Chapter 6: Interfacing to Data Converters

INTERFACING TO DATA CONVERTERS
ANALOG-DIGITAL CONVERSION
1. Data Converter History
2. Fundamentals of Sampled Data Systems
3. Data Converter Architectures
4. Data Converter Process Technology
5. Testing Data Converters
6. Interfacing to Data Converters
6.1 Driving ADC Analog Inputs
6.2 ADC and DAC Digital Interfaces
6.3 Buffering DAC Analog Outputs
6.4 Driving ADC and DAC Reference Inputs
6.5 Sampling Clock Generation
7. Data Converter Support Circuits
8. Data Converter Applications
9. Hardware Design Techniques
I. Index
ANALOG-DIGITAL CONVERSION
INTERFACING TO DATA CONVERTERS
6.1 DRIVING ADC ANALOG INPUTS
CHAPTER 6
INTERFACING TO DATA CONVERTERS
SECTION 6.1: DRIVING ADC ANALOG INPUTS
Walt Kester
Introduction
Before considering the detailed issues involved in driving ADCs, some general comments
about trends in modern data converters are in order. Data converter performance is first
and foremost, and maintaining that performance in a system application is extremely
important. In low frequency measurement applications (10-Hz bandwidth signals or
lower), Σ-∆ ADCs with resolutions up to 24 bits are now quite common. These
converters generally have automatic or factory calibration features to maintain required
gain and offset accuracy. In higher frequency signal processing, ADCs must have wide
dynamic range (low distortion and noise), high sampling frequencies, and generally
excellent ac specifications.
In addition to sheer performance, other characteristics such as low power, single supply
operation, low cost, and small surface mount packages also drive the data conversion
market. These requirements result in a myriad of application problems because of
reduced signal swings, increased sensitivity to noise, etc. As has been mentioned
previously in Chapter 3, the analog input to a CMOS ADC is usually connected directly
to a switched-capacitor sample-and-hold (SHA), which generates transient currents that
must be buffered from the signal source. This can present quite a challenge when
selecting a drive amplifier. On the other hand, high performance data converters
fabricated on BiCMOS or complementary bipolar processes are more likely to have
internal buffering, but generally have higher cost and power consumption than their
CMOS counterparts. The general trends in data converters are summarized in Figure 6.1.
Higher sampling rates, higher resolution, excellent AC
performance
Single supply operation (e.g., +5V, +3V, +2.5V, +1.8V)
Lower power, shutdown or sleep modes
Smaller input/output signal swings
Differential inputs/outputs
Maximize usage of low cost foundry CMOS processes
Small surface mount packages
Figure 6.1: Some General Trends in Data Converters
6.1
ANALOG-DIGITAL CONVERSION
It should be clear by now that selecting an appropriate drive circuit for a data converter
application is highly dependent on the particular converter under consideration.
Generalizations are difficult, but some meaningful guidelines can be followed.
To begin with, one shouldn't necessarily assume that a driver amplifier is always
required. Some converters have relatively benign inputs and are designed to interface
directly to the signal source. In many applications, transformer drive may be preferable.
Because there is practically no industry standardization regarding ADC input structures,
each ADC must be carefully examined on its own merits before designing the input
interface circuitry.
If an amplifier is required, a fundamental requirement is that it not degrade the dc or ac
performance of the converter. One might assume that a careful reading of the op amp
datasheets would assist in the selection process—simply lay the data converter and the op
amp datasheets side by side, and compare each critical performance specification. It is
true that this method will provide some degree of success; however in order to perform
an accurate comparison, the op amp must be specified under the exact operating
conditions required by the data converter application. Such factors as gain, gain setting
resistor values, source impedance, output load, input and output signal amplitude, input
and output common-mode (CM) level, power supply voltage, etc., all affect op amp
performance to some degree.
It is highly unlikely that even a well written op amp datasheet will provide an exact
match to the operating conditions required in the data converter application.
Extrapolation of specified performance to fit the exact operating conditions can give
erroneous results. Also, the op amp may be subjected to transient currents from the data
converter, and the corresponding effects on op amp performance are rarely found on
datasheets.
Converter datasheets themselves can be a good source for recommended op amps and
other application circuits. However, this information can become obsolete when newer op
amps are introduced after the converter's initial release.
Analog Devices offers a parametric search engine which facilitates part selection (see
http://www.analog.com). For instance, the first search might be for minimum power
supply voltage, e.g., +3 V. The next search might be for bandwidth, and further searches
on relevant specifications will narrow the selection of op amps even further. While not
necessarily suitable for the final selection, this process can narrow the search to a
manageable number of amplifiers whose individual datasheets can be retrieved, then
reviewed in detail before final selection. Figure 6.2 summarizes the overall selection
process.
6.2
INTERFACING TO DATA CONVERTERS
6.1 DRIVING ADC ANALOG INPUTS
Some ADCs (DACs) do not require special input drivers (output buffers)
The amplifier / transformer should not degrade the performance of the
ADC (DAC)
AC specifications are usually the most important
Noise
Bandwidth
Distortion
Settling time from transient currents
Selection based on op amp data sheet specifications difficult due to
varying conditions in actual application circuit with ADC (DAC):
Power supply voltages
Signal range (differential and common-mode)
Loading (static and dynamic)
Gain and gain-setting resistor values
Parametric search engines may be useful
ADC (DAC) data sheets often recommend op amps but may not include
newly released products
Figure 6.2: ADC Driver (DAC Buffer) Selection Criteria
Amplifer DC and AC Performance Considerations
As discussed above, the amplifier (if required) should not degrade the performance
specifications of the data converter. Today, ac specifications are generally paramount—
especially with high-speed data converters. Chapter 2 of this book has discussed ADC
and DAC specifications in detail, but it is useful to summarize the popular converter
dynamic performance specifications in Figure 6.3.
Signal-to-Noise-and-Distortion Ratio (SINAD, or S/N +D)
Effective Number of Bits (ENOB)
Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR)
Analog Bandwidth (Full-Power, Small-Signal)
Harmonic Distortion
Worst Harmonic
Total Harmonic Distortion (THD)
Total Harmonic Distortion Plus Noise (THD + N)
Spurious Free Dynamic Range (SFDR)
Two-Tone Intermodulation Distortion
Multi-tone Intermodulation Distortion
Figure 6.3: Popular Converter Dynamic Performance Specifications
6.3
ANALOG-DIGITAL CONVERSION
For comparison, the fundamental op amp dc and ac specifications are summarized in
Figure 6.4. Not all op amps will have these specifications, however they should certainly
have most of them listed on the data sheet if the op amp is to be a serious contender for a
high performance data converter application.
DC
Input/Output Signal Range
Offset, offset drift
Input bias current
Open loop gain
Integral linearity
1/f noise (voltage and current)
AC (Highly application dependent!)
Wideband noise (voltage and current)
Small and Large Signal Bandwidth
Harmonic Distortion
Total Harmonic Distortion (THD)
Total Harmonic Distortion + Noise (THD + N)
Spurious Free Dynamic Range (SFDR)
Third Order Intermodulation Distortion
Figure 6.4: Key DC and AC Op Amp Specifications for ADC/DAC Applications
Regardless of the importance of the ac specifications, the fundamental dc specifications
must not be overlooked—especially in light of the implications of low voltage singlesupply operation so popular today. The allowable input and output signal range becomes
critically important in single supply applications as illustrated in the fundamental
application circuit shown in Figure 6.5.
INPUT CM RANGE
+VS
R2
BIPOLAR
INPUT
INPUT
RANGE
R1
–
A1
RT
ADC
+
OUTPUT
SWING
V1
VCM = V1 1 + R2
R1
A1 PROVIDES GAIN
AND LEVEL SHIFTING
Figure 6.5: Input/Output Signal Swing and Common-Mode Range is Critical in
Single-Supply ADC Driver Applications
6.4
INTERFACING TO DATA CONVERTERS
6.1 DRIVING ADC ANALOG INPUTS
The circuit of Figure 6.5 shows an op amp as a simple dc-coupled single-supply ADC
driver which provides the proper gain and level shifting for the bipolar (groundreferenced) input signal such that it matches the input range of the ADC. Several
important points are illustrated in this popular circuit. The first consideration is the input
range of the ADC, which in turn determines the output voltage swing requirement of the
op amp. There are a number of single-supply CMOS ADCs with inputs that go from 0 V
to the positive supply voltage. As will be illustrated shortly, even rail-to-rail output op
amps cannot drive the signal completely to each rail. If, however, the ADC input range
can be set so that the signal only goes to within a few hundred millivolts of each rail, then
a single-supply "almost" rail-to-rail output op amp can often be used.
On the other hand, ADCs fabricated on BiCMOS or complementary bipolar processes
typically have fixed input ranges that are usually at least several hundred millivolts from
either rail, although many are not centered at the mid-supply voltage of VS/2.
Equally important is the input common-mode voltage of the op amp. In the circuit of
Figure 6.5, the input common-mode voltage is set by V1, which level shifts the amplifier
output to the correct value. Obviously, V1 must lie within the input common-mode
voltage range of the op amp in order for the circuit to work properly.
These restrictions can become quite severe when operating the entire circuit on a single
low-voltage supply, and therefore a brief discussion of rail-to-rail op amps follows in
order to better understand how to properly select the drive amplifier. We will discuss the
input and output stage considerations separately.
Rail-Rail Input Stages
Today, there is common demand for op amps with input common-mode voltage that
includes both supply rails, i.e., rail-to-rail common-mode operation. While such a feature
is undoubtedly useful in some applications, engineers should recognize that there are still
relatively few applications where it is absolutely essential. These applications should be
distinguished from the many more applications where a common-mode input range close
to the supplies, or one that includes one supply is necessary, but true input rail-to-rail
operation is not.
In many single-supply applications, it is required that the input common-mode voltage
range extend to one of the supply rails (usually ground). High-side or low-side currentsensing applications are typical examples of this. Many amplifiers can handle 0-V
common-mode inputs, and they are easily designed using PNP differential pairs (or Nchannel JFET pairs or PMOS pairs) as shown in Figure 6.6. The input common-mode
range of such an op amp generally extends from about 200 mV below the negative rail
(–VS, or ground), to within 1 V to 2 V of the positive rail (+VS).
6.5
ANALOG-DIGITAL CONVERSION
+VS
+VS
PNPs
N-CH
JFETs
OR
PMOS
–VS
–VS
Figure 6.6: PNP, PMOS, or N-Channel JFET Stages Allow
Common-Mode Inputs to Include the Negative Rail
An input stage could also be designed with NPN transistors (or P-channel JFET pairs or
NMOS pairs), in which case the input common-mode range would include the positive
rail, and go to within about 1 V to 2 V of the negative rail. This requirement typically
occurs in applications such as high-side current sensing.
A simplified diagram of what has become known as a true rail-to-rail input stage is
shown in Figure 6.7. Note that this requires use of two long-tailed pairs, one of PNP
bipolar transistors Q1-Q2, the other of NPN transistors Q3-Q4. Similar input stages can
also be made with CMOS or JFET pairs.
+VS
PNP
Q1
OR
PMOS
Q2 PNP
NPN
Q3 OR Q4
NMOS
OR
PMOS
–VS
Figure 6.7: A True Rail-to-Rail Input Stage
6.6
INTERFACING TO DATA CONVERTERS
6.1 DRIVING ADC ANALOG INPUTS
It should be noted that these two pairs will exhibit different offsets and bias currents, so
when the applied common-mode voltage changes, the amplifier input offset voltage and
input bias current does also. In fact, when both current sources remain active throughout
most of the entire input common-mode range, amplifier input offset voltage is the
average offset voltage of the two pairs. In those designs where the current sources are
alternatively switched off at some point along the input common-mode voltage, amplifier
input offset voltage is dominated by the PNP pair offset voltage for signals near the
negative supply, and by the NPN pair offset voltage for signals near the positive supply.
As noted, a true rail-to-rail input stage can also be constructed from CMOS transistors,
for example as in the case of the CMOS AD8531/8532/8534 op amp family.
Amplifier input bias current, a function of transistor current gain, is also a function of the
applied input common-mode voltage. The result is relatively poor common-mode
rejection (CMR), and a changing common-mode input impedance over the commonmode input voltage range, compared to familiar dual-supply devices. These specifications
should be considered carefully when choosing a rail-to-rail input op amp, especially for a
non-inverting configuration. Input offset voltage, input bias current, and even CMR may
be quite good over part of the common-mode range, but much worse in the region where
operation shifts between the NPN and PNP devices, and vice versa.
True rail-to-rail amplifier input stage designs must transition from one differential pair to
the other differential pair, somewhere along the input common-mode voltage range.
Some devices like the OP191/291/491 family and the OP279 have a common-mode
crossover threshold at approximately 1 V below the positive supply (where signals do not
often occur). The PNP differential input stage is active from about 200 mV below the
negative supply to within about 1 V of the positive supply. Over this common-mode
range, amplifier input offset voltage, input bias current, CMR, input noise voltage/current
are primarily determined by the characteristics of the PNP differential pair. At the
crossover threshold, however, amplifier input offset voltage becomes the average offset
voltage of the NPN/PNP pairs and can change rapidly.
Also, as noted previously, amplifier bias currents are dominated by the PNP differential
pair over most of the input common-mode range, and change polarity and magnitude at
the crossover threshold when the NPN differential pair becomes active.
Op amps like the OP184/284/484 family, utilize a rail-to-rail input stage design where
both NPN and PNP transistor pairs are active throughout most of the entire input
common-mode voltage range. With this approach to biasing, there is no common-mode
crossover threshold. Amplifier input offset voltage is the average offset voltage of the
NPN and the PNP stages, and offset voltage exhibits a smooth transition throughout the
entire input common-mode range, due to careful laser trimming of input stage resistors.
In the same manner, through careful input stage current balancing and input transistor
design, the OP184 family input bias currents also exhibit a smooth transition throughout
the entire common-mode input voltage range. The exception occurs at the very extremes
of the input range, where amplifier offset voltages and bias currents increase sharply, due
to the slight forward-biasing of parasitic p-n junctions. This occurs for input voltages
within approximately 1 V of either supply rail.
6.7
ANALOG-DIGITAL CONVERSION
When both differential pairs are active throughout most of the entire input common-mode
range, amplifier transient response is faster through the middle of the common-mode
range by as much as a factor of 2 for bipolar input stages and by a factor of √2 for JFET
input stages. This is due to the higher transconductance of two operating input stages.
The AD8027/8028 op amp family (Reference 1) has a pin-selectable crossover threshold
which allows the user to choose the crossover point between the PNP/NPN input
differential pairs. Depending upon the state of the select pin, the threshold can be set for
1.2 V from the positive rail (select pin open) or 1.2 V from the negative rail (select pin
connected to positive supply voltage).
Input stage gm determines the slew rate and the unity-gain crossover frequency of the
amplifier, hence response time degrades slightly at the extremes of the input commonmode range when either the PNP stage (signals approaching the positive supply rail) or
the NPN stage (signals approaching the negative supply rail) are forced into cutoff. The
thresholds at which the transconductance changes occur are approximately within 1 V of
either supply rail, and the behavior is similar to that of the input bias currents.
In light of the many quirks of true rail-to-rail op amp input stages, applications which do
require true rail-to-rail inputs should be carefully evaluated, and an amplifier chosen to
ensure that its input offset voltage, input bias current, common-mode rejection, and noise
(voltage and current) are suitable.
Output Stages
The earliest IC op amp output stages were NPN emitter followers with NPN current
sources or resistive pull-downs, as shown in Figure 6.8A and B. Naturally, the slew rates
were greater for positive-going than they were for negative-going signals.
While all modern op amps have push-pull output stages of some sort, many are still
asymmetrical, and have a greater slew rate in one direction than the other. Asymmetry
tends to introduce distortion on ac signals and generally results from the use of IC
processes with faster NPN than PNP transistors. It may also result in an ability of the
output to approach one supply more closely than the other in terms of saturation voltage.
In many applications, the output is required to swing only to one rail, usually the negative
rail (i.e., ground in single-supply systems). A pulldown resistor to the negative rail will
allow the output to approach that rail (provided the load impedance is high enough, or is
also grounded to that rail), but only slowly. Using an FET current source instead of a
resistor can speed things up, but this adds complexity, as shown in Fig. 6.8B.
6.8
INTERFACING TO DATA CONVERTERS
6.1 DRIVING ADC ANALOG INPUTS
(A)
(C)
(B)
+VS
+VS
NPN
NMOS
VOUT
NPN
+VS
NPN
VOUT
VOUT
NMOS
PNP
–VS
–VS
–VS
Figure 6.8: Some traditional Op Amp Output Stages
With modern complementary bipolar (CB) processes, well matched high speed PNP and
NPN transistors are readily available. The complementary emitter follower output stage
shown in Fig. 6.8C has many advantages, but the most outstanding one is the low output
impedance. However, the output voltage of this stage can only swing within about one
VBE drop of either rail. Therefore, a usable output voltage range of +1 V to +4 V is
typical of such a stage, when operated on a single +5-V supply.
The complementary common-emitter/common-source output stages shown in
Figure 6.9A and B allow the op amp output voltage to swing much closer to the rails, but
these stages have much higher open-loop output impedance than do the emitter followerbased stages of Fig. 6.8C
In practice, however, the amplifier's high open-loop gain and the applied feedback can
still produce an application with low output impedance (particularly at frequencies below
10 Hz). What should be carefully evaluated with this type of output stage is the loop gain
within the application, with the load in place. Typically, the op amp will be specified for
a minimum gain with a load resistance of 10 kΩ (or more). Care should be taken that the
application loading doesn't drop lower than the rated load, or gain accuracy may be lost.
It should also be noted these output stages can cause the op amp to be more sensitive to
capacitive loading than the emitter-follower type. Again, this will be noted on the device
data sheet, which will indicate a maximum of capacitive loading before overshoot or
instability will be noted.
6.9
ANALOG-DIGITAL CONVERSION
The complementary common emitter output stage using BJTs (Fig. 6.9A) cannot swing
completely to the rails, but only to within the transistor saturation voltage (VCESAT) of the
rails. For small amounts of load current (less than 100 µA), the saturation voltage may be
as low as 5 to 10 mV, but for higher load currents, the saturation voltage can increase to
several hundred mV (for example, 500 mV at 50 mA).
(A)
+VS
(B)
PNP
+VS
PMOS
VOUT
VOUT
IOUT
IOUT
NMOS
NPN
–VS
SWINGS LIMITED BY
SATURATION VOLTAGE
AND OUTPUT CURRENT
–VS
SWINGS LIMITED BY
FET "ON" RESISTANCE
AND OUTPUT CURRENT
Figure 6.9: "Almost" Rail-To-Rail Output Stages
On the other hand, an output stage constructed of CMOS FETs (Fig. 6.9B) can provide
nearly true rail-to-rail performance, but only under no-load conditions. If the op amp
output must source or sink substantial current, the output voltage swing will be reduced
by the I×R drop across the FET's internal "on" resistance. Typically this resistance will be
on the order of 100 Ω for precision amplifiers, but it can be less than 10 Ω for high
current drive CMOS amplifiers.
For the above basic reasons, it should be apparent that there is no such thing as a true
rail-to-rail output stage, hence the caption of Fig. 6.9 ("Almost" Rail-to-Rail Output
Stages). The best any op amp output stage can do is an "almost" rail-to-rail swing, when
it is lightly loaded.
Gain and Level-Shifting Circuits Using Op Amps
In dc-coupled applications, the drive amplifier must provide the required gain and offset
voltage, to match the signal to the input voltage range of the ADC. Figure 6.10
summarizes various op amp gain and level shifting options. The circuit of Figure 6.10A
operates in the non-inverting mode, and uses a low impedance reference voltage, VREF, to
offset the output. Gain and offset interact according to the equation:
VOUT = [1 + (R2/R1)] • VIN – [(R2/R1) • VREF]
6.10
Eq. 6.1
INTERFACING TO DATA CONVERTERS
6.1 DRIVING ADC ANALOG INPUTS
The circuit in Figure 6.10B operates in the inverting mode, and the signal gain is
independent of the offset. The disadvantage of this circuit is that the addition of R3
increases the noise gain, and hence the sensitivity to the op amp input offset voltage and
noise. The input/output equation is given by:
VOUT = – (R2/R1) • VIN – (R2/R3) • VREF
VIN
R2
 R2
Vout =  1 +
V ref
 V in−

R1
R1
+
A
VREF
R1
R1
+
VIN
-
R2
R1
C
+
VREF
R3
R2
R1
R2
R2
V ref
V in−
R3
R1
R2
NOISE GAIN = 1 +
R1 || R3
Vout = −
R2
B
R3
NOISE GAIN = 1 +
R2
VIN
VREF
Eq. 6.2
R2
R2
 R4  
V in+ 
 V ref
 1 +



R1
R3 + R 4
R1
R2
NOISE GAIN = 1 +
R1
Vout = −
R4
Figure 6.10: Op Amp Gain and Level Shifting Circuits
The circuit in Figure 6.10C also operates in the inverting mode, and the offset voltage
VREF is applied to the non-inverting input without noise gain penalty. This circuit is also
attractive for single-supply applications (VREF > 0). The input/output equation is given
by:
VOUT = – (R2/R1) • VIN + [R4/(R3+R4)][ 1 +(R2/R1)] • VREF
Eq. 6.3
Note that the circuit of Fig. 6.10A is sensitive to the impedance of VREF, unlike the
counterparts in B and C. This is due to the fact that the signal current flows into/from
VREF, due to VIN operating the op amp over its common-mode range. In the other two
circuits the common-mode voltages are fixed, and no signal current flows in VREF.
The circuit of Figure 6.10C is ideally suited to a single-supply level shifter and is
identical to the one previously shown in Figure 6.5. It will now be examined further in
light of single-supply and common-mode issues. Figure 6.11 shows this type of level
shifter driving an ADC with an input range of +1.5 V to +3.5 V. Note that the circuit
operates on a single +5-V supply.
6.11
ANALOG-DIGITAL CONVERSION
NOISE GAIN = 1 +
SIGNAL GAIN = –
BIPOLAR
INPUT
R2
=2
R1
R2 = –1
R1
+VS = +5V
R2
OUTPUT SWING
1kΩ
R1
–
A1
RT
52.3Ω
INPUT
COMMON-MODE
VOLTAGE = +1.25V
ADC
+2.5V – /+ 1V
1kΩ
±1V
INPUT RANGE =
+1.5V TO +3.5V
+
V1 = +1.25V
A1 PROVIDES BUFFERING,
GAIN (IF DESIRED),
AND LEVEL SHIFTING
VCM = V1 1 + R2
R1
= +2.5V
SOME NON RAIL-TO-RAIL SINGLE-SUPPLY
OP AMPS MAY BE USED FOR A1
Figure 6.11: Single-Ended Single-Supply DC-Coupled Level Shifter
The input range of the ADC (+1.5 V to +3.5 V) determines the output range of the A1 op
amp. Since most complementary emitter follower output stages (see Figure 6.8C) will
drive to within 1 V of either rail, a rail-to-rail output stage is not required.
The input common-mode voltage of A1 is set at +1.25 V which generates the required
output offset of +2.5 V. Note that many non rail-to-rail single-supply op amps (such as
the AD8057) can accommodate this input common-mode voltage when operating on a
single +5-V supply. This circuit is an excellent example of where careful analysis of dc
voltages is invaluable to the amplifier selection process. However, if we modify the
circuit slightly as shown in Figure 6.12, an entirely different set of input/output
requirements is placed on the op amp.
The input range of the ADC in Figure 6.12 is now +0.5 V to +2.5 V, and the entire circuit
must operate on a +3-V power supply. A rail-to-rail output op amp is therefore required
for A1 in order to ensure adequate output signal swing. Note that in addition, the input
common-mode voltage of A1 is now +0.3 V in order to set the output common-mode
voltage of +1.5 V (noise gain = +5, signal gain = –4). In order to allow an input commonmode voltage of +0.3 V, A1 must have either a PNP or PMOS input stage or a rail-to-rail
input stage as previously shown in Figure 6.7.
This simple example serves to illustrate the importance of carefully examining the
input/output signal level requirements placed on the op amp by the circuit conditions and
the ADC interface. After the amplifier signal level requirements are established, then ac
performance should be determined.
6.12
INTERFACING TO DATA CONVERTERS
6.1 DRIVING ADC ANALOG INPUTS
R2
=5
R1
NOISE GAIN = 1 +
SIGNAL GAIN = –
BIPOLAR
INPUT
R2 = –4
R1
+VS = +3V
R2
OUTPUT SWING
2kΩ
R1
–
ADC
+1.5V – /+ 1V
499Ω
±0.25V
A1
RT
56.2Ω
INPUT RANGE =
+0.5V TO +2.5V
+
INPUT
COMMON-MODE
VOLTAGE = +0.3V
RAIL-TO-RAIL
OUTPUT
REQUIRED
V1 = +0.3V
VCM = V1 1 + R2
R1
= +1.5V
Figure 6.12: Single-Ended Level Shifter with Gain Requires Rail-to-Rail Op Amp
Op Amp AC Specifications and Data Converter Requirements
Modern op amps come with what may appear to be a relatively complete set of dc and ac
specifications—however fully specifying an op amp under all possible circuit conditions
is almost impossible. For example, Figure 6.13 shows some key specifications taken from
the table of specifications on the datasheet for the AD8057/AD8058 high speed, low
distortion op amp (Reference 2). Note that the specifications depend on the supply
voltage, the signal level, output loading, etc. It should also be emphasized that it is
customary to provide only typical ac specifications (as opposed to maximum and
minimum values) for most op amps. In addition, we have seen that there are restrictions
on the input and output common-mode signal ranges, which are especially important
when operating on low voltage dual (or single) supplies.
SPECIFICATION
Input Common Mode Voltage Range
Output Common Mode Voltage Range
VS = ±5V
VS = +5V
–4.0V to +4.0V
–4.0V to +4.0V
+0.9V to +3.4V
+0.9V to +4.1V
Input Voltage Noise
Small Signal Bandwidth
7nV/√Hz
325MHz
7nV/√Hz
300MHz
THD @ 5MHz, VO = 2V p-p, RL = 1kΩ
THD @ 20MHz, VO = 2V p-p, RL = 1kΩ
– 85dBc
– 62dBc
– 75dBc
– 54dBc
Figure 6.13: AD8057/AD8058 Op Amp Key Specifications, G = +1
6.13
ANALOG-DIGITAL CONVERSION
Most op amp datasheets contain a section that provides supplemental performance data
for various other conditions not explicitly specified in the primary specification tables.
For instance, Figure 6.14 shows the AD8057/AD8058 distortion as a function of
frequency for G = +1 and VS = ±5 V. Unless it is otherwise specified, the data represented
by these curves should be considered typical (it is usually marked as such).
Figure 6.14: AD8057/AD8058 Op Amp Distortion Versus Frequency
G = +1, RL = 150 Ω, VS = ±5 V
Note however that the data in both Figure 6.14 (and also the following Figure 6.15) is
given for a dc load of 150 Ω. This is a load presented to the op amp in the popular
application of driving a source and load-terminated 75-Ω cable. Distortion performance is
generally better with lighter dc loads, such as 500 Ω to 1000 Ω (more typical of many
ADC inputs), and this data may or may not be found on the datasheet.
On the other hand, Figure 6.15 shows distortion as a function of output signal level for a
frequencies of 5 MHz and 20 MHz.
Whether or not specifications such as those just described are complete enough to select
an op amp for an ADC driver application depends upon the ability to match op amp
specifications to the actually required ADC operating conditions. In many cases, these
comparisons will at least narrow the op amp selection process. The following sections
will examine a number of specific driver circuit examples using various types of ADCs,
ranging from high resolution measurement to high-speed, low distortion applications.
6.14
INTERFACING TO DATA CONVERTERS
6.1 DRIVING ADC ANALOG INPUTS
THD @
THD @
Figure 6.15: AD8057/AD8058 Op Amp Distortion Versus Output Voltage
G = +1, RL = 150 Ω, VS = ±5 V
Driving High Resolution Σ-∆ Measurement ADCs
The AD77xx family of ADCs is optimized for high resolution (16–24 bits) low frequency
transducer measurement applications. Details of operation for this family can be found in
Reference 3, and general characteristics of the family are listed in Figure 6.16.
Resolution: 16 - 24 bits
Input signal bandwidth: <60Hz
Effective sampling rate: <100Hz
Designed to interface directly to sensors (< 1 kΩ) such as bridges with
no external buffer amplifier (e.g., AD77xx - series)
On-chip PGA and high resolution ADC eliminates the need for
external amplifier
If buffer is used, it should be precision low noise (especially 1/f noise)
OP1177
OP177
AD797
Figure 6.16: Characteristics of AD77xx-family High Resolution
Σ-∆ Measurement ADCs
Some members of this family, such as the AD7730, have a high impedance input buffer
which isolates the analog inputs from switching transients generated in the front-end
programmable gain amplifier (PGA) and the Σ-∆ modulator. Therefore, no special
6.15
ANALOG-DIGITAL CONVERSION
precautions are required in driving the analog inputs. Other members of the AD77xx
family, however, either do not have the input buffer, or if one is included on-chip, it can
be switched either in or out under program control. Bypassing the buffer offers a slight
improvement in noise performance.
The equivalent input circuit of the AD77xx family without an input buffer is shown
below in Figure 6.17. The input switch alternates between the 10-pF sampling capacitor
and ground. The 7-kΩ internal resistance, RINT, is the on-resistance of the input
multiplexer. The switching frequency is dependent on the frequency of the input clock
and also the internal PGA gain. If the converter is working to an accuracy of 20-bits, the
10-pF internal capacitor, CINT, must charge to 20-bit accuracy during the time the switch
connects the capacitor to the input. This interval is one-half the period of the switching
signal (it has a 50% duty cycle). The input RC time constant due to the 7-kΩ resistor and
the 10-pF sampling capacitor is 70 ns. If the charge is to achieve 20-bit accuracy, the
capacitor must charge for at least 14 time constants, or 980 ns. Any external resistance in
series with the input will increase this time constant.
REXT
~
VSOURCE
RINT
SWITCHING FREQ
DEPENDS ON fCLKIN AND GAIN
7kΩ
HIGH
IMPEDANCE
> 1GΩ
CINT
10pF
TYP
AD77xx-Series
(WITHOUT BUFFER)
REXT Increases CINT Charge Time and May Result in Gain Error
Charge Time Dependent on the Input Sampling Rate and Internal
PGA Gain Setting
Refer to Specific Data Sheet for Allowable Values of REXT to
Maintain Desired Accuracy
Some AD77xx-Series ADCs Have Internal Buffering Which Isolates
Input from Switching Circuits
Figure 6.17: Driving Unbuffered AD77xx-Series Σ-∆
ADC Inputs
There are tables on the datasheets for the various AD77xx ADCs, which give the
maximum allowable values of REXT in order to maintain a given level of accuracy. These
tables should be consulted if the external source resistance is more than a few kΩ.
Note that for instances where an external op amp buffer is found to be required with this
type of converter, guidelines exist for best overall performance. This amplifier should be
a precision low-noise bipolar-input type, such as the OP1177, OP177, or the AD797.
6.16
INTERFACING TO DATA CONVERTERS
6.1 DRIVING ADC ANALOG INPUTS
Driving Single-Ended Input Single-Supply 1.6-V to 3.6-V Successive
Approximation ADCs
The need for low power, low supply voltage ADCs in small packages led to the
development of the AD7466/AD7467/AD7468 12-/10-/ and 8-bit family of converters
(Reference 4). These devices operate on supply voltages from 1.6 V to 3.6 V and utilize a
successive approximation architecture which allows sampling rates up to 200 kSPS. The
converters are packaged in a 6-lead SOT-23 package and offer this performance at only
0.62 mW with a 3-V supply and 0.12 mW with a 1.6-V supply. An automatic powerdown mode reduces the supply current to 8 nA. Data is transferred via a simple serial
interface. It is useful to examine these converters in more detail, because they illustrate
some of the tradeoffs which must be made in designing appropriate interface circuits.
A simplified block diagram of the series is shown in Figure 6.18. As mentioned, the ADC
utilizes a standard successive approximation architecture based on a switched capacitor
CMOS charge redistribution DAC. The input CMOS switches, SW1 and SW2, comprise
the sample-and-hold function, and are shown in the track mode in the diagram. Capacitor
C1 represents the equivalent parasitic input capacitance, CH is the hold capacitor, and RS
is the equivalent on-resistance of SW2. In the track mode, SW1 is connected to the input,
and SW2 is closed. In this condition, the comparator is balanced, and the hold capacitor
CH is charged to the value of the input signal. Assertion of the CS (convert start) starts
the conversion process: SW2 opens, and SW1 is connected to ground, causing the
comparator to become unbalanced. The control logic and the charge redistribution DAC
are used to add and subtract fixed amounts of charge from the hold capacitor to bring the
comparator back into balance. At the end of the appropriate number of clock pulses, the
conversion is complete.
INPUT RANGE = 0V TO VDD
VDD
SWITCHES SHOWN IN TRACK MODE
VIN
T
C1
4pF
SW1
H
RS
200Ω
CHARGE
REDISTRIBUTION
DAC
CH
+
20pF
SW2
–
T
CONTROL
LOGIC
COMPARATOR
H
SCLK
CS
SDATA
VDD
2
Figure 6.18: Input Circuit of AD7466 1.6-V to 3.6-V,
12-Bit, 200-kSPS SOT-23-6 ADC
6.17
ANALOG-DIGITAL CONVERSION
The switching action of CMOS switches SW1 and SW2 places certain requirements on
the input drive circuit with respect to the transient currents. In addition, the input signal
must charge and discharge CH in the track mode. In most cases, no input drive amplifier
is required provided the source impedance is less than 1 kΩ (although a slight
degradation in THD will be observed at input frequencies approaching 100 kHz).
The input voltage range of the AD746x ADC is from 0 V to the supply voltage, and the
supply also acts as the reference. If more accuracy or stability is required, the supply
voltage can be derived from a voltage reference or an LDO.
Although single-supply rail-to-rail 1.8-V op amps are available (such as the AD8515,
AD8517, and AD8631), these op amps will not drive signals completely to either rail due
to the saturation voltage of the output transistors (this has previously been discussed in
detail). If these are used as drive amplifiers to the AD746x, the usable input range of the
ADC will be reduced by an amount which depends not only on this saturation voltage but
the amount of additional headroom required at the amplifier output in order to give
acceptable distortion performance at the higher input frequencies.
The overall conclusion of this discussion is that low voltage single-supply ADCs such as
the AD746x are best driven directly from low impedance sources (< 1 kΩ). If a drive
amplifier is required, it must operate on a higher supply voltage in order to utilize the full
input range of the ADC.
Driving Single-Supply ADCs with Scaled Inputs
Even with the widespread popularity of single-supply systems, there are still applications
where it is desirable for the ADC to process bipolar input signals. This can be handled in
a number of ways, but a simple method is to provide an appropriate thin-film resistive
divider/level-shifter at the input of the ADC. The AD789x and AD76xx family of single
supply SAR ADCs (as well as the AD974, AD976, and AD977) include such a thin film
resistive attenuator and level shifter on the analog input to allow a variety of input range
options, both bipolar and unipolar.
A simplified diagram of the input circuit of the AD7890-10 12-bit, 8-channel ADC is
shown in Figure 6.19 (Reference 5). This arrangement allows the converter to digitize a
±10-V input while operating on a single +5-V supply.
Within the ADC, the R1/R2/R3 thin film network provides attenuation and level shifting
to convert the ±10-V input to a 0-V to +2.5-V signal that is digitized. This type of input
requires no special drive circuitry, because R1 isolates the input from the actual converter
circuitry that may generate transient currents due to the conversion process. Nevertheless,
the external source resistance RS should be kept reasonably low, to prevent gain errors
caused by the RS/R1 divider.
6.18
INTERFACING TO DATA CONVERTERS
6.1 DRIVING ADC ANALOG INPUTS
+5V
+2.5V
REFERENCE *
AD789x-Series
12, 14-Bits
2kΩ
REFOUT/
REFIN
+
+2.5V TO ADC REF CIRCUITS
_
RS
~
VINX
R1
±10V
30kΩ
VS
R1, R2, R3 ARE
RATIO-TRIMMED
THIN FILM RESISTORS
R2
7.5kΩ
R3
10kΩ
TO MUX, SHA, ETC.
0V TO +2.5V
AGND
Figure 6.19: Driving Single-Supply Data Acquisition ADCs With Scaled Inputs
Driving Differential Input CMOS Switched Capacitor ADCs
CMOS ADCs are quite popular because of their low power, high performance, and low
cost. The equivalent input circuit of a typical CMOS ADC using a differential sampleand-hold is shown in Figure 6.20. While the switches are shown in the track mode, note
that they open/close at the sampling frequency. The 16-pF capacitors represent the
effective capacitance of switches S1 and S2, plus the stray input capacitance. The CS
capacitors (4 pF) are the sampling capacitors, and the CH capacitors are the hold
capacitors. Although the input circuit is completely differential, this ADC structure can
be driven either single-ended or differentially. Optimum performance, however, is
generally obtained using a differential transformer or differential op amp drive.
In the track mode, the differential input voltage is applied to the CS capacitors. When the
circuit enters the hold mode, the voltage across the sampling capacitors is transferred to
the CH hold capacitors and buffered by the amplifier A (the switches are controlled by the
appropriate sampling clock phases). When the SHA returns to the track mode, the input
source must charge or discharge the voltage stored on CS to the new input voltage. This
action of charging and discharging CS, averaged over a period of time and for a given fs
sampling frequency, makes the input impedance appear to have a benign resistive
component. However, if this action is analyzed within a sampling period (1/fs), the input
impedance is dynamic, and certain input drive source precautions should be observed.
6.19
ANALOG-DIGITAL CONVERSION
CH
16pF
CP
4pF
S4
CS
S1
VINA
4pF
+
S3
S2
VINB
A
CS
-
4pF
CP
16pF
S6
CH
S5
S7
4pF
SWITCHES SHOWN IN TRACK MODE
Figure 6.20: Simplified Input Circuit for a Typical Switched Capacitor CMOS
Sample-and-Hold
The resistive component of the input impedance can be computed by calculating the
average charge that is drawn by CH from the input drive source. It can be shown that if CS
is allowed to fully charge to the input voltage before switches S1 and S2 are opened that
the average current into the input is the same as if there were a resistor equal to 1/(CSfS)
connected between the inputs. Since CS is only a few picofarads, this resistive component
is typically greater than several kΩ for an fS = 10 MSPS.
Over a sampling period, the SHA's input impedance appears as a dynamic load. When the
SHA returns to the track mode, the input source should ideally provide the charging
current through the RON of switches S1 and S2 in an exponential manner. The
requirement of exponential charging means that the source impedance should be both low
and resistive up to and beyond the sampling frequency.
A differential input CMOS ADC can be driven single-ended with some ac performance
degradation. An important consideration in CMOS ADC applications are the input
switching transients previously discussed. Typical single-ended transients for a CMOS
ADC are shown in Figure 6.21 for the AD9225 12-bit, 25-MSPS ADC. This data was
taken driving the ADC with an equivalent 50-Ω source impedance. During the sample-tohold transition, the input signal is sampled when CS is disconnected from the source.
Notice that during the hold-to-sample transition, CS is reconnected to the source for
recharging. The transients consist of linear, nonlinear, and common-mode components at
the sample rate.
6.20
INTERFACING TO DATA CONVERTERS
6.1 DRIVING ADC ANALOG INPUTS
Hold-to-Sample Mode Transition- CS Returned to Source for "recharging".
Transient Consists of Linear, Nonlinear, and Common-Mode Components at
Sample Rate .
Sample-to-Hold Mode Transition- Input Signal Sampled when CS is
disconnected from Source.
Hold-to-Sample
Mode Transition
Sample-to-Hold
Mode Transition
Note: Data Taken with 50Ω
Source Resistance
Figure 6.21: Single-Ended Input Transients for a
Typical CMOS ADC Sampling at 25 MSPS
Single-Ended Drive Circuits for Differential Input CMOS ADCs
A few simple single-ended drive circuits suitable for CMOS ADCs will now be
examined. Although differential drive is preferable for best ac performance, single-ended
drivers are often adequate in less demanding applications.
Figure 6.22 shows a generalized single-ended op amp driver for a CMOS ADC. In this
circuit, series resistor RS has a dual purpose. Typically chosen in the range of 25-100 Ω,
it limits the peak transient current from the driving op amp. Importantly, it also decouples
the driver from the ADC input capacitance (and possible phase margin loss).
VIN
+
–
AD92xx
RS
VINA
CF
RS
VINB
CF
VREF
10µF
0.1µF
Figure 6.22: Optimizing a Single-Ended Switched Capacitor
ADC Input Drive Circuit
6.21
ANALOG-DIGITAL CONVERSION
Another feature of the circuit are the dual networks of RS and CF. Matching both the dc
and ac source impedance for the ADC's VINA and VINB inputs ensures symmetrical settling
of common-mode transients, for optimum noise and distortion performance. At both
inputs, the CF shunt capacitor also acts as a charge reservoir and steers the common-mode
transients to ground.
In addition to the buffering of transients, RS and CF also form a lowpass filter for VIN,
which limits the output noise of the drive amplifier into the ADC input VINA. The exact
values for RS and CF are generally optimized within the circuit, and the recommended
values given on the ADC datasheet.
Many important factors should be considered in selecting an appropriate drive amplifier.
As discussed previously, common-mode input and output voltages must be compatible
with the ADC power supply and input range. The op amp noise and distortion
performance should be compatible with the expected performance of the ADC. In
addition, the settling time of the op amp should be fast enough so that the output can
settle from the transient currents produced by the ADC. A good guideline is that the 0.1%
settling time of the op amp should be no more than one-half the period of the maximum
sampling frequency. The most important factor is simply to consult the ADC data sheet
for recommended drive op amps and the associated circuits.
A generalized dc-coupled single-ended op amp driver and level shifter for the AD922xseries of ADCs is shown in Figure 6.23. The values in this circuit are suitable for
sampling rates up to about 25 MSPS. This circuit interfaces a ±2-V ground-referenced
input signal to the single-supply ADC, and also provides transient current isolation. The
ADC input voltage range is 0 to +4-V, and a dual supply op amp is required, since the
ADC minimum input is 0 V.
1k Ω
1kΩ
INPUT
±2V
+2.0V – /+2V
+5V
-
33.2Ω
AD8057
52.3Ω
+
1k Ω
100pF
–5V
+1.0V
1k Ω
0.1µF
+2.0V
+
10µF
+5V
AD922x
VINA
INPUT RANGE SET
FOR 0V to +4V
VREF
0.1µF
33.2Ω
VINB
100pF
Figure 6.23: Single-Ended DC-Coupled Level Shifter and Driver for the
AD922x ADC
6.22
INTERFACING TO DATA CONVERTERS
6.1 DRIVING ADC ANALOG INPUTS
The non-inverting input of the AD8057 is biased at +1 V, which sets the output commonmode voltage at VINA to +2 V for a bipolar input signal source. Note that the VINA and
VINB source impedances are matched for better common-mode transient cancellation. The
100-pF capacitors act as small charge reservoirs for the input transient currents, and also
form lowpass noise filters with the 33.2-Ω series resistors.
A similar single-ended level shifter and driver is shown in Figure 6.24, however this
circuit is designed to operate on a single +5-V supply. In this circuit the bipolar ±1-V
input signal is interfaced to the input of the ADC whose range is set for 2 V about a
+2.5-V common-mode voltage. The AD8061 rail-to-rail output op amp is used, although
others are suitable depending upon bandwidth and distortion requirements (for example,
the AD8027, AD8031, or AD8091). The +1.25-V input common-mode voltage for the
AD8061 is developed by a voltage divider from the external AD780 2.5-V reference.
1kΩ
+5V
+2.5V – /+ 1V
+5V
1kΩ
INPUT
-
33.2Ω
AD8061**
± 1V
52.3Ω
AD922x
VINA
+
100pF
INPUT RANGE SET
FOR +1.5V to +3.5V
+1.25V
+5V
ADR431
2.5V
REF.
1k Ω
10µF
+
1kΩ
0.1µF
+2.5V
+
10µF
33.2Ω
VINB
100pF
0.1µF
**ALSO AD8027, AD8031, AD8091 (SEE TEXT)
Figure 6.24: Single-Ended DC-Coupled Single-Supply
Level Shifter for Driving AD922x ADC
Differential Input ADC Drivers
As previously discussed, most high performance ADCs are now being designed with
differential inputs. A fully differential ADC design offers the advantages of good
common-mode rejection, reduction in second-order distortion products, and simplified
factory trimming algorithms. Although most differential input ADCs can be driven
single-ended as previously described, a fully differential driver usually optimizes overall
performance.
In the following discussions, it is useful to keep in mind that there are currently two
popular IC processes used for high performance ADCs, and each one has certain
application implications. Many medium-to-high performance ADCs are fabricated on
high density foundry CMOS processes, and these typically use switched capacitor
6.23
ANALOG-DIGITAL CONVERSION
sample-and-hold techniques (previously described) which tend to generate transient
currents at the ADC inputs. In many cases, however, ultra high performance ADCs are
designed on either BiCMOS (bipolar and CMOS devices on the same process) or CB
(complementary bipolar) processes. ADCs designed on BiCMOS or CB processes
typically provide input buffers as part of a more conventional diode-switched sampleand-hold circuit which minimize the effects of input transient currents—however, the
input range is generally less flexible than in CMOS-based designs.
In order to understand the advantages of common-mode rejection of input transient
currents, we will next examine the waveforms at the two inputs of the AD9225 12-bit,
25-MSPS CMOS ADC as shown in Figure 6.25A, designated as VINA and VINB. The
balanced source impedance is 50 Ω, and the sampling frequency is set for 25 MSPS. The
diagram clearly shows the switching transients due to the internal ADC switched
capacitor sample-and-hold. Figure 6-25B shows the difference between the two
waveforms, VINA − VINB.
VINA
(A)
VINA-VINB
(B)
VINB
Differential charge transient is symmetrical around mid-scale and
dominated by linear component
Common-mode transients cancel with equal source impedance
Note: Data Taken with 50Ω Source Resistances
Figure 6.25: Typical Single-Ended (A) and Differential (B) Input Transients of
CMOS Switched Capacitor ADC Sampling at 25 MSPS
Note that the resulting differential charge transients are symmetrical about mid-scale, and
that there is a distinct linear component to them. This shows the reduction in the
common-mode transients, and also leads to better distortion performance than would be
achievable with a single-ended input.
Transformer coupling into a differential input ADC provides excellent common-mode
rejection and low distortion, provided performance to dc is not required. Figure 6.26
shows a typical circuit. The transformer is a Mini-Circuits RF transformer, model
#ADT4-1WT which has an impedance ratio of 4 (turns ratio of 2). The 3-dB bandwidth
of this transformer is 2 MHz to 775 MHz (Reference 6). The schematic assumes that the
signal source impedance is 50 Ω. The 1:4 impedance ratio requires the 200-Ω secondary
termination for optimum power transfer and low VSWR. The center tap of the
6.24
INTERFACING TO DATA CONVERTERS
6.1 DRIVING ADC ANALOG INPUTS
transformer secondary winding provides a convenient means of level shifting the input
signal to the optimum VC/2 common-mode voltage of the ADC (some ADCs may have a
common-mode voltage different than VC/2, so the data sheet should be consulted).
+VC
RS
1kΩ
V IN+
50Ω
AD92xx
C1
HIGH INPUT Z
C2
1Vp-p
CMOS ADC
200 Ω
RS
RF TRANSFORMER:
MINI-CIRCUITS ADT4-1WT
1:2 Turns Ratio
1:4 Impedance Ratio
VCM
1kΩ
VIN–
C1
0.1 µ F
Figure 6.26: Transformer Coupling into a Differential Input CMOS ADC
Transformers with other turns ratios may also be selected to optimize the performance for
a given application. For example, a given input signal source or amplifier may realize an
improvement in distortion performance at reduced output power levels and signal swings.
Hence, selecting a transformer with a higher impedance ratio effectively "steps up" the
signal level thus reducing the driving requirements of the signal source.
The network consisting of RS, C1, and C2 is relatively common when driving CMOS
switched capacitor ADC inputs with a transformer. The RS resistors serve to isolate the
transformer secondary winding from the switching transients, and the optimum value
(determined empirically) generally ranges from 25 to 100 Ω. The C1 capacitors serve as
common-mode charge reservoirs for the switching transients and also provide noise
filtering (in conjunction with the RS resistors). The C1 capacitors should have no greater
than 5% tolerance to prevent common-mode to differential signal conversion. If needed,
C2 can be added for additional differential filtering. Data sheets for most CMOS ADCs
typically recommend optimum values for RS, C1, and C2 and should be consulted in all
cases.
As previously mentioned, BiCMOS or complementary bipolar ADCs typically provide
some amount of input buffering, and therefore have lower input transient currents than
CMOS converters. Figure 6.27 shows two typical input configurations for buffered
BiCMOS or CB ADCs. Although this can simplify the interface, the fixed input
common-mode level may limit flexibility. In Figure 6.27A the common-mode voltage is
developed with a resistive divider connected between ground and the positive analog
supply voltage. In Figure 6.27B, the common-mode voltage is generated by an internal
reference voltage.
6.25
ANALOG-DIGITAL CONVERSION
(A)
AVDD
VINA
R1
R1
VINA
INPUT
BUFFER
SHA
(B)
INPUT
BUFFER
SHA
VINB
VINB
R2
R2
VREF
GND
Input buffers typical on BiCMOS and bipolar processes
Difficult on CMOS
Simplified input interface - low transient currents
Fixed common-mode level may limit flexibility
Figure 6.27: ADCs with Buffered Differential Inputs (BiCMOS or
Complementary Bipolar Process)
Figure 6.28 shows a transformer drive circuit for the AD9430 12-bit, 170-/210-MSPS
BiCMOS ADC (Reference 7). For best performance at high input frequencies, two
transformers are connected in series as shown to minimize even-order harmonic
distortion. The first transformer converts the single-ended signal to a differential signal—
however the grounded input on the primary side degrades the amplitude balance on the
secondary winding because of the stray capacitive coupling between the windings. The
second transformer improves the amplitude balance, and thus the harmonic distortion. A
wideband transformer, such as the Mini Circuits ADT1-1WT is recommended for these
applications. The 3-dB bandwidth of the ADT1-1WT is 0.4 MHz to 800 MHz. Note that
the bandwidth through the two transformers is equal to the bandwidth of a single
transformer divided by √2.
The net impedance seen by the secondary winding of the second transformer is the sum
of the ADC input impedance (6 kΩ) and the two 24.9-Ω series resistors, or approximately
6050 Ω. The 51.1-Ω termination resistor in parallel with 6050 Ω yields the desired
impedance of approximately 50 Ω.
There is no requirement for input filtering, since the BiCMOS buffered input circuit
generates minimal transient currents. The 24.9-Ω series resistors simply buffers the
transformer from the small input capacitance of the ADC (~5 pF). The input commonmode voltage is set at +2.8 V by the 3.5-kΩ/20-kΩ resistive divider (when operating on a
+3.3-V supply). This serves to illustrate the point made earlier that BiCMOS and
complementary bipolar ADCs may not have a common-mode voltage that is exactly midsupply. In this circuit, the most positive input voltage on either input is 2.8 V + 0.384 V =
3.184 V which is only 116 mV from the +3.3-V supply. The implication therefore is that
for low distortion performance in a 3.3-V system, the AD9430 must either be driven from
a transformer or from an ac-coupled differential amplifier.
6.26
INTERFACING TO DATA CONVERTERS
6.1 DRIVING ADC ANALOG INPUTS
If dc coupling is required, the driving amplifier must operate on a higher supply voltage,
because even rail-to-rail output stages will give poor high frequency distortion
performance if only 116-mV of headroom is available.
+3.3V
MINICIRCUITS
ADT1-1WT
+2.8V +/– 0.384V
24.9Ω
±0.768V
3kΩ
AD9430
3.5kΩ
20kΩ
51.1Ω
0.1µF
1:1
3kΩ
1:1
3.5kΩ
24.9Ω
20kΩ
+2.8V –/+ 0.384V
Figure 6.28: Transformer Coupling into the AD9430 12-Bit,
170-/210-MSPS BiCMOS ADC
Note that the center tap of the secondary winding of the transformer is decoupled to
ground to ensure a balanced drive.
A similar transformer drive circuit for the AD6645 14-bit, 80-/105-MSPS (bipolar
process) ADC is shown in Figure 6.29 (Reference 8). Note that the input common-mode
voltage is developed by the two 500-Ω resistors connected to each input from the internal
2.4-V reference. The differential input resistance of the ADC is therefore 1 kΩ. As in the
previous circuit, the 24.9-Ω series resistors isolate the transformer secondary winding
from the small input capacitance of the ADC. The net differential impedance seen by the
secondary winding of the transformer is therefore 1050 Ω.
In this circuit, a Mini Circuits ADT4-1WT 1:4 impedance ratio (1:2 turns ratio)
transformer is used to match the 1050-Ω differential resistance to the 50-Ω source. The
1050-Ω resistance is 262.5 Ω referred to the primary winding, and the 61.9-Ω
termination resistor in parallel with 262.5 Ω is approximately 50 Ω. The 3-dB bandwidth
of the transformer is 2 MHz to 775 MHz.
6.27
ANALOG-DIGITAL CONVERSION
Theoretically, a 1:20 impedance ratio (corresponding to a 1 : 4.47 turns ratio) transformer
would perfectly match the AD6645 1000-Ω input to the 50-Ω source and provide a
"noise-free" voltage gain of 4.47 (+13 dB). However, this large turns ratio could result in
unsatisfactory bandwidth and distortion performance.
+5V
+2.4V +/– 0.55V
MINICIRCUITS
ADT4-1WT
AD6645
24.9Ω
500Ω
±0.58V
61.9Ω
500Ω
VREF = +2.4V
0.1µF
1:2 TURNS
RATIO
500Ω
500Ω
24.9Ω
1:4
IMPEDANCE
RATIO +2.4V –/+ 0.55V
Figure 6.29: Transformer Coupling into the AD6645 14-Bit,
80-/105-MSPS Complementary Bipolar Process ADC
To illustrate the effects of utilizing transformers for voltage gain on system noise figure
(NF), Figure 6.30 shows the AD6645 sampling a 40-MHz bandwidth signal at 80 MSPS
for turns ratios of 1:1 (Figure 6.30A), 1:2 (Figure 6.30B) and 1:4 (Figure 6.30C). (Refer
back to Chapter 2 for the basic definitions and calculations of ADC noise figure).
Notice that each time the turns ratio is doubled, the noise figure decreases by 6 dB. In
practice, however, empirical data indicates that bandwidth and distortion are
compromised when driving the AD6645 with a turns ratio of greater than 1:2.
6.28
INTERFACING TO DATA CONVERTERS
6.1 DRIVING ADC ANALOG INPUTS
1:1 TURNS RATIO
(A)
50Ω
AD6645
50Ω
B=
40MHz
52.3Ω
1kΩ
VFS P-P = 2.2V
fs = 80MSPS
SNR = 74dB
Input 3dB BW = 250MHz
NF = 34.8dB
PFS(dBm) = +10.8dBm
1:2 TURNS RATIO
(B)
50Ω
AD6645
200Ω
B=
40MHz
249Ω
1kΩ
NF = 28.8dB
PFS(dBm) = +4.8dBm
1:4 TURNS RATIO
(C)
50Ω
B=
40MHz
800Ω
AD6645
4.02kΩ
1kΩ
NF = 22.8dB
PFS(dBm) = –1.2dBm
Figure 6.30: Using RF Transformers to Improve Overall ADC Noise Figure
Driving ADCs with Differential Amplifiers
Certainly for most RF and IF applications, transformer ADC drivers yield the best overall
distortion and noise performance, especially if the transformer can be utilized to achieve
some amount of "noise free" voltage gain. There are, however, many applications where
differential input ADCs cannot be driven with transformers because the frequency
response must extend to dc. In these cases, the op amp common-mode input and output
voltage, gain, distortion, and noise must be carefully considered in designing dc-coupled
drive circuitry. The following two subsections discuss two types of differential op amp
drivers: the first is based on utilizing dual op amps, and the second utilizes fully
integrated differential amplifiers.
Dual Op Amp Drivers
Figure 6.31 shows how the dual AD8058 op amp can be connected to convert a singleended bipolar signal to a differential one suitable for driving the AD92xx family of
CMOS ADCs. Utilizing a dual op amp provides better gain and phase matching than
would be achieved by simply using two single op amps. The input range of the ADC is
set for a 2-V p-p differential input signal (1-V p-p on each input), and a common-mode
voltage of +2 V. As shown for previous CMOS ADCs, the 100-pF capacitors serve as
charge reservoirs for the transient currents, and also act as lowpass noise filters in
conjunction with the 33.2-Ω resistors.
The A1 amplifier is configured as a non-inverting op amp. The 1-kΩ divider resistors
level shift the ±0.5-V input signal to +1 V ±0.25 V at the non-inverting input of A1. The
output of A1 is therefore +2 V +/–0.5 V, because the non-inverting gain of A1 is 2.
6.29
ANALOG-DIGITAL CONVERSION
1kΩ
+1V +/ – 0.25V
+2.0V +/ – 0.5V
+5V
+5V
INPUT
1kΩ
+
1/2
AD8058**
±0.5V
53.6Ω
–
1kΩ
A1
1kΩ
1 kΩ
+2.0V – /+ 0.5V
AD92xx
33.2Ω
V IN+
SET FOR 2V P-P
DIFFERENTIAL
INPUT SPAN
100pF
33.2Ω
V IN –
100pF
–
1/2
AD8058**
Noise Gain = +2
+
A2
–5V**
1kΩ
+1V
1kΩ
VREF
+2.0V
10 µ F
+
0.1µF
**AD8062, AD8028, AD8032, AD8092 ALLOW SINGLE SUPPLY
OPERATION (SEE TEXT)
Figure 6.31: Op Amp Single-Ended to Differential DC-Coupled Driver
with Level Shifting
The A2 op amp inverts the input signal, and the 1-kΩ divider resistors establish a +1-V
common-mode voltage on its non-inverting input. The output of A2 is therefore
+2 V –/+0.5 V.
This circuit provides good matching between the two op amps because they are duals on
the same die and are both operated at the same noise gain of 2. However, the input
voltage noise of the AD8058 is 20 nV/√Hz, and this appears as 40 nV/√Hz at the output
of both A1 and A2 thereby, introducing possible SNR degradation in some applications.
In the circuit of Figure 6.31, this is mitigated somewhat by the input RC network which
not only reduces the input noise, but also absorbs some of the transient currents.
The AD8058 op amp does not have rail-to-rail inputs or outputs, and the following
simple analysis shows that the circuit as shown in Figure 6.31 must use dual supplies.
The output common-mode voltage of the AD8058 operating on a single +5-V supply is
+0.9 V to +3.4 V, which would be acceptable in this circuit, because the required signal
swing is only +1.5 V to +2.5 V. However, the input common-mode voltage of the
AD8058 operating on a single +5-V supply is specified as +0.9 V to +4.1 V; but the
circuit requires that the input common-mode voltage go to +0.75 V, which is outside the
allowable range. Therefore, a dual supply is required for the op amp.
If single supply operation is required, however, there are a number of dual rail-to-rail op
amps which should be considered, such as the AD8062, AD8028, AD8032, and the
AD8092.
6.30
INTERFACING TO DATA CONVERTERS
6.1 DRIVING ADC ANALOG INPUTS
Fully Integrated Differential Amplifier Drivers
A block diagram of the AD813x family of fully differential amplifiers optimized for
ADC driving is shown in Figure 6.32 (see Reference 9). Figure 6.32A shows the details
of the internal circuit, and Figure 6.32B shows the equivalent circuit. The gain is set by
the external resistors RF and RG, and the common-mode voltage is set by the voltage on
the VOCM pin. The internal common-mode feedback forces the VOUT+ and VOUT– outputs
to be balanced, i.e., the signals at the two outputs are always equal in amplitude but 180°
out of phase per the equation,
VOCM = ( VOUT+ + V OUT– ) / 2.
Eq. 6.4
The AD813x uses two feedback loops to separately control the differential and commonmode output voltages. The differential feedback, set with external resistors, controls only
the differential output voltage. The common-mode feedback controls only the commonmode output voltage. This architecture makes it easy to arbitrarily set the output
common-mode level in level shifting applications. It is forced, by internal common-mode
feedback, to be equal to the voltage applied to the VOCM input, without affecting the
differential output voltage. The result is nearly perfectly balanced differential outputs of
identical amplitude and exactly 180° apart in phase over a wide frequency range. The
circuit can be used with either a differential or a single-ended input, and the voltage gain
is equal to the ratio of RF to RG.
RF
(A)
V+
+
VIN+
RG
VIN–
RG
VOUT–
–
+
+
–
VOCM
–
–
VOUT+
+
V–
RF
(B)
RF
EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT:
VIN+
GAIN =
RF
~
RG
VIN–
RG
+
RG
VOCM
VOUT–
–
RF
VOUT+
Figure 6.32: AD813x Differential ADC Driver Functional
Diagram and Equivalent Circuit
6.31
ANALOG-DIGITAL CONVERSION
The circuit can be analyzed using the assumptions and procedures summarized in Figure
6.33. As in the case of op amp circuit dc analysis, one can first make the assumption that
the currents into the inverting and non-inverting input are zero (i.e., the input impedances
are high relative to the values of the feedback resistors). The second assumption is that
feedback forces the non-inverting and inverting input voltages to be equal. The third
assumption is that the output voltages are 180° out of phase and symmetrical about VOCM.
V+
VIN+
~
RG
RG
RF
i=0
i=0
–
VOUT+
VIN–
V–
V+ = V–
VOCM
VOUT–
+
VOCM
RF
VOCM
GAIN =
VOUT+ – VOUT–
VIN+ – VIN–
=
RF
RG
+ and – input currents are zero
+ and – input voltages are equal
Output voltages are 180° out of phase and symmetrical about VOCM
Gain = RF/RG
Figure 6.33: Analyzing Voltage Levels in Differential Amplifiers
Even if the external feedback networks (RF/RG) are mismatched, the internal commonmode feedback loop will still force the outputs to remain balanced. The amplitudes of the
signals at each output will remain equal and 180° out of phase. The input-to-output
differential-mode gain will vary proportionately to the feedback mismatch, but the output
balance will be unaffected. Ratio matching errors in the external resistors will result in a
degradation of the circuit's ability to reject input common-mode signals, much the same
as for a four-resistor difference amplifier made from a conventional op amp.
Also, if the dc levels of the input and output common-mode voltages are different,
matching errors will result in a small differential-mode output offset voltage. For the
G = 1 case with a ground-referenced input signal and the output common-mode level set
for 2.5 V, an output offset of as much as 25 mV (1% of the difference in common-mode
levels) can result if 1% tolerance resistors are used. Resistors of 1% tolerance will result
in a worst case input CMRR of about 40 dB, worst case differential mode output offset of
25 mV due to 2.5-V level-shift, and no significant degradation in output balance error.
The effective input impedance of a circuit, such as the one in Figure 6.33, at VIN+ and
VIN– will depend on whether the amplifier is being driven by a single-ended or
differential signal source. For balanced differential input signals, the input impedance
(RIN,dm) between the inputs ( VIN+ and VIN–) is simply:
RINdm = 2 × RG
Eq. 6.5
In the case of a single-ended input signal (for example, if VIN– is grounded, and the input
signal is applied to VIN+), the input impedance becomes:
6.32
INTERFACING TO DATA CONVERTERS
6.1 DRIVING ADC ANALOG INPUTS




RG


R IN , dm =


RF
 1 − 2 × (R + R ) 
G
F 

Eq. 6.6
The circuit's input impedance is effectively higher than it would be for a conventional op
amp connected as an inverter, because a fraction of the differential output voltage appears
at the inputs as a common-mode signal, partially bootstrapping the voltage across the
input resistor RG.
Figure 6.34 shows some of the possible configurations for the AD813x differential
amplifier. Figure 6.34A is the standard configuration which utilizes two feedback
networks, characterized by feedback factors β1 and β2, respectively. Note that each
feedback factor can vary anywhere between 0 and 1.
(A)
RG1
(B)
RF1
V+
+
VOUT–
VOCM
V–
–
(C)
V+
β1 = 0
+
VOUT–
–
VOUT+
VOCM
V–
VOUT+
RG2
RF2
β1 =
β2 =
G=
RG2
β1 = 0
V+
+
VOUT–
VOCM
V–
VOUT+
–
β2 = 1
RF2
RG1
RG1 + RF1
RG2
RG2 + RF2
2 (1 – β1)
(D)
RG1
(E)
RF1
V+
+
VOUT–
VOCM
β1 + β2
V–
β2 = 1
RG1
RF1
V+
VOUT–
+
VOCM
–
VOUT+
V–
VOUT+
–
β2 = 0
Figure 6.34: Some Configurations for Differential Amplifiers
Figure 6.34B shows a configuration where there is no feedback from VOUT– to V+, i.e., β1
= 0. In this case, β2 determines the amount of VOUT+ that is fed back to V–, and the
circuit is similar to a non-inverting op amp configuration, except for the presence of the
additional complementary output. Therefore, the overall gain is twice that of a noninverting op amp, or 2 × (1 + RF2/RG2), or 2 × (1/β2).
Figure 6.34C shows a circuit where β1 = 0 and β2 = 1. This circuit is essentially provides
a resistorless gain of 2.
Figure 6.34D shows a circuit where β2 = 1, and β1 is determined by RF1 and RG1. The
gain of this circuit is always less than 2.
6.33
ANALOG-DIGITAL CONVERSION
Finally, the circuit of Figure 6.34E has β2 = 0, and is very similar to a conventional
inverting op amp, except for the additional complementary output at VOUT+.
The AD813x-series are also well suited to balanced differential line driving as shown in
Figure 6.35 where the AD8132 drives a 100-Ω twisted pair cable. The AD8132 is
configured as a gain of 2 driver to account for the factor of 2 loss due to the source and
load terminated cable. In this configuration, the bandwidth of the AD8132 is
approximately 160 MHz.
+5V
+5V
0.1µF
1k Ω
0.1µF
FROM 50 Ω
SOURCE
499Ω
VIN
+
AD8132
VOCM
523 Ω
AD8130
49.9Ω
+
49.9 Ω
Gain = 1 + R2
R1
100Ω
TWISTED
PAIR
100Ω
49.9Ω
GM1
i1
VOUT
–
–
A=1
+
+
1kΩ
i2
GM2
0.1µF
GROUND 1
R2
–
–5V
Vn
GROUND 2
0.1µF
R1
–5V
Figure 6.35: High Speed Differential Line Driver,
Line Receiver Applications
The line receiver is an AD8130 differential receiver which has a unique architecture
called "active feedback" to achieve approximately 70-dB common-mode rejection at
10 MHz (Reference 10). For a gain of 1, the AD8130 has a 3-dB bandwidth of
approximately 270 MHz.
The AD8130 utilizes two identical input transconductance (gm) stages whose output
currents are summed together at a high impedance node and then buffered to the output.
The output currents of the two gm stages must be equal but opposite in sign, therefore, the
respective input voltages must also be equal but opposite in sign. The differential input
signal is applied to one of the stages (GM1), and negative feedback is applied to the other
(GM2) as in a traditional op amp. The gain is equal to 1 + R2/R1. The GM1 stage therefore
provides a truly balanced input for the terminated twisted pair for the best common-mode
rejection. Further details of operation of the AD8130 can be found in Reference 10.
6.34
INTERFACING TO DATA CONVERTERS
6.1 DRIVING ADC ANALOG INPUTS
Driving Differential Input ADCs with Integrated Differential Drivers
The AD8131, AD8132, AD8137, AD8138, and AD8139 differential ADC drivers are
ideal replacements for transformer drivers when direct coupling is required. They can
also provide the necessary gain and level shifting required to interface a bipolar signal to
a high performance ADC input. In addition, the AD8137 has rail-to-rail outputs to
simplify interfacing to low voltage differential input ADCs, and the AD8139 (also rail-torail output) is optimized for low noise and low distortion for 14- to 16-bit applications.
Figure 6.36 shows an application where the AD8137 differential amplifier is used as a
level shifter and driver for the AD7450A 12-bit, 1-MSPS 3-V ADC (Reference 11). The
AD7450A has fully differential inputs, and the input range is 4-V p-p differential when
an external 2-V reference (ADR390) is applied. This implies that the signals at each
output of the AD8137 driver must swing between +0.5 V and + 2.5 V (out of phase)
when operating on a single 3-V supply. The rail-to-rail output structure of the AD8137
will provide this voltage swing with some safety margin. The +1.5-V common-mode
voltage for the AD8137 is set by a resistive divider connected to the +3-V supply.
+3V
0.1µF
499Ω
0.1µF
VIN
+1.5V – / + 1V
10kΩ
±2V
499Ω
49.9Ω
+
FROM 50Ω
SOURCE
49.9Ω
+1.5V
10kΩ
AD8137
AIN–
Set for 4V p-p
Differential
Input Span
1000pF
VOCM
523Ω
AD7450A
12-BIT ADC
49.9Ω
–
0.1µF
AIN+
1000pF
fs = 1MSPS
499Ω
+3V
VREF
0.1µF
+0.75V + / – 0.5V
2V
+1.5V + / – 1V
ADR390
2V REF.
0.1µF
Figure 6.36: AD8137 Driving AD7450A 12-Bit, 1-MSPS, 3-V ADC
The inputs to the AD8137 must swing between +0.25 V and +1.25 V. This is not a
problem, since the input of the AD8137 is a differential PNP pair. The 523-Ω resistor
from the inverting input to ground approximately balances the net feedforward resistance
seen at the non-inverting input (499 Ω + 25 Ω = 524 Ω).
For higher frequency applications, the AD8138 differential amplifier has a 3-dB smallsignal bandwidth of 320 MHz (G = +1) and is designed to give low harmonic distortion
as an ADC driver. The circuit provides excellent output gain and phase matching, and the
balanced structure suppresses even-order harmonics.
6.35
ANALOG-DIGITAL CONVERSION
Figure 6.37 shows the AD8138 driving the AD9235 12-bit, 20-/40-/65-MSPS CMOS
ADC (see Reference 12). This entire circuit operates on a single +3-V supply. A 1-V p-p
bipolar single-ended input signal produces a 1-V p-p differential signal at the output of
the AD8138, centered around a common-mode voltage of +1.5 V (mid-supply). The
feedback network is chosen to provide a gain of 1, and the 523-Ω resistor from the
inverting input to ground approximately balances the net feedforward resistance seen at
the non-inverting input as in the previous example.
Each of the differential inputs of the AD8138 swings between +0.625 V and +0.875 V,
and each output swings between +1.25 V and +1.75 V. These voltages fall within the
allowable input and output common-mode voltage range of the AD8138 operating on a
single +3-V supply. The output stage of the AD8138 is of the complementary emitterfollower type, and at least 1-V of headroom is required from either supply rail.
+3V
0.1µF
499Ω
0.1µF
VIN
+1.5V – / + 0.25V
10kΩ
±0.5V
499Ω
49.9Ω
+
FROM 50Ω
SOURCE
49.9Ω
+1.5V
10kΩ
AD8138
VOCM
523Ω
100pF
49.9Ω
–
AIN–
Set for 1V p-p
Differential
Input Span
AIN+
0.1µF
100pF
499Ω
+0.75V + / – 0.125V
AD9235
12-BIT ADC
fs =
20/40/65MSPS
+1.5V + / – 0.25V
Figure 6.37: AD8138 Driving AD9235 12-Bit, 20-/40-/65-MSPS ADC
It is important to understand the effects of the ADC driver on overall system noise. The
circuit of Figure 6.37 will be used as an example, with the corresponding calculations
shown in Figure 6.38. The output voltage noise spectral density of the AD8138 for a gain
of 1 is 11.6 nV/√Hz (taken directly from the data sheet). This value includes the effects of
input voltage noise, current noise, and resistor noise. To obtain the total rms output noise
of the AD8138, the output noise spectral density is multiplied by the square root of the
equivalent noise bandwidth of 50 MHz, which is set by the single-pole lowpass filters
placed between the differential amplifier outputs and the ADC inputs.
Note that the closed-loop bandwidth of the AD8138 is 300 MHz, and the input bandwidth
of the AD9235 is 500 MHz. With no filter, the output noise of the AD8138 would be
integrated over the full 300-MHz amplifier closed-loop bandwidth. (In general, with no
filtering, the amplifier noise must be integrated over either the amplifier closed-loop
bandwidth or the ADC input bandwidth, whichever is less—or the geometric mean if the
frequencies are close to each other).
6.36
INTERFACING TO DATA CONVERTERS
6.1 DRIVING ADC ANALOG INPUTS
However, the sampling frequency of the ADC is 65 MSPS, thereby implying that signals
above 32.5 MHz are not of interest, assuming Nyquist operation (as opposed to
undersampling applications where the input signal can be greater than the Nyquist
frequency, fs/2). The addition of this simple filter significantly reduces noise effects as
will be demonstrated.
+3V
0.1µF
499Ω
0.1µF
VIN
Vni
10kΩ
499Ω
±0.5V
49.9Ω
+
FROM 50Ω
SOURCE
49.9Ω
+1.5V
10kΩ
AD8138
VOCM
523Ω
100pF
49.9Ω
–
AD9235
12-BIT ADC
AINSet for 1V p-p
Differential
Input Span
AIN+
0.1µF
100pF
fs =
20/40/65MSPS
499Ω
Filter Noise Bandwidth = 1.57 •
1
2π RC
= 50MHz
AD8038 DIFF. AMP SPECIFICATIONS
Output Voltage Noise = 11.6nV/√ Hz
Closed-Loop BW = 300MHz
Closed-Loop Noise BW = 1.57×300MHz = 471MHz
AD9235 ADC SPECIFICATIONS
Effective Input Noise = 132µV rms
Small Signal Input BW = 500MHz
Input Noise BW = 1.57×500MHz = 785MHz
AD8038 Output Noise Spectral Density = 11.6nV/√ Hz (Including Resistors)
Vni =
11.6nV/√ Hz • 50MHz = 78.2µV rms
Figure 6.38: Noise Calculations for the AD8138 Differential Op Amp Driving the
AD9235 12-Bit, 20-/40-/65-MSPS ADC
The noise at the output of the lowpass filter, Vni, is calculated to be approximately
78.2-µV rms which is only slightly more than half the effective input noise of the
AD9235, 132-µV rms. The effective input noise of the AD9235 is specified as 0.54-LSB
rms, which corresponds to (1 V / 4096)×(0.54) = 132-µV rms. Without the filter, the
noise from the op amp would be integrated over the full 471-MHz closed-loop noise
bandwidth of the AD8138 (1.57×300 MHz = 471 MHz ). This would yield a noise of
252-µV rms, compared to 78.2-µV rms obtained with lowpass filtering.
This serves to illustrate the general concept shown in Figure 6.39. In most high speed
system applications, a passive antialiasing filter (either lowpass for baseband sampling,
or bandpass for undersampling) is required, and placing this filter between the drive
amplifier and the ADC can significantly reduce the noise contribution due to the
amplifier. The filter therefore serves not only as an antialiasing filter but also as a noise
filter for the amplifier. It should be noted, however, that if the filter is placed between the
amplifier and the ADC, then the amplifier must be able to drive the impedance of the
filter without significant distortion.
6.37
ANALOG-DIGITAL CONVERSION
fFILTER
LPF
OR
BPF
fCL
AMP
fs
fCL
AMP
ADC
fADC
fFILTER
LPF
OR
BPF
AMP NOISE INTEGRATED
OVER fCL OR fADC,
WHICHEVER IS LESS
fs
ADC
fADC
AMP NOISE INTEGRATED
OVER FILTER BW, fFILTER
f
IN GENERAL, fFILTER < s << fADC < fCL
2
HOWEVER, IN SOME CASES, fCL < fADC
Figure 6.39: Proper Positioning of the Antialiasing Filter Will Reduce the Effects
of Op Amp Noise
High speed wide dynamic range ADCs such as the AD6645 14-bit 80-/105-MSPS ADC
require very low noise, low distortion drivers, and RF transformers generally give
optimum performance as previously described. However, there are applications where dc
coupling is required, and this places an extremely high burden on the differential driver.
Figure 6.40 shows the AD8139 differential driver operating as a dc-coupled level shifter
as in the previous examples. The AD8139 has a rail-to-rail output stage, a bandwidth of
370 MHz, and a voltage noise of 2 nV/√Hz. SFDR is greater than 88 dBc for a 20-MHz,
2-V p-p output.
The AD6645 input common-mode voltage is set by its internal reference of +2.4 V, and
this voltage is in turn applied to the AD8139 VOCM input pin. The outputs of the AD8139
swing between +1.85 V and +2.95 V, well within the common-mode output range of the
amplifier.
Another RF/IF differential amplifier useful for an ac coupled driver for ADCs such as the
AD6645 is the 2.2-GHz AD8351 (Reference 13). A typical application circuit is shown in
Figure 6.41.
6.38
INTERFACING TO DATA CONVERTERS
6.1 DRIVING ADC ANALOG INPUTS
+5V
0.1µF
499Ω
0.1µF
+2.4V – / + 0.55V
VIN
±1.1V
499Ω
24.9Ω
+
FROM 50Ω
SOURCE
49.9Ω
AD8139
+2.4V
VOCM
523Ω
24.9Ω
–
AIN–
2.2V p-p
Differential
Input Span
AIN+
0.1µF
fs =
80/105MSPS
499Ω
+1.2V + / – 0.275V
AD6645
14-BIT ADC
VREF
+2.4V + / – 0.55V
Figure 6.40: AD8139 Application as DC Coupled Driver for the
AD6645 14-bit, 80-/105-MSPS ADC
+5V
0.1µF
+
~
RG
200Ω
AD6645
14-BIT
80/105MSPS
ADC
AD8351
0.1µF
0.1µF
24.9Ω
VOCM
0.1µF
–
24.9Ω
RIN = 1kΩ
G = 10dB
AD8351 KEY FEATURES
3dB Bandwidth: 2.2GHz for gain of 12dB
Slew rate: 13,000V/µs
Single resistor programmable gain, 0dB to 26dB
Input noise: 2.7nV/√Hz
Single supply: 3 to 5.5V
Adjustable output common-mode voltage
Figure 6.41: AD8351 Low Distortion Differential RF/IF Amplifier Application
The AD8351 sets the standard in high performance, low distortion differential ADC
drivers. It is ideal where additional low-noise gain is required ahead of the ADC. Gain is
resistor programmable from 0 dB to 26 dB. Output common-mode voltage is set via the
VOCM pin. The AD8351 input stage operates at a common-mode voltage of about +2.5 V
and is not designed for dc coupling.
6.39
ANALOG-DIGITAL CONVERSION
Typical performance data as a driver for the AD6645 is shown in Figure 6.42. The data
was taken for a sampling rate of 80 MSPS with an input signal of 65 MHz. The
undersampled 65-MHz signal appears in the FFT output spectrum at 15 MHz (80 MHz –
65 MHz = 15 MHz). The gain of the AD8351 is set for 10 dB, and the SFDR is 78.2 dBc.
0
INPUT FREQ:
65MHz
SNR:
69.1dB
HD2:
–78.5dBc
HD3:
–80.7dBc
THD:
–75.9dBc
SFDR:
78.2dBc
f = fs – fin = 80MHz – 65MHz
= 15MHz
–20
SAMPLING RATE: 80MSPS
–40
dB
–60
2
–80
3
4
5
–100
6
–120
0
10
20
30
40
INPUT FREQUENCY (MHz)
Figure 6.42: AD8351 Differential ADC Driver Performance with AD6645 ADC
(G = 10 dB)
The AD8351 can also be used as an ac-coupled single-ended to differential converter
when working with single-ended signals as shown in the application circuit of Figure
6.43. The external resistors RF and RG are selected per the data sheet recommendations.
Even though the differential balance is not perfect under these conditions, the SFDR for a
65-MHz input is reduced by only a few dB relative to the fully differential case shown in
Figure 6.42.
+5V
FROM 50Ω
SOURCE
0.1µF
0.1µF
+
49.9Ω
RG
162Ω
AD6645
14-BIT
80/105MSPS
ADC
AD8351
0.1µF
0.1µF
24.9Ω
VOCM
0.1µF
–
24.9Ω
RIN = 1kΩ
G = 12dB
0.1µF
24.9Ω
RF
681Ω
Figure 6.43: Using the AD8351 as a Single-Ended to Differential Converter
6.40
INTERFACING TO DATA CONVERTERS
6.1 DRIVING ADC ANALOG INPUTS
For low distortion differential 12-bit ADC driver applications where programmable
variable gain is required, the AD8370 digitally controlled variable-gain amplifier (VGA)
is an excellent choice (Reference 14). Figure 6.44 shows the AD8370 as a single-ended to
differential converter driving the AD9433 12-bit, 105-/125-MSPS BiCMOS ADC. The
3-dB bandwidth of the AD8370 is 700 MHz, and the gain is programmable over two
ranges (–11 dB to + 17 dB and +6 dB to +34 dB) via a 3-wire serial interface. The
AD8370 is designed for use at IF frequencies up to 380 MHz.
SERIAL INTERFACE
GAIN CONTROL
FROM 50Ω
SOURCE
3
+5V
0.1µF
0.1µF
65.5Ω
AD9433
12-BIT
105/125MSPS
ADC
AD8370
ZIN = 200Ω
0.1µF
VOCM
0.1µF
–
0.1µF
24.9Ω
+
24.9Ω
RIN = 1kΩ
0.1µF
Figure 6.44: AD8370 Variable Gain Amplifier as a Low Distortion ADC Driver
Driving low distortion high performance 16-bit ADCs such as the AD7677 16-bit,
1-MSPS ADC requires special care, especially with respect to noise and linearity. For
example, the AD7677 has an INL specification of ±1 LSB, THD of –110 dB at 45 kHz,
and 94-dB SINAD @ 45 kHz.
The AD7677 is a CMOS charge redistribution switched capacitor SAR design that
operates on a single +5-V supply (Reference 15). Typical power dissipation is only
115 mW when operating at 1 MSPS. The converter is optimized for a differential drive
input. Input referred noise is only 0.35-LSB rms, so a low noise drive amplifier is
required. The AD8021 200-MHz op amp was especially designed with 16-bit systems in
mind (Reference 16). Voltage noise is only 2.1 nV/√Hz, and distortion is less than
90 dBc for a 1-MHz output. The AD8021 also has dc precision with 1-mV maximum
offset voltage, and 0.5-µV/°C drift. Quiescent current is 7 mA.
The low noise drive circuit in Figure 6.45 shows a single-ended to differential conversion
using a pair of AD8021 op amps. The output common-mode voltage is set for +1.25 V by
applying +1.25 V to the non-inverting input of the bottom AD8021. With no input
filtering, the output noise of the differential driver must be integrated over the entire
16-MHz input bandwidth of the AD7677. This noise contribution can be reduced to
approximately 0.13 LSB rms by the addition of a simple single-pole 4-MHz RC lowpass
filter as shown.
6.41
ANALOG-DIGITAL CONVERSION
0 to +2.5V
+5V
+5V
+
15Ω
AD8021
49.9Ω
–
0 to +2.5V
+IN
CC
10pF
2.7nF
–5V
AD7677
16-BIT
1MSPS ADC
590Ω
AD8021
VN = 2.1nV/√Hz
590Ω
590Ω
+2.5V REF
590Ω
+1.25V
CM
590Ω
LPF CUTOFF
= 4MHz
INPUT BW
= 16MHz
+5V
–
15Ω
AD8021
+
0.1µF
0.1µF
CC
10pF
0.1µF
–5V
NOISE DUE TO DRIVERS
~ 0.13 LSB RMS
+2.5V to 0
+5V
–IN
REF
2.7nF
0.1µF
ADR431
2.5V REF
+2.5V REF
AD7677 EQUIVALENT
INPUT NOISE = 0.35 LSB RMS
Figure 6.45: A True 16-bit ADC Requires a True 16-Bit Driver
The circuit shown in Figure 6.45 will operate with excellent matching up to several MHz.
However, the matching of the outputs can be extended to greater than 100 MHz by
individually compensating the two AD8021 op amps as shown in Figure 6.46. The
inverting and non-inverting bandwidths can be closely matched using this technique, thus
minimizing distortion. This circuit illustrates an inverter-follower driver operating at a
gain of 2, using individually compensated AD8021s.
The values of feedback and load resistors were selected to provide a total load of less
than 1 kΩ, and the equivalent resistances seen at each op amp's inputs were matched to
minimize offset voltage and drift. Figure 6.46 also shows the resulting ac responses of
each half of the differential driver.
Rather than using the balanced AD8021 circuit (requiring two op amps), the AD8139
differential amplifier offers another alternative for driving 14/-16-/18-bit ADCs. Figure
6.47 shows the AD8139 driving the 18-bit, 800-kSPS AD7674 switched capacitor SAR
ADC.
6.42
INTERFACING TO DATA CONVERTERS
6.1 DRIVING ADC ANALOG INPUTS
+VS
59Ω
VOUT2
+VS
VOUT1
Figure 6.46: Balanced AD8021 Driver Compensated to Give Matched Gains
to > 100 MHz
+5V
20Ω
0.1µF
0.1µF
200Ω
0.1µF
VIN
0V to +5.12V
+2.5V – / + 2.048V
124Ω
+
~
AD8031
+2.5V
AD8139
VOCM
–
124Ω
10µF
AIN–
2.7nF
8.192V p-p
Differential
Input Span
REF
AIN+
15Ω
–
2.7nF
+
0.1µF
DVDD
AD7674
18-BIT ADC
15Ω
+
AVDD
47µF
+
fs = 800kSPS
200Ω
+5V
REFBUFIN
0.1µF
+2.5 + / – 1.024V
+2.5V + / – 2.048V
CIRCUIT PERFORMANCE:
SFDR, THD = 105dBc, DNR = 100dBFS
FOR fs = 800kSPS, fin = 20.1kHz
ADR431
2.5V REF
2.5V
0.1µF
Figure 6.47: AD8139 Low Noise Differential Driver in a 18-bit ADC Application
Applying a +2.5-V reference to the REFBUFIN pin of the AD7674 generates an internal
reference voltage of +4.096 V. The input range of the ADC is then equal to 8.192 V p-p
differential.
The circuit scales and level shifts the unipolar 0-V to +5.12-V input voltage to fit the
range of the AD7674. The required gain of 1.6 is set by the ratio of the feedback to the
feedforward resistor: 200 Ω/124 Ω = 1.6. The required common-mode voltage of +2.5 V
is developed from the external ADR431 reference which also drives the AD7674
REFBUFIN. This voltage must be buffered by the AD8031 wideband op amp because of
6.43
ANALOG-DIGITAL CONVERSION
the required sink/source current of approximately ±8.2 mA. The signals at the outputs of
the AD8139 must swing from +0.5 V to +4.5 V (out of phase), which is within the range
of the AD8139 operating on a single +5-V supply. The signals at the inputs of the
AD8139 swing between +1.476 V and +3.524 V, which is well within the allowable input
common-mode range when operating on a single +5-V supply.
As in the circuit previously shown in Figure 6.45, the 15-Ω resistors in conjuction with
the 2.7-nF capacitors form a 4-MHz lowpass filter to the output noise of the AD8139.
6.44
INTERFACING TO DATA CONVERTERS
6.1 DRIVING ADC ANALOG INPUTS
REFERENCES:
6.1 DRIVING ADC ANALOG INPUTS
1.
Data sheet for AD8027 Low Distortion, High Speed, Rail-to-Rail Input/Output Amplifier, Data sheet
for AD8028 Low Distortion, Dual, High Speed, Rail-to-Rail Input/Output Amplifier,
http://www.analog.com.
2.
Data sheet for AD8057/AD8058 Low Cost, High Performance Voltage Feedback, 325 MHz
Amplifiers, http://www.analog.com.
3.
Chapter 8 of Walt Kester, Editor, Practical Design Techniques for Sensor Signal Conditioning, Analog
Devices, 1999, ISBN: 0-916550-20-6. (Also available at http://www.analog.com).
4.
Data Sheet for AD7466/AD7467/AD7468 1.6 V, Micropower 12-/10-/8-Bit ADCs in 6-Lead SOT-23,
http://www.analog.com.
5.
Data Sheet for AD7890 8-Channel, 12-Bit Serial, Data Acquisition System, http://www.analog.com.
6.
Mini-Circuits, P.O. Box 350166, Brooklyn, NY, 11235, 718-934-4500, http://www.minicircuits.com.
7.
Data Sheet for AD9430 12-Bit, 170 MSPS/210 MSPS 3.3 V A/D Converter, http://www.analog.com.
8.
Data Sheet for AD6645 14-Bit, 80/105 MSPS A/D Converter, http://www.analog.com.
9.
Data Sheets for AD8131, AD8132, AD8137, AD8138, AD8139 Differential Amplifiers,
http://www.analog.com.
10. Data Sheets for AD830, AD8129, AD8130 Differential Receiver Amplifiers, http://www.analog.com.
11. Data Sheet for AD7450A/AD7440 Differential Input, 1 MSPS, 12- and 10-Bit ADCs in 8-Lead
SOT-23, http://www.analog.com.
12. Data Sheet for AD9235 12-Bit, 20/40/65 MSPS 3 V A/D Converter, http://www.analog.com.
13. Data Sheet for AD8351 Low Distortion Differential RF/IF Amplifier, http://www.analog.com.
14. Data Sheet for AD8370 Digital Control VGA 700MHz Differential Amplifier, http://www.analog.com.
15. Data Sheet for AD7677 16-Bit, 1 LSB INL, 1 MSPS Differential ADC, http://www.analog.com.
16. Data Sheet for AD8021 Low Noise, High Speed Amplifier for 16-Bit Systems,
http://www.analog.com.
6.45
ANALOG-DIGITAL CONVERSION
NOTES:
6.46
INTERFACING TO DATA CONVERTERS
6.2 ADC AND DAC DIGITAL INTERFACES
SECTION 6.2: ADC AND DAC DIGITAL
INTERFACES (AND RELATED ISSUES)
Walt Kester
Introduction
A discussion of the broad area of data converter digital interfaces, timing, etc., can
quickly become detailed and very tedious because of the many variations associated with
specific products. We will therefore only attempt to point out the highlights in this
section. While it is possible to generalize to some degree, the fact is that there is
absolutely no substitute for careful study of the particular converter data sheet to clarify
key points.
Modern data converters are much more digitally intensive than their predecessors of a
few years ago. For example, high resolution Σ-∆ measurement ADCs typically have a
number of internal control registers which are used to determine channel selection, set
filter bandwidth, throughput rate, PGA gain, etc. These registers must be properly loaded
by sending data to them via a serial interface port. This same serial port is often used to
read the data out of the ADC at the end of a conversion cycle. Modern high frequency
communications converters have also become digitally intensive. For instance, direct
digital synthesis (DDS) ICs have internal registers which control the output frequency,
amplitude, phase, type of modulation, etc.
There are other issues relating to the digital and timing portions of data converters, such
as the condition of logic states immediately after power-on, the effect of pipeline delays,
burst mode operation (some will, some won't), minimum sampling frequency, sleep and
standby modes, etc.
Many of these topics are very similar to those encountered when designing with
microprocessors, microcontrollers, and DSPs. However, successful designing with data
converters not only requires understanding of digital and timing issues but also diligent
attention to the analog design—layout, grounding, decoupling, etc. These hardware
design topics are covered in considerable detail in Chapter 9 of this book.
Power-On Initialization of Data Converters
When power is first applied to a simple flip flop—the fundamental digital storage
element—there is generally no way to accurately predict what its output state will be.
Without the addition of additional power-on circuitry or initialization procedures, the
same is true of the many registers contained inside microprocessors, microcontrollers,
DSPs, and of course, mixed signal devices such as ADCs and DACs.
While power-on reset features have been common with microprocessors,
microcontrollers, and DSPs, such features are now included in some data converters—
especially those which are highly digitally intensive, or where it is critical that signals be
at certain levels after power-on.
6.47
ANALOG-DIGITAL CONVERSION
A good example is a DAC that is used inside an industrial control loop. If the DAC is
controlling an actuator, such as a vibration table, one can easily visualize a potential
problem if the DAC analog output is fullscale at power-on. For this reason, many IC
DACs used in industrial applications have internal power-on circuitry which forces the
initial digital data into the DAC register (the register that controls the state of the DAC
switches) to a known value (generally all 0's or mid-scale).
A digital potentiometer is another example of a device where the power-on state can be
important. For this reason, some digital pots have on-chip non-volatile memory that
stores the desired setting. Other digital pots without non-volatile memory usually have
on-chip circuitry which forces the initial power-on value to either zero or mid-scale (the
actual choice is pin selectable in some cases).
There is less reason to be concerned with the state of ADC outputs on power-on, because
one is not generally interested in the ADC output until after a conversion command of
some sort is applied. However, pipelined and Σ-∆ ADCs generally do require a number of
sample clock cycles before the digital "pipeline" is flushed out and the output data is
valid. Again, the data sheet for the device specifies this parameter.
Initialization of Data Converter Internal Control Registers
Modern data converters, especially those which offer a high degree of functionality, often
utilize internal control registers to set various operational parameters. For instance, the
AD77xx family of Σ-∆ ADCs offer programmable throughput rate, filter cutoff
frequency, amplifier gain, channel selection, etc. These parameters must be loaded into
the ADC after power-on via a serial port. In order to ensure proper operation, these ADCs
generally incorporate power-on reset and initialization circuitry which programs a known
set of default values into the critical registers upon power-on. This allows the user to start
system initialization with the ADC in valid operational state—an invaluable feature when
troubleshooting an initial design at the PC board level.
In addition to the power-on reset feature, these types of ADCs generally have a separate
reset pin which allows the converter to be put into a known state any time after power is
connected. In some cases, the ADCs can also be reset to default conditions under
software control.
Highly integrated DACs, Direct Digital Synthesis (DDS) systems, and many other
mixed-signal ICs also have initialization features such as power-on reset, default modes,
etc. As previously discussed, some have on-chip non-volatile memory which can be used
to store the desired settings. The trend towards more integration and more
programmability will ultimately lead to even more devices with on-chip volatile and nonvolatile memory.
Low Power, Sleep, and Standby Modes
In order to conserve power, especially in battery-powered applications, most modern data
converters have some type of low-power, sleep, or standby mode, where the major
portion of the internal circuitry is powered down—usually initiated by the application of
6.48
INTERFACING TO DATA CONVERTERS
6.2 ADC AND DAC DIGITAL INTERFACES
a signal to one of the pins, but sometimes under software control via internal control
registers. In many applications where the converter is not required to operate
continuously, this feature can lead to considerable power savings. Some converters have
several reduced-power modes, depending upon the amount of circuitry to be shut down.
In some cases, additional power savings can be achieved by disabling some or all of the
external clocks.
Sleep-mode power supply current varies widely between devices, and can range from a
few µA to tens of mA depending upon the normal-mode power dissipation. Recovery
time from the sleep mode, or power-up time, is also a critical specification and can vary
widely depending upon the device, but generally is in the order of a few µs to 100 µs.
During the sleep mode, power is maintained on critical internal mode-controlling
registers, etc., however the conversion process is usually disabled. If the converter is
pipelined or has internal digital filters (such as Σ-∆ ADCs or certain DACs with internal
digital filters), a sufficient number of clock cycles must be allowed after power-up to
flush out the pipelines before output data is valid.
Single-Shot Mode, Burst Mode, and Minimum Sampling Frequency
This brings up an interesting timing issue with respect to pipelined ADCs which is not
specifically related to the digital interface, but has a direct bearing on the application—
the ability (or lack thereof) to operate at very low sampling rates, the burst mode, or the
single-shot mode.
Many early successive approximation ADCs, such as the industry-standard AD574, were
designed with internal clock generators that were triggered upon the receipt of an external
convert-start signal. At the end of the conversion cycle, the signal on an output line
(labeled busy, conversion complete, data ready, etc.) was asserted, indicating that the
data was valid and that the conversion was complete. This type of ADC can be utilized in
the single-shot mode, burst mode, or operated continuously, with no significant effect on
performance. Many modern successive approximation ADCs require that the user supply
a continuous high frequency clock (which controls the various steps in the conversion
process) as well as the traditional convert-start pulse to initiate the actual conversion. The
convert-start pulse can be synchronous or asynchronous with the high frequency clock in
many converters. As long as the user supplies a continuous high frequency clock, these
types of ADCs can generally be operated in the single-shot or burst mode.
It should be noted that this is one of the fundamental reasons why SAR ADCs are still so
popular in data acquisition, especially multi-channel systems where an analog
multiplexer drives the ADC. A single convert-start command yields the corresponding
data—with no pipeline delay—thereby making it easy to identify the output data
corresponding to a particular channel and clock pulse.
On the other hand, pipelined ADCs (see Chapter 3 of this book for detailed descriptions)
require a number of sample clocks after power-on before the pipeline is cleared, and valid
data appears at the output. In addition, the cascaded internal sample-and-hold amplifiers
act as analog delay lines, and they are typically controlled by one or both phases of the
actual sampling clock. That is, the "1" state of the sampling clock places some of the
6.49
ANALOG-DIGITAL CONVERSION
SHAs in the track mode, and the others in the hold mode. The "0" state of the sampling
clock reverses the track/hold states of the SHAs. The direct or indirect utilization of the
sampling clock phases to control all internal operations reduces chip area, cost, and
improves performance by eliminating additional internal clocks which could easily
increase overall ADC noise and distortion were they to become noisy because of stray
coupling from other parts of the circuit.
However, one can see that as the sampling frequency is decreased, the hold time of the
SHAs increases proportionally—at some point, the droop (caused by leakage current
flowing into or out of the hold capacitor) associated with the long hold times will produce
large errors in the conversion, thereby rendering the output data invalid. In addition,
internal circuits may enter saturation. Therefore, pipelined ADCs often have a minimum
specified sampling frequency as well as the traditional maximum.
Although most pipelined ADCs cannot be directly operated in the single-shot or burst
mode, they can be operated with a continuous sampling clock, and the output data gated
to correspond with the desired sampling intervals.
Much more could be said about the topics discussed so far, but the reader should at least
now be aware of some of the important issues that only a through study of the data sheet
can clarify. The same can be said about the following section on the digital interface
itself.
Power-on Reset and Initialization
DACs and Digital Pots
ADCs with Internal Control Registers
Default Conditions
Pipelined ADCs
Low Power, Sleep, Standby Modes
Power Savings
Recovery or Power-Up Time
Single-Shot, Burst Mode, and Minimum Sampling Frequency
SAR ADCs
Pipelined ADCs
Get to Know Your Friendly Data Sheet!
"Getting to know you, getting to know all about you …"
"Anna," from Rogers and Hammerstein's, The King and I
Figure 6.48: Some Important Digital and Timing
Interface Issues for Data Converters
6.50
INTERFACING TO DATA CONVERTERS
6.2 ADC AND DAC DIGITAL INTERFACES
ADC Digital Output Interfaces
Early ADCs typically provided parallel output data interfaces. As resolutions increased,
and microprocessors, microcontrollers, DSPs, became widespread, the serial interface
became popular. Today, most 12-bit or greater ADCs which operate at or above 10 MSPS
typically have a parallel output data interface, while low frequency high-resolution Σ-∆
measurement ADCs almost exclusively utilize a serial interface. In between these two
sampling frequency ranges, one finds a wide variety of ADCs—some with parallel, some
with serial, and some with options for both parallel and serial output data interfaces.
ADC Serial Output Interfaces
Serial interfaces are typically 3-wire (sometimes 2-wire), and therefore there is a big
savings in package pin count and cost versus the parallel interface, especially with high
resolution ADCs. It is also very convenient to provide serial outputs on SAR-based and
Σ-∆ ADCs since their conversion architecture is essentially serial. If an ADC is operating
continuously, the period of the sampling clock must be long enough to transfer all the
serial data across the interface at the interface data rate, with some appropriate amount of
headroom. For instance, a 16-bit, 1-MSPS sampling ADC requires a serial output data
rate of at least 16 MHz, which would not be a problem with most modern
microprocessors, microcontrollers, or DSPs.
Most 3-wire serial interfaces associated with ADCs and DACs are compatible with
standard serial interfaces such as SPI®,QSPI™, MICROWIRE™, and DSPs. Figure 6.49
shows the timing diagram for a typical serial output converter, the AD7466 12-bit, 200
kSPS ADC which is packaged in a 6-lead SOT-23 package.
Figure 6.49: AD7466 12-Bit, 200-kSPS Serial Output Data Timing Diagram
6.51
ANALOG-DIGITAL CONVERSION
The AD7466 is normally in the power-down mode with the CS signal high. The part
begins to power up on the CS falling edge. The falling edge of CS puts the track-andhold into the track mode and takes the bus out of three-state. The conversion is also
initiated at this point. On the third SCLK falling edge after the CS falling edge, the part
should be fully powered up, as shown in Figure 6.49 at point "A," and the track-and-hold
will return to hold. For the AD7466, the SDATA line will go back into three-state, and
the part will enter power-down on the 16th SCLK falling edge. If the rising edge of CS
occurs before 16 SCLKs have elapsed, the conversion will be terminated, the SDATA
line will go back into three-state, and the part will enter power-down; otherwise SDATA
returns to three-state on the 16th SCLK falling edge, as shown in Figure 6.49. Sixteen
serial clock cycles are required to perform the conversion process and to access data from
the AD7466.
CS going low provides the first leading zero to be read in by the microcontroller or DSP.
The remaining data is then clocked out by subsequent SCLK falling edges, beginning
with the second leading zero; thus the first clock falling edge on the serial clock has the
first leading zero provided and also clocks out the second leading zero. For the AD7466,
the final bit in the data transfer is valid on the 16th SCLK falling edge, having been
clocked out on the previous (15th) SCLK falling edge. In applications with a slow SCLK,
it is possible to read in data on each SCLK rising edge. In such a case, the first falling
edge of SCLK after the CS falling edge will clock out the second leading zero and could
be read in the following rising edge. If the first SCLK edge after the CS falling edge is a
falling edge, the first leading zero that was clocked out when CS went low will be
missed unless it is not read on the first SCLK falling edge. The 15th falling edge of SCLK
will clock out the last bit and it could be read in the following rising SCLK edge. If the
first SCLK edge after CS falling edge is a rising edge, CS will clock out the first leading
zero as before, and it may be read on the SCLK rising edge. The next SCLK falling edge
will clock out the second leading zero, and it could be read on the following rising edge.
Looking at higher speed applications, LVDS (low voltage differential signaling)
interfaces can be as high as 800 Mbits/s, thereby making serial data transfer practical
even for some high speed ADCs. For instance, the AD9289 quad 12-bit, 65-MSPS ADC
uses four serial LVDS outputs, each operating at 780 Mbits/s. A functional block diagram
of the quad ADC is shown in Figure 6.50 (also see Reference 2).
The AD9229 is a quad 12-bit, 65-MSPS ADC converter with an on-chip track-and-hold
circuit and is designed for low cost, low power, small size and ease of use. The converter
operates up to 65-MSPS conversion rate and is optimized for outstanding dynamic
performance where a small package size is critical. The ADC requires a single +3-V
power supply and CMOS/TTL sample rate clock for full performance operation. No
external reference or driver components are required for many applications. A separate
output power supply pin supports LVDS-compatible serial digital output levels. The
ADC automatically multiplies the sample rate clock for the appropriate LVDS serial data
rate. An MSB trigger is provided to signal a new output byte. Power down is supported,
and the ADC consumes less than 3 mW when enabled. A timing diagram is shown in
Figure 6.51.
6.52
INTERFACING TO DATA CONVERTERS
6.2 ADC AND DAC DIGITAL INTERFACES
Figure 6.50: AD9229 Quad 12-Bit, 65-MSPS ADC with Serial LVDS Outputs
SAMPLING CLOCK
OUTPUT CLOCK
Figure 6.51: AD9289 Quad 8-Bit, 65-MSPS ADC
Serial LVDS Output Data Timing
6.53
ANALOG-DIGITAL CONVERSION
Data from each ADC is serialized and provided on a separate channel. The data rate for
each serial stream is equal to 12-bits times the sample clock rate, with a maximum of
780 MHz (12-bits × 65 MSPS = 780 MHz). The lowest typical conversion rate allowable
is 10 MSPS (recall that minimum sampling frequency specifications are characteristic of
CMOS pipelined ADCs). Two output clocks are provided to assist in capturing data from
the AD9289. The data clock out (DCO) is used to clock the output data and is equal to 6
times the sampling clock (CLK) rate.
Data is clocked out of the AD9229 on the rising and falling edges of DCO. The MSB
clock (FCO) is used to signal the MSB of a new output byte and is equal to the sampling
clock rate.
The use of high-speed serial LVDS data outputs in the AD9229 results in a huge savings
in the pin count, compared with parallel outputs. A total of 48 data pins would be
required to provide 4 individual parallel 12-bit single-ended CMOS outputs. Using serial
LVDS, the AD9289 requires only 4 differential LVDS data outputs, or 8 pins, thereby
saving a total 40 pins. In addition, the use of LVDS rather than CMOS reduces digital
output transient currents and the overall ADC noise. A typical LVDS output driver
designed in CMOS is shown in Figure 6.52. Further details regarding the LVDS
specification can be found in Chapter 9 of this book.
OUTPUT DRIVER
V+
V–
V–
V+
+3.3V)
(3.5mA)
+1.2V
3.5kΩ 3.5kΩ
(3.5mA)
Figure 6.52: LVDS Driver Designed in CMOS
6.54
INTERFACING TO DATA CONVERTERS
6.2 ADC AND DAC DIGITAL INTERFACES
ADC Serial Interface to DSPs
Because of its simplicity and efficiency, the serial interface has become a very popular
way to interface ADCs and DACs to DSPs, and real-time operation is possible in many
instances. We will consider a typical example of such an interface between a general
purpose ADC and a fixed-point DSP.
The AD7853/AD7853L is a 12 bit, 200-/100-kSPS ADC which operates on a single +3-V
to +5.5-V supply and dissipates only 4.5 mW (+3-V supply, AD7853L). After each
conversion, the device automatically powers down to 25 µW. The AD7853/AD7853L is
based on a successive approximation architecture and uses a charge redistribution
(switched capacitor) DAC. A calibration feature removes gain and offset errors. A block
diagram of the device is shown in Figure 6.53 (for more details, see Reference 3).
AGND AGND
AVDD
AIN(+)
AD7853L
T/H
DVDD
AIN(–)
2.5 V
REFERENCE
DGND
COMP
REFIN /
REFOUT
BUF
CHARGE
REDISTRIBUTION
DAC
CREF1
CLKIN
SAR + ADC
CONTROL
CREF2
CALIBRATION
MEMORY
AND CONTROLLER
CAL
CONVST
BUSY
SLEEP
SERIAL INTERFACE/CONTROL REGISTER
SM1
SM2
SYNC
DIN
DOUT
SCLK
POLARITY
Figure 6.53: AD7853/AD7853L +3-V Single-Supply 12-Bit 200-/100-kSPS
Serial Output ADC
The AD7853 operates on a 4-MHz maximum external clock frequency. The AD7853L
operates on a 1.8-MHz maximum external clock frequency. The timing diagram for
AD7853L is shown in Figure 6.54. The AD7853/AD7853L has modes which configure
the SYNC and SCLK as inputs or outputs. In the example shown here they are outputs
generated by the AD7853L. The AD7853L serial clock operates at a maximum frequency
of 1.8 MHz (556-ns period). The data bits are valid 330 ns after the positive-going edges
of SCLK. This allows a setup time of approximately 330 ns minimum before the
negative-going edges of SCLK, easily meeting the ADSP-2189M 4-ns tSCS requirement.
The hold-time after the negative-going edge of SCLK is approximately 226 ns, again
easily meeting the ADSP-2189M 7-ns tSCH timing requirement. These simple calculations
show that the data and RFS setup and hold requirements of the ADSP-2189M are met
6.55
ANALOG-DIGITAL CONVERSION
with considerable margin. For a much more detailed discussion of the serial interface
timing between ADCs, DACs, and DSPs see Reference 5.
SYNC (O/P)
SCLK
(O/P)
1
5
6
16
330ns min
THREE-STATE
DB15
DOUT (O/P)
226ns
DB11
DB0
THREE-STATE
556ns
Figure 6.54: AD7853L Serial ADC Output Timing +3-V Supply, SCLK = 1.8 MHz
Figure 6.55 shows the AD7853L interfaced to the ADSP-2189M connected in a mode to
transmit data from the ADC to the DSP (alternate/master mode). The AD7853/AD7853L
contains internal registers which can be accessed by writing from the DSP to the ADC
via the serial port. These registers are used to set various modes in the
AD7853/AD7853L as well as to initiate the calibration routines. These connections are
not shown in the diagram.
ADSP-2189M
75MHz
DSP
CLOCK
INPUT
4MHz / 1.8MHz max
CLKIN
SAMPLING
CLOCK
(OPTIONAL)
CONVST
SCLK
SCLK
RFS
SYNC
DR
DOUT
AD7853/
AD7853L
ADC
SERIAL
PORT
Figure 6.55: Interfacing the AD7853/AD7853L Serial Output ADCs
to the ADSP-2189M DSP
6.56
INTERFACING TO DATA CONVERTERS
6.2 ADC AND DAC DIGITAL INTERFACES
ADC Parallel Output Interfaces
Parallel ADC output interfaces are popular, straightforward, and must be used when the
product of sampling rate and resolution exceeds the capacity available serial links. For
instance, using a maximum LVDS serial data link of 600 Mbits/s requires parallel data
transmission for resolutions/sampling rates greater than 8 bits at 75 MSPS, 10 bits at
60 MSPS, 12 bits at 50 MSPS, 14 bits at 43 MSPS, 16 bits at 38 MSPS, etc.
Parallel ADC interface timing is relatively straightforward. At some specified time
relative to the assertion of the appropriate edge of the sampling clock, the output data is
valid. This time is specified on the data sheet, and may or may not be indicated by a data
ready, or data valid output from the ADC. Also, the data appearing at the output may
correspond to a previously applied sampling clock edge due to the pipeline delay of the
ADC. In most cases, the output data is valid for an entire sampling clock period
(neglecting the rise and fall times). Some parallel output ADCs have a chip enable
function which allows the data outputs to be connected to a data bus, and the outputs are
three-state until the chip enable is asserted by an external DSP, microcontroller, or
microprocessor. However, there are general precautions that must be taken when
connecting this type of output to a data bus—the most important is to ensure that there is
no activity on the bus during the actual ADC conversion interval. Otherwise, bus activity
may couple back into the ADC via the stray pin capacitance and corrupt the conversion.
In addition, if the capacitive load of the bus is significant, there may be additional ADC
digital output transients which can corrupt the conversion.
We will use the AD9430 12-bit, 170-/210-MSPS ADC to illustrate the timing associated
with a modern high speed parallel output device (Reference 6). An overall block diagram
of the AD9430 is shown in Figure 6.56. Notice that this ADC offers two output data
options: demultiplexed CMOS outputs on two ports (each at one-half the sampling rate)
or differential LVDS outputs at the full sampling rate. There is no penalty in pin count by
providing these two options, because demuxed single-ended outputs on two ports require
the same number of pins as differential LVDS outputs on a single port.
Figure 6.57 shows the AD9430 timing when using the LVDS output mode.
The AD9430 operates on an LVDS-compatible differential sampling clock which passes
through internal clock management circuitry that stabilizes the duty cycle and thereby
removes the sensitivity of the conversion process to variations in input sampling clock
duty cycle.
6.57
ANALOG-DIGITAL CONVERSION
Figure 6.56: AD9430 12-Bit, 170-/210-MSPS ADC with LVDS or
Demuxed CMOS Output Data Options
Figure 6.57: AD9430 LVDS Output Data Timing
If the sampling frequency is known, the timing diagram in conjunction with the
associated specifications for tPD and tCPD can be used to predict when the output data is
valid with respect to either the positive-going edge of the sampling clock (CLK+) or the
positive-going or negative-going edge of the data output clock (DCO+).
6.58
INTERFACING TO DATA CONVERTERS
6.2 ADC AND DAC DIGITAL INTERFACES
Because of the high 210-MSPS sampling rate (period = 4.76 ns), it is critical that both the
ADC output timing and the receiver input timing be carefully examined so that the
receiving register or memory can be clocked when the output data is stable. This
"window" is short, and in the case of the AD9430, a data valid time of 2-ns minimum is
guaranteed. ADC output timing, PC board trace delay and the input register (usually an
FPGA) setup and hold time specifications all factor into determining the proper timing
for a particular design, and great care must be taken in the analysis to ensure valid data is
obtained.
Although best distortion and noise performance is obtained in the LVDS mode, the
AD9430 can also be operated in the CMOS data output mode, in which case the output
data is demultiplexed and available on 2 output ports at one-half the overall ADC
sampling rate. The timing diagram for the CMOS mode is shown in Figure 6.58. Note
that data is available in either interleaved or parallel format, depending upon the option
selected.
Figure 6.58: AD9430 Demuxed CMOS Output Data Timing
High speed ADCs such as the AD9430 typically interface to an FPGA or buffer memory.
Lower speed parallel output ADCs can interface directly to microcontrollers or DSPs via
a standard parallel data bus. A good example is the AD7854/AD7854L 3-V, 12-bit,
200-/100-kSPS parallel output ADC (Reference 7). This device uses a successive
approximation architecture based on a charge redistribution (switched capacitor) DAC. A
calibration mode removes offset and gain errors. A block diagram of this general purpose
converter is shown in Figure 6.59.
6.59
ANALOG-DIGITAL CONVERSION
AGND
AVDD
AIN(+)
AD7854/AD7854L
T/H
DVDD
AIN(–)
2.5 V
REFERENCE
DGND
COMP
REFIN /
REFOUT
CREF1
BUF
CHARGE
REDISTRIBUTION
DAC
CLKIN
SAR + ADC
CONTROL
CONVST
BUSY
CREF2
CALIBRATION
MEMORY
AND CONTROLLER
PARALLEL INTERFACE/CONTROL REGISTER
DB11 - DB0
CS
RD
WR
HBEN
Figure 6.59: AD7854/AD7854L, +3-V Single Supply, 12-bit, 200-/100-kSPS
Parallel Output ADC
A simplified interface diagram for interfacing the AD7854/AD7854L to the ADSP-2189
75-MHz DSP is shown in Figure 6.60. This configuration allows the DSP to write data
into the ADC parallel interface control register as well as to read data from the ADC. In
normal operation, data is read from the ADC. The assertation of the CONVST signal
initiates the conversion process. At the end of the conversion, the assertation of the ADC
BUSY line acts as an interrupt signal to the DSP (applied to the DSP IRQ input). The
DSP then reads the ADC output data using the CS and RD pins of the AD7854.
The 5 software wait states are required to widen the RD signal from the DSP so that it is
compatible with the AD7854 ADC requirements. This process is a standard way of
reading data from memory-mapped peripheral devices and is described in much more
detail in Reference 5.
6.60
INTERFACING TO DATA CONVERTERS
6.2 ADC AND DAC DIGITAL INTERFACES
SAMPLING
CLOCK
CONVST
ADSP-2189M
75MHz
AD7854/AD7854L
ADC
DMS
A0
CS
(LOW = READ DB11 - DB0)
HBEN
IRQ
BUSY
WR
WR
RD
RD
DATA
D23 - D8
Notes:
DB11 - DB0
5 Software Wait-States Required
HBEN and WR required for writing to ADC
Sampling clock may come from DSP
Figure 6.60: AD7854/AD7854L ADC Parallel Interface to ADSP-2189M
DAC Digital Input Interfaces
The earliest monolithic DACs contained little, if any, logic circuitry, and parallel data had
to be maintained on the digital input to maintain the digital output. Today almost all
DACs have input latches, and data need only be written once, not maintained.
There are innumerable variations in DAC input structures which will not be discussed
here, but the majority today are "double-buffered." A double-buffered DAC has two sets
of latches. Data is initially latched in the first rank and subsequently transferred to the
second as shown in Figure 6.61. There are three reasons why this arrangement is useful.
The first is that it allows data to enter the DAC in many different ways. A DAC without a
latch, or with a single latch, must be loaded with all bits at once, in parallel, since
otherwise its output during loading may be totally different from what it was or what it is
to become. A double-buffered DAC, on the other hand, may be loaded with parallel data,
serial data, or with 4-bit or 8-bit words, or whatever, and the output will be unaffected
until the new data is completely loaded and the DAC receives its update instruction.
6.61
ANALOG-DIGITAL CONVERSION
DIGITAL
INPUT
INPUT STRUCTURE:
MAY BE SERIAL,
PARALLEL, BYTE-WIDE,
ETC.
OUTPUT LATCH
TRANSFERS DATA
TO DAC TIMING IS
INDEPENDENT OF
INPUT
OUTPUT
DAC
fc = SAMPLING FREQUENCY
OUTPUT STROBE MAY GO TO MANY DACs
Figure 6.61: Double-Buffered DAC Permits Complex
Input Structures and Simultaneous Update
The second feature of this type of input structure is that the output clock can operate at a
fixed frequency (the DAC update rate), while the input latch can be loaded
asynchronously. This is useful in real-time signal reconstruction applications.
The third convenience of the double-buffered structure is that many DACs may be
updated simultaneously: data is loaded into the first rank of each DAC in turn, and when
all is ready, the output buffers of all DACs are updated at once. There are many DAC
applications where the output of several DACs must change simultaneously, and the
double-buffered structure allows this to be done very easily.
Most early monolithic high resolution DACs had parallel or byte-wide data ports and
tended to be connected to parallel data buses and address decoders and addressed by
microprocessors as if they were very small write-only memories (some DACs are not
write-only, but can have their contents read as well—this is convenient for some ATE
applications but is not very common). A DAC connected to a data bus is vulnerable to
capacitive coupling of logic noise from the bus to the analog output. Many DACs today
have serial data structures and are less vulnerable to such noise (since fewer noisy pins
are involved), use fewer pins, and therefore take less space, and are frequently more
convenient for use with modern microprocessors, many of which have serial data ports.
Some, but not all, of such serial DACs have data outputs as well as data inputs so that
several DACs may be connected in series and data clocked to them all from a single
serial port. The arrangement is referred to as "daisy-chaining".
DAC Serial Input Interfaces to DSPs
Interfacing serial input DACs to the serial ports of DSPs such as the ADSP-21xx family
is also relatively straightforward and similar to the previous discussion regarding serial
output ADCs. The details will not be repeated here, but a simple interface example will
be shown.
The AD5322 is a 12-bit, 100-kSPS dual DAC with a serial input interface (Reference 8).
It operates on a single +2.5-V to +5.5-V supply, and a block diagram is shown in Figure
6.62. Power dissipation on a +3-V supply is 690 µW. A power-down feature reduces this
6.62
INTERFACING TO DATA CONVERTERS
6.2 ADC AND DAC DIGITAL INTERFACES
to 0.15 µW. Total harmonic distortion is greater than 70 dB below full scale for a 10-kHz
output. The references for the two DACs are derived from two reference pins (one per
DAC). The reference inputs may be configured as buffered or unbuffered inputs. The
outputs of both DACs may be updated simultaneously using the asynchronous LDAC
input. The device contains a power-on reset circuit that ensures that the DAC outputs
power up to 0 V and remain there until a valid write takes place to the device.
VREFA
VDD
POWERON
RESET
AD5322
INPUT
REGISTER A
DAC
REGISTER A
STRING
DAC A
VOUTA
SCLK
INTERFACE LOGIC
SYNC
DIN
RESISTOR
NETWORK
POWER-DOWN
LOGIC
INPUT
REGISTER B
DAC
REGISTER B
STRING
DAC B
VOUTB
RESISTOR
NETWORK
LDAC
GND
VREFB
Figure 6.62: AD5322 12-BIT, 100-kSPS Dual Serial DAC
Data is normally input to the AD5322 via the SCLK, DIN, and SYNC pins from the
serial port of the DSP. When the SYNC signal goes low, the input shift register is
enabled. Data is transferred into the AD5322 on the falling edges of the following 16
clocks. A typical interface between the ADSP-2189M and the AD5322 is shown in
Figure 6.63. Notice that the clocks to the AD5322 are generated from the ADSP-2189M
clock. It is also possible to generate the SCLK and SYNC signals externally to the
AD5322 and use them to drive the ADSP-2189M. The serial interface of the AD5322 is
not fast enough to handle the ADSP-2189M maximum master clock frequency. However,
the serial interface clocks are programmable and can be set to generate the proper timing
for fast or slow DACs.
The input shift register in the AD5322 is 16-bits wide. The 16-bit word consists of four
control bits followed by 12 bits of DAC data. The first bit loaded determines whether the
data is for DAC A or DAC B. The second bit determines if the reference input will be
buffered or unbuffered. The next two bits control the operating modes of the DAC
(normal, power-down with 1 kΩ to ground, power-down with 100 kΩ to ground, or
power-down with a high impedance output).
6.63
ANALOG-DIGITAL CONVERSION
ADSP-2189M
75MHz
AD5322
DAC
SCLK
SCLK
TFS
SYNC
DT
DIN
SERIAL
PORT
Figure 6.63: AD5322 DAC Serial Interface to ADSP-2189M
DAC Parallel Input Interfaces to DSPs
The AD5340 is a 12-bit 100-kSPS DAC which has a parallel data interface. It operates on
a single +2.5-V to +5.5-V supply and dissipates only 345µW (+3-V supply). A powerdown mode further reduces the power to 0.24 µW. The part incorporates an on-chip
output buffer which can drive the output close to both supply rails. The AD5340 allows
the choice of a buffered or unbuffered reference input. The device has a power-on reset
circuit that ensures that the DAC output powers on at 0 V and remains there until valid
data is written to the part. A block diagram is shown in Figure 6.64. The input is double
buffered.
A method for interfacing the AD5340 to a DSP is shown in Figure 6.65. The sampling
clock to the DAC updates the internal DAC register via the LDAC input. The sampling
clock also generates an interrupt signal to the DSP's IRQ input, thereby requesting a new
data word. After the DSP computes the next data word, it puts the word on the data bus
and transfers it to the DAC input register via the DAC's CS and WR inputs. Note that
this configuration allows real time operation, provided the DSP outputs the new data
word before the next sampling clock occurs. The 2 additional software wait states are
required to widen the WR signal from the DSP so that it meets the requirements of the
AD5340 DAC.
6.64
INTERFACING TO DATA CONVERTERS
6.2 ADC AND DAC DIGITAL INTERFACES
VREF
POWER-ON
RESET
DB0
BUF
GAIN
CS
WR
INTERFACE LOGIC
DB11
INPUT
REGISTER
DAC
REGISTER
12-BIT
DAC
VOUT
BUF
RESET
CLR
POWER-DOWN
LOGIC
LDAC
PD
GND
Figure 6.64: AD5340 12-Bit, 100-kSPS Parallel Input DAC
SAMPLING
CLOCK
LDAC
AD5340
DAC
ADSP-2189M
75MHz
DMS
CS
IRQ
WR
WR
D
Notes:
DB0 - DB11
2 Software Wait-States Required
Sampling clock may come from DSP
Figure 6.65: AD5340 DAC Parallel Interface to ADSP-2189M
6.65
ANALOG-DIGITAL CONVERSION
Finally, we will examine a high-speed TxDAC® parallel input DAC. The AD9726 is a
16-bit, 600-MSPS DAC that utilizes an LVDS interface to achieve the 600+ MSPS
conversion rate (Reference 10). A simplified block diagram is shown in Figure 6.66.
AD9726
Figure 6.66: AD9726 16-Bit, 600+ MSPS DAC with LVDS Inputs
In addition, this device also features unprecedented noise performance of –161 dBm/Hz
for output frequencies between 100 MHz and 300 MHz and –169 dBm/Hz at 20-MHz
output. This combination of high speed and low noise is ideal for maximizing signal
synthesis performance in multicarrier communication systems, as well as in
instrumentation and test applications.
6.66
INTERFACING TO DATA CONVERTERS
6.2 ADC AND DAC DIGITAL INTERFACES
REFERENCES:
6.2 ADC AND DAC DIGITAL INTERFACES
1.
Data sheet for AD7466/AD7467/AD7468 1.6-V, Micropower 12-/10-/8-Bit ADCs in 6-Lead SOT-23,
http://www.analog.com.
2.
Data sheet for AD9289 Quad 8-Bit, 65-MSPS Serial LVDS 3-V A/D Converter,
http://www.analog.com.
3.
Data sheet for AD7853/AD7853L 3-V to 5-V, Single-Supply, 200kSPS 12-Bit Sampling ADC,
http://www.analog.com.
4.
Data sheet for ADSP-2189M DSP Microcomputer, http://www.analog.com.
5.
Walt Kester, Mixed Signal and DSP Design Techniques, Newnes, an Imprint of Elsevier Science,
2003, ISBN-0-75067-611-6, Section 8.
6.
Data sheet for AD9430 12-Bit, 170-MSPS/210-MSPS 3.3-V A/D Converter, http://www.analog.com.
7.
Data sheet for AD7854/AD7854L 3-V to 5-V Single-Supply, 200-kSPS 12-Bit Sampling ADC,
http://www.analog.com.
8.
Data sheet for AD5322 2.5-V to 5.5-V, 230 µA, Dual Rail-to-Rail Output DAC,
http://www.analog.com.
9.
Data sheet for AD5340 2.5-V to 5.5-V, 115 µA, Parallel Interface, Single Voltage Output DAC,
http://www.analog.com.
10. Data sheet for AD9726 16-bit, 600+ MSPS LVDS Input D/A Converter, http://www.analog.com.
6.67
ANALOG-DIGITAL CONVERSION
NOTES:
6.68
INTERFACING TO DATA CONVERTERS
6.3 BUFFERING DAC ANALOG OUTPUTS
SECTION 6.3: BUFFERING DAC ANALOG
OUTPUTS
Walt Kester
Introduction
Modern IC DACs provide either voltage or current outputs. Figure 6.67 shows three
fundamental configurations, all with the objective of using an op amp for a buffered
and/or amplified output voltage.
(A)
+
N
+
R2
VOUT 1 + R1
–
VOUT
R1
(B)
R2
(C)
R2
IOUT•RL
+
N
–
N
–
IOUT
RL
R2
R1
1 + R2
R1
+
–IOUT•R2
IOUT RO
RO CODE DEPENDENT
Figure 6.67: Buffering DAC Outputs with Op Amps
Figure 6.67A shows a buffered voltage output DAC. In many cases, the DAC output can
be used directly, without additional buffering. If an additional op amp buffer is needed, it
is usually configured in a non-inverting mode, with gain determined by R1 and R2.
There are two basic methods for dealing with a current output DAC. In Figure 6.67B, a
voltage is simply developed across external load resistor, RL. An external op amp can be
used to buffer and/or amplify this voltage if required. Many high speed DACs supply
fullscale currents of 20 mA or more, thereby allowing reasonable voltages to be
developed across fairly low value load resistors. For instance, fast settling video DACs
typically supply nearly 30-mA fullscale current, allowing 1 V to be developed across a
source and load terminated 75-Ω coaxial cable (representing a dc load of 37.5 Ω to the
DAC output).
A direct method to convert the output current into a voltage is shown in Figure 6.67C.
This circuit is usually called a current-to-voltage converter, or I/V. In this circuit, the
DAC output drives the inverting input of an op amp, with the output voltage developed
6.69
ANALOG-DIGITAL CONVERSION
across the R2 feedback resistor. In this approach the DAC output always operates at
virtual ground (which may give a linearity improvement vis-à-vis Figure 6.67B). Note
that an R-2R current-output CMOS DAC must use this configuration, because the output
resistance, RO, is dependent upon the output code (see Chapter 3 of this book on DAC
architectures for more details).
The general selection process for an op amp used as a DAC buffer is similar to that of an
ADC buffer. The same basic specifications such as dc accuracy, noise, settling time,
bandwidth, distortion, etc., apply to DACs as well as ADCs, and the discussion will not
be repeated here. Rather, some specific application examples will be shown.
Differential to Single-Ended Conversion Techniques
A general model of a modern current output DAC is shown in Figure 6.68. This model is
typical of the AD976x and AD977x TxDAC® series (see Reference 1). Current output is
more popular than voltage output, especially at audio frequencies and above. If the DAC
is fabricated on a bipolar or BiCMOS process, it is likely that the output will sink current,
and that the output impedance will be less than 500 Ω (due to the internal R-2R resistive
ladder network). On the other hand, a CMOS DAC is more likely to source output current
and have a high output impedance, typically greater than 100 kΩ.
IFS – I
IOUT
ROUT
I
ROUT
IOUT
RSET
IFS 2 - 20mA typical
Bipolar or BiCMOS DACs sink current, ROUT < 500Ω
CMOS DACs source current, ROUT > 100kΩ
Output compliance voltage < ±1V for best performance
Figure 6.68: Generalized Model of a High Speed DAC Output such as the
AD976x and AD977x Series
6.70
INTERFACING TO DATA CONVERTERS
6.3 BUFFERING DAC ANALOG OUTPUTS
Another consideration is the output compliance voltage—the maximum voltage swing
allowed at the output in order for the DAC to maintain its linearity. This voltage is
typically 1 V to 1.5 V, but can vary depending upon the DAC. Best DAC linearity is
generally achieved when driving a virtual ground, such as an op amp I/V converter.
However, better distortion performance is often achieved when the DAC is allowed to
develop a small voltage across a resistive load.
Modern current output DACs usually have differential outputs, to achieve high commonmode rejection and reduce the even-order distortion products. Fullscale output currents in
the range of 2 mA to 20 mA are common.
In many applications, it is desirable to convert the differential output of the DAC into a
single-ended signal, suitable for driving a coax line. This can be readily achieved with an
RF transformer, provided low frequency response is not required. Figure 6.69 shows a
typical example of this approach. The high impedance current output of the DAC is
terminated differentially with 50 Ω, which defines the source impedance to the
transformer as 50 Ω.
The resulting differential voltage drives the primary of a 1:1 RF transformer, to develop a
single-ended voltage at the output of the secondary winding. The output of the 50-Ω LC
filter is matched with the 50-Ω load resistor RL, and a final output voltage of 1-Vp-p is
developed.
MINI-CIRCUITS
ADT1-1WT
1:1
0 TO 20mA
IOUT
LC
FILTER
VLOAD = ± 0.5V
RDIFF
= 50Ω
CMOS
DAC
± 10mA
RLOAD
= 50Ω
IOUT
20 TO 0mA
Figure 6.69: Differential Transformer Coupling
6.71
ANALOG-DIGITAL CONVERSION
The transformer not only serves to convert the differential output into a single-ended
signal, but it also isolates the output of the DAC from the reactive load presented by the
LC filter, thereby improving overall distortion performance.
An op amp connected as a differential to single-ended converter can be used to obtain a
single-ended output when frequency response to dc is required. In Figure 6.70 the
AD8055 op amp is used to achieve high bandwidth and low distortion (see Reference 2).
The current output DAC drives balanced 25-Ω resistive loads, thereby developing an outof-phase voltage of 0 to +0.5 V at each output.
The AD8055 is configured for a gain of 2, to develop a final single-ended groundreferenced output voltage of 2-V p-p. Note that because the output signal swings above
and below ground, a dual-supply op amp is required.
1kΩ
0 TO 20mA
0V TO +0.5V
500Ω
IOUT
25Ω
CMOS
DAC
IOUT
+5V
–
AD8055
CFILTER
+
–5V
500Ω
20 TO 0mA
+0.5V TO 0V
f3dB =
25Ω
± 1V
1kΩ
1
2π • 50Ω • CFILTER
Figure 6.70: Differential DC Coupled Output Using a Dual Supply Op Amp
The CFILTER capacitor forms a differential filter with the equivalent 50-Ω differential
output impedance. This filter reduces any slew-induced distortion of the op amp, and the
optimum cutoff frequency of the filter is determined empirically to give the best overall
distortion performance.
A modified form of the Figure 6.70 circuit can be operated on a single supply, provided
the common-mode voltage of the op amp is set to mid-supply (+2.5 V). This is shown in
Figure 6.71, where the AD8061 op amp is used (Reference 3). The output voltage is
2-Vp-p centered around a common-mode voltage of +2.5 V. This common-mode voltage
can be either developed from the +5-V supply using a resistor divider, or directly from a
+2.5-V voltage reference. If the +5-V supply is used as the common-mode voltage, it
must be heavily decoupled to prevent supply noise from being amplified.
6.72
INTERFACING TO DATA CONVERTERS
6.3 BUFFERING DAC ANALOG OUTPUTS
1kΩ
0 TO 20mA
0V TO +0.5V
500Ω
+5V
IOUT
25Ω
AD8061
CMOS
DAC
IOUT
+2.5V
± 1V
–
CFILTER
+
500Ω
+5V
20 TO 0mA
+0.5V TO 0V
2kΩ
25Ω
2kΩ
+5V
f3dB =
1
2π • 50Ω • CFILTER
+2.5V
REF
1kΩ
SEE TEXT
Figure 6.71: Differential DC Coupled Output Using a Single-Supply Op Amp
Single-Ended Current-to-Voltage Conversion
Single-ended current-to-voltage conversion is easily performed using a single op amp as
an I/V converter, as shown in Figure 6.72. The 10-mA full scale DAC current from the
AD768 (see Reference 4) develops a 0 to +2-V output voltage across the 200-Ω RF
resistor.
CF
RF = 200Ω
0 TO 10mA
IOUT
AD768
16-BIT
BiCMOS
DAC
+5V
–
RDAC||CDAC
CIN
0 TO +2.0V
AD8055
+
–5V
fu = Op Amp Unity
Gain-Bandwidth Product
IOUT
For RDAC ≈ RF, make CF ≈
For RDAC >> RF, make CF ≈
RDAC (CDAC + CIN)
RF
CDAC + CIN
2π RF fu
Figure 6.72: Single-Ended I/V Op Amp Interface for Precision
16-Bit AD768 DAC
6.73
ANALOG-DIGITAL CONVERSION
Driving the virtual ground of the AD8055 op amp minimizes any distortion due to
nonlinearity in the DAC output impedance. In fact, most high resolution DACs of this
type are factory trimmed using an I/V converter.
It should be recalled, however, that using the single-ended output of the DAC in this
manner will cause degradation in the common-mode rejection and increased second-order
distortion products, compared to a differential operating mode.
The CF feedback capacitor should be optimized for best pulse response in the circuit. The
equations given in the diagram should only be used as guidelines. A much more detailed
analysis of this type of circuit is given in Reference 6.
An R-2R based current-output DAC (see Chapter 3 of this book for details of the
architecture) has a code-dependent output impedance—therefore, its output must drive
the virtual ground of an op amp in order to maintain linearity. The AD5545/AD5555
16-/14-bit DAC is an excellent example of this architecture (Reference 6). A suitable
interface circuit is shown in Figure 6.73 where the ADR03 is used as a 2.5-V voltage
reference (Reference 7), and the AD8628 chopper-stabilized op amp (Reference 8) is
used as an output I/V converter.
IOUT = 0 TO +0.5mA
CF
VOUT =
0 TO –2.5V
Figure 6.73: AD5545/AD5555 Dual 16-/14-Bit R-2R
Current Output DAC Interface
The external 2.5-V references determines the fullscale output current, 0.5 mA. Note that a
5-kΩ feedback resistor is included in the DAC, and using it will enhance temperature
stability as opposed to using an external resistor. The fullscale output voltage from the op
amp is therefore –2.5 V. The CF feedback capacitor compensates for the DAC output
capacitance and should be selected to optimize the pulse response, with 20 pF a typical
starting point.
6.74
INTERFACING TO DATA CONVERTERS
6.3 BUFFERING DAC ANALOG OUTPUTS
Differential Current-to-Differential Voltage Conversion
If a buffered differential voltage output is required from a current output DAC, the
AD813x-series of differential amplifiers (Reference 9) can be used as shown in Figure
6.74.
2.49kΩ
0 TO 20mA
0 TO +0.5V
499Ω
+
IOUT
25Ω
CMOS
DAC
AD813x
5V p-p
DIFFERENTIAL
OUTPUT
499Ω
IOUT
–
20 TO 0mA
+0.5 TO 0V
2.49kΩ
25Ω
VOCM
Figure 6.74: Buffering High Speed DACs Using AD813X Differential Amplifier
The DAC output current is first converted into a voltage that is developed across the
25-Ω resistors. The voltage is amplified by a factor of 5 using the AD813x. This
technique is used in lieu of a direct I/V conversion to prevent fast slewing DAC currents
from overloading the amplifier and introducing distortion. Care must be taken so that the
DAC output voltage is within its compliance rating.
The VOCM input on the AD813x can be used to set a final output common-mode voltage
within the range of the AD813x. Adding a pair of 75-Ω series output resistors will allow
transmission lines to be driven.
An Active Lowpass Filter for Audio DAC
Figure 6.75 shows an active lowpass filter which also serves as a current-to-voltage
converter for the AD1853 Σ-∆ audio DAC (see Reference 10). The filter is a 4-pole filter
with a 3-dB cutoff frequency of approximately 75 kHz. Because of the high oversampling
frequency (24.576 MSPS when operating the DAC at a 48-kSPS throughput rate), a
simple filter is all that is required to remove aliased components above 12 MHz).
6.75
ANALOG-DIGITAL CONVERSION
FROM
AD1853
DAC
330pF
NOTE: ONLY RIGHT CHANNEL SHOWN
4.12kΩ
ROUT+
+15V
2.74kΩ
–
U1A
1/2
OP275
+
0mA
TO +1.5mA
2.74kΩ
220pF
2.94kΩ
+15V
680pF
VREF
+2.75V
402Ω
402Ω
680pF
220pF
ROUT–
+
U1B
1/2
OP275
–
+1.5mA
TO 0mA
2.74kΩ
2.74kΩ
–15V
–
U2A
1/2
OP275
+
604Ω
49.9kΩ
–15V
2.94kΩ
RIGHT
CHANNEL
OUTPUT
2.2nF
220pF
4.12kΩ
330pF
Figure 6.75: A 75-kHz 4-Pole Gaussian Active Filter for Buffering the Output
of the AD1853 Stereo DAC
The diagram shows a single channel for the dual channel DAC output. U1A and U1B I/V
stages form a 1-pole differential filter, while U2 forms a 2-pole multiple-feedback filter
that also performs a differential-to-single-ended conversion.
A final fourth passive pole is formed by the 604-Ω resistor and the 2.2-nF capacitor
across the output. The OP275 op amp was chosen for operation as U1 and U2 because of
its high quality audio characteristics (see Reference 11).
For further details of active filter designs, see Reference 12.
6.76
INTERFACING TO DATA CONVERTERS
6.3 BUFFERING DAC ANALOG OUTPUTS
REFERENCES:
6.3 BUFFERING DAC ANALOG OUTPUTS
1.
Data sheet for AD9772A 14-Bit, 160 MSPS TxDAC+® with 2x Interpolation Filter,
http://www.analog.com, for example. Also, see other members of the AD976x and AD977x family of
communications DACs.
2.
Data sheet for AD8055/AD8056 Low Cost, 300 MHz Voltage Feedback Amplifiers,
http://www.analog.com.
3.
Data sheet for AD8061 Low Cost, 300-MHz Rail-to-Rail Amplifier, http://www.analog.com.
4.
Data sheet for AD768 16-Bit, 30 MSPS D/A Converter, http://www.analog.com.
5.
Walt Kester, Practical Design Techniques for Sensor Signal Conditioning, Analog Devices, 1999,
ISBN-0-916550-20-6, Chapter 5, available for free download at http://www.analog.com.
6.
Data sheet for AD5545/AD5555 Dual, Current-Output, Serial-Input, 16-/14-Bit DAC,
http://www.analog.com.
7.
Data sheet for ADR01/ADR02/ADR03 Precision 10-V/5-V/2.5-V Voltage References,
http://www.analog.com.
8.
Data sheet for AD8628 Zero-Drift, Chopper-Stabilized, Single-Supply, Rail-to-Rail Input/Output Low
Noise Operational Amplifier, http://www.analog.com.
9.
Data sheets for AD813x-Series Differential Amplifiers (AD8131, AD8132, AD8137, AD8138,
AD8139), http://www.analog.com.
10. Data sheet for AD1853 Stereo, 24-Bit, 192 kHz, Multibit Σ-∆ DAC, http://www.analog.com.
11. Data sheet for OP275 Dual Bipolar/JFET, Audio Operational Amplifier, http://www.analog.com.
12. Walter G. Jung, Op Amp Applications, Analog Devices, 2002, ISBN 0-916550-26-5, Chapter 5.
6.77
ANALOG-DIGITAL CONVERSION
NOTES:
6.78
INTERFACING TO DATA CONVERTERS
6.4 DATA CONVERTER VOLTAGE REFERENCES
SECTION 6.4: DATA CONVERTER VOLTAGE
REFERENCES
Walt Kester
In most cases, the accuracy of a data converter is determined by a voltage reference of
some sort. An exception to this, of course, is an ADC which operates in a ratiometric
mode, where both the input signal and input range scale proportionally to the reference.
In this specialized case, there is no requirement for an accurate reference, and the power
supply is generally adequate. For details on ratiometric operation, see the discussion
regarding the AD7730 Σ-∆ ADC in Chapter 3 of this book.
Some ADCs and DACs have internal references, while others do not. Some ADCs use
the power supply as a reference. Unfortunately, there is little standardization with respect
to ADC/DAC voltage references. In some cases, the dc accuracy of a converter with an
internal reference can often be improved by overriding or replacing the internal reference
with a more accurate and stable external one. In other cases, the use of an external lownoise reference will also increase the noise-free code resolution of a high-resolution
ADC.
Various ADCs and DACs provide the capability to use external references in lieu of
internal ones in various ways. Figure 6.76 shows some of the popular configurations (but
certainly not all). Figure 6.76A shows a converter which requires an external reference. It
is generally recommended that a suitable decoupling capacitor be added close to the
ADC/DAC REF IN pin. The appropriate value is usually specified in the voltage
reference data sheet. It is also important that the reference be stable with the required
capacitive load (more on this to come).
Figure 6.76B shows a converter that has an internal reference, where the reference is also
brought out to a pin on the device. This allows it to be used other places in the circuit,
provided the loading does not exceed the rated value. Again, it is important to place the
capacitor close to the converter pin. If the internal reference is pinned out for external
use, its accuracy, stability, and temperature coefficient is usually specified on the ADC or
DAC data sheet.
If the reference output is to be used other places in the circuit, the data sheet
specifications regarding fanout and loading must be strictly observed. In addition, care
must be taken in routing the reference output to minimize noise pickup. In many cases, a
suitable op amp buffer should be used directly at the REF OUT pin before fanning out to
various other parts of the circuit.
Figure 6.76C shows a converter which can use either the internal reference or an external
one, but an extra package pin is required. If the internal reference is used, as in Figure
6.76C, REF OUT is simply externally connected to REF IN, and decoupled if required. If
an external reference is used as shown n Figure 6.76D, REF OUT is left floating, and the
external reference decoupled and applied to the REF IN pin. This arrangement is quite
flexible for driving similar ADCs or DACs with the same reference in order to obtain
good tracking between the devices.
6.79
ANALOG-DIGITAL CONVERSION
C
(A)
REF IN
C
(C)
REF OUT
C
(E)
REF IN
REF OUT/IN
EXT
REF
R
INT
REF
ADC/DAC
(B)
(D)
REF
OUT
INT
REF
ADC/DAC
C
ADC/DAC
(F)
C
C
REF OUT
REF IN
EXT
REF
REF OUT/IN
EXT
REF
R
INT
REF ADC/DAC
INT
REF
ADC/DAC
INT
REF
ADC/DAC
Figure 6.76: Some Popular ADC/DAC Reference Options
Figure 6.76E shows an arrangement whereby an external reference can override the
internal reference using a single package pin. The value of the resistor, R, is typically a
few kΩ, thereby allowing the low impedance external reference to override the internal
one when connected to the REF OUT/IN pin. Figure 6.76F shows how the external
reference is connected to override the internal reference.
The arrangements shown in Figure 6.76 are by no means the only possible configurations
for ADC and DAC references, and the individual data sheets should be consulted in all
cases for details regarding options, fanout, decoupling, etc.
Although the reference element itself can be either a bandgap, buried zener, or XFET™
(see detailed discussion on voltage references in Chapter 7 of this book), practically all
references have some type of output buffer op amp. The op amp isolates the reference
element from the output and also provides drive capability. However, this op amp must
obey the general laws relating to op amp stability, and that is what makes the topic of
reference decoupling relevant to the discussion.
Note that a reference input to an ADC or DAC is similar to the analog input of an ADC,
in that the internal conversion process can inject transient currents at that pin. This
requires adequate decoupling to stabilize the reference voltage. Adding such decoupling
might introduce instability in some reference types, depending on the output op amp
design. Of course, a reference data sheet may not show any details of the output op amp,
which leaves the designer in somewhat of a dilemma concerning whether or not it will be
stable and free from transient errors. In many cases, the ADC or DAC data sheet will
recommend appropriate external references and the recommended decoupling network.
6.80
INTERFACING TO DATA CONVERTERS
6.4 DATA CONVERTER VOLTAGE REFERENCES
Fortunately, some simple lab tests can exercise a reference circuit for transient errors, and
also determine stability for capacitive loading (see Section 7.1 in Chapter 7 of this book
for more details).
A well-designed voltage reference is stable with heavy capacitive decoupling.
Unfortunately, some are not, and larger capacitors actually increases the amount of
transient ringing. Such references are practically useless in data converter applications,
because some amount of local decoupling is almost always required at the converter.
A suitable op amp buffer might be added between the reference and the data converter.
But, there are many good references available (refer again to Section 7.1 of Chapter 7 in
this book) which are stable with an output capacitor. This type of reference should be
chosen for a data converter application, rather than incurring the further complication and
expense of an op amp.
Figure 6.77 summarizes some important considerations for data converter references.
Data converter accuracy determined by the reference, whether
internal or external, but ADC ratiometric operation can
eliminate the need for accurate reference
External references may offer better accuracy and lower noise
than internal references
Bandgap, buried zener, XFET® generally have on-chip output
buffer op amp
Transient loading can cause instability and errors
External decoupling capacitors may cause oscillation
Output may require external buffer to source and sink current
Reference voltage noise may limit system resolution
Figure 6.77: Data Converter Voltage Reference Considerations
6.81
ANALOG-DIGITAL CONVERSION
NOTES:
6.82
INTERFACING TO DATA CONVERTERS
6.5 SAMPLING CLOCK GENERATION
SECTION 6.5: SAMPLING CLOCK GENERATION
Walt Kester
Introduction
In Chapter 2 of this book, we derived an extremely important relationship between
broadband aperture jitter, tj, converter SNR, and fullscale sinewave analog frequency, f:
 1 
SNR = 20 log10 
.
 2πf t j 
Eq. 6.7
This assumes an ideal ADC (or DAC), where the only error source is jitter. The
bandwidth for the SNR measurement is the Nyquist bandwidth, dc to fs/2, where fs is the
sampling rate. Eq. 6.7 also assumes a fullscale sinewave input. The error due to jitter is
proportional to the slew rate of the input signal—lower amplitude sinewaves with
proportionally lower slew rate yield higher values of SNR (with respect to fullscale).
Another interesting case is the theoretical SNR due to jitter for non-sinusoidal signals, in
particular those with a Gaussian frequency distribution. Because the average slew rate of
this type of signal is less than a fullscale sinewave, the errors due to jitter are smaller. The
mathematical treatment of this case is somewhat beyond the scope of the discussion,
however.
It should be noted that tj in Eq. 6.7 is the combined jitter of the sampling clock, tjc, and
the ADC internal aperture jitter, tja—these terms are not correlated and therefore combine
on an root-sum-square (rss) basis:
t j = t jc 2 + t ja 2 .
Eq. 6.8
In many cases, the sampling clock jitter is several times larger than the ADC aperture
jitter, and therefore is the dominate contributor to SNR degradation. For instance, the
AD6645 14-bit, 80-/105-MSPS ADC has an rms aperture jitter specification of 0.1 ps.
Meeting this jitter specification requires a low noise crystal oscillator.
While nothing can be done externally to change the ADC aperture jitter, there are a
number things that can be done to ensure the sampling clock jitter is low enough so that
the maximum possible performance is obtained from the ADC.
Figure 6.78 plots Eq. 6.7 and graphically illustrates how SNR is degraded by jitter for
various fullscale analog input frequencies (note that we assume tj includes all jitter
sources, including the internal ADC aperture jitter).
6.83
ANALOG-DIGITAL CONVERSION
tj = 50fs
120
tj = 0.1ps
SNR = 20log 10
1
2 π ft j
16
tj = 1ps
100
18
14
tj = 10ps
80
SNR
(dB)
12
10
tj = 100ps
60
ENOB
8
tj = 1ns
40
6
4
20
1
3
100
10
30
FULL-SCALE SINEWAVE ANALOG INPUT FREQUENCY (MHz)
Figure 6.78: Theoretical SNR and ENOB Due to Jitter
vs. Fullscale Sinewave Analog Input Frequency
Recall from Chapter 2 of this book that there is a very useful relationship between
effective number of bits (ENOB) and the signal-to-noise-plus-distortion ratio (SINAD)
given by:
ENOB =
SINAD − 1.76 dB
.
6.02 dB
Eq. 6.8
For the purposes of this discussion, assume that the ADC has no distortion, and therefore
SINAD = SNR, so Eq. 6.8 becomes:
ENOB =
SNR − 1.76 dB
.
6.02 dB
Eq. 6.9
The SNR values on the left-hand vertical axis of Figure 6.78 have been converted into
ENOB values on the right-hand vertical axis using Eq. 6.9.
Figure 6.79 shows another plot of Eq. 6.7, where maximum allowable jitter, tj, is plotted
against fullscale analog input frequency for various values of ENOB. This plot is useful
for determining the jitter requirements on the sampling clock (assuming that it dominates
tj) for various input frequencies and resolutions. For instance, digitization of a fullscale
30-MHz input requires less than 0.3-ps rms jitter to maintain 14-bit SNR performance.
6.84
INTERFACING TO DATA CONVERTERS
6.5 SAMPLING CLOCK GENERATION
1000
1000
300
tj
(ps)
4
100
ENOB =
SNR –1.76dB
6.02dB
6
8
30
10
10
12
3
300
100
30
tj
(ps)
10
3
14
1
1
16
0.3
18
0.1
0.3
0.1
0.03
1
3
10
30
100
300
FULL-SCALE ANALOG INPUT FREQUENCY (MHz)
0.03
1000
Figure 6.79: Maximum Allowable RMS Jitter vs. Fullscale Analog
Input Frequency for Various Resolutions (ENOB)
If the required sampling clock jitter is selected per the criteria set forth in Figure 6.79,
then the SNR due to sampling clock jitter will equal the theoretical SNR of the ADC due
to quantization noise.
In order to illustrate the significance of these jitter numbers, consider the typical rms jitter
associated with a selection of logic gates shown in Figure 6.80. The values for the
74LS00, 74HCT00, and 74ACT00 were measured with a high performance ADC
(aperture jitter less than 0.2-ps rms) using the method described in Chapter 5, where tj
was calculated from FFT-based SNR degradation due to several identical gates connected
in series. The jitter due to a single gate was then calculated by dividing by the square root
of the total number of series-connected gates. The jitter for the MC100EL16 and
NBSG16 was specified by the manufacturer.
6.85
ANALOG-DIGITAL CONVERSION
74LS00
4.94 ps *
74HCT00
2.20 ps *
74ACT00
0.99 ps *
MC100EL16 PECL
0.7 ps **
NBSG16, Reduced Swing ECL (0.4V)
0.2 ps **
* Calculated values based on degradation in ADC SNR
** Manufacturers' specification
Figure 6.80: RMS Jitter of Typical Logic Gates
Further discussion on aperture jitter in sampled data systems can be found in References
1 and 2 and also in Chapter 2 of this book.
Oscillator Phase Noise and Jitter
The previous analysis centered around broadband jitter, tj. However, oscillators are most
often specified in terms of phase noise. Therefore, the following discussion shows how to
approximate the rms jitter based upon the phase noise.
First, a few definitions are in order. Figure 6.81 shows a typical output frequency
spectrum of a non-ideal oscillator (i.e., one that has jitter in the time domain,
corresponding to phase noise in the frequency domain). The spectrum shows the noise
power in a 1-Hz bandwidth as a function of frequency. Phase noise is defined as the ratio
of the noise in a 1-Hz bandwidth at a specified frequency offset, fm, to the oscillator
signal amplitude at frequency fO.
"CLOSE-IN"
PHASE NOISE
(LIMITS FREQUENCY RESOLUTION)
PHASE
NOISE
(dBc/Hz)
1Hz BW
BROADBAND
PHASE NOISE
(REDUCES SNR)
fo
fm
f
Figure 6.81: Oscillator Power Spectrum Due to Phase Noise
6.86
INTERFACING TO DATA CONVERTERS
6.5 SAMPLING CLOCK GENERATION
The sampling process is basically a multiplication of the sampling clock and the analog
input signal. This is multiplication in the time domain, which is equivalent to convolution
in the frequency domain. Therefore, the spectrum of the sampling clock oscillator is
convolved with the input and shows up on the FFT output of a pure sinewave input signal
(see Figure 6.82). The "close-in" phase noise will "smear" the fundamental signal into a
number of frequency bins, thereby reducing the overall spectral resolution. The
"broadband" phase noise will cause a degradation in the overall SNR as predicted
approximately by Eq. 6.7.
ANALOG
INPUT, fa
fa
IDEAL
ADC
f
N→∞
DSP
SNR
fs
f
fa
CLOSE-IN
IDEAL SINEWAVE
INPUT
FFT OUTPUT
BROADBAND
f
fs
SAMPLING CLOCK
WITH PHASE NOISE
SNR = 20log 10
1
2 π ft j
(MEASURED FROM DC TO fs/2)
FOR IDEAL ADC
WITH N → ∞
Figure 6.82: Effect of Sampling Clock Phase Noise Ideal Digitized Sinewave
It is customary to characterize an oscillator in terms of its single-sideband phase noise as
shown in Figure 6.83, where the phase noise in dBc/Hz is plotted as a function of
frequency offset, fm, with the frequency axis on a log scale. Note the actual curve is
approximated by a number of regions, each having a slope of 1/f x, where x = 0
corresponds to the "white" phase noise region (slope = 0 dB/decade), and x = 1
corresponds to the "flicker" phase noise region (slope = –20 dB/decade). There are also
regions where x = 2, 3, 4, and these regions occur progressively closer to the carrier
frequency.
Note that the phase noise curve is somewhat analogous to the input voltage noise spectral
density of an amplifier. Like amplifier voltage noise, low 1/f corner frequencies are
highly desirable in an oscillator.
We have seen that oscillators are typically specified in terms of phase noise, but in order
to relate phase noise to ADC performance, the phase noise must be converted into jitter.
In order to make the graph relevant to modern ADC applications, the oscillator frequency
(sampling frequency) is chosen to be 100 MHz for discussion purposes, and a typical
graph is shown in Figure 6.84. Notice that the phase noise curve is approximated by a
number of individual line segments, and the end points of each segment are defined by
data points.
6.87
ANALOG-DIGITAL CONVERSION
1
f3
PHASE
NOISE
(dBc/Hz)
1
f2
1
f
"FLICKER" PHASE NOISE
"WHITE" PHASE NOISE
1
f
CORNER FREQUENCY
FREQUENCY OFFSET, fm, (LOG SCALE)
Figure 6.83: Oscillator Phase Noise in dBc/Hz vs. Frequency Offset
A=
AREA = INTEGRATED PHASE NOISE POWER (dBc)
A = 10 log10(A1 + A2 + A3 + A4)
RMS PHASE JITTER (radians) ≈
PHASE
NOISE
(dBc/Hz)
RMS JITTER (seconds)
≈
A/10
2•10
A/10
2•10
2 π fO
fO = OSCILLATOR FREQUENCY (100MHz)
A1
INTEGRATE TO ≈ 2 fO = 200MHz
A2
A3
10k
100k
1M
fm
A4
10M
100M
1G
FREQUENCY OFFSET (Hz)
Figure 6.84: Calculating Jitter from Phase Noise
The first step in calculating the equivalent rms jitter is to obtain the integrated phase
noise power over the frequency range of interest, i.e., the area of the curve, A. The curve
is broken into a number of individual areas (A1, A2, A3, A4), each defined by two data
points. Generally speaking, the upper frequency range for the integration should be twice
the sampling frequency, assuming there is no filtering between the oscillator and the
ADC input. This approximates the bandwidth of the ADC sampling clock input.
6.88
INTERFACING TO DATA CONVERTERS
6.5 SAMPLING CLOCK GENERATION
Selecting the lower frequency for the integration also requires some judgment. In theory,
it should be as low as possible to get the true rms jitter. In practice, however, the
oscillator specifications generally will not be given for offset frequencies less than 10 Hz,
or so—however, this will certainly give accurate enough results in the calculations. A
lower frequency of integration of 100 Hz is also reasonable in most cases, if that
specification is available. Otherwise, use either the 1-kHz or 10-kHz data point.
One should also consider that the "close-in" phase noise affects the spectral resolution of
the system, while the broadband noise affects the overall system SNR. Probably the
wisest approach is to integrate each area separately as explained below and examine the
magnitude of the jitter contribution of each area. The low frequency contributions may be
negligible compared to the broadband contribution if a crystal oscillator is used. Other
types of oscillators may have significant jitter contributions in the low frequency area,
and a decision must be made regarding their importance to the overall system frequency
resolution.
The integration of each individual area yields individual power ratios. The individual
areas are then summed and converted back into dBc. Once the integrated phase noise
power is known, the rms phase jitter in radians is given by the equation (see References
3-7 for further details, derivations, etc.),
RMS Phase Jitter ( radians) = 2 ⋅ 10 A / 10 ,
Eq. 6.10
and dividing by 2πfO converts the jitter in radians to jitter in seconds:
RMS Phase Jitter (seconds) =
2 ⋅ 10 A / 10
.
2π f O
Eq. 6.11
It should be noted that computer programs and spreadsheets are available online to
perform the integration by segments and calculate the rms jitter, thereby greatly
simplifying the process (References 8, 9).
Figure 6.85 shows a sample calculation which assumes only broadband phase noise. The
broadband phase noise chosen of –150 dBc/Hz represents a reasonably good signal
generator specification, so the jitter number obtained represents a practical situation. The
phase noise of –150 dBc/Hz (expressed as a ratio) is multiplied by the bandwidth of
integration (200 MHz) to obtain the integrated phase noise of –67 dBc. Note that this
multiplication is equivalent to adding the quantity 10 log10[200 MHz – 0.01 MHz] to the
phase noise in dBc/Hz. In practice, the lower frequency limit of 0.01 MHz can be
dropped from the calculation, as it does not affect the final result significantly. A total
rms jitter of approximately 1 ps is obtained using Eq. 6.11.
6.89
ANALOG-DIGITAL CONVERSION
PHASE
NOISE
(dBc/Hz)
fO = OSCILLATOR FREQUENCY (100MHz)
INTEGRATE TO ≈ 2 fO = 200MHz
–150
A
10k
100k
1M
fm
10M
A = –150dBc + 10 log10 200×106 – 0.01×106
RMS PHASE JITTER (radians) ≈
RMS JITTER (seconds) =
100M
1G
FREQUENCY OFFSET (Hz)
A/10
2•10
= –150dBc + 83dB = –67dBc
= 6.32×10–4 radians
RMS PHASE JITTER (radians)
2 π fO
= 1ps
Figure 6.85: Sample Jitter Calculation Assuming Broadband Phase Noise
Crystal oscillators generally offer the lowest possible phase noise and jitter, and some
examples are shown for comparison in Figure 6.86. All the oscillators shown have a
typical 1/f corner frequency of 20 kHz, and the phase noise therefore represents the white
phase noise level. The two Wenzel oscillators are fixed-frequency and represent excellent
performance (Reference 9). It is difficult to achieve this level of performance with
variable frequency signal generators, as shown by the –150 dBc specification for a
relatively high quality generator.
Wenzel ULN Series*
–174dBc/Hz @ 10kHz+,
~ $1,500
Wenzel Sprinter Series,
–165dBc/Hz @ 10kHz+,
~ $350
High Quality Signal Generator –150dBc/Hz @ 10kHz+, ~ $10,000
Thermal noise floor of resistive source in a
matched system @ +25°C = –174dBm/Hz
0dBm = 1mW = 632mV p-p into 50Ω
* An oscillator with an output of +13dBm (2.82V p-p) into 50Ω
with a phase noise of –174dBc/Hz has a noise floor of
+13dBm – 174dBc = –161dBm, 13dB above the thermal noise floor
(Wenzel ULN and Sprinter Series Specifications and
Pricing Used with Permission of Wenzel Associates)
Figure 6.86: 100-MHz Oscillator Broadband Phase Noise Floor Comparisons
(Wenzel ULN and Sprinter Series Specifications and Pricing used
with Permission of Wenzel Associates)
6.90
INTERFACING TO DATA CONVERTERS
6.5 SAMPLING CLOCK GENERATION
At this point, it should be noted that there is a theoretical limit to the noise floor of an
oscillator determined by the thermal noise of a matched source: –174 dBm/Hz at +25°C.
Therefore, an oscillator with a +13-dBm output into 50 Ω (2.82-V p-p) with a phase noise
of –174 dBc/Hz has a noise floor of –174 dBc + 13 dBm = –161 dBm. This is the case
for the Wenzel ULN series as shown in Figure 6.87.
Figure 6.87 shows the jitter calculations from the two Wenzel crystal oscillators. In each
case, the data points were taken directly for the manufacturer's data sheet. Because of the
low 1/f corner frequency, the majority of the jitter is due to the "white" phase noise area.
The calculated values of 63 femtoseconds (ULN-Series) and 180 femtoseconds represent
extremely low jitter. For informational purposes, the individual jitter contributions of
each area have been labeled separately. The total jitter is the root-sum-square of the
individual jitter contributors.
–120
WENZEL STANDARD 100MHz-SC ULTRA LOW
NOISE (ULN) CRYSTAL OSCILLATOR
(–125dBc/Hz, 100Hz)
–130
PHASE
NOISE –140
(dBc/Hz)
–150
–160
TOTAL RMS JITTER = 0.064ps
(–150dBc/Hz, 1kHz)
0.01ps
(–174dBc/Hz, 10kHz)
–170
0.002ps
–180
100
–120
–130
PHASE
NOISE –140
(dBc/Hz)
–150
–160
–170
1k
(–174dBc/Hz, 200MHz)
0.063ps
10k
100k
(–120dBc/Hz, 100Hz)
1M
10M
100M
WENZEL STANDARD 100MHz-SC SPRINTER
CRYSTAL OSCILLATOR
TOTAL RMS JITTER = 0.18ps
(–150dBc/Hz, 1kHz)
0.02ps
(–165dBc/Hz, 10kHz)
0.003ps
(–165dBc/Hz, 200MHz)
0.18ps
–180
100
FREQUENCY OFFSET (Hz)
1k
10k
100k
1M
10M
100M
FREQUENCY OFFSET (Hz)
Figure 6.87: Jitter Calculations for Low Noise 100-MHz Crystal Oscillators
(Phase Noise Data used with Permission of Wenzel Associates)
In system designs requiring low jitter sampling clocks, the costs of low noise dedicated
crystal oscillators is generally prohibitive. An alternative solution is to use a phaselocked-loop (PLL) in conjunction with a voltage-controlled oscillator to "clean up" a
noisy system clock as shown in Figure 6.88. There are many good references on PLL
design (see References 10-13, for example), and we will not pursue that topic further,
other than to state that using a narrow bandwidth loop filter in conjunction with a
voltage-controlled crystal oscillator (VCXO) typically gives the lowest phase noise. As
shown in Figure 6.88, the PLL tends to reduce the "close-in" phase noise while at the
same time, reducing the overall phase noise floor. Further reduction in the white noise
floor can be obtained by following the PLL output with an appropriate bandpass filter.
6.91
ANALOG-DIGITAL CONVERSION
NOISY
CLOCK
fs
ADF4001, OR ADF41xx-SERIES
PHASE
DETECTOR
CHARGE
PUMP
LOOP
FILTER
VCXO
SAMPLING
CLOCK
BPF
ADC
DIVIDER
fs
fs
fs
Figure 6.88: Using a Phase-Locked Loop (PLL) and Bandpass
Filter to Condition a Noisy Clock Source
The effect of enclosing a free-running VCO within a PLL is shown in Figure 6.89. Notice
that the "close-in" phase noise is reduced significantly by the action of the PLL.
Figure 6.89: Phase Noise for a Free-Running VCO and a PLL-Connected VCO
6.92
INTERFACING TO DATA CONVERTERS
6.5 SAMPLING CLOCK GENERATION
Analog Devices offers a wide portfolio of frequency synthesis products, including DDS
systems, N, and fractional-N PLLs. For example, the ADF4360 is a fully integrated PLL
complete with an internal VCO. With a 10-kHz bandwidth loop filter, the phase noise is
shown in Figure 6.90, along with the line-segment approximation and jitter calculations
in Figure 6.90. Note that the rms jitter is only 1.57 ps, even with a non-crystal VCO.
PHASE
NOISE
(dBc/Hz)
Figure 6.90: Phase Noise for ADF4360 2.25-GHz PLL
with Loop Filter BW = 10 kHz
–70
(–80dBc/Hz, 1kHz)
(–77dBc/Hz, 10kHz)
–80
(–82dBc/Hz, 100Hz)
–90
TOTAL RMS JITTER = 1.57ps
–100
PHASE
NOISE
(dBc/Hz)
–110
–120
(–112dBc/Hz, 100kHz)
0.28ps
1.21ps
–130
(–134dBc/Hz, 1MHz)
0.89ps
0.07ps
–140
–150
100
(–146dBc/Hz, 10MHz)
0.03ps
1k
10k
100k
1M
10M
(–146dBc/Hz, 4.5GHz)
0.34ps
100M
1G 4.5G
FREQUENCY OFFSET (Hz)
Figure 6.91: Line Segment Approximation to ADF4360 2.25GHz
PLL Phase Noise Showing Jitter
6.93
ANALOG-DIGITAL CONVERSION
Historically, PLL design relied heavily on textbooks and application notes to assist in the
design of the loop filter, etc. Now, with Analog Devices free downloadable ADIsimPLL
software, PLL design is much easier. To start, choose a circuit by entering the desired
output frequency range, and select a PLL, VCO, and a crystal reference. Once the loop
filter configuration has been selected, the circuit can be analyzed and optimized for phase
noise, phase margin, gain, spur levels, lock time, etc., in both the frequency and time
domain. The program also performs the rms jitter calculation based on the PLL phase
noise, thereby allowing the evaluation of the final PLL output as a sampling clock.
Figure 6.92 summarizes this discussion and should serve as an approximate guideline for
selecting the type of sampling clock generator based upon the maximum input frequency
and the required resolution in ENOB. The PLL approach with a standard VCO is an
excellent one for generating sampling clocks where the rms jitter requirement is
approximately 1 ps or greater. However, sub-picosecond jitter requires either a VCXObased PLL or a dedicated low noise crystal oscillator.
1000
1000
300
tj
(ps)
4
100
ENOB =
SNR –1.76dB
6.02
6
8
30
10
10
12
3
300
100
30
tj
(ps)
10
3
14
PLL WITH VCO
1
1
16
0.3
0.3
18
PLL WITH VCXO
0.1
DEDICATED LOW NOISE XTAL OSC
0.03
1
3
10
30
100
300
FULL-SCALE ANALOG INPUT FREQUENCY (MHz)
0.1
0.03
1000
Figure 6.92: Oscillator Requirements vs. Resolution and Analog Input Frequency
"Hybrid" Clock Generators
DDSs, mixers, frequency dividers, and frequency doublers can be utilized in conjunction
with PLLs to form what is generally referred to as a "hybrid" frequency synthesizer. An
excellent tutorial on the subject can be found in Reference 14. A very simple example is
shown in Figure 6.93 where a DDS system drives a PLL. The upper output frequency of
the DDS system is of course limited by its maximum update rate. The upper frequency of
a PLL, on the other hand, is primarily limited by the VCO, which can operate in the GHz
range if required.
6.94
INTERFACING TO DATA CONVERTERS
6.5 SAMPLING CLOCK GENERATION
FREQUENCY
TUNING WORD
AD98xx DDS
SYSTEM + DAC
BPF
fs
ADF4001, OR ADF41xx-SERIES
PHASE
DETECTOR
CHARGE
PUMP
LOOP
FILTER
VCXO
SAMPLING
CLOCK
BPF
ADC/DAC
DIVIDER
Figure 6.93: A Simple "Hybrid" Sampling Clock Generator
As previously discussed, the phase noise of a PLL can be controlled by the loop filter, the
VCXO, and an output filter. DDS systems have phase noise which is produced primarily
by the finite resolution of the internal DAC. The system of Figure 6.93 uses the PLL to
"clean up" the phase noise produced by the DDS system, thereby generating an output
clock which is suitable for high performance ADC/DAC sampling clocks. There are
many possible combinations possible if one looks at some of the configurations suggested
in Reference 14.
In many less-demanding applications, DDS outputs can of course be used directly as a
clock generator. Many DDSs have on-chip comparators which facilitate the generation of
a square wave output.
Regardless of how it is generated, the overriding requirements on the sampling clock are
ultimately dictated by the principles set forth in this section which relate phase noise and
timing jitter to SNR.
Driving Differential Sampling Clock Inputs
Data converters which can tolerate sampling clocks with tens of picoseconds or more of
jitter can be driven from most any single-ended logic gate. However, for jitter
requirements of 10 ps or less, more care must be taken in the selection of an appropriate
driver. High performance high-speed data converters are almost always designed to
accept a differential sampling clock input as shown in Figure 6.94.
6.95
ANALOG-DIGITAL CONVERSION
0.1µF
+VS
510Ω
0.1µF
0.1µF
CLK+
54.9Ω
510Ω
PECL
OR
RSPECL
DRIVER
ADC
CLK–
0.1µF
VBB
510Ω
0.1µF
DRIVERS: MC100EL16 (VS = 4.2V to 5.7V), Jitter = 0.7ps
OR NBSG16 (VS = 2.4V to 3.5V), Jitter = 0.2ps
ON-SEMICONDUCTOR
Figure 6.94: Low Jitter Single-Ended to Differential Clock Drivers
Differential sampling clock inputs are popular with high speed converters and provide
good common-mode rejection, thereby minimizing the possibility of corruption. It is also
generally recommended that differential inputs be driven with low-level signals such as
ECL (emitter-coupled logc), RSECL (reduced signal ECL), or LVDS (low voltage
differential signal). A sampling clock that has a full swing between ground and the
supply voltage will generally introduce extra noise, thereby degrading the overall
converter dynamic performance. A high performance ADC data sheet should provide
appropriate guidance for the optimum drive level.
Most oscillator or PLL outputs are single-ended, so a low-jitter PECL receiver/driver
such as the ON-Semiconductor MC100EL16 or the NBSG16 (Reference 14) are
excellent choices for performing single-ended to differential clock conversion. The rms
jitter specification is 0.7 ps for the MC100EL16, and 0.2 ps for the NBSG16 (a silicongermanium device). These parts are basically ECL (Emitter-Coupled-Logic) designs
which can be operated on a single positive supply—hence the acronym "PECL" (Positive
Emitter Coupled Logic). In almost all cases, the differential sampling clock inputs of the
ADC are internally biased at the appropriate dc common-mode level, and the differential
driver outputs can simply be ac-coupled to the ADC clock inputs. If the ADC does not
have internal biasing, then an external resistor network is required to supply the required
bias voltages.
The output voltage swing for the MC100EL16 PECL device is approximately 1-V p-p
single-ended (2-V p-p differential), and 0.4-V p-p single-ended (0.8-V p-p differential)
for the reduced-swing PECL (RSPECL) NBSG16.
For the ultra low-jitter applications, an RF transformer should be used to convert the
single-ended oscillator output into a differential signal as shown in Figure 6.95. The
back-to-back Schottky diodes limit the differential voltage input swing to about 0.8 V,
6.96
INTERFACING TO DATA CONVERTERS
6.5 SAMPLING CLOCK GENERATION
the 0.1-µF prevents any dc components from causing transformer saturation, and the
100-Ω resistor limits the output current of the drive oscillator. The AD6645 14-bit,
105-MSPS ADC has an aperture jitter specification of 0.1 ps, and the transformer drive
circuit in conjunction with a very low noise oscillator will provide optimum performance
with this type of low-jitter ADC. Some experimentation may be required to determine the
amplitude for the input sinewave which gives the best overall SNR.
0.1µF 100Ω
MINI-CIRCUITS
T4-1-KK81
1:4 IMPEDANCE RATIO
CLK+
ADC
CLK–
SCHOTTKY
DIODES:
HMS2812
Figure 6.95: Single-Ended to Differential Conversion Using RF Transformer
As in the case of ADC analog inputs and DAC analog outputs, there are other
possibilities, and the device data sheet must always be consulted for the optimum
sampling clock drive recommendations.
Sampling Clock Summary
Earlier in this chapter, we discussed the importance of the drive circuitry for the analog
input of an ADC and the analog output buffer for a DAC. Equally important is the ADC
or DAC sampling clock. Regarding the sampling clock as simply another "digital" signal
is a certain receipt for disaster in a system design.
This section has described the effects of jitter on SNR, assuming that the jitter is solely a
combination of the internal ADC aperture jitter and the external sampling clock jitter.
However, improper layout, grounding, and decoupling techniques can create additional
clock jitter which can drastically degrade dynamic performance, regardless of the
specifications of the ADC or sampling clock oscillator.
Routing the sampling clock signal in parallel with noisy digital signals is sure to degrade
performance due to stray coupling. In fact, coupling high speed data from parallel output
ADCs into the sampling clock not only increases noise, but is likely to create additional
harmonic distortion, because the energy contained in the digital output transient currents
is signal dependent. For further discussion of these and other critical hardware design
techniques, the reader is referred to Chapter 9 of this book.
6.97
ANALOG-DIGITAL CONVERSION
REFERENCES:
6.5 SAMPLING CLOCK GENERATION
1.
Brad Brannon, "Aperture Uncertainty and ADC System Performance," Application Note AN-501,
Analog Devices, download at http://www.analog.com.
2.
Bar-Giora Goldberg, "The Effects of Clock Jitter on Data Conversion Devices," RF Design, August
2002, pp. 26-32, http://www.rfdesign.com.
3.
Ulrich L. Rohde, Digital PLL Frequency Synthesizers, Theory and Design, Prentice-Hall, 1983,
ISBN 0-13-214239-2, all of Chapter 2 and pp. 411-418 for computer analysis.
4.
Joseph V. Adler, "Clock-Source Jitter: A Clear Understanding Aids Oscillator Selection," EDN,
February 18, 1999, pp. 79-86, http://www.ednmag.com.
5.
Neil Roberts, "Phase Noise and Jitter – A Primer for Digital Designers," EEdesign, July 14, 2003,
http://www.eedesign.com.
6.
Boris Drakhlis, "Calculate Oscillator Jitter by using Phase-Noise Analysis Part 1," Microwaves and
RF, January 2001, p. 82, http://www.mwrf.com.
7.
Boris Drakhlis, "Calculate Oscillator Jitter by using Phase-Noise Analysis Part 2," Microwaves and
RF, February 2001, p. 109, http://www.mwrf.com.
8.
Raltron Electronics Corporation, 10651 Northwest 19th Street, Miami, Florida 33172, Tel: (305) 593
– 6033, http://www.raltron.com. (see "Convert SSB Phase Noise to Jitter" under "Engineering Design
Tools").
9.
Wenzel Associates, Inc., 2215 Kramer Lane, Austin, Texas 78758, Tel: (512) 835-2038,
http://www.wenzel.com (see "Allan Variance from Phase Noise" under "Spreadsheets").
10. Mike Curtin and Paul O'Brien, "Phase-Locked Loops for High-Frequency Receivers and Transmitters,
Part 1, Analog Dialogue 33-3, 1999, http://www.analog.com.
11. Mike Curtin and Paul O'Brien, "Phase-Locked Loops for High-Frequency Receivers and Transmitters,
Part 2, Analog Dialogue 33-5, 1999, http://www.analog.com.
12. R. E. Best, Phase-Locked Loops: Theory, Design and Applications, Fourth Edition, McGraw-Hill,
1999, ISBN 0071349030.
13. F. M. Gardner, Phaselock Techniques, Second Edition, John Wiley, 1979, ISBN 0471042943.
14. David Crook, "Hybrid Synthesizer Tutorial," Microwave Journal, February 2003.
15. ON Semiconductor, 5005 East McDowell Road, Phoenix, AZ 85008, USA, Tel: (602) 244-6600,
http://www.onsemi.com.
6.98
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