Atmel Smart Energy Solution Guide Smart Energy Applications It’s all about energy management • Smart Grid • Industrial Lighting and Automation • Home Automation • Street Lighting • Solar Energy • PHEV Charging Stations The market for energy, water, and gas metering systems is rapidly changing, driven by new environmental and conservation concerns and regulations. Traditional standalone meters are now being replaced by complex networked systems that utilize a variety of communication methods. To meet the needs of this evolving smart grid, metering developers need solutions that can provide: • Leading Edge Connectivity • Best-in-class Metrology • Integration & Flexibility • Advanced Security 2 © 2013 / www.atmel.com Atmel Smart Energy Solutions Guide Atmel Smart Energy Solutions Not just a Chip, but a Platform Atmel® addresses the needs of the smart energy market with application-specific, as well as standard microcontroller, microprocessor, security, memory, wireless and power-line connectivity devices. The application-specific portfolio is defined from the ground up to offer designers best-in-class feature sets and performance in various classes of equipment used in the smart grid. UTI L I TY WAN Home Area Network 802.15.4 Zigbee Proprietary PLC Neighborhood, Metro Neighborhood, Metro 802.15.4g PRIME, G3-PLC, P1901.2 802.15.4g PRIME, G3-PLC, P1901.2 802.15.4 Zigbee Figure 1. Smart Grid Equipment and Governing Communications Standards Home Area Network Equipment Energy Gateway Data Concentrator Electricity Meter Gas & Water Meter SAM4C SAM4L RF233 RF212B SAM4CP M90E32 SAMA5 SAM4C RF233 RF212B RF215 SAM4CP SAMA5 SAM4C/CM SAM4CP RF215 M90E32/36 SAM4C/CM SAM4CP SAM4L M90EXX RF233 RF212B RF215 SAM4C SAM4L SAMD RF233 RF212B RF215 Table 1. Atmel Platform Products by Equipment Type Atmel Smart Energy Solutions Guide 3 Atmel Smart Metering Platform Today’s smart meter architect demands various levels of integration depending on system architecture partitioning, project timelines, and the level of flexibility needed to address various utility and geographical requirements. The Atmel platform provides a unique multi-level architecture built around the same multi-core architecture as outlined below. Various devices integrate the building blocks of the smart meter, namely, Metrology sensing (ADC), Metrology DSP, application, communication, and security processing, as well as connectivity to home area and neighborhood area networks. Metrology DSP ADC M90E25 1Φ Metrology AFE Application Processor Protocol/ Crypto Processor Phy(PLC, RF) SAM4L SAM D20 etc. SAM4L SAM5 etc. ATPL230 PRIME+ SAM4CP Series M90E32AS/36A PRIME+, G3, 1901.2 3Φ Metrology AFE ATSENSE101 1Φ Metrology ADC SAM4C8/16/32 ATSENSE301 Dual core secure ASSP Sofrware Metrology Option (External ADC) 3Φ Metrology ADC RF212B Sub-Ghz 802.15.4 RF233 2.4 GHz 802.15.4 SAM4CM8/16/32 Dual core secure ASSP Integrated Metrology (1Φ, 3Φ) RF215 Dual sub-1 2.4 GHz 15.4g Figure 2. Atmel Smart Metering Platform 4 © 2013 / www.atmel.com Atmel Smart Energy Solutions Guide Atmel Advantage A new platform with many differentiators. • Best-in-class Metrology • Leading-Edge Connectivity • Low power 802.15.4/4g wireless devices • Dynamic range of up to 6000:1 • Field proven, Low power PLC(PRIME) • 25M units shipped since 90’s • Integration & Flexibility • Broad MCU Portfolio • Flexible (SW or HW) metrology • Large array of SAMD, SAM4 and SAM5 solutions • Multi-standard Wireless and PLC solutions • Best-in-class tools from Atmel, IAR, Keil • Advanced cryptography Smart Metering Products At the core of Atmel’s smart energy platform is the SAM4C series of products starting with SAM4C16 and SAM4C8 system-on-chip solutions for smart energy applications built around two high performance 32-bit ARM® Cortex®-M4 RISC processors. These devices operate at a maximum speed of 120 MHz and feature up to 2Mbyte of embedded Flash, 304 Kbytes of SRAM, and on-chip cache for each core. Temp Sensor M90Exx Metrology M90Exx AFE Metrology M90Exx AFE Metrology AFE Soft Metrology Options: Embedded Metrology ADC OR ATSENSE Metrology ADC The dual ARM Cortex -M4 architecture allows for integration of application layer, communications layers, and metrology functions in a single device. It has options for integrated software metrology or external hardware metrology AFE (analog front end) as well as integrated or external power-line carrier (PLC) physical layer solution. It’s a modular approach that is sure to meet various design needs. LCD Driver (50x6) PIO(74-91) SRAM 48KB/96KB SRAM 128KB/256KB USART(5) UART(2) Cortex-M4F Cortex-M4 Metrology/Other App/Comm. Flash 512K-2MB USB (2MB ver. only) RF TRX Options Integrated PLC Options: External PLC Phy Options PRIME,G3,IEEE, SFSK OR External ADC EBI(16bit) PWM(4) Timers (6) AES, CPKCC, ICM (SHA), TRNG SPI(6) TWI(2) RTC (<1uA) Figure 3. SAM4C Platform Atmel Smart Energy Solutions Guide 5 TDI System Peripherals Core Voltage Reg TMS TCK Serial Wire and JTAG Debug Port AHB-AP LDO TD0 AHB-AP SRAM2 8KB MPU DSP FPU DSP NVIC TICK NVIC TICK 16k(C32) WDT LCD Voltage Reg Unique ID Flash Cortex-M4 (Core 2) XTAL 3-20 MHz 0.5/1M 2M(C32) ROM IAP & FFPI SAM-BA Boot Crypto Lib 4/8/12 MHz RC OSC Cortex-M4 (Core 1) CPKCC SRAM0 128k 256k(C32) SRAM1 16KB 32k(C32) ICM (SHA) Cache Cache 2 x PLL POR RTC Time Stamp RTT Tamper RC OSC 32kHz Supply Contr XTAL 32kHz Async Bridge AHB Matrix (Mx0) PMC BOD Peripheral DMA AHB to APB Bridge 0 PDC 10-bit ADC 6ch Backup domain PDC <74 GPIO 6-ch 16-bit Timer x5 USART <104 (C32) PDC x2 UART PDC PDC x2 TWI AHB Matrix (Mx1) 6 SPI AHB to APB Bridge 0 PDC 50 x 6 Segment LCD TRNG, AES Optional Metrology ADC 1/3ph F/S USB IPC0 (C32) PWM x1 UART Optical TRX IPC1 C32 devices have 2M flash, full speed USB, more GPIO, more RAM Figure 4. SAM4C Block diagram Flash SRAM Package GPIO PWM UART+USART SPI ADC Metrology AFE Segment LCD USB FS Timer TWI SAM4C8 SAM4C16 512KB 1MB SAM4C32C SAM4C32E SAM4CMP8/ SAM4CMS8 SAM4CMP16/ SAM4CMS16 512KB 1MB 2MB 128 + 16 + 8KB 256 + 32 + 16KB SAM4CMP32/ SAM4CMS32 2MB 128 + 16 + 8KB 256 + 32 + 16KB 100 LQFP 144 LQFP 100 LQFP 74 106 52 / 57 4 3 7 5/6 2 Controllers - 8 CS, + 5 USARTs in SPI Mode 1 Controller - 4 CS + 3/4 USARTs in SPI Mode 10bit, 6 x Externals + 2 x Internals 10bit, 4 x Externals + 2 x Internals - 7 x Channels / 4 x Channels 50 x 6 32 x 6 - Host/ Device - 6 Channels 2 Table 2. SAM4C Metering SOC feature comparison 6 © 2013 / www.atmel.com Atmel Smart Energy Solutions Guide Active Energy 100.40% SAM4Cx Software Metrology Atmel’s software metrology library provides unprecedented level of performance, scalability, and flexibility which supports the integration of proprietary advanced metrology and signal processing algorithms. Atmel’s standard library enables residential, commercial, and industrial meter design up to class 0.2 accuracy, dynamic range of 3000:1, and are compliant with IEC 62052-11, 62053-22/23, ANSI C12.1, C12.20 and MID. 100.20% Energy (P) Accuracy Flexibility to support various country-specific requirements 100.30% 100.10% 100.00% 99.90% 99.80% 99.70% 99.60% 0.100 A 1.000 A 10.000 A 100.000 A Test Current [Amps] PF=1 300deg (lag) 60deg (lead) 180deg (rev) Figure 5. SAM4CM linear curve Software Metrology front-end electronics is comprise of ATSENSE-301 and ATSENSE-101 multi-channel (up to 7) simultaneously-sampled Sigma-Delta A/D converters at 16sps, high precision voltage reference with up to 10 ppm/°C temperature stability, programmable current signal amplification, temperature sensor and SPI interface. Features • Poly-phase Energy Metering Analog Front End for Atmel’s MCUs and Metrology library VDDA GNDA VP3 • Compliant with Class 0.2 standards (ANSI C12.202002 and IEC 62053-22) • Up to 7 Sigma Delta ADC measurement channels: 3 Voltages, 4 Currents, 102 dB Dynamic Range • Current Channels with Pre-Gain (x1, x2, x4, x8) • Supports Shunt, Current Transformer, and Rogowsky Coils • 3.0V to 3.6V operation, Ultra Low Power: < 22 mW typ (device fully active @ 3.3V) • Precision Voltage Reference • Temperature drift: 50ppm typ (ATSENSE-301) and 10ppm typ (ATSENSE-301H) • Factory measured temperature drift and die temperature sensor to perform software correction. • 8 MHz Serial Peripheral Interface (SPI) compatible mode 1 (8-bit) for ADC data and AFE controls. • Interrupt Output Line signaling ADCs’ end of conversion, under-run and over-run. Σ∆ ADC VN IP3 PGA IN3 2.8V LDO Decimator Σ∆ ADC Decimator Die Temperature Sensor Voltage Reference VTEMP Σ∆ ADC Decimator IP2 PGA IN2 Σ∆ ADC SPCK Serial Peripheral Interface Decimator NPCS MISO MOSI Control Registers VP1 Σ∆ ADC VN IP1 IN1 VREF 1K GNDREF VP2 VN VDDIN PGA Σ∆ ADC Decimator Interrupt Controller Decimator OTP memory (Calibration Data) FS_CLK IP0 ADC_CLK IN0 DIFF MUX 2:1 PGA Σ∆ ADC Decimator ITOUT VDDIO Power Clock Generator On Reset GNDD MCLK VTEMP Figure 6. ATSENSE301 Block Diagram • Package: 32-lead TQFP, 7 x 7 x 1.4 mm Atmel Smart Energy Solutions Guide 7 Hardware Metrology AFE Out of the box solution for basic metering M90E25 M90E32AS M90E36A • Ideal for basic meter designs • Up to class 0.2 accuracy • Exceeds IEC, ANSI standards • Best-in-class temperature drift SAM4L Active Energy Error 0.3000 PF=1.0 • Best-in-class dynamic range (up to 6000:1) • Improves performance • Reduces OEM’s cost of manufacturing 0.2000 PF=0.8C 0.1000 Error • Great fit with SAM4L • picoPower® Technology • Active mode @ 90µA/MHz • Full RAM retention @1.5µA • SleepWalkingTM • 4x40 Segment LCD Controller • Hardware Crypto block PF=0.5L 0.0000 -0.1000 -0.2000 -0.3000 0.01 0.02 0.05 0.10 0.20 0.50 1 2 5 10 20 40 50 60 80 100 Current (A) Figure 7. SAM90E36A Linearity Service Type Dynamic Range Active Energy Accuracy Reactive Energy Accuracy SAM4CMS8/16 1 phase 3000:1 0.1% 0.2% SAM4CMP8/16 3 phase 3000:1 0.1% 0.2% SAM4C8/16 - - - - SAM4CMS32 1 phase 3000:1 0.1% 0.2% SAM4CMP32 3 phase 3000:1 0.1% 0.2% - - - - Security SOC ATSENSE101 1 phase 3000:1 1% 1% Software Metrology ADC ATSENSE301 3 phase 3000:1 0.2% 0.2% Software Metrology ADC M90E25 1 phase 5000:1 0.1% 0.2% AFE, active, reactive energy, instantaneous and anti-tamper M90E32AS 3 phase 6000:1 0.1% 0.2% AFE, active, reactive energy, instantaneous, fundamental & harmonics measurement, piece-wise compensation, event detection M90E36A 3 phase 6000:1 0.1% 0.2% AFE, active, reactive energy, instantaneous, fundamental & harmonics measurement, DFT Function, raw data capture SAM4C32 Key Features/ Availability High End Metrology SOC Security SOC High End Metrology SOC Table 3. Atmel Metrology Solutions 8 © 2013 / www.atmel.com Atmel Smart Energy Solutions Guide PLC Connectivity Products Atmel’s family of PLC physical layer and system-on-a-chip (SoC) area standards-compliant OFDM-based solutions are designed for narrowband communications using the low-voltage electric power distribution network. They are proven in large-volume deployments in several utilities and markets. Atmel’s unique technology offers: • High performance and integration levels • Low power • Lower bill-of-materials (BOM) costs • PRIME / ITU-T G.9904 • CENELEC compliance Enhanced Performance Offered in a single chip SoC and in a two chip PHY+MCU configurations respectively the Atmel SAM4CP16B and ATPL230 PRIME+ devices include two additional Robust modes, DQPSK and DBPSK and achieve an increase in gain of up to +14.5 dB as compared to with PRIME 1.3.6 devices. These devices also can operate at a wider span of FCC and ARIB bands with up to 8 selectable channels achieving bit rates ranging from 5.4 to 1028.8 kbps. Single Chip SOC Two Chip MCU + PHY Application Layer MCU/ MPU 6LowPan, 802.15.4, IPV6,.. PRIME MAC SAM4CP ATPL230 PHY PRIME OFDM PHY DC/DC Supply Line Driver DC/DC Supply Line Driver AC/DC Supply Coupling AC/DC Supply Coupling MV LV Figure 8. PRIME Device, flexible Hardware and software architecture Atmel Smart Energy Solutions Guide 9 A built in Class-D amplifier architecture is up to 30% more efficient than competing solutions with only a handful of external discrete components, reducing power waste due to heat dissipation and increasing long-term reliability due to the better thermal behavior. Atmel Class D Line Driver An extensive array of system IO, LCD, memory, RTC, DMA and cryptographic resources available in SAM4CP16C allow integration of application, communication and metrology software (using external ATSENSE devices) to achieve highly reliable, flexible and cost effective smart meter designs. [Pload/Psupply] Efficiency % Linear PA Load Impedance [ ] Figure 9. Class D Amplifier versus Linear Power Amplifier Efficiency Standard Frequency Band Core CPU Clock Flash SRAM Package SAM4CP16B PRIME 1.3.6 CEN / ARIB / FCC Dual Cortex-M4 120 MHz @core 1 MB 128 +16 + 8 KB QFP176 QFP176 ATPL230 PRIME 1.3.6 CEN / ARIB / FCC -- -- -- -- QFP 64 Table 4. PLC product features TDI System Peripherals Core Voltage Reg TMS TCK Serial Wire and JTAG Debug Port AHB-AP LDO TD0 AHB-AP SRAM2 8KB MPU DSP FPU DSP NVIC TICK NVIC TICK WDT LCD Voltage Reg Unique ID Cortex-M4 (Core 2) XTAL 3-20 MHz Flash IAP & FFPI SAM-BA Boot Crypto Lib 4/8/12 MHz RC OSC SRAM1 16KB Cortex-M4 (Core 1) CPKCC 1MB ROM SRAM0 128KB ICM (SHA) Cache Cache 2 x PLL POR RTC Time Stamp RTT Tamper RC OSC 32kHz Supply Contr XTAL 32kHz Backup domain Async Bridge AHB Matrix (Mx0) PMC BOD Peripheral DMA AHB to APB Bridge 0 PDC 10-bit ADC 6ch PDC 6-ch 16-bit Timer Up to 67 I/Os x5 USART PDC x2 UART PDC x2 TWI PDC x1 SPI AHB Matrix (Mx1) AHB to APB Bridge 1 PDC 46 x 5 Segment LCD TRNG, AES IPC0 PRIME + Robust PWM x1 UART Optical TRX IPC1 Figure 10. SAM4CP16B Block Diagram 10 © 2013 / www.atmel.com Atmel Smart Energy Solutions Guide TDI TD0 TCK TRST TMS TEST VPD JTAG Boundary Scan Scrambler BUF_TX3 BUF_TX3 BUF_TX1 BUF_TX0 CS SCK MOSI MISO EXT_INT SPI BRIGE ARST SRST PLL_INIT CLKEA CLKEB CLKOUT CLOCK & RESET INTERFACE CRC Convolutional Encoder AES-128 EVM RSSI RSSI BER CD Interleaver Cyclic Prefix Sub-Carrier Modulator IFFT Scrambler CRC Convolutional Decoder EMIT(1:12) TX Analog Front-End Control POWER MANAGEMENT BUF_RX3 BUF_RX3 BUF_RX1 BUF_RX0 Converter/PAD Gain Control AGC(0:5) Tx/Rx Control TXRX1 TXRX2 ZERO CROSS DETECTOR Interleaver Pre-FFT Syncro Sub-Carrier Demodulator FFT VZ_CROSS VIMA VIPA VRP VRM VRC Converter RX Figure 11. ATPL230 Block Diagram Atmel PRIME Software Stack USER APPLICATION Convergence Layer Service Specific Convergence Sublayer (SSCS) IPv4 IPv6 IEC-432 NULL Management Plane New SSCS With an ATMEL free certified stacks, customers will be able to concentrate their development efforts on application development. The modular software architecture and the advanced capabilities of the management plane, Atmel stack provides unparalleled flexibility in the software architecture and reduce the memory requirements of the top-level application. Common Part Convergence Sublayer (CPCS) MAC Layer MLME-SAP MAC Layer Mgmt. Entity(MLME) PHY Layer PLME-SAP PHY Layer Mgmt. Entity(PLME) Figure 12. Drawing PRIME Stack Atmel Smart Energy Solutions Guide 11 Wireless Connectivity Products To help you speed up system development and prototyping, Atmel offers a variety of free software suites, various hardware evaluation boards, and development kits and modules. Efficient smart energy wireless applications require both high-performance and power efficiency. Atmel transceivers deliver the leading RF link budget with the industry’s lowest power consumption. Key Products Additionally, Atmel offers the most feature-rich IEEE 802.15.4-compliant transceiver family available. Our transceivers support both regional 700/800/900MHz, as well as global 2.4GHz frequency bands. This enables you to develop wireless applications for customers worldwide, including emerging markets like China. The AT86RF212B is a low-power, low-voltage RF transceiver for the regional 700/800/900 MHz frequency bands available in Japan, China, Europe and North America. This transceiver offers an extremely good 120 dB link budget (-110 dBm receiver sensitivity / +10 dBm transmit power) designed for low-cost IEEE 802.15.4, ZigBee and high data rate ISM (industrial scientific medical) applications. Enhanced Performance Powerful hardware features like antenna diversity or external power amplifier support let you further boost transceiver performance to maximize network reliability and RF range of your system. Atmel MCU wireless transceivers support not only IEEE 802.15.4-compliant applications, but provide on-air data rates up to 2Mbit/s for general purpose ISM applications. Pin compatibility ensures an easy transition between devices or frequency bands. The Atmel AT86RF233 transceiver is designed to operate in the 2.4GHz ISM band, available worldwide. This transceiver offers link budgets up to 105dB (-101dBm receiver sensitivity/+4dBm transmit power). For a complete overview of features, key parameters, and targeted application areas, please see the data sheet. VDD CB2 CX1 CX2 XTAL 31 30 29 28 27 26 25 AVSS AVSS AVDD EVDD AVSS XTAL1 XTAL2 2 DIG4 C1 RF F1 3 AVSS 5 RFN C2 MOSI 22 AT86RF212B AT86RF231 AT86RF232 AT86RF233 4 RFP B1 IRQ 24 /SEL 23 6 AVSS DVSS 21 MISO 29 SCLK 19 DVSS 18 DIG1 DIG2 SLP_TR DVSS DVDD DVDD DEVDD DVSS 7 DVSS 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 8 /RST CLKM 17 C3 VDD CB3 CB4 AVR / ARM Controller R1 Digital Interface 1 DIG3 32 AVSS CB1 Figure 13. Wireless Tranceiver Application Diagram 12 © 2013 / www.atmel.com XTAL1 XTAL2 Atmel Smart Energy Solutions Guide ext. PA and Power Control DIG3/4 XOSC AVREG PLL PA Configuration Registers TX Data TX BBP /SEL DVREG SPI (Slave) RFP MOSI SCLK Frame Buffer FTN, BATMON MISO RFN LNA BPF PPF Limiter ADC RX BBP AES IRQ CLKM DIG2 /RST AGC AD DIG1/2 Control Logic SLP_TR Antenna Diversity Analog Domain Digital Domain Figure 14. RF233 Block Diagram Band [MHz] Modulation AT86RF212B Transceiver AT86RF233 Transceiver Data Rate [kbit/s] RX Max.TX Sens. Power [dBm] [dBm] Current: SLEEP, TRX_OFF, RX_ON, BUSY_TX Comment 769 ... 935 BPSK, O-QPSK 20,40,100, 200, 250, 400, 500, 1000 -110 10 0.2µA, 0.4mA 9.2mA, [email protected] Compliant to IEEE 802.15.42006/2011 23222527 O-QPSK 250, 500, 1000, 2000 -101 4 0.02/0.2µA 0.3mA, 6.0/11.8mA, [email protected] Successor of RF231 with several new features 3.5 0.02µA, 0.4mA, 8.0/12.5mA, [email protected] Successor of ATmega128RFA1; based on RF23X transceiver and ATmega1281 ATmegaXXRFR2 Flash/SRAM/EEPRO M64K/8K/2K 128K/16K/4K 256K/32K/8K 2450 O-QPSK 250, 500, 1000, 2000 -100 Table 5. Smart Energy Wireless products Atmel Smart Energy Solutions Guide 13 Development Platforms • Metering • SAM4CMP8/16/32 Metrology Demo Board • ATM90Exx AFE + SAM4C Demo Board • ATM90Exx AFE + SAM4L Demo Board • SAM4C Evaluation Kit • Power Line Carrier • Wireless • Evaluation Kits and Reference Designs for IEEE 802.15.4 compliant Transceivers and SOCs, e.g. AT86RF212B (sub-1GHz) and AT86RF233 (2.4 GHz) • SAM4 Xplained Pro Evaluation Kits combined with Wireless Extension Boards • SAM4CP16 PLC Evaluation Kit • Certified PRIME stack (base node and meter) • SAM4S, SAM4L Xplained Pro Evaluation Kits 14 © 2013 / www.atmel.com Atmel Corporation 1600 Technology Drive, San Jose, CA 95110 USA T : (+1)(408) 441. 0311 F : (+1)(408) 436. 4200 | www.atmel.com © 2013 Atmel Corporation. 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