ATMEL ATA5279N

Features
• Six Connections for Series-resonant LF Coil Antennas
• Drives up to 1A Peak Current on the First Three Channels and up to 700 mA Peak on
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
the Second Three, Largely Independent of the Battery Voltage
On-off-keyed Data Modulation with up to 6 kbit/s
Sinusoidal-like Output Signal for Superior EMC Behavior
20 Selectable Steps for Current Regulation for Field Strength Measurement (RSSI)
Output Driver Stages are Protected Against Electrical and Thermal Overload
Very Low Power-down Current Consumption
SPI Interface for Easy Microcontroller Bus Connection
LF Data Buffer to Minimize Microcontroller’s CPU Load During a Data Transmission
Small Outline Package: QFN48, 7 mm × 7 mm
1. Description
The ATA5279N is an LF coil driver IC intended for passive entry/-go (PEG) systems. It
can drive up to six low-frequency-antennas (i.e., coils) to provide a wake-up and initialization channel to the key fob.
Figure 1-1.
Block Diagram
VS
VCC
OSCI
Oscillator
Internal Supply
POR, BG, UV/OV
OSCO
Boost
Controller
HP 1-3
SPI
LF Data Buffer
A3P
Sine Wave
Generator
LP 1-3
A6P
Return Line
Driver
VIF
BCNT
A4P
A5P
MISO
IRQ
A1P
A2P
DC
MOSI
NRES
ATA5279N
Preliminary
VDS
DC
S_CS
S_CLK
PGND
VL
Antenna Driver
for Multiple
Antennas
Control Logic
Communication
Protocol Handling
Driver Stage
Control
A1N
A2N
A3N
Integrator
A4N
A5N
MACT
A6N
VSHF
Sample
and Hold
Zero Cross
Detector
Reference
GND
RGND
CINT
VSHS
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2. Pin Configuration
Pinning QFN48
VL3
PGND3
VL2
PGND2
VL1
PGND1
VDS3
IRQ
NRES
S_CLK
S_CS
MOSI
Figure 2-1.
48 47 46 45 44 43 42 41 40 39 38 37
1
36
2
35
3
34
33
4
32
5
6
31
7
30
8
29
9
28
27
10
11
26
12
25
13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24
ATA5279N
MISO
AGND3
A6P
A3P
A5P
AGND2
A2P
A4P
AGND1
VDS2
A1P
A1N2
A6N2
A3N1
A3N2
A5N1
A5N2
VSHF2
A2N1
A2N2
VDS1
A4N1
A4N2
A1N1
VS
RGND
CINT
VCC
VSHS
VIF
OSCI
OSCO
MACT
BCNT
VSHF1
A6N1
Table 2-1.
2
Pin Description
Pin
Symbol
Function
Pin Group
Heat Slug
PGND
Backside ground connection
-
1
VS
Battery supply pin
-
2
RGND
3
CINT
Reference ground
-
Integration capacitor connection
-
4
VCC
Analog 5V stabilization capacitor connection
-
5
VSHS
Shunt resistor voltage sense input
-
6
VIF
Digital supply voltage input
-
7
OSCI
Oscillator input pin
CSP
8
OSCO
Oscillator output pin
CSP
9
MACT
Modulator active indicator output pin
DO
10
BCNT
LF-bit counter output pin
DO
11
VSHF1
Shunt resistor driving pin 1
RLO
12
A6N1
Coil 6 negative connection line pin 1
LRL
13
A6N2
Coil 6 negative connection line pin 2
LRL
14
A3N1
Coil 3 negative connection line pin 1
HRL
15
A3N2
Coil 3 negative connection line pin 2
HRL
16
A5N1
Coil 5 negative connection line pin 1
LRL
17
A5N2
Coil 5 negative connection line pin 2
LRL
18
VSHF2
Shunt resistor driving pin 2
RLO
19
A2N1
Coil 2 negative connection line pin 1
HRL
20
A2N2
Coil 2 negative connection line pin 2
HRL
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ATA5279N [Preliminary]
Table 2-1.
Pin Description (Continued)
Pin
Symbol
Function
Pin Group
21
VDS1
Driver supply pin 1
DS
22
A4N1
Coil 4 negative connection line pin 1
LRL
23
A4N2
Coil 4 negative connection line pin 2
LRL
24
A1N1
Coil 1 negative connection line pin 1
HRL
25
A1N2
Coil 1 negative connection line pin 2
HRL
26
A1P
Coil 1 positive connection line pin
HDL
27
VDS2
Driver supply pin 2
DS
28
AGND1
Driver ground pin 1
-
29
A4P
Coil 4 positive connection line pin
LDL
30
A2P
Coil 2 positive connection line pin
HDL
31
AGND2
Driver ground pin 2
-
32
A5P
Coil 5 positive connection line pin
LDL
33
A3P
Coil 3 positive connection line pin
HDL
34
A6P
Coil 6 positive connection line pin
LDL
35
AGND3
Driver ground pin 3
-
36
MISO
Master-In-Slave-Out SPI output pin
DO
37
MOSI
Master-Out-Slave-In SPI input pin
DI
38
S_CS
SPI chip select pin
DI
39
S_CLK
SPI clock input pin
DI
40
NRES
Chip reset input pin
DI
41
IRQ
Interrupt request output pin
DI
42
VDS3
43
PGND1
44
VL1
45
PGND2
46
VL2
47
PGND3
48
VL3
Driver supply pin 3
DS
Boost converter low-side switch output 1
-
Boost converter low-side switch input 1
BLS
Boost converter low-side switch output 2
-
Boost converter low-side switch input 2
BLS
Boost converter low-side switch output 3
-
Boost converter low-side switch input 3
BLS
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3. Functional Description
3.1
Operation Modes
ATA5279N features five operation modes. They are:
• Power-down mode (reset state)
• Idle mode
• Operating mode
• Shutdown mode
• Diagnosis mode
Power-down mode is active after supply voltages have been applied to the chip. No internal circuitry is active in this mode and as such power consumption is minimal. If no operation of the
chip is demanded, it should be kept in this state. To enter power-down mode, a negative pulse
on the NRES pin for at least tNRES,min is required.
After wake-up from power-down mode by a logic high signal at the S_CS pin, the chip is in idle
mode. That is, the oscillator is running and the control logic waits for commands coming from the
serial interface. Furthermore, the selected output driver stage is ready for operation (the voltage
on the corresponding output pin AxP is approximately half the battery supply voltage). The current consumption of the chip is now mainly defined by the cross current through the active driver
stage (please refer also to Section 3.2 “Coil Driver Stage” on page 5).
When processing coil driving commands, the chip is in operation mode. From the interface point
of view, there is no difference from the idle mode; however, current consumption is now higher
as the output driver stages are operating and, depending on the selected output current, the
DC-DC converter is also operating.
If a connection failure (short circuit on any of the coil connection lines) is detected, the
ATA5279N enters the shutdown mode to protect itself from damage. In this mode, the interface
operates in idle mode but with all power stages shutdown and no LF transmission command processing. This mode should be exited using the Reset Fault Status command (see below),
however, it can also be exited by resetting the chip.
In diagnosis mode, the output driver stages are also disabled. In their place, high-ohmic current
sources are activated that can be programmed via the serial interface in order to check the coil
connection lines for failures. This mode can be exited by an appropriate SPI command or by
resetting the chip.
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ATA5279N [Preliminary]
3.2
Coil Driver Stage
The driver stage for each coil consists of two N-channel DMOS transistors. The low-side transistor is in Darlington configuration to maintain a source-follower characteristic.
Figure 3-1.
Principle Driver Stage Setup
VDS
IHSDiag
IHS
Diag Enable
Nmirr
VSin_pre
AxP
Ax_State
Pmirr1
Pmirr2
Npwr
Diag Enable
Internal nodes
ILS
ILS
ILSDiag
GND
In the graphic above, the names of internal pins have a grey shaded background, and the
hatched area is not part of the driver stage itself but only used in diagnostic mode (please refer
to the Diagnosis Block description for further information on this topic).
The driver stages are supplied by the three VDS pins, which are tied together inside the chip.
A quiescence current regulation ensures low cross current while in idle state. The output transistors are monitored for current and temperature to protect them from damage caused by irregular
load conditions or too high ambient temperatures.
The driving stage is optimized for signal quality to ensure low harmonic distortions.
Two groups of driver stages are integrated: the first group is intended for high-current coils,
whereas the second group drives low-current coils. Note that there are certain coil impedance
ranges for each driver group. If the connected load exceeds this range, proper current regulation
and/or data modulation is not guaranteed.
While in idle mode and especially during a transmission, the driver stages of the five inactive
(i.e., not selected) coils are switched to high-side outputs, i.e., the positive coil connection lines
are tied to the VDS potential. The same applies to the return line inputs AxN. These measures
ensure minimum parasitic currents in the disabled coils while the selected coil is operating.
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3.3
Sine Wave Generator
The sinusoidal coil-driving signal is internally generated. Its amplitude is dependant on the measured coil current, and the frequency is derived from the oscillator stage. In conjunction with the
output driver stages, the generated signal is optimized for low harmonic distortions.
The peak-to-peak amplitude of the sinusoidal signal is directly defined by the voltage on the
external integration capacitor connected to the CINT pin. This voltage, with an offset subtracted,
is internally used to generate a low-voltage sine wave signal, which is in turn amplified and
level-shifted up to the desired output level.
The output signal itself has a DC offset close to the half of the supply voltage, and the maximum
possible amplitude has about 3V distance to each of the supplies. Figure 3-2 illustrates this.
Figure 3-2.
Maximum Possible Coil Driving Signal for a Given Supply Voltage VDS
VDS
VOUT,max
0.5 × VDS
VOUT,min
GND
In application, the output coil current is the fixed valued (selectable via SPI). Hence, the required
output voltage is calculated as follows:
V Out,p = I Coil,p × ( Z Coil + R DSon,HRS/LRS + R Shunt )
Here, ZCoil is the complex impedance of the coil, RDSon,HRS/LRS is the on-resistance of the appropriate return line current selector (see also Section 7. “Functional Parameters” on page 31) and
RShunt is the resistance of the externally applied current sense shunt resistor (typ. 1Ω, see also
Section 4. “Application” on page 26).
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ATA5279N [Preliminary]
3.4
Boost Converter
The coil driver stage can be supplied by a DC-DC converter in boost configuration. Together
with an externally applied choke, freewheeling diode and capacitor, the battery voltage can be
brought up to the required value, which is dependant on the coil's impedance and the selected
current. The converter is only enabled during an active transmission. The peak current through
the low-side switch IVL and the output voltage VVDS are measured to shut down the converter
operation in case one of the values exceeds its upper limit.
Note:
There is no dedicated temperature monitoring for the boost converter low-side switch. For further
details, please refer to the section “Application Hints” on page 27.
The switching frequency is, like the coil driving signal, derived from the oscillator stage and
125 kHz in value when using an 8 MHz input clock. The least possible time the boost converter
takes to generate the maximum possible output voltage from the minimum possible input voltage is dependant on several parameters. The values of the external components (choke
inductance, charge capacitance and CINT integration capacitance) greatly effects this time.
3.5
Coil Current Sensing (Zero Cross, Sample and Hold, Integrator)
The coil current flows through an external shunt resistor, causing a current-dependant voltage,
which is fed into the IC via the VSHS pin. By monitoring the zero crossing events of this signal,
the phase of the coil current is known and hence the positive peak value can be sampled.
The peak coil current is then subtracted from an internal reference voltage that is dependant on
the selected coil current, which results in the regulation difference.
An amplifier stage converts this difference into a current, which is then fed into an externally
applied integration capacitor connected to the CINT pin. The resulting voltage on this capacitor
directly influences the amplitude of the sine wave signal. It also determines the supply voltage
generated by the boost converter, if the necessary coil supply voltage exceeds the actual supply
voltage level. Note that during an active transmission, this voltage is internally limited to
VCINT,max.
Note that in idle mode, the voltage on the integration capacitor is kept at a value that corresponds to the battery supply voltage. This ensures that the boost converter, if needed, always
performs a soft start from the battery voltage level on.
The desired current can be selected via the SPI. A total of 20 predefined steps are available,
divided into the following sections:
• The lower four steps (50 mA to 200 mA) are intended for the low-current coils only
• The next ten steps (250 mA to 700 mA) are intended for both types of coils
• The upper six steps (750 mA to 1A) are intended only for the high-current coils
The IC allows the use of a current step not intended for a particular driver group; however, in this
case, full functionality, especially a stabilized coil current, cannot be guaranteed. See also the
Control Logic block description for an overview over the commands.
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3.6
Diagnosis
The diagnosis stage monitors both the positive (AxP) and negative (AxN) connection lines of the
six coils. If one of these lines is shorted to battery supply or to ground, the following measures
are taken for protection and diagnostic reasons:
• All coil driver stages are shut down, i.e., put into high impedance state
• The shunt resistor is disconnected from the coil return lines
• The reason for the fault shutdown is stored in the fault register
• An interrupt request is triggered (see also control logic block)
In addition to short circuits, a disconnected coil (i.e., open load) or an excessive junction temperature can also lead to such a fault shutdown.
Note that this type of diagnosis is carried out continuously during normal operation of the IC to
protect both the IC and the peripherals from damage.
It must be avoided to design the system's load profile in such a way that the protection features
of the chip are triggered under normal operating conditions. Consecutive triggering of the overtemperature shutdown may lead to a reduced lifetime.
In the event of such a fault shutdown, the IC can be brought back to operation by resetting its
fault register with the appropriate SPI command (please refer also to the Section 3.9.2 “General
Command Description” on page 20 later in this document). As a result, transmission on nonfaulty coils is still possible even if there is a failure of one coil.
Beyond this, the diagnosis of all connected coil lines is a very useful tool for maintenance reasons. The ATA5279N has implemented test structures that can be activated and read out via
SPI commands, so that the microcontroller can be programmed to detect most of the possible
faults, for example, shorts between different coil connection lines and multiple shorts in one pair
of lines.
3.6.1
8
Functional Description of Diagnosis Mode
In this diagnosis mode, the coil-line drivers themselves are switched to high impedance. Hence,
only the test structure at every coil connection (both at the positive outputs AxP of the drivers
and at the negative outputs AxN) is present and can directly test the status of the line. Figure 3-3
illustrates this:
ATA5279N [Preliminary]
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ATA5279N [Preliminary]
Figure 3-3.
Base Structure of the Diagnosis Module of One Output Channel
VDS
VDS
S_HxP
c0 = '1'
S_HxN
c1 = '1'
AxP
c0 bit
AxN
c1 bit
S_LxN
c1 = '0'
S_LxP
c0 = '0'
AGND
AGND
Latch
Driver x select
c0, 1 bits
The structure above can be found in each of the six channels of ATA5279N. As soon as the
diagnosis mode is engaged, all channels are operated in this way. On the channel that is actually selected, the setting of the switches can be changed with the Set Coil Current command and
the status of the two connection lines can be checked with the Get Driver Setup command.
The two switches in the P line driver are controlled with one bit. That means, either the high-side
(S_HxP) or the low-side (S_LxP) switch is closed. The same is true for the N line driver (S_HxN,
S_LxN). The controlling bits c0 and c1 are taken from the coil current selection register (see Section 3.9.2 “General Command Description” on page 20 in this document).
Note that the setting of the switches is latched. That means, if the setting on the switches of the
selected driver is changed, the setting on the five other channels remains unchanged.
By a combination of test structures, many different faults, even between the coils, can be
detected.
As described in the principle schematic of a driver stage above, a test structure consists of two
switchable current sources (one to VDS and one to GND) and a comparator that converts the
voltage level on the line into a digital signal. The switches for the current sources can only be
controlled in diagnosis mode, with the corresponding coil being selected (see also Driver Command description). Note that one switch is always closed, either the high-side or the low-side
switch of one test structure. These structures are independent, i.e., they can be set up for each
line individually and at the same time.
The status of the connection lines of the selected coil can be read out with a SPI command.
In the following example, there is a short circuit between the positive coil connections of coil 1
and 2.
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Figure 3-4.
Example 1, Using the Diagnosis Mode
VDS
S_H1P
S_H2P
A1P
RShort
A2P
S_L1P
S_L2P
Status_1
Status_2
GND
Taking the circuit situation shown above, the test run starts with both S_L1P and S_L2P
switches closed (default state when entering the diagnosis mode for the first time). The
read-back of the line state result in both times 0, which is not unexpected. However, the result
does not change when either altering the channel 1 or the channel 2 switch setting. That can be
caused both by the failure shown above and by short-circuits of both lines to ground. The final
diagnosis can be identified by changing both channels to the high-side switches (S_H1P and
S_H2P). In this case, the two status lines both return 1s – which eliminates the possibility of two
short-circuits to ground.
Table 3-1 summarizes this test sequence.
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ATA5279N [Preliminary]
Table 3-1.
Sequence for Example 1, Using the Diagnosis Mode
Step
Command
I/O
Coding
Actions/Remarks
1
Select Driver
I
00101001 – 29h
Selects driver 1 with Diagnosis Mode enabled
2
Get Driver Setup
I
O
01101000 – 68h
00000001 – 01h
Reads back active driver info:
Channel 1 active, both lines return a 0
3
Select Driver
I
00101010 – 2Ah
Selects driver 2 with Diagnosis Mode enabled
4
Get Driver Setup
I
O
01101000 – 68h
00000010 – 02h
Reads back active driver info:
Channel 2 active, both lines return a 0
5
Set Coil Current
I
10100001 – A1h
Closes test switches S_H2P and S_L2N
Note:
S_L2P and S_H2N are then open
Wait for the test structures to stabilize in the new setting, see
below
6
- no command -
7
Get Driver Setup
I
O
01101000 – 68h
00000010 – 02h
Reads back active driver info:
Channel 2 active, but both lines return a 0
8
Select Driver
I
00101001 – 29h
Selects driver 1 with Diagnosis Mode enabled
9
Set Coil Current
I
10100001 – A1h
Closes test switches S_H1P and S_L1N (Note: S_L1P and
S_H1N are then open)
10
- no command -
11
Get Driver Setup
I
O
01101000 – 68h
00001001 – 09h
Reads back active driver info:
Channel 1 active and A1P returns a 1
12
Select Driver
I
00101010 – 2Ah
Selects driver 2 with Diagnosis Mode enabled
13
Set Coil Current
I
10100000 – A0h
14
- no command -
15
Get Driver Setup
Note:
Wait for the test structures to stabilize in the new setting, see
below
Closes test switches S_L2P and S_L2N
Note:
S_H2P and S_H2N are then open
Wait for the test structures to stabilize in the new setting, see
below
I
O
01101000 – 68h
00000010 – 02h
Reads back active driver info:
Channel 2 active and A2P returns a 1
Steps 6, 10 and 14 are wait states, as the test structures need some time to stabilize in their new setting. This depends mainly
on the externally applied capacitors on the AxP and the AxN pins.
The suggested waiting time is calculated as follows:
2 × V S × ( C e + C ant )
t diag,wait = ----------------------------------------------------300 µA
The sequence above is an example of how the failure illustrated in Figure 3-4 on page 10 could
be detected. Depending on the grade of detection detail that is required, a matrix for the test
sequence should be set up to find the most effective way of programming and testing. For more
details on the commands, please refer also to Section 3.9.2 “General Command Description” on
page 20.
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The second example circuit has two faults in the circuitry.
Figure 3-5.
Example 2, Using the Diagnosis Mode
VDS
RShort1
S_H4P
S_H4N
A4P
A4N
S_L4P
S_L4N
RShort2
Status_4
Status_4N
GND
If channel four is activated in normal operation, a fault shutdown will occur. The reason for this
shutdown (i.e., the entry in the fault register) could either be an overload on the A4P line (here a
short circuit to VS) or a short-circuit on the A4N line to VS. In any case, the IC protects itself and
the external components from damage; however, the fact that there is more than one failure in
the wiring cannot be discovered.
In diagnosis mode, by testing the A4P line with S_H4P and S_L4P, the short circuit to VS could
be found first. The same result would be found when testing the return line switch 4 accordingly,
so the presence of more than one fault on coil 4 is determined. The precise fault cannot be found
though. The diagnosis result would be the same both for the above shown circuit and for the
A4N line being directly shorted to VS (without the failure in the coil module, here RShunt2) and for
the combination of the two.
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ATA5279N [Preliminary]
Table 3-2.
Sequence for Example 2, Using the Diagnosis Mode
Step
Command
I/O
Coding
Actions / Remarks
1
Select Driver
I
00101101 – 2Dh
Selects driver 4 with Diagnosis Mode enabled
2
Get Driver Setup
I
O
01101000 – 68h
00011101 – 15h
Reads back active driver info:
Channel 4 active, A4N returns a 1
3
Set Coil Current
I
10100010 – A2h
4
- no command -
5
Get Driver Setup
I
O
01101000 – 68h
00011101 – 1Dh
6
Set Coil Current
I
10100000 – A0h
7
- no command -
8
Get Driver Setup
Closes test switches S_L4P and S_H4N
Note:
S_H4P and S_L4N are open then
Wait for the test structures to stabilize in the new setting, see
first example
Reads back active driver info:
Channel 4 active, both lines return a 1
Closes test switches S_L4P and S_L4N
Note:
S_H4P and S_H4N are open then
Wait for the test structures to stabilize in the new setting, see
first example
I
O
01101000 – 68h
00010101 – 15h
Reads back active driver info:
Channel 4 active and A4N returns a 1
Again, this is only an example of how the diagnosis system can be used. Generally, a more systematic approach is suggested in order to efficiently test all connection lines used.
Note:
3.7
To exit the diagnosis mode correctly, two SPI commands have to be sent: the first is the Select
Driver command with the DM bit set to 0 and the second is a Reset Fault Status command. See
also SPI Command Description.
SPI
The SPI is used to select the required coil and its current, to provide LF data to the IC, to select
and start an LF transmission, and to read out status information. It is equipped with a chip select
input to enable or disable communication. When disabled, the data output of the IC is in high
impedance mode, so other devices may communicate on the same bus.
The interface is configured as a slave device, always requiring a master (e.g., a microcontroller)
for operation. The maximum input clock frequency is 1/4 of the system clock present at the OSCI
pin, resulting, for example, in a maximum signal speed of 2 Mbit/s when using a typical 8 MHz
input clock. The SPI features four different operation modes, which only differ in the relationship
between the clock signal (S_CLK) and the data I/Os.
Both the SPI itself and the corresponding I/O lines are supplied by the application-provided logic
supply voltage connected to the VIF pin. This ensures that the controller (master) and the IC
(slave) operate with the same voltage levels.
In total, four modes of operations are possible, each differing in clock polarity and phase.
Figure 3-6 and Figure 3-7 illustrate this.
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Figure 3-6.
SPI Operation in POL = 0 and PHA = 0 Mode
Sample
S_CS
Setup
S_CLK
MISO
Z
MOSI
X
Figure 3-7.
LSB
1
2
3
4
5
6
MSB
X
Z
X
X
X
Z
X
X
SPI Operation in POL = 1 and PHA = 0 Mode
Sample
S_CS
Setup
S_CLK
MISO
Z
MOSI
X
Figure 3-8.
LSB
1
2
3
4
5
6
MSB
SPI Operation in POL = 0 and PHA = 1 Mode
Sample
S_CS
Setup
S_CLK
14
MISO
Z
X
MOSI
X
X
Z
LSB
1
2
3
4
5
6
MSB
X
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ATA5279N [Preliminary]
Figure 3-9.
SPI Operation in POL = 1 and PHA = 1 Mode
Sample
S_CS
Setup
S_CLK
MISO
Z
X
MOSI
X
X
Z
LSB
1
2
3
4
5
6
MSB
X
The configuration mode can be selected with the appropriate SPI command (see Section 3.9.2
“General Command Description” on page 20). Note that after power-up or a reset, the IC is
always in its default configuration (POL = 1, PHA = 1), which must be used to alter the configuration. At the end of the SPI configuration-changing command, the new configuration is
activated with the falling edge of the S_CS signal.
3.7.1
Timing
Figure 3-10 illustrates the timing parameters of the SPI communication.
Figure 3-10. Timing Parameters of the SPI Communication
tCS,set
tCShold
tIo
tSPIoff
thi
S_CS
S_CLK
MISO
Z
MOSI
X
LSB
1
tSPI
tsetup
Note:
6
tout,valid
MSB
X
X
X
X
tMISOoff
tMISOon
thold
The diagram above is using POL = 0 and PHA = 0 as a setup for the SPI. The values are also
valid for the other three configurations. The limits for the timing values shown above can be found
in Section 7. “Functional Parameters” on page 31.
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9125F–RKE–09/09
3.8
Command Buffer
This buffer is a First-In-First-Out (FIFO)-type buffer, located between the SPI and the modulator
stage. The microcontroller can write coil-driving related commands and data with full SPI speed
to keep the CPU and bus load low.
3.8.1
Structure
The buffer can store up to 128 bits, organized in 16 words, each eight bit in size. Hence, each
data word from the SPI that contains a control command for the driver stages (i.e., select a certain driver, select a certain current, transmit LF-data bits and transmit a constant wave) is stored
in a buffer word. Figure 3-11 outlines this.
Figure 3-11. Structure of 128 bit FIFO Command Buffer
Data
Selector
8
General Command
Processing
8
Write Pointer
0
7
1
7
2
7
3
7
4
7
5
7
6
7
7
7
8
7
9
7
10
7
11
7
12
7
13
7
14
7
0
15
7
0
0
128 bit FIFO buffer
8
From SPI
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Read Pointer
Modulator Stage
8
The read pointer indicates the next word to be processed by the Modulator Stage, whereas the
write pointer indicates the next free location for data from the SPI. These pointers are controlled
by the internal logic to enable the first-in-first-out functionality.
3.8.2
Usage
After wake-up from power-down, the buffer is empty and ready to receive commands and LF
data. Any LF command and data is fed into the buffer via the SPI. The buffer can be filled even
during an active data modulation, i.e., when some LF data and/or commands remain in the buffer while waiting to be processed. This increases the independency of the coil driver from the
microcontroller. An interrupt request (IRQ) is triggered when the fill state of the buffer drops
below 25% or if too many words are sent and a FIFO overflow occurs.
16
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ATA5279N [Preliminary]
Seamless data processing is an important feature of the command buffer. LF data intended for
the same coil and the same current step can be distributed to several commands without the risk
of having unwanted gaps in the LF telegram. This allows protocols to have any length and is
usable both with the Send LF-data and the Send Carrier command. Refer also to the Section
3.9.1 “Modulator Stage” on page 17 for further details.
3.9
Control Logic
The internal control logic handles all information coming from the SPI and controls the power
stages. Diagnostic information is also collected and evaluated here.
3.9.1
Modulator Stage
The modulator stage controls the coil drivers. It gets all necessary information from the command buffer. That is:
• Which coil to drive
• Which current to maintain in this coil/which diagnosis switch to close (in diagnosis mode)
• Which baud rate to use for LF data transmission
• What kind of transmission (i.e., data or carrier)
• LF data itself (respectively the on-time when a carrier is to be transmitted)
When a modulator operation is started by an SPI command, the data in the buffer is processed
in the order it arrives via SPI, command by command. The time for this data processing depends
on the command itself and, if LF transmissions are involved, the amount and length of the data
bits.
Table 3-3 lists the timings for the driver-related commands.
Table 3-3.
Execution Durations of Driver-related Commands
Command
Select Driver
Select Coil Curr.
Send LF Data
Send LF Carrier
Note:
Dur. [LF per.]
Comment
64
During the first 32 periods, the actual driver is stopped in order
to decay any oscillation in the coil. Then the switching itself is
performed and another 32 periods waiting time is started in
order to wait for the new driver to reach its operation point
<1
The switching time of internal references takes less than 1 LF
period. Note that there will always be an interruption in a
telegram if the coil current is changed between two transmission
commands
The duration of this command depends on the selected data
rate (4 kbit/s, i.e. 32 periods/LF bit, or 5.7 kbit/s, i.e.,
N × 2 × {32 / 22}
22 periods/LF bit) and the amount of nibbles N (2 LF data bits)
to be transmitted
T × (32 / 22)
The duration of this command depends on the selected data
rate (see also above) and the carrier duration T
Table 3-3 lists the duration of command execution for the different commands and not the decoding or processing time. This is done simultaneous, so that two commands can be executed
seamlessly.
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9125F–RKE–09/09
LF data is transmitted on-off-keyed (OOK). “1” enables the field, whereas “0” disables it. Note
that the field generation strongly depends on the bandwidth (the Q factor) of the coil. If it is too
narrow, the receiver might not be able to decode the data correctly. Figure 3-12 shows the signal
path from the modulator stage to the receiver.
Figure 3-12. Example for OOK-data Modulation with ATA5279N
Modulator Data
off
1
0
Transmitter Coil Current
1
1
1
Current
Envelope
Receiver Detection Thresholds
Receiver Data
off
1
0
1
1
0
1
Coils with high Q values need more periods to reach the desired field strength and hence appropriate detection level thresholds in the receiver. So the Q factor must be adapted in order to
ensure proper data communication. For example, the thresholds here are chosen at 70% of the
required output current for a 0 to 1 and at 30% for a 1 to 0 detection.
The IC supports two data rates: standard, which is 4 kbit/s (or 32 LF periods), and high speed,
rated with 5.7 kbit/s (or 22 LF periods). Note that this refers to the encoded (net) data rate. The
minimum length of an active field (e.g., the time for the first 1 in Figure 3-12), is 16 LF periods in
standard and 11 LF periods in high speed mode (i.e., gross data rate).
Another aspect of the LF data transmission is that current regulation can only be done roughly,
as the measurement must be interrupted over and over again. At a 0 to 1 transition, the current
measurement will not start until the 5th period, and there will not be any measurement during a
0-transmission. The regulation precision that is achieved during carrier transmission is not valid
here.
As described in Section 3.8 “Command Buffer” on page 16, data is processed seamlessly to
avoid gaps in longer LF telegrams. The following example illustrates this feature.
Assume that following data words have been written into the command buffer via the SPI:
1. Send 2 LF bits (SPI data 00h 05h)
2. Send carrier with a length of 24 data bits (SPI data 98h)
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9125F–RKE–09/09
ATA5279N [Preliminary]
In this example, the output signal of the modulator resembles the illustration below.
Figure 3-13. Example of Data Transmission of Two Consecutive Commands
First Command
Second Command
Modulator Data
BCNT Signal
2 × tdata
24 × tdata
26 × tdata
The value for tdata depends on the speed setting of the modulator (32 LF-periods in standard and
22 periods in high speed mode, with one period being 8 µs when operating with 125 kHz output
frequency and therefore 8 MHz system clock).
The least amount of data that can be processed by the modulator stage is four LF bits or two
(e.g. Manchester-encoded) data bits. The first command in the upper example is a minimum-length LF data command.
To ensure the traceability of the LF protocol, two pins are provided, which indicate an active data
transmission (MACT) and the change of an LF bit (BCNT). Figure 3-12 illustrates the function of
these two signals:
Figure 3-14. LF Transmission Tracing Signals
Modulator Data
Transmitter Coil Current
off
1
0
1
1
0
1
1
off
Current Envelope
MACT Signal
BCNT Signal
The MACT signal can be used to start a timer whereas BCNT can be used as input signal to a
counter. Note that for carrier transmissions, only the MACT signal is active. There are not any
pulses on the BCNT line.
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9125F–RKE–09/09
General Command Description
The following commands are directly processed by the control logic, i.e., they are not fed into the
data buffer:
Table 3-4.
Bit Definitions of the General SPI Commands
6
5
4
3
2
1
LSB
MSB
Output Word (MISO Data)
MSB
Input Word (MOSI Data)
6
3
2
1
Get status info
0
X
1
X
1
X
0
X
0
X
0
X
0
X
0
X
X
R
X
F
X
X
BO BU
X
T
X
S
X
Op
X
X
Get driver setup
0
X
1
X
1
X
0
X
1
X
0
X
0
X
0
X
X
C4
X
C3
X
C2
X
C1
X
C0
X
DG
X
D1
X
D0
Get fault info
0
X
1
X
1
X
1
X
0
X
0
X
0
X
0
X
X
DG
X
D1
X
D0
X
T
X
X
X
X
F03 F02 F01 F00
Reset fault status
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Set SPI config
0
1
0
0
1
0
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Halt operation
0
1
0
1
0
0
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Command
PO PH
0
0
5
4
LSB
3.9.2
Refer to Section 3.7 “SPI” on page 13 for bit direction definitions.
• Get Status Info:
This command delivers the general IC status information back to the microcontroller (via the
SPI bus). One part of the return word is the interrupt request source. If such a request is
active (i.e., the IRQ line is high), the source for it is coded here.
• Possible sources include the diagnosis block to indicate a driver stage fault (bit F), a general
reset (either triggered externally by the NRES pin or internally by the power-on reset
structure, bit R), an overtemperature of the chip (bit T), or the FIFO buffer indicating that the
fill state has dropped to 25% or below (i.e., only 4 words are left, bit BU), or the fill state
exceeds the upper limit of 16 bytes (bit BO). The IRQ signal is reset with this command.
Additionally, the operability flag of the IC (bit Op) is returned in the word. Note that only if no
fault is stored in the fault register and all operation voltages are present and valid, the
operability is given (indicated by a 1 in the Op bit). Otherwise, ATA5279N will not process any
driver-related command. Finally, the LF speed mode bit returned here indicates the current
speed state of the modulator stage (bit S, 0 for normal speed, 1 for high speed).
bit R:
bit F:
bit BO:
bit BU:
bit T:
bit S:
bit Op
20
Chip reset - either triggered externally by the NRES pin or internally by the
power on reset structure
Indicator for a driver stage fault
The FIFO buffer fill state exceeds the upper limit of 16 bytes
The FIFO buffer fill state drops to 25% or below, i.e., only 4 words are left
Chip overtemperature indicator
LF modulator speed mode indicator
LF driver stage operability indicator
ATA5279N [Preliminary]
9125F–RKE–09/09
ATA5279N [Preliminary]
• Get Driver Setup:
This command returns the actual setup of the driver stage, i.e., the selected coil, encoded in
the bits DG,D1..0, and the selected current, which can be found in the bits C4..0 (see also
“Select Driver” and “Set Coil Current” command description below for details on bit coding).
This command is also used in diagnosis mode to fetch the state of the coil connection lines.
• Get Fault Info:
This command returns the content of the driver stage fault register back to the microcontroller
via the SPI bus. The register contains both the code for the detected fault and the number of
the driver stage that was active when the fault occurred. Refer also to the Section 3.9.4
“Status Monitor” on page 24 for further details.
• Reset Fault Status:
This command clears the content of the driver stage fault register and sets the operability bit
in the general state register if all supply voltages are present and valid. This command is
necessary to resume normal operation following the occurrence and subsequent removal of
a fault. Please note that prior to this command, the active channel should be switched to a
line that is not faulty. Otherwise, the internal logic might get corrupted and must then be reset
with a negative pulse on the NRES line.
Note that this command is also required to bring ATA5279N back into operation mode once
the diagnosis mode was active and was then cleared by a Select Driver command.
• Set SPI Config:
This command changes the two configuration bits PO(L) and PH(A). These bits are
responsible for the serial data processing of the SPI.
Default: PO = 1, PH = 1
• Halt Operation:
As this command is processed immediately, it is not written to the FIFO buffer even if it is a
driver-related command. The effect of this command is that the content of the FIFO buffer is
cleared, hence no new LF data is available, and if any driver is active it will be stopped. Note
that such stops are only carried out at the end of an LF period (i.e., when the sinusoidal
output signal reaches half of the supply voltage).
3.9.3
Driver-related Command Description
Following commands are processed via the LF data buffer:
Table 3-5.
Bit Definitions of the Driver-Related SPI Commands
Command
6
5
1
LSB
MSB
6
5
4
3
2
1
LSB
Output Word
MSB
Input Word
Select driver
0
0
1
BR DM DG
D1
D0
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Select coil current
1
0
1
C4
C3
C2
C1
C0
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
0
L7
..
0
L6
..
0
L5
..
0
L4
..
N3
L3
..
N2
L2
..
N1
L1
..
N0
L0
..
X
0
L7
X
0
L6
X
0
L5
X
X
X
X
X
0 N3 N2 N1 N0
L 4 L3 L2 L1 L0
1
0
0
T4
T3
T2
T1
T0
X
X
X
X
Send LF data
Send LF carrier
4
3
2
X
X
X
X
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9125F–RKE–09/09
• Select Driver:
This command selects the coil that is to be driven or tested next. The BR-bit indicates the
modulation speed (0 for 4 kbit/s, i.e., 32 LF periods and 1 for 5.7 kbit/s, i.e., 22 LF periods).
• The DG,1..0 bits indicate the channel number to be activated. DG selects the driver group (0 for
high-current driver 1..3, 1 for low-current driver 4..6) and D1..0 the required driver in the group
(01 for driver 1 / 4, 11 for driver 3 / 6). For connection line diagnosis, the diagnosis mode can
be enabled by setting the DM-bit to 1.
bit BR:
bit DM:
Notes:
LF modulator speed (0 for 4 kbit/s, i.e., 32 LF periods and 1 for 5.7 kbit/s, i.e.,
22 LF periods
Diagnosis mode selector (0: Normal LF operation mode, 1: Coil connection
diagnosis mode)
1. If set, all coil connections are switched to this mode. Normal operation is not possible. (i.e., LF
transmission). The same works for the opposite way: once a Select Driver command is
received with the DM-bit at 0, all connection lines are switched back to normal operation mode.
2. For a proper operation after a diagnosis run, a Reset Fault Status command also needs to be
sent.
bits DG,1..0:
bit DG:
Active channel indicator
Driver group selector (0 for high-current driver 1..3, 1 for low-current driver
4..6)
bits D1..0:
Driver selector , i.e. 01 is driver 1 (DG = 0) / 4 (DG = 1), 11 is driver 3
(DG = 0) / 6 (DG = 1).
Default: DG,1..0 = [001], DM = 0, BR = 0 --> Channel 1, diagnosis mode off and normal LF
speed selected.
• Select Coil Current
This command defines the current to be established for the next LF transmissions.
bits C4..0:
bits C1..C0:
Contain the step number in the range of 0 to 19 (00hex to 13hex)
Are used in diagnosis mode, to control the test switches of the activated
connection line
whereas …
bit C0:
The low/high-side switch of the AxP line
bit C1:
The low/high-side switch of the AxN line)
Default: C4..0 = [00000] --> 50 mA coil current selected.
• Send LF Data:
This command must be used to start an LF data telegram on the selected coil. The bits N3..0
contain the amount of nibbles to be transferred into the LF data buffer of ATA5279N. This
amount has to be coded as follows:
N3..0 = (nNibbles – 1)
Hence, a maximum of 16 nibbles or 8 words and a minimum of 1 nibble can be written into
the buffer using one command.
Note also that this command uses one more word of space in the buffer, as the header word
is also stored. So for example, if the LF telegram consists of four words, the required space in
the LF data buffer is five words (four words of pure data and one word for the command
header).
It is important that the amount of nibbles passed in the header word matches the number of
words transferred afterwards to the IC, as no data consistency checking can be carried out
here. If an odd number of nibbles is to be transferred, the data word on the SPI has to be
completed with dummy data in the upper nibble, as the SPI always requires complete data
22
ATA5279N [Preliminary]
9125F–RKE–09/09
ATA5279N [Preliminary]
words on the bus. The FIFO buffer is also only filled with complete words.
For an example, if 7 nibbles of LF data (i.e., 14 LF data bits) are to be sent by ATA5279N via
the LF channel, the Send LF Data command consists of five words, the header word (here
06h) and four LF data words, whereas the last word contains only four bits (the four least
significant) of the LF data.
For an additional example, see Figure 3-15, which illustrates how LF transmission data is
processed in ATA5279N.
Figure 3-15. LF Data Processing
SPi Data String (hex)
02h
35h
04h
SPi Data String (bin)
0000 0010
0 0 1 1 0 1 01
0 1 00
LF Telegram
MACT Signal
BCNT Signal
• Send LF Carrier:
This command should be used when a carrier shall be transmitted on the LF channel via the
selected coil. The current will be regulated by ATA5279N to the value selected with the last
Select Coil Current command (resp. the default value of 50 mA). See also Section 3.5 “Coil
Current Sensing (Zero Cross, Sample and Hold, Integrator)” on page 7 for further details.
The duration of this carrier can be defined by the T4..0 bits. Note that the time unit here is one
LF data bit, i.e., 32 LF periods in normal- and 22 LF periods in high-speed mode. That leads
to a maximum definable carrier time per command of 31 × 0.256 ms = 7.936 ms when using
an 8 MHz system clock.
However, when the T4..0-value is set to 0, an endless carrier transmission with the actually
selected current on the actually active coil is started. This can be used for long-term
measurements or for energy-coupling purposes. Be aware that long-term transmissions can
produce a huge amount of heat in the driver, dependant on the selected coil current and the
properties of the coil itself. It is therefore strongly recommended to use this feature only with
a maximum current settings of 100 mA; otherwise, the chip temperature might reach
excessive values.
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3.9.4
Status Monitor
The status monitor holds all information from the diagnosis stage. In case of an existing fault, all
power stages are disabled. As soon as a fault is stored, an interrupt request (IRQ) to the microcontroller is generated. This signal is persistent until the status info is polled by the
microcontroller. The entry in the fault register can only be cleared by the Reset Fault command
or a global reset.
There are two different status registers:
• A general IC status register (requestable by the Get Status Info command)
• A coil-driver related fault register (requestable by the Get Fault Info command)
The fault register is encoded as follows:
Table 3-6.
Fault Assignment between Driver Stages and the Fault Registers
MSB
Fault Register
DG
LSB
D1
D0
T
F03
F02
F01
F00
The meaning of the bits is described below:
• DG, D1..0: The driver group and number that was active when the fault occurred. Only a
selected driver can be affected by external faults. Therefore, it is sufficient to store the type of
failure and the corresponding driver number. Refer to Section 3.9.3 “Driver-related Command
Description” on page 21 for further details on the coding of these bits.
• T: A temperature shutdown has occurred. Note that there is not necessarily a link between
the driver number and this fault, as all sensor signals of the chip are OR’ed together.
However, in general, it can be assumed that the last active driver also caused the
overtemperature condition.
• F03: This bit indicates a missing return line signal during modulation. That means that the
current detection unit was not able to find a sinusoidal signal on the VSHS pin although the
LF coil was driven. The reason for this can either be an open load condition or a short-circuit
on the AxN pin towards ground.
• F02: This bit indicates an excessive positive voltage on the VSHS pin. In normal applications,
this is only the case if there is a high current flowing through the shunt resistor. The typical
reason for this is a short-circuit on the AxN line towards battery. Another possible reason
could be a shorted LF coil.
• F01: This bit indicates an excessive current through the high-side transistor that drives the
AxP line. The most typical reason for this is a short-circuit towards ground.
• F00: This bit indicates an excessive current through the low-side transistor that drives the AxP
line. The most typical reason for this is a short-circuit towards battery.
24
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9125F–RKE–09/09
ATA5279N [Preliminary]
3.10
Oscillator
This block provides the clock signals internally needed for control logic, the LF driver stage, and
the boost converter. The oscillator requires an external clock source, which can either be an
active signal from a microcontroller for example, or a passive oscillation device like a crystal or a
ceramic resonator. As the LF carrier frequency is directly derived from this clock, the (resonance) frequency of the clock source must be chosen to match the desired LF frequency.
Possible values range from 6.4 MHz to 9.6 MHz, where 8 MHz is the typical value resulting in an
LF frequency of 125 kHz.
Note that during start-up (i.e., as long as no stable oscillation can be detected), the driving current for the crystal is increased to shorten the start-up delay. Furthermore, the IC is only
functional if the oscillator is working properly. That means, during start-up after a power-down
phase, no communication and no operation of the IC is possible until the oscillator reaches its
operation point.
If an external clock source such as a microcontroller is to be used, the logic-level clock signal
must be applied at the OSCI pin, and the OSCO pin must be left open. Note that the chip protection features, need a clock signal present at the OSCI pin; without this, the chip is not fully
protected. Therefore, if the chip is in any mode but in power-down (reset), a clock signal is
needed.
The oscillator block is, like the control logic and the SPI, supplied by the application-provided
logic supply voltage connected to the pin VIF.
3.11
Internal Supply
The internal power supply stage provides all internally needed BIAS currents and reference voltages. An integrated one-time-programming (OTP) structure is used to adjust internal settings.
This ensures parameter stability over the production process.
The internal supply block performs monitoring functions to reset or shut down the IC in case of
supply shortages or during power-up. A power-management minimizes current consumption
during power-down mode of the IC.
Another part of this block is the internal 5V voltage regulator. It is supplied by the VS pin, i.e., the
battery supply connection. This voltage is used for all internal analog functions and driving processes. It is active as long as the IC is not in power-down mode. To increase stability and quality
of this supply line, it is externally available (pin VCC) for connection to a ceramic capacitor for filtering and buffering. Note that no loads must be connected to this pin.
As with the oscillator, this supply voltage must settle in its operation point prior to any operation.
The control logic checks the status of this voltage and inhibits operation until it reaches the
required level. Furthermore, the driver supply voltage present on the VDSx pins is also monitored. If the level falls below VVDS,min, the operability flag of the chip is cleared (bit Op in the
Status Register) and driver-related commands cannot be processed. Once the voltage level is
valid again, the Op bit is set again, and operability is restored.
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9125F–RKE–09/09
4. Application
Find below a typical application schematic for ATA5279N.
Figure 4-1.
Application Schematic for ATA5279N
VBATT
D2
D1
L1
L2
+
+
C1
C3
C5
C2
C4
VS
VCC
VL
PGND
VDS
PCB
OSCI
X1
Oscillator
OSCO
Internal Supply
POR, BG, UV/OV
car
A1P
Boost
Controller
HP 1-3
DC
Ant1
A2P
Ant2
A3P
DC
Ant3
µC voltage supply line (VDD)
µC connection
Ce1 Ce2 Ce3
S_CS
S_CLK
MOSI
SPI
LF Data Buffer
A4P
Sine Wave
Generator
LP 1-3
Ant4
A5P
Ant5
A6P
MISO
Ant6
Ce4 Ce5 Ce6
C7
A1N
VIF
Return Line
Driver
NRES
IRQ
BCNT
Control Logic
Communication
Protocol Handling
A2N
A3N
Driver Stage
Control
A4N
Integrator
A5N
MACT
A6N
Ce7 Ce8 Ce9 Ce10 Ce11 Ce12
VSHF
Sample
and Hold
Zero Cross
Detector
Reference
GND
RGND
CINT
C6
Note:
26
VSHS
R1
A negative current on pin MISO that causes the voltage to drop below –0.6V with respect to
ground might lead to a chip reset, comparable to a logic low on the NRES pin.
ATA5279N [Preliminary]
9125F–RKE–09/09
ATA5279N [Preliminary]
Table 4-1.
4.1
Bill of Materials (BOM) for Typical Application Circuit
Part
Value
R1
1
C1
220 µF/50V
Description
Shunt resistor, ±1% tol.
Supply line input filter and stabilizing cap
C2
100 nF cer.
C3
4.7 µF/50V tant.
Supply line input filter cap
C4
100 nF cer.
Boost converter filter cap (+ESD clamp)
C5
100 nF cer.
Internal 5V supply line stabilizing cap
C6
33 nF cer.
Integration cap for current regulation loop
C7
100 nF cer.
Filter cap for µC supply line
Ce1..12
1 nF cer.
D1
50V/3A
D2
50V/3A/50 ns
L1
150 µH
Supply line input filter choke, Isat > 3A
L2
82 µH
Boost converter charging choke, Isat > 3A
X1
8 MHz
Crystal or resonator
Boost converter storage cap, low ESR
Add. ESD buffer, necessity tbc
Rectifying diode
High-speed freewheeling diode
Application Hints
An important application aspect is the thermal budget. Under certain conditions, high power
dissipations can occur during operation of the chip. The ATA5279N's power dissipation mainly
depends on the supply voltage and the selected antenna output current. Under worst case
conditions (e.g., low supply voltage and maximum antenna power) the power dissipation
increases exponentially and may rise to values exceeding 10W. It must be avoided under all circumstances to exceed the specified maximum average junction temperature. Therefore, the
thermal aspects of the entire application, along with the electrical design, are essential.
The thermal resistance between the IC and the ambient has to be designed according to the
specific application requirements. It is mandatory to solder the exposed die pad to the PCB. As
many vias as possible must be provided between the top and the bottom layer (soldering side to
the PCB's backside). This copper plane is able to store and dissipate the heat. It must be electrically connected to ground, and an appropriate heat transfer away from the chip must be
ensured. In addition, multi-layer-PCBs (more than two layers) are recommended.
The ATA5279N's power dissipation depends on the supply voltage, the selected antenna
current, the antenna's impedance and further parameters such as the external components
used for the DC-DC converter. Background information, design hints and an example are given
in the application note "Thermal Considerations for ATA5279".
It is strongly recommended to measure the power dissipation in the target application during the
design phase to verify the system's thermal budget. One option is to calculate the difference
between input and output power.
27
9125F–RKE–09/09
See the following description for details:
P diss,tot = P in – P out
P in = U VS × I VBATT
Mean value measured during an LF carrier transmission with the desired output current.
I Ant,p 2
P out = ⎛ -------------⎞ × Z Ant + P diss,ext
⎝ 2 ⎠
Pdiss,ext is the sum of power dissipated by the external components.
I Ant,p
U Ant,pp
P out = ⎛ -------------⎞ × ----------------- + P diss,ext
⎝ 2 ⎠ 2× 2
Alternative formula for calculating the output power.
Note:
The output power can either be calculated by using the impedance of the antenna or by measuring the peak-to-peak amplitude of the sinusoidal voltage applied to the antenna. As the impedance
may change under load conditions, it is recommended to use the formula with the peak-to-peak
antenna voltage.
The input power determination should be done by transmitting a single LF carrier burst with a
length of for example 8 ms. The required electrical data needs to be recorded with a digital
sampling oscilloscope (DSO) and a current probe. Note that the start-up phase of the LF field
must not be used for reading out the data.
Figure 4-2.
Power Dissipation on Chip Measured at Application Board ATAB5279
IC Power Dissipation (W)
14.00
12.00
10.00
Z(Ant) = 12.5Ω
I(Ant) = 1000 mAp
8.00
6.00
Z(Ant) = 12.5Ω
I(Ant) = 700 mAp
4.00
2.00
8.0
9.0
10.0
11.0
12.0
13.0
14.0
15.0
16.0
Supply Voltage VS (V)
Note:
If the VDS output voltage regulation fails due to too high input currents or too high output voltage,
the power dissipation increases up to 40%
The power dissipation of the external components depends on their parameters and the supply
current. Regarding choke L2, it is the DC resistance, regarding the freewheeling diode D2, it is
the forward biasing voltage. In addition, the equivalent series resistance (ESR) of the charging
capacitor C3 is important. The devices' names refer to the application schematic (see Figure 4-1
on page 26).
28
ATA5279N [Preliminary]
9125F–RKE–09/09
ATA5279N [Preliminary]
Note:
To define the operation limits, the static thermal resistance of the PCB must be known (see the
measurement hints in the application note). The ATAB5279 application board features a total
thermal resistance of 42 K/W.
Under worst case conditions, e.g., low supply voltage and high antenna impedance, the maximum antenna current might not be reached.
A "static" operation of ATA5279N is not allowed for typical transmit currents of several hundreds
of mAs. Typical applications are operated with a temporary LF field, resulting in an on/off operation mode of the chip. A suitable on/off duty cycle nduty reduces the average power dissipation
and keeps the thermal budget of the system. Therefore, following equation needs to be fulfilled:
T amb + R thJA × P diss,tot × n duty < T j,max
with
Tamb
the application’s maximum ambient temperature
Pdiss,tot
the total power dissipation of the chip
nduty
Operation duty cycle‚ On-time during period, t1/tper
Note:
It must be avoided to design the system's load profile in such a way that the protection features of
the chip are triggered under normal operating conditions. If the output voltage reaches the upper
shutdown limit, the power dissipation of the DC-DC converter increases significantly. Consecutive
triggering of the overtemperature shutdown may lead to a reduced lifetime.
In addition to the average junction temperature Tj,max, the maximum peak temperature during a
transmission must not be exceeded. The equation to be met is as follows:
t
1
-------------⎞
⎛
τ PCB
⎜
⎟ +n
T peak ≥ P diss × R thjc + R thca × 1 – e
duty × P diss × ( R thjc + R thca ) + T amb
⎜
⎟
⎝
⎠
with:
Tpeak
maximum peak temperature = 200°C
Rthca
Thermal resistance case-to-ambient (PCB)
t1
Transmission on-time, 10 ms ≤t1 ≤1 sec
tauPCB
Thermal time constant of PCB (Rthca x Cthca)
nduty
Operation duty cycle
29
9125F–RKE–09/09
5. Absolute Maximum Ratings
Stresses beyond those listed under “Absolute Maximum Ratings” may cause permanent damage to the device. This is a stress rating
only and functional operation of the device at these or any other conditions beyond those indicated in the operational sections of this
specification is not implied. Exposure to absolute maximum rating conditions for extended periods may affect device reliability.
Parameters
Voltage range on pin VS
Voltage range on pins VDSx, VLx
Symbol
Min.
Max.
Unit
VVS
–0.3
40
V
VVDS,max
–0.3
46
V
VAxP,max
–0.3
VVDS + 0.3
V
Voltage range on pins VSHFx, VSHS
VVSHF,max
–3
VVCC + 0.3
V
Voltage range on pins AxNx
VAxNx,max
VVSHF – 0.3
46
V
Voltage range on pins VCC, VIF
VDIGSUP,max
–0.3
+5.5
V
Voltage on pins RGND, PGNDx
VGND,max
–0.3
+0.3
V
VIO,max
–0.3
VVIF + 0.3
V
VCINT,max
–0.3
VVCC + 0.3
V
ESD Voltage Ratings
- HBM (MIL-STD-883F, M. 3015.7)
VESD
2
Maximum average junction temperature
Tj.max
Voltage range on pins AxP
Voltage range on pins NRES, S_CS, S_CLK, MOSI,
OSCI, MACT, BCNT, IRQ, MISO, OSCO
Voltage range on pin CINT
Note:
kV
150
°C
All voltages refer to the AGND pins.
6. Thermal Resistance
Parameters
Thermal resistance junction to case
Thermal resistance junction to ambient
Note:
30
(1)
Symbol
Value
Unit
RthJC
10
K/W
RthJA
35
K/W
1. Value that can be achieved when providing sufficient thermal vias and heat dissipation area
ATA5279N [Preliminary]
9125F–RKE–09/09
ATA5279N [Preliminary]
7. Functional Parameters
All parameters valid for 7.0V ≤ VS ≤ 16.5V and –40°C ≤ Ta ≤ 105°C unless otherwise noted.
No.
1
Parameters
Test Conditions
Pin
Symbol
Min.
Typ.
Max.
Unit
Type*
Power Supply
1.1
VS-pin power-down
mode supply current
VVS ≤ 14V
1
IVSpd
5.5
10
µA
A
1.2
VS-pin idle mode
supply current
VVS = 16.5V
1
IVS,idle
3.5
5
mA
A
1.3
Internal VCC voltage
- idle
- load
7V ≤VS ≤28V
IVCC = 0
IVCC = 5 mA
4
VVCC,0
VVCC,1
4.8
5.05
5.3
V
A
1.4
VS voltage clamp
VS = 28V
VS = 40V
1
IVS,C28
IVS,C40
50
1.5
180
3
400
4.5
µA
mA
A
1.5
VCC power-on reset
threshold
4
VPORVCC
4.1
4.8
V
A
1.6
VDS operation
threshold
DS
VVDS,min
5.1
6
V
A
1.7
Battery supply range for
Idle mode
normal operation
1
VVS
7
16.5
V
D
1.8
VDS power-down mode
VVDS = 28V
supply current
DS
IVDS,0
0
1.4
µA
A
1.9
VDS fault-shutdown
mode supply current
DS
IVDS,FS
0.85
2.45
mA
A
1.10
Battery supply range for
Idle mode
Jump start operation
1
VVS
7
26.5
V
D
2
VS = 16.5V
VVDS = 16.5V
5.15
0.12
Boost Converter
2.1
Overvoltage shut-down
level
DS
VVDSmax
40
42
44
V
A
2.2
Switch overcurrent
shutdown level
BLS
IVLmax
2.9
3.2
4
A
A
2.3
Switch on-state
resistance
BLS
RDSon,VL
0.5
Ω
A
IVL = 500 mA
2.4
Max duty cycle (ton / T)
BLS
DBoost
0.875
-
A
2.5
Switch leakage current VVL = 38V
BLS
IVL,leak
500
nA
A
2.6
Switch fall time
IVL = 200 mA
BLS
tVL,f
50
200
ns
A
Switch rise time
IVL = 200 mA
BLS
tVL,r
50
200
ns
A
CSP
fOSC
6.4
9.6
MHz
D
2.7
3
Oscillator
3.1
External clock source
frequency range
3.2
Driver output sink
resistance during
startup
IOSCO = 100 µA
CSP
ROSC,L1
0.9
2.2
kΩ
A
3.3
Driver output sink
resistance during
operation
IOSCO = 100 µA
CSP
ROSC,L1
1.8
4.4
kΩ
A
8
*) Type means: A = 100% tested, B = 100% correlation tested, C = Characterized on samples, D = Design parameter
Notes:
1. In this column, pin group names are given. Please refer to Section 2. “Pin Configuration” on page 2 in this document for
more details.
2. Operation of coils with higher impedance than the given value is possible but functional limitations might occur (inability to
reach to configured coil current). Coils with lower impedance should not be used as they might be detected as faulty.
31
9125F–RKE–09/09
7. Functional Parameters (Continued)
All parameters valid for 7.0V ≤ VS ≤ 16.5V and –40°C ≤ Ta ≤ 105°C unless otherwise noted.
No.
Parameters
Test Conditions
Pin
Symbol
Min.
3.4
Driver output source
resistance during
startup
IOSCO = –100 µA
CSP
ROSC,L1
3.5
Driver output source
resistance during
operation
IOSCO = –100 µA
CSP
3.6
Feedback resistance
VOSCI, OSCO = 5V
3.7
Clock input low-to-high
detection threshold
3.8
Power-down input
pull-down resistance
4
Max.
Unit
Type*
0.9
2.2
kΩ
A
ROSC,L1
1.8
4.4
kΩ
A
CSP
RFB,OSC
220
360
kΩ
A
CSP
VLH,OSC
0.45 ×
VIF
0.55 ×
VIF
7
ROSCI,0
3
6
kΩ
A
VOSCI = 5V
VVIF = 5V
Typ.
A
High-current Driver Stage (A1P, A2P, A3P)
4.1
Sourcing current limit
(RMS)
Idle mode, DC ramping
HDL
IHP,HSCL
–1.7
–0.88
A
B
4.2
Sinking current limit
(RMS)
Idle mode, DC ramping
HDL
IHP,LSCL
1.1
2
A
B
4.3
= 30V
V
Signal difference carrier AxP,pp
Icoil,p = 200 mA
to harmonics 2, 3, 4, 5
fOSCI = 8 MHZ
HDL
DSig
–34
dB
A
4.4
Load imped. range
(amount of complex
impedance)(2)
Icoil,pp = 2 App
HDL
HRL
ZCoil,HP
2
12
Ω
D
4.5
Min. output voltage
IAxP = 200 mA
Tj ≅ 30°C
HDL
VOHP,min
2.5
4.3
V
A
4.6
Max. output voltage
IAxP = –200 mA
Tj ≅ 30°C
HDL
VOHP,max
VDS – 4.5
VDS –
2.5
V
A
4.7
Idle mode cross current VVDS = 16.5V
DS
IAxPH,CC
35
68
mA
A
4.8
Idle mode output
voltage
VVDS = 20V
IAxP = 0
IAxP = ±200 mA
Tj ≅ 30°C
HDL
VAxPH,dile
9
11
V
A
4.9
Inactive pull-up current
VVDS = 20V
IAxP = –100 µA
HDL
RAxPH,PU
11.5
27
kΩ
B
4.10
Diagnosis mode pull-up VVDS = 16.5V
current
VAxP = 0V
IPU,Diag
–150
–100
µA
A
4.11
Diagnosis mode
pull-down current
VVDS = 16.5V
VAxP = 16.5V
IPD,Diag
170
260
µA
A
5
50
Low Current Driver Stage (A4P, A5P, A6P)
5.1
Sourcing current limit
(RMS)
Idle mode, DC ramping
LDL
ILP,HSCL
–1.2
–0.55
A
B
5.2
Sinking current limit
(RMS)
Idle mode, DC ramping
LDL
ILP,LSCL
0.9
1.7
A
B
*) Type means: A = 100% tested, B = 100% correlation tested, C = Characterized on samples, D = Design parameter
Notes:
1. In this column, pin group names are given. Please refer to Section 2. “Pin Configuration” on page 2 in this document for
more details.
2. Operation of coils with higher impedance than the given value is possible but functional limitations might occur (inability to
reach to configured coil current). Coils with lower impedance should not be used as they might be detected as faulty.
32
ATA5279N [Preliminary]
9125F–RKE–09/09
ATA5279N [Preliminary]
7. Functional Parameters (Continued)
All parameters valid for 7.0V ≤ VS ≤ 16.5V and –40°C ≤ Ta ≤ 105°C unless otherwise noted.
No.
Parameters
Pin
Symbol
5.3
= 30V
V
Signal difference carrier AxP,pp
Icoil,p = 200 mA
to harmonics 2, 3, 4, 5
fOSCI = 8 MHZ
Test Conditions
LDL
DSig
5.4
Load imped. range
(amount of complex
impedance)(2)
LDL
LRL
ZCoil,LP
5.5
Min. output voltage
IAxP = 200 mA
Tj ≅ 30°C
LDL
5.6
Max. output voltage
IAxP = –200 mA
Tj ≅ 30°C
5.7
Idle mode cross current VVDS = 16.5V
Min.
Typ.
Max.
Unit
Type*
–34
dB
A
10
25
Ω
D
VOLP,min
2.5
4.3
V
A
LDL
VOLP,max
VDS – 4.5
VDS –
2.5
V
A
53
mA
A
DS
IAxPL,CC
28
40
HDL
VAxPL,dile
9
11
V
A
HDL
RAxPL,PU
11.5
27
kΩ
B
5.8
Idle mode output
voltage
VVDS = 20V
IAxP = 0
IAxP = ±200 mA
Tj ≅ 30°C
5.9
Inactive pull-up current
VVDS = 20 V
IAxP = –100 µA
5.10
Diagnosis mode pull-up VVDS = 16.5V
VAxP = 0V
current
HDL
LDL
IPU,Diag
–150
–100
µA
A
5.11
Diagnosis mode
pull-down current
HDL
LDL
IPD,Diag
170
260
µA
A
1.05
1.2
Ω
Ω
A
6
VVDS = 16.5V
VAxP = 16.5V
Coil Return Line and Diagnosis Stage (A1N … A6N)
6.1
Return line switch
on-state resistance
IHPS = 0.3A
ILPS = 0.22A
HRL
LRL
RDS,onHPS
RDS,onLPS
6.2
Return line switch
overcurrent shutdown
threshold
RShunt = 1Ω
Ch. 1-3 selected
Ch. 4-6 selected
RLO
IShunt,max
1.25
0.875
1.75
1.225
A
A
A
6.3
Diagnosis mode pull-up VVDS = 16.5V
current
VAxP/N = 0V
HRL
LRL
IPU,Diag
–150
–100
µA
A
6.4
Diagnosis mode
pull-down current
HRL
LRL
IPD,Diag
170
260
µA
A
6.5
Overtemperature
shutdown threshold
TOTsdwn
145
170
°C
B
6.6
Open load detection
delay
HRL
LRL
tOLdet
115
215
µs
A
5
VZC
–10
+10
mV
A
5
tZCdel
150
290
ns
A
7
VVDS = 16.5V
VAxP/N = 16.5V
Zero Crossing Detector
7.1
Pos. slope detection
threshold
7.2
Switching propagation
delay
Voltage jump from
VVSHS – 20 mV to
VVSHS + 20 mV
*) Type means: A = 100% tested, B = 100% correlation tested, C = Characterized on samples, D = Design parameter
Notes:
1. In this column, pin group names are given. Please refer to Section 2. “Pin Configuration” on page 2 in this document for
more details.
2. Operation of coils with higher impedance than the given value is possible but functional limitations might occur (inability to
reach to configured coil current). Coils with lower impedance should not be used as they might be detected as faulty.
33
9125F–RKE–09/09
7. Functional Parameters (Continued)
All parameters valid for 7.0V ≤ VS ≤ 16.5V and –40°C ≤ Ta ≤ 105°C unless otherwise noted.
No.
8
8.1
9
Parameters
Test Conditions
Pin
Symbol
Min.
Vsmpl,1
Vsmpl,2
Typ.
Max.
Unit
830
440
970
560
mV
mV
Type*
Sample and Hold Stage
Sampled differential
voltage
Sampling state
Current step 20
selected
VVSHS = 200 mVpp
VVSHS = 1 Vpp
A
5
Integrator Stage
9.1
Input offset voltage
5
Vofs,Integ
–2.5
+2.5
mV
B
9.2
VVSHS = 1.1 Vpp
Positive output linearity Current step 20
selected
3
IINT,POS
–20
–8
µA
A
9.3
Negative output
linearity
VVSHS = 0.9 Vpp
Current step 20
selected
3
IINT,NEG
8
20
µA
A
9.6
Upper output voltage
limit
ICINT = 30 µA
VSHS = 100 mVp
Current step 20
selected
3
VCINT,max
3.15
3.45
V
A
10
References
10.1
Current step 1 level
-
VREF,S1
49.5
54.5
mV
A
10.2
Current step 2 level
-
VREF,S2
97
105
mV
A
10.3
Current step 3 level
-
VREF,S3
145
157
mV
A
10.4
Current step 4 level
-
VREF,S4
192
208
mV
A
10.5
Current step 5 level
-
VREF,S5
245
255
mV
A
10.6
Current step 6 level
-
VREF,S6
294
306
mV
A
10.7
Current step 7 level
-
VREF,S7
343
357
mV
A
10.8
Current step 8 level
-
VREF,S8
392
408
mV
A
10.9
Current step 9 level
-
VREF,S9
441
459
mV
A
10.10
Current step 10 level
-
VREF,S10
490
510
mV
A
10.11
Current step 11 level
-
VREF,S11
539
561
mV
A
10.12
Current step 12 level
-
VREF,S12
588
612
mV
A
10.13
Current step 13 level
-
VREF,S13
637
663
mV
A
10.14
Current step 14 level
-
VREF,S14
686
714
mV
A
10.15
Current step 15 level
-
VREF,S15
735
765
mV
A
10.16
Current step 16 level
-
VREF,S16
784
816
mV
A
10.17
Current step 17 level
-
VREF,S17
833
867
mV
A
10.18
Current step 18 level
-
VREF,S18
882
918
mV
A
10.19
Current step 19 level
-
VREF,S19
931
969
mV
A
10.20
Current step 20 level
-
VREF,S20
980
1020
mV
A
*) Type means: A = 100% tested, B = 100% correlation tested, C = Characterized on samples, D = Design parameter
Notes:
1. In this column, pin group names are given. Please refer to Section 2. “Pin Configuration” on page 2 in this document for
more details.
2. Operation of coils with higher impedance than the given value is possible but functional limitations might occur (inability to
reach to configured coil current). Coils with lower impedance should not be used as they might be detected as faulty.
34
ATA5279N [Preliminary]
9125F–RKE–09/09
ATA5279N [Preliminary]
7. Functional Parameters (Continued)
All parameters valid for 7.0V ≤ VS ≤ 16.5V and –40°C ≤ Ta ≤ 105°C unless otherwise noted.
No.
Parameters
11
Digital Interface (SPI, Control Logic)
Test Conditions
Pin
Symbol
Min.
Typ.
Max.
Unit
Type*
IsupVIF
0.6
1.9
3
mA
A
2
30
µA
A
11.1
Supply current in
operation mode
VVIF ≤ 5.5V
6
11.2
Supply current in
power-down mode
VVIF = 5.0V
6
11.3
SPI clock period
39
TSPI
4 × 1/fOSCI
s
D
11.4
SPI clock low-phase
timing
39
tLo,min
2×
1/fOSCI
s
D
11.5
SPI clock high-phase
timing
39
thi,min
2×
1/fOSCI
s
D
11.6
SPI output enabling
time
tMISOon,max
100
ns
D
11.7
SPI output disabling
time
tMISOoff,max
100
ns
D
11.8
Minimum SPI disable
time
tSPIoff,min
4×
1/fOSCI
s
D
11.9
Minimum chip select
setup time
tCSset,min
2×
1/fOSCI
s
D
11.10
Minimum chip select
hold time
tCShold,min
2×
1/fOSCI
s
D
11.11
Minimum data input
setup time
tsetup,min
100
ns
D
11.12
Minimum data input
hold time
thold,min
100
ns
D
11.13
Output source
capability
VVIF = 5V
ISource = –1 mA
DO
Vdig,H
4.75
V
A
11.14
Output sink capability
VVIF = 5 V
Isink = 1 mA
DO
Vdig,L
0.25
V
A
37
38
39
40
37
38
39
40
Iin,L
–0.2
–0.2
–0.2
–60
0
12
0
0
0
0
0
–20
0.2
40
0.2
0.2
µA
A
Vin = 0 V
VVIF = 5.5V
11.15
Input current
11.16
Input high level
threshold
VVIF = 3.1V
DI
VLH
0.48
0.64
VVIF
A
11.17
Input low level threshold VVIF = 3.1V
DI
VHL
0.32
0.48
VVIF
A
11.18
External reset input
timing
tNRES,min
100
ns
D
11.19
Tristate output leakage
current
nA
A
Vin = 5.5V
VVIF = 5.5V
VMISO = 2.5V
Iin,H
IL,max
500
*) Type means: A = 100% tested, B = 100% correlation tested, C = Characterized on samples, D = Design parameter
Notes:
1. In this column, pin group names are given. Please refer to Section 2. “Pin Configuration” on page 2 in this document for
more details.
2. Operation of coils with higher impedance than the given value is possible but functional limitations might occur (inability to
reach to configured coil current). Coils with lower impedance should not be used as they might be detected as faulty.
35
9125F–RKE–09/09
8. Ordering Information
Extended Type Number
ATA5279N-PLQW
Package
Remarks
VQFN48, 7 mm × 7 mm
Taped and reeled, MOQ 4000
9. Package Information
Package: VQFN_7 x 7_48L
Exposed pad 4.5 x 4.5
Dimensions in mm
Not indicated tolerances ±0.05
Bottom
4.5±0.15
Top
37
48
48
1
36
1
12
25
12
Pin 1 identification
24
7
Z
0.2
36
0.4±0.1
technical drawings
according to DIN
specifications
Drawing-No.: 6.543-5137.01-4
Issue: 1; 19.10.06
0.5 nom.
5.5
0.9±0.1
Z 10:1
13
0.23±0.07
ATA5279N [Preliminary]
9125F–RKE–09/09
ATA5279N [Preliminary]
10. Revision History
Please note that the following page numbers referred to in this section refer to the specific revision
mentioned, not to this document.
Revision No.
History
9125F-RKE-09/09
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
9125E-RKE-04/09
• Table “Functional Parameters” item 1.10 added and item 1.3 changed
9125D-RKE-02/09
• Section 3.9.2 “General Command Description” on pages 20 to 21 changed
• Section 3.9.3 “Driver-related Command Description” on pages 21 to 22
changed
9125C-RKE-01/09
• ATA5279 renamed in ATA5279N
9125B-RKE-12/08
• Table 3-1 “Sequence for Example 1, Using the Diagnosis Mode” on page
11 changed
• Table 3-2 “Sequence for Example 2, Using the Diagnosis Mode” on page
13 changed
• Section 4 “Application” on page 26 changed
• Section 6 “Functional Parameters” on pages 28 to 32 changed
Features changed
Table 2-1 (page 2) changed
Page 23: last paragraph changed
Text under heading 3.4 “Boost Converter” changed
Text under heading 3.6 “Diagnosis” changed
New section “4.1 Application Hints” added
Table Abs. Max. Ratings changed
Table Th. Resistance added
Table El. Charactristics changed
37
9125F–RKE–09/09
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9125F–RKE–09/09