•
•
•
fhw_clk/2 maximum resolution
2 independent timers/counters
Timers/counters can be concatenated
3 operating modes (timer, gated timer, counter)
Extended capture/reload functions via 16-bit Capture/Reload register CAPREL
Separate interrupt nodes
7.1.1
Functional Description of Timer Block 1
All three timers of block 1 (T2, T3, T4) can run in 4 basic modes, which are timer, gated
timer, counter and incremental interface mode. All timers can either count up or down.
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SDA 6000
Peripherals
Each timer has an input line (TxIN) associated with it which serves as the gate control in
gated timer mode, or as the count input in counter mode. The count direction (Up / Down)
may be programmed via software or dynamically altered by a signal at an external
control input line (TxEUD). An overflow/underflow of core timer T3 is indicated by the
output toggle latch T3OTL whose state may be output on related line T3OUT. The
auxiliary timers T2 and T4 may additionally be concatenated with the core timer, or used
as capture or reload registers for the core timer. Concatenation of T3 with other timers
is provided through line T3OTL.
The current contents of each timer can be read or modified by the CPU by accessing the
corresponding timer registers T2, T3, or T4, which are located in the non-bitaddressable
SFR space. When any of the timer registers are written to by the CPU in the state
immediately before a timer increment, decrement, reload, or capture is to be performed,
the CPU write operation has priority in order to guarantee correct results.
T2EUD
f hw_clk
U/D
2n : 1
T2IN
T2
Mode
Control
GPT1 Timer T2
Interrupt
Request
GPT1 Timer T3
Interrupt
Request
Reload
Capture
T3OTL
f hw_clk
2n : 1
T3
Mode
Control
T3IN
U/D
T3EUD
T3OTL
Capture
Reload
T4IN
f hw_clk
2n : 1
T4
Mode
Control
GPT1 Timer T4
Interrupt
Request
U/D
T4EUD
UEB11195
Figure 7-1
Structure of Timer Block 1 Core Timer T3
The operation of the core timer T3 is controlled by its bit-addressable control register
T3CON.
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2000-06-15
SDA 6000
Peripherals
Run Control
The timer can be started or stopped by software through bit T3R (Timer T3 Run Bit).
Setting bit T3R will start the timer, clearing T3R stops the timer.
In gated timer mode, the timer will only run if T3R is set and the gate is active (high or
low, as programmed).
Note: When bit T2RC/T4RC in timer control register T2CON/T4CON is set, T3R will also
control (start and stop) auxiliary timer T2/T4.
Count Direction Control
The count direction of the core timer can either be controlled by software or by the
external input line T3EUD (Timer T3 External Up/Down Control Input). These options are
selected by bits T3UD and T3UDE in control register T3CON. When the up/down control
is executed by software (bit T3UDE = ‘0’), the count direction can be altered by setting
or clearing bit T3UD. When T3UDE = ‘1’, line T3EUD is selected to be the controlling
source of the count direction. However, bit T3UD can still be used to reverse the actual
count direction, as shown in the table below. If T3UD = ‘0’ and line T3EUD shows a low
level, the timer is counting up. With a high level T3EUD, the timer is counting down. If
T3UD = ‘1’, a high level at line T3EUD specifies counting up, and a low level specifies
counting down. The count direction can be changed regardless of whether the timer is
running or not.
When line T3EUD is used as external count direction control input, its associated port
pin must be configured as input.
Table 7-1
Core Timer T3 Count Direction Control
Line T3EUD Bit T3UDE
Bit T3UD
Count Direction
X
0
0
Count Up
X
0
1
Count Down
0
1
0
Count Up
1
1
0
Count Down
0
1
1
Count Down
1
1
1
Count Up
Note: The direction control works in the same way for core timer T3 and for auxiliary
timers T2 and T4. Therefore the lines and bits are named Tx …
Timer 3 Overflow/Underflow Monitoring
An overflow or underflow of timer T3 will clock the overflow toggle latch T3OTL in control
register T3CON. T3OTL can also be set or reset by software. Bit T3OE (Overflow/
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2000-06-15
SDA 6000
Peripherals
Underflow Output Enable) in register T3CON enables the state of T3OTL to be
monitored via an external line T3OUT. If this line is linked to an external port pin, which
has to be configured as output, T3OTL can be used to control external HW.
In addition, T3OTL can be used in conjunction with the timer over/underflows as an input
for the counter function or as a trigger source for the reload function of the auxiliary
timers T2 and T4. For this purpose, the state of T3OTL does not have to be available at
any port pin, because an internal connection is provided for this option.
Timer 3 in Timer Mode
Timer mode for the core timer T3 is selected by setting bit field T3M in register T3CON
to ‘000B’.
In this mode, T3 is clocked with the system clock fhw_clk divided by a programmable
prescaler, which is controlled by bit field T3I and BPS1. The input frequency fT3 for timer
T3 and its resolution rT3 are scaled linearly with lower module clock frequencies, as can
be seen from the following formula:
fT3 =
fhw_clk
BPS1 × 2<T3I>
rT3 [ms] =
fhw_clk [MHz]
BPS1 × 2<T3I>
Table 7-2 gives an overview for timer resolutions depending on prescaler factors.
Table 7-2
fMOD =
Timer Input Selection T2I / T3I / T4I
33.33 MHz
000B 000B 001B
010B
011B
100B
101B
110B
111B
FM =
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Prescaler factor
4
8
16
32
64
128
256
512
1024
Input Frequency 2.08 4.16
MHz MHz
2.08
MHz
1.04
MHz
521.83 260.41 130.20 65.10
kHz
kHz
kHz
kHz
32.55
kHz
Resolution
120
ns
240
ns
480
ns
960
ns
1.92
µs
Period
7.86
ms
15.72 31.45 62.91 125.82 251.6
ms
ms
ms
ms
ms
3.84
µs
7.68
µs
15.36
µs
30.72
µs
503
ms
1
s
2.01
s
This formula also applies to the Gated Timer Mode of T3 and to the auxiliary timers T2
and T4 in timer and gated timer mode.
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BPS1 TxI
2n : 1
f hw_clk
Interrupt
Request
Core Timer Tx
Up/
Down
TxR
TxUD
0
MUX
1
EXOR
TxEUD
x=3
TxUDE
Figure 7-2
UEB11196
Block Diagram of Core Timer T3 in Timer Mode
Timer 3 in Gated Timer Mode
The gated timer mode for the core timer T3 is selected by setting bit field T3M in register
T3CON to ‘010B’ or ‘011B’.
Bit T3M.0 (T3CON.3) selects the active level of the gate input. In gated timer mode the
same options are available for the input frequency as for the timer mode. However, the
input clock to the timer in this mode is gated by the external input line T3IN (Timer T3
External Input); an associated port pin should be configured as input.
BPS1 TxI
f hw_clk
2n : 1
TxIN
MUX
Core Timer Tx
TxM
Up/
Down
TxR
TxOUT
TxOTL
TxOE
TxUD
0
Interrupt
Request
MUX
TxEUD
XOR
1
x=3
TxUDE
Figure 7-3
Users Manual
UEB11197
Block Diagram of Core Timer T3 in Gated Timer Mode
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If T3M = ‘010B’, the timer is enabled when T3IN shows a low level. A high level at this
line stops the timer. If T3M = ‘011B’, line T3IN must have a high level in order to enable
the timer. In addition, the timer can be turned on or off by software using bit T3R. The
timer will only run, if T3R is set and the gate is active. It will stop, if either T3R is cleared
or the gate is inactive.
Note: A transition of the gate signal at line T3IN does not cause an interrupt request.
Timer 3 in Counter Mode
Counter mode for the core timer T3 is selected by setting bit field T3M in register T3CON
to ‘001B’. In counter mode, timer T3 is clocked by a transition at the external input line
T3IN. The event causing an increment or decrement of the timer can be a positive, a
negative, or both a positive and negative transition at this line. Bit field T3I in control
register T3CON selects the triggering transition (see table below).
Edge
Select
TxOFL
TxIN
Core Timer Tx
TxR
TxOUT
TxOTL
Up/
Down
TxOE
TxI
TxUD
0
Interrupt
Request
MUX
TxEUD
XOR
1
x=3
TxUDE
UEB11198
Figure 7-4
Block Diagram of Core Timer T3 in Counter Mode
Table 7-3
Core Timer T3 (Counter Mode) Input Edge Selection
T3I
Triggering Edge for Counter Increment/Decrement
000
None. Counter T3 is disabled
001
Positive transition (rising edge) on T3IN
010
Negative transition (falling edge) on T3IN
011
Any transition (rising or falling edge) on T3IN
1XX
Reserved. Do not use this combination
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For counter operation, a port pin associated to line T3IN must be configured as input.
The maximum input frequency which is allowed in counter mode is fhw_clk/8 (BPS1 = ‘01’).
To ensure that a transition of the count input signal which is applied to T3IN is correctly
recognized, its level should be held high or low for at least 4 fhw_clk cycles (BPS1 = ‘01’)
before it changes.
Timer 3 in Incremental Interface Mode
Incremental Interface mode for the core timer T3 is selected by setting bit field T3M in
register T3CON to ‘110B’ or ‘111B’. In Incremental Interface mode the two inputs
associated with timer T3 (T3IN, T3EUD) are used to interface to an incremental encoder.
T3 is clocked by each transition on one or both of the external input lines which gives
2-fold or 4-fold the resolution of the encoder input.
T3IN
Edge
Select
Timer T3
Up/
Down
T3R
T3I
T3OTL
T3
Edge
T3OUT
T3OE
Interrupt
Request
T3
RDIR
Edge
Interrupt
T3M
Change
Detection
T3UD
T3EUD
Phase
Detect
Rotation
Interrupt
T3M
XOR
0
MUX
1
T3UDE
Figure 7-5
T3
CHDIR
UEB11199
Block Diagram of Core Timer T3 in Incremental Interface Mode
The T3I bit field in control register T3CON selects the triggering transitions (see
Table 7-4). In this mode, the sequence of the transitions of the two input signals is
evaluated and generates count pulses as well as the direction signal. Depending on the
chosen Incremental Interface Mode, rotation detection ‘110B’ or edge detection ‘111B’,
an interrupt is generated. For the rotation detection, an interrupt will be generated each
time the count direction of timer T3 changes. For the edge detection an interrupt will be
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generated each time a count action for timer T3 occurs. Count direction, changes in the
count direction and count requests are monitored through the status bits T3RDIR,
T3CHDIR and T3EDGE in register T3CON. T3 is modified automatically according to the
speed and the direction of the incremental encoder. Therefore, the contents of the T3
timer always represents the encoder’s current position.
Table 7-4
Core Timer T3 (Incremental Interface Mode) Input Edge Selection
T3I
Triggering Edge for Counter Increment/Decrement
000
None. Counter T3 stops.
001
Any transition (rising or falling edge) on T3IN.
010
Any transition (rising or falling edge) on T3EUD.
011
Any transition (rising or falling edge) on any T3 input (T3IN or T3EUD).
1XX
Reserved. Do not use this combination.
The incremental encoder can be connected directly to the microcontroller without
external interface logic. In a standard system, however, comparators will be employed
to convert the encoder’s differential outputs (e.g. A, A) to digital signals (e.g. A). This
greatly increases noise immunity.
Note: The third encoder output T0, which indicates the mechanical zero position, may
be connected to an external interrupt input and trigger a reset of timer T3.
External
Encoder
A
A
+
-
A
B
B
+
-
B
T0
T0
+
-
T0
T3 Input
T3 Input
Microcontroller
Interrupt
Signal Conditioning
UED11136
Figure 7-6
Interfacing the Encoder to the Microcontroller
For incremental interface operation the following conditions must be met:
• The T3M bit field must be ‘110B’ or ‘111B’.
• Pins associated with lines T3IN and T3EUD must be configured as input.
• The T3UDE bit must be set to enable automatic direction control.
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The maximum input frequency which is allowed in incremental interface mode is fhw_clk/
8 (BPS = 01). To ensure that a transition of any input signal is correctly recognized, its
level should be held high or low for at least 4 fhw_clk cycles (BPS = 01) before it changes.
In Incremental Interface Mode the count direction is automatically derived from the
sequence in which the input signals change, which corresponds to the rotation direction
of the connected sensor. Table 7-5 summarizes the possible combinations.
Table 7-5
Core Timer T3 (Incremental Interface Mode) Count Direction
Level on
Respective other
Input
T3IN Input
T3EUD Input
Rising
Falling
Rising
Falling
High
Down
Up
Up
Down
Low
Up
Down
Down
Up
The figures below give examples of T3’s operation, visualizing count signal generation
and direction control. It also shows how input jitter is compensated, which might occur if
the sensor rests near to one of its switching points.
Forward
Jitter
Backward
Jitter
Forward
T3IN
T3EUD
Contents
of T3
Up
Down
Up
Note: This example shows the timer behavior assuming that T3 counts upon any transition on
any input, i.e. T3I = ’011B’.
UET11137
Figure 7-7
Users Manual
Evaluation of the Incremental Encoder Signals
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Peripherals
Forward
Jitter
Backward
Jitter
Forward
T3IN
T3EUD
Contents
of T3
Up
Down
Up
Note: This example shows the timer behavior assuming that T3 counts upon any transition on
input T3IN, i.e. T3I = ’001B’.
UET11138
Figure 7-8
Evaluation of the Incremental Encoder Signals
Note: Timer T3, operating in incremental interface mode, automatically provides
information on the sensor’s current position. Dynamic information (speed,
acceleration, deceleration) may be obtained by measuring the incoming signal
periods.
Auxiliary Timers T2 and T4
Both auxiliary timers T2 and T4 have exactly the same functionality. They can be
configured for timer, gated timer, counter, or incremental interface mode with the same
options for the timer frequencies and the count signal as the core timer T3. In addition to
these 4 counting modes, the auxiliary timers can be concatenated with the core timer, or
they may be used as reload or capture registers in conjunction with the core timer.
The individual configuration for the T2 and T4 timers is determined by their
bit-addressable control registers T2CON and T4CON, which are both organized
identically. Note that functions which are present in all 3 timers of timer block 1 are
controlled in the same bit positions and in the same manner in each of the specific
control registers.
Run control for auxiliary timers T2 and T4 can be handled by the associated Run Control
Bit T2R, T4R in register T2CON/T4CON. Alternatively, a remote control option (T2RC,
T4RC set) may be enabled to start and stop T2/T4 via the run bit T3R of core timer T3.
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Timers T2 and T4 in Timer Mode or Gated Timer Mode
When the auxiliary timers T2 and T4 are programmed to timer mode or gated timer
mode, their operation is the same as described for the core timer T3. The descriptions,
figures and tables apply accordingly with two exceptions:
• There is no TxOUT output line for T2 and T4.
• Overflow/Underflow Monitoring is not supported (no output toggle latch).
Timers T2 and T4 in Counter Mode
In counter mode timers T2 and T4 can be clocked either by a transition at the respective
external input line TxIN, or by a transition of timer T3’s output toggle latch T3OTL.
Edge
Select
TxIN
Auxiliary Timer Tx
Interrupt
Request
Up/
Down
TxR
TxI
TxUD
0
MUX
TxEUD
XOR
1
x = 2, 4
TxUDE
UEB11200
Figure 7-9
Block Diagram of an Auxiliary Timer in Counter Mode
The event causing an increment or decrement of a timer can be a positive, a negative,
or both a positive and negative transition at either the respective input line, or at the
output toggle latch T3OTL.
Bit field TxI in the respective control register TxCON selects the triggering transition (see
Table 7-6).
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Table 7-6
Auxiliary Timer (Counter Mode) Input Edge Selection
T2I/T4I
Triggering Edge for Counter Increment/Decrement
X00
None. Counter Tx is disabled
001
Positive transition (rising edge) on TxIN
010
Negative transition (falling edge) on TxIN
011
Any transition (rising or falling edge) on TxIN
101
Positive transition (rising edge) of output toggle latch T3OTL
110
Negative transition (falling edge) of output toggle latch T3OTL
111
Any transition (rising or falling edge) of output toggle latch T3OTL
Note: Only state transitions of T3OTL which are caused by the overflows/underflows of
T3 will trigger the counter function of T2/T4. Modifications of T3OTL via software
will NOT trigger the counter function of T2/T4.
For counter operation, an external pin associated to line TxIN must be configured as
input. The maximum input frequency which is allowed in counter mode is fhw_clk/8 (BPS1
= ‘01’). To ensure that a transition of the count input signal which is applied to TxIN is
correctly recognized, its level should be held for at least 4 fhw_clk cycles (BPS1 = ‘01’)
before it changes.
7.1.1.1
Timer Concatenation
Using the output toggle latch T3OTL as a clock source for an auxiliary timer in counter
mode concatenates the core timer T3 with the respective auxiliary timer. Depending on
which transition of T3OTL is selected to clock the auxiliary timer, this concatenation
forms a 32-bit or a 33-bit timer/counter.
• 32-bit Timer/Counter: If both positive and negative transitions of T3OTL are used to
clock the auxiliary timer, this timer is clocked on every overflow/underflow of the core
timer T3. Thus, the two timers form a 32-bit timer.
• 33-bit Timer/Counter: If either a positive or a negative transition of T3OTL is selected
to clock the auxiliary timer, this timer is clocked on every second overflow/underflow
of the core timer T3. This configuration forms a 33-bit timer (16-bit core timer
+ T3OTL + 16-bit auxiliary timer).
The count directions of the two concatenated timers are not required to be the same.
This offers a wide variety of different configurations.
In this case T3 can operate in timer, gated timer or counter mode.
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BPS1 TyI
2n : 1
f hw_clk
Core Timer Ty
TyR
*)
TyOUT
TyOTL
TyOE
Up/Down
Interrupt
Request
Edge
Select
Auxiliary Timer Tx
TxIR
TxR
Interrupt
Request
x = 2, 4 y = 3
TxI
UES11201
Note: Line ‘*’ is only affected by over/underflows of T3, but NOT by software
modifications of T3OTL.
Figure 7-10 Concatenation of Core Timer T3 and an Auxiliary Timer
Auxiliary Timer in Reload Mode
Reload mode for the auxiliary timers T2 and T4 is selected by setting bit field TxM in the
respective register TxCON to ‘100B’. In reload mode the core timer T3 is reloaded with
the contents of an auxiliary timer register, triggered by one of two different signals. The
trigger signal is selected the same way as the clock source for counter mode (see
Table 7-6), i.e. a transition of the auxiliary timer’s input or the output toggle latch T3OTL
may trigger the reload.
Note: When programmed for reload mode, the respective auxiliary timer (T2 or T4) stops
independent of its run flag T2R or T4R.
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Source/Edge
Select
x = 2, 4
Reload Register Tx
Interrupt
Request
TxIN
TxI
*)
Input
Clock
Interrupt
Request
Core Timer T3
Up/Down
T3OUT
T3OTL
T3OE
UES11202
Note: Line ‘*’ is only affected by over/underflows of T3, but NOT by software
modifications of T3OTL.
Figure 7-11 GPT1 Auxiliary Timer in Reload Mode
Upon a trigger signal, T3 is loaded with the contents of the respective timer register (T2
or T4) and the interrupt request flag (T2IR or T4IR) is set.
Note: When a T3OTL transition is selected for the trigger signal, also the interrupt
request flag T3IR will be set upon a trigger, indicating T3’s overflow or underflow.
Modifications of T3OTL via software will NOT trigger the counter function of T2/T4.
The reload mode triggered by T3OTL can be used in a number of different
configurations. Depending on the selected active transition the following functions can
be performed:
• If both a positive and a negative transition of T3OTL are selected to trigger a reload,
the core timer will be reloaded with the contents of the auxiliary timer each time it
overflows or underflows. This is the standard reload mode (reload on overflow/
underflow).
• If either a positive or a negative transition of T3OTL is selected to trigger a reload, the
core timer will be reloaded with the contents of the auxiliary timer on every second
overflow or underflow.
• Using this “single-transition” mode for both auxiliary timers allows very flexible pulse
width modulation (PWM) to be performed. One of the auxiliary timers is programmed
to reload the core timer on a positive transition of T3OTL, the other is programmed for
a reload on a negative transition of T3OTL. With this combination the core timer is
alternately reloaded from the two auxiliary timers.
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Figure 7-12 shows an example of the generation of a PWM signal using the alternate
reload mechanism. T2 defines the high time of the PWM signal (reloaded on positive
transitions) and T4 defines the low time of the PWM signal (reloaded on negative
transitions). The PWM signal can be output on line T3OUT if the control bit T3OE is set.
With this method the high and low time of the PWM signal can be varied in a wide range.
Note: The output toggle latch T3OTL is accessible via software and may be changed, if
required, to modify the PWM signal. However, this will NOT trigger the reloading
of T3.
Note: An associated port pin linked to line T3OUT should be configured as output.
Reload Register T2
Interrupt
Request
*)
T2I
Input
Clock
Core Timer T3
T3OUT
T3OTL
T3OE
Up/Down
Interrupt
Request
*)
Interrupt
Request
Reload Register T4
T4I
UES11203
Note: Lines ‘*’ are only affected by over/underflows of T3, but NOT by software
modifications of T3OTL.
Figure 7-12 GPT1 Timer Reload Configuration for PWM Generation
Note: Although it is possible, selecting the same reload trigger event for both auxiliary
timers should be avoided. In this case both reload registers would try to load the
core timer at the same time. If this combination is selected, T2 is disregarded and
the contents of T4 reloaded.
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Auxiliary Timer in Capture Mode
Capture mode for the auxiliary timers T2 and T4 is selected by setting bit field TxM in the
respective register TxCON to ‘101B’. In capture mode the contents of the core timer are
latched into an auxiliary timer register in response to a signal transition at the respective
auxiliary timer’s external input line TxIN. The capture trigger signal can be a positive, a
negative, or both a positive and a negative transition.
The two least significant bits of bit field TxI are used to select the active transition (see
table in the counter mode section), while the most significant bit, TxI.2, is irrelevant for
capture mode. It is recommended to keep this bit cleared (TxI.2 = ‘0’).
Note: When programmed for capture mode, the respective auxiliary timer (T2 or T4)
stops independent of its run flag T2R or T4R.
Edge
Select
x = 2, 4
Capture Register Tx
Interrupt
Request
TxIN
TxI
Input
Clock
Interrupt
Request
Core Timer T3
Up/Down
T3OUT
T3OTL
T3OE
UES11204
Figure 7-13 Auxiliary Timer of Timer Block 1 in Capture Mode
Upon a trigger (selected transition) at the corresponding input line TxIN the contents of
the core timer are loaded into the auxiliary timer register and the associated interrupt
request flag TxIR will be set.
Note: The direction control for T2IN and for T4IN must be set to ‘Input', and the level of
the capture trigger signal should be kept high or low for at least 4 fhw_clk
(BPS1 = ‘01’) cycles before it changes, to ensure correct edge detection.
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7.1.2
Functional Description of Timer Block 2
Timer block 2 includes the two timers T5 (referred to as the auxiliary timer) and T6
(referred to as the core timer), and the 16-bit capture/reload register CAPREL.
The count direction (Up / Down) may be programmed by software. The auxiliary timer
T6 may be reloaded with the contents of CAPREL.
The toggle bit (T6OTL) also supports the concatenation of T6 with auxiliary timer T5,
while concatenation of T6 with other timers is provided through line T6OFL. Triggered
by an external signal, the contents of T5 can be captured in register CAPREL, and T5
may optionally be cleared. Both timer T6 and T5 can count up or down, and the current
timer value can be read or modified by the CPU in the non-bitaddressable SFRs T5 and
T6.
f hw_clk
2n : 1
T5
Mode
Control
U/D
Interrupt
Request
GPT2 Timer T5
Clear
Capture
Interrupt
Request
CAPIN
MUX
T3IN/
T3EUD
GPT2 CAPREL
Interrupt
Request
CT3
Clear
GPT2 Timer T6
f hw_clk
2n : 1
T6OTL
U/D
T6
Mode
Control
UES11205
Figure 7-14 Structure of Timer Block 2
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7.1.2.1
Core Timer T6
The operation of the core timer T6 is controlled by its bit-addressable control register
T6CON.
Timer 6 Run Bit
The timer can be started or stopped by software through bit T6R (Timer T6 Run Bit).
Setting bit T6R will start the timer, clearing T6R stops the timer.
Note: When bit T5RC is set, bit T6R will also control (start and stop) auxiliary timer T5.
Count Direction Control
The count direction of the core timer can be controlled by software. The count direction
can be changed regardless of whether the timer is running or not.
Table 7-7
Core Timer T6 Count Direction Control
Bit TxUD
Count Direction
0
Count Up
1
Count Down
Note: The direction control works the same for core timer T6 and for auxiliary timer T5.
Therefore the lines and bits are named Tx …
Timer 6 Overflow/Underflow Monitoring
An overflow or underflow of timer T6 will clock the toggle latch T6OTL in control register
T6CON. T6OTL can also be set or reset by software. T6OTL can be used in conjunction
with the timer over/underflows as an input for the counter function of the auxiliary timer
T5.
Timer 6 in Timer Mode
Timer mode for the core timer T6 is selected by setting bit field T6M in register T6CON
to ‘000B’. In this mode, T6 is clocked with the module clock divided by a programmable
prescaler, which is selected by bit field T6I. The input frequency fT6 for timer T6 and its
resolution rT6 are scaled linearly with lower clock frequencies fhw_clk, as can be seen from
the following formula:
fT6 =
Users Manual
fhw_clk
rT6 [ms] =
BPS2 × 2<T6I>
7 - 20
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fhw_clk [MHz]
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BPS2 T6I
T6OFL
2n : 1
f hw_clk
Core Timer T6
Up/
Down
T6UD
T6R
Interrupt
Request
T6OTL
x=6
UEB11206
Figure 7-15 Block Diagram of Core Timer T6 in Timer Mode
7.1.2.2
Auxiliary Timer T5
The auxiliary timer T5 can be configured for timer mode using the same options for the
timer frequencies and the count signal as the core timer T6. In addition to these 3
counting modes, the auxiliary timer can be concatenated with the core timer.
The individual configuration for timer T5 is determined by its bit-addressable control
register T5CON. Note that functions present in both timers of timer block 2 are controlled
in the same bit positions and manner in each of the specific control registers.
Run control for auxiliary timer T5 can be handled by the associated Run Control Bit T5R
in register T5CON. Alternatively, a remote control option (T5RC is set) may be enabled
to start and stop T5 via the run bit T6R of core timer T6.
Note: The auxiliary timer has no overflow/underflow toggle latch. Therefore, an output
line for Overflow/Underflow monitoring is not provided.
Count Direction Control for Auxiliary Timer
The count direction of the auxiliary timer can be controlled in the same way as for the
core timer T6. The description and the table apply accordingly.
Timer T5 in Timer Mode
When the auxiliary timer T5 is programmed to timer mode its operation is the same as
described for the core timer T6. The descriptions, figures and tables apply accordingly
with one exception:
• Overflow/Underflow monitoring is not supported (no output toggle latch).
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7.1.2.3
Timer Concatenation
Using the toggle bit T6OTL as a clock source for the auxiliary timer in counter mode
concatenates the core timer T6 with the auxiliary timer. Depending on which transition
of T6OTL is selected to clock the auxiliary timer, this concatenation forms a 32-bit or a
33-bit timer/counter.
• 32-bit Timer/Counter: If both positive and negative transitions of T6OTL are used to
clock the auxiliary timer, this timer is clocked on every overflow/underflow of the core
timer T6. Thus, the two timers form a 32-bit timer.
• 33-bit Timer/Counter: If either a positive or a negative transition of T6OTL is selected
to clock the auxiliary timer, this timer is clocked on every second overflow/underflow
of the core timer T6. This configuration forms a 33-bit timer (16-bit core timer
+ T6OTL + 16-bit auxiliary timer). The count directions of the two concatenated timers
are not required to be the same. This offers a wide variety of different configurations.
In this case T6 can operate in timer, gated timer or counter mode.
BPS2 TyI
2n : 1
f hw_clk
Core Timer Ty
TyR
*)
TyOTL
Up/Down
Interrupt
Request
Edge
Select
TyOFL
Auxiliary Timer Tx
TxR
TxIR
Up/Down
TxI
Interrupt
Request
x=5 y=6
UES11207
Note: Line ‘*’ is only affected by over/underflows of T6, but NOT by software
modifications of T6OTL.
Figure 7-16 Concatenation of Core Timer T6 and Auxiliary Timer T5
Capture/Reload Register CAPREL in Capture Mode
This 16-bit register can be used as a capture register for the auxiliary timer T5. This
mode is selected by setting bit T5SC in control register T5CON. The CT3 bit selects the
external input line CAPIN or the input lines of timer T3 as the source for a capture trigger.
Either a positive, a negative, or both a positive and a negative transition at line CAPIN
can be selected to trigger the capture function, or transitions on input T3IN or input
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T3EUD or both inputs T3IN and T3EUD. The active edge is controlled by bit field CI in
register T5CON.
The maximum input frequency for the capture trigger signal at CAPIN is fhw_clk/2
(BPS2 = ‘01’). To ensure that a transition of the capture trigger signal is correctly
recognized, its level should be held for at least 2 fhw_clk cycles (BPS2 = ‘01’) before it
changes.
When the timer T3 capture trigger is enabled (CT3 is set), register CAPREL captures the
contents of T5 when transitions of the selected input(s) occur. These values can be used
to measure T3’s input signals. This is useful e.g. when T3 operates in incremental
interface mode, in order to derive dynamic information (speed acceleration) from the
input signals.
When a selected transition at the external input line CAPIN is detected, the contents of
the auxiliary timer T5 are latched into register CAPREL, and interrupt request flag CRIR
is set. At the same time, timer T5 can be cleared to 0000H. This option is controlled by
bit T5CLR in register T5CON. If T5CLR = ‘0’, the contents of timer T5 are not affected
by a capture. If T5CLR = ‘1’, timer T5 is cleared after the current timer value has been
latched into register CAPREL.
Note: Bit T5SC only controls whether a capture is performed or not. If T5SC = ‘0’, the
input line CAPIN can still be used to clear timer T5 or as an external interrupt input.
This interrupt is controlled by the CAPREL interrupt control register CRIC.
Up/Down
Input
Clock
Interrupt
Request
Auxiliary Timer T5
Edge
Select
T5CLR
CAPIN
T5CC
MUX
T3IN/
T3EUD
T5SC
CT3
Interrupt
Request
CI
CAPREL Register
UEB11208
Figure 7-17 Timer Block 2 Register CAPREL in Capture Mode
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Timer Block 2 Capture/Reload Register CAPREL in Reload Mode
This 16-bit register can be used as a reload register for the core timer T6. This mode is
selected by setting bit T6SR = ‘1’ in register T6CON. The operation causing a reload in
this mode is an overflow or underflow of the core timer T6.
When timer T6 overflows from FFFFH to 0000H (when counting up) or when it underflows
from 0000H to FFFFH (when counting down), the value stored in register CAPREL is
loaded into timer T6. This will not set the interrupt request flag CRIR associated with the
CAPREL register. However, interrupt request flag T6IR will be set indicating the
overflow/underflow of T6.
CAPREL Register
T6SR
Input
Clock
Interrupt
Request
Core Timer T6
T6OFL
Up/Down
UEB11209
Figure 7-18 Timer Block 2 Register CAPREL in Reload Mode
Timer Block 2 Capture/Reload Register CAPREL in Capture-And-Reload Mode
Since the reload function and the capture function of register CAPREL can be enabled
individually by bits T5SC and T6SR, by setting both bits the two functions can be enabled
simultaneously. This feature can be used to generate an output frequency that is a
multiple of the input frequency.
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Peripherals
Up/Down
Input
Clock
Interrupt
Request
Auxiliary Timer T5
Edge
Select
T5CLR
CAPIN
T5CC
MUX
T3IN/
T3EUD
T5SC
CT3
Interrupt
Request
CI
CAPREL Register
T6CLR
T6SR
Input
Clock
Core Timer T6
Up/Down
Interrupt
Request
T6OFL
UEB11210
Figure 7-19 Timer Block 2 Register CAPREL in Capture-And-Reload Mode
This combined mode can be used to detect consecutive external events which may
occur aperiodically, but where a finer resolution, i.e. more ‘ticks’ within the time between
two external events, is required.
For this purpose, the time between the external operations is measured using timer T5
and the CAPREL register. Timer T5 runs in timer mode counting up with a frequency of
e.g. fhw_clk/32. The external operations are applied to line CAPIN. When an external
operation occurs, the timer T5 contents are latched into register CAPREL, and timer T5
is cleared (T5CLR = ‘1’). Thus, register CAPREL always contains the correct time
between two operations, measured in timer T5 increments. Timer T6, which runs in timer
mode counting down with a frequency of e.g. fhw_clk/4, uses the value in register CAPREL
to perform a reload on underflow. This means that the value in register CAPREL
represents the time between two underflows of timer T6, now measured in timer T6
increments. Since timer T6 runs 8 times faster than timer T5, it will underflow 8 times
within the time between two external operations. Thus, the underflow signal of timer T6
generates 8 ‘ticks’. Upon each underflow, the interrupt request flag T6IR will be set and
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Peripherals
bit T6OTL will be toggled. This signal has 8 times more transitions than the signal which
is applied to line CAPIN.
A certain deviation of the output frequency is generated by the fact that timer T5 will
count actual time units (e.g. T5 running at 1 MHz will capture the value 64H/100D for a
10 KHz input signal) while T6OTL will only toggle on an underflow of T6 (i.e. the
transition from 0000H to FFFFH). In the above mentioned example, T6 would count down
from 64H so the underflow would occur after 101 T6 timing ticks. The actual output
frequency then is 79.2 KHz instead of the expected 80 KHz.
This can be solved by activating the capture correction (T5CC = ‘1’). If the capture
correction is actived the content of T5 is decremented by 1 before being captured. The
deviation described is eliminated (in the example T5 would capture 63H/99D and the
output frequency would be 80 KHz).
The underflow signal of timer T6 can furthermore be used to clock one or more of the
CAPCOM unit’s timers, which gives the user the possibility to set compare operations
based on a finer resolution than that of the external operations. This connection is
accomplished through the T6OFL signal.
7.1.3
GPT Registers
All available kernel registers are summarized in Table 7-8.
Table 7-8
GPT Register Summary
Name
Reset Value
Description
T2CON
0000H
Timer 2 Control Register
T3CON
0000H
Timer 3 Control Register
T4CON
0000H
Timer 4 Control Register
T5CON
0000H
Timer 5 Control Register
T6CON
0000H
Timer 6 Control Register
CAPREL
0000H
Capture/Reload Register
T2
0000H
Timer 2 Register
T3
0000H
Timer 3 Register
T4
0000H
Timer 4 Register
T5
0000H
Timer 5 Register
T6
0000H
Timer 6 Register
Function Control Registers
The operating mode of the core timer T3 is configured and controlled by its
bit-addressable control register T3CON.
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T3CON
Timer 3 Control Register
15
14
13
T3
RDI
R
T3
CH
DIR
T3
EDG
E
rh
rwh
rwh
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
T3
BPS1
T3
OTL
T3
OE
T3
UDE
T3
UD
T3R
T3M
T3I
rw
rwh
rw
rw
rw
rw
rw
rw
0
Field
Bits
Type Description
T3I
[2:0]
rw
Timer 3 Input Parameter Selection
Timer mode see Table 7-9 for encoding
Gated Timer see Table 7-9 for encoding
Counter mode see Table 7-10 for encoding
Incremental Interface mode see Table 7-11 for
encoding
T3M
[5:3]
rw
Timer 3 Mode Control
000 Timer Mode
001 Counter Mode
010 Gated Timer with Gate active low
011 Gated Timer with Gate active high
100 Reserved. Do not use this combination!
101 Reserved. Do not use this combination!
110 Incremental Interface Mode (Rotation
detection)
111 Incremental Interface Mode (Edge detection)
T3R
[6]
rw
Timer 3 Run Bit
0
Timer/Counter 3 stops
1
Timer/Counter 3 runs
T3UD
[7]
rw
Timer 3 Up/Down Control
(when T3UDE = ‘0’)
0
Counting ‘Up’
1
Counting ‘Down’
T3UDE
[8]
rw
Timer 3 External Up/Down Enable
0
Counting direction is internally controlled by
SW
1
Counting direction is externally controlled by
line T3EUD
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Field
Bits
Type Description
T3OE
[9]
rw
Overflow/Underflow Output Enable
0
T3 overflow/underflow can not be externally
monitored
1
T3 overflow/underflow may be externally
monitored via T3OUT
T3OTL
[10]
rwh
Timer 3 Output Toggle Latch
Toggles on each overflow/underflow of T3. Can be
set or reset by software.
BPS1
[12:11] rw
Timer Block Prescaler 1
The maximum input frequency
00
For Timer 2/3/4 is fhw_clk/8
01
For Timer 2/3/4 is fhw_clk/4
10
For Timer 2/3/4 is fhw_clk/32
11
For Timer 2/3/4 is fhw_clk/16
T3EDGE
[13]
rwh
Timer 3 Edge Detection
The bit is set on each successful edge detection.
The bit has to be reset by SW.
0
No count edge was detected
1
A count edge was detected
T3CHDIR
[14]
rwh
Timer 3 Count Direction Change
The bit is set on a change of the count direction of
timer 3. The bit has to be reset by SW.
0
No change in count direction was detected
1
A change in count direction was detected
T3RDIR
[15]
rh
Timer 3 Rotation Direction
0
Timer 3 counts up
1
Timer 3 counts down
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Table 7-9
T3I
Timer 3 Input Parameter Selection for Timer Mode and Gated Mode
Prescaler for
Prescaler for
Prescaler for
Prescaler for
fhw_clk
fhw_clk
fhw_clk
fhw_clk
(BPS1 = 00)
(BPS1 = 01)
(BPS1 = 10)
(BPS1 = 11)
000
8
4
32
16
001
16
8
64
32
010
32
16
128
64
011
64
32
256
128
100
128
64
512
256
101
256
128
1024
512
110
512
256
2048
1024
111
1024
512
4096
2048
Table 7-10
Timer 3 Input Parameter Selection for Counter Mode
T3I
Triggering Edge for Counter Update
000
None. Counter T3 is disabled
001
Positive transition (raising edge) on T3IN
010
Negative transition (falling edge) on T3IN
011
Any transition (raising or falling edge) on T3IN
1XX
Reserved. Do not use this combination!
Table 7-11
Timer 3 Input Parameter Selection for Incremental Interface Mode
T3I
Triggering Edge for Counter Update
000
None. Counter T3 stops
001
Any transition (raising or falling edge) on T3IN
010
Any transition (raising or falling edge) on T3EUD
011
Any transition (raising or falling edge) on T3IN or T3EUD
1XX
Reserved. Do not use this combination!
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T2CON
T4CON
Timer 2/4 Control Register
15
14
13
12
Tx
RDIR
Tx
CH
DIR
Tx
EDG
E
Tx
IR
DIS
rh
rwh
rwh
9
8
7
6
0
Tx
RC
Tx
UDE
Tx
UD
TxR
TxM
TxI
rw
r
rw
rw
rw
rw
rw
rw
Field
Bits
Type Description
TxI
[2:0]
rw
Timer x Input Parameter Selection
Timer mode see Table 7-12 for encoding
Gated Timer see Table 7-12 for encoding
Counter mode see Table 7-13 for encoding
Incremental Interface mode see Table 7-14 for
encoding
TxM
[5:3]
rw
Timer x Mode Control (Basic Operating Mode)
000 Timer Mode
001 Counter Mode
010 Gated Timer with Gate active low
011 Gated Timer with Gate active high
100 Reload Mode
101 Reserved. Do not use this combination!
110 Incremental Interface Mode (Rotation
detection)
111 Incremental Interface Mode (Edge detection)
TxR
[6]
rw
Timer x Run Bit
0
Timer/Counter x stops
1
Timer/Counter x runs
TxUD
[7]
rw
Timer x Up/Down Control
(when TxUDE = ‘0’)
0
Counting ‘Up’
1
Counting ‘Down’
TxUDE
[8]
rw
Timer x External Up/Down Enable
0
Counting direction is internally controlled by
SW
1
Counting direction is externally controlled by
line TxEUD
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Peripherals
Field
Bits
Type Description
TxRC
[9]
rw
Timer x Remote Control
0
Timer/Counter x is controlled by its own run bit
TxR
1
Timer/Counter x is controlled by the run bit of
core timer 3
TxIRDIS
[12]
rw
Timer x Interrupt Disable
0
Interrupt generation for TxCHDIR and
TxEDGE interrupts in Incremental Interface
Mode is enabled
1
Interrupt generation for TxCHDIR and
TxEDGE interrupts in Incremental Interface
Mode is disabled
TxEDGE
[13]
rwh
Timer x Edge Detection
The bit is set on each successful edge detection.
The bit has to be reset by SW.
0
No count edge was detected
1
A count edge was detected
TxCHDIR
[14]
rwh
Timer x Count Direction Change
The bit is set on a change of the count direction of
timer x. The bit has to be reset by SW.
0
No change in count direction was detected
1
A change in count direction was detected
TxRDIR
[15]
rh
Timer x Rotation Direction
0
Timer x counts up
1
Timer x counts down
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Table 7-12
T3I
Timer x Input Parameter Selection for Timer Mode and Gated Mode
Prescaler for
Prescaler for
Prescaler for
Prescaler for
fhw_clk
fhw_clk
fhw_clk
fhw_clk
(BPS1 = 00)
(BPS1 = 01)
(BPS1 = 10)
(BPS1 = 11)
000
8
4
32
16
001
16
8
64
32
010
32
16
128
64
011
64
32
256
128
100
128
64
512
256
101
256
128
1024
512
110
512
256
2048
1024
111
1024
512
4096
2048
Table 7-13
Timer x Input Parameter Selection for Counter Mode
TxI
Triggering Edge for Counter Update
X00
None. Counter Tx is disabled
001
Positive transition (raising edge) on TxIN
010
Negative transition (falling edge) on TxIN
011
Any transition (raising or falling edge) on TxIN
101
Positive transition (rising edge) of output toggle latch T3OTL
110
Negative transition (falling edge) of output toggle latch T3OTL
111
Any transition (rising or falling edge) of output toggle latch
T3OTL
Table 7-14
Timer x Input Parameter Selection for Incremental Interface Mode
TxI
Triggering Edge for Counter Update
000
None. Counter Tx stops
001
Any transition (raising or falling edge) on TxIN
010
Any transition (raising or falling edge) on TxEUD
011
Any transition (raising or falling edge) on TxIN or TxEUD
1XX
Reserved. Do not use this combination!
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Peripherals
T6CON
Timer 6 Control Register
15
14
13
T6
SR
T6
CLR
0
rw
rw
r
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
BPS2
T6
OTL
0
0
T6
UD
T6R
T6M
T6I
rw
rwh
rw
rw
rw
rw
rw
rw
0
Field
Bits
Type Description
T6I
[2:0]
rw
Timer 6 Input Parameter Selection
Timer mode see Table 7-15 for encoding
T6M
[5:3]
rw
Timer 6 Mode Control (Basic Operating Mode)
000 Timer Mode
001 Reserved. Do not use this combination!
010 Reserved. Do not use this combination!
011 Reserved. Do not use this combination!
1XX Reserved. Do not use this combination!
T6R
[6]
rw
Timer 6 Run Bit
0
Timer/Counter 6 stops
1
Timer/Counter 6 runs
T6UD
[7]
rw
Timer 6 Up/Down Control
0
Counting ‘Up’
1
Counting ‘Down’
T6OTL
[10]
rwh
Timer 6 Output Toggle Latch
Toggles on each overflow/underflow of T6. Can be
set or reset by software.
BPS2
[12:11] rw
Timer Block Prescaler 2
The maximum input frequency
00
For Timer 5/6 is fhw_clk/4
01
For Timer 5/6 is fhw_clk/2
10
For Timer 5/6 is fhw_clk/16
11
For Timer 5/6 is fhw_clk/8
T6CLR
[14]
rw
Timer 6 Clear Bit
0
Timer 6 is not cleared on a capture event
1
Timer 6 is cleared on a capture event
T6SR
[15]
rw
Timer 6 Reload Mode Enable
0
Reload from register CAPREL disabled
1
Reload from register CAPREL enabled
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Table 7-15
T6I
Timer 6 Input Parameter Selection for Timer Mode and Gated Mode
Prescaler for
Prescaler for
Prescaler for
Prescaler for
fhw_clk (BPS2 = 00) fhw_clk (BPS2 = 01) fhw_clk (BPS2 = 10) fhw_clk (BPS2 = 11)
000 4
2
16
8
001 8
4
32
16
010 16
8
64
32
011 32
16
128
64
100 64
32
256
128
101 128
64
512
256
110 256
128
1024
512
111 512
256
2048
1024
Table 7-16
Timer 6 Input Parameter Selection for Counter Mode
T6I
Triggering Edge for Counter Update
000
None. Counter T6 is disabled
001
Reserved. Do not use this combination!
010
Reserved. Do not use this combination!
011
Reserved. Do not use this combination!
1XX
Reserved. Do not use this combination!
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T5CON
Timer 5 Control Register
15
14
T5
SR
T5
CLR
rw
rw
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
CI
T5
CC
CT3
T5
RC
0
T5
UD
T5R
T5M
T5I
rw
rw
rw
rw
rw
rw
rw
rw
rw
0
Field
Bits
Type Description
T5I
[2:0]
rw
Timer 5 Input Parameter Selection
Timer mode see Table 7-17 for encoding
Counter mode see Table 7-18 for encoding
T5M
[5:3]
rw
Timer 5 Mode Control (Basic Operating Mode)
000 Timer Mode
001 Counter Mode
010 Reserved. Do not use this combination!
011 Reserved. Do not use this combination!
1XX Reserved. Do not use this combination!
T5R
[6]
rw
Timer 5 Run Bit
0
Timer/Counter 5 stops
1
Timer/Counter 5 runs
T5UD
[7]
rw
Timer 5 Up/Down Control
0
Counting ‘Up’
1
Counting ‘Down’
T5RC
[9]
rw
Timer 5 Remote Control
0
Timer/Counter x is controlled by its own run bit
T5R
1
Timer/Counter 5 is controlled by the run bit of
core timer 6
CT3
[10]
rw
Timer 3 Capture Trigger Enable
0
Capture trigger from input line CAPIN
1
Capture trigger from T3 input lines
T5CC
[11]
rw
Timer 5 Capture Correction
0
T5 is just captured without any correction
1
T5 is decremented by 1 before being captured
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Peripherals
Field
Bits
CI
[13:12] rw
Register CAPREL Capture Trigger Selection
(depending in bit CT3)
00
Capture disabled
01
Positive transition (rising edge) on CAPIN or
any transition on T3IN
10
Negative transition (falling edge) on CAPIN or
any transition on T3EUD
11
Any transition (rising or falling edge) on CAPIN
or any transition on T3IN or T3EUD
T5CLR
[14]
rw
Timer 5 Clear Bit
0
Timer 5 is not cleared on a capture operation
1
Timer 5 is cleared on a capture operation
T5SC
[15]
rw
Timer 5 Capture Mode Enable
0
Capture into register CAPREL disabled
1
Capture into register CAPREL enabled
Table 7-17
Type Description
Timer 5 Input Parameter Selection for Timer Mode and Gated Mode
T5I Prescaler for
Prescaler for
Prescaler for
Prescaler for
fhw_clk (BPS2 = 00) fhw_clk (BPS2 = 01) fhw_clk (BPS2 = 10) fhw_clk (BPS2 = 11)
000 4
2
16
8
001 8
4
32
16
010 16
8
64
32
011 32
16
128
64
100 64
32
256
128
101 128
64
512
256
110 256
128
1024
512
111 512
256
2048
1024
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Table 7-18
Timer 5 Input Parameter Selection for Counter Mode
T5I
Triggering Edge for Counter Update
X00
None. Counter T5 is disabled
001
Reserved. Do not use this combination.
010
Reserved. Do not use this combination.
011
Reserved. Do not use this combination.
101
Positive transition (rising edge) of output toggle latch T6OTL
110
Negative transition (falling edge) of output toggle latch T6OTL
111
Any transition (rising or falling edge) of output toggle latch T6OTL
7.1.4
Interrupts
For a detailed description of the various interrupts see description above. An overview
is given with a Table 7-19:
.
Table 7-19
Peripheral Name Interrupt Sources
Interrupt
Interrupt Node
Description
Timer 2
Overflow
T2IC
Interrupt is requested on overflow of timer 2 if
counting up.
Timer 2
Underflow
T2IC
Interrupt is requested on underflow of timer 2 if
counting down.
Timer 3
Overflow
T3IC
Interrupt is requested on overflow of timer 3 if
counting up.
Timer 3
Underflow
T3IC
Interrupt is requested on underflow of timer 3 if
counting down.
Timer 4
Overflow
T4IC
Interrupt is requested on overflow of timer 4 if
counting up.
Timer 4
Underflow
T4IC
Interrupt is requested on underflow of timer 4 if
counting down.
Timer 5
Overflow
T5IC
Interrupt is requested on overflow of timer 5 if
counting up.
Timer 5
Underflow
T5IC
Interrupt is requested on underflow of timer 5 if
counting down.
Timer 6
Overflow
T6IC
Interrupt is requested on overflow of timer 6 if
counting up.
Timer 6
Underflow
T6IC
Interrupt is requested on underflow of timer 6 if
counting down.
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Table 7-19
Peripheral Name Interrupt Sources (cont’d)
Interrupt
Interrupt Node
Description
Rotation
T2IC
Direction
Change Timer 2
Interrupt is requested on a change of the count
direction in the Incremental Interface Mode
(T2I = 110).
Edge Detection T2IC
Timer 2
Interrupt is requested on a successful detected
edge resulting in a timer count action (T2I = 111).
Rotation
T3IC
Direction
Change Timer 3
Interrupt is requested on a change of the count
direction in the Incremental Interface Mode
(T3I = 110).
Edge Detection T3IC
Timer 3
Interrupt is requested on a successful detected
edge resulting in a timer count action (T3I = 111).
Rotation
T4IC
Direction
Change Timer 4
Interrupt is requested on a change of the count
direction in the Incremental Interface Mode
(T4I = 110).
Edge Detection T4IC
Timer 4
Interrupt is requested on a successful detected
edge resulting in a timer count action (T4I = 111).
Reload Action
Timer 2
T2IC
Interrupt is requested on a trigger signal for
reloading timer 3 in Reload Mode (T2I = 100).
Reload Action
Timer 4
T4IC
Interrupt is requested on a trigger signal for
reloading timer 3 in Reload Mode (T4I = 100).
Capture Action
Timer 2
T2IC
Interrupt is requested on a trigger signal for a
capture action to capture timer 3 in timer 2
Capture Mode (T2I = 101).
Capture Action
Timer 4
T4IC
Interrupt is requested on a trigger signal for a
capture action to capture timer 3 in timer 4
Capture Mode (T4I = 101).
Capture Action
Timer Block 2
CRIC
Interrupt is requested on a trigger signal for a
capture action of timer 5 to register CAPREL in
Capture Mode (T5SC = 1).
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7.2
Real-time Clock
7.2.1
General Description
The Real Time Clock (RTC) module of M2 is basically an independent timer chain and
counts time ticks. The base frequency of the RTC can be programmed via a reload
counter. The RTC can work fully asynchronous to the system frequency (33.33 MHz)
and is optimized on a low power consumption.
The RTC serves different purposes:
•
•
•
•
Real-time clock to determine the current time and date
Cyclic time based interrupt
Alarm interrupt for wake up on a defined time
48-bit timer for long term measurements
The real time clock module provides three different types of registers: a control register
for controlling the RTC´s functionality, three data registers for setting the clock divider for
RTC base frequency programming and for flexible interrupt generation, and three
counter registers that contain the actual time and date. The interrupts are programmed
via one interrupt subnode register and via an interrupt node register.
Control Registers
Data Registers
Counter Registers
Interrupt Control
RTCCON
T14REL
T14
RTCISNC
RTCRELH
RTCH
RTCRELL
RTCL
RTCCON
T14REL
T14
RTCRELH
RTCRELL
RTC Control Register
Timer T14 Reload Register
Timer T14 Count Register
RTC Timer Reload Register, High Word
RTC Timer Reload Register, Low Word
RTC Timer Count Register, High Word
RTCH
RTC Timer Count Register, Low Word
RTCL
RTCISNC RTC Interrupt Sub Node Control Register
UEA11139
Figure 7-20 RTC Register Overview
The RTC module consists of a chain of 2 divider blocks, the reloadable 16-bit timer T14
and the 32-bit RTC timer (accessible via registers RTCH and RTCL). Both timers count
up. Timer T14 is reloaded with the value of register T14REL on every T14 timer overflow.
T14REL is transparent during reload state.
Figure 7-21 shows the RTC block diagram:
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Peripherals
RTC_INT
3 MHz
RTCR
RTC_T14INT
Interrupt Subnode
RTC0INT
T14_IN
RTC1INT
RTC2INT
RTC3INT
RTCRELL0
RTCRELL1
RTCREL2
RTCREL3
T14REL(16 Bit)
10 Bit
6 Bit
6 Bit
10 Bit
T14(16 Bit)
10 Bit
6 Bit
6 Bit
10 Bit
RTCL0
RTCL1
RTCH2
RTCH3
UEB11140
Figure 7-21 RTC Block Diagram
RTC Control
The operating behavior of the RTC module is controlled by the RTCCON register. The
RTC starts counting by setting the RTCR run bit. After reset, the run bit is set and the
RTC automatically starts operation. Setting bits T14DEC or T14INC allows the T14 timer
to be manually and asynchronously decremented or incremented. These bits are cleared
by hardware after the decrement/increment operation. The RTC is only reset in case of
a hardware reset, so it keeps on running during idle and sleep mode.
Cyclic Interrupt Generation
The RTC module can generate an interrupt request RTC_INT whenever timer T14
overflows and is reloaded. This interrupt request may be used, for example, to provide
a system time tick, independent of the CPU clock frequency, without loading the general
purpose timers, or to wake up regularly from idle mode. The T14 overflow interrupt
(RTC_T14INT) cycle time can be adjusted via the timer T14 reload register T14REL. The
32 bit timer (RTCL and RTCH) can be divided into smaller reloadable timers. Each
sub-timer can be programmed for an overflow on different time bases (e.g. second, hour,
minute, day). With each timer overflow an RTC interrupt is generated. All these RTC
interrupts are ored within the RTC module via the interrupt subnode RTCISNC to one
interrupt request RTC_INT. This interrupt RTC_INT is one source of another interrupt
subnode ISNC in the interrupt controller. The other interrupt input of subnode ISNC is
disconnected in the M2. With typical values of T14REL = F448H, RTCRELL = 1018H and
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RTCRELH = FA04H, counter T14 generates one overflow per millisecond, RTCL0 one
per second, RTCL1 one per minute, RTCH2 one per hour and RTCH3 one per day.
48-bit Timer Operation
The concatenation of the 16-bit reload timer T14 and the 32-bit RTC timer can be
regarded as a 48-bit timer which counts with the RTC count input frequency (3 MHz).
The reload registers T14REL, RTCRELL and RTCRELH should be cleared to get a
48-bit binary timer. However, any other reload values may be used.
Interrupt Subnode RTCISNC
All RTC interrupts are connected to one interrupt node via an interrupt subnode. For this
interrupt sharing each interrupt source has, in addition to the node enable and request
flag its own enable and request flag located in register RTCISNC. After an RTC interrupt
(RTC_INT) is arbitrated, the interrupt service routine has to check all the enabled
sources request flags and run the respective software routine. The request flags have to
be deleted by software before leaving the interrupt service routine.
Reset Behavior
The RTC registers are only cleared or set by a hardware reset. Bit RTCR is set when the
hardware is reset.
7.2.2
Register Description
RTCCON
15
14
-
Reset Value: 0003H
13
12
-
-
-
11
10
-
-
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
T14
INC
T14
DEC
rw
rw
1
0
0
RTC
R
rw
Bit
Function
RTCR
RTC Run Bit
‘0’: RTC stops
‘1’: RTC runs
T14DEC
Decrement T14 Timer Value
Setting this bit to 1 effects a decrement of the T14 timer value. The bit is
cleared by hardware after decrementation.
T14INC
Increment T14 Timer Value
Setting this bit to 1 effects an increment of the T14 timer value. The bit
is cleared by hardware after incrementation.
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Note: Bit RTCR is set on hardware reset.
T14
15
Reset Value: 0000H
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
TIMER14(15 ..0 )
rw
Bit
Function
TIMER14
(15 … 0)
16 Bit Timer Register
Timer T14 generates the input clock for the RTC register and the
periodic interrupt.
T14REL
15
14
Reset Value: 0000H
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
TIMER14REL(15 ..0 )
rw
Bit
Function
TIMERREL14
(15 … 0)
16 Bit Reload Register for Timer 14
Represents the 16 bit reload value for T14
RTCL
15
Reset Value: 0000H
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
RTCL0(9 .. 0)
RTCL1(5 .. 0)
rw
Bit
Function
RTCL1
(5 … 0)
Low Word of 32 Bit Capture Register.
RTCL0
(9 … 0)
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RTCH
15
Reset Value: 0000 H
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
RTCH2(5 .. 0)
RTCH3(9.. 0)
rw
Bit
Function
RTCH3
(9 … 0)
High Word of 32 Bit Capture Register.
RTCH2
(5 … 0)
RTCRELL
15
14
Reset Value: 0000H
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
RTCRELL0(9 .. 0)
RTCRELL1(5 .. 0)
rw
Bit
Function
RTCRELL1
(5 … 0)
Low Word of 32 Bit Reload Register.
RTCRELL0
(9 … 0)
RTCRELH
15
14
Reset Value: 0000H
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
RTCRELH2(5 .. 0)
RTCRELH3(9.. 0)
rw
Bit
Function
RTCRELH2
(5 … 0)
High Word of 32 Bit Reload Register.
RTCRELH3
(9 … 0)
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RTC Interrupt Subnode Control
RTCISNC
15
-
14
Reset Value: 0000H
13
12
-
-
-
11
10
-
-
9
8
7
RTC
3 IR
RTC
3IE
RTC
2 IR
rw
rw
rw
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
RTC
2IE
RTC
1 IR
RTC
1 IE
RTC
0 IR
RTC
0IE
T14
IR
T14
IE
rw
rw
rw
rw
rw
rw
rw
Bit
Function
T14IR
T14 Overflow Interrupt Request Flag
‘0’: No request pending.
‘1’: This source has raised an interrupt request.
T14IE
T14 Overflow Interrupt Enable Control Bit
‘0’: Interrupt request is disabled.
‘1’: Interrupt request is enabled.
RTCxIR
RTCx Interrupt Request Flag
‘0’: No request pending.
‘1’: This source has raised an interrupt request.
RTCxIE
RTCx Interrupt Enable Control Bit
‘0’: Interrupt request is disabled.
‘1’: Interrupt request is enabled.
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ISNC
15
Reset Value: 0000H
14
-
13
-
-
12
-
11
-
10
-
9
-
8
-
7
-
6
-
5
-
Bit
Function
RTCINTIR
RTC Interrupt Request Flag
‘0’: No request pending.
‘1’: RTC has raised an interrupt request.
RTCINTIE
RTC Interrupt Enable Control Bit
‘0’: Interrupt request is disabled.
‘1’: Interrupt request is enabled.
INT2IR
Interrupt Request Flag of 2nd Source
disconnected in M2.
INT2IE
2nd Source Interrupt Enable Control Bit
‘0’: recommended value.
4
-
3
2
1
0
RTC
INT
IR
rw
INT2
IE
INT2
IR
RTC
INT
IE
rw
rw
rw
Note: The interrupt request flags of both RTC interrupt subnodes have to be cleared by
software inside the interrupt service routine.
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7.3
Asynchronous/Synchronous Serial Interface
The Asynchronous/Synchronous Serial Interface ASC0 provides serial communication
between M2 and other microcontrollers, microprocessors or external peripherals. It
provides the following features:
• Full duplex asynchronous operating modes
– 8- or 9-bit data frames, LSB first
– Parity bit generation/checking
– One or two stop bits
– Baud rate from 2.0625 MBaud to 0.48 Baud (@ 33 MHz clock)
– Multiprocessor mode for automatic address/data byte detection
– Loop-back capability
• Support for IrDA data transmission/reception up to max. 115.2 KBaud
• Autobaud detection unit for asynchronous operating modes
– Detection of standard baud rates
1200, 2400, 4800, 9600, 19200, 38400, 57600, 115200, 230400 Baud
– Detection of non-standard baud rates
– Detection of asynchronous modes
7 bit, even parity; 7 bit, odd parity;
8 bit, even parity; 8 bit, odd parity; 8 bit, no parity
– Automatic initialization of control bits and baud rate generator after detection
– Detection of a serial two-byte ASCII character frame
• Half-duplex 8-bit synchronous operating mode
– Baud rate from 4.125 MBaud to 420 Baud (@ 33 MHz clock)
• Double buffered transmitter/receiver
• Interrupt generation
– on a transmitter buffer empty condition
– on a transmit last bit of a frame condition
– on a receiver buffer full condition
– on an error condition (frame, parity, overrun error)
– on the start and the end of a autobaud detection
Figure 7-22 shows a block diagram of the ASC with its operating modes (asynchronous
and synchronous mode.)
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.
Asynchronous Mode
33 MHz
Prescaler/
Fractional Divider
fDIV
Autobaud
Detection
Serial Port
Control
RxD
IrDA
Decoding
Baud Rate
Timer
MUX
Receive/Transmit
Buffers and
Shift Registers
IrDA
Coding
MUX
TxD
Synchronous Mode
fMOD
÷2
or
÷3
Baud Rate
Timer
Serial Port
Control
TxD
Shift Clock
Receive/Transmit
Buffers and
Shift Registers
RxDO
RxDI
Note: RxDI and RxDO are concatenated in the port logic to pin RxD.
UEB11141
Figure 7-22 Block Diagram of the ASC0
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Ports & Direction Control
Alternate Functions
Data Registers
Control Registers
Interrupt Control
ODP3
S0BG
S0CON
S0TIC
DP3
S0TBUF
S0FDV
S0RIC
P3
S0RBUF
S0PMW
S0EIC
ABCON
S0TBIC
RxD0/P3.11
TxD0/P3.10
ODP3
DP3
S0BG
S0TBUF
S0TIC
S0TBIC
ABCON
ABSTAT
ABSTAT
Port 3 Open Drain Control Register
Port 3 Direction Control Register
ASC0 Baud Rate Generator/Reload Register
ASC0 Transmit Buffer Register
ASC0 Transmit Interrupt Control Register
ASC0 Transmit Buffer Interrupt Control Register
Autobaud Control Register
Autobaud Status Register
P3
S0CON
S0FDV
S0PMW
S0RBUF
S0RIC
S0EIC
Port 3 Data Register
ASC0 Control Register
ASC0 Fractional Divider Regiser
ASC0 IrDA Pulse Mode and Width Register
ASC0 Receive Buffer Register (read only)
ASC0 Receive Interrupt Control Register
ASC0 Error Interrupt Control Register
UEA11142
Figure 7-23 ASC Register Overview
The ASC0 supports full-duplex asynchronous communication up to 2.08 MBaud and
half-duplex synchronous communication up to 4.16 MBaud (@ 33.33 MHz CPU clock).
In synchronous mode, data is transmitted or received synchronous to a shift clock which
is generated by the microcontroller. In asynchronous mode, 8- or 9-bit data transfer,
parity generation, and the number of stop bits can be selected. Parity, framing, and
overrun error detection is provided to increase the reliability of data transfers.
Transmission and reception of data is double-buffered. For multiprocessor
communication, a mechanism to distinguish address from data bytes is included. Testing
is supported by a loop-back option. A 13-bit baud rate timer with a versatile input clock
divider circuitry provides the ASC0 with the serial clock signal. In a special asynchronous
mode, the ASC0 supports IrDA data transmission up to 115.2 KBaud with fixed or
programmable IrDA pulse width.
A transmission is started by writing to the Transmit Buffer register S0TBUF (by way of
an instruction or a PEC data transfer). Only the number of data bits which is determined
by the selected operating mode, will actually be transmitted, e.g. bits written to positions
9 through 15 of register S0TBUF are always insignificant.
Data transmission is double-buffered, so a new character may be written to the transmit
buffer register, before the transmission of the previous character is complete. This allows
the transmission of characters back-to-back without gaps.
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Data reception is enabled by the receiver enable bit S0REN. After reception of a
character has been completed, the received data and, if provided by the selected
operating mode, the received parity bit can be read from the (read-only) receive buffer
register S0RBUF. Bits in the upper half of S0RBUF which are not valid in the selected
operating mode will be read as zeros.
Data reception is double-buffered, so that reception of a second character may begin
before the previously received character has been read out of the receive buffer register.
In all modes, receive buffer overrun error detection can be selected through bit S0OEN.
When enabled, the overrun error status flag S0OE and the error interrupt request line
S0EIR will be activated if the receive buffer register has not been read when the
reception of a second character is complete. The previously received character in the
receive buffer is overwritten.
The Loop-Back option (selected by bit S0LB) allows the data currently being transmitted
to be received simultaneously in the receive buffer. This may be used to test serial
communication routines at an early stage without having to provide an external network.
In loop-back mode the alternate input/output functions of the Port 3 pins are not
necessary.
Note: Serial data transmission or reception is only possible when the baud rate
generator run bit S0R is set to ‘1’. Otherwise the serial interface is idle.
Do not program the mode control field S0M in register S0CON to one of the
reserved combinations to avoid unpredictable behavior of the serial interface.
7.3.1
Asynchronous Operation
Asynchronous mode supports full-duplex communication, where both transmitter and
receiver use the same data frame format and the same baud rate. Data is transmitted
on pin TXD0 and received on pin RXD0. These signals are alternate functions of Port 3
pins. IrDA data transmission/reception supports up to 115.2 KBit/s. Figure 7-24 shows
the block diagram of the ASC0 operating in asynchronous mode.
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13-Bit Reload Register
S0FDE
Fractional
Divider
33 MHz
÷2
fDIV
MUX
13-Bit Baud Rate Timer
÷ 16
fBR
÷3
S0R
S0BRS
S0M
S0STR
S0REN
S0FEN
S0PEN
S0OEN
S0LB
MUX
Sampling
IrDA
Decoding
S0PE
S0FE
S0OE
S0RIR
Shift Clock
S0TIR
Serial Port Control
S0TBIR
S0EIR
Shift Clock
Receive Int. Request
Transmit Int. Request
Transmit Buffer Int. Request
Error Int. Request
Receive Shift
Register
Transmit Shift
Register
IrDA
Coding
Receive Buffer
Reg. S0RBUF
Transmit Buffer
Reg. S0TBUF
MUX
MUX
RxD0
TxD0
Internal Bus
UES11143
Figure 7-24 Asynchronous Mode of Serial Channel ASC0
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7.3.1.1
Asynchronous Data Frames
8-Bit Data Frames
8-bit data frames either consist of 8 data bits D7 … D0 (S0M = ‘001B’), or of 7 data bits
D6 … D0 plus an automatically generated parity bit (S0M = ‘011B’). Parity may be odd
or even, depending on bit S0ODD in register S0CON. An even parity bit will be set, if the
modulo-2-sum of the 7 data bits is ‘1’. An odd parity bit will be cleared in this case. Parity
checking is enabled via bit S0PEN (always OFF in 8-bit data mode). The parity error flag
S0PE will be set along with the error interrupt request flag, if a wrong parity bit is
received. The parity bit itself will be stored in bit S0RBUF.7.
10-/11-Bit UART Frame
8 Data Bits
0
SOM = 001 B
Start
Bit
D0
LSB
D1
D2
D3
D4
D5
D6
D7
MSB
1
1
(1st)
Stop
Bit
(2nd)
Stop
Bit
1
1
(1st)
Stop
Bit
(2nd)
Stop
Bit
10-/11-Bit UART Frame
7 Data Bits
0
SOM = 011 B
Start
Bit
D0
LSB
D1
D2
D3
D4
D5
D6
MSB
Parity
Bit
UED11144
Figure 7-25 Asynchronous 8-Bit Frames
9-Bit Data Frames
9-bit data frames either consist of 9 data bits D8 … D0 (S0M = ‘100B’), of 8 data bits
D7 … D0 plus an automatically generated parity bit (S0M = ‘111B’) or of 8 data bits
D7 … D0 plus wake-up bit (S0M = ‘101B’). Parity may be odd or even, depending on bit
S0ODD in register S0CON. An even parity bit will be set, if the modulo-2-sum of the
8 data bits is ‘1’. An odd parity bit will be cleared in this case. Parity checking is enabled
via bit S0PEN (always OFF in 9-bit data and wake-up mode). The parity error flag S0PE
will be set along with the error interrupt request flag, if a wrong parity bit is received. The
parity bit itself will be stored in bit S0RBUF.8.
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11-/12-Bit UART Frame
9 Data Bits
0
Start
Bit
D0
LSB
D1
D2
D3
D4
D5
D6
D7
Bit 9
1
1
(1st)
Stop
Bit
(2nd)
Stop
Bit
SOM = 100 B : Bit 9 = Data Bit D8
SOM = 101 B : Bit 9 = Wake-up Bit
SOM = 111 B : Bit 9 = Parity Bit
UED11145
Figure 7-26 Asynchronous 9-Bit Frames
In wake-up mode, received frames are only transferred to the receive buffer register if
the 9th bit (the wake-up bit) is ‘1’. If this bit is ‘0’, no receive interrupt request will be
activated and no data will be transferred.
This feature may be used to control communication in a multi-processor system:
When the master processor wants to transmit a block of data to one of several slaves, it
first sends out an address byte which identifies the target slave. An address byte differs
from a data byte in that the additional 9th bit is a ‘1’ for an address byte and a ‘0’ for a
data byte, so no slave will be interrupted by a data ‘byte’. An address ‘byte’ will interrupt
all slaves (operating in 8-bit data + wake-up bit mode), so each slave can examine the
8 LSBs of the received character (the address). The addressed slave will switch to 9-bit
data mode (e.g. by clearing bit S0M.0), which enables it to also receive further data bytes
(having the wake-up bit cleared). The slaves that were not being addressed remain in
8-bit data + wake-up bit mode, ignoring the following data bytes.
IrDA Frames
The modulation schemes of IrDA is based on standard asynchronous data transmission
frames. The asynchronous data format in IrDA mode (S0M = 010B) is defined as follows:
• 1 start bit/8 data bits/1 stop bit
The coding/decoding of/to the asynchronous data frames is shown in Figure 7-27. In
general, during the IrDA transmissions, UART frames are encoded into IR frames and
vice versa. A low level on the IR frame indicates a ‘LED off’ state. A high level on the IR
frame indicates a ‘LED on’ state.
For a ‘0’-bit in the UART frame, a high pulse is generated. For a ‘1’-bit in the UART
frame, no pulse is generated. The high pulse starts in the middle of a bit cell and has a
fixed width of 3/16 of the bit time. The ASC0 also allows the length of the IrDA high pulse
to be programmed. Furthermore, the polarity of the received IrDA pulse can be inverted
in IrDA mode. Figure 7-27 shows the non-inverted IrDA pulse scheme.
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UART Frame
Start
Bit
0
Stop
Bit
8 Data Bits
1
0
1
0
0
1
1
0
1
IR Frame
Start
Bit
0
Stop
Bit
8 Data Bits
1
0
1
0
0
1
1
0
1
Bit Time
1/2 BitTime
Pulse Width =
3/16 Bit Time
(or variable length)
UED11146
Figure 7-27 IrDA Frame Encoding/Decoding
7.3.1.2
Asynchronous Transmission
Asynchronous transmission begins at the next overflow of the divide-by-16 baud rate
timer (transition of the baud rate clock fBR), if bit S0R must be set and data has been
loaded into S0TBUF. The transmitted data frame consists of three basic elements:
• the start bit
• the data field (8 or 9 bits, LSB first, including a parity bit, if selected)
• the delimiter (1 or 2 stop bits)
Data transmission is double buffered. When the transmitter is idle, the transmit data
loaded into S0TBUF is immediately moved to the transmit shift register thus freeing
S0TBUF for the next data to be sent. This is indicated by the transmit buffer interrupt
request line S0TBIR being activated. S0TBUF may now be loaded with the next data,
while transmission of the previous one is still going on.
The transmit interrupt request line S0TIR will be activated before the last bit of a frame
is transmitted, e.g. before the first or the second stop bit is shifted out of the transmit shift
register.
For alternate data output the transmitter output pin TXD0 must be configured.
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7.3.1.3
Asynchronous Reception
Asynchronous reception is initiated by a falling edge (1-to-0 transition) on pin RXD0,
provided that bits S0R and S0REN are set. The receive data input pin RXD0 is sampled
at 16 times the rate of the selected baud rate. A majority decision of the 7th, 8th and 9th
sample determines the effective bit value. This avoids erroneous results that may be
caused by noise.
If the detected value is not equal to ‘0’ when the start bit is sampled, the receive circuit
is reset and waits for the next 1-to-0 transition at pin RXD0. If the start bit proves valid,
the receive circuit continues sampling and shifts the incoming data frame into the receive
shift register.
When the last stop bit has been received, the content of the receive shift register is
transferred to the receive data buffer register S0RBUF. Simultaneously, the receive
interrupt request line S0RIR is activated after the 9th sample in the last stop bit time slot
(as programmed), regardless whether valid stop bits have been received or not. The
receive circuit then waits for the next start bit (1-to-0 transition) at the receive data input
pin.
The receiver input pin RXD0 must be configured for input.
Asynchronous reception is stopped by clearing bit S0REN. A currently received frame is
completed including the generation of the receive interrupt request and an error interrupt
request, if appropriate. Start bits that follow this frame will not be recognized.
Note: In wake-up mode received frames are only transferred to the receive buffer
register, if the 9th bit (the wake-up bit) is equal to ‘1’. If this bit is equal to ‘0’, no
receive interrupt request will be activated and no data transferred.
IrDA Mode
The duration of the IrDA pulse is normally 3/16 of a bit period. The IrDA standard also
allows the pulse duration to be independent of the baud rate or bit period. In this case
the transmitted pulse always has the width corresponding to the 3/16 pulse width at
115.2 KBaud which is 1.67 µs. Both bit period dependent or fixed IrDA pulse width
generation can be selected. The IrDA pulse width mode is selected by bit S0IRPW,
which is located in register S0PWM.
In case of a fixed IrDA pulse width generation, the lower 8 bits in register S0PWM are
used to adapt the IrDA pulse width to a fixed value of e.g. 1.67 µs. The fixed IrDA pulse
width is generated by a programmable timer as shown in Figure 7-28.
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S0PWM
Start Timer
33 MHz
tIPW
8-Bit Timer
IrDA Pulse
UED11147
Figure 7-28 Fixed IrDA Pulse Generation
The IrDA pulse width can be calculated according to the formulas given in the following
table.
S0PWM
S0IPWM
1 … 255
0
1
Formulas
3
16 x 33 MHz
t IPW =
t IPW =
S0PWM
33 MHz
t IPW min =
(S0PWM >> 1)
33 MHz
The name S0PWM in the formulas represents the contents of the reload register
S0PWM (bits S0PW0-7), taken as an unsigned 8-bit integer.
The content of S0PWM further defines the minimum IrDA pulse width (tIPW min) which is
still recognized as a valid IrDA pulse during a receive operation. This function is
independent of the selected IrDA pulse width mode (fixed or variable) which is defined
by bit S0IRPW in register S0PWM. The minimum IrDA pulse width is calculated by a shift
right operation of S0PWM bit 7-0 by one bit divided by the CPU clock (33.33 MHz).
Note: If S0IRPW=0 (fixed IrDA pulse width), SxPWM bit 7-0 must be loaded with a value
which assures that t IPW > t IPW min.
RXD/TXD Data Path Selection in Asynchronous Modes
The data paths for the serial input and output data in asynchronous modes are affected
by several control bits in the registers S0CON and S0ABCON, as shown in Figure 7-29.
The synchronous mode operation is not affected by these data path selection
capabilities.
The input signal from RXD passes an inverter which is controlled by bit ABCON_RXINV.
The output signal of this inverter is used for the autobaud detection and may bypass the
ASC_P logic in the echo mode (controlled by bit ABCON_ABEM). Furthermore, two
multiplexers are in the RXD input signal path to provide the loopback mode capability
(controlled by bit CON_LB) and the IrDA receive pulse inversion capability (controlled by
bit CON_RXDI).
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Depending on the asynchronous operating mode (controlled by bitfield CON_M), the
ASC output signal or the RXD input signal in echo mode (controlled by bit
ABCON_ABEM) is switched to the TXD output by an inverter (controlled by bit
ABCON_TXINV).
Autobaud
Detection
ABCON
RXINV
TXINV
ABEM
RxD
MUX
MUX
MUX
IrDA
Coding
IrDA
Decoding
ASC
Asynch. Mode Logic
MUX
MUX
CON
RxDI
MUX
TxD
M
LB
UED11148
Figure 7-29 RXD/TXD Data Path in Asynchronous Modes
In echo mode, the transmit output signal of the ASC_P3 logic is blocked by the echo
mode output multiplexer. Figure 7-29 also shows that it is not possible to use an IrDA
coded receiver input signal for autobaud detection.
7.3.2
Synchronous Operation
Synchronous mode supports half-duplex communication, basically for simple I/O
expansion via shift registers. Data is transmitted and received via pin RXD0 while pin
TXD0 outputs the shift clock. These signals are alternate functions of port pins.
Synchronous mode is selected with S0M = ‘000B’.
8 data bits are transmitted or received synchronous to a shift clock, generated by the
internal baud rate generator. The shift clock is only active as long as data bits are
transmitted or received.
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13-Bit Reload Register
33 MHz
÷2
fDIV
MUX
13-Bit Baud Rate Timer
÷3
S0R
fBRT
÷4
fBR
S0BRS
S0M = 000 B
S0REN
S0OEN
S0LB
TxD0
S0OE
S0RIR
Shift Clock
S0TIR
Serial Port Control
S0TBIR
S0EIR
Shift Clock
Receive Int. Request
Transmit Int. Request
Transmit Buffer Int. Request
Error Int. Request
RxD0
0
MUX
1
Receive Shift
Register
Transmit Shift
Register
Receive Buffer
Reg. S0RBUF
Transmit Buffer
Reg. S0TBUF
Internal Bus
UES11149
Figure 7-30 Synchronous Mode of Serial Channel ASC0
7.3.2.1
Synchronous Transmission
Synchronous transmission begins within 4 state times after data has been loaded into
S0TBUF, provided that S0R is set and S0REN = ‘0’ (half-duplex, no reception).
Exception: in loop-back mode (bit S0LB in S0CON set), S0REN must be set to receive
the transmitted byte. Data transmission is double buffered. When the transmitter is idle,
the transmit data loaded into S0TBUF is immediately moved to the transmit shift register
thus freeing S0TBUF for the next data to be sent. This is indicated by the transmit buffer
interrupt request line S0TBIR being activated. S0TBUF may now be loaded with the next
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data, while transmission of the previous one is still going on. The data bits are
transmitted synchronous to the shift clock. After the bit time for the 8th data bit, both pins
TXD0 and RXD0 will go high, the transmit interrupt request line S0TIR is activated, and
serial data transmission stops.
Pin TXD0 must be configured for alternate data output in order to support the shift clock.
Pin RXD0 must also be configured for output during transmission.
7.3.2.2
Synchronous Reception
Synchronous reception is initiated by setting bit S0REN = ‘1’. If bit S0R = 1, the data
applied at pin RXD0 is clocked into the receive shift register synchronous to the clock
which is output at pin TXD0. After the 8th bit has been moved in, the content of the
receive shift register is transferred to the receive data buffer S0RBUF, the receive
interrupt request line S0RIR is activated, the receiver enable bit S0REN is reset, and
serial data reception stops.
Pin TXD0 must be configured for alternate data output in order to support the shift clock.
Pin RXD0 must be configured as an alternate data input.
Synchronous reception is terminated by clearing bit S0REN. A currently received byte is
completed including the generation of the receive interrupt request and an error interrupt
request, if appropriate. Writing to the transmit buffer register while a reception is in
progress has no effect on reception and will not start a transmission.
If a previously received byte has not been read out of the receive buffer register at the
time the reception of the next byte is complete, both the error interrupt request line
S0EIR and the overrun error status flag S0OE will be activated/set, provided the overrun
check has been enabled by bit S0OEN.
7.3.2.3
Synchronous Timing
Figure 7-31 shows timing diagrams of the ASC0 synchronous mode data reception and
data transmission. In idle state the shift clock is at high level. With the beginning of a
synchronous transmission of a data byte, the data is shifted out at pin RXD0 with the
falling edge of the shift clock. If a data byte is received through pin RXD0, data is latched
with the rising edge of the shift clock.
Between two consecutive receive or transmit data bytes one shift clock cycle (fBR) delay
is inserted.
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Receive/Transmit Timing
Shift Latch Shift Latch Shift
Shift Clock
Transmit Data
Data Bit n
Data Bit n+1
Data Bit n+2
Receive Data
Valid Data n
Valid Data n+1
Valid Data n+2
Continuous Transmit Timing
Shift Clock
Transmit Data
D0
D1
D2
D3
D4
D5
D6
D7
D0
D1
1. Byte
Receive Data
D0
D1
D2
D3
D2
D3
2. Byte
D4
D5
D6
1. Byte
D7
D0
D1
D2
D3
2. Byte
UET11150
Figure 7-31 ASC0 Synchronous Mode Waveforms
7.3.3
Baud Rate Generation
The serial channel ASC0 has its own dedicated 13-bit baud rate generator with 13-bit
reload capability, allowing baud rate generation to be independent of the GPT timers.
The baud rate generator is clocked with the CPU clock. The baud rate timer is counting
downwards and can be started or stopped through the baud rate generator run bit S0R
in register S0CON. Each underflow of the timer provides one clock pulse to the serial
channel. The timer is reloaded with the value stored in its 13-bit reload register each time
it underflows. The resulting clock fBRT is again divided according to the operating mode
and controlled by the baud rate selection bit S0BRS. If S0BRS = ‘1’, the clock signal is
additionally divided to 2/3rd of its frequency (see formulas and table). So the baud rate
of ASC0 is determined by the CPU clock, the reload value, the value of S0BRS and the
operating mode (asynchronous or synchronous).
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Register S0BG is the dual-function Baud Rate Generator/Reload register. Reading
S0BG returns the content of the timer (bits 15 … 13 return zero), while writing to S0BG
always updates the reload register (bits 15 … 13 are insignificant).
An auto-reload of the timer with the content of the reload register is performed each time
S0BG is written to. However, if S0R = ‘0’ at the time the write operation to S0BG is
performed, the timer will not be reloaded until the first instruction cycle after S0R = ‘1’.
For a clean baud rate initialization, S0BG should only be written if S0R = ‘0’. If S0BG is
written with S0R = ‘1’, an unpredicted behavior of the ASC0 may occur during the
running of transmit or receive operations.
7.3.3.1
Baud Rates in Asynchronous Mode
For asynchronous operation, the baud rate generator provides a clock fBRT with 16 times
the rate of the established baud rate. Every received bit is sampled at the 7th, 8th and
9th cycle of this clock. The clock divider circuitry, which generates the input clock for the
13-bit baud rate timer, is extended by a fractional divider circuitry, which allows the
adjustment of more accurate baud rates and the extension of the baud rate range.
The baud rate of the baud rate generator depends on the following bits and register
values:
•
•
•
•
CPU clock
Selection of the baud rate timer input clock fDIV by bits S0FDE and S0BRS
If bit S0FDE = 1 (fractional divider): value of register S0FDV
Value of the 13-bit reload register S0BG
The output clock of the baud rate timer with the reload register is the sample clock in the
asynchronous modes of the ASC0. For baud rate calculations, this baud rate clock fBR
is derived from the sample clock fDIV by a division of 16.
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13-Bit Reload Register
S0FDE
Fractional
Divider
33 MHz
÷2
S0R
fBR
÷ 16
MUX
fDIV
13-Bit Baud Rate Timer
Baud Rate
Clock
Sample
Clock
fBRT
÷3
S0FDE
S0BRS
S0BRS
Selected Divider
0
0
÷2
0
1
÷3
1
X
Fractional Divider
UES11151
Figure 7-32 ASC0 Baud Rate Generator Circuitry in Asynchronous Modes
Using the fixed Input Clock Divider
The baud rate for asynchronous operation of serial channel ASC0, when using the fixed
input clock divider ratios (S0FDE = 0) and the required reload value for a given baud
rate, can be determined by the following formulas:
S0FDE
S0BRS
S0BG
0
0
0 … 8191
Formula
33 MHz
Baud rate = 32 x (S0BG+1)
S0BG =
1
33 MHz
32 x Baud rate
-1
33 MHz
Baud rate = 48 x (S0BG+1)
S0BG =
33 MHz
48 x Baud rate
-1
S0BG represents the content of the reload register S0BG, taken as an unsigned 13-bit
integer.
The maximum baud rate that can be achieved by the asynchronous modes when using
the two fixed clock dividers and a CPU clock of 33.33 MHz is 1041.66 KBaud. The table
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below lists various commonly used baud rates, together with the required reload values
and the deviation errors compared to the intended baud rate.
S0BRS = ‘0’, fMOD = 33.33 MHz
S0BRS = ‘1’, fMOD = 33.33 MHz
Deviation Error Reload Value
Deviation Error Reload Value
1041.66 KBaud
–
0000H
–
–
694.4 KBaud
–
–
–
0000H
19.2 KBaud
+ 0.4%/– 1.3%
0035H/0036H
+ 0.5%/– 2.2%
0023H/0024H
9600 Baud
+ 0.4%/– 0.4%
006bH/006CH
+ 0.5%/– 0.9%
0047H/0048H
4800 Baud
+ 0.0%/– 0.4%
00D8H/00D9H
+ 0.5%/– 0.2%
008FH/0090H
2400 Baud
+ 0.0%/– 0.2%
01B1H/01B2H
+ 0.1%/– 0.2%
0120H/0121H
1200 Baud
+ 0.0%/– 0.1%
0363H/0364H
+ 0.1%/– 0.0%
0241H/0242H
110 Baud
+ 0.0%/– 0.0%
24FCH/24FDH
+ 0.0%/– 0.0%
18A8H/18A9H
Baud Rate
Note: S0FDE must be equal to 0 to achieve the baud rates in the table above. The
deviation errors given in the table are rounded. Using a baud rate crystal will
provide correct baud rates without deviation errors.
Using the Fractional Divider
When the fractional divider is selected, the input clock fDIV for the baud rate timer is
derived from the CPU clock by a programmable divider. If S0FDE = 1, the fractional
divider is activated, It divides 33.33 MHz by a fraction of n/512 for any value of n from 0
to 511. If n = 0, the divider ratio is 1 which means that fDIV = 33.33 MHz.
S0FDE
S0BRS
S0BG
S0FDV
1
–
1 … 8191 1 … 511
0
Formula
Baud rate =
33MHz
S0FDV
x 16 x (S0BG+1)
512
33MHz
Baud rate = 16 x (S0BG+1)
S0BG represents the content of the reload register S0BG, taken as an unsigned 13-bit
integer.
S0FDV represents the content of the fractional divider register taken as an unsigned
9-bit integer.
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7.3.3.2
Baud Rates in Synchronous Mode
For synchronous operation, the baud rate generator provides a clock with 4 times the
rate of the established baud rate (see Figure 7-33).
13-Bit Reload Register
÷2
33 MHz
MUX
fDIV
13-Bit Baud Rate Timer
÷3
S0R
fBRT
S0BRS
S0BRS
÷4
fBR
Shift/
Sample
Clock
Selected Divider
0
÷2
1
÷3
UES11152
Figure 7-33 ASC0 Baud Rate Generator Circuitry in Synchronous Mode
The baud rate for synchronous operation of serial channel ASC0 can be determined by
the formulas as shown in the following table.
S0BRS
S0BG
0
0 … 8191
1
Formula
33 MHz
Baud rate = 8 x (S0BG+1)
S0BG =
33 MHz
Baud rate = 12 x (S0BG+1)
S0BG =
33 MHz
8 x Baud rate
33MHz
12 x Baud rate
-1
-1
S0BG represents the content of the reload register, taken as unsigned 13-bit integers.
The maximum baud rate that can be achieved in synchronous mode when using a CPU
clock of 33.33 MHz is 4.166 MBaud.
7.3.4
Autobaud Detection
The autobaud detection unit provides an ability to recognize the mode and the baud rate
of an asynchronous input signal at RXD. Generally, the baud rates to be recognized
should be known by the application. With this knowledge, a set of nine baud rates can
always be detected. The autobaud detection unit is not designed to calculate a baud rate
of an unknown asynchronous frame.
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Figure 7-34 shows how the autobaud detection unit of the ASC is integrated into its
asynchronous mode configuration. The RXD data line is an input of the autobaud
detection unit. The clock fDIV, which is generated by the fractional divider, is used by the
autobaud detection unit as a time base. After successful recognition of the baud rate and
asynchronous operating mode of the RXD data input signal, bits in the CON register and
the value of the BG register in the baud rate timer are set to the appropriate values, and
the ASC_P3 can start immediately with the reception of serial input data.
Asynchronous Mode
fMOD
Prescaler/
Fractional Divider
fDIV
Autobaud
Detection
Serial Port
Control
MUX
RxD
IrDA
Decoding
Baud Rate
Timer
Receive/Transmit
Buffers and
Shift Registers
MUX
IrDA
Coding
TxD
UEB11153
Figure 7-34 ASC_P3 Asynchronous Mode Block Diagram
The following sequence must be generally executed to start the operation of the
autobaud detection unit:
•
•
•
•
•
Definition of the baud rates to be detected: standard or non-standard baud rates
Programming of the Prescaler/Fractional Divider to select a specific value of fDIV
Starting the Prescaler/Fractional Divider (setting CON_R)
Preparing the interrupt system of the CPU
Enabling the autobaud detection (setting ABCON_ EN and the interrupt enable bits in
ABCON for interrupt generation, if required)
• Polling interrupt request flag or waiting for the autobaud detection interrupt
7.3.4.1
Serial Frames for Autobaud Detection
The autobaud detection of the ASC_P3 is based on the serial reception of a specific
two-byte serial frame. This serial frame is build up by the two ASCII bytes ‘at’ or ‘AT’ (‘aT’
or ‘At’ are not allowed). Both byte combinations can be detected in five types of
asynchronous frames. Figure 7-35 and Figure 7-36 show the serial frames which are
least detected.
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Note: Some other two-byte combinations will also be defined.
7 Bit, Even Parity
’a’ = 61H
1
0
0
0
0
’t’ = 74 H
1
1
Start
1
1
0
Parity Stop
0
1
0
1
1
1
0
1
Parity Stop
Start
7 Bit, Odd Parity
’t’ = 74 H
’a’ = 61H
1
0
0
0
0
1
1
Start
0
1
0
Parity Stop
0
1
0
1
1
1
Start
1
1
Parity Stop
8 Bit, No Parity
’a’ = 61H
1
0
0
0
0
’t’ = 74 H
1
1
0
Start
1
0
0
1
0
1
1
1
0
Start
Stop
1
Stop
8 Bit, Even Parity
’a’ = 61H
1
0
0
0
0
’t’ = 74 H
1
1
0
1
1
Parity Stop
Start
0
0
1
0
1
1
1
0
0
1
Parity Stop
Start
8 Bit, Odd Parity
’t’ = 74 H
’a’ = 61H
1
Start
0
0
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
Parity Stop
0
0
Start
1
0
1
1
1
0
1
1
Parity Stop
UED11154
Figure 7-35 Two-Byte Serial Frames with ASCII ‘at’
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7 Bit, Even Parity
’A’ = 41H
1
0
0
0
0
’T’ = 54 H
0
1
Start
0
1
0
Parity Stop
0
1
0
1
0
1
1
1
Parity Stop
Start
7 Bit, Odd Parity
’A’ = 41 H
1
0
0
0
0
’T’ = 54 H
0
1
Start
1
1
0
Parity Stop
0
1
0
1
0
1
Start
0
1
Parity Stop
8 Bit, No Parity
’A’ = 41 H
1
0
0
0
0
’T’ = 54 H
0
1
0
Start
1
0
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
Start
Stop
1
Stop
8 Bit, Even Parity
’A’ = 41 H
1
0
0
0
0
’T’ = 54 H
0
1
0
Start
0
1
Parity Stop
0
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
Start
1
1
Parity Stop
8 Bit, Odd Parity
’T’ = 54 H
’A’ = 41 H
1
Start
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
1
1
Parity Stop
0
0
Start
1
0
1
0
1
0
0
1
Parity Stop
UED11155
Figure 7-36 Two-Byte Serial Frames with ASCII ‘AT’
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7.3.4.2
Baud Rate Selection and Calculation
The autobaud detection requires some calculations concerning the programming of the
baud rate generator and the baud rates to be detected. Two steps must be considered:
• Defining the baud rate(s) to be detected
• Programming of the baud rate timer prescaler - setup of the clock rate of fDIV
In general, the baud rate generator of the ASC in asynchronous mode is built up of two
parts:
• the clock prescaler part which derives fDIV from fMOD
• the baud rate timer part which generates the sample clock fBRT and the baud rate clock
fBR
Prior to an autobaud detection, the prescaler part has to be set up by the CPU while the
baud rate timer (register BG) is automatically initialized with a 13-bit value (BR_VALUE)
after a successfull autobaud detection. For the subsequent calculations, the fractional
divider is used (CON_FDE = 1).
Note: It is also possible to use the fixed divide-by-2 or divide-by-3 prescaler. But the
fractional divider allows for a more precise adaption of fDIV to the required value.
Standard Baud Rates
For standard baud rate detection the baud rates as shown in Table 7-20 can be
detected. Therefore, the output frequency fDIV of the ASC baud rate generator must be
set to a frequency derived from the system, clocked (33 MHz) in a way that it is equal to
11.0592 MHz. The value to be written into register FDV is the nearest integer value
which is calculated according the following formula:
FDV =
512 × 11.0592 MHz
33 MHz
Table 7-20 defines the nine standard baud rates (Br0 - Br8) which can be detected for
fDIV = 11.0592 MHz.
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Table 7-20
Autobaud Detection using Standard Baud Rates (fDIV = 11.0592 MHz)
Baud Rate
Numbering
Detectable Standard
Baud Rate
Divide Factor df
BG is Loaded after
Detection with Value
Br0
230.400 kBaud
48
2
= 002H
Br1
115.200 kBaud
96
5
= 005H
Br2
57.600 kBaud
192
11 = 00BH
Br3
38.400 kBaud
288
17 = 011H
Br4
19.200 kBaud
576
35 = 023H
Br5
9600 Baud
1152
71 = 047H
Br6
4800 Baud
2304
143 = 08FH
Br7
2400 Baud
4608
287 = 11FH
Br8
1200 Baud
9216
575 = 23FH
According to Table 7-20 a baud rate of 9600 Baud is achieved when register BG is
loaded with a value of 047H, assuming that fDIV has been set to 11.0592 MHz.
Table 7-20 also lists a divide factor d f which is defined with the following formula:
baud rate =
f DIV
df
This divide factor df defines a fixed relationship between the prescaler output frequency
fDIV and the baud rate to be detected during the autobaud detection operation. This
means, that changing fDIV results in a totally different baud rate table in terms of baud
rate values. For the baud rates to be detected, the following relations are always valid:
– Br0 = fDIV/48D, Br1 = fDIV/96D, … up to Br8 = fDIV/9216D,
A requirement for detecting standard baud rates up to 230.400 kBaud, is the fDIV
minimum value of 11.0592 MHz. With the value FD_VALUE in register FDV, the
fractional divider fDIV is adapted to the system clock frequency 33 MHz. Table 7-21
defines the deviation of the standard baud rates when using autobaud detection
depending on the system fMOD.
Table 7-21
Standard Baud Rates - Deviations and Errors for Autobaud
Detection
fMOD
FDV
Error in fDIV
33 MHz
172
+ 0.24%
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Note: If the deviation of the baud rate after autobaud detection is too high, the baud rate
generator (fractional divider FDV and reload register BG) can be reprogrammed if
required to get a more precise baud rate with less error.
Non-Standard Baud Rates
Due to the relationship between Br0 to Br8 in Table 7-20 concerning the divide factor df
other baud rates than the standard ones can also be selected. For example, if a baud
rate of 50 kBaud has to be detected, Br2 is e.g. defined as baud rate for the 50 kBaud
detection. This further results in:
– fDIV = 50 kBaud × [email protected] = 50 kBaud × 192 = 9.6 MHz
Therefore, depending on the system clock frequency, the value of the fractional divider
(register FDV must be set according the formula in this example:
FDV =
512 x fDIV
33 MHz
with fDIV = 9.6 MHz
Using this selection (fDIV = 9.6 MHz), the detectable baud rates start at 200 kBaud (Br0)
down to 1042 Baud (Br8). Table 7-22 shows the baud rate table for this example.
Autobaud Detection using Non-Standard Baud Rates (fDIV = 9.6 MHz)
Table 7-22
Baud Rate
Numbering
Detectable
Non-Standard Baud
Rates
Divide Factor df
BG is Loaded after
Detection with Value
Br0
200.000 kBaud
48
2
= 002H
Br1
100.000 kBaud
96
5
= 005H
Br2
50 kBaud
192
11 = 00BH
Br3
33.333 kBaud
288
17 = 011H
Br4
16.667 kBaud
576
35 = 023H
Br5
8333 Baud
1152
71 = 047H
Br6
4167 Baud
2304
143 = 08FH
Br7
2083 Baud
4608
287 = 11FH
Br8
1047 Baud
9216
575 = 23FH
7.3.4.3
Overwriting Registers on Successful Autobaud Detection
With a successful autobaud detection, some bits in register CON and BG are
automatically set to a value which corresponds to the mode and baud rate of the
detected serial frame conditions. In control register CON the mode control bits CON_M
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and the parity select bit CON_ODD are overwritten. Register BG is loaded with the 13-bit
reload value for the baud rate timer.
Table 7-23
Autobaud Detection Overwrite Values for the CON Register
Detected Parameters
CON_M
CON_ODD BG_BR_VALUE
Operating Mode
7 bit, even parity
7 bit, odd parity
8 bit, even parity
8 bit, odd parity
8 bit, no parity
011
011
111
111
001
0
1
0
1
0
–
Baud rate
Br0
Br1
Br2
Br3
Br4
Br5
Br6
Br7
Br8
–
–
2 = 002H
5 = 005H
11 = 00BH
17 = 011H
35 = 023H
71 = 047H
143 = 08FH
287 = 11FH
575 = 23FH
7.3.5
ASC Hardware Error Detection Capabilities
To improve the safety of serial data exchange, the serial channel ASC0 provides an error
interrupt request flag, which indicates the presence of an error, and three (selectable)
error status flags in register S0CON, which indicate which error has been detected
during reception. Upon completion of a reception, the error interrupt request line S0EIR
will be activated simultaneously with the receive interrupt request line S0RIR if one or
more of the following conditions are met:
• The framing error detection enable bit S0FEN is set and any of the expected stop bits
are not high, the framing error flag S0FE is set, indicating that the error interrupt
request is due to a framing error (Asynchronous mode only).
• If the parity error detection enable bit S0PEN is set in the mode where a parity bit is
received, and the parity check on the received data bits proves false, the parity error
flag S0PE is set, indicating that the error interrupt request is due to a parity error
(Asynchronous mode only).
• If the overrun error detection enable bit S0OEN is set and the last character received
was not read out of the receive buffer by software or PEC transfer at the time the
reception of a new frame is complete, the overrun error flag S0OE is set, indicating
that the error interrupt request is due to an overrun error (Asynchronous and
synchronous mode).
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7.3.6
Interrupts
Six interrupt sources are provided for serial channel ASC0. Line S0TIC indicates a
transmit interrupt, S0TBIC indicates a transmit buffer interrupt, S0RIC indicates a
receive interrupt and S0EIC indicates an error interrupt of the serial channel. The
autobaud detection unit provides two additional interrupts, the ABSTIR start of autobaud
operation interrupt and the ABDETIR autobaud detected interrupt. The interrupt output
lines S0TBIR, S0TIR, S0RIR, and S0EIR are activated (active state) for two periods of
the module clock fMOD (33.33 MHz).
The cause of an error interrupt request (framing, parity, overrun error) can be identified
by the error status flags S0FE, S0PE, and S0OE which are located in control register
S0CON.
Note: In contrary to the error interrupt request line S0EIR, the error status flags S0FE/
S0PE/S0OE are not reset automatically but must be cleared by software.
For normal operation (e.g. besides the error interrupt) the ASC0 provides three interrupt
requests to control data exchange via this serial channel:
• S0TBIR is activated when data is moved from S0TBUF to the transmit shift register.
• S0TIR is activated before the last bit of an asynchronous frame is transmitted, or after
the last bit of a synchronous frame has been transmitted.
• S0RIR is activated when the received frame is moved to S0RBUF.
While the task of the receive interrupt handler is quite clear, the transmitter is serviced
by two interrupt handlers. This has its advantages for the servicing software.
For single transfers it is sufficient to use the transmitter interrupt (S0TIR), which indicates
that the previously loaded data, except for the last bit of an asynchronous frame, has
been transmitted.
For multiple back-to-back transfers it is necessary to wait to load the last piece of data
until the last bit of the previous frame has been transmitted. In asynchronous mode this
leaves just one bit-time for the handler to respond to the transmitter interrupt request, in
synchronous mode it is impossible.
Using the transmit buffer interrupt (S0TBIR) to reload transmitted data gives enough
time to transmit a complete frame for the service routine, as S0TBUF may be reloaded
while the previous data is still being transmitted.
The ABSTIR start of autobaud operation interrupt is generated whenever the autobaud
detection unit is enabled (ABEN, ABDETEN and ABSTEN set), and a start bit has been
detected at RXD. In this case ABSTIR is generated during autobaud detection whenever
a start bit is detected.
The ABDETIR autobaud detected interrupt is always generated after recognition of the
second character of the two-byte frame, after a successful autobaud detection. If
ABCON_FCDETEN is set the ABDETIR autobaud detected interrupt is also generated
after the recognition of the first character of the two-byte frame.
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Asynchronous Mode
S0TIR
S0RIR
S0RIR
S0TIR
S0TBIR
S0TIR
S0TBIR
Stop
Start
Stop
Stop
Start
Idle
S0TIR
S0TBIR
Start
S0TIR
S0TBIR
S0TBIR
Idle
S0RIR
Synchronous Mode
S0TBIR
S0TIR
Idle
Idle
S0RIR
S0RIR
S0RIR
UED11156
Figure 7-37 ASC0 Interrupt Generation
As shown in Figure 7-37, S0TBIR is an early trigger for the reload routine, while S0TIR
indicates the completed transmission. Software using handshake therefore should rely
on S0TIR at the end of a data block to make sure that all data has really been
transmitted.
7.3.7
Register Description
The operating mode of the serial channel ASC0 is controlled by its control register
S0CON. This register contains control bits for mode and error check selection, and
status flags for error identification.
S0CON
Control Register
15
R
14
LB
13
12
11
BRS ODD FDE
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10
OE
9
FE
8
PE
7
OEN
7 - 72
6
FEN
5
4
PEN
/
REN
RXD
I
3
STP
2
1
0
M
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Field
Bits
Type
M
2-0
rwh
Value
000
001
010
011
100
101
110
111
STP
3
rw
0
1
REN
4
rwh
0
1
PEN
RXDI
5
rw
0
1
0
1
FEN
OEN
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6
7
Description
Mode Selection
8-bit data
sync. operation
8-bit data
async. operation
IrDA mode, 8-bit data
async. operation
7-bit data + parity
async. operation
9-bit data
async. operation
8-bit data + wake up bit async. operation
Reserved. Do not use this combination!
8-bit data + parity
async. operation
Bits are set/cleared by hardware after a
successful autobaud detection operation.
Number of Stop Bit Selection
One stop bit
Two stop bits
Receiver Enable Control
Receiver disabled
Receiver enabled
Bit can be affected during autobaud
detection operation when bit
ABEN_AUREN is set.
Bit is reset by hardware after reception of
byte in synchronous mode.
Parity Check Enable/
IrDA Input Inverter Enable
All asynchronous modes without IrDA
mode:
Ignore parity
Check parity
Only in IrDA mode (M = 010):
RXD input is not inverted
RXD input is inverted
0
1
Framing Check Enable
(async. modes only)
Ignore framing errors
Check framing errors
0
1
Overrun Check Enable
Ignore overrun errors
Check overrun errors
rw
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Field
Bits
Type
Value
Description
PE
8
rwh
–
Parity Error Flag
Set by hardware on a parity error
(PEN = ‘1’). Must be reset by software.
FE
9
rwh
–
Framing Error Flag
Set by hardware on a framing error
(FEN = ‘1’). Must be reset by software.
OE
10
rwh
–
Overrun Error Flag
Set by hardware on an overrun error
(OEN = ‘1’). Must be reset by software.
FDE
11
rw
0
1
ODD
12
rwh
0
1
BRS
13
rw
0
1
LB
14
rw
0
1
R
15
rw
0
1
Users Manual
Fractional Divider Enable
Fractional divider disabled
Fractional divider is enabled and used as
prescaler for baud rate timer (bit BRS is
don’t care).
Parity Selection
Even parity selected (parity bit set on odd
number of ‘1’s in data)
Odd parity selected (parity bit set on even
number of ‘1’s in data)
Bit is be set/cleared by hardware after a
successful autobaud detection operation.
Baud rate Selection
Baud rate timer prescaler divide-by-2
selected
Baud rate timer prescaler divide-by-3
selected
BRS is don’t care if FDE = 1 (fractional
divider enabled)
Loop-back Mode Enable
Loop-back mode disabled
Loop-back mode enabled
Baud rate Generator Run Control
Baud rate generator disabled (ASC_P
inactive)
Baud rate generator enabled
BG should only be written if R = ‘0’.
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The autobaud control register ABCON is used to control the autobaud detection
operation. It contains its general enable bit, the interrupt enable control bits, and data
path control bits
.
S0ABCON
Autobaud Control Register
15
14
13
12
11
10
0
0
0
0
RX
INV
TX
INV
Field
Bits
Type
ABEN
0
rwh
9
ABEM
1
rw
0
1
ABSTEN
2
rw
0
1
ABDETEN
3
rw
0
1
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7
6
5
4
3
0
0
0
FC
DET
EN
AB
DET
EN
2
1
ABS
AUR
T
EN
EN
0
AB
EN
Value Description
0
1
AUREN
8
Autobaud Detection Enable
Autobaud detection is disabled
Autobaud detection is enabled
ABEN is reset by hardware after a
successful autobaud detection; (with the
stop bit detection of the second character).
Resetting ABEN by software if it was set
aborts the autobaud detection.
Automatic Autobaud Control of
CON_REN
CON_REN is not affected during autobaud
detection
CON_REN is cleared (receiver disabled)
when ABEN and AUREN are set together.
CON_REN is set (receiver enabled) after a
successful autobaud detection (with the
stop bit detection of the second character).
Start of Autobaud Detection Interrupt
Enable
Start of autobaud detection interrupt
disabled
Start of autobaud detection interrupt
enabled
Autobaud Detection Interrupt Enable
Autobaud detection interrupt disabled
Autobaud detection interrupt enabled
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Field
Bits
Type
FCDETEN
4
rw
Value Description
0
1
ABEM
8-9
10
11
Autobaud Echo Mode Enable
In echo mode the serial data at RXD is
switched to TXD output.
Echo mode disabled
Echo mode is enabled during autobaud
detection
Echo mode is always enabled
reserved
0
1
Transmit Inverter Enable
Transmit inverter disabled
Transmit inverter enabled
0
1
Receive Inverter Enable
Receive inverter disabled
Receive inverter enabled
rw
00
01
TXINV
RXINV
10
11
First Character of Two-Byte Frame
Detected Enable
Autobaud detection interrupt ABDETIR
becomes active after the two-byte frame
recognition
Autobaud detection interrupt ABDETIR
becomes active after detection of the first
and second byte of the two-byte frame.
rw
rw
The autobaud status register ABSTAT indicates the status of the autobaud detection
operation.
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S0ABSTAT
Autobaud Status Register
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
DET
WAI
T
SCC
DET
SCS
DET
FCC
DET
FCS
DET
Field
Bits
Type
FCSDET
0
rwh
Value
0
1
FCCDET
1
rwh
0
1
SCSDET
2
rwh
0
1
Users Manual
Description
First Character with Small Letter
Detected
no small ‘a’ character detected
small ‘a’ character detected
Bit is cleared by hardware when
ABCON_ABEN is set or if FCCDET or
SCSDET or SCCDET is set. Bit can be also
cleared by software.
First Character with Capital Letter
Detected
no capital ‘A’ character detected
capital ‘A’ character detected
Bit is cleared by hardware when
ABCON_ABEN is set or if FCSDET or
SCSDET or SCCDET is set. Bit can be also
cleared by software.
Second Character with Small Letter
Detected
no small ‘t’ character detected
small ‘t’ character detected
Bit is cleared by hardware when
ABCON_ABEN is set or if FCSDET or
FCCDET or SCCDET is set. Bit can be also
cleared by software.
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Field
Bits
Type
SCCDET
3
rwh
Value
0
1
DETWAIT
4
rwh
0
1
Description
Second Character with Capital Letter
Detected
no capital ‘T’ character detected
capital ‘T’ character detected
Bit is cleared by hardware when
ABCON_ABEN is set or if FCSDET or
FCCDET or SCSDET is set. Bit can be also
cleared by software.
Autobaud Detection is Waiting
Either character ‘a’, ‘A’, ‘t’, or ‘T’ has been
detected.
The autobaud detection unit waits for the
first ‘a’ or ‘A’
Bit is cleared when either FCSDET or
FCCDET is set (‘a’ or ‘A’ detected). Bit can
be also cleared by software. DETWAIT is
set by hardware when ABCON_ABEN is
set.
Note: SCSDET or SCCDET are set when the second character has been recognized.
CON_ABEN is reset, and ABDETIR set, after SCSDET or SCCDET have seen
set.
The baud rate timer reload register BG contains the 13-bit reload value for the baud rate
timer in asynchronous and sychronous mode.
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S0BG
Baud Rate Timer/Reload Register
15
14
13
0
0
0
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
BR_VALUE
Field
Bits
Type Value Description
BR_VALUE
12-0
rw
all
Baud Rate Timer/Reload Register Value
Reading BG returns the 13-bit content of
the baud rate timer (bits 15 … 13 return 0);
writing BG loads the baud rate timer reload
register (bits 15 … 13 are don’t care). BG
should only be written if CON_R = ‘0’.
The fractional divider register FDV contains the 9-bit divider value for the fractional
divider (asynchronous mode only). It is also used for reference clock generation of the
autobaud detection unit.
S0FDV
Fractional Divider Register
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
FD_VALUE
Field
Bits
Type
Value Description
FD_VALUE
8-0
rw
all
Fractional Divider Register Value
FDV contains the 9-bit value n of the
fractional divider which defines the
fractional divider ratio:
n/512 n = 0-511). With n = 0, the fractional
divider is switched off (input = output
frequency, fDIV = fMOD).
The IrDA pulse mode and width register PMW contains the 8-bit IrDA pulse width value
and the IrDA pulse width mode select bit. This register is only required in the IrDA
operating mode.
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S0PMW
IrDA Pulse Mode/Width Register
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
IRP
W
7
6
Bits
Type Value Description
PW_VALUE
7-0
rw
IRPW
8
rw
0
1
4
3
2
1
0
PW_VALUE
Field
all
5
IrDA Pulse Width Value
PW_VALUE is the 8-bit value n, which
defines the variable pulse width of an IrDA
pulse. Depending on the ASC_P input
frequency fMOD, this value can be used to
adjust the IrDA pulse width to value which is
not equal 3/16 bit time (e.g. 1.6 µs).
IrDA Pulse Width Mode Control
IrDA pulse width is 3/16 of the bit time
IrDA pulse width is defined by PW_VALUE
The transmitter buffer register TBUF contains the transmit data value in asynchronous
and synchronous modes.
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S0TBUF
Transmitter Buffer Register
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
TD_VALUE
Field
Bits
Type
Value Description
TD_VALUE
8-0
rw
all
Transmit Data Register Value
TBUF contains the data to be transmitted in
asynchronous and synchronous operating
mode of the ASC_P. Data transmission is
double buffered, therefore, a new value can
be written to TBUF before the transmission
of the previous value is complete.
The receiver buffer register RBUF contains the receive data value in asynchronous and
synchronous modes.
S0RBUF
Transmitter Buffer Register
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
8
7
6
4
3
2
1
0
RD_VALUE
Field
Bits
Type
Value Description
RD_VALUE
8-0
rw
all
Users Manual
5
Receive Data Register Value
RBUF contains the received data bits and,
depending on the selected mode, the parity
bit in asynchronous and synchronous
operating mode of the ASC_P.
In asynchronous operating mode with
M = 011 (7-bit data + parity), the received
parity bit is written into RD7.
In asynchronous operating mode with
M = 111 (8-bit data + parity) the received
parity bit is written into RD8.
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7.4
High Speed Synchronous Serial Interface
• Master and slave mode operation
– Full-duplex or half-duplex operation
• Flexible data format
– Programmable number of data bits: 2 to 16 bit
– Programmable shift direction: LSB or MSB shift first
– Programmable clock polarity: idle low or high state for the shift clock
– Programmable clock/data phase: data shift with leading or trailing edge of SCLK
• Baud rate generation from 12.5 MBaud to 190.7 Baud (@ 25 MHz module clock)
• Interrupt generation
– on a transmitter empty condition
– on a receiver full condition
– on an error condition (receive, phase, baud rate, transmit error)
• Three pin interface
– Flexible SSC0 pin configuration
The High Speed Synchronous Serial Interface SSC0 provides serial communication
between M2 and other microcontrollers, microprocessors or external peripherals. It is
compatible with the SSC0 of the referred C161RI device with the following extensions:
• Maximum SSC clock in master mode:
fSCLK max. ≤ 16.5 MHz.
Maximum SSC clock in slave mode:
fSCLK max. ≤ 8.25 MHz.
• Reload value 0000H is allowed in master mode.
• Because of the symmetric SSC clock requirement in master mode (50% duty cycle),
the divide-by-2 prescaler is required.
• The counter of the baud rate generator is only active (running) during a transmit or
receive operation.
• The transmit interrupt becomes active when a transmission starts.
The SSC0 registers can be basically divided into three types of registers as shown in
Figure 7-38.
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Ports & Direction Control
Alternate Functions
Data Registers
Control Registers
Interrupt Control
ODP3
SSCBR
SSCCON
SSCTIC
DP3
SSCTB
SSCRIC
P3
SSCRB
SSCEIC
SLCK/P3.13
MTSR/P3.9
MRST/P3.8
ODP3
DP3
SSCBR
SSCTB
SSCTIC
Port 3 Open Drain Control Register
Port 3 Direction Control Register
SSC Baud Rate Generator/Reload Register
SSC Transmit Buffer Register (write only)
SSC Transmit Interrupt Control Register
P3
SSCCON
SSCRB
SSCRIC
SSCEIC
Port 3 Data Register
SSC Control Register
SSC Receive Buffer Register (read only)
SSC Receive Interrupt Control Register
SSC Error Interrupt Control Register
UEA11157
Figure 7-38 SFRs and Port Pins Associated with the SSC0
The SSC0 supports full-duplex and half-duplex synchronous communication up to
16.5 MBaud (@ 33.33 MHz module clock). The serial clock signal can be generated by
the SSC0 itself (master mode), or received from an external master (slave mode). Data
width, shift direction, clock polarity and phase are programmable. This allows
communication with SPI-compatible devices. Transmission and reception of data is
double-buffered. A 16-bit baud rate generator provides the SSC with a separate serial
clock signal.
The high-speed synchronous serial interface can be configured in a very flexible way, so
it can be used with other synchronous serial interfaces, serve for master/slave or
multimaster interconnections or operate compatible with the popular SPI interface. So it
can be used to communicate with shift registers (I/O expansion), peripherals (e.g.
EEPROMs etc.) or other controllers (networking). The SSC0 supports half-duplex and
full-duplex communication. Data is transmitted or received on pins MTSR0 (Master
Transmit/Slave Receive) and MRST0 (Master Receive/Slave Transmit). The clock
signal is output or input on pin SCLK0. These pins are alternate functions of port pins.
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33 MHz
Baud Rate
Generator
Clock
Control
SCLKx
Shift
Clock
SSC Control Block
SSC0CON
Status
SSC0RIR
SSC0TIR
SSC0EIR
Receive Int. Request
Transmit Int. Request
Error Int. Request
Control
MTSRx
Pin
Control
16-Bit Shift Register
Transmit Buffer
Register SSC0TB
MRSTx
Receive Buffer
Register SSC0RB
Internal Bus
UEB11158
Figure 7-39 Synchronous Serial Channel SSC0 Block Diagram
The operating mode of the serial channel SSC0 is controlled by its bit-addressable
control register SSCC0N. This register serves two purposes:
• during programming (SSC0 disabled by SSC0EN = ‘0’) it provides access to a set of
control bits
• during operation (SSC enabled by SSC0EN = ‘1’) it provides access to a set of status
flags
The shift register of the SSC0 is connected to both the transmit pin and the receive pin
via the pin control logic (see block diagram in Figure 7-39). Transmission and reception
of serial data is synchronized and takes place at the same time, e.g. the same number
of transmitted bits is also received. Transmit data is written into the Transmit Buffer
SSCTB. It is moved to the shift register as soon as this is empty. An SSC master
(SSC0MS = ‘1’) immediately begins transmitting, while an SSC slave (SSC0MS = ‘0’)
will wait for an active shift clock. When the transfer starts, the busy flag SSC0BSY is set
and a transmit interrupt request line (SSCTIR) will be activated to indicate that SSCTB
may be reloaded again. When the programmed number of bits (2 … 16) has been
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transferred, the contents of the shift register are moved to the Receive Buffer SSCRB
and a receive interrupt request line (SSCRIR) will be activated. If no further transfer is to
take place (SSCTB is empty), SSC0BSY will be cleared at the same time. Software
should not modify SSC0BSY, as this flag is hardware controlled.
Note: Only one SSC (etc.) can be master at a given time.
The transfer of serial data bits can be programmed in many respects:
•
•
•
•
•
The data width can be chosen from 2 bits to 16 bits
A transfer may start with the LSB or the MSB
The shift clock may be idle low or idle high
The data bits may be shifted with the leading or trailing edge of the clock signal
The baud rate may be set from 254 Baud up to 16.66 MBaud (@ 33.33 MHz module
clock)
• The shift clock can be generated (master) or received (slave)
These features allow the adaptation of the SSC0 to a wide range of applications, where
serial data transfer is required.
The Data Width Selection supports the transfer of frames of any data length, from 2-bit
‘characters’ up to 16-bit ‘characters’. Starting with the LSB (SSC0HB = ‘0’) allows
communication e.g. with an SSC device in synchronous mode (C166 family) or 8051 like
serial interfaces. Starting with the MSB (SSC0HB = ‘1’) allows operation compatible with
the SPI interface.
Regardless which data width is selected and whether the MSB or the LSB is transmitted
first, the transfer data is always right aligned in registers SSCTB and SSCRB, with the
LSB of the transfer data in bit 0 of these registers. The data bits are rearranged for
transfer by the internal shift register logic. The unselected bits of SSCTB are ignored, the
unselected bits of SSCRB will not be valid and should be ignored by the receiver service
routine.
The Clock Control allows the transmit and receive behavior of the SSC0 to be adapted
to a variety of serial interfaces. A specific clock edge (rising or falling) is used to shift out
transmit data, while the other clock edge is used to latch in receive data. Bit SSC0PH
selects the leading edge or the trailing edge for each function. Bit SSC0PO selects the
level of the clock line in the idle state. So for an idle-high clock the leading edge is a
falling one, a 1-to-0 transition (see Figure 7-40).
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SSC0 SSC0
PO
PH
0
0
0
1
1
0
1
1
Shift Clock
SCLK
Pins
MTSR0/MRST0
First Bit
Transmit Data
Last Bit
Latch Data
Shift Data
UED11159
Figure 7-40 Serial Clock Phase and Polarity Options
7.4.1
Full-Duplex Operation
The different devices are connected by three lines. The definition of these lines is always
determined by the master: the line connected to the master’s data output pin MTSR is
the transmit line, the receive line is connected to its data input line MRST, and the clock
line is connected to pin SCLK. Only the device selected for master operation generates
and outputs the serial clock on pin SCLK. All slaves receive this clock, so their pin SCLK
must be switched to input mode. The output of the master’s shift register is connected to
the external transmit line, which in turn is connected to the slaves’ shift register input.
The output of the slaves’ shift register is connected to the external receive line in order
to enable the master to receive the data shifted out of the slave. The external
connections are hard-wired, the function and direction of these pins is determined by the
master or slave operation of the individual device.
Note: The shift direction shown in the diagram applies to MSB-first operation as well as
to LSB-first operation.
When initializing the devices in this configuration, one device must be selected for
master operation while all other devices must be programmed for slave operation.
Initialization includes the operating mode of the device’s SSC and also the function of
the respective port lines.
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Device #1
Master
Device #2
Shift Register
Clock
Slave
Shift Register
MTSR
Transmit
MTSR
MRST
Receive
MRST
CLK
Clock
CLK
Clock
Device #3
Slave
Shift Register
MTSR
MRST
CLK
Clock
UED11160
Figure 7-41 SSC0 Full Duplex Configuration
The data output pins MRST of all slave devices are connected together onto the one
receive line in this configuration. During a transfer; each slave shifts out data from its shift
register. There are two ways to avoid collisions on the receive line due to different slave
data:
• Only one slave drives the line, e.g. enables the driver of its MRST pin. All the other
slaves have to program their MRST pins to input. So only one slave can put its data
onto the master’s receive line. Only receiving of data from the master is possible. The
master selects the slave device from which it expects data either by separate select
lines, or by sending a special command to this slave. The selected slave then
switches its MRST line to output, until it gets a deselection signal or command.
• The slaves use open drain output on MRST. This forms a wired-AND connection.
The receive line needs an external pullup in this case. Corruption of the data on the
receive line sent by the selected slave is avoided, when all slaves which are not
selected for transmission to the master only send ones (‘1’). Since this high level is
not actively driven onto the line, but only held through the pullup device, the selected
slave can actively pull this line to a low level when transmitting a zero bit. The master
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selects the slave device from which it expects data either by separate select lines, or
by sending a special command to this slave.
After performing all necessary initializations of the SSC0, the serial interfaces can be
enabled. In a master device, the alternate clock line will now go to its programmed
polarity. The alternate data line will go to either ‘0’ or ‘1’, until the first transfer starts. After
a transfer, the alternate data line will always remain at the logic level of the last
transmitted data bit.
When the serial interfaces are enabled, the master device can initiate the first data
transfer by writing the transmit data into register SSCTB. This value is copied into the
shift register (which is assumed to be empty at this time), and the selected first bit of the
transmit data will be placed onto the MTSR line on the next clock to the baud rate
generator (transmission only starts, if SSC0EN = ‘1’). Depending on the selected clock
phase, a clock pulse will also be generated on the SCLK line. With the opposite clock
edge the master simultaneously latches and shifts in the data detected at its input line
MRST. This ‘exchanges’ the transmit data with the receive data. Since the clock line is
connected to all slaves, their shift registers will be shifted synchronously with the
master’s shift register, shifting out the data contained in the registers, and shifting in the
data detected at the input line. After the pre-programmed number of clock pulses (via the
data width selection) the data transmitted by the master is contained in all slaves’ shift
registers, while the master’s shift register holds the data of the selected slave. In the
master and all the slaves, the content of the shift register is copied into the receive buffer
SSCRB and the receive interrupt line SSC0RIR is activated.
A slave device will immediately output the selected first bit (MSB or LSB of the transfer
data) at pin MRST, when the content of the transmit buffer is copied into the slave’s shift
register. It will not wait for the next clock from the baud rate generator, as the master
does. The reason for this is that, depending on the selected clock phase, the first clock
edge generated by the master may be already used to clock in the first data bit. So the
slave’s first data bit must already be valid at this time.
Note: On the SSC0 a transmission and a reception always takes place at the same time,
regardless whether valid data has been transmitted or received.
The initialization of the SCLK pin on the master requires some attention in order to
avoid undesired clock transitions, which may disturb the other receivers. The state of the
internal alternate output lines is ‘1’ as long as the SSC is disabled. This alternate output
signal is ANDed with the respective port line output latch. Enabling the SSC with an
idle-low clock (SSC0PO = ‘0’) will immediately drive the alternate data output and (via
the AND) the port pin SCLK low. To avoid this, the following sequence should be used:
•
•
•
•
•
select the clock idle level (SSC0PO = ‘x’)
load the port output latch with the desired clock idle level
switch the pin to output
enable the SSC0 (SSC0EN = ‘1’)
if SSC0PO = ‘0’: enable alternate data output
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The same mechanism as for selecting a slave for transmission (separate select lines or
special commands) may also be used to move the role of the master to another device
in the network. In this case the previous master and the future master (previous slave)
will have to toggle their operating mode (SSC0MS) and the direction of their port pins.
7.4.2
Half Duplex Operation
In a half duplex configuration only one data line is necessary for both receiving and
transmitting of data. The data exchange line is connected to both the MTSR and MRST
pins in each device, the clock line is connected to the SCLK pin.
The master device controls the data transfer by generating the shift clock, while the slave
devices receive it. Due to the fact that all transmit and receive pins are connected to the
one data exchange line, serial data may be moved between arbitrary stations.
Similar to full duplex mode there are two ways to avoid collisions on the data
exchange line:
• only the transmitting device may enable its transmit pin driver
• the non-transmitting devices use open drain output and only send ones.
Since the data inputs and outputs are connected together, a transmitting device will
clock in its own data at the input pin (MRST for a master device, MTSR for a slave). By
these means any corruptions on the common data exchange line, where the received
data is not equal to the transmitted data are detected.
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Device #1
Master
Transmit
Device #2
Shift Register
Clock
Slave
Shift Register
MTSR
MTSR
MRST
MRST
CLK
CLK
Clock
Common
Transmit/
Receive
Line
Clock
Device #3
Slave
Shift Register
MTSR
MRST
CLK
Clock
UED11161
Figure 7-42 SSC Half Duplex Configuration
7.4.3
Continuous Transfers
When the transmit interrupt request flag is set, it indicates that the transmit buffer SSCTB
is empty and ready to be loaded with the next transmit data. If SSCTB has been reloaded
by the time the current transmission is finished, the data is immediately transferred to the
shift register and the next transmission starts without any additional delay. On the data
line there is no gap between the two successive frames. For example, two byte transfers
would look the same as one word transfer. This feature can be used to interface with
devices which can operate with or require more than 16 data bits per transfer. How long
a total data frame length can be depends on the software. This option can also be used
e.g. to interface to byte-wide and word-wide devices on the same serial bus.
Note: Of course, this can only happen in multiples of the selected basic data width, since
it would require disabling/enabling of the SSC0 to reprogram the basic data width
on-the-fly.
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7.4.4
Port Control
The SSC0 uses three pins to communicate with the external world. Pin SCLK serves as
the clock line, while pins MRST (Master Receive/Slave Transmit) and MTSR (Master
Transmit/Slave Receive) serve as the serial data input/output lines.
The operation of the SSC0 pins depends on the selected operating mode (master or
slave). The direction of the port lines depends on the operating mode. The SSC0 will
automatically use the correct alternate input or output line of the ports when switching
modes. The direction of the port pins, however, must be programmed by the user. Using
the open drain output feature of the port lines helps to avoid bus contention problems
and reduces the need for hardwired hand-shaking or slave select lines. In this case it is
not always necessary to switch the direction of a port pin.
7.4.5
Baud Rate Generation
The serial channel SSC0 has its own dedicated 16-bit baud rate generator with 16-bit
reload capability, allowing baud rate generation independent from the timers. In addition
to Figure 7-39, Figure 7-43 shows the baud rate generator of the SSC0 in more detail.
16-Bit Reload Register
33 MHz
÷2
16-Bit Counter
fSCLK
fSCLKmax in master mode <_ 33 MHz / 2
fSCLKmax in slave mode <_ 33 MHz / 4
UES11162
Figure 7-43 SSC0 Baud Rate Generator
The baud rate generator is clocked with the module clock 33.33 MHz. The timer is
counting downwards. Register SSCBR is the dual-function Baud Rate Generator/Reload
register. Reading SSCBR, while the SSC0 is enabled, returns the content of the timer.
Reading SSCBR, while the SSC0 is disabled, returns the programmed reload value. In
this mode the desired reload value can be written to SSCBR.
Note: Never write to SSCBR, while the SSC0 is enabled.
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The formulas below calculate either the resulting baud rate for a given reload value, or
the required reload value for a given baud rate:
Baud rateSSC0 =
33 MHz
2 × (<SSCBR> + 1)
33 MHz
<SSCBR> = (
2 × Baud rateSSC0
)-1
<SSCBR> represents the content of the reload register, taken as an unsigned 16-bit
integer while Baud rateSSC is equal to fSCLK as shown in Figure 7-43.
The maximum baud rate that can be achieved when using a module clock of 33.33 MHz
is 16.6 MBaud in master mode (with <SSCBR> = 0000H) and 8.33 MBaud in slave mode
(with <SSCBR> = 0001H) lists some possible baud rates together with the required
reload values and the resulting bit times, assuming a module clock of 33.33 MHz.
7.4.6
Error Detection Mechanisms
The SSC0 is able to detect four different error conditions. Receive Error and Phase Error
are detected in all modes, while Transmit Error and baud rate Error only apply to slave
mode. When an error is detected, the respective error flag is set and an error interrupt
request will be generated by activating the SSCEIR line (see Figure 7-44). The error
interrupt handler may then check the error flags to determine the cause of the error
interrupt. The error flags are not reset automatically but rather must be cleared by
software after servicing. This allows some error conditions to be serviced via interrupt,
while the others may be polled by software.
Note: The error interrupt handler must clear the associated (enabled) error-flag(s) to
prevent repeated interrupt requests.
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Bit in Register
SSCCON
SSC0TEN
&
Transmit
Error
SSC0TE
SSC0REN
&
Receive
Error
SSC0RE
<_ 1
Error Interrupt
SSCEIR
SSC0PEN
&
Phase
Error
SSC0PE
SSC0BEN
&
Baud Rate
Error
SSC0BE
UES11163
Figure 7-44 SSC0 Error Interrupt Control
A Receive Error (Master or Slave mode) is detected, when a new data frame is
completely received, but the previous data was not read out of the receive buffer register
SSCRB. This condition sets the error flag SSC0RE and, when enabled via SSC0REN,
the error interrupt request line SSCEIR. The old data in the receive buffer SSCRB will
be overwritten with the new value and is unretrievably lost.
A Phase Error (Master or Slave mode) is detected, when the incoming data at pin
MRST0 (master mode) or MTSR0 (slave mode), sampled with the same frequency as
the module clock, changes between one cycle before and two cycles after the latching
edge of the shift clock signal SCLK. This condition sets the error flag SSC0PE and, when
enabled via SSC0PEN, the error interrupt request flag SSCEIR.
A Baud Rate Error (Slave mode) is detected, when the incoming clock signal deviates
from the programmed baud rate by more than 100%, e.g. it is either more than double
or less than half the expected baud rate. This condition sets the error flag SSC0BE and,
when enabled via SSC0BEN, the error interrupt request line SSCEIR. Using this error
detection capability requires that the slave’s baud rate generator is programmed to the
same baud rate as the master device. This feature detects false additional, or missing
pulses on the clock line (within a certain frame).
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Note: If this error condition occurs and bit SSC0REN = ‘1’, an automatic reset of the
SSC0 will be performed in case of this error. This is done to re-initialize the SSC0,
if too few or too many clock pulses have been detected.
A Transmit Error (Slave mode) is detected, when a transfer is initiated by the master
(shift clock gets active), but the transmit buffer SSCTB of the slave was not updated
since the last transfer. This condition sets the error flag SSC0TE and, when enabled via
SSC0TEN, the error interrupt request line SSC0EIR. If a transfer starts while the transmit
buffer is not updated, the slave will shift out the ‘old’ contents of the shift register, which
is normally the data received during the last transfer. This may lead to the corruption of
the data on the transmit/receive line in half-duplex mode (open drain configuration), if
this slave is not selected for transmission. This mode requires that slaves not selected
for transmission only shift out ones, e.g. their transmit buffers must be loaded with
‘FFFFH’ prior to any transfer.
Note: A slave with push/pull output drivers, which is not selected for transmission, will
normally have its output drivers switched. However, in order to avoid possible
conflicts or misinterpretations, it is recommended to always load the slave's
transmit buffer prior to any transfer.
The cause of an error interrupt request (receive, phase, baud rate, transmit error) can
be identified by the error status flags in control register SSCCON.
Note: In contrary to the error interrupt request line SSCEIR, the error status flags
SSC0TE, SSC0RE, SSC0PE, and SSC0BE, which are located in register
SSCCON, are not reset automatically upon entry into the error interrupt service
routine, but must be cleared by software.
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7.4.7
Register Description
The operating mode of the serial channel SSC0 is controlled by its control register
SSCCON. This register contains control bits for mode and error check selection, and
status flags for error identification. Depending on bit SSC0EN, either control functions or
status flags and master/slave control is enabled.
SSC0EN = 0: Programming Mode
SSCCON
15
14
Reset Value: 0000H
13
SSC0 SSC0
EN
MS
rw
rw
-
12
11
10
SSC0 SSC0 SSC0
AREN BEN PEN
rw
rw
rw
9
8
7
SSC0 SSC0
REN TEN
rw
rw
6
SSC0 SSC0
LB
PO
rw
rw
5
4
3
2
1
SSC0
PH
SSC0
HB
SSC0BM
rw
rw
rw
0
Bit
Function
SSC0BM
SSC0 Data Width Selection
0:
Reserved. Do not use this combination.
1 … 15: Transfer Data Width is 2 … 16 bit (<SSC0BM>+1)
SSC0HB
SSC0 Heading Control Bit
0:
Transmit/Receive LSB First
1:
Transmit/Receive MSB First
SSC0PH
SSC0 Clock Phase Control Bit
0:
Shift transmit data on the leading clock edge, latch on trailing edge
1:
Latch receive data on leading clock edge, shift on trailing edge
SSC0PO
SSC0 Clock Polarity Control Bit
0:
Idle clock line is low, leading clock edge is low-to-high transition
1:
Idle clock line is high, leading clock edge is high-to-low transition
SSC0LB
SSC0 Loop Back Bit
0:
Normal output
1:
Receive input is connected with transmit output (half duplex mode)
SSC0TEN
SSC0 Transmit Error Enable Bit
0:
Ignore transmit errors
1:
Check transmit errors
SSC0REN
SSC0 Receive Error Enable Bit
0:
Ignore receive errors
1:
Check receive errors
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Bit
Function
SSC0PEN
SSC0 Phase Error Enable Bit
0:
Ignore phase errors
1:
Check phase errors
SSC0BEN
SSC0 Baud Rate Error Enable Bit
0:
Ignore baud rate errors
1:
Check baud rate errors
SSC0AREN
SSC0 Automatic Reset Enable Bit
0:
No additional action upon a baud rate error
1:
The SSC is automatically reset upon a baud rate error
SSC0MS
SSC0 Master Select Bit
0:
Slave Mode. Operate on shift clock received via SCLK.
1:
Master Mode. Generate shift clock and output it via SCLK.
SSC0EN
SSC0 Enable Bit = ‘0’
Transmission and reception disabled. Access to control bits.
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SSC0EN = 1: Operating Mode
SSCCON
15
14
Reset Value: 0000H
13
SSC0 SSC0
EN
MS
rw
rw
-
12
11
10
SSC0 SSC0 SSC0
BSY
BE
PE
r
rw
rw
9
8
SSC0 SSC0
RE
TE
rw
7
6
5
4
-
-
-
-
3
2
1
0
SSC0BC
rw
rw
Bit
Function
SSC0BC
SSC0 Bit Count Field
Shift counter is updated with every shifted bit. Do not write to!!!
SSC0TE
SSC0 Transmit Error Flag
1:
Transfer starts with the slave’s transmit buffer not being updated
SSC0RE
SSC0 Receive Error Flag
1:
Reception completed before the receive buffer was read
SSC0PE
SSC0 Phase Error Flag
1:
Received data changes around sampling clock edge
SSC0BE
SSC0 Baud Rate Error Flag
1:
More than factor 2 or 0.5 between Slave’s actual and
expected baud rate
SSC0BSY
SSC0 Busy Flag
Set while a transfer is in progress. Do not write to!!!
SSC0MS
SSC0 Master Select Bit
0:
Slave Mode. Operate on shift clock received via SCLK.
1:
Master Mode. Generate shift clock and output it via SCLK.
SSC0EN
SSC0 Enable Bit = ‘1’
Transmission and reception enabled. Access to status flags and M/S
control.
Note: The target of an access to SSCCON (control bits or flags) is determined by the
state of SSC0EN prior to the access, i.e. writing C057H to SSC0CON in
programming mode (SSC0EN = ‘0’) will initialize the SSC (SSC0EN was ‘0’) and
then switch it on (SSC0EN = ‘1’).
When writing to SSCCON, make sure that zeros are input to reserved locations.
The SSC0 baud rate timer reload register SSCBR contains the 16-bit reload value for
the baud rate timer.
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SSCBR
15
14
Reset Value: 0000H
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
SSC0RL(15 ..0)
rw
Bit
Function
SSC0RL
(15 … 0)
Baud Rate Timer/Reload Register Value
Reading SSCBR returns the 16-bit content of the baud rate timer. Writing
SSC0BR loads the baud rate timer reload register.
The SSC0 transmitter buffer register SSCTB contains the transmit data value.
SSCTB
15
14
Reset Value: 0000H
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
SSC0TD(15..0)
rw
Bit
Function
SSC0TD
(15 … 0)
Transmit Data Register Value
SSCTB contains the data to be transmitted. Unselected bits of SSC0TB
are ignored during transmission.
The SSC0 receiver buffer register SSCRB contains the receive data value.
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SSCRB
15
14
Reset Value: 0000H
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
SSC0RD(15..0)
r
Bit
Function
SSC0RD
(7 … 0)
Receive Data Register Value
SSCRB contains the received data bits. Unselected bits of SSC0RB will
be not valid and should be ignored
7.5
I2C-Bus Interface
The on-chip I2C Bus module connects the M2 to other external controllers and/or
peripherals via the two-line serial I2C interface. The I2C Bus module provides
communication at data rates of up to 400 Kbit/s and features 7-bit as well as 10-bit
addressing.
The module can operate in three different modes:
Master mode, where the I2C controls the bus transactions and provides the clock signal.
Slave mode, where an external master controls the bus transactions and provides the
clock signal.
Multimaster mode, where several masters can be connected to the bus, i.e. the I2C can
be master or slave.
The on-chip I2C bus module allows efficient communication via the common I2C bus. The
module unloads the CPU of low level tasks such as
•
•
•
•
•
(De)Serialization of bus data.
Generation of start and stop conditions.
Monitoring the bus lines in slave mode.
Evaluation of the device address in slave mode.
Bus access arbitration in multimaster mode.
Features
•
•
•
•
Extended buffer allows up to 4 send/receive data bytes to be stored.
Support of standard 100 KBaud and extended 400 KBaud data rates.
Operation in 7-bit or 10-bit addressing mode.
Flexible control via interrupt service routines or by polling.
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7.5.1
Operational Overview
Data is transferred by the 2-line I2C bus (SDA, SCL) using a protocol that ensures
reliable and efficient transfers. This protocol clearly distinguishes regular data transfers
from defined control signals which control the data transfers.
The following bus conditions are defined:
Bus Idle:
SDA and SCL remain high. The I2C bus is currently not used.
Data Valid:
SDA stable during the high phase of SCL. SDA then represents the
transferred bit. There is one clock pulse for each transferred bit of data.
During data transfers SDA may only change while SCL is low (see
below)!
Start Transfer: A falling edge on SDA ( ) while SCL is high indicates a start condition.
This start condition initiates a data transfer over the I2C bus.
Stop Transfer: A rising edge on SDA ( ) while SCL is high indicates a stop condition.
This stop condition terminates a data transfer. An arbitrary number of
bytes may be transferred between a start condition and a stop condition.
7.5.2
The Physical I2C-Bus Interface
Communication via the I2C Bus uses two bidirectional lines, the serial data line SDA and
the serial clock line SCL. Each of these two generic interface lines can be connected to
a number of IO port lines. These connections can be established and released under
software control.
SDAx
Generic Data Line
SDA0
Ι 2 C Module
Generic Clock Line
SCL0
SCLx
UES11164
Figure 7-45 I2C Bus Line Connections
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This mechanism allows a number of configurations of the physical I2C Bus interface:
Physical Channels
Can be selected, so the I2C module can use electrically separated channels or increase
the addressing range by using more data lines.
Note: Baud rate and physical channels should never be changed (via ICCFG) during a
transfer.
Channel Switching
The I2C module can be connected to a specific pair of pins (e.g. SDA0 and SCL0) which
then forms a separate I2C channel to the external system. The channel can be
dynamically switched by connecting the module to another pair of pins (e.g. SDA1 and
SCL1). This establishes physically separate interface channels.
Broadcasting:
Connecting the module to more than one pair of pins (e.g. SDA0/1 and SCL0/1) allows
the transmission of messages over multiple physical channels at the same time. Please
note that this configuration is critical when the M2 is a slave. In master mode it cannot
be guaranteed that all selected slaves have reached the message.
Register ICCFG selects the bus baud rate as well the activation of SDA and SCL lines.
So an external I2C channel can be established (baud rate and physical lines) with one
single register access.
Note: Respective port pin definition
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SDA
Ι 2 C-Channel 0
SCL
SDA 6000
Ι 2 C-Bus Node
SDA
Ι 2 C-Bus Node
Ι 2 C-Channel 1
SCL
UES11165
Figure 7-46 Physical Bus Configuration Example
Output Pin Configuration
The pin drivers that are assigned to the I2C channel(s) provide open drain outputs (i.e.
no upper transistor). This ensures that the I2C module does not put any load on the I2C
bus lines while the M2 is not powered. The I2C bus lines therefore require external
pull-up resistors (approx. 10 KΩ for operation at 100 KBaud, 2 KΩ for operation at
400 KBaud).
All pins of the M2 that are to be used for I2C bus communication must be switched to
output, opendrain and their alternate function must be enabled (by setting the respective
port output latch to ‘1’), before any communication can be established.
If not driven by the I2C module (i.e. the corresponding enable bit in register ICCFG is ‘0’)
they then switch off their drivers (i.e. driving ‘1’ to an open drain output). Due to the
external pull-up devices the respective bus levels will then be ‘1’ which is idle.
The I2C module features digital input filters in order to improve the noise output from the
external bus lines.
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7.5.3
Functional Overview
Operation in Master Mode
If the on-chip I2C module controls the I2C bus (i.e. bus master), master mode must be
selected via bit field MOD in register ICCON. The physical channel is configured by a
control word written to register ICCFG, defining the active interface pins and the used
baud rate. More than one SDA and/or SCL line may be active at a time. The address of
the remote slave that is to be accessed is written to ICRTB0 … 3. The bus is claimed by
setting bit BUM in register ICCON. This generates a start condition on the bus and
automatically starts the transmission of the address in ICRTB0. Bit TRX in register
ICCON defines the transfer direction (TRX = ‘1’, i.e. transmit, for the slave address). A
repeated start condition is generated by setting bit RSC in register ICCON, which
automatically starts the transmission of the address previously written to ICRTB0. This
may be used to change the transfer direction. RSC is cleared automatically after the
repeated start condition has been generated.
The bus is released by clearing bit BUM in register ICCON. This generates a stop
condition on the bus.
Note: Between load the address in ICRTB0 an setting bit BUM at least one command
(nop) has to be executed.
Operation in Multimaster Mode
If multimaster mode is selected via bit field MOD in register ICCON, the on-chip I2C
module can operate concurrently as a bus master or as a slave. The descriptions of
these modes apply accordingly.
Multimaster mode implies that several masters are connected to the same bus. As more
than one master may try to claim the bus at a given time, an arbitration is done on the
SDA line. When a master device detects a mismatch between the data bit to be sent and
the actual level on the SDA (bus) line, it looses the arbitration and automatically switches
to slave mode (leaving the other device as the remaining master). This loss of arbitration
is indicated by bit AL in register ICST which must be checked by the driver software
when operating in multimaster mode. Lost arbitration is also indicated when the software
tries to claim the bus (by setting bit BUM) while the I2C bus is active (indicated by bit
BB = ‘1’). Bit AL must be cleared via software.
Operation in Slave Mode
If the on-chip I2C module is controlled via the I2C bus by a remote master (i.e. be a bus
slave), slave mode must be selected via bit field MOD in register ICCON. The physical
channel is configured by a control word written to register ICCFG, defining the active
interface pins and the used baud rate. It is recommended to have only one SDA and SCL
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line active at a time when operating in slave mode. The address by which the slave
module can be selected is written to register ICADR.
The I2C module is selected by another master when it receives (after a start condition),
either its own device address (stored in ICADR) or the general call address (00H). In this
case an interrupt is generated and bit SLA in register ICST is set, indicating the valid
selection. The desired transfer mode is then selected via bit TRX (TRX = ‘0’ for
reception, TRX = ‘1’ for transmission).
For a transmission the respective data byte is placed into the buffer ICRTB0 … 3
(which automatically sets bit TRX) and the acknowledge behavior is selected via bit
ACKDIS.
For a reception the respective data byte is fetched from the buffer ICRTB0 … 3 after
IRQD has been activated.
In both cases the data transfer itself is enabled by clearing bits IRQD, IRQP and IRQE
which releases the SCL line.
When a stop condition is detected, bit SLA is cleared.
The I2C bus configuration register ICCFG selects the bus baud rate (partly) as well as
the activation of SDA and SCL lines. So an external I2C channel can be established
(baud rate and physical lines) with one single register access.
Systems that utilize several I2C channels can prepare a set of control words which
configure the respective channels. By writing one of these control words to ICCFG the
respective channel is selected. Different channels may use different baud rates. Also
different operating modes can be selected, e.g. enabling all physical interfaces for a
broadcast transmission.
Note: Refer also to Chapter 7.5.2.
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7.5.4
Registers
All available module registers are summarized in the overview table below.
b/p1)
Register
Name
Register Description
Address
ICCFG
I2C Configuration Register
00’E810H b
0000H
ICCON
I2C Control Register
ICST
00’E812H b
0000H
2
00’E814H b
0000H
2
00’E816H b
0000H
2
I C Status Register
ICADR
Reset Value
I C Address Register
ICRTBL
I C Receive/Transmit Buffer
00’E818H –
0000H
ICRTBH
I2C Receive/Transmit Buffer
00’E81AH –
0000H
IICPISEL2)
I2C Port Input Select Register
00’E804H b
0000H
1)
b: bit addressable / p: bit protected
2)
Itus currently no function. Should be left on reset value.
I2C Configuration Register
ICCFG
15
Reset Value: 0000H
14
13
12
11
10
9
BRPL
Field
Bits
Type
SDAENx
(x = 2 … 0)
2…0
rw
SCLENx
(x = 3 … 0)
BRPL
Users Manual
5…4
15 … 8
7
6
5
4
3
0
0
SCL
EN1
SCL
EN0
0
2
1
0
SDA SDA SDA
EN2 EN1 EN0
Value Description
0
1
Enable Input for Data Pin x
These bits determine to which pins the I2C data
line is connected.
SDA pin x is disconnected.
SDA pin x is connected with I2C data line.
0
1
Enable Input for Clock Pin x
These bits determine to which pins the I2C
clock line is connected.
SCL pin x is disconnected.
SCL pin x is connected with I2C clock line.
rw
rw
8
–
Baud rate Prescaler Low
Determines the 8 least significant bits of the 10
bit baud rate prescaler. (See BPRH in ICADR.)
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Peripherals
I2C Control Register ICCON
15
14
13
12
WM
EN
0
0
0
11
10
CI
Field
Bits
Type
M10
0
rw
RSC
1
Reset Value: 0000H
9
8
7
6
5
4
STP
IGE
TRX
INT
ACK
DIS
BU
M
[3:2]
RSC
M10
0
1
rwh
rwh
rwh
0
1
Users Manual
0
Address Mode
7-bit addressing using ICA7 … 1.
10-bit addressing using ICA9 … 0.
01
10
11
4
MOD
1
Description
00
BUM
2
Value
0
1
MOD
3
Repeated Start Condition
No operation.
Generate a repeated start condition in
(multi) master mode. RSC cannot be set in
slave mode.
Note: RSC is cleared automatically after
the repeated start condition has been sent.
Basic Operating Mode
I2C module is disabled and initialized (InitMode). Transmissions under execution will
be aborted.
Slave mode.
10
Master mode.
11
Multi-Master mode.
Busy Master
Clearing bit BUM ( ) generates a stop
condition immediately.
Setting bit BUM ( ) generates a start
condition in (multi)master mode.
Note: Setting bit BUM ( ) while BB = ‘1’
generates an arbitration lost situation.
In this case BUM is cleared and bit AL is
set.
BUM can not be set in slave mode.
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SDA 6000
Peripherals
Field
Bits
Type
ACKDIS
5
rwh
Value
0
1
INT
6
rw
0
1
TRX
7
rwh
0
1
IGE
8
rw
0
1
STP
9
rwh
0
1
Users Manual
Description
Acknowledge Pulse Disable
An acknowledge pulse is generated for
each received frame.
No acknowledge pulse is generated.
Note: ACKDIS is automatically cleared by
a stop condition.
Interrupt Delete Select
Interrupt flag IRQD is deleted by read/write
to ICRTB0 … 3.
Interrupt flag IRQD is not deleted by read/
write to ICRTB0 … 3.
Transmit Select
No data is transmitted to the I2C bus.
Data is transmitted to the I2C bus.
Note: TRX is set automatically when
writing to the transmit buffer. It is not
allowed to delete this bit in the same
buscycle. It is automatically cleared after
last byte as slave transmitter.
Ignore IRQE
Ignore IRQE (End of transmission)
interrupt.
The I2C is stopped at IRQE interrupt.
The I2C ignores the IRQE interrupt.
If RMEN is set, RM is mirrored here.
Stop Master
0
Clearing bit STP generates no stop
condition.
1
Setting bit STP generates a stop
condition after next transmission.
BUM is set to zero.
ACKDIS is set to one.
STP is automatically cleared by a
stop condition.
If RMEN is set, RM is mirrored here.
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Peripherals
Field
Bits
CI
[10:9] rw
WMEN
15
Type
Value
Description
00
01
10
11
Length of the Transmit Buffer
1 Byte
2 Bytes
3 Bytes
4 Bytes
If RMEN is set, RM is mirrored here.
rwh
0
1
Write Mirror Enable
write mirror is not active
write mirror is active
If RMEN is set WMEN can not be set and
will remain zero. If WMEN and RMEN are
simultaneously set to 1, both will remain
what they are. So only one of each can be
set to 1.
RM
Users Manual
[15:8] rw
–
Read Mirror
If RMEN is set, RTB0 may be read here.
Writing to RM has no effect in this mode.
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SDA 6000
Peripherals
I2C Status Register ICST
15
14
13
12
11
RM
EN
0
0
0
0
Reset Value: 0000H
10
9
CO
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
IRQ
E
IRQ
P
IRQ
D
BB
LRB
SLA
AL
ADR
Field
Bits
Type
Value Description
ADR
0
rh
–
Address
Bit ADR is set after a start condition in slave
mode until the address has been received
(1 byte in 7-bit address mode, 2 bytes in
10-bit address mode).
AL
1
rwh
–
Arbitration Lost
Bit AL is set when the I2C module has tried
to become master on the bus, but has lost
the arbitration. Operation is continued until
the 9th clock pulse.
If multimaster mode is selected the I2C
module temporarily switches to slave mode
after a lost arbitration. Bit IRQP is set along
with bit AL.
AL must be cleared via software.
SLA
2
rh
0
1
LRB
Users Manual
3
rh
–
Slave
The I2C module is not selected as a slave,
or the module is in master mode.
The I2C module has been selected as a
slave (device address received).
Last Received Bit
Bit LRB represents the last bit (i.e. the
acknowledge bit) of the last transferred
frame.
It is automatically set to zero by a write or
read access to the buffer ICRTB0 … 3.
Note: If LRB is high (no acknowledge) in
slave mode, TRX bit is set automatically.
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Peripherals
Field
Bits
Type
BB
4
rh
Value Description
0
1
IRQD
5
rwh
0
1
Users Manual
Bus Busy
The I2C bus is idle, i.e. a stop condition has
occurred.
The I2C bus is active, i.e. a start condition
has occurred.
Note: Bit BB is always ‘0’ while the I2C
module is disabled.
I2C Interrupt Request Bit for Data Transfer
Events 1)
No interrupt request pending.
A data transfer event interrupt request is
pending.
IRQD is set after the acknowledge bit of the
last byte has been received or transmitted,
and is cleared automatically upon a
complete read or write access to the
buffer(s) ICRTB0 … 3.
New data transfers will start immediately
after clearing IRQD. Do not access any
register until next interrupt. If in polling
mode and CI is ‘0’ only 8-Bit accesses to
the lower byte are allowed.
Note: If a multi byte write could not be
finished in slave mode because of missing
acknowledge, then the data interrupt is
followed by a end of transmission interrupt.
The number of bytes sent can be read from
CO. The data interrupt must have higher
priority than IRQE.
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SDA 6000
Peripherals
Field
Bits
Type
IRQP
6
rwh
Value Description
0
1
IRQE
7
rwh
0
1
Users Manual
I2C Interrupt Request Bit for Protocol
Events 1)
No interrupt request pending.
A protocol event interrupt request is
pending.
IRQP is set when bit SLA or bit AL is set
( ), and must be cleared via software.
If the I2C has been selected by an other
master, the software must look up the
required transmission direction by reading
the received address and direction bit,
stored in ICRTB0. The TRX-bit must
correspondingly be set by software.
I2C Interrupt Request Bit for Data
Transmission End 1)
No interrupt request pending.
A receive end event interrupt request is
pending (a stop is detected).
IRQE is automatically cleared upon a start
condition. IRQE is not activated in
init-mode.
IRQE must always be deleted to continue
transmission.
Note: In slave mode IRQE is set after the
transmission is finished. This can also be
after a stop or RSC condition. In this case
the slave is not selected any more. This bit
is also set, if a transmission is stopped by a
missing acknowledge. In this case the bit
must be cleared by software.
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Peripherals
Field
Bits
Type
CO
10..8 rw
Value Description
000
001
010
011
100
WM
1)
[15:8] wh
–
Counter of Transmitted Bytes Since Last
Data Interrupt. If a multi byte transmission
could not be finished because of a missing
acknowledge, the number of correctly
transferred bytes can be read from CO. It is
automatically set to zero by the correct
number (defined by CI) of write/read
accesses to the buffers ICRTB0 … 3.
No Byte
1 Byte
2 Bytes
3 Bytes
4 Bytes
The number of legal bytes depends on the
data buffer size (CI). Writing to this bit field
does not affect its content.
If WMEN is set, WM is mirrored here.
Write Mirror
If WMEN is set, RTB0 may be written here.
Reading WM will result in zero.
While IRQD, IRQP or IRQE is set and the I2C module is in master mode or has been selected as a slave, the
I2C clock line is held low which prevents further transfers on the I2C bus.
The clock line of the I2C bus is released when IRQD, IRQE and IRQP are cleared. Only in this case can the
next I2C bus action take place.
Interrupt request bits may be set or cleared via software, e.g. to control the I2C bus.
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SDA 6000
Peripherals
I2C Address Register ICADR
15
14
BRP
MO
D
Reset Value: 0000H
13
12
11
10
9
8
PREDIV
0
0
0
ICA
9/
0
ICA
8
IGE
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
ICA
0/
0
ICA7..1
Field
Bits
Type
Value Description
ICA0
0
rw
–
Node Address Bit 0 in 10-Bit Mode
(See ICCON bit M10)
Access is only possible in 10-bit mode.
–
0
0
0
Reserved read/write 0 if in 7-bit mode.
ICA7 … 1
7..1
rw
–
Node Address in 7-Bit Mode (ICA9 and
ICA0 disregarded, ICA8 becomes IGE-bit).
IGE
8
rw
0
1
Ignore IRQE
In 7-bit mode, this bit becomes IGE-bit:
Ignore IRQE (End of transmission)
interrupt.
The I2C is stopped at IRQE interrupt.
The I2C ignores the IRQE interrupt.
Access is only possible in 7-bit mode.
ICA8
8
rw
–
Node Address Bit 8 in 10-Bit Mode
Access is only possible in 10-bit mode.
ICA9..0
9..0
rw
–
Node Address in 10-Bit Mode (all bits
used).
Note: Access is only possible in 10-bit
mode.
PREDIV
[14:13]
rw
BRPMOD
15
00
01
10
11
Pre Divider for Baud Rate Generation
pre divider is disabled
pre divider factor 8 is enabled
pre divider factor 64 is enabled
reserved, do not use
0
1
Baud Rate Prescaler Mode
Mode 0 is enabled (by default)
Mode 1 is enabled.
rw
Baud Rate Selection
In order to give the user high flexibility in selection of CPU frequency and baud rate,
without constraints to baud rate accuracy, a flexible baud rate generator has been
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SDA 6000
Peripherals
implemented. It uses two different modes and an additional pre divider. Low baud rates
may be configured at high precision in mode 0 which is compatible with older versions.
High baud rates may be configured precisely in mode 1.
Mode 0: Reciprocal Divider
The resulting baud rate is
f
f
cpu
BRP = ------------------ – 1
4 ⋅ B IIC
cpu
B IIC = ---------------------------------4 ⋅ ( BRP + 1 )
Mode 1: Fractional Divider
The resulting baud rate is
1024 ⋅ B IIC
BRP = ---------------------------
f cpu ⋅ BRP
B IIC = ----------------------------1024
Table 7-24
f cpu
I2C-Bus Baud Rate Selection @ 33.33 MHz CPU-Freq.
BRPMOD
BRP @ 100 kBaud
BRP @ 400 kBaud
PREDIV
= 00B
PREDIV
= 01B
PREDIV
= 10B
PREDIV
= 00B
PREDIV
= 01B
PREDIV
= 10B
0
52H
0AH
1H
14H
02H
–
1
03H
–
–
0CH
02H
–
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SDA 6000
Peripherals
I2C Receive/Transmit Buffer ICRTBH/L
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
Reset Value: 0000H
7
6
5
ICRTB3
15
14
13
12
11
4
3
2
1
0
2
1
0
ICRTB2
10
9
8
7
6
ICRTB1
5
4
3
ICRTB0
Field
Bits
Type
ICRTBx
x= 3…0
15..0 rwh
Value
Description
–
Receive/Transmit Buffer 1) 2)
The buffers contain the data to be sent/
received.
The buffer size can be set in bit field CI
(from 1 up to 4 bytes). ICRTB0 is sent/
received first.
1)
A read respectively a write access (depending on bit TRX) to all bytes (specified in CI) of ICRTB0 … 3 sets
CO to 111 (no byte sent/received).
2)
If bit INT is set to zero and all bytes (specified in CI) of ICRTB0 … 3 are read/written (depending on bit TRX)
IRQD is cleared.
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Peripherals
Interrupts
Table 7-25
Interrupt Sources
Interrupt
SRC Register
Description
Data
I2CTIC
Interrupt is requested after the
acknowledge bit of the last byte has
been received or transmitted.
Data Error
I2CTIC
Interrupt is requested if a multi byte
write could not be finished in slave
mode because of missing
acknowledge, then the data interrupt is
followed by an end of transmission
interrupt.
Protocol: Arbitration Lost
I2CPIC
Interrupt is requested when the I2C
module has tried to become master on
the bus but has lost the arbitration.
Protocol: Slave Mode after
Lost Arbitration
I2CPIC
Interrupt is requested if multimaster
mode is selected and the I2C module
temporarily switches to slave mode
after a lost arbitration.
Protocol: Slave Mode after
Device Address
I2CPIC
Interrupt is requested if multimaster
mode is selected and the I2C module
temporarily switches to slave mode
after a lost arbitration.
Data Trans-mission End
after Stop Condition
I2CTEIC
Interrupt is requested after
transmission is finished by a stop
condition.
Data Trans-mission End
after RSC Condition
I2CTEIC
Interrupt is requested after
transmission is finished by a repeated
start condition (RSC).
Data Transmission End after I2CTEIC
missing Acknowledge
Users Manual
Interrupt is also requested if a
transmission is stopped by a missing
acknowledge.
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SDA 6000
Peripherals
Synchronization
In Mastermode, the SCL line is controlled by the I2C Module. Sent and received data is
only valid if SCL is high. With SCL going down, all modules are starting to count down
their low period. During the low period all connected modules are allowed to hold SCL
low. As the physical bus connection is wired-AND, SCL will remain low until the device
with the longest low period enters high state. Then the device with the shortest high
period will pull SCL low again.
Programming
It is strictly recommended not to write to the I2C registers when the I2C is working, except
for interrupt handling. This is indicated by the BUM bit (in master mode) and the interrupt
flags. All registers can be written in initial mode. In master mode the I2C is working as
long as the BUM bit is set, in slave mode the I2C is working from receiving a start
condition until receiving the next stop condition. Change of transmit direction is possible
only after a protocol interrupt (IRQP) or in initialization mode (MOD = 00B).
Initialization
Before data can be sent or received, data buffer size must be set in the count registers
(only necessary if buffer greater than one byte is available). To decide if slave/master or
multimaster mode is required, the MOD bits must be programmed.
Repeated Start Condition
The RSC bit must be set to one.
Start Condition
To generate a start condition the I2C must be in master mode. If the BUM bit is set, a
start condition is sent and the transmission started. The slave returns the acknowledge
bit, which is indicated by the LRB bit.
Sending Data Bytes
To send bytes it is only necessary to write data bytes to the transmit buffer every time a
data interrupt (IRQD) occurs.
Stop Condition
The BUM bit must be set to zero, or the STP bit must be set to one.
Receiving Data Bytes
To receive bytes it is necessary to set the TRX bit to zero. The bytes can be read after
every data interrupt (IRQD). After a stop condition (protocol interrupt IRQE), the count
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SDA 6000
Peripherals
bit field CO must be read in case the buffer size (defined in CI) is greater than one byte,
to decide which bytes in the receive buffer were received in the last transmission cycle.
7.6
Analog Digital Converter
M2 includes a four channel 8-bit ADC for control purposes. By means of these four input
signals the controller is able to supervise the status of several analog signals and to take
action if necessary. As these analog signals are fairly slow (compared to the video input),
one SAR-Converter is used. The input is multiplexed to four different analog inputs.
The ADC is running continuously. The four channels are scanned one after another. The
conversion results (one byte per channel), for the four channels, are stored in registers
ADDAT1 and ADDAT2. After completion of the conversion for the last channel, two
interrupt request flags ADC1IR and ADC2IR are generated.
The Peripheral Event Controller (PEC) may be used to automatically store the
conversion results into a table in the memory for later evaluation, without requiring the
overhead of entering and exiting interrupt routines for each data transfer.
The S&H circuit is open for about 2 µs. New results are available in ADDAT1 and
ADDAT2 every 48 µs. The previous conversion results are overwritten unless the
contents are transferred to the memory by PEC data transfers or an ordinary interrupt
service routine.
If some of the port lines P5.0 to P5.3 are to be used as digital inputs the associated
enable bits in register P5BEN have to be enabled.
The input voltage on port 5 should never exceed 2.5 V.
A set of SFRs and port pins provide access to control functions and results of the ADC.
Ports & Direction Control
Alternate Functions
Data Registers
Control Registers
Interrupt Control
P5
ADDAT1
ADCON
AD1IC
AD2IC
ADDAT2
AN0/P5.0 ... AN3/P5.3
P5
Port 5 Data Register
ADDAT1 A/D Converter Result Register 1
ADDAT2 A/D Converter Result Register 2
AD1IC A/D Converter Interupt Control Register
(end of conversion)
AD2IC A/D Converter Interrupt Control Register
(end of conversion)
UEA11166
Figure 7-47 SFRs and Port Pins Associated with the A/D Converter
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SDA 6000
Peripherals
7.6.1
Power Down and Wake Up
As the power consumption of the ADC is quite high it should also be switched off during
idle mode. Due to some application requirements it is necessary to include the possibility
of generating an interrupt signal (ADWIC) as soon as the CADC (ANA0) input voltage
falls below a predefined level. Two different levels are available. The first one
corresponds to (fullscale-4 LSB) the second one to (fullscale-16 LSB). The actual level
can be selected by a control bit (ADWULE).
7.6.2
Register Description
ADCON
15
-
14
Reset Value: 0000H
13
-
-
Bit
12
11
-
-
10
-
9
-
8
-
7
-
6
-
5
4
3
2
1
0
FS
ADC
DIFF
ADWUL
E
-
-
-
-
rw
rw
Function
FSADCDIFF Selects FSADC input range
Selects input range of the Full Service ADC:
FSADCDIFF = 0: single-ended input
FSDACDIFF = 1: differential input
ADWULE
Defines threshold level for wake up
A special wake up unit has been implemented to allow a system wake-up
as soon as the analog input signal on pin ANA0 falls below a predefined
level. ADWULE defines this level.
ADWULE = 0:
threshold level corresponds to fullscale-4LSB.
ADWULE = 1:
threshold level corresponds to fullscale-16LSB.
ADDAT1
15
14
Reset Value: 0000H
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
ADRES1
5
4
3
2
1
0
ADRES0
rw
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Peripherals
ADDAT2
15
14
Reset Value: 0000H
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
ADRES3
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
ADRES2
rw
rw
Bit
Function
ADRESi
(7 … 0)
A/D Conversion Result (8-bit) of Channel 0 … 3 (ANA 0 … 3)
For each A/D channel two successive 7-bit samples (@33.3 MHZ) are
processed, averaged and scaled to 0 - 254.
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Clock System
SDA 6000
Clock System
8
Clock System
8.1
General Function
The on-chip clock generator provides M2 with its basic clock signals. Its oscillator can
either run with an external crystal and appropriate oscillator circuitry (refer to “Application
Diagram”) or it can be driven by an external digital clock signal. For applications with low
accuracy requirements (RTC is not used) the external oscillator circuit can also be a
ceramic resonator. Depending on the absolute tolerance of the resonator the slicer may
not work correctly. Moreover the display timings and baud rate prescaler have to be
adapted in an appropriate way. In some applications the timing reference given by the
horizontal frequency of the CVBS signal can be used to measure the timing tolerance
and to adjust the programming.
RTC
÷6
fCPU
33.33 MHz
3 MHz
÷2
XTAL1
XTAL2
OSC
6 MHz
PLL
÷2
200 MHz (÷ 3)
fEMI
100 MHz
66.7 MHz
3 MHz
300 MHz
fPIX
µC
µC-Periph.
Ports
Sync
ADC
Slicer
EBI
DG
CLUTs
Display-FIFO
10 MHz
DTO
50 MHz
SRU (part 2)
DAC
UES11167
Figure 8-1
Clock System in M2
The on-chip phase locked loop (PLL), which is internally running at 600 MHz, is fed by
the oscillator or can be bypassed to reduce the power consumption in idle and sleep
mode. If it is not required to wake up immediately from idle mode, the PLL can be
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SDA 6000
Clock System
switched off by entering sleep-mode. The same oscillator is used to clock the built-in
RTC. (For a further description refer to Chapter 7.2.)
From the output frequency of the PLL three clock systems are derived:
One, the 33 MHz system clock (fCPU) supplies the processor, all processor related
peripherals, the sync timing logic, the A/D converters and the slicer.
The second clock system (100/66 MHZ) (fEBI) is used to clock the external bus interface,
the display generator, the CLUTs and the input part of the display FIFO. This clock starts
at 66 MHz after hardware reset. It can be configured to 100 MHz during the initialization
sequence.
The frequency of the latter clock system can be changed via bit CLKCON in register
SYSCON2. The refresh rate of the external SDRAM is always kept constant,
independent of the selected system clock frequency.
The third clock system runs the pixel clock (fPIX), which is programmable in a range of
10 … 50 MHz. It serves the output part of the display FIFO and the D/A converters. The
pixel clock is derived from the high frequency output of the PLL and it is phase shifted
line by line to the positive edge of the horizontal sync signal (normal polarity). Because
the final display clock is derived from a DTO (digital time oscillator) it has no equidistant
clock periods although the average frequency is exact. This pixel clock generation
system has several advantages:
• The frequency of the pixel clock can be programmed independently from the
horizontal line period.
• Since the input of the PLL is already a signal with a high frequency, the resulting pixel
frequency has an extremely low jitter.
• The resulting pixel clock follows the edge of the H-sync impulse without any delay and
always has the same quality as the sync timing of the deflection controller.
8.2
Register Description
SYSCON2
Reset Value: 0000H
15
14
13
12
1
-
-
-
11
10
-
-
9
-
r
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
CLK
CON
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
rw
Bit
Function
CLKCON
Bus Clock Frequency
0:
fEBI = 66 MHz
1:
fEBI = 100 MHz
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SDA 6000
Clock System
Note: Register SYSCON2 cannot be changed after execution of the EINIT instruction.
PFR
Reset Value: 0148H
15
14
13
12
-
-
-
-
11
10
-
-
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
PF(10..0)
rw
Bit
Function
PF (10 … 0)
Pixel Frequency Factor
This register defines the relation between the output pixel frequency and
the frequency of the crystal. The pixel frequency does not depend on the
line frequency. It can be calculated by the following formula:
fPIX = PF × 300 MHz / 8192
The pixel frequency can be adjusted in steps of 36.6 KHz.
After power-on, this register is set to 328D. So, the default pixel
frequency is set to 12.01 MHz.
Note: Register values exceeding 1366 generate pixel frequencies
which are outside of the specified boundaries.
Users Manual
8-5
2000-06-15
Sync System
SDA 6000
Sync System
9
9.1
Sync System
General Description
The display sync system is completely independent of the acquisition sync system
(CVBS timing) and can either work as a sync master or as a sync slave system. Any
mention of “H/V-Syncs” in this chapter and in Chapter 10 always refers to display related
H/V Syncs and never to CVBS related sync timing.
In sync slave mode, M2 receives the synchronisation information from two independent
pins which deliver separate horizontal and vertical signals. Due to the not-line-locked
pixel clock generation (refer to Chapter 8), it can process any possible horizontal and
vertical sync frequency.
In sync master mode, M2 delivers separate horizontal and vertical signals with the same
flexibility in the programming of their periods as in sync slave mode.
9.1.1
Screen Resolution
The number of displayable pixels on the screen is defined by the pixel frequency (which
is independent of horizontal frequency), the line period and number of lines within a field.
The screen is divided into 3 different regions:
Users Manual
9-3
2000-06-15
SDA 6000
BVCR
EVCR
Sync System
V-Sync
Delay
(SDV)
Vertical Blacklevel Clamping
VLR
Horizontal Blacklevel Clamping
Screen Background Area
H-Sync Delay
(SDH)
Pixel Layer 1
Variable
Height
Pixel
Layer 2
Variable Width
t H_clmp_b
(BHCR)
t H_clmp_e
(EHCR)
t H_period (HPR)
H-Sync
UET11168
Figure 9-1
M2’s Display Timing
Blacklevel Clamping Area
During horizontal and vertical blacklevel clamping, the black value (RGB = 000) is
delivered. The blank pin is set to ‘1’ and COR is set to ‘0’ (normal polarity assumed). This
area is vertically programmable (in terms of lines) and horizontally in terms of 33.33 MHz
clock cycles. These programmings are independent of all other registers.
Screen Background Area
The size of that area is defined by the sync delay registers (SDH and SDV) and the size
of pixel layer1. The contents of that area are defined by GA instruction SAR (refer also
to Chapter 10.1). Pixels within that area are programmable (colour and transparency
level), but all have the same value.
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9-4
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SDA 6000
Sync System
Pixel Layer Area
Pixels of this area are freely programmable according to the specifications of the display
generator. The information is stored in the frame buffer in the external memory, that
means the bigger that area is defined, the more bus performance is needed for SRU. If
that area is set to ‘0’ no bus performance is needed. The start position of that area can
be shifted in horizontal and vertical direction by programming the horizontal and vertical
sync delay registers (SDH and SDV). The size of that area is defined by the instruction
FSR in the display generator.
Registers which allow the screen and sync parameters to be set up, are given in the
Table 9-1.
Table 9-1
Overview on Sync Register Settings
Parameters
Register
Sync Control Register
SCR
VL - Lines / Field
VLR
1 line
1024 lines 1 line
625 lines
Th-period - Horizontal Period
HPR
15 µs
100 µs
30 ns
64 µs
Fpixel - Pixel Frequency
PFR
10 MHz
50 MHz
73.25
KHz
12.01
MHz
Tvsync_delay - Sync Delay
SDV
4 lines
1024 lines 1 line
32 lines
Thsync_delay - Sync Delay
SDH
32 pixel
2048 pixel 1 pixel
72 pixel
BVCR - Beginning
Of Vertical Clamp Phase
BVCR
1 line
1024 lines 1 line
line 1
EVCR - End Of
Of Vertical Clamp Phase
EVCR
1 line
1024 lines 1 line
line 5
Th_clmp_b - Beginning
Of Horizontal Clamp Phase
BHCR
0 µs
163.2 µs
480 ns
0 µs
Th_clmp_e - End
EHCR
Of Horizontal Clamp Phase
0 µs
163.2 µs
480 ns
4.5 µs
9.1.2
Min Value Max
Value
Step
Default
see below
Sync Interrupts
The sync unit delivers interrupts (Horizontal and vertical interrupt) to the controller to
support the recognition of the frequencies of an external sync source (e.g. a VGA source
via SCART). These interrupts are related to the positive edge of the non delayed
horizontal and vertical impulses which can be seen at pins HSYNC and VSYNC.
Users Manual
9-5
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SDA 6000
Sync System
9.2
Register Description
SCR
15
Reset Value: 0000H
14
-
13
12
-
-
-
11
CORBL
rw
10
9
8
7
VSU(3..0)
rw
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
BLAN
KP
COR
P
HP
VP
INT
VCS
MAST
rw
rw
rw
rw
rw
rw
rw
Bit
Function
MAST
Master / Slave Mode
This bit defines the configuration of the sync system (master or slave
mode) and also the direction (input/output) of the V, H pins.
0:
Slave mode. H, V pins are configured as inputs.
1:
Master mode. H, V pins are configured as outputs.
Note: Switching from slave to master mode resets the internal H, V
counters, so that the phase shift during the switch can be
minimized. In slave mode registers VLR, and HPR are without any
use.
VCS
Vertical Composite Sync
VCS defines the sync output at pin V (Master mode only).
0:
At pin V the vertical sync appears.
1:
At pin V a composite sync signal (including equalizing pulses, HSync and V-Syncs) is generated (VCS). The length of the
equalizing pulses have fixed values as described in the timing
specifications.
Note: Don’t forget to set registers VLR and HPR according to your
requirements.
INT
Interlace / Non-interlace
M2 can either generate an interlaced or a non-interlaced timing. (Master
mode only). Interlaced timing can only be created if VLR is an odd
number.
0:
Interlaced timing is generated.
1:
Non-interlaced timing is generated.
VP
V-Pin Polarity
This bit defines the polarity of the V pin (master and slave mode).
0:
Normal polarity (active high).
1:
Negative polarity.
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9-6
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SDA 6000
Sync System
Bit
Function
HP
H-Pin Polarity
This bit defines the polarity of the H pin. (Master and slave mode).
0:
Normal polarity (active high).
1:
Negative polarity.
CORP
COR-Pin Polarity
This bit defines the polarity of the COR pin. (Master and slave mode).
0:
Normal polarity (active high).
1:
Negative polarity (not allowed for CORBL = 1).
BLANKP
BLANK-Pin Polarity
This bit defines the polarity of the BLANK pin. (Master and slave mode).
0:
Negative polarity (not allowed for CORBL = 1).
1:
Normal polarity (active high).
VSU (3 … 0) Vertical Set Up Time. (Slave mode only)
The vertical sync signal is internally sampled with the next edge of the
horizontal sync edge. The phase relation between V and H differs from
application to application. To guarantee (vertical) jitter free processing of
external sync signals, the vertical sync impulse can be delayed before it
is internally processed. The following formula shows how to delay the
external V-sync before it is internally latched and processed.
tV_delay = 3.84 µs × VSU
CORBL
3-Level Contrast Reduction Output
There is one pin each for BLANK and COR. Nevertheless by means of
CORBL the user is able to switch the COR signal to a three level signal
providing BLANK and contrast reduction information on Pin BLANK
simultaneously.
0:
Two level signal for contrast reduction.
1:
Three level signal Level0: BLANK off; COR off.
Level1: BLANK off; COR on.
Level2: BLANK on; COR off.
Note: Please refer to Chapter 14 for the detailed specification of these
levels.
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SDA 6000
Sync System
VLR
15
-
Reset Value: 0271H
14
13
12
-
-
-
11
10
-
-
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
VL(9..0)
rw
Bit
Function
VLR (9 … 0) Amount of Vertical Lines in a Frame. (Master mode only).
M2 generates vertical sync impulses in sync master mode. If, for
example, a normal PAL timing should be generated, set the register to
‘625d’ and set the interlace bit to ‘0’. The hardware will generate a
vertical impulse periodically after 312.5 lines. If a non-interlaced picture
with 312 lines should be generated, set this register to ‘312’ and set the
interlace bit to ‘1’. The hardware will generate a vertical impulse every
312 lines. Progressive timing can be generated by setting VLR to ‘625’
and interlace to ‘1’.
HPR
15
-
Reset Value: 855H
14
13
12
-
-
-
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
HP(11..0)
rw
Bit
Function
HPR
(11 … 0)
Horizontal Period factor. (Master mode only)
This register allows the period of the horizontal sync signal to be
adjusted. The horizontal period is independent of the pixel frequency
and can be adjusted with the following resolution:
tH-period = HP × 30 ns
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SDA 6000
Sync System
SDV
15
-
Reset Value: 0020H
14
13
12
-
-
-
11
10
-
-
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
SDV(9..0)
rw
Bit
Function
SDV (9 … 0) Vertical Sync Delay. (Master and slave mode).
This register defines the delay (in lines) from the vertical sync to the first
line of pixel layer 1 on the screen.
SDH
15
-
Reset Value: 0020H
14
13
12
-
-
-
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
SDH
rw
Bit
Function
SDH
(11 … 0)
Horizontal Sync Delay. (Master and slave mode).
This register defines the delay (in pixels) from the horizontal sync to the
first pixel of layer 1 on the screen.
Users Manual
9-9
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SDA 6000
Sync System
HCR
15
Reset Value: 0A00H
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
EHCR(7..0)
EHCR(7..0)
rw
rw
2
1
0
Bit
Function
BHCR
(7 … 0)
Beginning of Horizontal Clamp Phase. (Master and slave mode).
This register defines the delay of the horizontal clamp phase from the
positive edge of the horizontal sync impulse (normal polarity is
assumed). The beginning of the clamp phase can be calculated by the
following formula:
tH_clmp_b = 480 ns × BHC
EHCR
(7 … 0)
End of Horizontal Clamp Phase. (Master and slave mode).
This register defines the end of the horizontal clamp phase from the
positive edge of the horizontal sync impulse (at normal polarity). The end
of the clamp phase can be calculated by the following formula:
tH_clmp_e = 480 ns × EHC
If EHC is smaller than BHC the clamp phase will include the H-sync
phase.
The clamp phase area has higher priority than the screen background area or the pixel
layer area and can be shifted independent from any other register.
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9 - 10
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SDA 6000
Sync System
Clamp Phase Area
Screen Background Area
Pixel Layer Area
Video
H Period - Frame n
H Pulse
Figure 9-2
UED11169
Priority of Clamp Phase, Screen Background and Pixel Layer Area
BVCR
Reset Value: 0000H
BVCR1
BVCR0
15
14
13
12
11
10
-
-
-
-
-
-
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
BVCR(9..0)
rw
Bit
Function
BVCR
(9 … 0)
Beginning of Vertical Clamp Phase. (Master and slave mode).
This register defines the beginning of the vertical clamp phase from the
positive edge of the vertical sync impulse (at normal polarity) in line
count.
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SDA 6000
Sync System
EVCR
Reset Value: 000AH
EVCR1
15
14
13
12
-
-
-
-
11
-
EVCR0
10
9
8
7
-
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
EVCR(9..0)
rw
Bit
Function
EVCR
(9 … 0)
End of Vertical Clamp Phase. (Master and slave mode).
This register defines the end of the vertical clamp phase from the
positive edge of the vertical sync impulse (at normal polarity) in line
count.
Note: It must be guaranteed that the value EVCR is always smaller than
the value of SDV.
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Display Generator
SDA 6000
Display Generator
10
Display Generator
10.1
General Description
M2’s display concept is based on frame buffer technology, which means that for each
pixel displayed on a screen appropriate information is stored in the memory of the so
called frame buffer. To relieve the controller from processing time consuming tasks like
writing this frame buffer pixel by pixel, a graphic accelerator machine is introduced (GA).
The GA reads e.g. bitmap information in various formats together with attributes which
define the final behavior of those bitmaps. Depending on these attributes these bitmaps
are processed and written into the frame buffer. Due to the processor like architecture of
the GA, it is controlled by so called GAIs (graphic accelerator instructions). The screen
refresh unit (SRU) reads out the pixel based information (various formats are also
available here) and hands them over via a look up table and a FIFO to the D/A converter.
The FIFO is used to adapt the variable pixel output frequency to the fixed memory bus
frequency. Up to two frame buffers are possible and supported by GA and SRU.
10.2
Screen Alignments
Two HW-layers are supported: layer 1 and layer 2. Layer 2 can be positioned relative to
layer 1 (also in negative direction). If layer 2 exceeds the dimensions of layer 2 these
exceeding parts are not visible on the screen.
The alignment of the OSD on the screen depends on the configuration of layer 1.
The maximum amount of displayable pixels is 2047 pixels in horizontal direction and
1023 pixels in vertical direction.
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10 - 3
2000-06-15
SDA 6000
Display Generator
To adapt M2 to a wide range of displays in the market the sync-processing can be
flexibly configured.
Vertical Blacklevel Clamping
Horizontal Blacklevel Clamping
Screen Background Area
Layer 2
Area
Variable
Height
Layer 1
Area
Non-Visible Part
of Layer 2
Variable Width
UED11170
Figure 10-1 Display Regions and Alignments
There are three registers in the synchronization unit which are necessary for OSD setup:
• SDH: used to setup the horizontal position of the top left pixel of layer 1.
• SDV: used to setup the vertical position of the top left pixel of layer 1.
• PFR: used to setup the pixel frequency.
For detailed description of these registers please refer to chapter ‘Display Sync System’
and ‘Clock System’.
In the area which is defined for layer 1 or layer 2 (layer area) each pixel is defined by the
attribute definition of the frame buffer. There is no pixel by pixel definition for the
blacklevel clamping area and the screen background area. For these areas the colour
and transparency is defined as follows:
Transparency level and colour of the screen background area is defined globally for the
whole screen by GA instruction SAR.
During the blacklevel clamping area, black value (RGB = ‘000’) is delivered at RGB
output. Pin ‘Blank’ is set to ‘1’ and COR-pin is set to ‘0’ (normal polarity is assumed).
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10 - 4
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SDA 6000
Display Generator
10.3
Layer Concept
M2 supports two HW-layers. Frame buffers of layer 1 and layer 2 can be placed at any
word aligned position in external memory.
Two different layer modes can be chosen:
• Overlapped layers. Layer 1 and layer 2 are processed in parallel by the screen refresh
unit.
• Embedded layers. Layer 1 and layer 2 are alternatively processed.
If the area of layer 2 exceeds the area of layer 1, these parts are not visible on the
screen.
Mixing of layer 1 and layer 2 is performed by the display generator. As a result of the
RGB output of M2, there is only one RGB stream which contains the information of layer
1 and layer 2. This RGB stream is externally mixed with a video source. For this external
mixing there are two output signals (COR and BLANK) available.
Meshed areas:
A special mesh mode is defined to mix the external video with the RGB information from
M2 in a chess-pattern-shape. From frame to frame this chess-pattern is inverted.
Inverted means, that pixels which have been displayed as video in the previous frame,
are displayed as RGB in the following frame.
Blank = 1; External Video
Blank = 0; RGB of M2
t +2
t +1
t
UEA11171
Figure 10-2 Behavior of Blank Pin for Consecutive Frames in ‘Meshed’ Regions
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10 - 5
2000-06-15
SDA 6000
Display Generator
10.3.1
Overlapped Layers
In overlapped layer mode the pixel information of both layers (layer 1, layer 2) is read in
parallel to the RAM. This means that for each pixel the individual decision can be made
which pixel source (layer 1, layer 2, screen background or video) has the highest priority.
Layer 2
Layer 1
Background Color
Video
UEA11172
Figure 10-3 Priority of Layers in Overlapped Layer Mode
The transparency between layers is supported. Below layer 2 there is layer 1, below
layer 1 there is the screen background colour and below screen background there is
video. In overlapped layer mode a transparency hierarchy is defined for layer 2, layer 1,
screen background and video. The transparency hierarchy is controlled, for each pixel,
by two bits (TR1 … 0) which are defined in the pixel format of the framebuffer and bit
SBTL which is defined in instruction SAR. Thus each pixel position can be defined
individually as layer 1, layer 2, screen background, video or contrast reduced video.
Depending on the transparency bits of both layers, subsequent signals are switched to
the RGB, COR and BLANK (normal polarity assumed) outputs of M2. As a result one of
the two layers or the screen background will be visible on the screen. If layer 2 is not
available for a pixel, signals COR, BLANK and RGB output depends on layer 1 only.
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SDA 6000
Display Generator
Table 10-1
Behavior of M2’s Outputs in Overlapped Layer Mode
Layer 1
TR1
TR0
Layer 2
TR1
*1)
Screen
BLANK
Background Pin
COR
Pin
RGB
Pins
RGB
Tube
TR0
SBTL
n.a.
0
0
0
Layer 1
Layer 1
0
0
n.a.
0
1
n.a.
n.a.
0
Meshed
0
Layer 1
Layer 1/
Video
1
0
n.a.
n.a.
0
0
0
Background
Background
1
1
n.a.
n.a.
0
0
0
Background
Background
X*2)
X
0
0
0
0
0
Layer 2
Layer 2
X
X
0
1
0
Meshed
0
Layer 2
Layer 2/
Video
0
0
1
X
0
0
0
Layer 1
Layer 1
0
1
1
X
0
Meshed
0
Layer 1
Layer 1/
Video
1
0
1
X
0
0
0
Background
Background
1
1
1
X
0
0
0
Background
Background
0
0
n.a.
n.a.
1
0
0
Layer 1
Layer 1
0
1
n.a.
n.a.
1
Meshed
0
Layer 1
Layer 1/
Video
1
0
n.a.
n.a.
1
1
0
Background
Video
1
1
n.a.
n.a.
1
1
1
Background
Contrast
red. Video
X
X
0
0
1
0
0
Layer 2
Layer 2
X
X
0
1
1
Meshed
0
Layer 2
Layer 2/
Video
0
0
1
X
1
0
0
Layer 1
Layer 1
0
1
1
X
1
Meshed
0
Layer 1
Layer 1/
Video
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SDA 6000
Display Generator
Table 10-1
Behavior of M2’s Outputs in Overlapped Layer Mode (cont’d)
Layer 1
Layer 2
Screen
BLANK
Background Pin
COR
Pin
RGB
Pins
RGB
Tube
TR1
TR0
TR1
TR0
SBTL
1
0
1
X
1
1
0
Background
Video
1
1
1
X
1
1
1
Background
Contrast
red. Video
*1)
n.a. = not available
*2)
X = don’t care
For transparency in ‘screen background area’ please refer to Chapter 10.3.3.
10.3.2
Embedded Layers
Layer 1 and 2 are not read in parallel to the RAM. The SRU reads only one layer at a
time. During the area of layer 2 only pixels of layer 2 are read. Otherwise only layer 1 is
read. As a result in the area of layer 2, the pixel information for layer 1 is not available.
This is why layer 2 is transparent to video and not to layer 1. As a result, in embedded
layer mode, transparency between layers is only supported layer-wise not pixel-wise.
Also please refer to transparency using overlapped layers (Chapter 10.3.1).
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SDA 6000
Display Generator
.
Layer 2
Layer 1
Background Color
Video
UEA11173
Figure 10-4 Priority of Layers in Embedded Layer Mode
Depending on the transparency bits of both layers, the following signals are switched to
the RGB, COR and BLANK (normal polarity assumed) outputs of M2. As a result, one of
the two layers or the screen background will be visible on the screen. If layer 2 is not
available for a pixel, signals COR, BLANK and RGB output depends only on layer 1.
The transparency hierarchy is again controlled, for each pixel, by two bits (TR1 … 0)
which are defined in the pixel format. On the RGB output of M2 there is a mix of layer 1
and layer 2 RGB stream with the screen background.
Depending on the transparency bits of one of the layers subsequent signals are switched
to RGB, COR and BLANK (normal polarity assumed).
The output signals of M2 (COR, BLANK, RGB) depend only on transparency bits of layer
1 or on layer 2 and never on both layers because there is no pixel position where both
layers are available in parallel.
10.3.3
Transparency in Screen Background Area
Depending on the height and width definition of layer 1 there is a remaining portion of
visible screen area without any pixel definition of layer 1 or layer 2. For this area the
transparency bits for layer 1 and layer 2 are not available. For this ‘Screen Background
Area’ the colour attributes and transparency attributes are globally defined for the whole
screen. Also refer to instruction SAR described in Chapter 10.7.1.
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SDA 6000
Display Generator
Table 10-2
Behavior of M2’s Outputs in Embedded Layer Mode
Layer 1
Layer 2
Screen
Background
BLANK
Pin
COR
Pin
RGB
Pins
RGB
Tube
TR1
TR0
TR1
TR0
SBTL
0
0
n.a.
n.a.
0
0
0
Layer 1
Layer 1
0
1
n.a.
n.a.
0
Meshed
0
Layer 1
Layer 1 /
Video
1
0
n.a.
n.a.
0
0
0
Background
Background
1
1
n.a.
n.a.
0
0
0
Background
Background
n.a.
n.a.
0
0
0
0
0
Layer 2
Layer 2
n.a.
n.a.
0
1
0
Meshed
0
Layer 2
Layer 2 /
Video
n.a.
n.a.
1
0
0
0
0
Background
Background
n.a.
n.a.
1
1
0
0
0
Background
Background
0
0
n.a.
n.a.
1
0
0
Layer 1
Layer 1
0
1
n.a.
n.a.
1
Meshed
0
Layer 1
Layer 1 /
Video
1
0
n.a.
n.a.
1
1
0
Background
Video
1
1
n.a.
n.a.
1
1
1
Background
Contrast
red. Video
n.a.
n.a.
0
0
1
0
0
Layer 2
Layer 2
n.a.
n.a.
0
1
1
Meshed
0
Layer 2
Layer 2 /
Video
n.a.
n.a.
1
0
1
1
0
Background
Video
n.a.
n.a.
1
1
1
1
1
Background
Contrast
red. Video
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SDA 6000
Display Generator
Table 10-3
Behavior of M2’s Outputs in Background Area
Screen
Background
BLANK
Pin
COR
Pin
RGB Pins
RGB Tube
STR1
STR0
0
0
0
0
RGB values
defined in SAR
RGB values defined
in SAR
0
1
Meshed
0
RGB values
defined in SAR
RGB values defined
in SAR/Video
1
0
1
0
RGB values
defined in SAR
Video
1
1
1
1
RGB values
defined in SAR
Contrast red. Video
10.4
Input and Output Formats
The transfer of one memory area to another is executed by the graphic accelerator (GA).
Transfer means reading data from a source memory area in a given input format,
modifying the data and writing it in a defined output format to the destination memory
area. Different input and output formats are supported:
Table 10-4
Overview on Formats
Input Formats
Output Formats
1-bit bitmap
2-bit format CLUT2 vector1)
2-bit bitmap
8-bit format CLUT2 vector
4-bit bitmap
16-bit format (4:4:4:2) RGB
8-bit bitmap
16-bit format (TTX) CLUT2 vector
8-bit data (for direct data transfer)
16-bit format (5:6:5) RGB
CLUT1 input
8-bit data (for direct data transfer)
16-bit format (4:4:4:2)
–
Note:
1)
The 2-bit format is defined as a format for the frame buffer but not supported by
the GA.
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SDA 6000
Display Generator
10.4.1
Input Formats
The following figures describe how bitmaps for different input bit map formats are stored
in the source memory area . The 16-bit format is described in Figure 10-12.
bit_7 bit_6 bit_5 bit_4 bit_3 bit_2 bit_1 bit_0 bit_7 bit_6 bit_5 bit_4 bit_3 bit_2 bit_1 bit_0
Byte Address n+1
Byte Address n
Memory Addr. = n
Pixel
8
Pixel
9
Pixel
10
Pixel
11
Pixel
12
Pixel
13
Pixel
14
Pixel
15
Pixel
0
Pixel
1
Pixel
2
Pixel
3
Pixel
4
Pixel
5
Pixel
6
Pixel
7
Memory Addr. = n+2
Pixel
24
Pixel
25
Pixel
26
Pixel
27
Pixel
28
Pixel
29
Pixel
30
Pixel
31
Pixel
16
Pixel
17
Pixel
18
Pixel
19
Pixel
20
Pixel
21
Pixel
22
Pixel
23
Byte Address n+3
Byte Address n+2
UED11174
Figure 10-5 Format of 1-bitplane Bitmap
Note: The 1-bitplane format is used to address vectors 1 … 0 of CLUT1.
bit_7 bit_6 bit_5 bit_4 bit_3 bit_2 bit_1 bit_0 bit_7 bit_6 bit_5 bit_4 bit_3 bit_2 bit_1 bit_0
Byte Address n+1
Byte Address n
Memory Addr. = n
Pixel Pixel Pixel Pixel Pixel Pixel Pixel Pixel Pixel Pixel Pixel Pixel Pixel Pixel Pixel Pixel
4/Bit1 4/Bit0 5/Bit1 5/Bit0 6/Bit1 6/Bit0 7/Bit1 7/Bit0 0/Bit1 0/Bit0 1/Bit1 1/Bit0 2/Bit1 2/Bit0 3/Bit1 3/Bit0
Memory Addr. = n+2
Pixel Pixel Pixel/ Pixel/ Pixel Pixel Pixel Pixel Pixel Pixel Pixel Pixel Pixel Pixel Pixel Pixel
12/Bit1 12/Bit0 13/Bit1 13/Bit0 14/Bit1 14/Bit0 15/Bit1 15/Bit0 8/Bit1 8/Bit0 9/Bit1 9/Bit0 10/Bit1 10/Bit0 11/Bit1 11/Bit0
Byte Address n+3
Byte Address n+2
UED11175
Figure 10-6 Format of 2-bitplane Bitmap
Note: The 2-bitplane format is used to address vectors 3 … 0 of CLUT1.
bit_7 bit_6 bit_5 bit_4 bit_3 bit_2 bit_1 bit_0 bit_7 bit_6 bit_5 bit_4 bit_3 bit_2 bit_1 bit_0
Byte Address n+1
Byte Address n
Memory Addr. = n
Pixel Pixel Pixel Pixel Pixel Pixel Pixel Pixel Pixel Pixel Pixel Pixel Pixel Pixel Pixel Pixel
2/Bit3 2/Bit2 2/Bit1 2/Bit0 3/Bit3 3/Bit2 3/Bit1 3/Bit0 0/Bit3 0/Bit2 0/Bit1 0/Bit0 1/Bit3 1/Bit2 1/Bit1 1/Bit0
Memory Addr. = n+2
Pixel Pixel Pixel Pixel Pixel Pixel Pixel Pixel Pixel Pixel Pixel Pixel Pixel Pixel Pixel Pixel
6/Bit3 6/Bit2 6/Bit1 6/Bit0 7/Bit3 7/Bit2 7/Bit1 7/Bit0 4/Bit3 4/Bit2 4/Bit1 4/Bit0 5/Bit3 5/Bit2 5/Bit1 5/Bit0
Byte Address n+3
Byte Address n+2
UED11176
Figure 10-7 Format of 4-bitplane Bitmap
Note: The 4-bitplane format is used to address vectors 15 … 0 of CLUT1.
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bit_7 bit_6 bit_5 bit_4 bit_3 bit_2 bit_1 bit_0 bit_7 bit_6 bit_5 bit_4 bit_3 bit_2 bit_1 bit_0
Byte Address n+1
Byte Address n
Memory Addr. = n
Pixel Pixel Pixel Pixel Pixel Pixel Pixel Pixel Pixel Pixel Pixel Pixel Pixel Pixel Pixel Pixel
1/Bit7 1/Bit6 1/Bit5 1/Bit4 1/Bit3 1/Bit2 1/Bit1 1/Bit0 0/Bit7 0/Bit6 0/Bit5 0/Bit4 0/Bit3 0/Bit2 0/Bit1 0/Bit0
Memory Addr. = n+2
Pixel Pixel Pixel Pixel Pixel Pixel Pixel Pixel Pixel Pixel Pixel Pixel Pixel Pixel Pixel Pixel
3/Bit7 3/Bit6 3/Bit5 3/Bit4 3/Bit3 3/Bit2 3/Bit1 3/Bit0 2/Bit7 2/Bit6 2/Bit5 2/Bit4 2/Bit3 2/Bit2 2/Bit1 2/Bit0
Byte Address n+3
Byte Address n+2
UED11177
Figure 10-8 Format of 8-bitplane Bitmap
Note: The 8-bitplane format is used to address vectors 255 … 0 of CLUT1.
10.4.2
Output Formats
The output of the GA is the input of the SRU. The SRU contains a 256 × 14-bit colour
look up table (CLUT2). This CLUT2 contains 256 different RGB values with 4 bits for
each colour (4:4:4) and 2-bit transparency information.
2-bit formats, 8-bit formats and the TTX format are using this CLUT2. For 16-bit formats
(TTX or 4:4:4:2) it depends on bit ‘M’ (mode), if the 16-bit information is used as colour
look up vectors or the 16-bit information is bypassing CLUT2. The 5:6:5 format always
bypasses CLUT2.
DG
GA
SRU
FIFO
RGB
CLUT2
(256 x 14)
Display Generator Interface (DGI)
Memory
UED11178
Figure 10-9 Overview on SRU
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The different formats of pixels stored in a frame buffer which are used by the SRU are
described in the following paragraphs:
Frame Buffer in 2-bit Pixel Format
Using this format, the frame buffer contains colour vectors. These 2-bitplane colour
vectors will be converted into 4:4:4:2 format (R:G:B: transparency value) by addressing
vector 252 … 255 of CLUT2.
1
0
1
0
1
0
Pixel0
Pixel1 Pixel2
7
5
6
4
3
2
1
0
Pixel3
1
0
UED11179
Figure 10-10 2-bit Pixel Format for Use in Frame Buffer
Frame Buffer in 8-bit Pixel Format
Using this format, the frame buffer contains colour vectors. These 8-bitplane colour
vectors will be converted into 4:4:4:2 format (R:G:B: transparency value) by CLUT2.
Pixel (7...0)
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
UED11180
Figure 10-11 8-bit Pixel Format for Use in Frame Buffer
Frame Buffer in 16-bit Pixel Format (4:4:4:2 or TTX)
This 16-bit format supports an RGB mode (4:4:4:2) and a TTX mode. Which of these
modes is in use can be decided pixel by pixel with bit ‘M’:
• TTX format (M = ‘0’)
• 12-bitplanes RGB (4:4:4:2) format (M = ‘1’) with 2 transparency bits TR(1 … 0).
Note: The meaning of transparency bits is described in more detail in Chapter 10.3.1
and Chapter 10.3.2.
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M TR(1..0)
16-Bit TTX
Format
16-Bit 4:4:4:2
Format
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
1 Hz Flash
1
1
2 Hz Flash, Phase 1
1
0
2 Hz Flash, Phase 2
0
1
2 Hz Flash, Phase 3
0
0
Transparency Level 1
0
0
Transparency Level 2
0
1
Transparency Level 3
1
0
Transparency Level 4
1
1
Pixel(12..0)
C 2) (2..0)
0
I1)
1
FlashC(4..0) 3)
Red(3..0) 5)
Green(3..0) 5)
Pixel(4..0) 4)
Blue(3..0) 5)
I - Italic Subpixel
C - CLUT2 Selector in TTX mode
FlashC - CLUT2 Vector for Flash Colour in TTX mode
Pixel - CLUT2 Vector for Pixel in TTX mode
Red Green Blue - Pixel RGB Colour in 4:4:4:2 mode
UED11181
Figure 10-12 16-bit Pixel Format (4:4:4:2/TTX) for Use in Frame Buffer
Pixels in 16-bit format which are stored in TTX format contain two 5-bit colour look up
vectors and two flash mode indicator bits. The flash mode indicator bits are used to
choose the flash rate and the flash phase. The meaning of flash is: The colour alternates
between two 5-bit colour vectors (FlashC and Pixel) which are chosen within the format
definition.
• Non Flash: Flash can be disabled if both 5-bit colour vectors point to the same CLUT2
location.
• Inverted Flash: Inverted flash is supported by exchanging the ‘FlashC’ vector with the
‘Pixel’ vector.
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Slow Rate Flash. Normal Flash
Fast Rate Flash. Phase 1. Normal Flash
Fast Rate Flash. Phase 2. Normal Flash
Fast Rate Flash. Phase 3. Normal Flash
UED11182
Figure 10-13 Internally Generated Flash Signals in Different Flash Phases
5-bit colour look up vectors are converted into a 12-bit RGB value and a 2-bit
transparency level by CLUT2 during display. To do this, the input side of CLUT2 the 5bit look up value is used for Bit0 to Bit4, the C2-values are used as Bit7 to Bit5. The 12bit RGB value is fed to the D/A converter and the 2-bit transparency information to the
BLANK/COR pins.
16-bit format pixels which are stored in the 12-bit RGB format are not passing the
CLUT2. The 12-bit RGB value and the 2-bit transparency information is directly fed into
the D/A converter and the BLANK/COR pins.
Frame Buffer in 16-bit Pixel Format (5:6:5)
In this mode the frame buffer contains RGB values with 5 bits for red colour components,
6 bits for green colour components and 5 bits for blue colour components:
4
3
2
Red
1
0
5
4
3
2
Green
15 14 13 12 11 10 9
1
0
4
3
7
6
1
0
1
0
Blue
Green
8
2
5
4
3
2
UED11183
Figure 10-14 16-bit Pixel Format (5:6:5) for Use in Frame Buffer
Transparency between layers is not supported if this mode is in use. The 5:6:5 format is
directly transferred to the D/A converter. CLUT2 is out of use in this mode.
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10.5
Initialization of Memory Transfers
Transferring an input format of the source area to an output format in the destination area
is supported by different transfer modes. For this, a pixel modification unit and CLUT1 of
the GA is used. CLUT1 has a size of 256 × 16 bit.
Next to the transfer mode the transfer areas (source and destination) must be defined
by GA instructions. Source is either an address in the external memory or a constant
value coming from CLUT1. Destination is always an address in the external memory.
Constant values coming from CLUT1 are used to draw lines or fill parallelograms.
DG
GA
SRU
Pixel
Modification
CLUT1
(256 x 16)
Display Generator Interface (DGI)
Memory
UED11184
Figure 10-15 Overview of GA
10.5.1
Transfer Modes
Different transfer modes are available. The table below shows all possible combinations
of input and output formats.
‘Transparency available’ means that if transparency mode is chosen (see also GAIinstruction ‘TAR’ (Bit: TRM)) and Bit TR1 of the output word is set to ‘0’ (refer also to
Figure 10-12) this pixel is written to the destination, otherwise this pixel is not written to
the destination.
‘Modification’ describes in which way the output information is generated by using the
input information, CLUT1 and the settings of the ‘TAR’-instruction. Using 16-bit TTX
output two bits are replaced by another 2 bits (Flash) which are also defined by graphic
accelerator instruction ‘TAR’. The table below shows all possible combinations of input
and output formats:
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Table 10-5
Supported Transfer Modes
TMOD Input
Output
(4 … 0) Format Format
Transparency
Available
Modification
00000
1-bit
bitmap
16-bit
(TTX)
No
OUT(15) = ‘0’
OUT(14 … 13) = FLA(1 … 0)
OUT(12 … 0) = CLUT1(‘0000000’ &
IN(0))(12 … 0)
00001
1-bit
bitmap
16-bit
(4:4:4:2)
Yes
OUT(15) = ‘1’
OUT(14 … 13) = CLUT1(‘0000000’ &
IN(0))(14 … 13))
OUT(12) = IT
OUT(11 … 0) = CLUT1(‘0000000’ &
IN(0))(11 … 0))
00010
1-bit
bitmap
8-bit
No
OUT(7 … 0) = CLUT1(‘0000000’ &
IN(0))(7 … 0)
00011
1-bit
bitmap
16-bit
(5:6:5)
No
OUT(15 … 0) = CLUT1(‘0000000’ &
IN(1 … 0))(15 … 0))
00100
2-bit
bitmap
16-bit
(TTX)
No
OUT(15) = ‘0’
OUT(14 … 13) = FLA(1 … 0)
OUT(12 … 0) = CLUT1(‘000000’ &
IN(1 … 0))(12 … 0)
00101
2-bit
bitmap
16-bit
(4:4:4:2)
Yes
OUT(15) = ‘1’
OUT(14 … 13) = CLUT1(‘0000000’ &
IN(1 … 0))(14 … 13))
OUT(12) = IT
OUT(11 … 0) = CLUT1(‘0000000’ &
IN(1 … 0))(11 … 0))
00110
2-bit
bitmap
8-bit
No
OUT(7 … 0) = CLUT1(‘000000’ &
IN(1 … 0))(7 … 0)
00111
2-bit
bitmap
16-bit
(5:6:5)
No
OUT(15 … 0) = CLUT1(‘000000’ &
IN(1 … 0))(15 … 0))
01000
4-bit
bitmap
16-bit
(TTX)
No
OUT(15) = ‘0’
OUT(14 … 13) = FLA(1 … 0)
OUT(12 … 0) = CLUT1(‘0000’ &
IN(3 … 0))(12 … 0)
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Table 10-5
Supported Transfer Modes (cont’d)
TMOD Input
Output
(4 … 0) Format Format
Transparency
Available
Modification
01001
4-bit
bitmap
16-bit
(4:4:4:2)
Yes
OUT(15) = ‘1’
OUT(14 … 13) = CLUT1(‘0000000’ &
IN(3 … 0))(14 … 13))
OUT(12) = IT
OUT(11 … 0) = CLUT1(‘0000000’ &
IN(3 … 0))(11 … 0))
01010
4-bit
bitmap
8-bit
No
OUT(7 … 0) = CLUT1(‘0000’ &
IN(3 … 0))(7 … 0)
01011
4-bit
bitmap
16-bit
(5:6:5)
No
OUT(15 … 0) = CLUT1(‘0000’ &
IN(3 … 0))(15 … 0))
01100
8-bit
bitmap
16-bit
(TTX)
No
OUT(15) = ‘0’
OUT(14 … 13) = FLA(1 … 0)
OUT(12 … 0) =
CLUT1(IN(7 … 0))(12 … 0)
01101
8-bit
bitmap
16-bit
(4:4:4:2)
Yes
OUT(15) = ‘1’
OUT(14 … 13) = CLUT1(‘0000000’ &
IN(7 … 0))(14 … 13))
OUT(12) = IT
OUT(11 … 0) = CLUT1(‘0000000’ &
IN(7 … 0))(11 … 0))
01110
8-bit
bitmap
8-bit
No
OUT(7 … 0) =
CLUT1(IN(7 … 0))(7 … 0)
01111
8-bit
bitmap
16-bit
(5:6:5)
No
OUT(15 … 0) =
CLUT1(IN(7 … 0))(15 … 0))
10000
CLUT1
input
8-bit
No
OUT(7 … 0) = CLUT1(0)(7 … 0)
10001
CLUT1
input
16-bit
(TTX)
No
OUT(15) = ‘0’
OUT(14 … 13) = FLA(1 … 0)
OUT(12 … 0) = CLUT1(0)(12 … 0)
10010
CLUT1
input
16-bit
(4:4:4:2)
Yes
OUT(15) = ‘1’
OUT(14 … 0) = CLUT1(0)(14 … 0))
10011
16-bit
16-bit
(TTX or (TTX or
4:4:4:2) 4:4:4:2)
Only In 4:4:4:2
Mode
OUT(15 … 0) = IN(15 … 0)
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Table 10-5
Supported Transfer Modes (cont’d)
TMOD Input
Output
(4 … 0) Format Format
10100
8-bit
data
Others
Reserved
Transparency
Available
8-bit data No
Modification
OUT(7 … 0) = IN(7 … 0)
Note: There is no transfer mode defined which uses the 2-bit format as an output format,
because in this case layer 2 is restricted to a width of 64 pixels. If the 2-bit format
is required, the direct byte by byte transfer can be used.
10.5.2
Transfer Areas
Next to the transfer mode the transfer area has to be defined by graphic accelerator
instructions (GAI). For source and destination, ‘linear’ and ‘rectangle’ areas can be
defined.
‘Linear’ means that data is accessed byte by byte without any irregularity in the
addressing of the memory.
‘Rectangle’ means that after the access of n bytes defined by a parameter ‘width’ an
‘offset’ to the last address is automatically added. This feature can be used if an array of
data has to be copied from one memory location into another (bigger) array at any other
memory location. The linear addressing is a subset of the rectangle addressing scheme
if ‘offset’ is set to ‘0’.
Source Area
There are different settings necessary to define the source area. These settings are
done by using the graphic accelerator instruction set. The table below describes the
necessary settings and corresponding GAIs with the affected bit position inside the GAI:
Used GAI
Bit Position Inside
GAI
Description
SDR
S_ADDR
Start address of source area
TSR
WIDTH_IN
Width of source area
TOR
S_OFFSET
Offset to describe rectangular source
areas
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As described before, there are seven different formats on the input side of the transfer:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
1-bit bitmap
2-bit bitmap
4-bit bitmap
8-bit bitmap
8-bit data (used for direct data transfer)
CLUT1 input (used for drawing of filled parallelograms, rectangles, lines)
16-bit (4:4:4:2) RGB
CLUT1 input does not need any more detailed area description. The input value comes
directly from the address ‘0’ of CLUT1 and not from the RAM. This mode can be used
for drawing lines, filling rectangles or parallelograms. For the other input modes a more
detailed description is given below:
From the point of view of the register settings, which are used to define the source area,
the different input formats can be divided in three groups which are handled in different
ways.
Group 1:
Group 2:
Group3:
1-bit bitmap
2-bit bitmap
4-bit bitmap
8-bit data
8-bit bitmap
16-bit pixel format (4:4:4:2)
Formats of group 1 are formats which define each pixel with less than a byte. Group 2
formats are formats which define each pixel by 8 bits, and group 3 formats are formats
which define each pixel by 16 bits.
Group 1:
In 1-bit bitmap, 2-bit bitmap and 4-bit bitmap input mode it is expected, that the bitmaps
are stored linearly in the memory as described in Chapter 10.4.1. Therefore the settings
of WIDTH_IN as well as S_OFFSET are ignored. Only the 24-bit source address pointer
S_ADDR is used. The amount of pixels which are read from the source and written to
the destination is only defined by the destination settings. The user has to take care that
the destination settings fit with the bitmap inherent alignments.
Group 2:
In this mode WIDTH_IN and S_OFFSET are also taken into account. The amount of
memory which is described by WIDTH_IN and S_OFFSET is described by numbers of
bytes.
Group 3:
In this mode WIDTH_IN and S_OFFSET are also taken into account. The amount of
memory which is described by WIDTH_IN and S_OFFSET is described by numbers of
words.
Note: The number of bytes to be read from the source area is defined by the destination
area (see below) and the transfer mode. This is why no explicit definition of height
is needed for the source.
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MEMORY
S_ADDR
WIDTH_IN (TSR)
S_OFFSET (TOR)
Source Area
UED11185
Figure 10-16 Use of Register Settings to Specify Source Area
Destination Area
There are additional settings necessary to define the destination area. The table below
describes the settings and the corresponding GAIs with the affected bit position inside
the GAI:
Used GAI
Bit Position Inside GAI
Description
DDR
D_ADDR
Start address of destination area
TDR
HEIGHT_OUT,
WIDTH_OUT
Height and width of destination
area
TOR
D_OFFSET
Offset to describe rectangular
destination areas
Next to the destination area itself a clipping area can be defined. The clipping area needs
to be defined within the destination area. During a memory transfer these ‘clipped’
memory areas are excluded from the transfer. The table below describes the settings
and the corresponding GAIs with the affected bit positions inside the GAI:
Used GAI
Bit Position Inside GAI
Description
CUR
C_ADDR
Start address of clipping area
CBR
HEIGHT_CLIP,
WIDTH_CLIP
Height and width of clipping area
CBR, CUR
C_OFFSET
Offset to describe rectangular
clipping areas
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As described before, there are five different formats on the output side of the transfer:
(Also please refer to Chapter 10.4.2)
•
•
•
•
•
8-bit format CLUT2 vector
16-bit format (4:4:4:2) RGB
16-bit format (TTX) CLUT2 vector
16-bit format (5:6:5) RGB
Direct data transfer (byte by byte)
From the point of view of the register settings which are used to define the alignment of
the destination area, these formats can be divided in two groups. Each group is handled
in a different way.
Group 1:
Group 2:
16-bit format (4:4:4:2) RGB
16-bit format (TTX) CLUT2 vector
16-bit format (5:6:5) RGB
8-bit format CLUT2 vector
8-bit data (byte by byte transfer)
Formats of group 1 are formats which define each pixel by 16 bits. Group 2 formats are
formats which define each pixel by 8 bits.
Note: Bit fields HEIGHT_CLIP, HEIGHT_OUT and WIDTH_CLIP, WIDTH_OUT
describe the height and width of the destination in count of pixels and not in bytes.
So for output formats of group 1 the memory area which is described by a
HEIGHT_OUT value and a WIDTH_OUT value needs the double amount of
memory, than output formats which are described by the same HEIGHT_OUT
value and WIDTH_OUT value for output formats of group 2. Also, the OFFSET
values are pixels and not bytes or words.
C_ADDR and D_ADDR are real byte addresses in memory.
Note: For a rectangle destination area the sum of WIDTH and D_OFFSET of the
destination area must be equal to the width of the frame buffer (WIDTH_L1(2)).
Otherwise the shape of the copied frame will be a parallelogram and not a
rectangle.
Note: For a rectangle clipping area inside the destination area the sum of the clipping
offset and the clipping width must be the same as the sum of the destination area
width and the destination offset. Otherwise the clipping area will be a
parallelogram and not a rectangle.
Note: Source area and destination area should not overlap. Otherwise it may appear
that a pixel is overwritten as a destination pixel, and afterwards used as a source
pixel.
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Meaning of Double Width and Double Height during Transfer
The destination area can be stretched horizontally and vertically by using GA instruction
TAR.
If double width (TDW) is set to ‘1’, the graphic accelerator writes each pixel twice
horizontally to the destination area.
TQH
TDH
Meaning
0
0
Normal transfer
0
1
If double height (TDH) is set to ‘1’ and quadruple height (TQH) is set
to ‘0’ in the destination output side each pixel in vertical direction is
repeated twice.
1
X
If quadruple height (TQH) is set to ‘1’ on the destination output side
each pixel in vertical direction is repeated four times.
If double height (TDH) is set to ‘1’ in the destination output side each pixel in vertical
direction is repeated twice.
For example: If double width is set to ‘1’ and quadruple height is set to ‘1’ each pixel of
the source area needs 8 pixels of the destination area.
Note: Parameters like WIDTH_OUT, WIDTH_CLIP, HEIGHT_OUT and HEIGHT_CLIP
are still pixel related. WIDTH_OUT, HEIGHT_OUT and D_OFFSET have to be
adapted by the software to get a complete character. Clipping is not affected by
TDH and TDW.
The following table is an example of a 1-bit bitmap (30 × 50) which should be transferred
either in normal size or in double size to an 8 bit output format in a frame buffer with a
size of 100 × 200 pixels.
Parameters
TDW = 0; TDH = 0; TQH = 0
TDW = 1; TDH = 1; TQH = 0
WIDTH_L1
100
HEIGHT_L1
200
WIDTH_IN
30
WIDTH_OUT
30
60
D_OFFSET
70
40
HEIGHT_OUT
50
100
Note: In case of double width transfer WIDTH_OUT has to be an even number. In case
of double/quad height transfer HEIGHT_OUT has to be an even/divisable by 4
number.
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Figure 10-17 gives a graphical overview of how to specify the different areas.
Frame Buffer
FB_ADDR
WIDTH_L1(2) (FSR)
D_ADDR
WIDTH_OUT (TDR)
D_OFFSET (TOR)
C_ADDR
Destination Area
HEIGHT_OUT (TDR)
HEIGHT_CLIP (CBR)
HEIGHT_L1(2) (FSR)
Clipping Area
C_OFFSET (CUR, CBR)
C_OFFSET (CUR, CBR)
WIDTH_CLIP (CBR)
UED11186
Figure 10-17 Use of Register Settings to Specify Destination and Clipping Area
10.5.3
Italic Mode
For transfer modes with 16-bit (4:4:4:2) format as an output, an automatic italic transfer
option is available. If italic mode is chosen only the destination area (not the source area)
is affected. The following two figures explain the different representation of pixels in the
frame buffer in non-italic and italic mode.
D_ADDR
D_OFFSET
WIDTH_OUT
D_OFFSET
Bit ’I’ of
4:4:4:2 format
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
HEIGHT_OUT
UED11187
Figure 10-18 Result for a Non-italic Transferred Memory Area in Frame Buffer
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If this transfer is executed with the same register settings but in italic mode instead of
non italic mode, the subsequent destination area is used inside the frame buffer:
D_ADDR
D_OFFSET
WIDTH_OUT
D_OFFSET
Bit ’I’ of
4:4:4:2 format
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
HEIGHT_OUT
UED11188
Figure 10-19 Result for a Italic Transferred Memory Area in Frame Buffer
Next to the destination pixel offset from line to line, the italic bit (‘I’) alternates from line
to line. This italic bit is used to control the D/A converter to realize a horizontal line
alternating half pixel shift on RGB output.
UED11189
Figure 10-20 Result for an Italic Transferred Memory Area at D/A Converter
Output
Note: Italic can not be used together with double width and double/quad height
transfers.
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Display Generator
10.6
Register Description
10.6.1
Special Function Registers
The display generator is controlled by 3 special function registers and a list of accelerator
instructions. Two of the registers define the position and the length of the instruction list,
and one register is used for general control of the DG. After the list of instructions (GAIs)
is written to the memory, the start address and the length of this list must be written to
special function registers GPRGCRH and GPRGCRL. Then the controller commands
the GA to execute these instructions (see SFR DGCON). After the GA has finished
executing all GAIs, the GA gives the controller an interrupt (GAFIR).
Note: GPRGCRH, GPRGCRL and DGCON are the only special function registers to
control the display generator. GAIs described in the next paragraph are stored in
the RAM and not defined after power on.
GPRGCRH
15
14
Reset Value: 0000H
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
GCR (8..0)
GPR (23..17)
rw
rw
Bit
Function
GCR
(8 … 0)
Defines the amount of GAIs in the instruction list.
GCR × 4 is the length of the GAI area in count of bytes.
1
0
Note: After the last instruction is executed an interrupt is given to the
controller
GPR
Define the MSBs of the 23-bit address pointer to the start of the GAI
(23 … 17) area.
GPRGCRL
15 14 13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
Reset Value: 0000H
3
2
1
0
GPR (16..1)
rw
Bit
Function
GPR
Define the LSBs of the 23-bit address pointer to the start of the GAI
(16 … 1) area.
DGCON is for general control of the DG.
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SDA 6000
Display Generator
DGCON
15
14
-
Reset Value: 0000H
13
12
-
-
-
11
10
-
-
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
-
-
-
-
-
-
BSY
GA
ST
GA
EO
DG
EA
DG
r
rw
rw
rw
Bit
Function
EADG
Enables access from DG to SDRAM.
0:
All requests from DG (SRU and GA) to the memory are disabled.
1:
The DG has normal access to the memory.
Note: The running memory access is finalized before this bit becomes
active.
EODG
Enables output of DG.
0:
All outputs of the DG are disabled (RGB outputs are switched to
black level, COR = 0 and BLANK = 1) (‘Normal’ pin polarity
assumed. Please refer also to register SCR).
1:
The outputs have the function according to the specifications
described in the following paragraphs.
Note: The SRU registers FBR and DBR have to be programmed with a
valid memory address before enabling display output.
STGA
Starts processing of the instruction list by the GA
0:
STGA has to be reset by SW before the GA can be started again.
1:
The GA starts the execution of the instruction list at address GPR.
It ends after the specified number of instructions (see bit field
GCR) is executed. After that an interrupt (GAFIR) is given to the
controller.
GABSY
0:
1:
Users Manual
GA is idle, waiting for GAI sequence.
GA is busy, GAI sequence is processed.
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SDA 6000
Display Generator
The register PXDEL controls an individual delay of 0 … 2 clock cycles of the SRU
outputs. Each output (R, G, B, Italic, blank, cor) is contolled by 2 bits in the PXDEL
register.
PXDEL
15
res
Reset Value: 0000H
14
13
12
11
res
res
res
10
Tcor
9
8
Tblank
7
6
Titalic
5
4
Tblu
3
2
Tgreen
1
0
Tred
Bits
1…0
delay for red
3…2
delay for green
5…4
delay for blue
7…6
delay for italic
9…8
delay for blank
11 … 10
delay for cor
15 … 12
reserved
Bits set to
“00”
“01”
“10”
“11”
- no delay
- delay of 1 pixel clock cycle
- delay of 2 pixel clock cycles
- reserved
The reset value of PXDEL is set to 0000H, which means no dely of the SRU outputs after
reset.
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SDA 6000
Display Generator
10.7
Description of Graphic Accelerator Instructions
GAIs are 32-bit instructions which are used as an interface from µC to DG. They are
written sequentially to the SDRAM by the controller in form of an instruction list.
Figure 10-21 shows the organization of GAIs in the memory.
Byte Address n+2+k x 4
Byte Address n+1+k x 4
GAI-No. k
Byte Address n+3+k x 4
GAI-No. ...
Byte Address n+k x 4
GAI-No. 1
Byte Address n+7
Byte Address n+6
Byte Address n+5
Byte Address n+4
GAI-No. 0
Byte Address n+3
Byte Address n+2
Byte Address n+1
Byte Address n
Standard Format for GAIs:
31 30 29 28 27 26 25 24 23 22
21 20 19 18 17 16
GAI_BYTE 1
GAI_BYTE 0
GAI_BYTE 3
GAI_BYTE 2
15 14 13 12
11 10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
UED11190
Figure 10-21 Organization of GAIs in the External SDRAM
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SDA 6000
Display Generator
In the following GAI description, ‘–’ means that these bits are reserved for future use and
have to be set to ‘0’. The meaning of an instruction is not given by the physical location
(address) of the instruction but by its opcode which is represented by bits 31 … 28. Bits
27 … 0 are equivalent to an operand.
31
30
29
28
27
26
25
24
23
22
21
20
19
18
17
16
4
3
2
1
0
Operand(s)
Opcode
Operand(s)
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
Figure 10-22 GAI Instruction Format
There are two types of GAIs. One type is used to setup global parameters for SRU and
GA, like SRU setup, frame buffer setup or CLUT setup. The second type of GAI is used
to setup the transfer parameters for DMA functions.
Global Parameters
The following global instructions are only executed by the GA during the vertical sync
area. If such a GA-instruction is read by the GA outside the V-sync area, it waits until the
next V-sync appears.
Note: The V-sync area is defined for that purpose as the first 4 lines of a field.
• SRU setup
SAR (opcode = 1111) - set screen attributes
• Frame buffer 1 (layer 1) and frame buffer 2 (layer 2) setup
FBR (opcode = 1000) - set address of the beginning of frame buffer 1
FSR (opcode = 1001) - set size of frame buffer 1
DBR (opcode = 1010) - set address of the beginning of frame buffer 2
DSR (opcode = 1011) - set size of frame buffer 2
DCR (opcode = 1100) - set frame buffer 2 reference coordinates
• CLUT Setup
CLR (opcode = 1101) - set contents of the CLUT1 or CLUT2
Note: If CLUT2 should be loaded the GA waits until the next V-sync appears.
• No operation
NOP (opcode = 1110) - no operation
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SDA 6000
Display Generator
Transfer Parameters
These instructions are immediately executed by the GA.
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
CUR (opcode = 0000) - set clipping coordinates
CBR (opcode = 0001) - set clipping coordinates
SDR (opcode = 0010) - set source descriptor for data transfer
DDR (opcode = 0011) - set destination descriptor for data transfer
TSR (opcode = 0100) - set definitions for source memory area
TDR (opcode = 0101) - set definitions for destination memory area
TOR (opcode = 0110) - set offset definitions for transferred area
TAR (opcode = 0111) - set attributes for transfer
10.7.1
Screen Attributes (SAR)
This instruction controls different screen attributes.
SAR
31
30
29
28
27
26
25
24
23
22
21
20
1
1
1
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
SB
TL
DDW
DDH
15
14
STR(1..0)
13
12
RED(3..0)
11
10
9
19
7
6
5
17
16
DMODE(3..0)
GREEN(3..0)
8
18
BLUE(3..0)
4
3
2
1
0
Bit
Function
SBTL
Screen Background Transparency under Layer Area
Defines whether the screen background area is transparent under a
layer 1 (2) area or not.
0:
The screen background within a layer area is not transparent.
Under transparent layer pixels the background colour can be
seen.
1:
The screen background within a layer area is transparent. Under
transparent layer pixels the video can be seen.
Note: Transparency definitions for the screen background outside a
layer area are made with bits STR. Also please refer to
Chapter 10.3.3.
DMODE
(3 … 0)
Users Manual
Display Mode Bits
Defines the possible combinations of both layers with the available pixel
formats. Please see table ‘Display Modes’ below.
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SDA 6000
Display Generator
Bit
Function
DDW
Double Width Display
0:
Normal width
1:
Double width. The contents of the screen are stretched in
horizontal direction. The SRU repeats the same pixel information
twice in horizontal direction.
Note: DDW = ‘1’ the frame buffer width (WIDTH_L1(L2) has to be
divided by two to get the same area displayed on the screen.
DDH
Double Height Display
0:
Normal height
1:
Double height. The contents of the screen are stretched in vertical
direction. The SRU repeats the same pixel information twice in
vertical direction.
Note: DDH = ‘1’ the frame buffer height (HEIGHT_L1(L2) has to be
divided by two to get the same area displayed on the screen.
STR
(1 … 0)
Screen Background Transparency Level
Define the transparency of the screen background area outside the layer
area. Please refer to Chapter 10.3.3.
RED
(3 … 0)
Screen Background Red Colour
4-bit red component
GREEN
(3 … 0)
Screen Background Green Colour
4-bit green component
BLUE
(3 … 0)
Screen Background Blue Colour
4-bit blue component
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SDA 6000
Display Generator
Table 10-6
Display Modes
DMODE
(3 … 0)
Layer Formats
Layer Mode
Layer 1
Layer 2
0000
16-bit (4:4:4:2 or TTX)
–
Layer 2 switched off
0001
8-bit
–
Layer 2 switched off
0010
16-bit (5:6:5)
–
Layer 2 switched off
0011
–
–
Layer 1 & 2 switched off
0100
reserved
–
–
0101
reserved
0110
16-bit (4:4:4:2 or TTX)
2-bit
overlapped
0111
reserved
1000
16-bit (4:4:4:2 or TTX)
16-bit (4:4:4:2 or TTX)
embedded
1001
8-bit
8-bit
embedded
1010
16-bit (4:4:4:2 or TTX)
8-bit
embedded
1011
8-bit
16-bit (4:4:4:2 or TTX)
embedded
1100
16-bit (5:6:5)
16-bit (5:6:5)
embedded
1101
reserved
1110
1111
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SDA 6000
Display Generator
10.7.2
Startaddress of Layer 1 (FBR)
The start address of frame buffer 1 in the memory must be set by the controller.
FBR
31
30
29
28
27
26
25
24
1
0
0
0
-
-
-
-
23
22
21
20
19
18
17
16
FB_ADDR(23..16)
FB_ADDR(15..0)
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
Bit
Function
FB_ADDR
(23 … 0)
Startaddress of frame buffer 1
Bit 23 … 0 of a byte address.
10.7.3
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
22
21
20
19
18
17
16
3
2
1
0
Size of Layer 1 (FSR)
FSR
31
30
29
28
27
1
0
0
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
15
14
13
12
11
26
25
24
23
-
HEIGHT_L1(9..0)
WIDTH_L1(10..0)
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
Bit
Function
HEIGHT_L1
(9 … 0)
Height of Frame Buffer 1
The height of the frame buffer can vary between 0 (HEIGHT_L1 = ‘0’d)
and 1023 pixels (HEIGHT_L1 = ‘1023’d).
WIDTH_L1
(10 … 0)
Width of Frame Buffer 1
The width of the frame buffer can vary between 0 (WIDTH_L1 = ‘0’d) and
2046 pixels (WIDTH_L1 = ‘2046’d).
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SDA 6000
Display Generator
10.7.4
Startaddress of Layer 2 (DBR)
The start address of frame buffer 2 in the memory must be set by the controller.
DBR
31
30
29
28
27
26
25
24
1
0
1
0
-
-
-
-
23
22
21
20
19
18
17
16
2
1
0
DB_ADDR(23..16)
DB_ADDR(15..0)
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
Bit
Function
DB_ADDR
(23 … 0)
Startaddress of Frame Buffer 2
Bit 23 … 0 of a byte address.
10.7.5
6
5
4
22
21
20
3
Size of Layer 2 (DSR)
DSR
31
30
29
28
27
26
1
0
1
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
15
14
13
12
11
25
24
23
19
18
17
16
3
2
1
0
HEIGHT_L2
WIDTH_L2
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
Bit
Function
HEIGHT_L2
(9 … 0)
Height of Layer 2
The height of layer 2 can vary between 0 (HEIGHT_L2 = ‘0’d) and 1023
pixels (HEIGHT_L2 = ‘1023’d).
WIDTH_L2
(10 … 0)
Width of Layer 2
The width of the layer 2 can vary between 0 (WIDTH_L2 = ‘0’d) and
2046 pixels (WIDTH_L2 = ‘2046’d).
Note: Width_L2 is ignored, if layer 2 is displayed in 2-bit CLUT2 vector
format. In this case width_L2 is set to 64.
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SDA 6000
Display Generator
10.7.6
Display Coordinates of Layer 2 (DCR)
This instruction is used to place layer 2 in layer 1. By these coordinates the left top corner
of layer 2 is placed in relation to the top left corner of layer 1. In this sense the coordinate
ULY = 0/ULX = 0 is identical to the top left corner of layer 1. Negative coordinates are
also supported so it is also possible to move a layer 2 window from the top or left side of
a layer 1 window.
DCR
31
30
29
28
27
1
1
0
0
-
-
-
-
-
15
14
13
12
26
25
24
23
22
21
20
19
18
17
16
4
3
2
1
0
ULY(10..0)
ULX(11..0)
11
10
9
8
7
6
Bit
Function
ULY
(10 … 0)
Upper left corner Y-coordinate
in one’s complement representation:
‘11111111111’ = ‘– 1023D’
…
5
‘10000000000’ = ‘– 0D’
‘00000000000’ = ‘+ 0D’
…
‘01111111111’ = ‘+ 1023D’
ULX
(11 … 0)
Upper left corner X-coordinate
in one’s complement representation:
‘111111111111’ = ‘– 2046D’
…
‘100000000000’ = ‘– 0D’
‘000000000000’ = ‘+ 0D’
…
‘011111111111’ = ‘+ 2046D’
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SDA 6000
Display Generator
10.7.7
Contents of CLUT (CLR)
CLR instruction allows the contents of the CLUT1 and CLUT2 to be set.
CLR
31
30
29
28
27
26
25
1
1
0
1
-
-
-
24
23
22
21
20
19
18
17
16
2
1
0
CLUT_ADDR(8..0)
CLUT_CONTENT(15..0)
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
Bit
Function
CLUT_
ADDR
(8 … 0)
CLUT address
Bits 7 … 0 are CLUT vectors of either CLUT1 or CLUT2. Bit 8 selects the
CLUT:
0:
CLUT1 (256 × 16 bit)
1:
CLUT2 (256 × 14 bit)
CLUT_
CONTENT
(15 … 0)
Contents to be written
to one of the look up tables addressed by the CLUT vector defined
above. For CLUT1 all the 16 bits are used, for CLUT2 only bits 13 … 0
are used.
10.7.8
Clipping Coordinates (CUR and CBR)
These GAIs are used to set clipping coordinates for memory transfers. The clipping
coordinates describe a rectangle area in the destination memory area. During a memory
transfer these ‘clipped’ memory areas are excluded from the transfer. The CUR
instruction is used to set the clipping start address. The CBR instruction is used to set
the width and height of the clipping area in amounts of pixels. A width of ‘0’ means that
no clipping is processed, a width of ‘1’ means the clipping area has the width of 1
pixel, …. A height of ‘0’ means, that no clipping is processed, a height of ‘1’ means the
clipping area has the height of 1 line, … . Next to the start address, height and width a
clipping offset must be given for clipping. For a rectangle clipping area the sum of this
clipping offset and the clipping width must be the same as the sum of the destination
area width and the destination offset. Otherwise the clipping area will be a parallelogram,
not a rectangle.
Within instruction TAR it is decided whether the clipping area is inverted or non inverted.
Thus the outside region of the defined rectangle can be used for clipping as well as the
inside region. Please also refer to Chapter 10.5.2.
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SDA 6000
Display Generator
CUR
31
30
29
28
0
0
0
0
27
26
25
24
23
22
C_OFFSET(3..0)
21
20
19
18
17
16
2
1
0
18
17
16
CLIPPING_ADDR(23..16)
CLIPPING_ADDR(15..0)
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
Bit
Function
C_OFFSET
(3 … 0)
Clipping Offset (Bit3 … 0)
The MSBs of C_OFFSET are defined by instruction CBR
CLIPPING
_ADDR
(23 … 0)
Beginning of the clipping area
Bit 23 … 0 of a byte address.
CBR
31
30
29
28
0
0
0
1
27
26
25
24
23
14
13
12
21
20
19
C_OFFSET
(10..9)
HEIGHT_CLIP(9..0)
WIDTH_CLIP(10..0)
C_OFFSET(8..4)
15
22
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Bit
Function
HEIGHT_
CLIP
(9 … 0)
Height of the clipping area
The height of the clipping area can vary between 0 (HEIGHT_CLIP =
‘0d’) and 1023 pixels (HEIGHT_CLIP = ‘1023d’).
C_OFFSET
(10 … 4)
Clipping Offset (Bit 10 … 4)
The LSBs of C_OFFSET are defined by instruction CUR.
WIDTH_
CLIP
(10 … 0)
Width of the clipping area
The width of the clipping area can vary between 0 (WIDTH_CLIP = ‘0d’)
and 2046 pixels (WIDTH_CLIP = ‘2046d’).
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SDA 6000
Display Generator
10.7.9
Source Descriptor for Data Transfer (SDR)
This instruction defines the beginning of the memory area to be read and transferred.
SDR
31
30
29
28
27
26
25
24
0
0
1
0
GO
-
-
-
23
22
21
20
19
18
17
16
2
1
0
S_ADDR(23..16)
S_ADDR(15..0)
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
Bit
Function
GO
Must be set to ‘1’ if GA is to start memory transfer after executing this
GA-instruction. Otherwise this bit must be set to ‘0’.
S_ADDR
(23 … 0)
Start address of memory area to be transferred.
Bit 23 … 0 of a byte address.
This instruction defines the beginning of the destination memory area.
DDR
31
30
29
28
27
26
25
24
0
0
1
1
GO
-
-
-
23
22
21
20
19
18
17
16
2
1
0
D_ADDR(23..16)
D_ADDR(15..0)
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
Bit
Function
GO
Must be set to ‘1’ if GA is to start memory transfer after executing this
GA-instruction. Otherwise this bit must be set to ‘0’.
D_ADDR
(23 … 0)
Beginning of the destination memory area
Bit 23 … 0 of a byte address.
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SDA 6000
Display Generator
10.7.10
Source Size of Transferred Memory Area (TSR)
This register contains different information depending on transfer mode. The size of
transferred memory is described by width and height of the source of the transfer area.
Please also refer to Chapter 10.5.2.
TSR
31
30
29
28
27
26
25
24
0
1
0
0
GO
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
15
14
13
12
11
23 22
-
-
21
-
20
-
19
18
17
16
-
-
-
-
3
2
1
0
WIDTH_IN(10..0)
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
Bit
Function
GO
Must be set to ‘1’ if GA is to start memory transfer after executing this
GA-instruction. Otherwise this bit must be set to ‘0’.
WIDTH_IN
(10 … 0)
Width of the transferred area in count of pixels.
WIDTH_IN = ‘0’: No transfer will be executed.
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SDA 6000
Display Generator
10.7.11
Destination Size of Transferred Memory Area (TDR)
TDR
31
30
29
28
27
26
0
1
0
1
GO
-
-
-
-
-
-
15
14
13
12
11
25
24
23
22
21
20
19
18
17
16
3
2
1
0
HEIGHT_OUT(9..0)
WIDTH_OUT(10..0)
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
Bit
Function
GO
Must be set to ‘1’ if GA is to start memory transfer after executing this
GA-instruction. Otherwise this bit must be set to ‘0’.
HEIGHT_
OUT
(9 … 0)
Height of the transferred area in count of pixels
HEIGHT_OUT = ‘0’: No transfer will be executed.
WIDTH_
OUT
(10 … 0)
Width of the transferred area in count of pixels
WIDTH_OUT = ‘0’: No transfer will be executed.
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SDA 6000
Display Generator
10.7.12
Offset of Transferred Memory Area (TOR)
This instruction defines the offset value for rectangle memory transfers.
TOR
31
30
29
28
27
26
0
1
1
0
GO
D_OFFSET(10..0)
-
-
-
-
-
S_OFFSET(10..0)
15
14
13
12
11
10
25
9
24
8
23
7
22
6
21
5
20
4
19
18
17
16
3
2
1
0
Bit
Function
GO
Must be set to ‘1’ if GA is to start memory transfer after executing this
GA-instruction. Otherwise this bit must be set to ‘0’.
S_OFFSET
(10 … 0)
Source offset value for non linear transfer
For more information about S_OFFSET refer to Chapter 10.5.2.
D_OFFSET
(10 … 0)
Destination offset value for non linear transfer
For more information about D_OFFSET refer to Chapter 10.5.2.
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SDA 6000
Display Generator
10.7.13
Attributes of Transfer (TAR)
This instruction defines the transfer mode.
TAR
31
30
29
28
27
26
25
24
23
22
21
20
19
18
0
1
1
1
GO
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
TQH
UN
IT
TDW
TDH
15
14
13
3
2
CL(1..0)
12
11
TRM
10
TMODE(4..0)
9
8
7
6
5
4
17
-
16
-
FLA(1..0)
1
0
Table 10-7
Bit
Function
GO
Must be set to ‘1’ if GA is to start memory transfer after executing this
GA-instruction. Otherwise this bit must be set to ‘0’.
TQH
Quadruple Height during Transfer
‘0’: Normal height is selected.
‘1’
The memory transfer is stretched in vertical direction on the output
side.
UN
Underline on/off
0:
Underline is switched off.
1:
The last line (independent from ‘TDH’) in the destination area is
filled with a constant CLUT1 input (vector 0 of CLUT1) instead of
the source bitmap input.
CL
(1 … 0)
Clipping on/off
00: Clipping is switched off.
01: Reserved.
10: Clipping is switched on. Pixels within the clipping area will be
affected.
11: Clipping is switched on. Pixels outside the clipping area will be
affected.
TRM
Transparency Mode for Transfer
‘0’: The complete area defined by instruction SDR and TDR is written
to the destination.
‘1’: Only these (4:4:4:2) pixels are written to the destination area, for
which Bit TR1 = ‘0’.
Note: This bit is only relevant for 16-bit (4:4:4:2) RGB output formats
Please also refer to Chapter 10.5.1.
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SDA 6000
Display Generator
Table 10-7
(cont’d)
Bit
Function
TMODE
(4 … 0)
Transfer Mode
This mode is used to decide which transfer mode should be used. With
this bit it is decided which input and which output format is used for
transformation. For detailed information of the register settings please
refer to Chapter 10.5.1
IT
Italic
This bit is used in transfer modes if 16-bit (4:4:4:2) RGB output mode is
selected.
‘0’: Italic is switched off.
‘1’: Italic mode is enabled.
TDW
Double Width during Transfer
‘0’: Normal width is selected.
‘1’: The memory transfer is stretched in horizontal direction on the
output side.
TDH
Double Height during Transfer
‘0’: Normal height is selected.
‘1’
The memory transfer is stretched in vertical direction on the output
side. TQH must be set to ‘0’.
FLA(1 … 0)
Flash Definition
This bit is used in transfer modes if output mode is in 16-bit (4:4:4:2)
format for TTX. This bit is used to replace one of the 16 output bits.
Please refer to Chapter 10.5.1. Bits Flash (1 … 0) describe the flash
phase for memory transfer modes:
‘00’: slow rate (1 Hz)
‘01’: Fast rate flash (2 Hz) Phase 1
‘10’: Fast rate flash (2 Hz) Phase 2
‘11’: Fast rate flash (2 Hz) Phase 3
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D/A Converter
SDA 6000
D/A Converter
11
D/A Converter
M2 uses a 3 × 6-bit voltage D/A converter to generate analog RGB output signals with a
nominal amplitude of 0.7 V (also available: 0.5 V, 1.0 V and 1.2 V) peak to peak. Two
different modes are available in order to allow the reduction of power consumption for
applications which require a lower RGB bandwidth.
11.1
Register Description
DACCON
15
-
14
Reset Value: 0005H
13
12
-
-
-
11
10
-
-
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
BWC
rw
1
0
RGBGAIN
(1..0)
rw
Bit
Function
RGBGAIN
(1 … 0)
Gain Adjustment of RGB Converter.
The user can change the output gain of the DAC.
00:
0.5 V
01:
0.7 V
10:
1.0 V
11:
1.2 V
BWC
Bandwidth Control
0:
The effective bandwidth of the DAC is set to 50 MHz
1:
The effective bandwidth of the DAC is set to 32 MHz. This reduces
the current consumption of analog supply.
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Slicer and Acquisition
SDA 6000
Slicer and Acquisition
12
Slicer and Acquisition
12.1
General Function
M2 provides a full digital slicer including digital H- and V-sync separation and digital sync
processing. The acquisition interface is capable to process on all known data services
starting from line 6 to line 23 for TV (Teletext, VPS, CC, G+, WSS) as well as any full
channel services. Four different framing codes (two of them programmable from field to
field) are available for each field. Digital signal processing algorithms are applied to
compensate various disturbance mechanisms. These are:
• Noise measurement and compensation.
• Attenuation measurement and compensation.
• Group delay measurement and compensation.
Note: Thus, M2 is optimized for precise data clock recovery and error free reception of
data widely unaffected from noise and the currently valid channel characteristics.
Two slicers with separated A/D converters and separated CVBS inputs are
implemented. The first one is a full service slicer. The second one is a slicer which
supports only the capturing of WSS data. Both CVBS inputs contain an on-chip clamping
circuit. The integrated A/D converters are 7 bit video converters running at the internal
frequency of 33.33 MHz.
The sliced data is synchronized to the frequency of the clock-run-in of the actual data
service and to the framing code of the data stream, framing code checked and written to
a programmable VBI buffer in the external memory. After line 23 is received an interrupt
can be given to the microcontroller. The microcontroller starts to process the data of this
buffer. That means, the data is error checked by software and stored in the memory in
the appropriate data base format.
To improve the signal quality the slicer control logic generates horizontal and vertical
windows in which the reception of the framing code is allowed. The framing code can be
programmed for each line individually, so that in each line a different service can be
received. For VPS and WSS the framing code is hardwired. In a special mode the
framing code can be bypassed, so that all incoming data will be stored in the VBI buffer.
The framing code check can then be made by software. All following acquisition tasks
are performed by the internal controller, so in principal the data of every data service can
be acquired.
12.2
Slicer Architecture
The slicer is composed of five main blocks:
• The full service slicer (Slicer 1)
• The WSS only slicer (Slicer 2)
• The H/V synchronization for full service slicer (Sync 1)
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SDA 6000
Slicer and Acquisition
• The H/V synchronization for WSS only slicer (Sync 2)
• The acquisition interface
Slicer 2
(WSS only Slicer)
CVBS2
Data
Separation
Sync 2
H/V
Sync
Sep.
+
Timing
D-PLL
Slicer 1
(Full Service Slicer)
HS2_IR
H-PLL
VS2_IR
Sync 1
HS1_IR
H/V
Sync
Sep.
+
Timing
VS1_IR
H-PLL
L23_IR
CC_IR
Data
Separation
Acquisition Interface
CVBS1
Noise
Attenua.
Group-D.
Compen.
FC-Check
&
S/P
Converter
D-PLL
Address
Generation
To/from
Memory
Parameter
Buffer
Noise
Attenua.
Group-D.
Measur.
UEB11191
Figure 12-1 Block Diagram of Digital Slicer and Acquisition Interface
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SDA 6000
Slicer and Acquisition
12.2.1
Distortion Processing
For the full service slicer the digital bit stream is applied to a circuitry which corrects
transmission distortion. In order to apply the correct counter-measures, a signal
evaluation is done in parallel. This measurement device can detect the following
distortions.
Noise
The noise measurement unit incorporates two different algorithms. Both algorithm are
using the value between two equalizing pulses which corresponds to the black level. As
the black level is known to the system a window is placed between two equalizing pulses
of line four. The first algorithm compares successive samples inside a window placed in
line 4. The difference between this samples is measured and a flag is set as soon as this
difference over several TV lines is greater than a specified value. This algorithm is able
to detect higher frequency noise (e.g. with noise). The second algorithm measures the
difference between the black value and the actual sampled value inside this window. As
soon as this difference over several TV lines is greater than a specified value a second
flag is set. This algorithm is sensitive against low frequency noise as it is known from cochannel distortion. Both flags can be used to optimize the correcting circuit characteristic
in order to achieve best reception performance.
Frequency Attenuation
During signal transmission the CVBS can be attenuated severely. This attenuation
normally is frequency depending. That means that the higher the frequency the stronger
the attenuation. As the clock-run-in (from now on CRI) for teletext represents the highest
possible frequency (3.5 MHz) it can be used to measure the attenuation. As only strong
negative attenuation causes problems during data slicing a flag is needed to notify highly
negative attenuation. If this flag is set a special peaking filter is switched on in the datapath.
Group Delay
Quite often the data stream is corrupted because of group delay distortion introduced by
the transmission channel. The teletext framing code (E4H) is used as a reference for
measurement. The delay of the edges inside this code can be used to measure the
group delay distortion. The measurement is done every teletext line and filtered over
several lines. It can be detected whether the signal has positive, negative or no group
delay distortions. Two flags are set accordingly. By means of these two flags an allpass
contained in the correcting circuit is configured to compensate the positive or negative
group delays. All of the above filters ca be individually disabled, forced or set to an
automatic mode via control registers.
Note: Slicer 2 does not have any compensation circuits.
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Slicer and Acquisition
12.2.2
Data Separation
Parallel to the signal analyses and distortion compensation a filter is used to calculate
the slicing level. The slicing level is the mean-value of the CRI. As the teletext is coded
using the NRZ format, the slicing level can not be calculated outside the CRI and is
therefore frozen after CRI. Using this slicing level the data is separated from the digital
CVBS signal. The result is a stream of zeros and ones. In order to find the logical zeros
and ones which have been transmitted, the data clock needs to be recovered as well.
Therefore a digital data PLL (D-PLL) is synchronized to the data clock during CRI using
the transitions in the sliced data stream. For TV-mode this D-PLL is also frozen after CRI,
during VCR-mode it is tuned throughout the line using a slow time constant.
Timing informations for freezing the slicing level, stopping the D-PLL and other actions
are generated by the timing circuit. It generates all control signals which are dependent
on the data start.
In order to improve the reception performance the actual measured slicing level for each
line is stored in the VBI-buffer. Using this slicing level the user is able to average the
value over several fields for each data line by means of software filtering. If the averaged
value becomes stable this value can be used for slicing instead of the internally
calculated slicing level (for further information see RAM-register description).
For data separation the WSS slicer (slicer 2) uses the same algorithms as the full service
slicer.
12.3
H/V-Synchronization
Slicer and acquisition interface need many signals synchronized to the incoming CVBS
(e.g. line number, field or line start). Therefore a sync slicing level is calculated and the
sync signal is sliced from the filtered digital CVBS signal. Using digital integration vertical
and horizontal sync pulses are separated. The horizontal pulses are fed into a digital HPLL which has flywheel functionality. The H-PLL includes a counter which is used to
generate all the necessary horizontal control signals. The vertical sync is used to
synchronize the line counter from which the vertical control signals are derived.
The synchronization block includes a watchdog which keeps control of the actual lock
condition of the H-PLL.The watchdog can produce an interrupt (CC_IR) if
synchronization has been lost. It could therefore be an indication for a channel change
or missing input signal.
Note: This H/V synchronization for the slicer 2 uses the same algorithms as described
above.
12.4
Acquisition Interface
The acquisition interface manages the data transfer between both slicers and memory.
First of all a byte synchronization is performed (FC-check). Following this, the data is
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Slicer and Acquisition
paralleled and shifted into memory as 16 bit words. In the other direction parameters are
loaded from memory to the slicer. After every vertical sync, parameters needed for the
field are downloaded and after every horizontal sync line parameters are downloaded.
The parameters are used for slicer configuration.
The data acquisition supports several features. The FC-checker is able to handle four
different framing codes for one field. Two of these framing codes are programmable and
could therefore be changed from field to field. The acquisition can be switched from
normal mode (line 6 to 23) to full channel mode (line 6 to end of field).
12.4.1
FC-Check
There are four FC’s which are compared to the incoming signal. The first one is 8-bit
wide and is loaded down with the field parameters. The second one is 16-bit wide and
fixed to the FC of VPS. The third one is also 16-bit wide, but can be loaded with the field
parameters. If the third one is used, the user can specify not only the FC but also a don’tcare mask. The fourth FC is reserved for WSS. The actual FC can be changed line by
line.
FC1
This FC should be used for all services with 8-bit framing codes (e.g. for TTX). The actual
framing code is loaded down each field. The check can be done without any error
tolerance or with a one bit error tolerance.
Note: If FC1 = E4H this pattern is used as a reference for group delay measurement.
FCVPS
This FC is fixed to that of VPS. Only an error free signal will enable the reception of the
VPS data line.
Note: If VPS should be sliced in field 1 and TTX in field 2 the appropriate line parameters
for line 16 have to be dynamically changed from field to field.
FC3
This 16-bit framing code is loaded with the field parameters as well as a don’t care mask.
The incoming signal is compared to both, framing code and don’t care mask. Further
reception is enabled if all bits, which are not don’t care, match the incoming data stream.
FCWSS
This FC is fixed to that of WSS. A special algorithm makes sure that the WSS-FC is
detected even if the CVBS signal is coming from a video tape.
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SDA 6000
Slicer and Acquisition
No FC-check
If FC-check is disabled, the data recording is triggered by the data start recognition. In
this case the software needs to do the byte synchronization.
FC-Check Select
There is a two bit line parameter called FCSEL. With this parameter the user will be able
to select which FC-Check is used for the actual line. If NORM is set to WSS the WSS
FCcheck is used independently of FCSEL.
12.4.2
Interrupts
Some events which occur inside the slicer, the sync separation or the acquisition
interface can be used to trigger an interrupt. They are summarized in register ACQISN.
The hardware sets the associated interrupt flag which must be manually reset by SW
before the next interrupt can be accepted. All ACQ interrupts are bundled into one
interrupt which is fed to the ACQ-interrupt node (ACQIC) of the controller.
12.4.3
VBI Buffer and Memory Organization
Slicer and acquisition interface need parameters for configuration and they produce
status information for the CPU.
Some of these parameters and status bits are constant for a field. Those parameters are
called field parameters. They are downloaded after the vertical sync of slicer 1. If the
synchronization of slicer 1 is missing the vertical sync from slicer 2 is used to initialize
the parameter download.
Other parameters and status bits may change from line to line (e.g. data service
dependent values). Those parameters are called line parameters. They are downloaded
after each horizontal sync.
The start address of the VBI (VBI = vertical blanking interval) buffer can be configured
with special function register ‘STRVBI’. 32 16-bit words have to be reserved for every
sliced data line. If 18 (in full channel mode 350) lines of data have been sent to memory
no further acquisition takes place until the next vertical pulse appears and the H-PLL is
still locked. That means if at least 1176 Bytes (22424 Bytes in full channel mode) are
reserved for the VBI buffer no VBI overflow is possible. The acquisition can be started
and stopped by the controller using bit ‘ACQON’ of register STRVBI. The acquisition is
stopped as soon as this bit changed to ‘0’. If the bit is changed back to ‘1’ switching on
of the acquisition is synchronized to the next V-pulse. The start address (Bit 13 … 0 of
register STRVBI) of the VBI buffer should only be changed if the acquisition is switched
off.
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Slicer and Acquisition
15
STRVBI
Send to slicer
after V-Sync
8
Byte 1
ACQFP0
ACQFP1
ACQFP2
7
Write to memory
after V-Sync
VBI
Start Line 6
Send to slicer
after V-Sync
Send to memory
after detecting a FC
(if no FC has been
detected after
FCwin went inactive)
ACQLP5
Send to slicer
after H-Sync
Send to memory
after detecting a FC
(if no FC has been
detected after
FCwin went inactive)
Empty
Sliced WSS Data (Slicer 2)
Sliced WSS Data (Slicer 2)
Sliced WSS Data (Slicer 2)
Sliced WSS Data (Slicer 2)
Sliced WSS Data (Slicer 2)
Sliced WSS Data (Slicer 2)
Field Status Information from both Slicers
Field Status Information from both Slicers
Line Parameters for Slicer 1
Line Parameters for Slicer 1
Line Parameters for Slicer 1
Line Parameters for Slicer 1
Line Status 1 (of Line 6)
Data byte 1
Data byte 0
Data byte 3
Data byte 2
Data byte 5
Data byte 4
32
16 Bit
Words
Line Status 2 (of Line 6)
Empty
Empty
Empty
Last information
for Line 6
VBI
Start Line 7
0
Field Parameters
Field Parameters
Field Parameters
Empty
ACQFP3
ACQFP4
ACQFP5
ACQFP6
ACQFP7
ACQFP8
ACQFP9
ACQFP10
ACQLP0
ACQLP1
ACQLP2
ACQLP3
ACQLP4
Byte 0
ACQLP0
ACQLP1
ACQLP2
ACQLP3
ACQLP4
Empty
Empty
Empty
Line Parameters for Slicer 1
Line Parameters for Slicer 1
Line Parameters for Slicer 1
Line Parameters for Slicer 1
Line Status 1 (of Line 7)
Data
Data
Data
Data
Data
Data
and so on
UED11192
Figure 12-2 VBI Buffer: General Structure
12.5
Register Description
The acquisition interface has only two SFR Registers. The line and field parameters are
stored in the RAM (RAM Registers). They have to be initialized by software before
starting the acquisition.
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Slicer and Acquisition
Special Function Registers:
STRVBI
15
ACQ
ON
14
Reset Value: 0400H
13
12
11
10
9
8
0
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
VBIADR(23..10)
Bit
Function
ACQON
Enable Acquisition
0:
The ACQ interface does not access memory (immediately
inactive)
1:
The ACQ interface is active and writes data to memory (switching
on is synchronous to V)
VBIADR
(23 … 10)
Define the 14 MSB’s of the start address of the VBI buffer.
The VBI buffer location can be aligned with any 1 KByte memory
segment.
ACQISN
Reset Value: 0000H
15
14
13
12
0
0
0
0
11
10
9
CC_IE CC_IR L23_
IE
rw
rw
rw
8
7
6
5
4
3
L23_
IR
HS2_
IE
HS2_
IR
VS2_
IE
VS2_
IR
HS1_
IE
rw
rw
rw
rw
rw
rw
2
1
0
HS1_
IR
VS1_
IE
VS1_
IR
rw
rw
rw
Bit
Function
VS1_IR
VS interrupt. The vertical sync impulse can be used to have field
synchronization for the software. (VS of slicer 1 is used).
0:
No request pending.
1:
This source has raised an interrupt request.
VS1_IE
Interrupt Enable Bit
0:
Disables the interrupt.
1:
Enables the interrupt.
HS1_IR
HS interrupt. The horizontal sync impulse can be used to implement a
software line counter. (HS of slicer 1 is used).
0:
No request pending.
1:
This source has raised an interrupt request.
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Slicer and Acquisition
Bit
Function
HS1_IE
Interrupt Enable Bit
0:
Disables the interrupt.
1:
Enables the interrupt.
VS2_IR
VS interrupt. The vertical sync impulse can be used to have field
synchronization for the software. (VS of slicer 2 is used).
0:
No request pending.
1:
This source has raised an interrupt request.
VS2_IE
Interrupt Enable Bit
0:
Disables the interrupt.
1:
Enables the interrupt.
HS2_IR
HS interrupt. The horizontal sync impulse can be used to implement a
software line counter. (HS of slicer 2 is used).
0:
No request pending.
1:
This source has raised an interrupt request.
HS2_IE
Interrupt Enable Bit
0:
Disables the interrupt.
1:
Enables the interrupt.
L23_IR
Line 23 Interrupt.Tells the controller that line 23 of the VBI is sliced
(Slicer 1 is used).
0:
No request pending.
1:
This source has raised an interrupt request.
L23_IE
Interrupt Enable Bit
0:
Disables the interrupt.
1:
Enables the interrupt.
CC_IR
Channel Change Indicator
The H-PLL has lost the synchronization. (Slicer 1 is used).
0:
No request pending.
1:
This source has raised an interrupt request.
Note: Also refer to status bits STAB1 or VDOK1
CC_IE
Interrupt Enable Bit
0:
Disables the interrupt.
1:
Enables the interrupt.
Note: The interrupt request flags of the ACQ interrupt subnode have to be cleared by
software within the interrupt service routine.
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Slicer and Acquisition
12.5.1
RAM Registers
Field Parameters
All field parameters are updated once in a field. This means that the status information
written from the acquisition interface to the memory at that time only represents a
snapshot of the status. Hardware ensures that field parameters are updated even if only
one of the two CVBS signals has a valid sync timing. So it is assured that even if CVBS1
is not available data of CVBS2 still can be sliced.
ACQFP0
15
14
Reset Value: XXXXH
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
FC3(15..0)
Bit
Function
FC3
(15 … 0)
Framing code 3
Bit 15: First received bit of FC.
Bit 0: Last received bit of FC.
ACQFP1
15
14
Reset Value: XXXXH
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
FC3MASK(15..0)
Bit
Function
FC3MASK
(15 … 0)
Mask for Framing code 3
Bit 15: Mask for first received bit of FC.
Bit 0: Mask for last received bit of FC.
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Slicer and Acquisition
ACQFP2
15
14
Reset Value: XXXXH
13
12
11
10
9
8
FC1(7..0)
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
AGD
ON
AFR
ON
ANO
OM
0
0
0
0
FULL
Bit
Function
FC1
(7 … 0)
Framing code 1
Bit 7: First received bit of FC
Bit 0: Last received bit of FC
AGDON
Automatic group delay compensation
0:
Automatic compensation Off
1:
Automatic compensation On
(Automatic: Measurement Depending Compensation)
AFRON
Automatic frequency depending attenuation compensation
0:
Automatic compensation Off
1:
Automatic compensation On
(Automatic: measurement depending compensation)
ANOON
Automatic noise compensation
0:
Automatic compensation Off
1:
Automatic compensation On
(Automatic: measurement depending compensation)
FULL
0:
1:
Full channel mode off
Full channel mode on
Note: Don’t forget to reserve enough memory for the VBI buffer and to
initialized the appropriate line parameters.
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Slicer and Acquisition
ACQFP3
15
14
Reset Value: XXXXH
13
WSS2 WSS2
OK _ACK
12
0
0
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Bit
Function
WSS2OK
0:
No new WSS data from slicer 2 is available
1:
New WSS data from slicer 2 is available
(written to memory by ACQ-interface)
WSS2_ACK 0:
1:
WSS2_
DATA
(83 … 80)
14
2
1
0
WSS2_DATA(83..80)
WSS data from slicer 2 are the same as in last slicer 1 field
New WSS data from slicer 2 received
4 bits of sliced data of slicer 2 (WWS2_DATA(83) = first received bit)
(written to memory by ACQ-interface)
Note: See also ACQFP4 t0 ACQFP8
ACQFP4
15
3
Reset Value: XXXXH
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
WSS2_DATA(79..64)
Bit
Function
WSS2_
DATA
(79 … 64)
16 bits of sliced data of slicer 2
(written to memory by ACQ-interface).
Users Manual
Note: See also ACQFP3 and ACQFP5 to ACQFP8
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Slicer and Acquisition
ACQFP5
15
14
Reset Value: XXXXH
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
WSS2_DATA(63..48)
Bit
Function
WSS2_
DATA
(63 … 48)
16 bits of sliced data of slicer 2
(written to memory by ACQ-interface).
Note: See also ACQFP3, ACQFP4, ACQFP6 to ACQFP8
ACQFP6
15
14
Reset Value: XXXXH
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
WSS2_DATA(47..32)
b
Bit
Function
WSS2_
DATA
(47 … 32)
16 bits of sliced data of slicer 2
(written to memory by ACQ-interface).
Note: See also ACQFP3 to ACQFP5 and ACQFP7 to ACQFP8
ACQFP7
15
14
Reset Value: XXXXH
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
WSS2_DATA(31..16)
Bit
Function
WSS2_
DATA
(31 … 16)
16 bits of sliced data of slicer 2
(written to memory by ACQ-interface).
Users Manual
Note: See also ACQFP3 to ACQFP6 and ACQFP8
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Slicer and Acquisition
ACQFP8
15
14
Reset Value: XXXXH
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
WSS2_DATA(15..0)
Bit
Function
WSS2_
DATA
(15 … 0)
16 bits of sliced data of slicer 2 (WWS2_DATA(0) = last received bit)
(written to memory by ACQ-interface).
Note: See also ACQFP3 to ACQFP7
ACQFP9
15
0
Reset Value: XXXXH
14
13
0
0
12
0
11
0
10
9
STAB VOK
1
1
8
7
6
FIELD FREA NOIS
1
TTF
E(1)
5
4
3
NOIS
E(0)
GRD
ON
GRD
SIGN
2
1
STAB VOK
2
2
0
FIELD
2
Bit
Function
STAB1
(status bit)
0:
H-PLL of slicer 1 not locked
1:
H-PLL of slicer 1 locked
(Written to memory by ACQ-interface)
VOK1
(status bit)
Vertical sync watchdog of slicer 1
0:
V-sync of slicer 1 not stable
1:
V-sync of slicer 1 stable
(Written to memory by ACQ-interface)
FIELD1
(status bit)
0:
Actual field of slicer 1 is field 1
1:
Actual field of slicer 1 is field 2
(Written to memory by ACQ-interface)
FREATTF
(status bit)
Frequency depending attenuation measurement (Field indicator)
High frequency CVBS1components (around 3.5 MHz) are strongly
damped (6 to 9 dB) compared to lower frequency CVBS1 components
0:
no frequency depending attenuation has been detected during the
last field
1:
for at least one text line during the last field frequency depending
attenuation has been detected.
(Written to memory by ACQ-interface)
Users Manual
12 - 16
2000-06-15
SDA 6000
Slicer and Acquisition
Bit
Function
NOISE
(1 … 0)
(status bit)
Noise and co-channel detector of slicer 1
00:
No noise and no co-channel-distortion has been detected.
01:
No noise but co-channel-distortion has been detected.
10:
Noise but no co-channel-distortion has been detected.
11:
Strong noise has been detected.
(Written to memory by ACQ-interface)
GRDON
(status bit)
Group delay detector of slicer 1
0:
No group delay distortion detected
1:
Group delay distortion detected
(Written to memory by ACQ-interface)
GRDSIGN
(status bit)
0:
If group delay distortion has been detected it was positive
1:
If group delay distortion has been detected it was negative
(Written to memory by ACQ-interface, CVBS input of slicer 1 is used)
STAB2
(status bit)
0:
H-PLL of slicer 2 not locked
1:
H-PLL of slicer 2 locked
(Written to memory by ACQ-interface)
VOK2
(status bit)
Vertical sync watchdog of slicer 2
0:
V-sync of slicer 2 not stable
1:
V-sync of slicer 2 stable
(Written to memory by ACQ-interface)
FIELD2
(status bit)
0:
Actual field of slicer 2 is field 1
1:
Actual field of slicer 2 is field 2
(Written to memory by ACQ-interface)
ACQFP10
Reset Value: XXXXH
15
14
13
12
0
0
0
0
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
LEOFL(11.0)
Bit
Function
LEOFLI
(11 … 0)
This value is the output of the filter of the H-PLL of slicer 1 and
represents the actual horizontal period of CVBS1 in 33.33 MHz clock
cycles. This information can be used to measure the actual line
frequency of the CVBS signal.
Users Manual
12 - 17
2000-06-15
SDA 6000
Slicer and Acquisition
Line Parameters
Note: Line parameters only work on slicer 1 and have no influence on slicer 2.
ACQLP0
15
14
Reset Value: XXXXH
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
DINCR(15..0)
Bit
Function
DINCR
(15 … 0)
Specifies the frequency of the D-PLL of slicer 1. This parameter is used
to configure the D-PLL output frequency according to the service used.
DINCR = fdata × 218 / 33.33 MHz
fdata [MHz]
DINCR
54559
45041
39321
7920
6.9375
5.7273
5.0
1.006993
ACQLP1
15
0
Reset Value: XXXXH
14
13
0
0
Users Manual
12
0
11
10
9
8
0
0
0
0
7
6
5
ACCU PLLT LOWP
ON
ON
ON
12 - 18
4
3
2
1
PFIL GDPO GDNO FRE
ON
N
N
ON
0
NOI
ON
2000-06-15
SDA 6000
Slicer and Acquisition
Bit
Function
ACCUON
Accumulator on
Improves slicing level calculation under noisy conditions.
If noise has been detected during automatic mode or if the bit NOION
has been set the internal slicing level calculation can be improved by
setting this bit.
0:
Standard slicing level calculation
1:
Improved slicing level calculation (improvement depends also on
parameter ALENGTH)
PLLLON
PLL tune on
If noise has been detected during automatic mode or if the bit NOION
has been set the data clock recovery PLL can be tuned throughout the
line by setting this bit.
0:
PLL is frozen after clock run in
1:
PLL is tuned throughout the line
LOWPON
Low Pass On
If noise has been detected during automatic mode or if the bit NOION
has been set a special low pass can be switched into the signal pass by
setting this bit (useful if mainly high frequency noise above 3.5 MHz is
present).
0:
Low pass is not used
1:
Low pass is used
PFILLON
Pre Filter On
If noise has been detected during automatic mode or if the bit NOION
has been set a second filter can be switched into the signal pass by
setting this bit (also useful if mainly high frequency noise above 3.5 MHz
is present).
0:
Low pass is not used.
1:
Low pass is used.
GDPON
0:
1:
Group delay compensation depends on AGDON
Positive group delay compensation is always on
GDNON
0:
1:
Group delay compensation depends on AGDON
Negative group delay compensation is always on
FREON
0:
1:
Frequency depending attenuation compensation depends on
AFRON
Frequency depending attenuation compensation is always on
0:
1:
Noise compensation depends on ANOON
Noise compensation is always on
NOION
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12 - 19
2000-06-15
SDA 6000
Slicer and Acquisition
ACQLP2
15
14
FC1
ER
Reset Value: XXXXH
13
12
MLENGTH(2..0)
11
10
ALENGTH
(1..0)
9
8
7
CLKDIV(2..0)
6
5
NORM(2..0)
4
3
2
FCSEL(1..0)
1
0
VCR
0
Bit
Function
FC1ER
Error tolerance of FC1 check
0:
No error allowed
1:
One error allowed
MLENGTH
(2 … 0)
For noise suppression reasons a median filter has been introduced after
the actual data separation because of oversampling successive samples
could be averaged. Therefore an odd number of sliced successive
samples is taken and if the majority are ‘1’ a ‘1’ is sliced otherwise a ‘0’.
MLENGTH specifies how many samples are taken.
MLENGTH
Number of samples
000
1
001
3
010
5
011
7
100
9
101
11
110
13
111
15
ALENGTH
(1 … 0)
If noise has been detected or if NOISEON = 1, the output of the slicing
level filter is further averaged by means of an accumulation (arithmetic
averaging). ALENGTH specifies the number of slicing level filter output
values used for averaging. The accumulation clock depends on CLKDIV.
ALENGTH
00
01
10
11
Users Manual
Number of Slicing Level Output Values
used for Averaging
2
4
8
16
12 - 20
2000-06-15
SDA 6000
Slicer and Acquisition
Bit
Function
CLKDIV
The slicing level filter needs to find the DC value of the CVBS during CRI.
In order to do this it should suppress at least the CRI frequency. As
different services use different data frequencies the CRI frequency will
be different as well. Therefore the filter characteristic needs to be shifted.
This can be done by using different clocks for the filter. The filter itself
shows sufficient suppression for frequencies between 0.0757 × SLCLK
and 0.13 × SLCLK (SLCLK is the actual filter clock and corresponds to
slicer 1)
CLKDIV
000
001
010
011
100
101
110
111
SLCLK
1 × fs
1/2 × fs
1/3 × fs
1/4 × fs
1/5 × fs
1/6 × fs
1/7 × fs
1/8 × fs
Note: fs = 33.33 MHz
NORM
Most timing signals are closely related to the actual data service used.
Therefore 3 bits specify the service received in the actual line.
NORM
000
001
010
011
100
101
110
111
Users Manual
Service
TXT
NABTS
VPS
WSS
CC
G+
reserved
no data service
12 - 21
2000-06-15
SDA 6000
Slicer and Acquisition
Bit
Function
FCSEL
There are three different framing codes which can be used for each field.
The framing code used for the actual line is selected with FCSEL
(corresponds to slicer 1).
FCSEL
00
01
10
11
VCR
FC
FC1
FC2
FC3
No FC-check (all data are dumped to the VBI buffer)
This bit is used to change the behavior of the D-PLL and H-PLL.
0:
D-PLL tuning is stopped after CRI; H-PLL -> slow time constant
1:
D-PLL is tuned throughout the line; H-PLL -> fast time constant
ACQLP3
15
14
Reset Value: XXXXH
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
SLSS
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
SSL(6..0)
Bit
Function
SLSS
Slicing Level Source Selector
The slicer allows the use of an internal calculated slicing level or an
external set slicing level.
0:
Internal calculated slicing level is used.
1:
External set slicing level is used.
SSL(6 … 0)
Set Slicing Level
If the bit SLSS is set the slicer is using the value of SSL as slicing level
instead of the internal calculated slicing level. The slicing level output in
parameter MSL is never the less the internal calculated value.
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12 - 22
2000-06-15
SDA 6000
Slicer and Acquisition
ACQLP4
15
14
Reset Value: XXXXH
13
FREA
TTL
12
11
10
9
8
7
MSL(6..0)
6
5
4
PERRP(5..0)
3
2
1
0
TLDE FCOK
Bit
Function
FREATTL
Frequency Depending Attenuation Measurement (Line indicator)
High frequency-CVBS1-components (around 3.5 MHz) are strongly
damped (6 to 9 dB) compared to lower frequency-CVBS1-components
0:
no frequency depending attenuation has been detected for the
following line
1:
strong frequency depending attenuation has been detected for the
following line
(Written to memory by ACQ-interface)
MSL(6 … 0)
Measured Slicing Level
The value represents the slicing level which has been measured for the
current data line. The value can be used to calculate a better slicing level
especially for noisy signals by means of software averaging algorithms.
The improved slicing level can be set for the following fields by writing to
parameter SSL.
PERRP
(5 … 0)
Phase Error Watch Dog Preliminary
(detection of test line CCIR331a or b)
The value shows how often in a line the internal PLL found strong phase
deviations between PLL and sliced data. The value can be used to
detect test line CCIR331a or b. This value is only preliminary as an exact
result is only available at the end of each line. For the exact value see
PERR at ACQLP5.
PERRP < 32? No test line.
PERRP > 31? Test line CCIR331a or b detected
TLDE
Test Line Detected (CCIR17 or CCIR18 or CCIR330)
0:
No test line of the above mentioned test lines has been detected
1:
The following data has most likely be sliced from a test line and
should therefor be ignored.
FCOK
Framing Code Received
0:
No framing code has been detected (no new data has been written
to memory)
1:
The selected framing code has been detected (new data has been
written to memory
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12 - 23
2000-06-15
SDA 6000
Slicer and Acquisition
ACQLP5
Reset Value: XXXXH
15
14
13
12
0
0
0
0
11
10
9
8
7
6
0
0
0
0
0
0
5
4
3
2
1
0
PERR(5..0)
Bit
Function
PERR
(5 … 0)
Phase Error Watch Dog
(detection of test line CCIR331a or b)
This is the exact phase error watch dog output for the current line. The
value shows how often in a line the internal PLL found strong phase
deviations between PLL and sliced data. The value can be used to
detect test line CCIR331a or b.
PERR < 32? No test line.
PERR > 31? Test line CCIR331a or b detected
Users Manual
12 - 24
2000-06-15
SDA 6000
Slicer and Acquisition
12.5.2
Recommended Parameter Settings
TTX
VPS
WSS
CC
G+
AGDON
1
0
0
0
0
AFRON
1
0
0
0
0
ANOON
1
1
1
1
1
GDPON
0
0
0
0
0
GDNON
0
0
0
0
0
FREON
0
0
0
0
0
PFILON
0
1
1
1
1
LOWPON
0
1
1
1
1
PLLTON
0
1
1
1
1
ACCUON
0
1
1
1
1
NOION
0
0
0
0
0
FULL
0
0
0
0
0
DINCR
54559
45041
39321
7864
7920
FC1ER
0
0
0
0
0
MLENGTH
1
2
7
7
7
ALENGTH
2
2
2
2
2
CLKDIV
0
0
2
5
5
NORM
0
2
3
4
5
FCSEL
0
1
2
2
2
VCR
0
0
0
0
0
FC1
228
don’t care
don’t care
don’t care
don’t care
FC3
don’t care
don’t care
don’t care
3
1261
FC3MASK
don’t care
don’t care
don’t care
65472
63488
Users Manual
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2000-06-15
Register Overview
SDA 6000
Register Overview
13
Register Overview
This section summarizes all SFR and ESFR registers, which are implemented in M2 and
explains the description format which is used in the previous chapters to describe the
functionality of the SFRs. Display generators and slicers are mainly programmed via
RAM registers which are not mentioned in this chapter, due to their variable position in
the RAM. RAM registers are principally undefined after reset.
For easy reference the registers are ordered according to two different keys:
• Ordered by their functional context
• Ordered by register address, to find the location of a specific register.
13.1
Register Description Format
In the respective chapters the function and the layout of the SFRs is described in a
specific format which provides a number of details about the described special function
register. The example below shows how to interpret these details.
A register looks like this:
REG_NAME
15
-
14
Reset Value: ****H
13
12
-
-
-
11
10
-
-
9
8
7
-
-
-
6
write
only
w
5
4
3
read
only
std
bit
hw
bit
r
rw
rw
Bit
Function
bit(field)
name
Explanation of bit(field)name
Description of the functions controlled by this bit(field).
2
1
0
bitfield(2:0)
rw
REG_NAME Name of this register.
****
rw
Register contents after reset.
0/1: defined value, ‘X’: undefined after power up.
Bits that are set/cleared by hardware are marked with a shaded access
box.
r
Read only register.
rw
Register can be read and written.
-
Reserved register bit. Reading such bits delivers an undefined value. If
such a bit is written then only ‘0’ is allowed.
Users Manual
13 - 3
2000-06-15
SDA 6000
Register Overview
13.2
CPU General Purpose Registers (GPRs)
The GPRs form the register bank with which the CPU works. This register bank may be
located anywhere within the internal RAM via the Context Pointer (CP). Due to the
addressing mechanism, GPR banks can only reside within the internal RAM. All GPRs
are bit-addressable.
Name
Physical
Address
8-Bit
Description
Address
Reset
Value
R0
(CP) + 0
F0H
CPU General Purpose (Word) Register R0
XXXXH
R1
(CP) + 2
F1H
CPU General Purpose (Word) Register R1
XXXXH
R2
(CP) + 4
F2H
CPU General Purpose (Word) Register R2
XXXXH
R3
(CP) + 6
F3H
CPU General Purpose (Word) Register R3
XXXXH
R4
(CP) + 8
F4H
CPU General Purpose (Word) Register R4
XXXXH
R5
(CP) + 10 F5H
CPU General Purpose (Word) Register R5
XXXXH
R6
(CP) + 12 F6H
CPU General Purpose (Word) Register R6
XXXXH
R7
(CP) + 14 F7H
CPU General Purpose (Word) Register R7
XXXXH
R8
(CP) + 16 F8H
CPU General Purpose (Word) Register R8
XXXXH
R9
(CP) + 18 F9H
CPU General Purpose (Word) Register R9
XXXXH
R10
(CP) + 20 FAH
CPU General Purpose (Word) Register R10
XXXXH
R11
(CP) + 22 FBH
CPU General Purpose (Word) Register R11
XXXXH
R12
(CP) + 24 FCH
CPU General Purpose (Word) Register R12
XXXXH
R13
(CP) + 26 FDH
CPU General Purpose (Word) Register R13
XXXXH
R14
(CP) + 28 FEH
CPU General Purpose (Word) Register R14
XXXXH
R15
(CP) + 30 FFH
CPU General Purpose (Word) Register R15
XXXXH
The first 8 GPRs (R7 … R0) may also be accessed via the byte. Other than with SFRs,
writing to a GPR byte does not affect the other byte of the respective GPR.
The respective half of the byte-accessible registers receive special names:
Users Manual
13 - 4
2000-06-15
SDA 6000
Register Overview
Name
Physical
Address
8-Bit
Description
Address
Reset
Value
RL0
(CP) + 0
F0H
CPU General Purpose (Byte) Register RL0
XXH
RH0
(CP) + 1
F1H
CPU General Purpose (Byte) Register RH0
XXH
RL1
(CP) + 2
F2H
CPU General Purpose (Byte) Register RL1
XXH
RH1
(CP) + 3
F3H
CPU General Purpose (Byte) Register RH1
XXH
RL2
(CP) + 4
F4H
CPU General Purpose (Byte) Register RL2
XXH
RH2
(CP) + 5
F5H
CPU General Purpose (Byte) Register RH2
XXH
RL3
(CP) + 6
F6H
CPU General Purpose (Byte) Register RL3
XXH
RH3
(CP) + 7
F7H
CPU General Purpose (Byte) Register RH3
XXH
RL4
(CP) + 8
F8H
CPU General Purpose (Byte) Register RL4
XXH
RH4
(CP) + 9
F9H
CPU General Purpose (Byte) Register RH4
XXH
RL5
(CP) + 10 FAH
CPU General Purpose (Byte) Register RL5
XXH
RH5
(CP) + 11 FBH
CPU General Purpose (Byte) Register RH5
XXH
RL6
(CP) + 12 FCH
CPU General Purpose (Byte) Register RL6
XXH
RH6
(CP) + 13 FDH
CPU General Purpose (Byte) Register RH6
XXH
RL7
(CP) + 14 FEH
CPU General Purpose (Byte) Register RL7
XXH
RH7
(CP) + 15 FFH
CPU General Purpose (Byte) Register RH7
XXH
13.3
Registers Ordered by Context
The following table lists all SFRs which are implemented in the M2 grouped by their
context. Their actual address can be seen in the next chapter.
Table 13-1
Name
Description
Physical 8-Bit
Reset
Address Address Value
SSC Registers
SSCCON
Control Register
FFB2H
D9H
0000H
SSCBR
Baud Rate Timer Reload Register
F0B4H
5AH
0000H
SSCTB
Transmit Buffer Register
F0B0H
58H
0000H
SSCRB
Receive Buffer Register
F0B2H
59H
0000H
FFB0H
D8H
0000H
ASC Registers
S0CON
Users Manual
Control Register
13 - 5
2000-06-15
SDA 6000
Register Overview
Table 13-1
Name
(cont’d)
Description
Physical 8-Bit
Reset
Address Address Value
S0ABSTAT Autobaud Status Register
F0B8H
5CH
0000H
S0ABCON
Autobaud Control Register
F1B8H
DCH
0000H
S0BG
Baud Rate Timer Reload Register
FEB4H
5AH
0000H
S0FDV
Fractional Divider Register
FEB6H
5BH
0000H
S0PMW
IrDA Pulse Mode and Width Register
FEAAH
55H
0000H
S0TBUF
Transmit Buffer Register
FEB0H
58H
0000H
S0RBUF
Receive Buffer Register
FEB2H
59H
0000H
I2C Registers
ICCFG2)
I2C Configuration Register
E810H
-/-
0000H
ICCON2)
I2C Control Register
E812H
-/-
0000H
ICST2)
I2C Status Register
E814H
-/-
0000H
ICADR2)
I2C Address Register
E816H
-/-
0000H
ICRTBL2)
I2C Receive/Transmit Buffer (Low Word)
2)
ICRTBH
2)
IICPISEL
E818H
-/-
0000H
2
E81AH
-/-
0000H
2
E804H
-/-
0000H
I C Receive/Transmit Buffer (High Word)
I C Port Input Selection Register
Watchdog Timer Registers
WDTCON
Control Register
FFAEH
D7H
000XH
WDT
Timer Register
FEAEH
57H
0000H
Realtime Clock Registers
RTCCON
Control Register
F1CCH
E6H
0003H
T14REL
Prescaler Timer Reload
F0D0H
68H
0000H
T14
Prescaler Timer T14
F0D2H
69H
0000H
RTCL
Count Register Low Word
F0D4H
6AH
0000H
RTCH
Count Register High Word
F0D6H
6BH
0000H
RTCRELL
Reload Register Low Word
F0CCH
66H
0000H
RTCRELH
Reload Register High Word
F0CEH
67H
0000H
RTCISNC
RTC Interrupt Subnode Control (1st Level) F1C8H
E4H
0000H
ISNC
RTC Interrupt Subnode Control (2nd Level) F1DEH
EFH
0000H
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SDA 6000
Register Overview
Table 13-1
Name
(cont’d)
Description
Physical 8-Bit
Reset
Address Address Value
General Purpose Timer Registers (GPT1/2)
T2CON
GPT1 Timer 2 Control Register
FF40H
A0H
0000H
T3CON
GPT1 Timer 3 Control Register
FF42H
A1H
0000H
T4CON
GPT1 Timer 4 Control Register
FF44H
A2H
0000H
T5CON
GPT2 Timer 5 Control Register
FF46H
A3H
0000H
T6CON
GPT2 Timer 6 Control Register
FF48H
A4H
0000H
T2
GPT1 Timer 2 Register
FE40H
20H
0000H
T3
GPT1 Timer 3 Register
FE42H
21H
0000H
T4
GPT1 Timer 4 Register
FE44H
22H
0000H
T5
GPT2 Timer 5 Register
FE46H
23H
0000H
T6
GPT6 Timer 2 Register
FE48H
24H
0000H
CAPREL
GPT1 Capture Reload Register
FE4AH
25H
0000H
ADC Registers
ADDAT1
ADC Data Register for Channel 1 and 2
FEA0H
50H
0000H
ADDAT2
ADC Data Register for Channel 3 and 4
FEA2H
51H
0000H
ADCCON
ADC Control Register
FEA4H
52H
0000H
Interrupt Control Registers
T2IC
Timer 2 Interrupt Control Register
FF60H
B0H
0000H
T3IC
Timer 3 Interrupt Control Register
FF62H
B1H
0000H
T4IC
Timer 4 Interrupt Control Register
FF64H
B2H
0000H
T5IC
Timer 5 Interrupt Control Register
FF66H
B3H
0000H
T6IC
Timer 6 Interrupt Control Register
FF68H
B4H
0000H
CRIC
CAPREL Interrupt Control Register
FF6AH
B5H
0000H
EX0IC
External Interrupt Control Register 0
FF88H
C4H
0000H
EX1IC
External Interrupt Control Register 1
FF8AH
C5H
0000H
EX2IC
External Interrupt Control Register 2
FF8CH
C6H
0000H
EX3IC
External Interrupt Control Register 3
FF8EH
C7H
0000H
EX4IC
External Interrupt Control Register 4
FF90H
C8H
0000H
EX5IC
External Interrupt Control Register 5
FF92H
C9H
0000H
EX6IC
External Interrupt Control Register 6
FF94H
CAH
0000H
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13 - 7
2000-06-15
SDA 6000
Register Overview
Table 13-1
(cont’d)
Name
Description
Physical 8-Bit
Reset
Address Address Value
EX7IC
External Interrupt Control Register 7
FF96H
CBH
0000H
ADC1IC
A/D Conversion Interrupt Control
(Channel 1 + 2)
FF98H
CCH
0000H
ADC2IC
A/D Conversion Interrupt Control
(Channel 3 + 4)
FF9AH
CDH
0000H
ADWIC
A/D Wake Up Interrupt
F178H
BCH
0000H
SSCEIC
SSC Error Interrupt Control
FF76H
BBH
0000H
SSCRIC
SSC Receive Interrupt Control
FF74H
BAH
0000H
SSCTIC
SSC Transmit Interrupt Control
FF72H
B9H
0000H
S0EIC
ASC Error Interrupt Control
FF70H
B8H
0000H
S0RIC
ASC Receive Interrupt Control
FF6EH
B7H
0000H
S0TIC
ASC Transmit Interrupt Control
FF6CH
B6H
0000H
S0TBIC
ASC Transmit Buffer Interrupt Control
F19CH
CEH
0000H
ABSTOIC
ASC Autobaud Stop Interrupt Control
F17AH
BDH
0000H
ABSTAIC
ASC Autobaud Start Interrupt Control
FF9EH
CFH
0000H
I2CTIC
I2C Transfer Interrupt Control
F194H
CAH
0000H
I2CPIC
I2C Protocol Interrupt Control
F18CH
C6H
0000H
I2CTEIC
I2C Transmission End Interrupt Control
F184H
C2H
0000H
ACQIC
Acquisition-Interrupt Control
F176H
BBH
0000H
VSDISIC
Display-Vertical-Sync Interrupt Control
F174H
BAH
0000H
HSDISIC
Display-Horizontal-Sync Interrupt Control
F172H
B9H
0000H
GAFIC
Graphic Accelerator Interrupt Control
FF9CH
CEH
0000H
RTCIC
Realtime Clock Interrupt Control
F19EH
CFH
0000H
PECCLIC
PEC Link Interrupt Control
F180H
C0H
0000H
PEC Interrupt Control Registers
PECC0
PEC Channel 0 Control Register
FEC0H
60H
0000H
PECC1
PEC Channel 1 Control Register
FEC2H
61H
0000H
PECC2
PEC Channel 2 Control Register
FEC4H
62H
0000H
PECC3
PEC Channel 3 Control Register
FEC6H
63H
0000H
PECC4
PEC Channel 4 Control Register
FEC8H
64H
0000H
Users Manual
13 - 8
2000-06-15
SDA 6000
Register Overview
Table 13-1
(cont’d)
Name
Description
Physical 8-Bit
Reset
Address Address Value
PECC5
PEC Channel 5 Control Register
FECAH
65H
0000H
PECC6
PEC Channel 6 Control Register
FECCH
66H
0000H
PECC7
PEC Channel 7 Control Register
FECEH
67H
0000H
PECSN0
PEC Segment Number Channel 0 Register FED0H
68H
0000H
PECSN1
PEC Segment Number Channel 1 Register FED2H
69H
0000H
PECSN2
PEC Segment Number Channel 2 Register FED4H
6AH
0000H
PECSN3
PEC Segment Number Channel 3 Register FED6H
6BH
0000H
PECSN4
PEC Segment Number Channel 4 Register FED8H
6CH
0000H
PECSN5
PEC Segment Number Channel 5 Register FEDAH
6DH
0000H
PECSN6
PEC Segment Number Channel 6 Register FEDCH
6EH
0000H
PECSN7
PEC Segment Number Channel 7 Register FEDEH
6FH
0000H
CLISNC
PEC Channel Link Interrupt Subnode
Register
FFA8H
D4H
0000H
Port Registers
RP0H
Reset Configuration at Port 4 (read only)
F108H
85H
XXH
P2
Port 2 Register
FFC0H
E0H
0000H
P3
Port 3 Register
FFC4H
E2H
0000H
P4
Port 4 Register
FFC8H
E4H
0000H
P5
Port 5 Register
FFA2H
D1H
0000H
P6
Port 6 Register
FFCCH
E6H
0000H
DP2
Direction Control Register Port 2
FFC2H
E1H
0000H
DP3
Direction Control Register Port 3
FFC6H
E3H
0000H
DP6
Direction Control Register Port 6
FFCEH
E7H
0000H
ODP3
Open Drain Control Register Port 3
F1C6H
E3H
0000H
ODP6
Open Drain Control Register Port 6
F1CEH
E7H
0000H
P5BEN
Analog/Digital Input Enable Register Port 5 F1C2H
E1H
0000H
ALTSEL0P6 Alternate Function Enable Register Port 6 F12CH
96H
0000H
D0H
0000H
Specific Control Registers
STRVBI
Users Manual
VBI Buffer Start Register
F1A0H
13 - 9
2000-06-15
SDA 6000
Register Overview
Table 13-1
(cont’d)
Name
Description
Physical 8-Bit
Reset
Address Address Value
PXDEL
Pixel Delay Register
F198H
CCH
0000H
ACQISN
Acquisition Interrupt Subnode Register
F1A2H
D1H
0000H
GPRGCRL
GAI Instruction Start Register (Low Word) F1A4H
D2H
0000H
GPRGCRH GAI Instruction Start Register (High Word) F1A6H
D3H
0000H
DGCON
Display Generator Control
FEFAH
7DH
0000H
SCR
Sync Control Register
F1A8H
D4H
0000H
VLR
Vertical Line Register
F1AAH
D5H
0271H
BVCR
Begin of Vertical Clamping
FEF6H
7BH
0001H
EVCR
End of Vertical Clamping
FEF8H
7CH
0005H
HPR
Horizontal Period Register
F1ACH
D6H
0855H
SDV
Vertical Sync Delay Register
F1AEH
D7H
0020H
SDH
Horizontal Sync Delay Register
F1B0H
D8H
0020H
HCR
Horizontal Clamping Register
F1B2H
D9H
1400H
PFR
Pixel Frequency Register
F1B6H
DBH
00A4H
DACCON
RGB - DAC Control Register
F1B4H
DAH
0005H
External Bus Interface Control Registers
REDIR
Memory Map Redirection Register
F1BAH
DDH
0000H
REDIR1
Memory Map Redirection Register 1
F1CAH
E5H
00FFH
EBICON
Control Register for EBI
F1BCH
DEH
0000H
EBIDIR
Direct Access Register for EBI
F1BEH
DFH
0000H
OCDS Registers
COMDATA
Communication Mode Data Register
F068H
34H
0000H
RWDATA
Read/Write Mode Data Register
F06AH
35H
0000H
IOSR
Communication Mode Status Register
F06CH
36H
0000H
DCMPLL
Hardware Trigger Range Comparison
Lower Bound
F0DCH
6EH
0000H1)
DCMPLH
Extension of Register DCMPLL
F0DEH
6FH
0000H1)
DCMPGL
Hardware Trigger Range Comparison
Upper Bound
F0E0H
70H
0000H1)
DCMPGH
Extension of Register DCMPGL
F0E2H
71H
0000H1)
Users Manual
13 - 10
2000-06-15
SDA 6000
Register Overview
Table 13-1
(cont’d)
Name
Description
Physical 8-Bit
Reset
Address Address Value
DCMP0L
Hardware Trigger Equal Comparison
Register 0
F0E4H
72H
0000H1)
DCMP0H
Extension of Register DCMP0L
F0E6H
73H
0000H1)
DCMP1L
Hardware Trigger Equal Comparison
Register 1
F0E8H
74H
0000H1)
DCMP1H
Extension of Register DCMP1L
F0EAH
75H
0000H1)
DCMP2L
Hardware Trigger Equal Comparison
Register 2
F0ECH
76H
0000H1)
DCMP2H
Extension of Register DCMP2L
F0EEH
77H
0000H1)
DTREVT
Hardware Trigger Event Control
F0F0H
78H
0000H1)
DSWEVT
Software Trigger Event Control
F0F4H
7AH
0000H1)
DEXEVT
External Trigger Event Control
F0F8H
7CH
0000H1)
DBGSR
Debug Status Register
F0FCH
7EH
0000H1)
FFACH
D6H
0000H
ADDRSEL1 Address Select Register 1
FE18H
0CH
0000H
ADDRSEL2 Address Select Register 2
FE1AH
0DH
0000H
ADDRSEL3 Address Select Register 3
FE1CH
0EH
0000H
ADDRSEL4 Address Select Register 4
FE1EH
0FH
0000H
BUSCON0
Bus Configuration Register 0
FF0CH
86H
0000H
BUSCON1
Bus Configuration Register 1
FF14H
8AH
0000H
BUSCON2
Bus Configuration Register 2
FF16H
8BH
0000H
BUSCON3
Bus Configuration Register 3
FF18H
8CH
0000H
BUSCON4
Bus Configuration Register 4
FF1AH
8DH
0000H
SYSCON
CPU System Configuration Register
FF12H
89H
0400H
SYSCON1
CPU System Configuration Register 1
F1DCH
EEH
0000H
SYSCON2
CPU System Configuration Register 2
F1D0H
E8H
0000H
XADRS1
External Address Select Register 1
F014H
0AH
0000H
XADRS2
External Address Select Register 2
F016H
0BH
0000H
XADRS3
External Address Select Register 3
F018H
0CH
0000H
System & CPU Registers
TFR
Users Manual
Trap Flag Register
13 - 11
2000-06-15
SDA 6000
Register Overview
Table 13-1
(cont’d)
Name
Description
Physical 8-Bit
Reset
Address Address Value
XADRS4
External Address Select Register 4
F01AH
0DH
0000H
XADRS5
External Address Select Register 5
F01CH
0EH
0000H
XADRS6
External Address Select Register 6
F01EH
0FH
0000H
XBCON1
XBUS Control Register 1
F114H
8AH
0000H
XBCON2
XBUS Control Register 2
F116H
8BH
0000H
XBCON3
XBUS Control Register 3
F118H
8CH
0000H
XBCON4
XBUS Control Register 4
F11AH
8DH
0000H
XBCON5
XBUS Control Register 5
F11CH
8EH
0000H
XBCON6
XBUS Control Register 6
F11EH
8FH
0000H
DPP0
CPU Data Page Pointer 0 (10bits)
FE00H
00H
0000H
DPP1
CPU Data Page Pointer 1 (10bits)
FE02H
01H
0001H
DPP2
CPU Data Page Pointer 2 (10bits)
FE04H
02H
0002H
DPP3
CPU Data Page Pointer 3 (10bits)
FE06H
03H
0003H
MDH
CPU Multiply Divide Control Register High FE0CH
Word
06H
0000H
MDL
CPU Multiply Divide Control Register Low FE0EH
Word
07H
0000H
MDC
CPU Multiply Divide Control Register
FF0EH
87H
0000H
PSW
CPU Program Status Word
FF10H
88H
0000H
STKUN
CPU Stack Underflow Pointer Register
FE16H
0BH
0000H
STKOV
CPU Stack Overflow Pointer Register
FE14H
0AH
0000H
SP
CPU System Stack Pointer
FE12H
09H
FC00H
CP
CPU Context Pointer
FE10H
08H
FC00H
CSP
CPU Code Segment Control Register
FE08H
04H
0000H
SCUSLC
Security Level Command Register
F0C0H
60H
0000H
SCUSLS
Security Level Status Register
F0C2H
61H
0000H
ZEROS
Constant Value 0’s Register (read only)
FF1CH
8EH
0000H
ONES
Constant Value 1’s Register (read only)
FF1EH
8FH
FFFFH
XPERCON
X-Peripheral Control Register
F024H
12H
0000H
EXISEL
Alternative External Interrupt Selection
F1DAH
EDH
0000H
Users Manual
13 - 12
2000-06-15
SDA 6000
Register Overview
Table 13-1
(cont’d)
Name
Description
Physical 8-Bit
Reset
Address Address Value
EXICON
External Interrupt Control
F1C0H
E0H
0000H
OSCCON
Oscillator Pad Control Register
F1C4H
E2H
0001H
IDMANUF
Manufacture ID
F07EH
3FH
XXXXH
IDCHIP
Chip ID
F07CH
3EH
XXXXH
TM_LO
Hardware Testmode Register Low
FEFCH
7EH
0000H
TM_HI
Hardware Testmode Register High
FEFEH
7FH
0000H
FOCON
SCU Register (no Function within M2)
FFAAH
D5H
0000H
SYSCON3
SCU Register (no Function within M2)
F1D4H
EAH
0000H
1)
OCDS related registers that are not reset during a controller reset.
2)
No 8-bit addresses provided for XBUS registers.
13.4
Registers Ordered by Address
The following tables summarize the register symbols and their “short addresses”. The
physical address can be calculated by multiplying the short address by 2 and adding that
value to FE00H for the SFR register area and adding F000H for the extended SFR area.
Bit-addressable registers are highlighted in gray.
Users Manual
13 - 13
2000-06-15
SDA 6000
Register Overview
13.4.1
Address
Registers in SFR Area
+ 00H
+ 01H
+ 02H
+ 03H
+ 04H
+ 05H
+ 06H
+ 07H
00H
DPP0
DPP1
DPP2
DPP3
CSP
reserved
MDH
MDL
08H
CP
SP
STKOV
STKUN
ADDRSEL1
ADDRSEL2
ADDRSEL3
ADDRSEL4
10H
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
18H
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
20H
T2
T3
T4
T5
T6
CAPREL
reserved
-
28H
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
30H
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
38H
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
40H
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
48H
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
50H
ADDAT1
ADDAT2
ADCCON
-
-
S0PMW
-
WDT
58H
SOTBUF
SORBUF
S0BG
S0FDV
S0ABSTAT
-
-
-
60H
PECC0
PECC1
PECC2
PECC3
PECC4
PECC5
PECC6
PECC7
68H
PECSN0
PECSN1
PECSN2
PECSN3
PECSN4
PECSN5
PECSN6
PECSN7
70H
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
78H
-
-
-
BVCR
EVCR
DGCON
TM_LO
TM_HI
80H
-
-
-
-
-
-
BUSCON0
MDC
88H
PSW
SYSCON
BUSCON1
BUSCON2
BUSCON3
BUSCON4
ZEROS
ONES
90H
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
98H
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
A0H
T2CON
T3CON
T4CON
T5CON
T6CON
-
-
-
A8H
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
B0H
T2IC
T3IC
T4IC
T5IC
T6IC
CRIC
S0TIC
S0RIC
B8H
S0EIC
SSCTIC
SSCRIC
SSCEIC
-
ABSTOIC
-
-
C0H
-
-
-
-
CC0IC
CC1IC
CC2IC
CC3IC
C8H
CC4IC
CC5IC
CC6IC
CC7IC
ADC1IC
ADC2IC
GAFIC
ABSTAIC
D0H
-
P5
-
-
CLISNC
FOCON
TFR
WDTCON
D8H
S0CON
SSCCON
-
-
S0ABCON
reserved
-
-
E0H
P2
DP2
P3
DP3
P4
-
P6
DP6
E8H
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
F0H
R0
R1
R2
R3
R4
R5
R6
R7
F8H
R8
R9
R10
R11
R12
R13
R14
R15
Users Manual
13 - 14
2000-06-15
SDA 6000
Register Overview
13.4.2
Address
Registers in ESFR Area
+ 00H
+ 01H
+ 02H
+ 03H
+ 04H
+ 05H
+ 06H
+ 07H
00H
-
-
-
-
-
-
CPUID
-
08H
-
-
XADRS1
XADRS2
XADRS3
XADRS4
XADRS5
XADRS6
10H
-
-
XPERCON
-
-
-
-
-
18H
-
-
-
-
-
-
reserved
reserved
20H
reserved
reserved
reserved
-
-
-
-
-
28H
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
30H
-
-
-
-
COMDATA
RWDATA
IOSR
-
38H
IDRT
IDSCU
-
IDMEM2
IDPROG
IDMEM
IDCHIP
IDMANUF
40H
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
48H
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
50H
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
58H
SSCTB
SSCRB
SSCBR
reserved
reserved
-
-
-
60H
SCUSLC
SCUSLS
-
-
reserved
-
RTCRELL
RTCRELH
68H
T14REL
T14
RTCL
RTCH
reserved
reserved
DCMPLL
DCMPLH
70H
DCMPGL
DCMPGH
DCMP0L
DCMP0H
DCMP1L
DCMP1H
DCMP2L
DCMP2H
78H
DTREVT
-
DSWEVT
-
DEXEVT
-
DBGSR
-
80H
-
-
-
-
RP0H
-
-
-
88H
-
-
XBCON1
XBCON2
XBCON3
XBCON4
XBCON5
XBCON6
90H
-
-
-
-
-
-
ALTSEL0P6
-
98H
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
A0H
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
A8H
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
B0H
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
B8H
-
HSDISIC
VSDISIC
ACQIC
ADWIC
-
-
-
C0H
PECCLIC
-
I2CTEIC
-
-
-
I2CPIC
-
C8H
-
-
I2CTIC
-
PXDEL
-
S0TBIC
RTCIC
D0H
STRVBI
ACQISN
GPRGCRL
GPRGCRH
SCR
VLR
HPR
SDV
D8H
SDH
HCR
DACCON
PFR
reserved
REDIR
EBICON
EBIDIR
E0H
EXICON
P5BEN
OSCCON
ODP3
RTCISNC
REDIR1
RTCCON
ODP6
E8H
SYSCON2
-
SYSCON3
-
-
EXISEL
SYSCON1
ISNC
F0H
R0
R1
R2
R3
R4
R5
R6
R7
F8H
R8
R9
R10
R11
R12
R13
R14
R15
Users Manual
13 - 15
2000-06-15
Elelctrical Characteristics
SDA 6000
Electrical Characteristics
14
Electrical Characteristics
14.1
Absolute Maximum Ratings
Note: The maximum ratings may not be exceeded under any circumstances, not even
momentarily and individually, as permanent damage to the IC will result.
Ambient Temperature
TA = 0 °C … + 70 °C
Table 14-1
Parameter
Symbol
Limit Values Unit
Test Condition
min.
max.
–
4.0
V
–
–
3.0
V
–
–
3.0
V
–
Storage temperature
VDD33 1-7
VDD25 1-2
VDDA 1-4
Tstg
– 20
125
°C
–
Electrostatic discharge
–
2000
–
V
100 pF, 1.5 kΩ HBM
Supply voltage 3.3 V
Supply voltage 2.5 V
Analog supply voltage
14.2
Operating Range
Table 14-2
Operating Range
Parameter
Ambient temperature
Supply voltage 3.3 V
Supply voltage 2.5 V
Analog supply voltage
Total Power
Consumption
Symbol
TA
VDD33 1-7
VDD25 1-2
VDDA 1-4
Ptotal
Limit Values
Unit Test Condition
min.
max.
0
70
°C
–
3.1
3.6
V
–
2.25
2.75
V
–
2.25
2.75
V
–
–
1.5
W
–
Note: In the operating range, the functions given in the circuit description are fulfilled.
Users Manual
14 - 3
2000-06-15
SDA 6000
Electrical Characteristics
14.3
DC Characteristics
Table 14-3
DC Characteristics
Parameter
Symbol Limit Values
min.
max.
Unit
Test Condition
Supply Currents
Digital supply current for
3.3 V domain
I3.3 V
–
150
mA
all ports as inputs,
fpixel = 50 MHz,
100 MHz bus
configuration
Digital supply current for
2.5 V domain
I2.5 V
–
150
mA
fpixel = 50 MHz,
Analog Power Supply
Current
IANA
–
100
mA
–
Idle mode supply current
IIDLE
(with A/D wake up, RTC and
External Interrupts in active
state)
–
12
mA
Analog and digital
supply
100 MHz bus
configuration
Sleep mode supply current
(RTC running)
ISLEEP
–
1.2
mA
Analog and digital
supply
Power down mode supply
current (RTC disabled)
IPWDN
–
0.5
mA
Analog and digital
supply
I/O Voltages (valid for any pin unless otherwise stated)
– 0.4
0.8
V
–
2.0
3.6
V
–
–
0.45
V
–
2.5
–
V
–
Leakage current
VIL
VIH
VIL
VIH
IIL
–
0.2
µA
@ 0.5 V < Vin <
(VIHNOM – 0.5 V)
Output Current
IO
–
8
mA
–
Input low voltage
Input high voltage
Output low voltage
Output high voltage
Crystal Oscillator: XTAL1(input), XTAL2(output)
Amplifier Transconductance
–
–
4.2
mS
–
Oscillation Frequency
CFB
6.0 –
50
ppm
6.0 +
50
ppm
MHz
–
Users Manual
14 - 4
2000-06-15
SDA 6000
Electrical Characteristics
Table 14-3
DC Characteristics (cont’d)
Parameter
Symbol Limit Values
min.
max.
Unit
Test Condition
Duty Cycle
–
45
55
%
–
High time
tH
CI
50
–
ns
–
–
3.5
pF
–
Pin capacitance (XTAL1)
CVBS-Input: CVBS1A (ADC_DIFF = 0; differential CVBS Input)
–
–
pF
–
–
1/MΩ –
Ext. coupling capacitance
CP
ZP
CCPL1,2
10
100
nF
–
Source impedance
–
–
< 500
Ω
–
Overall CVBS amplitude
VCVBS
VSYNC
VDATA
CDec_CPL
0.75
1.3
V
–
0.18
0.6
V
–
0.3
0.7
V
–
–
–
nF
–
Pin capacitance
Input impedance
CVBS sync amplitude
TXT data amplitude
De-coupling Capacitors to
VDDA at Pins CVBSi
–
CVBS-Input: CVBS1A (ADC_DIFF = 1; non-differential CVBS Input)
Pin capacitance
CP
ZP
CCPL1
–
–
pF
–
–
1/MΩ –
10
100
nF
–
–
< 500
Ω
–
VCVBS
VSYNC
VDATA
CDec_CPL
0.75
1.3
V
–
0.18
0.6
V
–
0.3
0.7
V
–
–
–
nF
–
–
–
pF
–
–
–
1/MΩ –
Ext. coupling capacitance
CP
ZP
CCPL
10
100
nF
–
Source impedance
–
–
< 500
Ω
–
Overall CVBS amplitude
VCVBS
VSYNC
0.75
1.3
V
–
0.18
0.6
V
–
Input impedance
Ext. coupling capacitance
Source impedance
Overall CVBS amplitude
CVBS sync amplitude
TXT data amplitude
De-coupling Capacitors to
VDDA at Pins CVBSi
–
CVBS-Input: CVBS2
Pin capacitance
Input impedance
CVBS sync amplitude
Users Manual
14 - 5
2000-06-15
SDA 6000
Electrical Characteristics
Table 14-3
DC Characteristics (cont’d)
Parameter
Symbol Limit Values
min.
Unit
Test Condition
max.
VDATA
0.3
CDec_CPL –
0.7
V
–
–
nF
–
CP
Voutpp
–
20
pF
–
0.5
1.2
V
available: 0.5 V; 0.7 V;
1.0 V; 1.2 V
0.27
0.33
V
–
Rise/Fall Times
Uoffset
tRF
8.0
12.5
ns
8.0 ns (50 MHz output
BW)
12.5 ns (32 MHz
output BW)
Load resistance
RL
10
–
kΩ
–
Diff. non-linearity
–
– 0.5
0.5
LSB
–
Int. non-linearity
–
– 0.5
0.5
LSB
–
Output current tracking
–
–
3
%
–
Skew to COR, Blank
tskew
tJit
–5
5
ns
–
–
4
ns
–
tr
tf
CL
–
16
ns
(10% - 90%)
–
16
ns
(10% - 90%)
–
35
pF
–
tr
tf
CL
–
6
ns
(10% - 90%)
–
6
ns
(10% - 90%)
–
35
pF
–
tr
tf
CL
–
16
ns
(10% - 90%)
–
16
ns
(10% - 90%)
–
35
pF
–
TXT data amplitude
De-coupling Capacitors to
VDDA at Pins CVBSi
RGB-Outputs
Load capacitance
Output voltage swing
RGB offset
Jitter to Horizontal Sync
Reference
Address Bits: A0 to A9, RD, CSROM
Output Rise Time
Output Fall Time
Load Capacitance
Address Bits: A10 to A15
Output Rise Time
Output Fall Time
Load Capacitance
P4.(0 .. 5)
Output Rise Time
Output Fall Time
Load Capacitance
Users Manual
14 - 6
2000-06-15
SDA 6000
Electrical Characteristics
Table 14-3
DC Characteristics (cont’d)
Parameter
Symbol Limit Values
Unit
Test Condition
min.
max.
–
6
ns
(10% - 90%)
–
6
ns
(10% - 90%)
–
35
pF
–
–
5
pF
–
Data Bits: D0 to D15
Output Rise Time
Output Fall Time
Load Capacitance
Pin capacitance
tr
tf
CL
CI
WR, CSSDRAM, CLKEN, LDQM, UDQM
Output Rise Time
Output Fall Time
Load Capacitance
Pin capacitance
tr
tf
CL
CI
–
6
ns
(10% - 90%)
–
6
ns
(10% - 90%)
–
35
pF
–
–
5
pF
–
tr
tf
CL
–
2
ns
(10% - 90%)
–
2
ns
(10% - 90%)
–
20
pF
–
tr
tf
CL
8
12.5
ns
(10% - 90%)
8
12.5
ns
(10% - 90%)
–
20
pF
–
MEMCLK
Output Rise Time
Output Fall Time
Load Capacitance
BLANK/CORBLA
Output Rise Time
Output Fall Time
Load Capacitance
BLANK/CORBLA (Control bit CORBL = 0; BLANK only)
Output voltage no data
insertion (Video)
Vi-n
0
0.5
V
–
Output voltage for data
insertion
Vi-y
0.9
–
V
–
BLANK/CORBLA (Control bit CORBL = 1; BLANK and COR)
Output voltage no data
insertion no contrast
reduction
Vic-n
0
0.5
V
–
Output voltage for contrast
reduction and no data
insertion
Vc-y
0.9
1.2
V
–
Users Manual
14 - 7
2000-06-15
SDA 6000
Electrical Characteristics
Table 14-3
DC Characteristics (cont’d)
Parameter
Output voltage for data
insertion
Symbol Limit Values
Unit
Test Condition
min.
max.
Vi-y
1.8
–
V
–
tr
tf
VHYST
TIPWH
TOPWH
tr
tf
CL
CI
–
100
ns
(10% - 90%)
–
100
ns
(10% - 90%)
300
600
mV
–
100
–
ns
–
us
–
HSYNC
Input Rise Time
Input Fall Time
Input Hysteresis
Input Pulse Width
Output Pulse Width
Output Rise Time
1
–
100
ns
(10% - 90%)
–
100
ns
(10% - 90%)
–
50
pF
–
–
5
pF
–
tr
tf
VHYST
TIPWV
TIPWV
–
200
ns
(10% - 90%)
–
200
ns
(10% - 90%)
300
600
mV
–
2/fh
–
–
–
1/fH
–
Depends on Register
HPR
tr
tf
CL
CI
–
100
ns
(10% - 90%)
–
100
ns
(10% - 90%)
–
50
pF
–
–
5
pF
–
tHPVCS
tDEP
4.59
µs
–
31.98
µs
–
Pulse Width of Equalizing
Impulses
tEP
2.31
µs
–
Pulse Width of Field Sync
Impulses
tFSP
27.39
µs
–
Output Fall Time
Load Capacitance
Pin capacitance
VSYNC
Input Rise Time
Input Fall Time
Input Hysteresis
Input Pulse Width
Output Pulse Width
Output Rise Time
Output Fall Time
Load Capacitance
Pin capacitance
VCS Timing (Master mode)
Pulse width of H-Sync
Distance between
Equalizing Impulses
Users Manual
14 - 8
2000-06-15
SDA 6000
Electrical Characteristics
Table 14-3
DC Characteristics (cont’d)
Parameter
Symbol Limit Values
min.
Unit
Test Condition
µs
Depends on Register
HPR
max.
tHPR
–
tr
tf
CL
CI
ZP
–
25
ns
(10% - 90%)
–
25
ns
(10% - 90%)
–
100
pF
–
–
10
pF
–
–
–
1/MΩ –
Input Sample Frequency
(General Purpose Ports)
FS
–
33
MHz
–
Output Current
(P3.10, P3.14)
Io
–
8
mA
–
–
100
mV
–
V
–
Horizontal Period
P2.x, P3.x, P5.x, P6.x
Output Rise Time
Output Fall Time
Load Capacitance
Pin capacitance
Input Impedance
(Analog Ports)
Hysteresis Voltage
UHSYT
2
(I C Inputs):
P6.5, P6.6, P6.7, P3.0, P3.1)
A/D Converter Characteristics (Port 5.0 to P5.3)
Input Voltage Range
Vain
0
ADC Resolution
RES
8
BIT
binary
Output during Underflow
–
0
–
–
Output during Overflow
–
255
–
–
Bandwidth
–
10.5
kHz
–
Sampling Time
tS
fSAM
RS
CP
2
µs
–
CI
Rpullup
UIH
Sampling Frequency
Input Source Resistance
Pin capacitance
(Analog Ports)
2.5
21
–
kHz
–
–
100
kΩ
–
–
40
pF
–
–
5
pF
–
47
100
kΩ
–
2
–
V
–
Reset RSTIN
Pin capacitance
Reset In Pull Up Resistor
Input High Voltage
Users Manual
14 - 9
2000-06-15
SDA 6000
Electrical Characteristics
14.4
Timings
VSYNC
t OPWV
t OPWH
HSYNC
Line i
Line i+1
Line i+2
UET11193
Figure 14-1 H/V - Sync-Timing (Sync-master mode)
Equalizing Pulses
Field Sync Pulses
Equalizing Pulses
VCS
Horizontal Pulses
Horizontal Pulse
Equalizing Pulses
Field Sync Pulses
VCS
t HPVCS
t EP
t DEP
t HPVCS
t FSP
t HPR
t HPR
t HPR
UET11194
Figure 14-2 VCS -Timing (Sync-master mode)
Users Manual
14 - 10
2000-06-15
SDA 6000
Electrical Characteristics
14.5
Package Outlines
GPM09233
P-MQFP-128-2
(Plastic Metric Quad Flat Package)
Sorts of Packing
Package outlines for tubes, trays etc. are contained in our
Data Book “Package Information”.
SMD = Surface Mounted Device
Users Manual
14 - 11
Dimensions in mm
2000-06-15