ATMEL TS68040DESC01XCA

Features
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26-42 MIPS Integer Performance
3.5-5.6 MFLOPS Floating-Point-Performance
IEEE 754-Compatible FPU
Independent Instruction and Data MMUs
4K bytes Physical Instruction Cache and 4K bytes Physical Data Cache Accessed
Simultaneously
32-bit, Nonmultiplexed External Address and Data Buses with Synchronous Interface
User-Object-Code Compatibility with All Earlier TS68000 Microprocessors
Multimaster/Multiprocessor Support via Bus Snooping
Concurrent Integer Unit, FPU, MMU, Bus Controller, and Bus Snooper Maximize
Throughput
4G bytes Direct Addressing Range
Software Support Including Optimizing C Compiler and UNIX® System V Port
IEEE P 1149-1 Test Mode (JTAG)
f = 25 MHz, 33 MHz; VCC = 5V ± 5%; PD = 7W
The Use of the TS88915T Clock Driver is Suggested
ThirdGeneration
32-bit
Microprocessor
Description
The TS68040 is Atmel’s third generation of 68000-compatible, high-performance, 32bit microprocessors. The TS68040 is a virtual memory microprocessor employing
multiple, concurrent execution units and a highly integrated architecture to provide
very high performance in a monolithic HCMOS device. On a single chip, the TS68040
integrates a 68030-compatible integer unit, an IEEE 754-compatible floating-point unit
(FPU), and fully independent instruction and data demand-paged memory management units (MMUs), including 4K bytes independent instruction and data caches. A
high degree of instruction execution parallelism is achieved through the use of multiple independent execution pipelines, multiple internal buses, and a full internal
Harvard architecture, including separate physical caches for both instruction and data
accesses. The TS68040 also directly supports cache coherency in multimaster applications with dedicated on-chip bus snooping logic.
TS68040
The TS68040 is user-object-code compatible with previous members of the TS68000
Family and is specifically optimized to reduce the execution time of compiler-generated code. The 68040 HCMOS technology, provides an ideal balance between speed,
power, and physical device size.
Figure 1 is a simplified block diagram of the TS68040. Instruction execution is pipelined in both the integer unit and FPU. Independent data and instruction MMUs control
the main caches and the address translation caches (ATCs). The ATCs speed up logical-to-physical address translations by storing recently used translations. The bus
snooper circuit ensures cache coherency in multimaster and multiprocessing
applications.
Screening
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MIL-STD-883
•
DESC. Drawing 5962-93143
•
Atmel Standards
Rev. 2116A–HIREL–09/02
1
F suffix
CQFP 196
Gullwing Shape Lead
Ceramic Quad Fla Pack
R suffix
PGA 179
Ceramic Pin Grid Array
Cavity Down
Figure 1. Block Diagram
INSTRUCTION DATA BUS
INSTRUCTION
ATC
INSTRUCTION
FETCH
INSTRUCTION
MMU/CACHE/SNOOP
CONTROLLER
DECODE
INSTRUCTION MEMORY UNIT
CONVERT
EXECUTE
INSTRUCTION
CACHE
INSTRUCTION
ADDRESS
B
U
S
EFFECTIVE
ADDRESS
CALCULATE
EFFECTIVE
ADDRESS
FETCH
EXECUTE
WRITE
BACK
WRITE
BACK
FLOATINGPOINT
UNIT
INTEGER
UNIT
DATA MEMORY UNIT
DATA
MMU/CACHE/SNOOP
CONTROLLER
DATA
ATC
DATA
ADDRESS
C
O
N
T
R
O
L
L
E
R
ADDRESS
BUS
DATA
BUS
BUS
CONTROL
SIGNALS
DATA
CACHE
OPERAND DATA BUS
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TS68040
2116A–HIREL–09/02
TS68040
Introduction
The TS68040 is an enhanced, 32-bit, HCMOS microprocessor that combines the integer unit processing capabilities of the TS68030 microprocessor with independent
4K bytes data and instruction caches and an on-chip FPU. The TS68040 maintains the
32-bit registers available with the entire TS68000 Family as well as the 32-bit address
and data paths, rich instruction set, and versatile addressing modes. Instruction execution proceeds in parallel with accesses to the internal caches, MMU operations, and bus
controller activity. Additionally, the integer unit is optimized for high-level language
environments.
The TS68040 FPU is user-object-code compatible with the TS68882 floating-point
coprocessor and conforms to the ANSI/IEEE Standard 754 for binary floating-point arithmetic. The FPU has been optimized to execute the most commonly used subset of the
TS68882 instruction set, and includes additional instruction formats for single and double-precision rounding of results. Floating-point instructions in the FPU execute
concurrently with integer instructions in the integer unit.
The MMUs support multiprocessing, virtual memory systems by translating logical
addresses to physical addresses using translation tables stored in memory. The MMUs
store recently used address mappings in two separate ATCs-on-chip. When an ATC
contains the physical address for a bus cycle requested by the processor, a translation
table search is avoided and the physical address is supplied immediately, incurring no
delay for address translation. Each MMU has two transparent translation registers available that define a one-to-one mapping for address space segments ranging in size from
16M bytes to 4G bytes each.
Each MMU provides read-only and supervisor-only protections on a page basis. Also,
processes can be given isolated address spaces by assigning each a unique table
structure and updating the root pointer upon a task swap. Isolated address spaces protect the integrity of independent processes.
The instruction and data caches operate independently from the rest of the machine,
storing information for fast access by the execution units. Each cache resides on its own
internal address bus and internal data bus, allowing simultaneous access to both. The
data cache provides write through or copyback write modes that can be configured on a
page-by-page basis.
The TS68040 bus controller supports a high-speed, non multiplexed, synchronous
external bus interface, which allows the following transfer sizes: byte, word (2 bytes),
long word (4 bytes), and line (16 bytes). Line accesses are performed using burst transfers for both reads and writes to provide high data transfer rates.
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2116A–HIREL–09/02
Pin Assignments
PGA 179
Figure 2. Bottom View
Table 1. Power Supply Affectation to PGA Body
GND
PLL
VCC
S8
Internal Logic
C6, C7, C9, C11,C13, K3, K16, L3, M16, R4, R11, R13,
S10, T4, S9, R6, R10
C5, C8, C10, C12, C14, H3, H16, J3, J16, L16, M3, R5,
R12, R8
Output Drivers
B2, B4, B6, B8, B10, B13, B15, B17, D2, D17, F2, F17,
H2, H17, L2, L17, N2, N17, Q2, Q17, S2, S15, S17
B5, B9, B14, C2, C17, G2, G17, M2, M17, R2, R17,
S16
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TS68040
2116A–HIREL–09/02
TS68040
CQFP 196
Figure 3. Pin Assignments
Table 2. Power Supply Affectation to CQFP Body
GND
PLL
VCC
127
Internal Logic
4, 9, 10, 19, 32, 45, 73, 88, 113, 119, 121, 122, 124,
125, 129, 130, 141, 159, 172
3, 18, 31, 40, 46, 60, 72, 87, 114, 126, 137, 158, 173,
186
Output Drivers
7, 15, 22, 28, 35, 42, 49, 50, 51, 57, 63, 69, 76, 77, 83,
84, 91, 97, 98, 99, 105, 106, 146, 147, 148, 149, 155,
162, 163, 169, 176, 182, 183, 189, 195, 196
12, 25, 38, 54, 66, 80, 94, 102, 152, 166, 179, 192
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Signal Description
Figure 4 and Table 3 describe the signals on the TS68040 and indicate signal functions.
The test signals, TRST, TMS, TCK, TDI, and TDO, comply with subset P-1149.1 of the
IEEE testability bus standard.
Figure 4. Functional Signal Groups
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TS68040
2116A–HIREL–09/02
TS68040
Table 3. Signal Index
Signal Name
Mnemonic
Function
Address Bus
A31-A0
32-bit address bus used to address any of 4G bytes
Data Bus
D31-D0
32-bit data bus used to transfer up to 32 bits of data per bus transfer
Transfer Type
TT1, TT0
Indicates the general transfer type: normal, MOVE 16, alternate logical function
code, and acknowledge
Transfer Modifier
TM2, TM0
Indicates supplemental information about the access
Transfer Line Number
User Programmable Attributes
Read Write
Transfer Size
Bus Lock
TLN1, TLN0
Indicates which cache line in a set is being pushed or loaded by the current line
transfer
UPA1,
UPA0
User-defined signals, controlled by the corresponding user attribute bits from the
address translation entry
R/W
SIZ1, SIZ0
LOCK
Identifies the transfer as a read or write
Indicates the data transfer size. These signals, together with A0 and A1, define the
active sections of the data bus
Indicates a bus transfer is part of a read-modify-write operation, and that the
sequence of transfers should not be interrupted
Bus Lock End
LOCKE
Indicates the current transfer is the last in a locked sequence of transfer
Cache Inhibit Out
CIOUT
Indicates the processor will not cache the current bus transfer
Transfer Start
TS
Indicates the beginning of a bus transfer
Transfer in Progress
TIP
Asserted for the duration of a bus transfer
Transfer Acknowledge
TA
Asserted to acknowledge a bus transfer
Transfer Error Acknowledge
TEA
Indicates an error condition exists for a bus transfer
Transfer Cache Inhibit
TCI
Indicates the current bus transfer should not be cached
Transfer Burst Inhibit
TBI
Indicates the slave cannot handle a line burst access
Data Latch Enable
DLE
Alternate clock input used to latch input data when the processor is operating in
DLE mode
Snoop Control
SC1, SC0
Indicates the snooping operation required during an alternate master access
Memory Inhibit
MI
Inhibits memory devices from responding to an alternate master access during
snooping operations
Bus Request
BR
Asserted by the processor to request bus mastership
Bus Grant
BG
Asserted by an arbiter to grant bus mastership to the processor
Bus Busy
BB
Asserted by the current bus master to indicate it has assumed ownership of the bus
Cache Disable
CDIS
Dynamically disables the internal caches to assist emulator support
MMU Disable
MDIS
Disables the translation mechanism of the MMUs
Reset In
RSTI
Processor reset
Reset Out
RSTO
Asserted during execution of the RESET instruction to reset external devices
Interrupt Priority Level
IPL2-IPL0
Provides an encoded interrupt level to the processor
Interrupt Pending
IPEND
Indicates an interrupt is pending
Autovector
AVEC
Used during an interrupt acknowledge transfer to request internal generation of the
vector number
Processor Status
PST3-PST0
Indicates internal processor status
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Table 3. Signal Index (Continued)
Signal Name
Mnemonic
Function
Bus Clock
BCLK
Clock input used to derive all bus signal timing
Processor Clock
PCLK
Clock input used for internal logic timing. The PCLK frequency is exactly 2X the
BCLK frequency
Test Clock
TCK
Clock signal for the IEEE P1149.1 test access port (TAP)
Test Mode Select
TMS
Selects the principle operations of the test-support circuitry
Test Data Input
TDI
Serial data input for the TAP
Test Data Output
TDO
Serial data output for the TAP
Test Reset
TRST
Provides an asynchronous reset of the TAP controller
Power Supply
VCC
Power supply
Ground
GND
Ground connection
Scope
This drawing describes the specific requirements for the microprocessor TS68040 25 MHz and 33 MHz, in compliance with MIL-STD-883 class B or Atmel standard
screening.
Applicable
Documents
MIL-STD-883
1. MIL-STD-883: test methods and procedures for electronics.
2. MIL-I-38535: general specifications for microcircuits.
3. DESC 5962-93143.
Requirements
General
The microcircuits are in accordance with the applicable document and as specified
herein.
Design and Construction
Terminal Connections
See Figure 2 and Figure 3.
Lead Material and Finish
Lead material and finish shall be as specified in MIL-STD-883 (see enclosed “MIL-STD883 C and Internal Standard” on page 46).
Package
The macro circuits are packaged in hermetically sealed ceramic packages which conform to case outlines of MIL-STD-1835-or as follow:
8
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CMGA 10-179-PAK pin grid array, but see “179 pins – PGA” on page 43.
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Similar to CQCC1-F196C-U6 ceramic uniform lead chip carrier package with
ceramic nonconductive tie-bar but use Atmel’s internal drawing, see “196 pins – Tie
Bar CQFP Cavity Up (on request)” on page 44.
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Gullwing shape CQFP see “196 pins – Gullwing CQFP cavity up” on page 45.
TS68040
2116A–HIREL–09/02
TS68040
The precise case outlines are described at the end of the specification (See “Package
Mechanical Data” on page 43.) and into MIL-STD-1835.
Electrical Characteristics
Absolute Maximum Ratings
Stresses above the absolute maximum rating may cause permanent damage to the
device. Extended operation at the maximum levels may degrade performance and affect
reliability.
Table 4. Absolute Maximum Ratings
Symbol
Min
Max
Unit
Supply Voltage Range
-0.3
7.0
V
VI
Input Voltage Range
-0.3
7.0
V
Large buffers enabled
7.7
W
PD
Power Dissipation
Small buffers enabled
6.3
W
TC
Operating Temperature
-55
TJ
°C
Tstg
Storage Temperature Range
-65
+150
°C
TJ
Junction Temperature(1)
+125
°C
VCC
Note:
Parameter
Condition
Tlead
Lead Temperature
Max.10 sec soldering
+300
°C
1. This device is not tested at TC = +125°C. Testing is performed by setting the junction temperature Tj = +125°C and allowing
the case and ambient temperatures to rise and fall as necessary so as not to exceed the maximum junction temperature.
Table 5. Recommended Conditions of Use
Unless otherwise stated, all voltages are referenced to the reference terminal
Symbol
VCC
Parameter
Typ
Max
Unit
Supply Voltage Range
+4.75
+5.25
V
Logic Low Level Input Voltage Range
GND
- 0.3
0.8
V
VIH
Logic High Level Input Voltage Range
+2.0
VCC + 0.3
V
VOH
High Level Output Voltage
2.4
VOL
Low Level Output Voltage
VIL
Clock Frequency
fc
Note:
Min
V
0.5
V
-25 MHz Version
25
MHz
-33 MHz Version
33
MHz
TC
Case Operating Temperature Range(1)
TJ
Maximum Operating Junction Temperature
-55
TJmax
°C
+125
°C
1. This device is not tested at TC = +125°C. Testing is performed by setting the junction temperature TJ = +125°C and allowing
the case and ambient temperatures to rise and fall as necessary so as not to exceed the maximum junction temperature.
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2116A–HIREL–09/02
Thermal Considerations
General Thermal
Considerations
This section is only given as user information.
As microprocessors are becoming more complex and requiring more power, the need to
efficiently cool the device becomes increasingly more important. In the past, the
TS68000 Family, has been able to provide a 0-70°C ambient temperature part for
speeds less than 40 MHz. However, the TS68040, which has a 50 MHz arithmetic logic
unit (ALU) speed, is specified with a maximum power dissipation for a particular mode, a
maximum junction temperature, and a thermal resistance from the die junction to the
case. This provides a more accurate method of evaluating the environment, taking into
consideration both the air-flow and ambient temperature available. This also allows a
user the information to design a cooling method which meets both thermal performance
requirements and constraints of the board environment.
This section discusses the device characteristics for thermal management, several
methods of thermal management, and an example of one method of cooling the
TS68040.
Thermal Device
Characteristics
The TS68040 presents some inherent characteristics which should be considered when
evaluating a method of cooling the device. The following paragraphs discuss these
die/package and power considerations.
Die and Package
The TS68040 is being placed in a cavity-down alumina-ceramic 179-pin PGA that has a
specified thermal resistance from junction to case of 1°C/W. This package differs from
previous TS68000 Family PGA packages which were cavity up. This cavity-down design
allows the die to be attached to the top surface of the package, which increases the ability of the part to dissipate heat through the package surface or an attached heat sink.
The maximum perimeter that the TS68040 allows for a heat sink on its surface without
interfering with the capacitor pads is 1.48" x 1.48". The specific dimensions and design
of the particular heat sink will need to be determined by the system designer considering
both thermal performance requirements and size requirements.
Power Considerations
The TS68040 has a maximum power rating, which varies depending on the operating
frequency and the output buffer mode combination being used. The large buffer output
mode dissipates more power than the small, and the higher frequencies of operation
dissipate more power than the lower frequencies. The following paragraphs discuss
trade-offs in using the different output buffer modes, calculation of specific maximum
power dissipation for different modes, and the relationship of thermal resistances and
temperatures.
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TS68040
2116A–HIREL–09/02
TS68040
Output Buffer Mode
The 68040 is capable of resetting to enable for a combination of either large buffers or
small buffers on the outputs of the miscellaneous control signals, data bus, and address
bus/transfer attribute pins. The large buffers offer quicker output times, which allow for
an easier logic design. However, they do so by driving about 11 times as much current
as the small buffers (refer to TS68040 Electrical specifications for current output). The
designer should consider whether the quicker timings present enough advantage to justify the additional consideration to the individual signal terminations, the die power
consumption, and the required cooling for the device. Since the TS68040 can be powered-up in one of eight output buffer modes upon reset, the actual maximum power
consumption for TS68040 rated at a particular maximum operating frequency is dependent upon the power up mode. Therefore, the TS68040 is rated at a maximum power
dissipation for either the large buffers or small buffers at a particular frequency (refer to
TS68040 Electrical specifications). This allows the possibility of some of the thermal
management to be controlled upon reset. The following equation provides a rough
method to calculate the maximum power consumption for a chosen output buffer mode:
PD = PDSB + (PDLB - PDSB) · (PINSLB/PINSCLB)
(1)
where:
PD
= Max. power dissipation for output buffer mode
selected
PDSB
= Max. power dissipation for small buffer mode
(all outputs)
PDLB
= Max. power dissipation for large buffer mode
(all outputs)
PINSLB
= Number of pins large buffer mode
PINSCLB = Number of pins capable of the large buffer
mode
Table 6 shows the simplified relationship on the maximum power dissipation for eight
possible configurations of output buffer modes.
Table 6. Maximum Power Dissipation for Output Buffer Mode Configurations
Output Configuration
Maximum Power Dissipation
Data Bus
Address Bus and
Transfer Attrib.
Misc. Control
Signals
PD
Small Buffer
Small Buffer
Small Buffer
PDSB
Small Buffer
Small Buffer
Large Buffer
PDSB + (PDLB - PDSB) · 13%
Small Buffer
Large Buffer
Small Buffer
PDSB + (PDLB - PDSB) · 52%
Small Buffer
Large Buffer
Large Buffer
PDSB + (PDLB - PDSB) · 65%
Large Buffer
Small Buffer
Small Buffer
PDSB + (PDLB - PDSB) · 35%
Large Buffer
Small Buffer
Large Buffer
PDSB + (PDLB - PDSB) · 48%
Large Buffer
Large Buffer
Small Buffer
PDSB + (PDLB - PDSB) · 87%
Large Buffer
Large Buffer
Large Buffer
PDSB + (PDLB - PDSB) · 100%
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2116A–HIREL–09/02
To calculate the specific power dissipation of a specific design, the termination method
of each signal must be considered. For example, a signal output that is not connected
would not dissipate any additional power if it were configured in the large buffer rather
than the small buffer mode.
Relationships Between
Thermal Resistances and
Temperatures
Since the maximum operating junction temperature has been specified to be 125°C.
The maximum case temperature, TC, in °C can be obtained from:
TC = TJ - PD · ΦJC
(2)
where:
TC
= Maximum case temperature
TJ
= Maximum junction temperature
PD
= Maximum power dissipation of the device
ΦJC
= Thermal resistance between the junction of the die and the case
In general, the ambient temperature, TA, in °C is a function of the following formula:
TA = TJ - PD · ΦJC - PD · ΦCA
(3)
Where the thermal resistance from case to ambient, ΦCA, is the only user-dependent
parameter once a buffer output configuration has been determined. As seen from equation (3), reducing the case to ambient thermal resistance increases the maximum
operating ambient temperature. Therefore, by utilizing such methods as heat sinks and
ambient air cooling to minimize the ΦCA, a higher ambient operating temperature and/or
a lower junction temperature can be achieved.
However, an easier approach to thermal evaluation uses the following formulas:
TA = TJ - PD · ΦJA
(4)
or alternatively,
TJ = TA - PD · ΦJA
(5)
where:
ΦJA = thermal resistance from the junction to the ambient (ΦJC + ΦCA).
This total thermal resistance of a package, ΦJA, is a combination of its two components,
ΦJC and ΦCA. These components represent the barrier to heat flow from the semiconductor junction to the package (case) surface (ΦJC) and from the case to the outside
ambient (ΦJC). Although ΦJC is device related and cannot be influenced by the user, ΦCA
is user dependent. Thus, good thermal management by the user can significantly
reduce ΦCA achieving either a lower semiconductor junction temperature or a higher
ambient operating temperature.
Thermal Management
Techniques
To attain a reasonable maximum ambient operating temperature, a user must reduce
the barrier to heat flow from the semiconductor junction to the outside ambient (ΦJA).
The only way to accomplish this is to significantly reduce ΦCA by applying such thermal
management techniques as heat sinks and ambient air cooling.
The following paragraphs discuss some results of a thermal study of the TS68040
device without using any thermal management techniques; using only air-flow cooling,
using only a heat sink, and using heat sink combined with air-flow cooling.
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TS68040
2116A–HIREL–09/02
TS68040
Thermal Characteristics in
Still Air
A sample size of three TS68040 packages was tested in free-air cooling with no heat
sink. Measurements showed that the average ΦJA was 22.8°C/W with a standard deviation of 0.44°C/W. The test was performed with 3W of power being dissipated from within
the package. The test determined that ΦJA will decrease slightly for the increasing power
dissipation range possible. Therefore, since the variance in ΦJA within the possible
power dissipation range is negligible, it can be assumed for calculation purposes that
ΦJA is valid at all power levels. Using the formulas introduced previously, Table 7 shows
the results of a maximum power dissipation of 3 and 5W with no heat sink or air-flow
(refer to Table 6 to calculate other power dissipation values).
Table 7. Thermal Parameters With No Heat Sink or Air-flow
Defined Parameters
Measured
Calculated
PD
TJ
ΦJC
ΦJA
ΦCA = ΦJA - ΦJC
TC = TJ - PD * ΦJC
TA = TJ - PD * ΦJA
3 Watts
125°C
1°C/W
21.8°C/W
20.8°C/W
122°C
59.6°C
5 Watts
125°C
1°C/W
21.8°C/W
20.8°C/W
120°C
16°C
As seen by looking at the ambient temperature results, most users will want to implement some type of thermal management to obtain a more reasonable maximum
ambient temperature.
Thermal Characteristics in
Forced Air
A sample size of three TS68040 packages was tested in forced air cooling in a wind tunnel with no heat sink. This test was performed with 3W of power being dissipated from
within the package. As previously mentioned, since the variance in ΦJA within the possible power range is negligible, it can be assumed for calculation purposes that ΦJA is
constant at all power levels. Using the previous formulas, Table 8 shows the results of
the maximum power dissipation at 3 and 5W with air-flow and no heat sink (refer to
Table 6 to calculate other power dissipation values).
Table 8. Thermal Parameters With Forced Air Flow and No Heat Sink
Thermal Mgmt.
Technique
Defined Parameters
Measured
Calculated
Air-flow velocity
PD
TJ
ΦJC
ΦJA
ΦCA
TC
TA
100 LFM
3W
125°C
1°C/W
11.7°C/W
10.7°C/W
122°C
89.9°C
250 LFM
3W
125°C
1°C/W
10°C/W
9°C/W
122°C
95°C
500 LFM
3W
125°C
1°C/W
8.9°C/W
7.9°C/W
122°C
98.3°C
750 LFM
3W
125°C
1°C/W
8.5°C/W
7.5°C/W
122°C
99.5°C
1000 LFM
3W
125°C
1°C/W
8.3°C/W
7.3°C/W
122°C
100.1°C
100 LFM
5W
125°C
1°C/W
11.7°C/W
10.7°C/W
120°C
66.5°C
250 LFM
5W
125°C
1°C/W
10°C/W
9°C/W,
120°C
75°C
500 LFM
5W
125°C
1°C/W
8.9°C/W
7.9°C/W
120°C
80.5°C
750 LFM
5W
125°C
1°C/W
8.5°C/W
7.5°C/W
120°C
82.5°C
1000 LFM
5W
125°C
1°C/W
8.3°C/W
7.3°C/W
120°C
83.5°C
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2116A–HIREL–09/02
By reviewing the maximum ambient operating temperatures, it can be seen that by
using the all-small-buffer configuration of the TS68040 with a relatively small amount of
air flow (100 LFM), a 0-70°C ambient operating temperature can be achieved. However,
depending on the output buffer configuration and available forced-air cooling, additional
thermal management techniques may be required.
Thermal Characteristics with
a Heat Sink
In choosing a heat sink the designer must consider many factors: heat sink size and
composition, method of attachment, and choice of a wet or dry connection. The following paragraphs discuss the relationship of these decisions to the thermal performance of
the design noticed during experimentation.
The heat sink size is one of the most significant parameters to consider in the selection
of a heat sink. Obviously a larger heat sink will provide better cooling. However, it is less
obvious that the most benefit of the larger heat sink of the pin fin type used in the experimentation would be at still air conditions. Under forced-air conditions as low as 100
LFM, the difference between the ΦCA becomes very small (0.4°C/W or less). This difference continues to decrease as the forced air flow increases. The particular heat sink
used in our testing fit the perimeter package surface area available within the capacitor
pads on the TS68040 (1.48" x 1.48") and showed a nice compromise between height
and thermal performance needs. The heat sink base perimeter area was 1.24" x 1.30"
and its height was 0.49". It was a pin-fin-type (i.e. bed of nails) design composed of Al
alloy. The heat sink is shown in Figure 5 can be obtained through Thermalloy Inc. by referencing part number 2338B.
Figure 5. Heat Sink Example
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2116A–HIREL–09/02
TS68040
All pin fin heat sinks tested were made from extrusion Al products. The planar face of
the heat sink mating to the package should have a good degree of planarity; if it has any
curvature, the curvature should be convex at the central region of the heat sink surface
to provide intimate physical contact to the PGA surface. All heat sinks tested met this
criteria. Nonplanar, concave curvature the central regions of the heat sink will result in
poor thermal contact to the package. A specification needs to be determined for the planarity of the surface as part of any heat sink design.
Although there are several ways to attach a heat sink to the package, it was easiest to
use a demountable heat sink attach called “E-Z attach for PGA packages” developed by
Thermalloy (see Figure 6). The heat sink is clamped to the package with the help of a
steel spring to a plastic frame (or plastic shoes Besides the height of the heat sink and
plastic frame, no additional height added to the package. The interface between the
ceramic package and the heat sink was evaluated for both dry and wet (i.e., thermal
grease) interfaces in still air. The thermal grease reduced the ΦCA quite significantly
(about 2.5 °C/W) in still air. Therefore, it was used in all other testing done with the heat
sink. According to other testing, attachment with thermal grease provided about the
same thermal performance as if a thermal epoxy were used.
Figure 6. Heat Sink with Attachment
A sample size of one TS68040 package was tested in still air with the heat sink and
attachment method previously described. This test was performed with 3W of power
being dissipated from within the package. Since the variance in ΦJA within the possible
power range is negligible, it can be assumed for calculation purposes that ΦJA is constant at all power levels. Table 9 shows the result assuming a maximum power
dissipation of the part at 3 and 5W (refer to Table 6 to calculate other power dissipation
values).
15
2116A–HIREL–09/02
Table 9. Thermal Parameters With Heat Sink and No Air Flow
Thermal Mgmt.
Technique
Defined Parameters
Measured
Calculated
Heat Sink
PD
TJ
ΦJC
ΦJA
ΦCA
TC
TA
2338B
3W
125°C
1°C/W
14°C/W
13°C/W
122°C
83°C
2338B
5W
125°C
1°C/W
14°C/W
13°C/W
120°C
55°C
Thermal Characteristics with
a Heat Sink
and Forced Air
A sample size of three TS68040 packages was tested in forced-air cooling in a wind tunnel with a heat sink. This test was performed with 3W of power being dissipated from
within the package. As mentioned previously, the variance in ΦJA within the possible
power range is negligible; it can be assumed for calculation purposes that ΦJA is valid at
all power levels. Table 10 shows the results, assuming a maximum power dissipation at
3 and 5W with air flow and heat sink thermal management (refer to Table 6 to calculate
other power dissipation values).
Table 10. Thermal Parameters with Heat Sink and Air Flow
Thermal Mgmt. Technique
Measured
Calculated
Air-flow
Heat sink
PD
TJ
ΦJC
ΦJA
ΦCA
TC
TA
100 LFM
2338B
3W
125°C
1°C/W
3.1°C/W
2.1°C/W
122°C
115.7°C
250 LFM
2338B
3W
125°C
1°C/W
2.2°C/W
1.2°C/W
122°C
118.4°C
500 LFM
2338B
3W
125°C
1°C/W
1.7°C/W
0.7°C/W
122°C
119.9°C
750 LFM
2338B
3W
125°C
1°C/W
1.5°C/W
0.5°C/W
122°C
120.5°C
1000 LFM
2338B
3W
125°C
1°C/W
1.4°C/W
0.4°C/W
122°C
120.8°C
100 LFM
2338B
5W
125°C
1°C/W
3.1°C/W
2.1°C/W
120°C
109.5°C
250 LFM
2338B
5W
125°C
1°C/W
2.2°C/W
1.2°C/W
120°C
114°C
500 LFM
2338B
5W
125°C
1°C/W
1.7°C/W
0.7°C/W
120°C
116.5°C
750 LFM
2338B
5W
125°C
1°C/W
1.5°C/W
0.5°C/W
120°C
117.5°C
1000 LFM
2338B
5W
125°C
1°C/W
1.4°C/W
0.4°C/W
120°C
118°C
Thermal Testing Summary
16
Defined Parameters
Testing proved that a heat sink in combination with a relatively small amount of air-flow
(100 LFM or less) will easily realize a 0-70°C ambient operating temperature for the
TS68040 with almost any configuration of the output buffers. A heat sink alone may be
capable of providing all necessary cooling, depending on the particular heat sink
height/size restraints, the maximum ambient operating temperature required, and the
output buffer configuration chosen. Also forced air cooling alone may attain a 0-70°C
ambient operating temperature. However this factor is highly dependent on the output
buffer configuration chosen and the available forced air for cooling. Figure 7 is a summary of the test results of the relationship between ΦJA and air-flow for the TS68040.
TS68040
2116A–HIREL–09/02
TS68040
Figure 7. Relationship of ΦJA Air-Flow for PGA
Table 11. Characteristics Guaranteed
Package
PGA 179
CQFP 196
Symbol
Parameter
θJ-A
Thermal Resistance Junction-to-ambient
θJ-C
Thermal Resistance Junction-to-case
θJ-A
Thermal Resistance Junction-to-ambient
θJ-C
Thermal Resistance Junction-to-case
Value
Unit
See Figure 7
°C/W
1
°C/W
TBD
°C/W
1
°C/W
Mechanical and
Environment
The microcircuits shall meet all mechanical environmental requirements of either MILSTD-883 for class B devices or for Atmel standard screening.
Marking
The document where are defined the marking are identified in the related reference documents. Each microcircuit are legible and permanently marked with the following
information as minimum:
•
Atmel Logo
•
Manufacturer’s Part Number
•
Class B Identification
•
Date-code Of Inspection Lot
•
ESD Identifier If Available
•
Country Of Manufacturing
17
2116A–HIREL–09/02
Quality Conformance
Inspection
DESC/MIL-STD-883
Is in accordance with MIL-M-38535 and method 5005 of MIL-STD-883. Group A and B
inspections are performed on each production lot. Groups C and D inspection are performed on a periodical basis.
Electrical
Characteristics
General Requirements
All static and dynamic electrical characteristics specified for inspection purposes and the
relevant measurement conditions are given below:
•
Table 12: Static electrical characteristics for the electrical variants.
•
Table 13: Dynamic electrical characteristics for TS68040 (25 MHz, 33 MHz).
For static characteristics (Table 12), test methods refer to IEC 748-2 method number,
where existing.
For dynamic characteristics (Table 13), test methods refer to clause “Static Characteristics” on page 18 of this specification.
Indication of “min.” or “max.” in the column «test temperature» means minimum or maximum operating temperature as defined in sub-clause Table 5 here above.
Static Characteristics
Table 12. Electrical Characteristics
-55°C ≤TC ≤TJmax; 4.75V ≤VCC ≤5.25V unless otherwise specified(1)(2)(3)(4)
Symbol
Min
Max
Unit
VIH
Input High Voltage
2
VCC
V
VIL
Input Low Voltage
GND
0.8
V
VU
Undershoot
- 0.8
V
Iin
Input Leakage Current
at 0.5/2.4V
ITSI
Hi-z (Off-state) Leakage Current
at 0.5/2.4V
AVEC, BCLK BG, CDIS,
IPLn, MDIS, PCLK, RSTI, SCn,
TBI, TCI, TCK, TEA
-20
20
µA
An, BB, CIOUT, Dn, LOCK,
LOCKE, R/W, SIZn, TA, TDO,
TIP, TLNn, TMn, TS, TTn, UPAn
-20
20
µA
-1.1
-0.18
mA
-0.94
-0.16
mA
IIL
Signal Low Input Current
VIL = 0.8V
TMS, TDI, TRST
IIH
Signal High Input Current
VIH = 2.0V
TMS, TDI, TRST
VOH
18
Characteristic
Output High Voltage
Larger Buffers - IOH = 35 mA
Small Buffers - IOH = 5 mA
2.4
V
TS68040
2116A–HIREL–09/02
TS68040
Table 12. Electrical Characteristics (Continued)
-55°C ≤TC ≤TJmax; 4.75V ≤VCC ≤5.25V unless otherwise specified(1)(2)(3)(4)
Symbol
VOL
PD
Cin
Notes:
1.
2.
3.
4.
Characteristic
Min
Max
Unit
Output Low Voltage
Larger buffers - IOL = 35 mA
Small buffers - IOL = 5 mA
0.5
V
Power Dissipation (TJ = 125°C)
Larger Buffers Enabled
Small Buffers Enabled
7.7
6.3
W
Capacitance - Note 4
25
pF
Vin = 0V, f = 1 MHz
All testing to be performed using worst-case test conditions unless otherwise specified.
Maximum operating junction temperature (TJ) = +125°. Minimum case operating temperature (TC) = -55°. This device is not
tested at TC = +125°. Testing is performed by setting the junction temperature TJ = +125°and allowing the case and ambient
temperatures to rise and fall as necessary so as not to exceed the maximum junction temperature.
Capacitance is periodically sampled rather than 100% tested.
Power dissipation may vary in between limits depending on the application.
Dynamic Characteristics
Table 13. Clock AC Timing Specifications (see Figure 8)
-55°C ≤TC ≤TJmax; 4.75V ≤VCC ≤5.25V unless otherwise specified(1)(2)(3)(4)
25 MHz
Num
Characteristic
Frequency of Operation
1
2
PCLK Cycle Time
PCLK Rise Time
Max
Min
Max
Unit
20
25
20
33
MHz
20
25
15
25
ns
1.7
1.7
ns
1.6
1.6
ns
(4)
PCLK Fall Time
4
PCLK Duty Cycle Measured at 1.5V(4)
4a
Min
(4)
3
33 MHz
47.5
52.5
46.67
53.33
%
(3)(4)
9.5
10.5
7
8
ns
(3)(4)
PCLK Pulse Width High Measured at 1.5V
4b
PCLK Pulse Width Low Measured at 1.5V
9.5
10.5
7
8
ns
5
BCLK Cycle Time
40
50
30
60
ns
3
ns
6, 7
8
8a
BCLK Rise and Fall Time
BCLK Duty Cycle Measured at 1.5V
4
(4)
40
60
40
60
%
(4)
16
24
12
18
ns
(4)
16
24
12
18
ns
1000
ppm
BCLK Pulse Width High Measured at 1.5V
8b
BCLK Pulse Width Low Measured at 1.5V
9
PCLK, BCLK Frequency Stability(4)
1000
10
PCLK to BCLK Skew
9
n/a
ns
Notes: 1. All testing to be performed using worst-case test conditions unless otherwise specified.
2. Maximum operating junction temperature (TJ) = +125°. Minimum case operating temperature (TC) = -55°. This device is not
tested at TC = +125°. Testing is performed by setting the junction temperature TJ = +125°and allowing the case and ambient
temperatures to rise and fall as necessary so as not to exceed the maximum junction temperature.
3. Specification value at maximum frequency of operation.
4. If not tested, shall be guaranteed to the limits specified.
19
2116A–HIREL–09/02
Figure 8. Clock Input Timing
Table 14. Output AC Timing Specifications(1) (Figure 9 to Figure 15)
These output specifications are only for 25 MHz. They must be scaled for lower operating frequencies. Refer to
TS6804DH/AD for further information. -55°C ≤TC ≤TJmax; 4.75V ≤VCC ≤5.25V unless otherwise specified.(2)(3)(4)
25 MHz
Large
Buffer(1)
Num
Small
Buffer(1)
Large
Buffer(1)
Small
Buffer(1)
Min
Max
Min
Max
Min
Max
Min
Max
Unit
21
9
30
6.50
18
6.50
25
ns
11
BCLK to address CIOUT, LOCK, LOCKE,
R/W, SIZn, TLN, TMn, UPAn valid(5)
9
12
BCLK to output invalid (output hold)
9
13
BCLK to TS valid
9
21
9
30
6.50
18
6.50
25
ns
14
BCLK to TIP valid
9
21
9
30
6.50
18
6.50
25
ns
9
23
9
32
6.50
20
6.50
27
ns
18
BCLK to data-out valid
(6)
19
BCLK to data-out invalid (output hold)
20
21
26
20
Characteristic
33 MHz
(6)
9
6.50
6.50
ns
9
9
6.50
6.50
ns
BCLK to output low impedance(5)(6)
9
9
6.50
6.50
ns
BCLK to data-out high impedance
9
20
9
20
6.50
17
6.50
17
ns
19
31
19
40
14
26
14
33
ns
(5)
BCLK to multiplexed address valid
(5)
27
BCLK to multiplexed address driven
19
28
BCLK to multiplexed address high
impedance(5)(6)
9
29
BCLK to multiplexed data driven(6)
19
30
BCLK to multiplexed data valid(6)
19
33
19
38
BCLK to address CIOUT, LOCK, LOCKE,
R/W, SIZn, TS, TLNn, TMn, TTn, UPAn high
impedance(5)
9
18
39
BCLK to BB, TA, TIP high impedance
19
40
BCLK to BR, BB valid
43
19
18
9
14
18
14
ns
6.50
15
6.50
15
ns
14
20
14
20
ns
42
14
28
14
35
ns
9
18
6.50
15
6.50
15
ns
28
19
28
14
23
14
23
ns
9
21
9
30
6.50
18
6.50
25
ns
BCLK to MI valid
9
21
9
30
6.50
18
6.50
25
ns
48
BCLK to TA valid
9
21
9
30
6.50
18
6.50
25
ns
50
BCLK to IPEND, PSTn, RSTO valid
9
21
9
30
6.50
18
6.50
25
ns
19
TS68040
2116A–HIREL–09/02
TS68040
Notes:
1. Output timing is specified for a valid signal measured at the pin. Large buffer timing is specified driving a 50Ω transmission
line with a length characterized by a 2.5 ns one-way propagation delay, terminated through 50Ω to 2.5V. Large buffer output
impedance is typically 3Ω, resulting in incident wave switching for this environment. Small buffer timing is specified driving
an unterminated 30Ω transmission line with a length characterized by a 2.5 ns one-way propagation delay. Small buffer output impedance is typically 30Ω; the small buffer specifications include approximately 5 ns for the signal to propagate the
length of the transmission line and back.
2. All testing to be performed using worst-case test conditions unless otherwise specified.
3. The following pins are active low: AVEC, BG, BS, BR, CDIS, CIOUT, IPEND, IPLO, IPL1, IPL2, LOCK, LOCKE, MDIS, MI,
RST0, RSTI, TA, TBI, TCI, TEA, TIP, TRST, TS and W of R/W.
4. Maximum operating junction temperature (TJ) = +125°. Minimum case operating temperature (TC) = -55°. This device is not
tested at TC = +125°. Testing is performed by setting the junction temperature TJ = +125°and allowing the case and ambient
temperatures to rise and fall as necessary so as not to exceed the maximum junction temperature.
5. Timing specifications 11, 20 and 38 for address bus output timing apply when normal bus operation is selected. Specifications 26, 27 and 28 should be used when the multiplexed bus mode of operation is enabled.
6. Timing specifications 18 and 19 for data bus output timing apply when normal bus operation is selected. Specifications 28
and 29 should be used when the multiplexed bus mode of operation is enabled.
Table 15. Input AC Timing Specifications (Figure 9 to Figure 15)
-55°C ≤TC ≤TJmax; 4.75V ≤VCC ≤5.25V unless otherwise specified(1)(2)(3)(4)
25 MHz
Num
Characteristic
Min.
33 MHz
Max.
Min.
Max.
Unit
15
Data-in Valid to BCLK (Setup)
5
4
ns
16
BCLK to Data-in Invalid (Hold)
4
4
ns
17
BCLK to Data-in High Impedance (Read Followed By Write)
22a
TA Valid to BCLK (Setup)
10
10
ns
22b
TEA Valid to BCLK (Setup)
10
10
ns
22c
TCI Valid to BCLK (Setup)
10
10
ns
22d
TBI Valid to BCLK (Setup)
11
10
ns
23
BCLK to TA, TEA, TCI, TBI Invalid (Hold)
2
2
ns
24
AVEC Valid to BCLK (Setup)
5
5
ns
25
BCLK to AVEC Invalid (Hold)
2
2
ns
31
DLE Width High
8
8
ns
32
Data-in Valid to DLE (Setup)
2
2
ns
33
DLE to Data-in Invalid (Hold)
8
8
ns
34
BCLK to DLE Hold
3
3
ns
35
DLE High to BCLK
16
12
ns
36
Data-in Valid to BCLK (DLE Mode Setup)
5
5
ns
37
BCLK Data-in Invalid (DLE Mode Hold)
4
4
ns
41a
BB Valid to BCLK (Setup)
7
7
ns
41b
BG Valid to BCLK (Setup)
8
7
ns
41c
CDIS, MDIS Valid to BCLK (Setup)
10
8
ns
41d
IPLn Valid to BCLK (Setup)
4
3
ns
42
BCLK to BB, BG, CDIS, IPLn, MDIS Invalid (Hold)
2
2
ns
44a
Address Valid to BCLK (Setup)
8
7
ns
44b
SIZn Valid BCLK (Setup)
12
8
ns
49
36.5
ns
21
2116A–HIREL–09/02
Table 15. Input AC Timing Specifications (Figure 9 to Figure 15) (Continued)
-55°C ≤TC ≤TJmax; 4.75V ≤VCC ≤5.25V unless otherwise specified(1)(2)(3)(4)
25 MHz
Num
Characteristic
Min.
33 MHz
Max.
Min.
Max.
Unit
44c
TTn Valid to BCLK (Setup)
6
8.5
ns
44d
R/W Valid to BCLK (Setup)
6
5
ns
44e
SCn Valid to BCLK (Setup)
10
11
ns
45
BCLK to Address SIZn, TTn, R/W, SCn Invalid (Hold)
2
2
ns
46
TS Valid to BCLK (Setup)
5
9
ns
47
BCLK to TS Invalid (Hold)
2
2
ns
49
BCLK to BB High Impedance (68040 Assumes Bus Mastership)
51
RSTI Valid to BCLK
52
BCLK to RSTI Invalid
53
54
Notes:
22
(4)
Mode Select Setup to RSTI Negated
9
9
ns
5
4
ns
2
2
ns
20
20
ns
(4)
RSTI Negated to Mode Selects Invalid
2
2
ns
1. All testing to be performed using worst-case test conditions unless otherwise specified.
2. The following pins are active low: AVEC, BG, BS, BR, CDIS, CIOUT, IPEND, IPLO, IPL1, IPL2, LOCK, LOCKE, MDIS, MI,
RST0, RSTI, TA, TBI, TCI, TEA, TIP, TRST, TS and W of R/W.
3. Maximum operating junction temperature (TJ) = +125°. Minimum case operating temperature (TC) = -55°. This device is not
tested at TC = +125°. Testing is performed by setting the junction temperature TJ = +125°and allowing the case and ambient
temperatures to rise and fall as necessary so as not to exceed the maximum junction temperature.
4. The levels on CDIS, MDIS, and the IPL2-IPL0 signals enable or disable the multiplexed bus mode, data latch enable mode,
and driver impedance selection respectively.
TS68040
2116A–HIREL–09/02
TS68040
Figure 9. Read/Write Timing
Note:
Transfer attribute signals UPAN, SIZN, TTN, TMN, TLNN, R/W, LOCK, LOCKE, CIOUT
Table 16. JTAG Timing Application (Figure 16 to Figure 19)
-55°C ≤TC ≤TJmax; 4.75V ≤VCC ≤5.25V unless otherwise specified(1)(2)
Num
Characteristic
Min
Max
Unit
TCK Frequency
0
10
MHz
1
TCK Cycle Time
100
ns
2
TCK Clock Pulse Width Measured at 1.5V
40
ns
3
TCK Rise and Fall Times
0
4
TRST Setup Time to TCK Falling Edge
40
ns
5
TRST Assert Time
100
ns
6
Boundary Scan Input Data Setup Time
50
ns
7
Boundary Scan Input Data Hold Time
50
ns
8
TCK to Output Data Valid
0
50
ns
9
TCK to Output High Impedance
0
50
ns
10
TMS, TDI Data Setup Time
20
ns
11
TMS, TDI Data Hold Time
5
ns
12
TCK to TDO Data Valid
0
20
ns
13
TCK to TDO High Impedance
0
20
ns
10
ns
23
2116A–HIREL–09/02
Notes:
1. All testing to be performed using worst-case test conditions unless otherwise specified.
2. Maximum operating junction temperature (TJ) = +125°. Minimum case operating temperature (TC) = -55°. This device is not
tested at TC = +125°. Testing is performed by setting the junction temperature TJ = +125° and allowing the case and ambient
temperatures to rise and fall as necessary so as not to exceed the maximum junction temperature.
Table 17. Boundary Scan Instruction Codes
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
Instruction Selected
Test Data Register Accessed
0
0
0
Extest
Boundary Scan
0
0
1
Highz
Bypass
0
1
0
Sample/Preload
Boundary Scan
0
1
1
DRVCTLT
Boundary Scan
1
0
0
Shutdown
Bypass
1
0
1
Private
Bypass
1
1
0
DRVCTLS
Boundary Scan
1
1
1
Bypass
Bypass
Switching Test Circuit
and Waveforms
24
Figure 10. Address and Data Bus Timing — Multiplexed Bus Mode
TS68040
2116A–HIREL–09/02
TS68040
Figure 11. DLE Timing Burst Access
Figure 12. Bus Arbitration Timing
25
2116A–HIREL–09/02
Figure 13. Snoop Hit Timing
26
TS68040
2116A–HIREL–09/02
TS68040
Figure 14. Snoop Miss Timing
Figure 15. Other Signal Timing
27
2116A–HIREL–09/02
Figure 16. Clock Input Timing Diagram
Figure 17. TRST Timing Diagram
Figure 18. Boundary Scan Timing Diagram
28
TS68040
2116A–HIREL–09/02
TS68040
Figure 19. Test Access Port Timing Diagram
Functional
Description
Programming Model
The TS68040 integrates the functions of the integer unit, MMU, and FPU. As shown in
Figure 20, the registers depicted in the programming model provide access and control
for the three units. The registers are partitioned into two levels of privilege: user and
supervisor. User programs, executing in the user mode, can only use the resources of
the user model. System software, executing in the supervisor mode, has unrestricted
access to all processor resources.
The integer portion of the user programming model, consisting of 16, general-purpose,
32-bit registers and two control registers, is the same as the user programming model of
the TS68030. The TS68040 user programming model also incorporates the TS68882
programming model consisting of eight, floating-point, 80-bit data registers, a floatingpoint control register, a floating-point status register, and a floating-point instruction
address register.
The supervisor programming model is used exclusively by TS68040 system programmers to implement operating system functions, I/O control, and memory management
subsystems. This supervisor/user distinction in the TS68000 architecture was carefully
planned so that all application software can be written to execute in the nonprivileged
user mode and migrate to the TS68040 from any TS68000 platform without modification. Since system software is usually modified by system designers when porting to a
new design, the control features are properly placed in the supervisor programming
model. For example, the transparent translation registers of the TS68040 can only be
read or written by the supervisor software; the programming resources of user application programs are unaffected by the existence of the transparent translation registers
Registers D0-D7 are data registers containing operands for bit and bit field (1- to 32-bit),
byte (8-bit), word (16-bit), long-word (32-bit), and quad-word (64-bit) operations. Registers A0-A6 and the stack pointer registers (user, interrupt, and master) are address
registers that may be used as software stack pointers or base address registers. Register A7 is the user stack pointer in user mode, and is either the interrupt or master stack
pointer (A7’ or A7’’) in supervisor mode. In supervisor mode, the active stack pointer
(interrupt or master) is selected based on a bit in the status register (SR). The address
29
2116A–HIREL–09/02
registers may be used for word and long-word operations, and all of the 16 general-purpose registers (D0-D7, A0-A7 in Figure 20) may be used as index registers.
The eight, 80-bit, floating-point data registers (FP0-FP7) are analogous to the integer
data registers (D0-D7) of all TS68000 Family processors. Floating-point data registers
always contain extended-precision numbers. All external operands, regardless of the
data format, are converted to extended-precision values before being used in any floating-point calculation or stored in a floating-point data register.
The program counter (PC) usually contains the address of the instruction being executed by the TS68040. During instruction execution and exception processing, the
processor automatically increments the contents of the PC or places a new value in the
PC, as appropriate. The status register (SR in the supervisor programming model) contains the condition codes that reflect the results of a previous operation and can be used
for conditional instruction execution in a program. The lower byte of the SR is accessible
in user mode as the condition code register (CCR). Access to the upper byte of the SR
is restricted to the supervisor mode.
As part of exception processing, the vector number of the exception provides an index
into the exception vector table. The base address of the exception vector table is stored
in the vector base register (VBR). The displacement of an exception vector is added to
the value in the VBR when the TS68040 accesses the vector table during exception
processing.
Alternate function code registers, SFC and DFC (source and destination), contain 3-bit
function codes. Function codes can be considered extensions of the 32-bit linear
address. Function codes are automatically generated by the processor to select address
spaces for data and program accesses at the user and supervisor modes. The alternate
function code registers are used by certain instructions to explicitly specify the function
codes for various operations. The cache control register (CACR) controls enabling of
the on-chip instruction and data caches of the TS68040.
The supervisor root pointer (SRP) and user root pointer (URP) registers point to the root
of the address translation table tree to be used for supervisor mode and user mode
accesses. The URP is used if FC2 of the logical address is zero, and the SRP is used if
FC2 is one.
The translation control register (TC) enables logical-to-physical address translation and
selects either 4K or 8K page sizes. As shown in Figure 20, there are four transparent
translation registers - ITT0 and ITT1 for instruction accesses and DTT0 and DTT1 for
data accesses. These registers allow portions of the logical address space to be transparently mapped and accessed without the use of resident descriptors in an ATC. The
MMU status register (MMUSR) contains status information from the execution of a
PTEST instruction. The PTEST instruction searches the translation tables for the logical
address as specified by this instruction’s effective address field and the DFC.
The 32-bit floating-point control register (FPCR) contains an exception enable byte that
enables disables traps for each class of floating-point exceptions and a mode byte that
sets the user-selectable modes. The FPCR can be read or written to by the user and is
cleared by a hardware reset or a restore operation of the null state. When cleared, the
FPCR provides the IEEE 754 standard defaults. The floating-point status register
(FPSR) contains a condition code byte, quotient bits, an exception status byte, and an
accrued exception byte. All bits in the FPSR can be read or written by the user. Execution of most floating-point instructions modifies this register.
30
TS68040
2116A–HIREL–09/02
TS68040
For the subset of the FPU instructions that generate exception traps, the 32-bit floatingpoint instruction address register (FPIAR) is loaded with the logical address of an
instruction before the instruction is executed. This address can then be used by a floating-point exception handler to locate a floating-point instruction that has caused an
exception. The move floating-point data register (FMOVE) instruction (to from the
FPCR, FPSR, or FPIAR) and the move multiple data registers (FMOVEN) instruction
cannot generate floating-point exceptions; therefore, these instructions do not modify
the FPIAR. Thus, the FMOVE and FMOVEM instructions can be used to read the
FPIAR in the trap handler without changing the previous value.
Figure 20. Programming Model
31
2116A–HIREL–09/02
Data Types and
Addressing Modes
The TS68040 supports the basic data types shown in Table 18. Some data types apply
only to the integer unit, some only to the FPU, and some to both the integer unit and the
FPU. In addition, the instruction set supports operations on other data types such as
memory addresses.
Table 18. Data Types
Operand Data Type
Size
Execution Unit (IU(1), FPU)
Bit
1-bit
IU
1-32 bits
IU
Field of consecutive bits
IU
Packaged: 2 digits byte
Unpacked: 1 digit byte
Bit Field
Notes
BCD
32 bits
Byte Integer
8 bits
IU, FPU
Word Integer
16 bits
IU, FPU
Long-word Integer
32 bits
IU, FPU
Quad-word Integer
64 bits
IU
Any two data registers
16-byte
128 bits
IU
Memory-only, aligned 16-byte boundary
Single-precision Real
32 bits
FPU
1-bit sign, 8-bit exponent, 23-bit mantissa
Double-precision Real
64 bits
FPU
1-bit sign, 11-bit exponent, 52-bit mantissa
80 bits
FPU
1-bit sign, 15-bit exponent, 64-bit mantissa
Extended-precision Real
Note:
1. IU = Integer Unit.
The three integer data formats that are common to both the integer unit and the FPU
(byte, word, and long word) are the standard twos-complement data formats defined in
the TS68000 Family architecture. Whenever an integer is used in a floating-point operation, the integer is automatically converted by the FPU to an extended-precision floatingpoint number before being used. The ability to effectively use integers in floating-point
operations saves user memory because an integer representation of a number usually
requires fewer bits than the equivalent floating-point representation.
Single- and double-precision floating-point data formats are implemented in the FPU as
defined by the IEEE standard. These data formats are the main floating-point formats
and should be used for most calculations involving real numbers.
The extended-precision data format is also in conformance with the IEEE standard, but
the standard does not specify this format to the bit level as it does for single- and double-precision. The memory format for the FPU consists of 96 bits (three long words).
Only 80 bits are actually used; the other 16 bits are reserved for future use and for longword alignment of the floating-point data structures in memory. The extended-precision
format has a 15-bit exponent, a 64-bit mantissa, and a 1-bit mantissa sign. Extendedprecision numbers are intended for use as temporary variables, intermediate values, or
where extra precision is needed.
The TS68040 addressing modes are shown in Table 19. The register indirect addressing modes support post-increment, predecrement, offset, and indexing, which are
particularly useful for handling data structures common to sophisticated applications
and high-level languages. The program counter indirect mode also has indexing and offset capabilities; this addressing mode is typically required to support positionindependent software. In addition to these addressing modes, the TS68040 provides
index sizing and scaling features that enhance software performance. Data formats are
supported orthogonally by all arithmetic operations and by all appropriate addressing
modes.
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TS68040
2116A–HIREL–09/02
TS68040
Table 19. Addressing Modes
Addressing Modes
Syntax
Register Direct
Date Register Direct
Address Register Direct
Dn
An
Register Indirect
Address Register Indirect
Address Register Indirect With Postincrement
Address Register Indirect With Predecrement
Address Register Indirect With Displacement
(An)
(An)
(An)
(d16, An)
Register Indirect With Index
Address Register Indirect With Index (8-bit Displacement)
Address Register Indirect With Index (Base Displacement)
(d8, An, Xn)
(bd, An, Xn)
Memory Indirect
Memory Indirect Postincrement
Memory Indirect Preindexed
([bd, An], Xn, od)
([bd, An, Xn], od)
Program Counter Indirect With Displacement
(d16, PC)
Program Counter Indirect With Index
PC Indirect With Index (8-bit Displacement)
PC Indirect With Index (Base Displacement
(d8, PC, Xn)
(bd, PC, Xn)
Program Counter Memory Indirect
PC Memory Indirect Postindexed
PC Memory Indirect Preindexed
([bd, PC], Xn, od)
([bd, PC, Xn], od)
Absolute
Absolute Short
Absolute Long
xxx.W
xxx.L
Immediate
# (data)
Note:
DN =
Data register, D0-D7
AN =
Address register, A0-A7
d8, d16 =
A twos-complement or sign-extended displacement; added as part of the effective address calculation;
size is 8 (d8) or 16 (d16) bits; when omitted, assemblers use a value of zero.
Xn =
Address or data register used as an index register; form is Xn, SIZE*SCALE, where SIZE is W or L
(indicates index register size) and SCALE is 1, 2, 4 or 8 (index register os multiplied by SCALE); use of
SIZE and or SCALE is optional.
bd =
A twos-complement base displacement; when present, size can be 16 or 32 bits.
od =
Outer displacement added as part of effective address calculation after any memory indirection; use is
optional with a size of 16 or 32 bits.
PC =
Program counter.
(data) =
Immediate value of 8, 16 or 32 bits.
() =
Effective address.
[] =
Used as indirect address to long-word address.
–
Instruction Set Overview
33
2116A–HIREL–09/02
The instruction provided by the TS68040 are listed in Table 20. The instruction set has
been tailored to support high-level languages and is optimized for those instructions
most commonly executed (however, all instructions listed are fully supported). Many
instructions operate on bytes, words, and long words, and most instructions can use any
of the addressing modes of Table 19.
Table 20. Instruction Set Summary
Mnemonic
Description
ABCD
ADD
ADDA
ADDI
ADDQ
ADDX
AND
ANDI
ASL, ASR
Add Decimal With Extend
Add
Add Address
Add Immediate
Add Quick
Add With Extend
Logical AND
Logical AND Immediate
Arithmetic Shift Left And Right
Bcc
BCHG
BCLR
BFCHG
BFCLR
BFEXTS
BFEXTU
BFFFO
BFINS
BFSET
BFTST
BKPT
BRA
BSET
BSR
BTST
Branch Conditionally
Test Bit And Change
Test Bit And Clear
Test Bit Field And Change
Test Bit Field And Clear
Signed Bit Field Extract
Unsigned Bit Field Extract
Bit Field Find First One
Bit Field Insert
Test Bit Field And Set
Test Bit Field
Breakpoint
Branch
Test Bit And Set
Branch To Subroutine
Test Bit
CAS
CAS2
CHK
CHK2
CINV(1)
CLR
CMP
CMPA
CMPI
CMPM
CMP2
Compare And Swap Operands
Compare And Swap Dual Operands
Check Register Against Bounds
Check Register Against Upper And Lower Bounds
Invalidate Cache Entries
Clear
Compare
Compare Address
Compare Immediate
Compare Memory To Memory
Compare Register Against Upper And Lower Bounds
Push Then Invalidate Cache Entries
CPUSH(1)
34
DBCC
DIVS, DIVSL
DIVU, DIVUL
Test Condition, Decrement And Branch
Signed Divide
Unsigned Divide
EOR
EORI
EXG
EXT, EXTB
Logical Exclusive OR
Logical Exclusive OR Immediate
Exchange Registers
Sign Extend
TS68040
2116A–HIREL–09/02
TS68040
Table 20. Instruction Set Summary (Continued)
Mnemonic
Description
ILLEGAL
Take Illegal Instruction Trap
JMP
JSR
Jump
Jump To Subroutine
LEA
LINK
LSL, LSR
Load Effective Address
Link And Allocate
Logical Shift Left And Right
MOVE
MOVE16(1)
MOVEA
MOVE CCR
MOVE SR
MOVE USP
MOVEC(1)
MOVEM
MOVEP
MOVEQ
MOVES(1)
MULS
MULU
Move
16-byte Block Move
Move Address
Move Condition Code Register
Move Status Register
Move User Stack Pointer
Move Control Register
Move Peripheral
Move Quick
Move Alternate Address Space
Move Multiply
Signed Multiply
Unsigned Multiply
NBCD
NEG
NEGX
NOP
NOT
Negate decimal with extend
Negate
Negate with extend
No operation
Logical complement
OR
ORI
Logical Inclusive OR
Logical Inclusive OR Immediate
PACK
PEA
PFLUSH(1)
PTEST(1)
Pack BCD
Push Effective Address
Flush Entry(ies) In The ATCs
Test A Logical Address
RESET
ROL, ROR
ROXL, ROXR
RTD
RTE
RTR
RTS
Reset External Devices
Rotate Left And Right
Rotate With Extend Left And Right
Return And Deallocate
Return From Exception
Return And Restore Codes
Return From Subroutine
35
2116A–HIREL–09/02
Table 20. Instruction Set Summary (Continued)
Mnemonic
Description
SBCD
Scc
STOP
SUB
SUBA
SUBI
SUBQ
SUBX
SWAP
Substract Decimal With Extend
Set Conditionally
Stop
Subtract
Subtract Address
Subtract Immediate
Subtract Quick
Subtract With Extend
Swap Register Words
TAS
TRAP
TRAPcc
TRAPV
TST
Test Operand And Set
Trap
Trap Conditionally
Trap On Overflow
Trap Operand
UNLK
Unlink
UNPK
Unpack BCD
Note:
1. TS6840 additions or alterations to the TS68030 and TS68881/TS68882 instructions
sets.
Table 21. Floating-point instructions
Mnemonic
(1)
FABS
FADD(1)
FBcc
FCMP
FDBcc
FDIV(1)
FMOVE(1)
FMOVEM
FMUL(1)
FNEG(1)
FRESTORE
FSAVE
FScc
FSQRT(1)
FSUB(1)
FTRAPcc
FTST
Note:
Description
Floating-point Absolute Value
Floating-point Add
Branch On Floating-point Condition
Floating-point Compare
Floating-point Decrement And Branch
Floating-point Divide
Move Floating-point Register
Move Multiple Floating-point Registers
Floating-point Multiply
Floating-point Negate
Restore Floating-point Internal State
Save Floating-point Internal State
Set According To Floating-point Condition
Floating-point Square Root
Floating-point Substract
Trap On Floating-point Condition
Floating-point Test
1. TS6840 additions or alterations to the TS68030 and TS68881/TS68882 instructions
sets.
The TS68040 floating-point instructions, a commonly used subset of the TS68882
instruction set, are implemented in hardware. The remaining unimplemented instructions are less frequently used and are efficiently emulated in software, maintaining
compatibility with the TS68881/TS68882 floating-point coprocessors.
The TS68040 instruction set includes MOVE16, a new user instruction that allows highspeed transfers of 16-byte blocks between external devices such as memory to memory
or coprocessor to memory.
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2116A–HIREL–09/02
TS68040
Instruction and Data
Caches
Studies have shown that typical programs spend much of their execution time in a few
main routines or tight loops. Earlier members of the TS68000 Family took advantage of
this locality of reference phenomenon to varying degrees. The TS68040 takes further
advantage of cache technology with its two, independent, on-chip, physical address
space caches, one for instructions and one for data. The caches reduce the processor’s
external bus activity and increase CPU throughput by lowering the effective memory
access time. For a typical system design, the large caches of the TS68040 yield a very
high hit rate, providing a substantial increase in system performance. Additionally, the
caches are automatically burstfilled from the external bus whenever a cache miss
occurs.
The autonomous nature of the caches allows instruction-stream fetches, data-stream
fetches, and a third external access to occur simultaneously with instruction execution.
For example, if the TS68040 requires both an instruction-stream access and an external
peripheral access and if the instruction is resident in the on-chip cache, the peripheral
access proceeds unimpeded rather than being queued behind the instruction fetch. If a
data operand is also required and if it is resident in the data cache, it can also be
accessed without hindering either the instruction access from its cache or the peripheral
access external to the chip. The parallelism inherent in the TS68040 also allows multiple
instructions that do not require any external accesses to execute concurrently while the
processor is performing an external access for a previous instruction.
Cache Organization
The instruction and data caches are four-way set-associative with 64 sets of four, 16byte lines for a total cache storage of 4K bytes each. As shown in Figure 21, each 16byte line contains an address tag and state information. State information for each entry
consists of a valid flag for the entire line in both instruction and data caches and write
status for each long word in the data cache. The write status in the data cache signifies
whether or not the long-word data is dirty (meaning that the data in the cache has been
modified but has not been written back to external memory) for data in copyback pages.
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2116A–HIREL–09/02
Figure 21. Cache Organization Overview
The caches are accessed by physical addresses from the on-chip MMUs. The translation of the upper bits of the logical address occurs concurrently with the accesses into
the set array in the cache by the lower address bits. The output of the ATC is compared
with the tag field in the cache to determine if one of the lines in the selected set matches
the translated physical address. If the tag matches and the entry is valid, then the cache
has a hit.
If the cache hits and the access is a read, the appropriate long word from the cache line
is multiplexed onto the appropriate internal bus. If the cache hits and the access is a
write, the data, regardless of size, is written to the appropriate portion of the corresponding longword entry in the cache.
When a data cache miss occurs and a previously valid cache line is needed to cache
the new line, any dirty data in the old line will be internally buffered and copied back to
memory after the new cache line has been loaded.
Pushing of dirty data can be forced by the CPUSH instruction.
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2116A–HIREL–09/02
TS68040
Cachability of data in each memory page is controlled by two bits in the page descriptor
for each page. Cachable pages may be either write through or copyback, with no writeallocate for misses to write through pages. Non-cachable pages may also be specified
as non-cachable I/O, forcing accesses to these pages to occur in order of instruction
execution.
Cache Coherency
The TS68040 has the ability to snoop the external bus during accesses by other bus
masters to maintain coherency between the TS68040’s caches and external memory
systems. External write cycles are snooped by both the instruction cache and data
cache; whereas, external read cycles are snooped only by the data cache. In addition,
external cycles can be flagged on the bus as snoopable or non snoopable. When an
external cycle is marked as snoopable, the bus snooper checks the caches for a coherency conflict based on the state of the corresponding cache line and the type of external
cycle.
Although the internal execution units and the bus snooper circuit all have access to the
on-chip caches, the snooper has priority over the execution units to allow the snooper to
resolve coherency discrepancies immediately.
Cache Instructions
The TS68040 supports the following instructions for cache maintenance. Both instructions may selectively operate on the data or instruction cache.
CINV: Invalidates a single line, all lines in a physical page, or the entire cache.
CPUSH: Pushes selected dirty data cache lines to memory, then invalidates all selected
lines.
Operand Transfer
Mechanisms
The TS68040 external synchronous bus supports multiple masters and overlaps arbitration with data transfers. The bus is optimized to perform high-speed transfers to and
from an external cache or memory. The data and address buses are each 32 bits wide.
Transfer Types
The TS68040 provides two signals (TT1-TT0) that define four types of bus transfers:
normal access, MOVE16 access, alternate access, and interrupt acknowledge access.
Normal accesses identify normal memory references: MOVE16 accesses are memory
accesses by a MOVE16 instruction; and alternate accesses identify accesses to the
undefined address spaces (function code values of 0, 3, 4, 7). The interrupt acknowledge access is used to fetch an interrupt vector during interrupt exception processing.
Burst Transfer Operation
During burst read write to cache transfers, the values on the address and transfer type
signals do not change; they are the address of the first requested item of the cache line.
When the TS68040 request a burst read transfer of a cache line, the address bus indicates the address of the long word in the line needed first, but the memory system is
expected to provide data in the following order (modulo 4): 0, 1, 2, 3 (long-word offsets).
The first address needed may not be from offset 0; nevertheless, all four long words
must be transferred. Burst writes occur in a similar manner.
Bus Snooping
Bus snooping ensures that data in main memory is consistent with data in the on-chip
caches. If an alternate bus master is performing a read transfer on the bus and snooping
is enabled, and if the snoop logic determines that the on-chip data cache has dirty data
(data valid but not consistent with memory) for this transfer, the memory is prevented
from responding to the read request, and the TS68040 supplies the data directly to the
master. If the alternate master is performing a write transfer on the bus and snooping is
enabled, and if the snooper determines that one of the on-chip caches has a valid line
for this request, then the snooper may either invalidate or update the line as selected by
the snoop control signals.
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2116A–HIREL–09/02
Exception Processing
The TS68040 provides the same extensions to the exception stacking process as the
TS68030. If the M bit in the status register is set, the master stack pointer is used for all
task-related exceptions. When a nontask-related exception occurs (i.e., an interrupt),
the M bit is cleared, and the interrupt stack pointer is used. This feature allows a task’s
stack area to be carried within a single processor control block, and new tasks may be
initiated by simply reloading the master stack pointer and setting the M bit.
The externally generated exceptions are interrupts, bus errors, and reset conditions.
The interrupts are requests from external devices for processor action; whereas, the bus
error and reset signals are used for access control and processor initialization. The
internally generated exceptions come from instructions, address errors, tracing, or
breakpoints. The TRAP, TRAPcc, TRAPVcc, FTRAPcc, CHK, CHK2, and DIV instructions can all generate exceptions as part of their instruction execution. Tracing behaves
like a very high-priority, internally generated interrupt whenever it is processed. The
other internally generated exceptions are caused by unimplemented floating-point
instructions, illegal instructions, instruction fetches from odd addresses, and privilege
violations. Finally, the MMU can generate exceptions, for access violations and for when
invalid descriptors are encountered during table searches.
Exception processing for the TS68040 occurs on the following sequence:
1. an internal copy is made of the status register,
2. the vector number of the exception is determined,
3. current processor status is saved,
4. the exception vector offset is determined by multiplying the vector number by
four.
This offset is then added to the contents of the VBR to determine the memory address
of the exception vector. The instruction at the address given in the exception vector is
fetched, and normal instruction decoding and execution is started.
Memory Management
Units
The full addressing range of the TS68040 is 4G bytes (4,294,967,296 bytes). However,
most TS68040 systems implement a much smaller physical memory. Nonetheless, by
using virtual memory techniques, the system can be made to appear to have a full
4G bytes of physical memory available to each user program. The independent instruction and data MMUs fully support demand paged virtual-memory operating systems with
either 4K or 8K page sizes. In addition to its main function of memory management,
each MMU protects supervisor areas from accesses by user programs and also provides write protection on a page-by-page basis. For maximum efficiency, each MMU
operates in parallel with other processor activities.
Translation Mechanism
Because logical-to-physical address translation is one of the most frequently executed
operations of the TS68040 MMUs, this task has been optimized. Each MMU initiates
address translation by searching for a descriptor containing the address translation
information in the ATC. If the descriptor does not reside in the ATC, then the MMU performs external bus cycles via the bus controller to search the translation tables in
physical memory. After being located, the page descriptor is loaded into the ATC, and
the address is correctly translated for the access, provided no exception conditions are
encountered.
40
TS68040
2116A–HIREL–09/02
TS68040
Address Translation Cache
An integral part of the translation function previously described is the dual cache memory that stores recently used logical-to-physical address translation information (page
descriptors) for instruction and date accesses. These caches are 64-entry, four-way, set
associative. Each ATC compare the logical address of the incoming access against its
entries. If one of the entries matches, there is a hit, and the ATC sends the physical
address to the bus controller, which then starts the external bus cycle (provided there
was no hit in the corresponding cache for the access).
Translation Tables
The translation tables of the TS68040 have a three level tree structure and reside in
main memory. Since only a portion of the complete tree needs to exist at any one time,
the tree structure minimizes the amount of memory necessary to set up the tables for
most programs. As shown in Figure 20, either the user root pointer or the supervisor root
pointer points to the first level table, depending on the values of the function code for an
access. Table entries at the second level of the tree (pointer tables) contain pointers to
the third level (page tables). Entries in the page tables contain either page descriptors or
indirect pointers to page descriptors. The mechanism for performing table search operations uses portions of the logical address (as indices) at each level of the search. All
addresses in the translation table entries are physical addresses.
Figure 22. Translation Table Structure
There are two variations of table searches for both 4K and 8K page sizes: normal
searches and indirect searches. An indirect search differs in that the entry in the third
level page table contains a pointer to a page descriptor rather than the page descriptor
itself.
Entries in the translation tables contain control and status information on addition to the
physical address information. Control bits specify write protection, limit access to supervisor only, and determine cachability of data in each memory page. Each page
descriptor also has two user-programmable bits that appear on the UPA0 and UPA1 signals during an external access for use as address modifier bits.
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2116A–HIREL–09/02
A global bit can be set in each page descriptor to prevent flushing of the ATC entry for
that page by some PFLUSH instruction variants, allowing system ATC entries to remain
resident during task swaps. If these special PFLUSH instructions are not used, this bit
can be user defined. The MMUs automatically maintain access history information for
the pages by updating the used (U) and modified (M) status bits.
MMU Instructions
The MMU instructions supported by the TS68040 are as follows:
PFLUSH: Allows flushing of either selected ATC entries by function code and logical
address or the entire ATCs.
PTEST: Takes an address and function code and searches the translation tables for the
corresponding entry, which is then loaded into the ATC. The results of the search are
available in the MMU status register and are often useful in determining the cause of a
fault.
All of the TS68040 MMU instructions are privileged and can only be executed from the
supervisor mode.
Transparent Translation
Four transparent translation registers, two each for instruction and data accesses, have
been provided on the TS68040 MMU to allow portions of the logical address space to be
transparently mapped and accessed without the need for corresponding entries resident
in the ATC. Each register can be used to define a range of logical addresses from
16M bytes to 4G bytes with a base address and a mask. All addresses within these
ranges are not mapped, and are optionally protected against user or supervisor
accesses and write accesses. Logical addresses in these areas become the physical
addresses for memory access. The transparent translation feature allows rapid movement of large blocks of data in memory or I/O space without disturbing the context of the
on-chip ATCs or incurring delays associated with translation table searches.
Preparation For
Delivery
Packaging
Microcircuits are prepared for delivery in accordance with MIL-M-38510 or Atmel
standard.
Certificate of Compliance Atmel offers a certificate of compliances with each shipment of parts, affirming the products are in compliance either with MIL-STD-883 or Atmel standard and guarantying the
parameters not tested at temperature extremes for the entire temperature range.
Handling
MOS devices must be handled with certain precautions to avoid damage due to accumulation of static charge. Input protection devices have been designed in the chip to
minimize the effect of this static buildup. However, the following handling practices are
recommended:
a) Devices should be handled on benches with conductive and grounded surfaces.
b) Ground test equipment, tools and operator.
c) Do not handle devices by the leads.
d) Store devices in conductive foam or carriers.
e) Avoid use of plastic, rubber, or silk in MOS areas.
f) Maintain relative humidity above 50 percent if practical.
42
TS68040
2116A–HIREL–09/02
TS68040
Package Mechanical
Data
179 pins – PGA
Millimeters
Inches
Dim
Min
Max
Min
Max
A
46.863
47.625
1.845
1.875
B
46.863
47.625
1.845
1.875
C
2.3876
1.875
0.094
0.116
D
4.318
4.826
0.170
0.190
E
1.143
1.4
0.045
0.055
F
1.143
1.4
0.045
0.055
G
H(1)
Note:
2.54 BSC
0.432
0.100 BSC
0.483
0.017
0.019
1. For untinned leads (gold)
43
2116A–HIREL–09/02
196 pins – Tie Bar CQFP
Cavity Up (on request)
44
Dim
Millimeters
Inches
A
3.30 max
0.130 max
B
0.23 +0.05
0.23 -0.038
0.009 +0.002
0.009 -0.015
C
0.635 typ.
.025 typ.
D1
33.91 ± 0.25
1.335 ± 0.01
J
0.89 ± 0.13
0.035 ± 0.005
L
63.5 ± 0.51
2.5 ± 0.02
TS68040
2116A–HIREL–09/02
TS68040
196 pins – Gullwing
CQFP cavity up
* Reduce pin count shown for clarity, 49 pins per side
Symbol
Millimeters
Inches
A
4.19 max
0.165 max
A1
0.673 ± 0.2
.0265 ±.008
b
0.23 +0.05
0.23 -0.038
.009 +.002
.009 -.0015
0.127 +0.05
.005 +.002
0.127 -0.025
.005 -.001
D/E
33.91 ±0.25
1.335 ±.01
e
.635 BSC
.025 BSC
e1
30.48 ±0.13
1.2 ±.005
HD/HE
38.8 ±0.18
1.528 ±.007
L
0.813 ±0.2
.032 ±.008
N
196
196
R
0.55 ±0.25
.022 ±.01
R1
0.23 min
.009 min
c
45
2116A–HIREL–09/02
Ordering Information
MIL-STD-883 C and
Internal Standard
TS68040
M
R
1
B/C
25
A
Device
Revision level
Operating frequency:
25: 25 MHz
33: 33 MHz
Temperature range:
M: Tc = -55; Tj = +125°C
V: Tc = -40; Tj = +110°C
Package:
F: CQFP/Gullwing leads
R: PGA
FT: CQFP Flat tie-bar(3)
Notes:
Screening level:
B/C: MIL-STD-883, class B
D/T: Internal standard with burn-in
U: Upscreening
U/T: Upscreening + burn-in
___: Internal standard
Standard lead finish
Gold
Gold
Gold
Lead finish:
1: Hot solder dip(1)
__: Gold(2)
1. On request.
2. Standard process.
3. Non request for small quantity.
DESC Drawing 5962-93143
TS68040
Device
DESC Screening
Speed:
01: 25 MHz
02: 33 MHz
46
DESC
01
X
A
A
Revision level
Lead finish:
A: Hot solder dip
C: Gold
Package:
X: PGA
Y: CQFP Flat tie-bar
Z: CQFP Gullwing leads
TS68040
2116A–HIREL–09/02
TS68040
Detailed TS68040 Part
List
Hi-REL Product
Commercial Atmel
Part Number
Norms
Package
Temperature range (°C)
Frequency
(MHz)
Drawing number
TS68040MRB/C25A
MIL-STD-883
PGA 179
TC = -55/+TJ = +125
25
Atmel datasheet
TS68040MRB/C33A
MIL-STD-883
PGA 179
TC = -55/+TJ = +125
33
Atmel datasheet
TS68040MFB/C25A
MIL-STD-883
CQFP 196
TC = -55/+TJ = +125
25
Atmel datasheet
TS68040MFB/C33A
MIL-STD-883
CQFP 196
TC = -55/+TJ = +125
33
Atmel datasheet
TS68040DESC01XAA
DESC
PGA 179 tin
TC = -55/+TJ = +125
25
5962-9314301MXA
TS68040DESC02XAA
DESC
PGA 179 tin
TC = -55/+TJ = +125
33
5962-9314302MXA
TS68040DESC01XCA
DESC
PGA 179 gold
TC = -55/+TJ = +125
25
5962-9314301MXC
TS68040DESC02XCA
DESC
PGA 179 gold
TC = -55/+TJ = +125
33
5962-9314302MXC
TS68040DESC01YCA
DESC
CQFP 196 tie
bar gold
TC = -55/+TJ = +125
25
5962-9314301MYC
TS68040DESC02YCA
DESC
CQFP 196 tie
bar gold
TC = -55/+TJ = +125
33
5962-9314302MYC
TS68040DESC01ZAA
DESC
CQFP 196
gullwing tin
TC = -55/+TJ = +125
25
5962-9314301MZA
TS68040DESC01ZCA
DESC
CQFP 196
gullwing gold
TC = -55/+TJ = +125
25
5962-9314301MZC
TS68040DESC02ZAA
DESC
CQFP 196
gullwing tin
TC = -55/+TJ = +125
33
5962-9314302MZA
TS68040DESC02ZCA
DESC
CQFP 196
gullwing gold
TC = -55/+TJ = +125
33
5962-9314302MZC
TS68040MFB/C25A
MIL-STD-883
CQFP 196
TC = -55/+TJ = +125
25
Atmel datasheet
TS68040MFB/C33A
MIL-STD-883
CQFP 196
TC = -55/+TJ = +125
33
Atmel datasheet
TS68040MRD/T25A
BURN IN
PGA 179
TC = -55/+TJ = +125
25
Atmel datasheet
TS68040MRD/T33A
BURN IN
PGA 179
TC = -55/+TJ = +125
33
Atmel datasheet
TS68040MFD/T25A
BURN IN
CQFP 196
TC = -55/+TJ = +125
25
Atmel datasheet
TS68040MFD/T33A
BURN IN
CQFP 196
TC = -55/+TJ = +125
33
Atmel datasheet
47
2116A–HIREL–09/02
Standard Product
Commercial Atmel
Part Number
Norms
Package
Temperature Range (°C)
Frequency
(MHz)
Drawing Number
TS68040VR25A
Atmel standard
PGA 179
TC = -40/+TJ = +110
25
Atmel datasheet
TS68040VR33A
Atmel standard
PGA 179
TC = -40/+TJ = +110
33
Atmel datasheet
TS68040MR25A
Atmel standard
PGA 179
TC = -55/+TJ = +125
25
Atmel datasheet
TS68040MR33A
Atmel standard
PGA 179
TC = -55/+TJ = +125
33
Atmel datasheet
TS68040VF25A
Atmel standard
CQFP 196
TC = -40/+TJ = +110
25
Atmel datasheet
TS68040VF33A
Atmel standard
CQFP 196
TC = -40/+TJ = +110
33
Atmel datasheet
TS68040MF25A
Atmel standard
CQFP 196
TC = -55/+TJ = +125
25
Atmel datasheet
TS68040MF33A
Atmel standard
CQFP 196
TC = -55/+TJ = +125
33
Atmel datasheet
Note:
48
FT: available on request.
TS68040
2116A–HIREL–09/02
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© Atmel Corporation 2002.
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2116A–HIREL–09/02
0M