ATMEL T89C51AC2

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80C51 Core Architecture
256 Bytes of On-chip RAM
1 KB of On-chip XRAM
32 KB of On-chip Flash Memory
– Data Retention: 10 Years at 85°C
Read/Write Cycle: 10K
2 KB of On-chip Flash for Bootloader
2 KB of On-chip EEPROM
Read/Write Cycle: 100K
14-sources 4-level Interrupts
Three 16-bit Timers/Counters
Full Duplex UART Compatible 80C51
Maximum Crystal Frequency 40 MHz, in X2 Mode, 20 MHz (CPU Core, 20 MHz)
Five Ports: 32 + 2 Digital I/O Lines
Five-channel 16-bit PCA with:
– PWM (8-bit)
– High-speed Output
– Timer and Edge Capture
Double Data Pointer
21-bit Watchdog Timer (7 Programmable Bits)
10-bit Resolution Analog to Digital Converter (ADC) with 8 Multiplexed Inputs
On-chip Emulation Logic (Enhanced Hook System)
Power Saving Modes:
– Idle Mode
– Power-down Mode
Power Supply: 3V to 5.5V
Temperature Range: Industrial (-40° to +85°C)
Packages: VQFP44, PLCC44
Enhanced 8-bit
Microcontroller
with 32 KB Flash
Memory
T89C51AC2
Description
The T89C51AC2 is a high performance Flash version of the 80C51 single chip 8-bit
microcontrollers. It contains a 32 KB Flash memory block for program and data.
The 32 KB Flash memory can be programmed either in parallel mode or in serial
mode with the ISP capability or with software. The programming voltage is internally
generated from the standard VCC pin.
The T89C51AC2 retains all features of the 80C51 with 256 bytes of internal RAM, a 7source 4-level interrupt controller and three timer/counters. In addition, the
T89C51AC2 has a 10-bit A/D converter, a 2 KB Boot Flash memory, 2 KB EEPROM
for data, a Programmable Counter Array, an XRAM of 1024 bytes, a Hardware WatchDog Timer, and a more versatile serial channel that facilitates multiprocessor
communication (EUART). The fully static design of the T89C51AC2 reduces system
power consumption by bringing the clock frequency down to any value, even DC,
without loss of data.
The T89C51AC2 has two software-selectable modes of reduced activity and an 8-bit
clock prescaler for further reduction in power consumption. In the idle mode the CPU
is frozen while the peripherals and the interrupt system are still operating. In the
Power-down mode the RAM is saved and all other functions are inoperative.
The added features of the T89C51AC2 make it more powerful for applications that
need A/D conversion, pulse width modulation, high speed I/O and counting capabilities such as industrial control, consumer goods, alarms, motor control, among others.
While remaining fully compatible with the 80C52, the T8C51AC2 offers a superset of
this standard microcontroller. In X2 mode, a maximum external clock rate of 20 MHz
reaches a 300 ns cycle time.
Rev. 4127D–8051–02/03
1
T2
T2EX
PCA
ECI
Vss
Vcc
TxD
RxD
Block Diagram
XTAL1
RAM
256x8
UART
XTAL2
ALE
C51
CORE
PSEN
XRAM
Flash Boot
EE
32kx loader PROM
8
2kx8 2kx8
1kx8
PCA
Timer 2
IB-bus
CPU
EA
Notes:
2
VAGND
VAVCC
10 bit
ADC
VAREF
P4(2)
P3
P2
INT1
INT0
T1
T0
RESET
WR
Parallel I/O Ports and Ext. Bus Watch
Dog
Port 0 Port 1 Port 2 Port 3 Port 4
P1(1)
INT
Ctrl
P0
Timer 0
Timer 1
RD
1. 8 analog Inputs/8 Digital I/O
2. 2-Bit I/O Port
T89C51AC2
4127D–8051–02/03
T89C51AC2
6
5
4
3
2
1
44
43
42
41
40
P1.3/AN3/CEX0
P1.2/AN2/ECI
P1.1/AN1/T2EX
P1.0/AN 0/T2
VAREF
VAGND
RESET
VSS
VCC
XTAL1
XTAL2
Pin Configuration
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
39
38
37
36
35
34
33
32
31
30
29
PLCC44
ALE
PSEN
P0.7/AD7
P0.6/AD6
P0.5/AD5
P0.4/AD4
P0.3/AD3
P0.2/AD2
P0.1/AD1
P0.0/AD0
P2.0/A8
P1.3/AN3/CEX0
P1.2/AN2/ECI
P1.1/AN1/T2EX
P1.0/AN 0/T2
VAREF
VAGND
RESET
VSS
VCC
XTAL1
XTAL2
P3.6/WR
P3.7/RD
P4.0
P4.1
P2.7/A15
P2.6/A14
P2.5/A13
P2.4/A12
P2.3/A11
P2.2/A10
P2.1/A9
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
P1.4/AN4/CEX1
P1.5/AN5/CEX2
P1.6/AN6/CEX3
P1.7/AN7/CEX4
EA
P3.0/RxD
P3.1/TxD
P3.2/INT0
P3.3/INT1
P3.4/T0
P3.5/T1
44 43 42 41 40 39 38 37 36 35 34
P1.4/AN4/CEX1
P1.5/AN5/CEX2
P1.6/AN6/CEX3
P1.7/AN7/CEX4
EA
P3.0/RxD
P3.1/TxD
P3.2/INT0
P3.3/INT1
P3.4/T0
P3.5/T1
2
33
32
3
4
30
1
5
6
31
VQFP44
7
8
29
28
27
9
26
25
10
24
23
11
ALE
PSEN
P0.7/AD7
P0.6/AD6
P0.5/AD5
P0.4 /AD4
P0.3 /AD3
P0.2 /AD2
P0.1 /AD1
P0.0 /AD0
P2.0/A8
P3.6/WR
P3.7/RD
P4.0
P4.1
P2.7/A15
P2.6/A14
P2.5/A13
P2.4/A12
P2.3/A11
P2.2/A10
P2.1/A9
12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22
3
4127D–8051–02/03
Table 1. Pin Description
Pin Name
Type
Description
VSS
GND
Circuit ground
VCC
Supply Voltage
VAREF
Reference Voltage for ADC
VAGND
Reference Ground for ADC
P0.0:7
I/O
Port 0:
Is an 8-bit open drain bi-directional I/O port. Port 0 pins that have 1’s written to them float, and in this state can be used as
high-impedance inputs. Port 0 is also the multiplexed low-order address and data bus during accesses to external Program
and Data Memory. In this application it uses strong internal pull-ups when emitting 1’s.
Port 0 also outputs the code Bytes during program validation. External pull-ups are required during program verification.
P1.0:7
I/O
Port 1:
Is an 8-bit bi-directional I/O port with internal pull-ups. Port 1 pins can be used for digital input/output or as analog inputs for
the Analog Digital Converter (ADC). Port 1 pins that have 1’s written to them are pulled high by the internal pull-up transistors
and can be used as inputs in this state. As inputs, Port 1 pins that are being pulled low externally will be the source of current
(IIL, see section "Electrical Characteristic") because of the internal pull-ups. Port 1 pins are assigned to be used as analog
inputs via the ADCCF register (in this case the internal pull-ups are disconnected).
As a secondary digital function, port 1 contains the Timer 2 external trigger and clock input; the PCA external clock input and
the PCA module I/O.
P1.0/AN0/T2
Analog input channel 0,
External clock input for Timer/counter2.
P1.1/AN1/T2EX
Analog input channel 1,
Trigger input for Timer/counter2.
P1.2/AN2/ECI
Analog input channel 2,
PCA external clock input.
P1.3/AN3/CEX0
Analog input channel 3,
PCA module 0 Entry of input/PWM output.
P1.4/AN4/CEX1
Analog input channel 4,
PCA module 1 Entry of input/PWM output.
P1.5/AN5/CEX2
Analog input channel 5,
PCA module 2 Entry of input/PWM output.
P1.6/AN6/CEX3
Analog input channel 6,
PCA module 3 Entry of input/PWM output.
P1.7/AN7/CEX4
Analog input channel 7,
PCA module 4 Entry ot input/PWM output.
Port 1 receives the low-order address byte during EPROM programming and program verification.
It can drive CMOS inputs without external pull-ups.
P2.0:7
4
I/O
Port 2:
Is an 8-bit bi-directional I/O port with internal pull-ups. Port 2 pins that have 1’s written to them are pulled high by the internal
pull-ups and can be used as inputs in this state. As inputs, Port 2 pins that are being pulled low externally will be a source of
current (IIL, see section "Electrical Characteristic") because of the internal pull-ups. Port 2 emits the high-order address byte
during accesses to the external Program Memory and during accesses to external Data Memory that uses 16-bit addresses
(MOVX @DPTR). In this application, it uses strong internal pull-ups when emitting 1’s. During accesses to external Data
Memory that use 8 bit addresses (MOVX @Ri), Port 2 transmits the contents of the P2 special function register.
It also receives high-order addresses and control signals during program validation.
It can drive CMOS inputs without external pull-ups.
T89C51AC2
4127D–8051–02/03
T89C51AC2
Table 1. Pin Description (Continued)
Pin Name
Type
P3.0:7
I/O
Description
Port 3:
Is an 8-bit bi-directional I/O port with internal pull-ups. Port 3 pins that have 1’s written to them are pulled high by the internal
pull-up transistors and can be used as inputs in this state. As inputs, Port 3 pins that are being pulled low externally will be a
source of current (IIL, see section "Electrical Characteristic") because of the internal pull-ups.
The output latch corresponding to a secondary function must be programmed to one for that function to operate (except for
TxD and WR). The secondary functions are assigned to the pins of port 3 as follows:
P3.0/RxD:
Receiver data input (asynchronous) or data input/output (synchronous) of the serial interface
P3.1/TxD:
Transmitter data output (asynchronous) or clock output (synchronous) of the serial interface
P3.2/INT0:
External interrupt 0 input/timer 0 gate control input
P3.3/INT1:
External interrupt 1 input/timer 1 gate control input
P3.4/T0:
Timer 0 counter input
P3.5/T1:
Timer 1 counter input
P3.6/WR:
External Data Memory write strobe; latches the data byte from port 0 into the external data memory
P3.7/RD:
External Data Memory read strobe; Enables the external data memory.
It can drive CMOS inputs without external pull-ups.
P4.0:1
I/O
Port 4:
Is an 2-bit bi-directional I/O port with internal pull-ups. Port 4 pins that have 1’s written to them are pulled high by the internal
pull-ups and can be used as inputs in this state. As inputs, Port 4 pins that are being pulled low externally will be a source of
current (IIL, on the datasheet) because of the internal pull-up transistor.
P4.0
P4.1:
It can drive CMOS inputs without external pull-ups.
I/O
Reset:
A high level on this pin during two machine cycles while the oscillator is running resets the device. An internal pull-down
resistor to VSS permits power-on reset using only an external capacitor to VCC.
O
ALE:
An Address Latch Enable output for latching the low byte of the address during accesses to the external memory. The ALE is
activated every 1/6 oscillator periods (1/3 in X2 mode) except during an external data memory access. When instructions are
executed from an internal Flash (EA = 1), ALE generation can be disabled by the software.
PSEN
O
PSEN:
The Program Store Enable output is a control signal that enables the external program memory of the bus during external
fetch operations. It is activated twice each machine cycle during fetches from the external program memory. However, when
executing from of the external program memory two activations of PSEN are skipped during each access to the external Data
memory. The PSEN is not activated for internal fetches.
EA
I
EA:
When External Access is held at the high level, instructions are fetched from the internal Flash when the program counter is
less then 8000H. When held at the low level,T89C51AC2 fetches all instructions from the external program memory.
XTAL1
I
XTAL1:
Input of the inverting oscillator amplifier and input of the internal clock generator circuits.
To drive the device from an external clock source, XTAL1 should be driven, while XTAL2 is left unconnected. To operate
above a frequency of 16 MHz, a duty cycle of 50% should be maintained.
XTAL2
O
XTAL2:
Output from the inverting oscillator amplifier.
RESET
ALE
5
4127D–8051–02/03
I/O Configurations
Each Port SFR operates via type-D latches, as illustrated in Figure 1 for Ports 3 and 4. A
CPU "write to latch" signal initiates transfer of internal bus data into the type-D latch. A
CPU "read latch" signal transfers the latched Q output onto the internal bus. Similarly, a
"read pin" signal transfers the logical level of the Port pin. Some Port data instructions
activate the "read latch" signal while others activate the "read pin" signal. Latch instructions are referred to as Read-Modify-Write instructions. Each I/O line may be
independently programmed as input or output.
Port 1, Port 3 and Port 4
Figure 1 shows the structure of Ports 1 and 3, which have internal pull-ups. An external
source can pull the pin low. Each Port pin can be configured either for general-purpose
I/O or for its alternate input output function.
To use a pin for general-purpose output, set or clear the corresponding bit in the Px register (x = 1,3 or 4). To use a pin for general-purpose input, set the bit in the Px register.
This turns off the output FET drive.
To configure a pin for its alternate function, set the bit in the Px register. When the latch
is set, the "alternate output function" signal controls the output level (see Figure 1). The
operation of Ports 1, 3 and 4 is discussed further in the "quasi-Bidirectional Port Operation" section.
Figure 1. Port 1, Port 3 and Port 4 Structure
VCC
ALTERNATE
OUTPUT
FUNCTION
READ
LATCH
INTERNAL
BUS
WRITE
TO
LATCH
READ
PIN
Note:
Port 0 and Port 2
INTERNAL
PULL-UP (1)
P1.x
P3.x
P4.x
D P1.X Q
P3.X
P4.X
LATCH
CL
ALTERNATE
INPUT
FUNCTION
The internal pull-up can be disabled on P1 when analog function is selected.
Ports 0 and 2 are used for general-purpose I/O or as the external address/data bus. Port
0, shown in Figure 3, differs from the other Ports in not having internal pull-ups. Figure 3
shows the structure of Port 2. An external source can pull a Port 2 pin low.
To use a pin for general-purpose output, set or clear the corresponding bit in the Px register (x = 0 or 2). To use a pin for general-purpose input, set the bit in the Px register to
turn off the output driver FET.
6
T89C51AC2
4127D–8051–02/03
T89C51AC2
Figure 2. Port 0 Structure
ADDRESS LOW/ CONTROL
DATA
VDD
(2)
READ
LATCH
P0.x (1)
1
INTERNAL
BUS
WRITE
TO
LATCH
D
P0.X
LATCH
Q
0
READ
PIN
Notes:
1. Port 0 is precluded from use as general-purpose I/O Ports when used as
address/data bus drivers.
2. Port 0 internal strong pull-ups assist the logic-one output for memory bus cycles only.
Except for these bus cycles, the pull-up FET is off, Port 0 outputs are open-drain.
Figure 3. Port 2 Structure
ADDRESS HIGH/ CONTROL
VDD
INTERNAL
PULL-UP (2)
READ
LATCH
P2.x (1)
1
INTERNAL
BUS
WRITE
TO
LATCH
D
P2.X
LATCH
Q
0
READ
PIN
Notes:
1. Port 2 is precluded from use as general-purpose I/O Ports when as address/data bus
drivers.
2. Port 2 internal strong pull-ups FET (P1 in FiGURE) assist the logic-one output for
memory bus cycle.
When Port 0 and Port 2 are used for an external memory cycle, an internal control signal
switches the output-driver input from the latch output to the internal address/data line.
Read-Modify-Write
Instructions
Some instructions read the latch data rather than the pin data. The latch based instructions read the data, modify the data and then rewrite the latch. These are called "ReadModify-Write" instructions. Below is a complete list of these special instructions (see
Table ). When the destination operand is a Port or a Port bit, these instructions read the
latch rather than the pin:
7
4127D–8051–02/03
Table 2. Read-Modify-Write Instructions
Instruction
Description
Example
ANL
logical AND
ANL P1, A
ORL
logical OR
ORL P2, A
XRL
logical EX-OR
XRL P3, A
JBC
jump if bit = 1 and clear bit
JBC P1.1, LABEL
CPL
complement bit
CPL P3.0
INC
increment
INC P2
DEC
decrement
DEC P2
DJNZ
decrement and jump if not zero
DJNZ P3, LABEL
MOV Px.y, C
move carry bit to bit y of Port x
MOV P1.5, C
CLR Px.y
clear bit y of Port x
CLR P2.4
SET Px.y
set bit y of Port x
SET P3.3
It is not obvious the last three instructions in this list are Read-Modify-Write instructions.
These instructions read the port (all 8 bits), modify the specifically addressed bit and
write the new byte back to the latch. These Read-Modify-Write instructions are directed
to the latch rather than the pin in order to avoid possible misinterpretation of voltage
(and therefore, logic) levels at the pin. For example, a Port bit used to drive the base of
an external bipolar transistor can not rise above the transistor’s base-emitter junction
voltage (a value lower than VIL). With a logic one written to the bit, attempts by the CPU
to read the Port at the pin are misinterpreted as logic zero. A read of the latch rather
than the pins returns the correct logic-one value.
Quasi-Bidirectional Port
Operation
Port 1, Port 2, Port 3 and Port 4 have fixed internal pull-ups and are referred to as
"quasi-bidirectional" Ports. When configured as an input, the pin impedance appears as
logic one and sources current in response to an external logic zero condition. Port 0 is a
"true bidirectional" pin. The pins float when configured as input. Resets write logic one to
all Port latches. If logical zero is subsequently written to a Port latch, it can be returned
to input conditions by a logical one written to the latch.
Note:
Port latch values change near the end of Read-Modify-Write instruction cycles. Output
buffers (and therefore the pin state) update early in the instruction after Read-ModifyWrite instruction cycle.
Logical zero-to-one transitions in Port 1, Port 2, Port 3 and Port 4 use an additional pullup (p1) to aid this logic transition (see Figure 4.). This increases switch speed. This
extra pull-up sources 100 times normal internal circuit current during 2 oscillator clock
periods. The internal pull-ups are field-effect transistors rather than linear resistors. Pullups consist of three p-channel FET (pFET) devices. A pFET is on when the gate senses
logical zero and off when the gate senses logical one. pFET #1 is turned on for two
oscillator periods immediately after a zero-to-one transition in the Port latch. A logical
one at the Port pin turns on pFET #3 (a weak pull-up) through the inverter. This inverter
and pFET pair form a latch to drive logical one. pFET #2 is a very weak pull-up switched
on whenever the associated nFET is switched off. This is traditional CMOS switch convention. Current strengths are 1/10 that of pFET #3.
8
T89C51AC2
4127D–8051–02/03
T89C51AC2
Figure 4. Internal Pull-Up Configurations
2 Osc. PERIODS
VCC
VCC
VCC
p1(1)
p2
p3
P1.x
P2.x
P3.x
P4.x
OUTPUT DATA
n
INPUT DATA
READ PIN
Note:
Port 2 p1 assists the logic-one output for memory bus cycles.
9
4127D–8051–02/03
SFR Mapping
The Special Function Registers (SFRs) of the T89C51AC2 fall into the following
categories:
Table 3. C51 Core SFRs
Mnemonic
Add
Name
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
ACC
E0h Accumulator
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
B
F0h B Register
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
PSW
D0h Program Status Word
CY
AC
F0
RS1
RS0
OV
F1
P
SP
81h
Stack Pointer
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
DPL
82h
Data Pointer Low
byte
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
LSB of DPTR
DPH
83h
Data Pointer High
byte
MSB of DPTR
Table 4. I/O Port SFRs
Mnemonic
Add
Name
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
P0
80h
Port 0
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
P1
90h
Port 1
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
P2
A0h Port 2
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
P3
B0h Port 3
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
P4
C0h Port 4 (x2)
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
Table 5. Timers SFRs
Mnemonic
Add
Name
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
TH0
8Ch
Timer/Counter 0 High
byte
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
TL0
8Ah
Timer/Counter 0 Low
byte
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
TH1
8Dh
Timer/Counter 1 High
byte
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
TL1
8Bh
Timer/Counter 1 Low
byte
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
TH2
CDh
Timer/Counter 2 High
byte
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
TL2
CCh
Timer/Counter 2 Low
byte
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
TCON
88h
Timer/Counter 0 and
1 control
TF1
TR1
TF0
TR0
IE1
IT1
IE0
IT0
TMOD
89h
Timer/Counter 0 and
1 Modes
GATE1
C/T1#
M11
M01
GATE0
C/T0#
M10
M00
10
T89C51AC2
4127D–8051–02/03
T89C51AC2
Table 5. Timers SFRs (Continued)
Mnemonic
Add
Name
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
T2CON
C8h
Timer/Counter 2
control
TF2
EXF2
RCLK
TCLK
EXEN2
TR2
C/T2#
CP/RL2#
T2MOD
C9h
Timer/Counter 2
Mode
–
–
–
–
–
–
T2OE
DCEN
RCAP2H
Timer/Counter 2
CBh Reload/Capture High
byte
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
RCAP2L
Timer/Counter 2
CAh Reload/Capture Low
byte
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
WDTRST
A6h
Watchdog Timer
Reset
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
WDTPRG
A7h
Watchdog Timer
Program
–
–
–
–
–
S2
S1
S0
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
FE/SM0
SM1
SM2
REN
TB8
RB8
TI
RI
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
Table 6. Serial I/O Port SFRs
Mnemonic
Add
Name
SCON
98h
Serial Control
SBUF
99h
Serial Data Buffer
SADEN
B9h Slave Address Mask
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
SADDR
A9h Slave Address
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
Table 7. PCA SFRs
Mnemonic Add
Name
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
CCON
D8h PCA Timer/Counter Control
CF
CR
–
CCF4
CCF3
CCF2
CCF1
CCF0
CMOD
D9h PCA Timer/Counter Mode
CIDL
WDTE
–
–
–
CPS1
CPS0
ECF
CL
E9h PCA Timer/Counter Low byte
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
CH
F9h PCA Timer/Counter High byte
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
CCAPM0
DAh PCA Timer/Counter Mode 0
ECOM0
CAPP0
CAPN0
MAT0
TOG0
PWM0
ECCF0
CCAPM1
DBh PCA Timer/Counter Mode 1
ECOM1
CAPP1
CAPN1
MAT1
TOG1
PWM1
ECCF1
CCAPM2
DCh PCA Timer/Counter Mode 2
ECOM2
CAPP2
CAPN2
MAT2
TOG2
PWM2
ECCF2
CCAPM3
DDh PCA Timer/Counter Mode 3
ECOM3
CAPP3
CAPN3
MAT3
TOG3
PWM3
ECCF3
CCAPM4
DEh PCA Timer/Counter Mode 4
ECOM4
CAPP4
CAPN4
MAT4
TOG4
PWM4
ECCF4
–
CCAP0H
FAh PCA Compare Capture Module 0 H CCAP0H7 CCAP0H6 CCAP0H5 CCAP0H4 CCAP0H3 CCAP0H2 CCAP0H1 CCAP0H0
CCAP1H
FBh PCA Compare Capture Module 1 H CCAP1H7 CCAP1H6 CCAP1H5 CCAP1H4 CCAP1H3 CCAP1H2 CCAP1H1 CCAP1H0
CCAP2H
FCh PCA Compare Capture Module 2 H CCAP2H7 CCAP2H6 CCAP2H5 CCAP2H4 CCAP2H3 CCAP2H2 CCAP2H1 CCAP2H0
CCAP3H
FDh PCA Compare Capture Module 3 H CCAP3H7 CCAP3H6 CCAP3H5 CCAP3H4 CCAP3H3 CCAP3H2 CCAP3H1 CCAP3H0
CCAP4H
FEh PCA Compare Capture Module 4 H CCAP4H7 CCAP4H6 CCAP4H5 CCAP4H4 CCAP4H3 CCAP4H2 CCAP4H1 CCAP4H0
11
4127D–8051–02/03
Table 7. PCA SFRs (Continued)
Mnemonic Add
Name
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
CCAP0L
EAh
PCA Compare Capture Module 0 L CCAP0L7 CCAP0L6 CCAP0L5 CCAP0L4 CCAP0L3 CCAP0L2 CCAP0L1 CCAP0L0
CCAP1L
EBh
PCA Compare Capture Module 1 L CCAP1L7 CCAP1L6 CCAP1L5 CCAP1L4 CCAP1L3 CCAP1L2 CCAP1L1 CCAP1L0
CCAP2L
ECh
PCA Compare Capture Module 2 L CCAP2L7 CCAP2L6 CCAP2L5 CCAP2L4 CCAP2L3 CCAP2L2 CCAP2L1 CCAP2L0
CCAP3L
EDh
PCA Compare Capture Module 3 L CCAP3L7 CCAP3L6 CCAP3L5 CCAP3L4 CCAP3L3 CCAP3L2 CCAP3L1 CCAP3L0
CCAP4L
EEh
PCA Compare Capture Module 4 L CCAP4L7 CCAP4L6 CCAP4L5 CCAP4L4 CCAP4L3 CCAP4L2 CCAP4L1 CCAP4L0
Table 8. Interrupt SFRs
Mnemonic
Add
Name
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
IEN0
A8h
Interrupt Enable
Control 0
EA
EC
ET2
ES
ET1
EX1
ET0
EX0
IEN1
E8h
Interrupt Enable
Control 1
–
–
–
–
–
–
EADC
–
IPL0
B8h
Interrupt Priority
Control Low 0
–
PPC
PT2
PS
PT1
PX1
PT0
PX0
IPH0
B7h
Interrupt Priority
Control High 0
–
PPCH
PT2H
PSH
PT1H
PX1H
PT0H
PX0H
IPL1
F8h
Interrupt Priority
Control Low 1
–
–
–
–
–
–
PADCL
–
IPH1
F7h
Interrupt Priority
Control High1
–
–
–
–
–
–
PADCH
–
Table 9. ADC SFRs
Mnemonic
Add
Name
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
ADCON
F3h ADC Control
–
PSIDLE
ADEN
ADEOC
ADSST
SCH2
SCH1
SCH0
ADCF
F6h ADC Configuration
CH7
CH6
CH5
CH4
CH3
CH2
CH1
CH0
ADCLK
F2h ADC Clock
–
–
–
PRS4
PRS3
PRS2
PRS1
PRS0
ADDH
F5h ADC Data High byte
ADAT9
ADAT8
ADAT7
ADAT6
ADAT5
ADAT4
ADAT3
ADAT2
ADDL
F4h ADC Data Low byte
–
–
–
–
–
–
ADAT1
ADAT0
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
SMOD1
SMOD0
–
POF
GF1
GF0
PD
IDL
Table 10. Other SFRs
Mnemonic
Add
Name
PCON
87h
Power Control
AUXR
8Eh
Auxiliary Register 0
–
–
M0
–
XRS1
XRS2
EXTRAM
A0
AUXR1
A2h
Auxiliary Register 1
–
–
ENBOOT
–
GF3
0
–
DPS
CKCON
8Fh
Clock Control
–
WDX2
PCAX2
SIX2
T2X2
T1X2
T0X2
X2
FCON
D1h
Flash Control
FPL3
FPL2
FPL1
FPL0
FPS
FMOD1
FMOD0
FBUSY
EECON
D2h
EEPROM Contol
EEPL3
EEPL2
EEPL1
EEPL0
–
–
EEE
EEBUSY
12
T89C51AC2
4127D–8051–02/03
T89C51AC2
Table 11. SFR Mapping
0/8(1)
1/9
2/A
3/B
4/C
5/D
6/E
F8h
IPL1
xxxx xx0x
CH
0000 0000
CCAP0H
0000 0000
CCAP1H
0000 0000
CCAP2H
0000 0000
CCAP3H
0000 0000
CCAP4H
0000 0000
F0h
B
0000 0000
ADCLK
xxx0 0000
ADCON
x000 0000
ADDL
0000 0000
ADDH
0000 0000
ADCF
0000 0000
E8h
IEN1
xxxx xx0x
CCAP0L
0000 0000
CCAP1L
0000 0000
CCAP2L
0000 0000
CCAP3L
0000 0000
CCAP4L
0000 0000
E0h
ACC
0000 0000
D8h
CCON
00x0 0000
CMOD
00xx x000
CCAPM0
x000 0000
D0h
PSW
0000 0000
FCON
0000 0000
EECON
xxxx xx00
C8h
T2CON
0000 0000
T2MOD
xxxx xx00
RCAP2L
0000 0000
C0h
P4
xxxx xx11
B8h
IPL0
x000 0000
B0h
P3
1111 1111
A8h
IEN0
0000 0000
A0h
P2
1111 1111
98h
SCON
0000 0000
90h
P1
1111 1111
88h
TCON
0000 0000
TMOD
0000 0000
TL0
0000 0000
TL1
0000 0000
80h
P0
1111 1111
SP
0000 0111
DPL
0000 0000
DPH
0000 0000
0/8(1)
1/9
2/A
3/B
CL
0000 0000
7/F
FFh
IPH1
xxxx xx0x
F7h
EFh
E7h
CCAPM1
x000 0000
CCAPM2
x000 0000
CCAPM3
x000 0000
CCAPM4
x000 0000
DFh
D7h
RCAP2H
0000 0000
TL2
0000 0000
TH2
0000 0000
CFh
C7h
SADEN
0000 0000
BFh
IPH0
x000 0000
SADDR
0000 0000
B7h
AFh
AUXR1
xxxx 00x0
WDTRST
1111 1111
WDTPRG
xxxx x000
SBUF
0000 0000
A7h
9Fh
97h
TH0
0000 0000
4/C
TH1
0000 0000
5/D
AUXR
x00x 1100
6/E
CKCON
0000 0000
8Fh
PCON
00x1 0000
87h
7/F
Reserved
Note:
1. These registers are bit–addressable.
Sixteen addresses in the SFR space are both byte–addressable and bit–addressable. The bit–addressable SFR’s are those
whose address ends in 0 and 8. The bit addresses, in this area, are 0x80 through to 0xFF.
13
4127D–8051–02/03
Clock
The T89C51AC2 core needs only 6 clock periods per machine cycle. This feature,
called ”X2”, provides the following advantages:
•
Divides frequency crystals by 2 (cheaper crystals) while keeping the same CPU
power.
•
Saves power consumption while keeping the same CPU power (oscillator power
saving).
•
Saves power consumption by dividing dynamic operating frequency by 2 in
operating and idle modes.
•
Increases CPU power by 2 while keeping the same crystal frequency.
In order to keep the original C51 compatibility, a divider-by-2 is inserted between the
XTAL1 signal and the main clock input of the core (phase generator). This divider may
be disabled by the software.
An extra feature is available to start after Reset in the X2 mode. This feature can be
enabled by a bit X2B in the Hardware Security Byte. This bit is described in the section
"In-System-Programming".
Description
The X2 bit in the CKCON register (see Table 12) allows switching from 12 clock cycles
per instruction to 6 clock cycles and vice versa. At reset, the standard speed is activated
(STD mode).
Setting this bit activates the X2 feature (X2 mode) for the CPU Clock only (see Figure
5.).
The Timers 0, 1 and 2, Uart, PCA, or Watchdog switch in X2 mode only if the corresponding bit is cleared in the CKCON register.
The clock for the whole circuit and peripheral is first divided by two before being used by
the CPU core and peripherals. This allows any cyclic ratio to be accepted on the XTAL1
input. In X2 mode, as this divider is bypassed, the signals on XTAL1 must have a cyclic
ratio between 40 to 60%. Figure 5. shows the clock generation block diagram. The X2
bit is validated on the XTAL1÷2 rising edge to avoid glitches when switching from the X2
to the STD mode. Figure 6 shows the mode switching waveforms.
14
T89C51AC2
4127D–8051–02/03
T89C51AC2
Figure 5. Clock CPU Generation Diagram
X2B
Hardware byte
PCON.0
On RESET
IDL
X2
CKCON.0
÷2
XTAL1
CPU Core
Clock
0
1
XTAL2
CPU
CLOCK
PD
CPU Core Clock Symbol
and ADC
PCON.1
÷2
1
FT0 Clock
0
÷2
1
FT1 Clock
0
÷2
1
FT2 Clock
0
÷2
1
FUart Clock
0
÷2
1
FPca Clock
0
÷2
1
FWd Clock
0
PERIPH
CLOCK
X2
CKCON.0
Peripheral Clock Symbol
WDX2
PCAX2
SIX2
T2X2
T1X2
T0X2
CKCON.6
CKCON.5
CKCON.4
CKCON.3
CKCON.2
CKCON.1
15
4127D–8051–02/03
Figure 6. Mode Switching Waveforms
XTAL2
X2 bit
CPU
STD Mode
Note:
16
X2 Mode
STD Mode
In order to prevent any incorrect operation while operating in the X2 mode, users must be aware that all peripherals using the
clock frequency as a time reference (UART, timers...) will have their time reference divided by two. For example a free running
timer generating an interrupt every 20 ms will then generate an interrupt every 10 ms. A UART with a 4800 baud rate will have
a 9600 baud rate.
T89C51AC2
4127D–8051–02/03
T89C51AC2
Register
Table 12. CKCON Register
CKCON (S:8Fh)
Clock Control Register
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
-
WDX2
PCAX2
SIX2
T2X2
T1X2
T0X2
X2
Bit
Number
Reserved
-
-
6
WDX2
Watchdog clock (1)
Clear to select 6 clock periods per peripheral clock cycle.
Set to select 12 clock periods per peripheral clock cycle.
5
PCAX2
Programmable Counter Array clock (1)
Clear to select 6 clock periods per peripheral clock cycle.
Set to select 12 clock periods per peripheral clock cycle.
4
SIX2
Enhanced UART clock (MODE 0 and 2) (1)
Clear to select 6 clock periods per peripheral clock cycle.
Set to select 12 clock periods per peripheral clock cycle.
3
T2X2
Timer 2 clock (1)
Clear to select 6 clock periods per peripheral clock cycle.
Set to select 12 clock periods per peripheral clock cycle.
2
T1X2
Timer 1 clock (1)
Clear to select 6 clock periods per peripheral clock cycle.
Set to select 12 clock periods per peripheral clock cycle.
1
T0X2
Timer 0 clock (1)
Clear to select 6 clock periods per peripheral clock cycle.
Set to select 12 clock periods per peripheral clock cycle.
0
Note:
Bit
Mnemonic Description
X2
Do not set this bit.
CPU clock
Clear to select 12 clock periods per machine cycle (STD mode) for CPU and all
the peripherals.
Set to select 6 clock periods per machine cycle (X2 mode) and to enable the
individual peripherals "X2"bits.
1. This control bit is validated when the CPU clock bit X2 is set; when X2 is low, this bit
has no effect.
Reset Value = x000 0000b
17
4127D–8051–02/03
Power Management
Two power reduction modes are implemented in the T89C51AC2: the Idle mode and the
Power-down mode. These modes are detailed in the following sections. In addition to
these power reduction modes, the clocks of the core and peripherals can be dynamically
divided by 2 using the X2 Mode detailed in Section “Clock”.
Reset Pin
In order to start-up (cold reset) or to restart (warm reset) properly the microcontroller, a
high level has to be applied on the RST pin. A bad level leads to a wrong initialisation of
the internal registers like SFRs, PC, etc. and to unpredictable behavior of the microcontroller. A warm reset can be applied either directly on the RST pin or indirectly by an
internal reset source such as a watchdog, PCA, timer, etc.
At Power-up (Cold Reset) Two conditions are required before enabling a CPU start-up:
•
VDD must reach the specified VDD range,
•
The level on xtal1 input must be outside the specification (VIH, VIL).
If one of these two conditions are not met, the microcontroller does not start correctly
and can execute an instruction fetch from anywhere in the program space. An active
level applied on the RST pin must be maintained until both of the above conditions are
met. A reset is active when the level VIH1 is reached and when the pulse width covers
the period of time where VDD and the oscillator are not stabilized. Two parameters have
to be taken into account to determine the reset pulse width:
•
VDD rise time (vddrst),
•
Oscillator startup time (oscrst).
To determine the capacitor the highest value of these two parameters has to be chosen.
The reset circuitry is shown in Figure 7.
Figure 7. Reset Circuitry
VDD
Crst
RST pin
Internal reset
Rrst
Reset input circuitry
0
Table 13 and Table 14 give some typical examples for three values of VDD rise times,
two values of oscillator start-up time and two pull-down resistor values.
Table 13. Minimum Reset Capacitor for a 15k Pull-down Resistor
oscrst/vddrst
1ms
10ms
100ms
5 ms
2.7 µF
4.7 µF
47 µF
20 ms
10 µF
15 µF
47 µF
Note:
18
These values assume VDD starts from 0v to the nominal value. If the time between two
on/off sequences is too fast, the power-supply decoupling capacitors may not be fully
discharged, leading to a bad reset sequence.
T89C51AC2
4127D–8051–02/03
T89C51AC2
Warm Reset
To achieve a valid reset, the reset signal must be maintained for at least 2 machine
cycles (24 oscillator clock periods) while the oscillator is running. The number of clock
periods is mode independent (X2 or X1).
Watchdog Reset
As detailed in Section “PCA Watchdog Timer”, page 77, the WDT generates a 96-clock
period pulse on the RST pin. In order to properly propagate this pulse to the rest of the
application in case of external capacitor or power-supply supervisor circuit, a 1KΩ resistor must be added as shown Figure 8.
Figure 8. Reset Circuitry for WDT reset out usage
VDD
+
RST
RST
VSS
Reset Recommendation
to Prevent Flash
Corruption
To CPU core
and peripherals
1K
RRST
VDD
VSS
To other
on-board
circuitry
An example of bad initialization situation may occur in an instance where the bit
ENBOOT in AUXR1 register is initialized from the hardware bit BLJB upon reset. Since
this bit allows mapping of the bootloader in the code area, a reset failure can be critical.
If one wants the ENBOOT cleared in order to unmap the boot from the code area (yet
due to a bad reset) the bit ENBOOT in SFRs may be set. If the value of Program
Counter is accidently in the range of the boot memory addresses then a flash access
(write or erase) may corrupt the Flash on-chip memory.
It is recommended to use an external reset circuitry featuring power supply monitoring to
prevent system malfunction during periods of insufficient power supply voltage (power
supply failure, power supply switched off).
Idle Mode
Idle mode is a power reduction mode that reduces the power consumption. In this mode,
program execution halts. Idle mode freezes the clock to the CPU at known states while
the peripherals continue to be clocked. The CPU status before entering Idle mode is
preserved, i.e., the program counter and program status word register retain their data
for the duration of Idle mode. The contents of the SFRs and RAM are also retained. The
status of the Port pins during Idle mode is detailed in Table 13.
Entering Idle Mode
To enter Idle mode, you must set the IDL bit in PCON register (see Table 14). The
T89C51CC02 enters Idle mode upon execution of the instruction that sets IDL bit. The
instruction that sets IDL bit is the last instruction executed.
Note:
Exiting Idle Mode
If IDL bit and PD bit are set simultaneously, the T89C51CC02 enters Power-down mode.
Then it does not go in Idle mode when exiting Power-down mode.
There are two ways to exit Idle mode:
1. Generate an enabled interrupt.
–
Hardware clears IDL bit in PCON register which restores the clock to the
CPU. Execution resumes with the interrupt service routine. Upon completion
of the interrupt service routine, program execution resumes with the
instruction immediately following the instruction that activated Idle mode.
19
4127D–8051–02/03
The general-purpose flags (GF1 and GF0 in PCON register) may be used to
indicate whether an interrupt occurred during normal operation or during Idle
mode. When Idle mode is exited by an interrupt, the interrupt service routine
may examine GF1 and GF0.
2. Generate a reset.
–
Notes:
A logic high on the RST pin clears IDL bit in PCON register directly and
asynchronously. This restores the clock to the CPU. Program execution
momentarily resumes with the instruction immediately following the
instruction that activated the Idle mode and may continue for a number of
clock cycles before the internal reset algorithm takes control. Reset
initializes the T89C51CC02 and vectors the CPU to address C:0000h.
1. During the time that execution resumes, the internal RAM cannot be accessed; however, it is possible for the Port pins to be accessed. To avoid unexpected outputs at
the Port pins, the instruction immediately following the instruction that activated Idle
mode should not write to a Port pin or to the external RAM.
2. If Idle mode is invoked by ADC Idle, the ADC conversion completion will exit Idle.
Power-down Mode
The Power-down mode places the T89C51CC02 in a very low power state. Power-down
mode stops the oscillator and freezes all clocks at known states. The CPU status prior to
entering Power-down mode is preserved, i.e., the program counter, program status
word register retain their data for the duration of Power-down mode. In addition, the
SFRs and RAM contents are preserved. The status of the Port pins during Power-down
mode is detailed in Table 13.
Entering Power-down Mode
To enter Power-down mode, set PD bit in PCON register. The T89C51CC02 enters the
Power-down mode upon execution of the instruction that sets PD bit. The instruction
that sets PD bit is the last instruction executed.
Exiting Power-down Mode
If VDD was reduced during the Power-down mode, do not exit Power-down mode until
VDD is restored to the normal operating level.
There are two ways to exit the Power-down mode:
1. Generate an enabled external interrupt.
–
Note:
The T89C51CC02 provides capability to exit from Power-down using INT0#,
INT1#.
Hardware clears PD bit in PCON register which starts the oscillator and
restores the clocks to the CPU and peripherals. Using INTx# input,
execution resumes when the input is released (see Figure 9) while using
KINx input, execution resumes after counting 1024 clock ensuring the
oscillator is restarted properly (see Figure 8). Execution resumes with the
interrupt service routine. Upon completion of the interrupt service routine,
program execution resumes with the instruction immediately following the
instruction that activated Power-down mode.
1. The external interrupt used to exit Power-down mode must be configured as level
sensitive (INT0# and INT1#) and must be assigned the highest priority. In addition,
the duration of the interrupt must be long enough to allow the oscillator to stabilize.
The execution will only resume when the interrupt is deasserted.
2. Exit from power-down by external interrupt does not affect the SFRs nor the internal
RAM content.
20
T89C51AC2
4127D–8051–02/03
T89C51AC2
Figure 9. Power-down Exit Waveform Using INT1:0#
INT1:0#
OSC
Active phase
Power-down phase
Oscillator restart phase
Active phase
2. Generate a reset.
–
Notes:
A logic high on the RST pin clears PD bit in PCON register directly and
asynchronously. This starts the oscillator and restores the clock to the CPU
and peripherals. Program execution momentarily resumes with the
instruction immediately following the instruction that activated Power-down
mode and may continue for a number of clock cycles before the internal
reset algorithm takes control. Reset initializes the T89C51CC02 and vectors
the CPU to address 0000h.
1. During the time that execution resumes, the internal RAM cannot be accessed; however, it is possible for the Port pins to be accessed. To avoid unexpected outputs at
the Port pins, the instruction immediately following the instruction that activated the
Power-down mode should not write to a Port pin or to the external RAM.
2. Exit from power-down by reset redefines all the SFRs, but does not affect the internal
RAM content.
21
4127D–8051–02/03
Registers
Table 14. PCON Register
PCON (S:87h) – Power configuration Register
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
SMOD1
SMOD0
-
POF
GF1
GF0
PD
IDL
Bit
Number
Bit
Mnemonic Description
7
SMOD1
Serial port Mode bit 1
Set to select double baud rate in mode 1, 2 or 3
6
SMOD0
Serial port Mode bit 0
Clear to select SM0 bit in SCON register.
Set to select FE bit in SCON register.
5
-
Reserved
The value read from this bit is indeterminate. Do not set this bit.
4
POF
Power-Off Flag
Clear to recognize next reset type.
Set by hardware when Vcc rises from 0 to its nominal voltage. Can also be set by
software.
3
GF1
General-purpose flag 1
One use is to indicate whether an interrupt occurred during normal operation or
during Idle mode.
2
GF0
General-purpose flag 0
One use is to indicate whether an interrupt occurred during normal operation or
during Idle mode.
PD
Power-down Mode bit
Cleared by hardware when an interrupt or reset occurs.
Set to activate the Power-down mode.
If IDL and PD are both set, PD takes precedence.
IDL
Idle Mode bit
Cleared by hardware when an interrupt or reset occurs.
Set to activate the Idle mode.
If IDL and PD are both set, PD takes precedence.
1
0
Reset Value = 00X1 0000b
22
T89C51AC2
4127D–8051–02/03
T89C51AC2
Data Memory
The T89C51AC2 provides data memory access in two different spaces:
1. The internal space mapped in three separate segments:
•
the lower 128 Bytes RAM segment.
•
the upper 128 Bytes RAM segment.
•
the expanded 1024 Bytes RAM segment (XRAM).
2. The external space.
A fourth internal segment is available but dedicated to Special Function Registers,
SFRs, (addresses 80h to FFh) accessible by direct addressing mode.
Figure 11 shows the internal and external data memory spaces organization.
Figure 10. Internal Memory - RAM
FFh
FFh
Upper
128 Bytes
Internal RAM
indirect addressing
80h
7Fh
00h
Special
Function
Registers
direct addressing
80h
Lower
128 Bytes
Internal RAM
direct or indirect
addressing
Figure 11. Internal and External Data Memory Organization XRAM-XRAM
FFFFh
64 KB
External XRAM
FFh or 3FFh
256 up to 1024 Bytes
Internal XRAM
EXTRAM = 0
00h
EXTRAM = 1
0000h
Internal
External
23
4127D–8051–02/03
Internal Space
Lower 128 Bytes RAM
The lower 128 Bytes of RAM (see Figure 11) are accessible from address 00h to 7Fh
using direct or indirect addressing modes. The lowest 32 Bytes are grouped into 4
banks of 8 registers (R0 to R7). Two bits RS0 and RS1 in PSW register (see Figure 17)
select which bank is in use according to Table 15. This allows more efficient use of code
space, since register instructions are shorter than instructions that use direct addressing, and can be used for context switching in interrupt service routines.
Table 15. Register Bank Selection
RS1
RS0
Description
0
0
Register bank 0 from 00h to 07h
0
1
Register bank 0 from 08h to 0Fh
1
0
Register bank 0 from 10h to 17h
1
1
Register bank 0 from 18h to 1Fh
The next 16 Bytes above the register banks form a block of bit-addressable memory
space. The C51 instruction set includes a wide selection of single-bit instructions, and
the 128 bits in this area can be directly addressed by these instructions. The bit
addresses in this area are 00h to 7Fh.
Figure 12. Lower 128 Bytes Internal RAM Organization
7Fh
30h
2Fh
20h
18h
10h
08h
00h
Bit-Addressable Space
(Bit Addresses 0-7Fh)
1Fh
17h
0Fh
4 Banks of
8 Registers
R0-R7
07h
Upper 128 Bytes RAM
The upper 128 Bytes of RAM are accessible from address 80h to FFh using only indirect
addressing mode.
Expanded RAM
The on-chip 1024 Bytes of expanded RAM (XRAM) are accessible from address 0000h
to 03FFh using indirect addressing mode through MOVX instructions. In this address
range, the bit EXTRAM in AUXR register is used to select the XRAM (default) or the
XRAM. As shown in Figure 11 when EXTRAM = 0, the XRAM is selected and when
EXTRAM = 1, the XRAM is selected.
The size of XRAM can be configured by XRS1-0 bit in AUXR register (default size is
1024 Bytes).
Note:
24
Lower 128 Bytes RAM, Upper 128 Bytes RAM, and expanded RAM are made of volatile
memory cells. This means that the RAM content is indeterminate after power-up and
must then be initialized properly.
T89C51AC2
4127D–8051–02/03
T89C51AC2
External Space
Memory Interface
The external memory interface comprises the external bus (port 0 and port 2) as well as
the bus control signals (RD, WR, and ALE).
Figure 13 shows the structure of the external address bus. P0 carries address A7:0
while P2 carries address A15:8. Data D7:0 is multiplexed with A7:0 on P0. Table 16
describes the external memory interface signals.
Figure 13. External Data Memory Interface Structure
RAM
PERIPHERAL
T89C51AC2
A15:8
P2
A15:8
ALE
P0
AD7:0
Latch
A7:0
A7:0
D7:0
RD
WR
OE
WR
Table 16. External Data Memory Interface Signals
External Bus Cycles
Signal
Name
Type
A15:8
O
Address Lines
Upper address lines for the external bus.
P2.7:0
AD7:0
I/O
Address/Data Lines
Multiplexed lower address lines and data for the external
memory.
P0.7:0
ALE
O
Address Latch Enable
ALE signals indicates that valid address information are available
on lines AD7:0.
RD
O
Read
Read signal output to external data memory.
P3.7
WR
O
Write
Write signal output to external memory.
P3.6
Description
Alternative
Function
-
This section describes the bus cycles the T89C51AC2 executes to read (see Figure 14),
and write data (see Figure 15) in the external data memory.
External memory cycle takes 6 CPU clock periods. This is equivalent to 12 oscillator
clock period in standard mode or 6 oscillator clock periods in X2 mode. For further information on X2 mode.
Slow peripherals can be accessed by stretching the read and write cycles. This is done
using the M0 bit in AUXR register. Setting this bit changes the width of the RD and WR
signals from 3 to 15 CPU clock periods.
For simplicity, the accompanying figures depict the bus cycle waveforms in idealized
form and do not provide precise timing information. For bus cycle timing parameters
refer to the Section “AC Characteristics”.
25
4127D–8051–02/03
Figure 14. External Data Read Waveforms
CPU Clock
ALE
RD 1
P0
P2
Notes:
DPL or Ri
P2
D7:0
DPH or P22
1. RD signal may be stretched using M0 bit in AUXR register.
2. When executing MOVX @Ri instruction, P2 outputs SFR content.
Figure 15. External Data Write Waveforms
CPU Clock
ALE
WR1
P0
P2
Notes:
26
DPL or Ri
P2
D7:0
DPH or P22
1. WR signal may be stretched using M0 bit in AUXR register.
2. When executing MOVX @Ri instruction, P2 outputs SFR content.
T89C51AC2
4127D–8051–02/03
T89C51AC2
Dual Data Pointer
Description
The T89C51AC2 implements a second data pointer for speeding up code execution and
reducing code size in case of intensive usage of external memory accesses.
DPTR 0 and DPTR 1 are seen by the CPU as DPTR and are accessed using the SFR
addresses 83h and 84h that are the DPH and DPL addresses. The DPS bit in AUXR1
register (see Figure 19) is used to select whether DPTR is the data pointer 0 or the data
pointer 1 (see Figure 16).
Figure 16. Dual Data Pointer Implementation
DPL0
0
DPL1
1
DPL
DPTR0
DPS
DPTR1
DPH0
0
DPH1
1
AUXR1.0
DPTR
DPH
Application
Software can take advantage of the additional data pointers to both increase speed and
reduce code size, for example, block operations (copy, compare…) are well served by
using one data pointer as a “source” pointer and the other one as a “destination” pointer.
Hereafter is an example of block move implementation using the two pointers and coded
in assembler. The latest C compiler takes also advantage of this feature by providing
enhanced algorithm libraries.
The INC instruction is a short (2 Bytes) and fast (6 machine cycle) way to manipulate the
DPS bit in the AUXR1 register. However, note that the INC instruction does not directly
force the DPS bit to a particular state, but simply toggles it. In simple routines, such as
the block move example, only the fact that DPS is toggled in the proper sequence matters, not its actual value. In other words, the block move routine works the same whether
DPS is '0' or '1' on entry.
; ASCII block move using dual data pointers
; Modifies DPTR0, DPTR1, A and PSW
; Ends when encountering NULL character
; Note: DPS exits opposite to the entry state unless an extra INC AUXR1 is
added
AUXR1EQU0A2h
move:movDPTR,#SOURCE ; address of SOURCE
incAUXR1 ; switch data pointers
movDPTR,#DEST ; address of DEST
mv_loop:incAUXR1; switch data pointers
movxA,@DPTR; get a byte from SOURCE
incDPTR; increment SOURCE address
incAUXR1; switch data pointers
[email protected],A; write the byte to DEST
incDPTR; increment DEST address
jnzmv_loop; check for NULL terminator
end_move:
27
4127D–8051–02/03
Registers
Table 17. PSW Register
PSW (S:D0h)
Program Status Word Register
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
CY
AC
F0
RS1
RS0
OV
F1
P
Bit
Number
Bit
Mnemonic Description
7
CY
Carry Flag
Carry out from bit 1 of ALU operands.
6
AC
Auxiliary Carry Flag
Carry out from bit 1 of addition operands.
5
F0
User Definable Flag 0.
4-3
RS1:0
Register Bank Select Bits
Refer to Table 15 for bits description.
2
OV
Overflow Flag
Overflow set by arithmetic operations.
1
F1
User Definable Flag 1
0
P
Parity Bit
Set when ACC contains an odd number of 1’s.
Cleared when ACC contains an even number of 1’s.
Reset Value = 0000 0000b
Table 18. AUXR Register
AUXR (S:8Eh)
Auxiliary Register
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
-
-
M0
-
XRS1
XRS0
EXTRAM
A0
Bit
Number
7-6
-
5
M0
4
-
3-2
28
Bit
Mnemonic Description
XRS1-0
Reserved
The value read from these bits are indeterminate. Do not set this bit.
Stretch MOVX control:
the RD/ and the WR/ pulse length is increased according to the value of M0.
M0 Pulse length in clock period
0
6
1
30
Reserved
The value read from this bit is indeterminate. Do not set this bit.
XRAM size:
Accessible size of the XRAM
XRS 1:0
XRAM size
0
0
256 Bytes
0
1
512 Bytes
1
0
768 Bytes
1
1
1024 Bytes (default)
T89C51AC2
4127D–8051–02/03
T89C51AC2
Bit
Number
Bit
Mnemonic Description
1
EXTRAM
0
A0
Internal/External RAM (00h - FFh)
access using MOVX @ Ri/@ DPTR
0 - Internal XRAM access using MOVX @ Ri/@ DPTR.
1 - External data memory access.
Disable/Enable ALE)
0 - ALE is emitted at a constant rate of 1/6 the oscillator frequency (or 1/3 if X2
mode is used)
1 - ALE is active only during a MOVX or MOVC instruction.
Reset Value = X00X 1100b
Not bit addressable
Table 19. AUXR1 Register
AUXR1 (S:A2h)
Auxiliary Control Register 1
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
-
-
ENBOOT
-
GF3
0
-
DPS
Bit
Number
Bit
Mnemonic
Description
7-6
-
5
Reserved
The value read from these bits is indeterminate. Do not set these bits.
Enable Boot Flash
ENBOOT(1) Set this bit for map the boot Flash between F800h -FFFFh
Clear this bit for disable boot Flash.
Reserved
The value read from this bit is indeterminate. Do not set this bit.
4
-
3
GF3
2
0
Always Zero
This bit is stuck to logic 0 to allow INC AUXR1 instruction without affecting GF3
flag.
1
-
Reserved for Data Pointer Extension.
0
DPS
General-purpose Flag 3
Data Pointer Select Bit
Set to select second dual data pointer: DPTR1.
Clear to select first dual data pointer: DPTR0.
Reset Value = XXXX 00X0b
Note:
1. ENBOOT is initialized with the invert BLJB at reset. See In-System Programming
section.
29
4127D–8051–02/03
EEPROM Data
Memory
The 2 KB on-chip EEPROM memory block is located at addresses 0000h to 07FFh of
the XRAM/XRAM memory space and is selected by setting control bits in the EECON
register. A read in the EEPROM memory is done with a MOVX instruction.
A physical write in the EEPROM memory is done in two steps: write data in the column
latches and transfer of all data latches into an EEPROM memory row (programming).
The number of data written on the page may vary from 1 up to 128 Bytes (the page
size). When programming, only the data written in the column latch is programmed and
a ninth bit is used to obtain this feature. This provides the capability to program the
whole memory by Bytes, by page or by a number of Bytes in a page. Indeed, each ninth
bit is set when the writing the corresponding byte in a row and all these ninth bits are
reset after the writing of the complete EEPROM row.
Write Data in the Column
Latches
Data is written by byte to the column latches as for an external RAM memory. Out of the
11 address bits of the data pointer, the 4 MSBs are used for page selection (row) and 7
are used for byte selection. Between two EEPROM programming sessions, all the
addresses in the column latches must stay on the same page, meaning that the 4 MSB
must no be changed.
The following procedure is used to write to the column latches:
•
Save and disable interrupt.
•
Set bit EEE of EECON register
•
Load DPTR with the address to write
•
Store A register with the data to be written
•
Execute a MOVX @DPTR, A
•
If needed loop the three last instructions until the end of a 128 Bytes page
•
Restore interrupt.
Note:
Programming
The EEPROM programming consists of the following actions:
•
writing one or more Bytes of one page in the column latches. Normally, all Bytes
must belong to the same page; if not, the last page address will be latched and the
others discarded.
•
launching programming by writing the control sequence (50h followed by A0h) to the
EECON register.
•
EEBUSY flag in EECON is then set by hardware to indicate that programming is in
progress and that the EEPROM segment is not available for reading.
•
The end of programming is indicated by a hardware clear of the EEBUSY flag.
Note:
Read Data
30
The last page address used when loading the column latch is the one used to select the
page programming address.
The sequence 5xh and Axh must be executed without instructions between then otherwise the programming is aborted.
The following procedure is used to read the data stored in the EEPROM memory:
•
Save and disable interrupt
•
Set bit EEE of EECON register
•
Load DPTR with the address to read
•
Execute a MOVX A, @DPTR
•
Restore interrupt
T89C51AC2
4127D–8051–02/03
T89C51AC2
Examples
;*F*************************************************************************
;* NAME: api_rd_eeprom_byte
;* DPTR contain address to read.
;* Acc contain the reading value
;* NOTE: before execute this function, be sure the EEPROM is not BUSY
;***************************************************************************
api_rd_eeprom_byte:
; Save and clear EA
MOV
EECON, #02h; map EEPROM in XRAM space
MOVX A, @DPTR
MOV
EECON, #00h; unmap EEPROM
; Restore EA
ret
;*F*************************************************************************
;* NAME: api_ld_eeprom_cl
;* DPTR contain address to load
;* Acc contain value to load
;* NOTE: in this example we load only 1 byte, but it is possible upto
;* 128 Bytes.
;* before execute this function, be sure the EEPROM is not BUSY
;***************************************************************************
api_ld_eeprom_cl:
; Save and clear EA
MOV
EECON, #02h ; map EEPROM in XRAM space
MOVX @DPTR, A
MOVEECON, #00h; unmap EEPROM
; Restore EA
ret
;*F*************************************************************************
;* NAME: api_wr_eeprom
;* NOTE: before execute this function, be sure the EEPROM is not BUSY
;***************************************************************************
api_wr_eeprom:
; Save and clear EA
MOV
EECON, #050h
MOV
EECON, #0A0h
; Restore EA
ret
31
4127D–8051–02/03
Registers
Table 20. EECON Register
EECON (S:0D2h)
EEPROM Control Register
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
EEPL3
EEPL2
EEPL1
EEPL0
-
-
EEE
EEBUSY
Bit Number
Bit
Mnemonic
7-4
EEPL3-0
Programming Launch command bits
Write 5Xh followed by AXh to EEPL to launch the programming.
3
-
Reserved
The value read from this bit is indeterminate. Do not set this bit.
2
-
Reserved
The value read from this bit is indeterminate. Do not set this bit.
1
EEE
0
EEBUSY
Description
Enable EEPROM Space bit
Set to map the EEPROM space during MOVX instructions (Write in the column
latches)
Clear to map the XRAM space during MOVX.
Programming Busy flag
Set by hardware when programming is in progress.
Cleared by hardware when programming is done.
Can not be set or cleared by software.
Reset Value = XXXX XX00b
Not bit addressable
32
T89C51AC2
4127D–8051–02/03
T89C51AC2
Program/Code
Memory
The T89C51AC2 implement 32 KB of on-chip program/code memory. Figure 17 shows
the partitioning of internal and external program/code memory spaces depending on the
product.
The Flash memory increases EPROM and ROM functionality by in-circuit electrical erasure and programming. Thanks to the internal charge pump, the high voltage needed for
programming or erasing Flash cells is generated on-chip using the standard VDD voltage. Thus, the Flash Memory can be programmed using only one voltage and allows InSystem-Programming commonly known as ISP. Hardware programming mode is also
available using specific programming tool.
Figure 17. Program/Code Memory Organization
FFFFh
32 KB
external
memory
8000h
7FFFh
7FFFh
0000h
Notes:
32 KB
internal
Flash
32 KB
external
memory
EA = 1
EA = 0
0000h
1. If the program executes exclusively from on-chip code memory (not from external
memory), beware of executing code from the upper byte of on-chip memory (7FFFh)
and thereby disrupt I/O Ports 0 and 2 due to external prefetch. Fetching code constant from this location does not affect Ports 0 and 2.
2. Default factory programmed parts come with maximum hardware protection. Execution from external memory is not possible unless the Hardware Security Byte is
reprogrammed. See Table 25.
33
4127D–8051–02/03
External Code Memory Access
Memory Interface
The external memory interface comprises the external bus (port 0 and port 2) as well as
the bus control signals (PSEN#, and ALE).
Figure 18 shows the structure of the external address bus. P0 carries address A7:0
while P2 carries address A15:8. Data D7:0 is multiplexed with A7:0 on P0. Table 18
describes the external memory interface signals.
Figure 18. External Code Memory Interface Structure
Flash
EPROM
T89C51AC2
A15:8
P2
A15:8
ALE
P0
AD7:0
Latch
A7:0
A7:0
D7:0
PSEN#
OE
Table 21. External Code Memory Interface Signals
External Bus Cycles
Signal
Name
Type
Alternate
Function
A15:8
O
Address Lines
Upper address lines for the external bus.
P2.7:0
AD7:0
I/O
Address/Data Lines
Multiplexed lower address lines and data for the external memory.
P0.7:0
ALE
O
Address Latch Enable
ALE signals indicates that valid address information are available on lines
AD7:0.
-
PSEN#
O
Program Store Enable Output
This signal is active low during external code fetch or external code read
(MOVC instruction).
-
Description
This section describes the bus cycles the T89C51AC2 executes to fetch code (see
Figure 19) in the external program/code memory.
External memory cycle takes 6 CPU clock periods. This is equivalent to 12 oscillator
clock period in standard mode or 6 oscillator clock periods in X2 mode. For further information on X2 mode see section “Clock “.
For simplicity, the accompanying figure depicts the bus cycle waveforms in idealized
form and do not provide precise timing information.
For bus cycling parameters refer to the ‘AC-DC parameters’ section.
34
T89C51AC2
4127D–8051–02/03
T89C51AC2
Figure 19. External Code Fetch Waveforms
CPU Clock
ALE
PSEN#
P0 D7:0
PCL
P2 PCH
Flash Memory
Architecture
D7:0
PCH
PCL
D7:0
PCH
T89C51AC2 features two on-chip Flash memories:
•
Flash memory FM0:
containing 32 KB of program memory (user space) organized into 128 byte pages,
•
Flash memory FM1:
2 KB for boot loader and Application Programming Interfaces (API).
The FM0 can be program by both parallel programming and Serial In-System-Programming (ISP) whereas FM1 supports only parallel programming by programmers. The ISP
mode is detailed in the "In-System-Programming" section.
All Read/Write access operations on Flash Memory by user application are managed by
a set of API described in the "In-System-Programming" section.
Figure 20. Flash Memory Architecture
2 KB
Flash memory
boot space
Hardware Security (1 byte)
Extra Row (128 Bytes)
Column Latches (128 Bytes)
FM1
7FFFh
32 KB
FFFFh
F800h
FM1 mapped between F800h and
FFFFh when bit ENBOOT is set in
AUXR1 register
Flash memory
user space
FM0
0000h
35
4127D–8051–02/03
FM0 Memory Architecture
The Flash memory is made up of 4 blocks (see Figure 20):
•
The memory array (user space) 32 KB
•
The Extra Row
•
The Hardware security bits
•
The column latch registers
User Space
This space is composed of a 32 KB Flash memory organized in 256 pages of 128 Bytes.
It contains the user’s application code.
Extra Row (XRow)
This row is a part of FM0 and has a size of 128 Bytes. The extra row may contain information for boot loader usage.
Hardware Security Byte
The Hardware security Byte space is a part of FM0 and has a size of 1 byte.
The 4 MSB can be read/written by software, the 4 LSB can only be read by software and
written by hardware in parallel mode.
Column Latches
The column latches, also part of FM0, have a size of full page (128 Bytes).
The column latches are the entrance buffers of the three previous memory locations
(user array, XROW and Hardware security byte).
Cross Flash Memory Access
Description
The FM0 memory can be program only from FM1. Programming FM0 from FM0 or from
external memory is impossible.
The FM1 memory can be program only by parallel programming.
The Table 22 show all software Flash access allowed.
Code executing from
Table 22. Cross Flash Memory Access
36
FM0
(user Flash)
FM1
(boot Flash)
Action
FM0
(user Flash)
FM1
(boot Flash)
Read
ok
-
Load column latch
ok
-
Write
-
-
Read
ok
ok
Load column latch
ok
-
Write
ok
-
Read
-
-
External
memory
Load column latch
-
-
EA = 0
Write
-
-
T89C51AC2
4127D–8051–02/03
T89C51AC2
Overview of FM0
Operations
The CPU interfaces to the Flash memory through the FCON register and AUXR1
register.
These registers are used to:
•
Map the memory spaces in the adressable space
•
Launch the programming of the memory spaces
•
Get the status of the Flash memory (busy/not busy)
Mapping of the Memory Space By default, the user space is accessed by MOVC instruction for read only. The column
latches space is made accessible by setting the FPS bit in FCON register. Writing is
possible from 0000h to 7FFFh, address bits 6 to 0 are used to select an address within a
page while bits 14 to 7 are used to select the programming address of the page.
Setting FPS bit takes precedence on the EXTRAM bit in AUXR register.
The other memory spaces (user, extra row, hardware security) are made accessible in
the code segment by programming bits FMOD0 and FMOD1 in FCON register in accordance with Table 23. A MOVC instruction is then used for reading these spaces.
Table 23. FM0 Blocks Select Bits
Launching Programming
FMOD1
FMOD0
FM0 Adressable space
0
0
User (0000h-7FFFh)
0
1
Extra Row(FF80h-FFFFh)
1
0
Hardware Security Byte (0000h)
1
1
Reserved
FPL3:0 bits in FCON register are used to secure the launch of programming. A specific
sequence must be written in these bits to unlock the write protection and to launch the
programming. This sequence is 5xh followed by Axh. Table 24 summarizes the memory
spaces to program according to FMOD1:0 bits.
37
4127D–8051–02/03
Table 24. Programming Spaces
Write to FCON
User
Extra Row
Hardware
Security
Byte
Reserved
Notes:
Status of the Flash Memory
FPL3:0
FPS
FMOD1
FMOD0
Operation
5
X
0
0
No action
A
X
0
0
Write the column latches in user
space
5
X
0
1
No action
A
X
0
1
Write the column latches in extra row
space
5
X
1
0
No action
A
X
1
0
Write the fuse bits space
5
X
1
1
No action
A
X
1
1
No action
1. The sequence 5xh and Axh must be executing without instructions between them
otherwise the programming is aborted.
2. Interrupts that may occur during programming time must be disabled to avoid any
spurious exit of the programming mode.
The bit FBUSY in FCON register is used to indicate the status of programming.
FBUSY is set when programming is in progress.
Selecting FM1
The bit ENBOOT in AUXR1 register is used to map FM1 from F800h to FFFFh.
Loading the Column Latches
Any number of data from 1 Byte to 128 Bytes can be loaded in the column latches. This
provides the capability to program the whole memory by byte, by page or by any number
of Bytes in a page.
When programming is launched, an automatic erase of the locations loaded in the column latches is first performed, then programming is effectively done. Thus no page or
block erase is needed and only the loaded data are programmed in the corresponding
page.
The following procedure is used to load the column latches and is summarized in
Figure 21:
38
•
Save then disable interrupt and map the column latch space by setting FPS bit.
•
Load the DPTR with the address to load.
•
Load Accumulator register with the data to load.
•
Execute the MOVX @DPTR, A instruction.
•
If needed loop the three last instructions until the page is completely loaded.
•
Unmap the column latch and Restore Interrupt
T89C51AC2
4127D–8051–02/03
T89C51AC2
Figure 21. Column Latches Loading Procedure
Column Latches
Loading
Save and Disable IT
EA = 0
Column Latches Mapping
FCON = 08h (FPS=1)
Data Load
DPTR = Address
ACC = Data
Exec: MOVX @DPTR, A
Last Byte
to load?
Data memory Mapping
FCON = 00h (FPS = 0)
Restore IT
Note:
The last page address used when loading the column latch is the one used to select the
page programming address.
Programming the Flash Spaces
User
Extra Row
The following procedure is used to program the User space and is summarized in
Figure 22:
•
Load up to one page of data in the column latches from address 0000h to 7FFFh.
•
Save then disable the interrupts.
•
Launch the programming by writing the data sequence 50h followed by A0h in
FCON register (only from FM1).
The end of the programming indicated by the FBUSY flag cleared.
•
Restore the interrupts.
The following procedure is used to program the Extra Row space and is summarized in
Figure 22:
•
Load data in the column latches from address FF80h to FFFFh.
•
Save then disable the interrupts.
•
Launch the programming by writing the data sequence 52h followed by A2h in
FCON register. This step of the procedure must be executed from FM1. The end of
the programming indicated by the FBUSY flag cleared.
The end of the programming indicated by the FBUSY flag cleared.
•
Restore the interrupts.
39
4127D–8051–02/03
Figure 22. Flash and Extra Row Programming Procedure
Flash Spaces
Programming
Column Latches Loading
see Figure 21
Save and Disable IT
EA = 0
Launch Programming
FCON = 5xh
FCON = Axh
FBusy
Cleared?
Clear Mode
FCON = 00h
End Programming
Restore IT
Hardware Security Byte
40
The following procedure is used to program the Hardware Security Byte space and is
summarized in Figure 23:
•
Set FPS and map Hardware byte (FCON = 0x0C)
•
Save and disable the interrupts.
•
Load DPTR at address 0000h.
•
Load Accumulator register with the data to load.
•
Execute the MOVX @DPTR, A instruction.
•
Launch the programming by writing the data sequence 54h followed by A4h in
FCON register. This step of the procedure must be executed from FM1. The end of
the programming indicated by the FBUSY flag cleared.
The end of the programming indicated by the FBusy flag cleared.
•
Restore the interrupts.
T89C51AC2
4127D–8051–02/03
T89C51AC2
Figure 23. Hardware Programming Procedure
Flash Spaces
Programming
Save and Disable IT
EA = 0
Save and Disable IT
EA = 0
FCON = 0Ch
Launch Programming
FCON = 54h
FCON = A4h
Data Load
DPTR = 00h
ACC = Data
Exec: MOVX @DPTR, A
FBusy
Cleared?
End Loading
Restore IT
Clear Mode
FCON = 00h
End Programming
RestoreIT
Reading the Flash Spaces
User
The following procedure is used to read the User space:
•
Read one byte in Accumulator by executing MOVC A,@A+DPTR where A+DPTR is
the address of the code byte to read.
Note:
Extra Row
Hardware Security Byte
FCON is supposed to be reset when not needed.
The following procedure is used to read the Extra Row space and is summarized in
Figure 24:
•
Map the Extra Row space by writing 02h in FCON register.
•
Read one byte in Accumulator by executing MOVC A,@A+DPTR with A = 0 and
DPTR = FF80h to FFFFh.
•
Clear FCON to unmap the Extra Row.
The following procedure is used to read the Hardware Security space and is summarized
in Figure 24:
•
Map the Hardware Security space by writing 04h in FCON register.
•
Read the byte in Accumulator by executing MOVC A,@A+DPTR with A = 0 and
DPTR = 0000h.
•
Clear FCON to unmap the Hardware Security Byte.
41
4127D–8051–02/03
Figure 24. Reading Procedure
Flash Spaces Reading
Flash Spaces Mapping
FCON = 0000aa0b(1)
Data Read
DPTR = Address
ACC = 0
Exec: MOVC A, @A+DPTR
Clear Mode
FCON = 00h
Note:
Flash Protection from Parallel
Programming
1. aa = 10 for the Hardware Security Byte.
The three lock bits in Hardware Security Byte (see "In-System-Programming" section)
are programmed according to Table 25 provide different level of protection for the onchip code and data located in FM0 and FM1.
The only way to write these bits are the parallel mode. They are set by default to level 4
Table 25. Program Lock bit
Program Lock Bits
Security
Level
LB0
LB1
LB2
1
U
U
U
No program lock features enabled. MOVC instruction executed from
external program memory returns non coded data.
2
P
U
U
MOVC instructions executed from external program memory are barred
to return code bytes from internal memory, EA is sampled and latched
on reset, and further parallel programming of the Flash is disabled.
3
U
P
U
Same as 2, also verify through parallel programming interface is
disabled.
4
U
U
P
Same as 3, also external execution is disabled if code roll over beyond
7FFFh
Protection Description
Program Lock bits
U: unprogrammed
P: programmed
WARNING: Security level 2 and 3 should only be programmed after Flash and Core
verification.
Preventing Flash Corruption
42
See the “Power Management” section.
T89C51AC2
4127D–8051–02/03
T89C51AC2
Registers
FCON RegisterFCON (S:D1h)
Flash Control Register
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
FPL3
FPL2
FPL1
FPL0
FPS
FMOD1
FMOD0
FBUSY
Bit
Number
Bit
Mnemonic Description
7-4
FPL3:0
3
FPS
2-1
FMOD1:0
0
FBUSY
Programming Launch Command Bits
Write 5Xh followed by AXh to launch the programming according to FMOD1:0
(see Table 24)
Flash Map Program Space
Set to map the column latch space in the data memory space.
Clear to re-map the data memory space.
Flash Mode
See Table 23 or Table 24.
Flash Busy
Set by hardware when programming is in progress.
Clear by hardware when programming is done.
Can not be changed by software.
Reset Value = 0000 0000b
43
4127D–8051–02/03
In-System
Programming (ISP)
With the implementation of the User Space (FM0) and the Boot Space (FM1) in Flash
technology the T89C51AC2 allows the system engineer the development of applications
with a very high level of flexibility. This flexibility is based on the possibility to alter the
customer program at any stages of a product’s life:
•
Before mounting the chip on the PCB, FM0 Flash can be programmed with the
application code. FM1 is always preprogrammed by Atmel with a bootloader (UART
bootloader).(1)
•
Once the chip is mounted on the PCB, it can be programmed by serial mode via the
UART.
Note:
1. The user can also program his own bootloader in FM1.
This In-System-Programming (ISP) allows code modification over the total lifetime of the
product.
Besides the default Boot loader Atmel provide to the customer also all the needed Application-Programming-Interfaces (API) which are needed for the ISP. The API are located
also in the Boot memory.
This allow the customer to have a full use of the 32 KB user memory.
Flash Programming and
Erasure
There are three methods of programming the Flash memory:
•
The Atmel bootloader located in FM1 is activated by the application. Low level API
routines (located in FM1) will be used to program FM0. The interface used for serial
downloading to FM0 is the UART. API can be called also by the user’s bootloader
located in FM0 at [SBV]00h.
•
A further method exists in activating the Atmel boot loader by hardware activation.
See Section “Hardware Security Byte”.
•
The FM0 can be programmed also by the parallel mode using a programmer.
Figure 25. Flash Memory Mapping
FFFFh
F800h
2 KB IAP
bootloader
FM1
7FFFh
Custom
Boot Loader
FM1 mapped between F800h and FFFFh
when API called
[SBV]00h
32 KB
Flash memory
FM0
0000h
44
T89C51AC2
4127D–8051–02/03
T89C51AC2
Boot Process
Software Boot Process
Example
Many algorithms can be used for the software boot process. Below are descriptions of
the different flags and Bytes.
Boot Loader Jump Bit (BLJB):
- This bit indicates if on RESET the user wants to jump to this application at address
@0000h on FM0 or execute the boot loader at address @F800h on FM1.
- BLJB = 0 (i.e. bootloader FM1 executed after a reset) is the default Atmel factory programming.
- To read or modify this bit, the APIs are used.
Boot Vector Address (SBV):
- This byte contains the MSB of the user boot loader address in FM0.
- The default value of SBV is FFh (no user boot loader in FM0).
- To read or modify this byte, the APIs are used.
Extra Byte (EB) and Boot Status Byte (BSB):
- These Bytes are reserved for customer use.
- To read or modify these Bytes, the APIs are used.
Hardware Boot Process
At the falling edge of RESET, the bit ENBOOT in AUXR1 register is initialized with the
value of Boot Loader Jump Bit (BLJB).
Further at the falling edge of RESET if the following conditions (called Hardware condition) are detected. The FCON register is initialized with the value 00h and the PC is
initialized with F800h (FM1 lower byte = Bootloader entry point).
Harware Conditions:
•
PSEN low(1)
•
EA high,
•
ALE high (or not connected).
The Hardware condition forces the bootloader to be executed, whatever BLJB value is.
Then BLBJ will be checked.
If no hardware condition is detected, the FCON register is initialized with the value F0h.
Then BLJB value will be checked.
Conditions are:
•
If bit BLJB = 1:
User application in FM0 will be started at @0000h (standard reset).
•
If bit BLJB = 0:
Boot loader will be started at @F800h in FM1.
Note:
1. As PSEN is an output port in normal operating mode (running user applications or
bootloader applications) after reset it is recommended to release PSEN after the falling edge of Reset is signaled.
The hardware conditions are sampled at reset signal Falling Edge, thus they can be
released at any time when reset input is low.
45
4127D–8051–02/03
Figure 26. Hardware Boot Process Algorithm
bit ENBOOT in AUXR1 register
is initialized with BLJB inverted.
RESET
(Example, if BLJB=0, ENBOOT is set (=1) during reset,
thus the bootloader is executed after the reset)
Hardware
Hardware
condition?
ENBOOT = 0
PC = 0000h
No
No
Yes
ENBOOT = 1
PC = F800h
FCON = 00h
FCON = F0h
BLJB = = 0
?
Yes
Software
ENBOOT = 1
PC = F800h
Application
in FM0
Application
Programming Interface
Boot Loader
in FM1
Several Application Program Interface (API) calls are available for use by an application
program to permit selective erasing and programming of Flash pages. All calls are made
by functions.
All of these APIs are described in detail in the following documents on the Atmel web
site.
•
XROW Bytes
46
Datasheet Bootloader UART T89C51AC2
Table 26. XROW Mapping
Description
Default Value
Address
Copy of the Manufacturer Code
58h
30h
Copy of the Device ID#1: Family code
D7h
31h
Copy of the Device ID#2: Memories size and type
F7h
60h
Copy of the Device ID#3: Name and Revision
FFh
61h
T89C51AC2
4127D–8051–02/03
T89C51AC2
Hardware Security Byte
Table 27. Hardware Security Byte
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
X2B
BLJB
-
-
-
LB2
LB1
LB0
Bit
Number
Bit
Mnemonic Description
7
X2B
X2 Bit
Set this bit to start in standard mode.
Clear this bit to start in X2 mode.
6
BLJB
Boot Loader JumpBit
- 1: To start the user’s application on next RESET (@0000h) located in FM0,
- 0: To start the boot loader(@F800h) located in FM1.
5-3
-
2-0
LB2:0
Reserved
The value read from these bits are indeterminate.
Lock Bits
Default value after erasing chip: FFh
Notes:
1. Only the 4 MSB bits can be accessed by software.
2. The 4 LSB bits can only be accessed by parallel mode.
47
4127D–8051–02/03
Serial I/O Port
The T89C51AC2 I/O serial port is compatible with the I/O serial port in the 80C52.
It provides both synchronous and asynchronous communication modes. It operates as a
Universal Asynchronous Receiver and Transmitter (UART) in three full-duplex modes
(Modes 1, 2 and 3). Asynchronous transmission and reception can occur simultaneously
and at different baud rates
Serial I/O port includes the following enhancements:
•
Framing error detection
•
Automatic address recognition
Figure 27. Serial I/O Port Block Diagram
IB Bus
Write SBUF
Read SBUF
SBUF
Receiver
SBUF
Transmitter
TXD
Load SBUF
Mode 0 Transmit
Receive
Shift register
RXD
Serial Port
Interrupt Request
RI
TI
Framing Error Detection Framing bit error detection is provided for the three asynchronous modes. To enable the
framing bit error detection feature, set SMOD0 bit in PCON register.
Figure 28. Framing Error Block Diagram
SM0/FE SM1
SM2
REN
TB8
RB8
TI
RI
Set FE bit if stop bit is 0 (framing error)
SM0 to UART mode control
SMOD1SMOD0
-
POF
GF1
GF0
PD
IDL
To UART framing error control
When this feature is enabled, the receiver checks each incoming data frame for a valid
stop bit. An invalid stop bit may result from noise on the serial lines or from simultaneous
transmission by two CPUs. If a valid stop bit is not found, the Framing Error bit (FE) in
SCON register bit is set.
The software may examine the FE bit after each reception to check for data errors.
Once set, only software or a reset clears the FE bit. Subsequently received frames with
valid stop bits cannot clear the FE bit. When the FE feature is enabled, RI rises on the
stop bit instead of the last data bit (See Figure 29. and Figure 30.).
48
T89C51AC2
4127D–8051–02/03
T89C51AC2
Figure 29. UART Timing in Mode 1
RXD
D0
D1
D2
Start
bit
D3
D4
D5
D6
D7
Stop
bit
Data byte
RI
SMOD0=X
FE
SMOD0=1
Figure 30. UART Timing in Modes 2 and 3
RXD
D0
Start
bit
D1
D2
D3
D4
Data byte
D5
D6
D7
D8
Ninth Stop
bit
bit
RI
SMOD0=0
RI
SMOD0=1
FE
SMOD0=1
Automatic Address
Recognition
The automatic address recognition feature is enabled when the multiprocessor communication feature is enabled (SM2 bit in SCON register is set).
Implemented in the hardware, automatic address recognition enhances the multiprocessor communication feature by allowing the serial port to examine the address of each
incoming command frame. Only when the serial port recognizes its own address will the
receiver set the RI bit in the SCON register to generate an interrupt. This ensures that
the CPU is not interrupted by command frames addressed to other devices.
If necessary, you can enable the automatic address recognition feature in mode 1. In
this configuration, the stop bit takes the place of the ninth data bit. Bit RI is set only when
the received command frame address matches the device’s address and is terminated
by a valid stop bit.
To support automatic address recognition, a device is identified by a given address and
a broadcast address.
Note:
The multiprocessor communication and automatic address recognition features cannot
be enabled in mode 0 (i.e. setting SM2 bit in SCON register in mode 0 has no effect).
49
4127D–8051–02/03
Given Address
Each device has an individual address that is specified in the SADDR register; the
SADEN register is a mask byte that contains don’t-care bits (defined by zeros) to form
the device’s given address. The don’t-care bits provide the flexibility to address one or
more slaves at a time. The following example illustrates how a given address is formed.
To address a device by its individual address, the SADEN mask byte must be 1111
1111b.
For example:
SADDR0101 0110b
SADEN1111 1100b
Given0101 01XXb
Here is an example of how to use given addresses to address different slaves:
Slave A:SADDR1111 0001b
SADEN1111 1010b
Given1111 0X0Xb
Slave B:SADDR1111 0011b
SADEN1111 1001b
Given1111 0XX1b
Slave C:SADDR1111 0010b
SADEN1111 1101b
Given1111 00X1b
The SADEN byte is selected so that each slave may be addressed separately.
For slave A, bit 0 (the LSB) is a don’t-care bit; for slaves B and C, bit 0 is a 1. To communicate with slave A only, the master must send an address where bit 0 is clear (e.g.
1111 0000b).
For slave A, bit 1 is a 0; for slaves B and C, bit 1 is a don’t care bit. To communicate with
slaves A and B, but not slave C, the master must send an address with bits 0 and 1 both
set (e.g. 1111 0011b).
To communicate with slaves A, B and C, the master must send an address with bit 0 set,
bit 1 clear, and bit 2 clear (e.g. 1111 0001b).
Broadcast Address
A broadcast address is formed from the logical OR of the SADDR and SADEN registers
with zeros defined as don’t-care bits, e.g.:
SADDR 0101 0110b
SADEN 1111 1100b
SADDR OR SADEN1111 111Xb
The use of don’t-care bits provides flexibility in defining the broadcast address, however
in most applications, a broadcast address is FFh. The following is an example of using
broadcast addresses:
Slave A:SADDR1111 0001b
SADEN1111 1010b
Given1111 1X11b,
Slave B:SADDR1111 0011b
SADEN1111 1001b
Given1111 1X11B,
Slave C:SADDR=1111 0010b
SADEN1111 1101b
Given1111 1111b
50
T89C51AC2
4127D–8051–02/03
T89C51AC2
For slaves A and B, bit 2 is a don’t care bit; for slave C, bit 2 is set. To communicate with
all of the slaves, the master must send an address FFh. To communicate with slaves A
and B, but not slave C, the master can send and address FBh.
Registers
Table 28. SCON Register
SCON (S:98h)
Serial Control Register
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
FE/SM0
SM1
SM2
REN
TB8
RB8
TI
RI
Bit
Number
7
Bit
Mnemonic Description
FE
Framing Error bit (SMOD0=1)
Clear to reset the error state, not cleared by a valid stop bit.
Set by hardware when an invalid stop bit is detected.
SM0
Serial port Mode bit 0 (SMOD0=0)
Refer to SM1 for serial port mode selection.
6
SM1
Serial port Mode bit 1
SM0 SM1 Mode
0
0
Shift Register
0
1
8-bit UART
1
0
9-bit UART
1
1
9-bit UART
5
SM2
Serial port Mode 2 bit/Multiprocessor Communication Enable bit
Clear to disable multiprocessor communication feature.
Set to enable multiprocessor communication feature in mode 2 and 3.
4
REN
Reception Enable bit
Clear to disable serial reception.
Set to enable serial reception.
3
TB8
Transmitter Bit 8/Ninth bit to transmit in modes 2 and 3
Clear to transmit a logic 0 in the 9th bit.
Set to transmit a logic 1 in the 9th bit.
2
RB8
Receiver Bit 8/Ninth bit received in modes 2 and 3
Cleared by hardware if 9th bit received is a logic 0.
Set by hardware if 9th bit received is a logic 1.
1
TI
Transmit Interrupt flag
Clear to acknowledge interrupt.
Set by hardware at the end of the 8th bit time in mode 0 or at the beginning of the
stop bit in the other modes.
0
RI
Receive Interrupt flag
Clear to acknowledge interrupt.
Set by hardware at the end of the 8th bit time in mode 0, see Figure 29. and
Figure 30. in the other modes.
Baud Rate
FXTAL/12 (or FXTAL /6 in mode X2)
Variable
FXTAL/64 or FXTAL/32
Variable
Reset Value = 0000 0000b
Bit addressable
51
4127D–8051–02/03
Table 29. SADEN Register
SADEN (S:B9h)
Slave Address Mask Register
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
Bit
Number
Bit
Mnemonic Description
7-0
Mask Data for Slave Individual Address
Reset Value = 0000 0000b
Not bit addressable
Table 30. SADDR Register
SADDR (S:A9h)
Slave Address Register
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
Bit
Number
Bit
Mnemonic Description
7-0
Slave Individual Address
Reset Value = 0000 0000b
Not bit addressable
Table 31. SBUF Register
SBUF (S:99h)
Serial Data Buffer
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
Bit
Number
7-0
Bit
Mnemonic Description
Data sent/received by Serial I/O Port
Reset Value = 0000 0000b
Not bit addressable
52
T89C51AC2
4127D–8051–02/03
T89C51AC2
Table 32. PCON Register
PCON (S:87h)
Power Control Register
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
SMOD1
SMOD0
–
POF
GF1
GF0
PD
IDL
Bit
Number
Bit
Mnemonic Description
7
SMOD1
Serial port Mode bit 1
Set to select double baud rate in mode 1, 2 or 3.
6
SMOD0
Serial port Mode bit 0
Clear to select SM0 bit in SCON register.
Set to select FE bit in SCON register.
5
-
Reserved
The value read from this bit is indeterminate. Do not set this bit.
4
POF
Power-Off Flag
Clear to recognize next reset type.
Set by hardware when VCC rises from 0 to its nominal voltage. Can also be set
by software.
3
GF1
General-purpose Flag
Cleared by user for general-purpose usage.
Set by user for general-purpose usage.
2
GF0
General-purpose Flag
Cleared by user for general-purpose usage.
Set by user for general-purpose usage.
1
PD
Power-Down mode bit
Cleared by hardware when reset occurs.
Set to enter power-down mode.
0
IDL
Idle mode bit
Clear by hardware when interrupt or reset occurs.
Set to enter idle mode.
Reset Value = 00X1 0000b
Not bit addressable
53
4127D–8051–02/03
Timers/Counters
The T89C51AC2 implements two general-purpose, 16-bit Timers/Counters. Such are
identified as Timer 0 and Timer 1, and can be independently configured to operate in a
variety of modes as a Timer or an event Counter. When operating as a Timer, the
Timer/Counter runs for a programmed length of time, then issues an interrupt request.
When operating as a Counter, the Timer/Counter counts negative transitions on an
external pin. After a preset number of counts, the Counter issues an interrupt request.
The various operating modes of each Timer/Counter are described in the following
sections.
Timer/Counter
Operations
A basic operation is Timer registers THx and TLx (x = 0, 1) connected in cascade to
form a 16-bit Timer. Setting the run control bit (TRx) in TCON register (see Figure 33)
turns the Timer on by allowing the selected input to increment TLx. When TLx overflows
it increments THx; when THx overflows it sets the Timer overflow flag (TFx) in TCON
register. Setting the TRx does not clear the THx and TLx Timer registers. Timer registers can be accessed to obtain the current count or to enter preset values. They can be
read at any time but TRx bit must be cleared to preset their values, otherwise the behavior of the Timer/Counter is unpredictable.
The C/Tx# control bit selects Timer operation or Counter operation by selecting the
divided-down peripheral clock or external pin Tx as the source for the counted signal.
TRx bit must be cleared when changing the mode of operation, otherwise the behavior
of the Timer/Counter is unpredictable.
For Timer operation (C/Tx# = 0), the Timer register counts the divided-down peripheral
clock. The Timer register is incremented once every peripheral cycle (6 peripheral clock
periods). The Timer clock rate is FPER/6, i.e. FOSC/12 in standard mode or FOSC/6 in X2
mode.
For Counter operation (C/Tx# = 1), the Timer register counts the negative transitions on
the Tx external input pin. The external input is sampled every peripheral cycles. When
the sample is high in one cycle and low in the next one, the Counter is incremented.
Since it takes 2 cycles (12 peripheral clock periods) to recognize a negative transition,
the maximum count rate is FPER/12, i.e. FOSC/24 in standard mode or FOSC/12 in X2
mode. There are no restrictions on the duty cycle of the external input signal, but to
ensure that a given level is sampled at least once before it changes, it should be held for
at least one full peripheral cycle.
Timer 0
Timer 0 functions as either a Timer or event Counter in four modes of operation.
Figure 31 to Figure 34 show the logical configuration of each mode.
Timer 0 is controlled by the four lower bits of TMOD register (see Figure 34) and bits 0,
1, 4 and 5 of TCON register (see Figure 33). TMOD register selects the method of Timer
gating (GATE0), Timer or Counter operation (T/C0#) and mode of operation (M10 and
M00). TCON register provides Timer 0 control functions: overflow flag (TF0), run control
bit (TR0), interrupt flag (IE0) and interrupt type control bit (IT0).
For normal Timer operation (GATE0 = 0), setting TR0 allows TL0 to be incremented by
the selected input. Setting GATE0 and TR0 allows external pin INT0# to control Timer
operation.
Timer 0 overflow (count rolls over from all 1s to all 0s) sets TF0 flag generating an interrupt request.
It is important to stop Timer/Counter before changing mode.
54
T89C51AC2
4127D–8051–02/03
T89C51AC2
Mode 0 (13-bit Timer)
Mode 0 configures Timer 0 as an 13-bit Timer which is set up as an 8-bit Timer (TH0
register) with a modulo 32 prescaler implemented with the lower five bits of TL0 register
(see Figure 31). The upper three bits of TL0 register are indeterminate and should be
ignored. Prescaler overflow increments TH0 register.
Figure 31. Timer/Counter x (x = 0 or 1) in Mode 0
See the “Clock” section
FTx
CLOCK
÷6
0
THx
(8 bits)
1
TLx
(5 bits)
Overflow
TFx
TCON reg
Tx
Timer x
Interrupt
Request
C/Tx#
TMOD reg
INTx#
GATEx
TRx
TMOD reg
Mode 1 (16-bit Timer)
TCON reg
Mode 1 configures Timer 0 as a 16-bit Timer with TH0 and TL0 registers connected in
cascade (see Figure 32). The selected input increments TL0 register.
Figure 32. Timer/Counter x (x = 0 or 1) in Mode 1
See the “Clock” section
FTx
CLOCK
÷6
0
THx
(8 bits)
1
Tx
TLx
(8 bits)
Overflow
TFx
TCON reg
Timer x
Interrupt
Request
C/Tx#
TMOD reg
INTx#
GATEx
TMOD reg
TRx
TCON reg
55
4127D–8051–02/03
Mode 2 (8-bit Timer with AutoReload)
Mode 2 configures Timer 0 as an 8-bit Timer (TL0 register) that automatically reloads
from TH0 register (see Figure 33). TL0 overflow sets TF0 flag in TCON register and
reloads TL0 with the contents of TH0, which is preset by software. When the interrupt
request is serviced, hardware clears TF0. The reload leaves TH0 unchanged. The next
reload value may be changed at any time by writing it to TH0 register.
Figure 33. Timer/Counter x (x = 0 or 1) in Mode 2
See the “Clock” section
FTx
CLOCK
÷6
0
TLx
(8 bits)
1
Overflow
TFx
TCON reg
Tx
Timer x
Interrupt
Request
C/Tx#
TMOD reg
INTx#
GATEx
THx
(8 bits)
TRx
TMOD reg
TCON reg
Mode 3 (Two 8-bit Timers)
Mode 3 configures Timer 0 such that registers TL0 and TH0 operate as separate 8-bit
Timers (see Figure 34). This mode is provided for applications requiring an additional 8bit Timer or Counter. TL0 uses the Timer 0 control bits C/T0# and GATE0 in TMOD register, and TR0 and TF0 in TCON register in the normal manner. TH0 is locked into a
Timer function (counting FPER /6) and takes over use of the Timer 1 interrupt (TF1) and
run control (TR1) bits. Thus, operation of Timer 1 is restricted when Timer 0 is in mode
3.
Figure 34. Timer/Counter 0 in Mode 3: Two 8-bit Counters
FTx
CLOCK
÷6
0
1
TL0
(8 bits)
Overflow
TH0
(8 bits)
Overflow
TF0
TCON.5
T0
Timer 0
Interrupt
Request
C/T0#
TMOD.2
INT0#
GATE0
TMOD.3
FTx
CLOCK
÷6
See the “Clock” section
56
TR0
TCON.4
TF1
TCON.7
Timer 1
Interrupt
Request
TR1
TCON.6
T89C51AC2
4127D–8051–02/03
T89C51AC2
Timer 1
Timer 1 is identical to Timer 0 excepted for Mode 3 which is a hold-count mode. The following comments help to understand the differences:
•
Timer 1 functions as either a Timer or event Counter in three modes of operation.
Figure 31 to Figure 33 show the logical configuration for modes 0, 1, and 2. Timer
1’s mode 3 is a hold-count mode.
•
Timer 1 is controlled by the four high-order bits of TMOD register (see Figure 34)
and bits 2, 3, 6 and 7 of TCON register (see Figure 33). TMOD register selects the
method of Timer gating (GATE1), Timer or Counter operation (C/T1#) and mode of
operation (M11 and M01). TCON register provides Timer 1 control functions:
overflow flag (TF1), run control bit (TR1), interrupt flag (IE1) and interrupt type
control bit (IT1).
•
Timer 1 can serve as the Baud Rate Generator for the Serial Port. Mode 2 is best
suited for this purpose.
•
For normal Timer operation (GATE1 = 0), setting TR1 allows TL1 to be incremented
by the selected input. Setting GATE1 and TR1 allows external pin INT1# to control
Timer operation.
•
Timer 1 overflow (count rolls over from all 1s to all 0s) sets the TF1 flag generating
an interrupt request.
•
When Timer 0 is in mode 3, it uses Timer 1’s overflow flag (TF1) and run control bit
(TR1). For this situation, use Timer 1 only for applications that do not require an
interrupt (such as a Baud Rate Generator for the Serial Port) and switch Timer 1 in
and out of mode 3 to turn it off and on.
•
It is important to stop Timer/Counter before changing mode.
Mode 0 (13-bit Timer)
Mode 0 configures Timer 1 as a 13-bit Timer, which is set up as an 8-bit Timer (TH1 register) with a modulo-32 prescaler implemented with the lower 5 bits of the TL1 register
(see Figure 31). The upper 3 bits of TL1 register are ignored. Prescaler overflow increments TH1 register.
Mode 1 (16-bit Timer)
Mode 1 configures Timer 1 as a 16-bit Timer with TH1 and TL1 registers connected in
cascade (see Figure 32). The selected input increments TL1 register.
Mode 2 (8-bit Timer with AutoReload)
Mode 2 configures Timer 1 as an 8-bit Timer (TL1 register) with automatic reload from
TH1 register on overflow (see Figure 33). TL1 overflow sets TF1 flag in TCON register
and reloads TL1 with the contents of TH1, which is preset by software. The reload
leaves TH1 unchanged.
Mode 3 (Halt)
Placing Timer 1 in mode 3 causes it to halt and hold its count. This can be used to halt
Timer 1 when TR1 run control bit is not available i.e. when Timer 0 is in mode 3.
Interrupt
Each Timer handles one interrupt source that is the timer overflow flag TF0 or TF1. This
flag is set every time an overflow occurs. Flags are cleared when vectoring to the Timer
interrupt routine. Interrupts are enabled by setting ETx bit in IEN0 register. This assumes
interrupts are globally enabled by setting EA bit in IEN0 register.
57
4127D–8051–02/03
Figure 35. Timer Interrupt System
Timer 0
Interrupt Request
TF0
TCON.5
ET0
IEN0.1
Timer 1
Interrupt Request
TF1
TCON.7
ET1
IEN0.3
58
T89C51AC2
4127D–8051–02/03
T89C51AC2
Registers
Table 33. TCON Register
TCON (S:88h)
Timer/Counter Control Register
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
TF1
TR1
TF0
TR0
IE1
IT1
IE0
IT0
Bit
Number
Bit
Mnemonic Description
7
TF1
Timer 1 Overflow Flag
Cleared by hardware when processor vectors to interrupt routine.
Set by hardware on Timer/Counter overflow, when Timer 1 register overflows.
6
TR1
Timer 1 Run Control Bit
Clear to turn off Timer/Counter 1.
Set to turn on Timer/Counter 1.
5
TF0
Timer 0 Overflow Flag
Cleared by hardware when processor vectors to interrupt routine.
Set by hardware on Timer/Counter overflow, when Timer 0 register overflows.
4
TR0
Timer 0 Run Control Bit
Clear to turn off Timer/Counter 0.
Set to turn on Timer/Counter 0.
3
IE1
Interrupt 1 Edge Flag
Cleared by hardware when interrupt is processed if edge-triggered (see IT1).
Set by hardware when external interrupt is detected on INT1# pin.
2
IT1
Interrupt 1 Type Control Bit
Clear to select low level active (level triggered) for external interrupt 1 (INT1#).
Set to select falling edge active (edge triggered) for external interrupt 1.
1
IE0
Interrupt 0 Edge Flag
Cleared by hardware when interrupt is processed if edge-triggered (see IT0).
Set by hardware when external interrupt is detected on INT0# pin.
0
IT0
Interrupt 0 Type Control Bit
Clear to select low level active (level triggered) for external interrupt 0 (INT0#).
Set to select falling edge active (edge triggered) for external interrupt 0.
Reset Value = 0000 0000b
59
4127D–8051–02/03
Table 34. TMOD Register
TMOD (S:89h)
Timer/Counter Mode Control Register
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
GATE1
C/T1#
M11
M01
GATE0
C/T0#
M10
M00
Bit
Number
Bit
Mnemonic Description
7
GATE1
Timer 1 Gating Control Bit
Clear to enable Timer 1 whenever TR1 bit is set.
Set to enable Timer 1 only while INT1# pin is high and TR1 bit is set.
6
C/T1#
Timer 1 Counter/Timer Select Bit
Clear for Timer operation: Timer 1 counts the divided-down system clock.
Set for Counter operation: Timer 1 counts negative transitions on external pin T1.
5
M11
4
M01
3
GATE0
Timer 0 Gating Control Bit
Clear to enable Timer 0 whenever TR0 bit is set.
Set to enable Timer/Counter 0 only while INT0# pin is high and TR0 bit is set.
2
C/T0#
Timer 0 Counter/Timer Select Bit
Clear for Timer operation: Timer 0 counts the divided-down system clock.
Set for Counter operation: Timer 0 counts negative transitions on external pin T0.
1
M10
0
M00
Timer 1 Mode Select Bits
Operating mode
M11 M01
0
0
Mode 0: 8-bit Timer/Counter (TH1) with 5-bit prescaler (TL1).
0
1
Mode 1: 16-bit Timer/Counter.
1
0
Mode 2: 8-bit auto-reload Timer/Counter (TL1)(1)
1
1
Mode 3: Timer 1 halted. Retains count
Timer 0 Mode Select Bit
Operating mode
M10 M00
0
0
Mode 0: 8-bit Timer/Counter (TH0) with 5-bit prescaler (TL0).
0
1
Mode 1: 16-bit Timer/Counter.
1
0
Mode 2: 8-bit auto-reload Timer/Counter (TL0)(2)
1
1
Mode 3: TL0 is an 8-bit Timer/Counter
TH0 is an 8-bit Timer using Timer 1’s TR0 and TF0 bits.
Notes: 1. Reloaded from TH1 at overflow.
2. Reloaded from TH0 at overflow.
Reset Value = 0000 0000b
60
T89C51AC2
4127D–8051–02/03
T89C51AC2
Table 35. TH0 Register
TH0 (S:8Ch)
Timer 0 High Byte Register
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
Bit
Number
Bit
Mnemonic Description
7:0
High Byte of Timer 0.
Reset Value = 0000 0000b
Table 36. TL0 Register
TL0 (S:8Ah)
Timer 0 Low Byte Register
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
Bit
Number
Bit
Mnemonic Description
7:0
Low Byte of Timer 0.
Reset Value = 0000 0000b
Table 37. TH1 Register
TH1 (S:8Dh)
Timer 1 High Byte Register
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
Bit
Number
7:0
Bit
Mnemonic Description
High Byte of Timer 1.
Reset Value = 0000 0000b
61
4127D–8051–02/03
Table 38. TL1 Register
TL1 (S:8Bh)
Timer 1 Low Byte Register
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
Bit
Number
7:0
Bit
Mnemonic Description
Low Byte of Timer 1.
Reset Value = 0000 0000b
62
T89C51AC2
4127D–8051–02/03
T89C51AC2
Timer 2
The T89C51AC2 timer 2 is compatible with timer 2 in the 80C52.
It is a 16-bit timer/counter: the count is maintained by two eight-bit timer registers, TH2
and TL2 that are cascade- connected. It is controlled by T2CON register (See Table )
and T2MOD register (See Table 41). Timer 2 operation is similar to Timer 0 and Timer
1. C/T2 selects FT2 clock/6 (timer operation) or external pin T2 (counter operation) as
timer clock. Setting TR2 allows TL2 to be incremented by the selected input.
Timer 2 includes the following enhancements:
Auto-Reload Mode
•
Auto-reload mode (up or down counter)
•
Programmable clock-output
The auto-reload mode configures timer 2 as a 16-bit timer or event counter with automatic reload. This feature is controlled by the DCEN bit in T2MOD register (See
Table 41). Setting the DCEN bit enables timer 2 to count up or down as shown in
Figure 36. In this mode the T2EX pin controls the counting direction.
When T2EX is high, timer 2 counts up. Timer overflow occurs at FFFFh which sets the
TF2 flag and generates an interrupt request. The overflow also causes the 16-bit value
in RCAP2H and RCAP2L registers to be loaded into the timer registers TH2 and TL2.
When T2EX is low, timer 2 counts down. Timer underflow occurs when the count in the
timer registers TH2 and TL2 equals the value stored in RCAP2H and RCAP2L registers.
The underflow sets TF2 flag and reloads FFFFh into the timer registers.
The EXF2 bit toggles when timer 2 overflow or underflow, depending on the direction of
the count. EXF2 does not generate an interrupt. This bit can be used to provide 17-bit
resolution.
Figure 36. Auto-Reload Mode Up/Down Counter
see section “Clock”
FT2
CLOCK
:6
0
1
TR2
T2CON.2
CT/2
T2CON.1
T2
(DOWN COUNTING RELOAD VALUE)
FFh
(8-bit)
FFh
(8-bit)
T2EX:
1=UP
2=DOWN
TOGGLE T2CONreg
EXF2
TL2
(8-bit)
TH2
(8-bit)
TF2
TIMER 2
INTERRUPT
T2CONreg
RCAP2L
(8-bit)
RCAP2H
(8-bit)
(UP COUNTING RELOAD VALUE)
63
4127D–8051–02/03
Programmable ClockOutput
In clock-out mode, timer 2 operates as a 50%-duty-cycle, programmable clock generator (See Figure 37). The input clock increments TL2 at frequency F OSC/2. The timer
repeatedly counts to overflow from a loaded value. At overflow, the contents of RCAP2H
and RCAP2L registers are loaded into TH2 and TL2. In this mode, timer 2 overflows do
not generate interrupts. The formula gives the clock-out frequency depending on the
system oscillator frequency and the value in the RCAP2H and RCAP2L registers:
FT2clock
Clock – OutFrequency = -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------4 × ( 65536 – RCAP2H ⁄ RCAP2L )
For a 16 MHz system clock in x1 mode, timer 2 has a programmable frequency range of
61 Hz (FOSC/216) to 4 MHz (FOSC/4). The generated clock signal is brought out to T2 pin
(P1.0).
Timer 2 is programmed for the clock-out mode as follows:
•
Set T2OE bit in T2MOD register.
•
Clear C/T2 bit in T2CON register.
•
Determine the 16-bit reload value from the formula and enter it in RCAP2H/RCAP2L
registers.
•
Enter a 16-bit initial value in timer registers TH2/TL2. It can be the same as the
reload value or different depending on the application.
•
To start the timer, set TR2 run control bit in T2CON register.
It is possible to use timer 2 as a baud rate generator and a clock generator simultaneously. For this configuration, the baud rates and clock frequencies are not
independent since both functions use the values in the RCAP2H and RCAP2L registers.
Figure 37. Clock-Out Mode
FT2
CLOCK
0
1
TR2
T2CON.2
CT/2
TL2
(8-bit)
TH2
(8-bit)
T2CON.1
OVERFLOW
RCAP2L RCAP2H
(8-bit)
(8-bit)
T2
1
0
:2
C/T2
T2OE
T2CON reg
T2MOD reg
EXF2
T2EX
EXEN2
T2CON reg
64
TIMER 2
INTERRUPT
T2CON reg
T89C51AC2
4127D–8051–02/03
T89C51AC2
Registers
Table 39. T2CON Register
T2CON (S:C8h)
Timer 2 Control Register
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
TF2
EXF2
RCLK
TCLK
EXEN2
TR2
C/T2#
CP/RL2#
Bit
Number
7
Bit
Mnemonic Description
TF2
Timer 2 Overflow Flag
TF2 is not set if RCLK=1 or TCLK = 1.
Must be cleared by software.
Set by hardware on timer 2 overflow.
6
EXF2
Timer 2 External Flag
Set when a capture or a reload is caused by a negative transition on T2EX pin if
EXEN2=1.
Set to cause the CPU to vector to timer 2 interrupt routine when timer 2 interrupt
is enabled.
Must be cleared by software.
5
RCLK
Receive Clock bit
Clear to use timer 1 overflow as receive clock for serial port in mode 1 or 3.
Set to use timer 2 overflow as receive clock for serial port in mode 1 or 3.
4
TCLK
Transmit Clock bit
Clear to use timer 1 overflow as transmit clock for serial port in mode 1 or 3.
Set to use timer 2 overflow as transmit clock for serial port in mode 1 or 3.
3
EXEN2
2
TR2
1
C/T2#
0
CP/RL2#
Timer 2 External Enable bit
Clear to ignore events on T2EX pin for timer 2 operation.
Set to cause a capture or reload when a negative transition on T2EX pin is
detected, if timer 2 is not used to clock the serial port.
Timer 2 Run Control bit
Clear to turn off timer 2.
Set to turn on timer 2.
Timer/Counter 2 Select bit
Clear for timer operation (input from internal clock system: FOSC).
Set for counter operation (input from T2 input pin).
Timer 2 Capture/Reload bit
If RCLK=1 or TCLK=1, CP/RL2# is ignored and timer is forced to auto-reload on
timer 2 overflow.
Clear to auto-reload on timer 2 overflows or negative transitions on T2EX pin if
EXEN2=1.
Set to capture on negative transitions on T2EX pin if EXEN2=1.
Reset Value = 0000 0000b
Bit addressable
65
4127D–8051–02/03
Table 40. T2MOD Register
T2MOD (S:C9h)
Timer 2 Mode Control Register
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
-
-
-
-
-
-
T2OE
DCEN
Bit
Number
Bit
Mnemonic Description
7
-
Reserved
The value read from this bit is indeterminate. Do not set this bit.
6
-
Reserved
The value read from this bit is indeterminate. Do not set this bit.
5
-
Reserved
The value read from this bit is indeterminate. Do not set this bit.
4
-
Reserved
The value read from this bit is indeterminate. Do not set this bit.
3
-
Reserved
The value read from this bit is indeterminate. Do not set this bit.
2
-
Reserved
The value read from this bit is indeterminate. Do not set this bit.
1
T2OE
Timer 2 Output Enable bit
Clear to program P1.0/T2 as clock input or I/O port.
Set to program P1.0/T2 as clock output.
0
DCEN
Down Counter Enable bit
Clear to disable timer 2 as up/down counter.
Set to enable timer 2 as up/down counter.
Reset Value = XXXX XX00b
Not bit addressable
Table 41. TH2 Register
TH2 (S:CDh)
Timer 2 High Byte Register
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
Bit
Number
7-0
Bit
Mnemonic Description
High Byte of Timer 2.
Reset Value = 0000 0000b
Not bit addressable
66
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T89C51AC2
Table 42. TL2 Register
TL2 (S:CCh)
Timer 2 Low Byte Register
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
Bit
Number
Bit
Mnemonic Description
7-0
Low Byte of Timer 2.
Reset Value = 0000 0000b
Not bit addressable
Table 43. RCAP2H Register
RCAP2H (S:CBh)
Timer 2 Reload/Capture High Byte Register
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
Bit
Number
Bit
Mnemonic Description
7-0
High Byte of Timer 2 Reload/Capture.
Reset Value = 0000 0000b
Not bit addressable
Table 44. RCAP2L Register
RCAP2L (S:CAH)
TIMER 2 REload/Capture Low Byte Register
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
Bit
Number
7-0
Bit
Mnemonic Description
Low Byte of Timer 2 Reload/Capture.
Reset Value = 0000 0000b
Not bit addressable
67
4127D–8051–02/03
Watchdog Timer
T89C51AC2 contains a powerful programmable hardware Watchdog Timer (WDT) that
automatically resets the chip if it software fails to reset the WDT before the selected time
interval has elapsed. It permits large Time-Out ranking from 16ms to 2s @Fosc =
12MHz in X1 mode.
This WDT consists of a 14-bit counter plus a 7-bit programmable counter, a Watchdog
Timer reset register (WDTRST) and a Watchdog Timer programming (WDTPRG) register. When exiting reset, the WDT is -by default- disable.
To enable the WDT, the user has to write the sequence 1EH and E1H into WDTRST
register no instruction in between. When the Watchdog Timer is enabled, it will increment every machine cycle while the oscillator is running and there is no way to disable
the WDT except through reset (either hardware reset or WDT overflow reset). When
WDT overflows, it will generate an output RESET pulse at the RST pin. The RESET
pulse duration is 96xTOSC, where TOSC=1/FOSC. To make the best use of the WDT, it
should be serviced in those sections of code that will periodically be executed within the
time required to prevent a WDT reset
Note:
When the Watchdog is enable it is impossible to change its period.
Figure 38. Watchdog Timer
Fwd
CLOCK
÷ PS
CPU and Peripheral
Clock
÷6
Decoder
RESET
WR
Control
WDTRST
Enable
14-bit COUNTER
7-bit COUNTER
Fwd Clock
WDTPRG
Outputs
-
-
-
-
-
2
1
0
RESET
68
T89C51AC2
4127D–8051–02/03
T89C51AC2
Watchdog Programming
The three lower bits (S0, S1, S2) located into WDTPRG register permit to program the
WDT duration.
Table 45. Machine Cycle Count
S2
S1
S0
Machine Cycle Count
0
0
0
214 - 1
0
0
1
215 - 1
0
1
0
216 - 1
0
1
1
217 - 1
1
0
0
218 - 1
1
0
1
219 - 1
1
1
0
220 - 1
1
1
1
221 - 1
To compute WD Time-Out, the following formula is applied:
F wd
FTime – Out = ------------------------------------------------------------------14
Svalue
12 × ( ( 2 × 2
) – 1)
Note:
Svalue represents the decimal value of (S2 S1 S0)
The following table outlines the time-out value for FoscXTAL = 12 MHz in X1 mode
Table 46. Time-Out Computation
S2
S1
S0
Fosc = 12 MHz
Fosc = 16 MHz
Fosc = 20 MHz
0
0
0
16.38 ms
12.28 ms
9.82 ms
0
0
1
32.77 ms
24.57 ms
19.66 ms
0
1
0
65.54 ms
49.14 ms
39.32 ms
0
1
1
131.07 ms
98.28 ms
78.64 ms
1
0
0
262.14 ms
196.56 ms
157.28 ms
1
0
1
524.29 ms
393.12 ms
314.56 ms
1
1
0
1.05 s
786.24 ms
629.12 ms
1
1
1
2.10 s
1.57 s
1.25 ms
69
4127D–8051–02/03
Watchdog Timer During
Power-down Mode and
Idle
In Power-down mode the oscillator stops, which means the WDT also stops. While in
Power-down mode, the user does not need to service the WDT. There are 2 methods of
exiting Power-down mode: by a hardware reset or via a level activated external interrupt
which is enabled prior to entering Power-down mode. When Power-down is exited with
hardware reset, the Watchdog is disabled. Exiting Power-down with an interrupt is significantly different. The interrupt shall be held low long enough for the oscillator to
stabilize. When the interrupt is brought high, the interrupt is serviced. To prevent the
WDT from resetting the device while the interrupt pin is held low, the WDT is not started
until the interrupt is pulled high. It is suggested that the WDT be reset during the interrupt service for the interrupt used to exit Power-down.
To ensure that the WDT does not overflow within a few states of exiting powerdown, it is
best to reset the WDT just before entering powerdown.
In the Idle mode, the oscillator continues to run. To prevent the WDT from resetting
T89C51AC2 while in Idle mode, the user should always set up a timer that will periodically exit Idle, service the WDT, and re-enter Idle mode.
Register
Table 47. WDTPRG Register
WDTPRG (S:A7h)
Watchdog Timer Duration Programming Register
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
–
–
–
–
–
S2
S1
S0
Bit
Number
Bit
Mnemonic Description
7
-
Reserved
The value read from this bit is indeterminate. Do not set this bit.
6
-
Reserved
The value read from this bit is indeterminate. Do not set this bit.
5
-
Reserved
The value read from this bit is indeterminate. Do not set this bit.
4
-
Reserved
The value read from this bit is indeterminate. Do not set this bit.
3
-
Reserved
The value read from this bit is indeterminate. Do not set this bit.
2
S2
Watchdog Timer Duration selection bit 2
Work in conjunction with bit 1 and bit 0.
1
S1
Watchdog Timer Duration selection bit 1
Work in conjunction with bit 2 and bit 0.
0
S0
Watchdog Timer Duration selection bit 0
Work in conjunction with bit 1 and bit 2.
Reset Value = XXXX X000b
70
T89C51AC2
4127D–8051–02/03
T89C51AC2
Table 48. WDTRST Register
WDTRST (S:A6h Write only)
Watchdog Timer Enable Register
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
Bit
Number
7
Bit
Mnemonic Description
-
Watchdog Control Value
Reset Value = 1111 1111b
Note:
The WDRST register is used to reset/enable the WDT by writing 1EH then E1H in
sequence without instruction between these two sequences.
71
4127D–8051–02/03
Programmable
Counter Array (PCA)
The PCA provides more timing capabilities with less CPU intervention than the standard
timer/counters. Its advantages include reduced software overhead and improved accuracy. The PCA consists of a dedicated timer/counter which serves as the time base for
an array of five compare/capture modules. Its clock input can be programmed to count
any of the following signals:
•
PCA clock frequency/6 (see “clock” section)
•
PCA clock frequency/2
•
Timer 0 overflow
•
External input on ECI (P1.2)
Each compare/capture modules can be programmed in any one of the following modes:
•
rising and/or falling edge capture,
•
software timer,
•
high-speed output,
•
pulse width modulator.
Module 4 can also be programmed as a Watchdog timer. see the "PCA Watchdog
Timer" section.
When the compare/capture modules are programmed in capture mode, software timer,
or high speed output mode, an interrupt can be generated when the module executes its
function. All five modules plus the PCA timer overflow share one interrupt vector.
The PCA timer/counter and compare/capture modules share Port 1 for external I/Os.
These pins are listed below. If the port is not used for the PCA, it can still be used for
standard I/O.
PCA Timer
72
PCA Component
External I/O Pin
16-bit Counter
P1.2/ECI
16-bit Module 0
P1.3/CEX0
16-bit Module 1
P1.4/CEX1
16-bit Module 2
P1.5/CEX2
16-bit Module 3
P1.6/CEX3
16-bit Module 4
P1.7/CEX4
The PCA timer is a common time base for all five modules (see Figure 39). The timer
count source is determined from the CPS1 and CPS0 bits in the CMOD SFR (see Table
8) and can be programmed to run at:
•
1/6 the PCA clock frequency.
•
1/2 the PCA clock frequency.
•
the Timer 0 overflow.
•
the input on the ECI pin (P1.2).
T89C51AC2
4127D–8051–02/03
T89C51AC2
Figure 39. PCA Timer/Counter
To PCA
modules
FPca/6
overflow
FPca/2
CH
T0 OVF
It
CL
16 bit up/down counter
P1.2
CIDL
WDTE
CF
CR
CPS1 CPS0
ECF
CMOD
0xD9
Idle
CCF4 CCF3 CCF2 CCF1 CCF0
CCON
0xD8
The CMOD register includes three additional bits associated with the PCA.
•
The CIDL bit which allows the PCA to stop during idle mode.
•
The WDTE bit which enables or disables the Watchdog function on module 4.
•
The ECF bit which when set causes an interrupt and the PCA overflow flag CF in
CCON register to be set when the PCA timer overflows.
The CCON register contains the run control bit for the PCA and the flags for the PCA
timer and each module.
PCA Modules
•
The CR bit must be set to run the PCA. The PCA is shut off by clearing this bit.
•
The CF bit is set when the PCA counter overflows and an interrupt will be generated
if the ECF bit in CMOD register is set. The CF bit can only be cleared by software.
•
The CCF0:4 bits are the flags for the modules (CCF0 for module0...) and are set by
hardware when either a match or a capture occurs. These flags also can be cleared
by software.
Each one of the five compare/capture modules has six possible functions. It can
perform:
•
16-bit Capture, positive-edge triggered
•
16-bit Capture, negative-edge triggered
•
16-bit Capture, both positive and negative-edge triggered
•
16-bit Software Timer
•
16-bit High Speed Output
•
8-bit Pulse Width Modulator.
In addition module 4 can be used as a Watchdog Timer.
73
4127D–8051–02/03
Each module in the PCA has a special function register associated with it (CCAPM0 for
module 0...). The CCAPM0:4 registers contain the bits that control the mode that each
module will operate in.
•
The ECCF bit enables the CCF flag in the CCON register to generate an interrupt
when a match or compare occurs in the associated module.
•
The PWM bit enables the pulse width modulation mode.
•
The TOG bit when set causes the CEX output associated with the module to toggle
when there is a match between the PCA counter and the module’s capture/compare
register.
•
The match bit MAT when set will cause the CCFn bit in the CCON register to be set
when there is a match between the PCA counter and the module’s capture/compare
register.
•
The two bits CAPN and CAPP in CCAPMn register determine the edge that a
capture input will be active on. The CAPN bit enables the negative edge, and the
CAPP bit enables the positive edge. If both bits are set both edges will be enabled.
•
The bit ECOM in CCAPM register when set enables the comparator function.
PCA Interrupt
Figure 40. PCA Interrupt System
CF
CR
CCF4 CCF3 CCF2 CCF1 CCF0
CCON
PCA Timer/Counter
Module 0
Module 1
To Interrupt
Module 2
Module 3
Module 4
ECF
CMOD.0
PCA Capture Mode
74
ECCFn
EC
EA
CCAPMn.0
IEN0.6
IEN0.7
To use one of the PCA modules in capture mode either one or both of the CCAPM bits
CAPN and CAPP for that module must be set. The external CEX input for the module
(on port 1) is sampled for a transition. When a valid transition occurs the PCA hardware
loads the value of the PCA counter registers (CH and CL) into the module’s capture registers (CCAPnL and CCAPnH). If the CCFn bit for the module in the CCON SFR and the
ECCFn bit in the CCAPMn SFR are set then an interrupt will be generated.
T89C51AC2
4127D–8051–02/03
T89C51AC2
Figure 41. PCA Capture Mode
PCA Counter
CH
CL
(8bits) (8bits)
CEXn
n = 0, 4
CCAPnH CCAPnL
PCA
Interrupt
Request
CCFn
CCON
-
0CAPPn CAPNn
000
ECCFn
0
7
CCAPMn Register (n = 0, 4)
16-bit Software Timer
Mode
The PCA modules can be used as software timers by setting both the ECOM and MAT
bits in the modules CCAPMn register. The PCA timer will be compared to the module’s
capture registers and when a match occurs an interrupt will occur if the CCFn (CCON
SFR) and the ECCFn (CCAPMn SFR) bits for the module are both set.
Figure 42. PCA 16-bit Software Timer and High Speed Output Mode
PCA Counter
CH
CL
(8 bits) (8 bits)
Compare/Capture Module
CCAPnL
CCAPnH
(8 bits)
(8 bits)
Match
Toggle
16-Bit Comparator
CEXn
Enable
CCFn
CCON reg
7
“0”
Reset
Write to
CCAPnL
“1”
PCA
Interrupt
Request
ECOMn0 0 MATn TOGn0 ECCFn
0
CCAPMn Register
(n = 0, 4)
For software Timer mode, set ECOMn and MATn.
For high speed output mode, set ECOMn, MATn and TOGn.
Write to CCAPnH
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4127D–8051–02/03
High Speed Output Mode In this mode the CEX output (on port 1) associated with the PCA module will toggle
each time a match occurs between the PCA counter and the module’s capture registers.
To activate this mode the TOG, MAT, and ECOM bits in the module’s CCAPMn SFR
must be set.
Figure 43. PCA High Speed Output Mode
CCON
CF
Write to
CCAPnH
CR
CCF4 CCF3 CCF2 CCF1 CCF0
0xD8
Reset
PCA IT
Write to
CCAPnL
“0”
CCAPnH
“1”
CCAPnL
Enable
16-bit comparator
CH
Match
CL
CEXn
PCA counter/timer
ECOMn CAPPn CAPNn MATn TOGn PWMn ECCFn
Pulse Width Modulator
Mode
76
CCAPMn, n = 0 to 4
0xDA to 0xDE
All the PCA modules can be used as PWM outputs. The output frequency depends on
the source for the PCA timer. All the modules will have the same output frequency
because they all share the PCA timer. The duty cycle of each module is independently
variable using the module’s capture register CCAPLn. When the value of the PCA CL
SFR is less than the value in the module’s CCAPLn SFR the output will be low, when it
is equal to or greater than it, the output will be high. When CL overflows from FF to 00,
CCAPLn is reloaded with the value in CCAPHn. the allows the PWM to be updated without glitches. The PWM and ECOM bits in the module’s CCAPMn register must be set to
enable the PWM mode.
T89C51AC2
4127D–8051–02/03
T89C51AC2
Figure 44. PCA PWM Mode
CCAPnH
CL rolls over from FFh TO 00h loads
CCAPnH contents into CCAPnL
CCAPnL
“0”
CL < CCAPnL
8-Bit
Comparator
CL (8 bits)
CEX
CL > = CCAPnL
“1”
PCA Watchdog Timer
ECOMn
PWMn
CCAPMn.6
CCAPMn.1
An on-board Watchdog timer is available with the PCA to improve system reliability without increasing chip count. Watchdog timers are useful for systems that are sensitive to
noise, power glitches, or electrostatic discharge. Module 4 is the only PCA module that
can be programmed as a Watchdog. However, this module can still be used for other
modes if the Watchdog is not needed. The user pre-loads a 16-bit value in the compare
registers. Just like the other compare modes, this 16-bit value is compared to the PCA
timer value. If a match is allowed to occur, an internal reset will be generated. This will
not cause the RST pin to be driven high.
To hold off the reset, the user has three options:
•
periodically change the compare value so it will never match the PCA timer,
•
periodically change the PCA timer value so it will never match the compare values,
or
•
disable the Watchdog by clearing the WDTE bit before a match occurs and then reenable it.
The first two options are more reliable because the Watchdog timer is never disabled as
in the third option. If the program counter ever goes astray, a match will eventually occur
and cause an internal reset. If other PCA modules are being used the second option not
recommended either. Remember, the PCA timer is the time base for all modules;
changing the time base for other modules would not be a good idea. Thus, in most applications the first solution is the best option.
77
4127D–8051–02/03
PCA Registers
Table 49. CMOD Register
CMOD (S:D9h)
PCA Counter Mode Register
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
CIDL
WDTE
-
-
-
CPS1
CPS0
ECF
Bit
Number
Bit
Mnemonic Description
PCA Counter Idle Control bit
Clear to let the PCA run during Idle mode.
Set to stop the PCA when Idle mode is invoked.
7
CIDL
6
WDTE
5
-
Reserved
The value read from this bit is indeterminate. Do not set this bit.
4
-
Reserved
The value read from this bit is indeterminate. Do not set this bit.
3
-
Reserved
The value read from this bit is indeterminate. Do not set this bit.
Watchdog Timer Enable
Clear to disable Watchdog Timer function on PCA Module 4,
Set to enable it.
2
CPS1
EWC Count Pulse Select bits
CPS1 CPS0 Clock source
0
0
Internal Clock, FPca/6
0
1
Internal Clock, FPca/2
1
0
Timer 0 overflow
1
1
External clock at ECI/P1.2 pin (Max. Rate = FPca/4)
1
CPS0
Reserved
The value read from this bit is indeterminate. Do not set this bit.
0
ECF
Enable PCA Counter Overflow Interrupt bit
Clear to disable CF bit in CCON register to generate an interrupt.
Set to enable CF bit in CCON register to generate an interrupt.
Reset Value = 00XX X000b
78
T89C51AC2
4127D–8051–02/03
T89C51AC2
Table 50. CCON Register
CCON (S:D8h)
PCA Counter Control Register
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
CF
CR
-
CCF4
CCF3
CCF2
CCF1
CCF0
Bit
Number
Bit
Mnemonic Description
7
CF
PCA Timer/Counter Overflow flag
Set by hardware when the PCA Timer/Counter rolls over. This generates a PCA
interrupt request if the ECF bit in CMOD register is set.
Must be cleared by software.
6
CR
PCA Timer/Counter Run Control bit
Clear to turn the PCA Timer/Counter off.
Set to turn the PCA Timer/Counter on.
5
-
4
CCF4
PCA Module 4 Compare/Capture flag
Set by hardware when a match or capture occurs. This generates a PCA
interrupt request if the ECCF 4 bit in CCAPM 4 register is set.
Must be cleared by software.
3
CCF3
PCA Module 3 Compare/Capture flag
Set by hardware when a match or capture occurs. This generates a PCA
interrupt request if the ECCF 3 bit in CCAPM 3 register is set.
Must be cleared by software.
2
CCF2
PCA Module 2 Compare/Capture flag
Set by hardware when a match or capture occurs. This generates a PCA
interrupt request if the ECCF 2 bit in CCAPM 2 register is set.
Must be cleared by software.
1
CCF1
PCA Module 1 Compare/Capture flag
Set by hardware when a match or capture occurs. This generates a PCA
interrupt request if the ECCF 1 bit in CCAPM 1 register is set.
Must be cleared by software.
0
CCF0
PCA Module 0 Compare/Capture flag
Set by hardware when a match or capture occurs. This generates a PCA
interrupt request if the ECCF 0 bit in CCAPM 0 register is set.
Must be cleared by software.
Reserved
The value read from this bit is indeterminate. Do not set this bit.
Reset Value = 00X0 0000b
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4127D–8051–02/03
Table 51. CCAPnH Registers
CCAP0H (S:FAh)
CCAP1H (S:FBh)
CCAP2H (S:FCh)
CCAP3H (S:FDh)
CCAP4H (S:FEh)
PCA High Byte Compare/Capture Module n Register (n=0..4)
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
CCAPnH 7
CCAPnH 6
CCAPnH 5
CCAPnH 4
CCAPnH 3
CCAPnH 2
CCAPnH 1
CCAPnH 0
Bit
Number
7:0
Bit
Mnemonic Description
CCAPnH
7:0
High byte of EWC-PCA comparison or capture values
Reset Value = 0000 0000b
Table 52. CCAPnL Registers
CCAP0L (S:EAh)
CCAP1L (S:EBh)
CCAP2L (S:ECh)
CCAP3L (S:EDh)
CCAP4L (S:EEh)
PCA Low Byte Compare/Capture Module n Register (n=0..4)
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
CCAPnL 7
CCAPnL 6
CCAPnL 5
CCAPnL 4
CCAPnL 3
CCAPnL 2
CCAPnL 1
CCAPnL 0
Bit
Number
7:0
Bit
Mnemonic Description
CCAPnL
7:0
Low byte of EWC-PCA comparison or capture values
Reset Value = 0000 0000b
80
T89C51AC2
4127D–8051–02/03
T89C51AC2
Table 53. CCAPMn Registers
CCAPM0 (S:DAh)
CCAPM1 (S:DBh)
CCAPM2 (S:DCh)
CCAPM3 (S:DDh)
CCAPM4 (S:DEh)
PCA Compare/Capture Module n Mode registers (n=0..4)
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
-
ECOMn
CAPPn
CAPNn
MATn
TOGn
PWMn
ECCFn
Bit
Number
7
Bit
Mnemonic Description
-
Reserved
The Value read from this bit is indeterminate. Do not set this bit.
6
ECOMn
Enable Compare Mode Module x bit
Clear to disable the Compare function.
Set to enable the Compare function.
The Compare function is used to implement the software Timer, the high-speed
output, the Pulse Width Modulator (PWM) and the Watchdog Timer (WDT).
5
CAPPn
Capture Mode (Positive) Module x bit
Clear to disable the Capture function triggered by a positive edge on CEXx pin.
Set to enable the Capture function triggered by a positive edge on CEXx pin
4
CAPNn
Capture Mode (Negative) Module x bit
Clear to disable the Capture function triggered by a negative edge on CEXx pin.
Set to enable the Capture function triggered by a negative edge on CEXx pin.
3
MATn
Match Module x bit
Set when a match of the PCA Counter with the Compare/Capture register sets
CCFx bit in CCON register, flagging an interrupt.
2
TOGn
Toggle Module x bit
The toggle mode is configured by setting ECOMx, MATx and TOGx bits.
Set when a match of the PCA Counter with the Compare/Capture register
toggles the CEXx pin.
1
PWMn
Pulse Width Modulation Module x Mode bit
Set to configure the module x as an 8-bit Pulse Width Modulator with output
waveform on CEXx pin.
0
ECCFn
Enable CCFx Interrupt bit
Clear to disable CCFx bit in CCON register to generate an interrupt request.
Set to enable CCFx bit in CCON register to generate an interrupt request.
Reset Value = X000 0000b
81
4127D–8051–02/03
Table 54. CH Register
CH (S:F9h)
PCA Counter Register High Value
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
CH 7
CH 6
CH 5
CH 4
CH 3
CH 2
CH 1
CH 0
Bit
Number
7:0
Bit
Mnemonic Description
CH 7:0
High byte of Timer/Counter
Reset Value = 0000 00000b
Table 55. CL Register
CL (S:E9h)
PCA counter Register Low Value
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
CL 7
CL 6
CL 5
CL 4
CL 3
CL 2
CL 1
CL 0
Bit
Number
7:0
Bit
Mnemonic Description
CL0 7:0
Low byte of Timer/Counter
Reset Value = 0000 00000b
82
T89C51AC2
4127D–8051–02/03
T89C51AC2
Analog-to-Digital
Converter (ADC)
This section describes the on-chip 10 bit analog-to-digital converter of the T89C51AC2.
Eight ADC channels are available for sampling of the external sources AN0 to AN7. An
analog multiplexer allows the single ADC converter to select one from the 8 ADC channels as ADC input voltage (ADCIN). ADCIN is converted by the 10-bit cascaded
potentiometric ADC.
Two modes of conversion are available:
- Standard conversion (8 bits).
- Precision conversion (10 bits).
For the precision conversion, set bit PSIDLE in ADCON register and start conversion.
The device is in a pseudo-idle mode, the CPU does not run but the peripherals are
always running. This mode allows digital noise to be as low as possible, to ensure high
precision conversion.
For this mode it is necessary to work with end of conversion interrupt, which is the only
way to wake the device up.
If another interrupt occurs during the precision conversion, it will be served only after
this conversion is completed.
Features
•
8 channels with multiplexed inputs
•
10-bit cascaded potentiometric ADC
•
Conversion time 16 micro-seconds (typ.)
•
Zero Error (offset) ± 2 LSB max
•
Positive External Reference Voltage Range (VREF) 2.4 to 3.0Volt (typ.)
•
ADCIN Range 0 to 3Volt
•
Integral non-linearity typical 1 LSB, max. 2 LSB
•
Differential non-linearity typical 0.5 LSB, max. 1 LSB
•
Conversion Complete Flag or Conversion Complete Interrupt
•
Selectable ADC Clock
ADC Port 1 I/O Functions Port 1 pins are general I/O that are shared with the ADC channels. The channel select
bit in ADCF register define which ADC channel/port1 pin will be used as ADCIN. The
remaining ADC channels/port1 pins can be used as general-purpose I/O or as the alternate function that is available.
A conversion launched on a channel which are not selected on ADCF register will not
have any effect.
83
4127D–8051–02/03
Figure 45. ADC Description
ADCON.5
ADCON.3
ADEN
ADSST
ADC
Interrupt
Request
ADCON.4
ADEOC
ADC
CLOCK
CONTROL
EADC
AN0/P1.0
000
AN1/P1.1
001
AN2/P1.2
010
AN3/P1.3
011
AN4/P1.4
100
AN5/P1.5
101
AN6/P1.6
110
AN7/P1.7
IEN1.1
ADCIN
8
ADDH
2
ADDL
+
SAR
-
AVSS
Sample and Hold
111
10
R/2R DAC
SCH2
SCH1
SCH0
ADCON.2
ADCON.1
ADCON.0
VAREF VAGND
Figure 46 shows the timing diagram of a complete conversion. For simplicity, the figure
depicts the waveforms in idealized form and do not provide precise timing information.
For ADC characteristics and timing parameters refer to the Section “AC Characteristics”
of the T89C51AC2 datasheet.
Figure 46. Timing Diagram
CLK
ADEN
TSETUP
ADSST
TCONV
ADEOC
Note:
84
Tsetup min = 4 us
Tconv=11 clock ADC = 1sample and hold + 10 bit conversion
The user must ensure that 4 us minimum time between setting ADEN and the start of the first conversion.
T89C51AC2
4127D–8051–02/03
T89C51AC2
ADC Converter
Operation
A start of single A/D conversion is triggered by setting bit ADSST (ADCON.3).
After completion of the A/D conversion, the ADSST bit is cleared by hardware.
The end-of-conversion flag ADEOC (ADCON.4) is set when the value of conversion is
available in ADDH and ADDL, it must be cleared by software. If the bit EADC (IEN1.1) is
set, an interrupt occur when flag ADEOC is set (see Figure 48). Clear this flag for rearming the interrupt.
The bits SCH0 to SCH2 in ADCON register are used for the analog input channel
selection.(1)
Note:
1. Always leave Tsetup time before starting a conversion unless ADEN is permanently
high. In this case one should wait Tsetup only before the first conversion.
Table 56. Selected Analog input
Voltage Conversion
SCH2
SCH1
SCH0
Selected Analog input
0
0
0
AN0
0
0
1
AN1
0
1
0
AN2
0
1
1
AN3
1
0
0
AN4
1
0
1
AN5
1
1
0
AN6
1
1
1
AN7
When the ADCIN is equals to VAREF the ADC converts the signal to 3FFh (full scale). If
the input voltage equals VAGND, the ADC converts it to 000h. Input voltage between
VAREF and VAGND are a straight-line linear conversion. All other voltages will result in
3FFh if greater than VAREF and 000h if less than VAGND.
Note that ADCIN should not exceed VAREF absolute maximum range! (See section
“AC-DC”)
VAREF
VAREF should be connected to a low impedance point and must remain in the range
specified in Table 71. If the ADC is not used, it is recommended to tie VAREF to
VAGND.
Clock Selection
The ADC clock is the same as CPU.
The maximum clock frequency for ADC is 700 KHz. A prescaler is featured (ADCCLK)
to generate the ADC clock from the oscillator frequency.
85
4127D–8051–02/03
Figure 47. A/D Converter clock
CPU
CLOCK
ADC Clock
Prescaler ADCLK
÷2
A/D
CPU Core Clock Symbol
Converter
ADC Standby Mode
When the ADC is not used, it is possible to set it in standby mode by clearing bit ADEN
in ADCON register. In this mode its power dissipation is reduced.
IT ADC Management
An interrupt end-of-conversion will occurs when the bit ADEOC is activated and the bit
EADC is set. For re-arming the interrupt the bit ADEOC must be cleared by software.
Figure 48. ADC Interrupt Structure
ADCI
ADEOC
ADCON.2
EADC
IEN1.1
Routines Examples
1. Configure P1.2 and P1.3 in ADC channels
// configure channel P1.2 and P1.3 for ADC
ADCF = 0Ch
// Enable the ADC
ADCON = 20h
2. Start a standard conversion
// The variable "channel" contains the channel to convert
// The variable "value_converted" is an unsigned int
// Clear the field SCH[2:0]
ADCON and = F8h
// Select channel
ADCON | = channel
// Start conversion in standard mode
ADCON | = 08h
// Wait flag End of conversion
while((ADCON and 01h)! = 01h)
// Clear the End of conversion flag
ADCON and = EFh
// read the value
value_converted = (ADDH << 2)+(ADDL)
86
T89C51AC2
4127D–8051–02/03
T89C51AC2
3. Start a precision conversion (need interrupt ADC)
// The variable "channel" contains the channel to convert
// Enable ADC
EADC = 1
// clear the field SCH[2:0]
ADCON and = F8h
// Select the channel
ADCON | = channel
// Start conversion in precision mode
ADCON | = 48h
Note:
to enable the ADC interrupt:
EA = 1
87
4127D–8051–02/03
Registers
Table 57. ADCF Register
ADCF (S:F6h)
ADC Configuration
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
CH 7
CH 6
CH 5
CH 4
CH 3
CH 2
CH 1
CH 0
Bit
Number
7-0
Bit
Mnemonic Description
CH 0:7
Channel Configuration
Set to use P1.x as ADC input.
Clear to use P1.x as standart I/O port.
Reset Value = 0000 0000b
Table 58. ADCON Register
ADCON (S:F3h)
ADC Control Register
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
-
PSIDLE
ADEN
ADEOC
ADSST
SCH2
SCH1
SCH0
Bit
Number
Bit
Mnemonic Description
7
-
6
PSIDLE
5
ADEN
Pseudo Idle Mode (Best Precision)
Set to put in idle mode during conversion
Clear to convert without idle mode.
Enable/Standby Mode
Set to enable ADC
Clear for Standby mode (power dissipation 1 uW).
4
ADEOC
End Of Conversion
Set by hardware when ADC result is ready to be read. This flag can generate an
interrupt.
Must be cleared by software.
3
ADSST
Start and Status
Set to start an A/D conversion.
Cleared by hardware after completion of the conversion
2-0
SCH2:0
Selection of Channel to Convert
see Table 56
Reset Value = X000 0000b
88
T89C51AC2
4127D–8051–02/03
T89C51AC2
Table 59. ADCLK Register
ADCLK (S:F2h)
ADC Clock Prescaler
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
-
-
-
PRS 4
PRS 3
PRS 2
PRS 1
PRS 0
Bit
Number
Bit
Mnemonic Description
7-5
-
4-0
PRS4:0
Reserved
The value read from these bits are indeterminate. Do not set these bits.
Clock Prescaler
fADC = fcpu clock/ (4 (or 2 in X2 mode)* (PRS +1))
Reset Value = XXX0 0000b
Table 60. ADDH Register
ADDH (S:F5h Read Only)
ADC Data High Byte Register
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
ADAT 9
ADAT 8
ADAT 7
ADAT 6
ADAT 5
ADAT 4
ADAT 3
ADAT 2
Bit
Number
7-0
Bit
Mnemonic Description
ADAT9:2
ADC result
bits 9-2
Reset Value = 00h
Table 61. ADDL Register
ADDL (S:F4h Read Only)
ADC Data Low Byte Register
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
-
-
-
-
-
-
ADAT 1
ADAT 0
Bit
Number
Bit
Mnemonic Description
7-2
-
1-0
ADAT1:0
Reserved
The value read from these bits are indeterminate. Do not set these bits.
ADC result
bits 1-0
Reset Value = 00h
89
4127D–8051–02/03
Interrupt System
Introduction
The controller has a total of 8 interrupt vectors: two external interrupts (INT0 and INT1),
three timer interrupts (Timers 0, 1 and 2), a serial port interrupt, a PCA, a timer overrun
interrupt and an ADC. These interrupts are shown below.
Figure 49. Interrupt Control System
INT0#
00
01
10
11
External
Interrupt 0
Highest
Priority
Interrupts
EX0
IEN0.0
Timer 0
00
01
10
11
ET0
INT1#
External
Interrupt 1
IEN0.1
00
01
10
11
EX1
IEN0.2
Timer 1
00
01
10
11
ET1
CEX0:5
PCA
IEN0.3
00
01
10
11
EC
TxD
UART
IEN0.6
RxD
00
01
10
11
ES
IEN0.4
Timer 2
00
01
10
11
ET2
IEN0.5
AIN1:0
00
01
10
11
A to D
Converter
EADC
IEN1.1
Interrupt Enable
90
Priority Enable
Lowest Priority Interrupts
T89C51AC2
4127D–8051–02/03
T89C51AC2
Each of the interrupt sources can be individually enabled or disabled by setting or clearing a bit in the Interrupt Enable register. This register also contains a global disable bit
which must be cleared to disable all the interrupts at the same time.
Each interrupt source can also be individually programmed to one of four priority levels
by setting or clearing a bit in the Interrupt Priority registers. The Table below shows the
bit values and priority levels associated with each combination.
Table 62. Priority Level Bit Values
IPH.x
IPL.x
Interrupt Level Priority
0
0
0 (Lowest)
0
1
1
1
0
2
1
1
3 (Highest)
A low-priority interrupt can be interrupted by a high priority interrupt but not by another
low-priority interrupt. A high-priority interrupt cannot be interrupted by any other interrupt
source.
If two interrupt requests of different priority levels are received simultaneously, the
request of the higher priority level is serviced. If interrupt requests of the same priority
level are received simultaneously, an internal polling sequence determines which
request is serviced. Thus within each priority level there is a second priority structure
determined by the polling sequence, see Table 63.
Table 63. Interrupt Priority Within level
Interrupt Name
Interrupt Address Vector
Priority Number
external interrupt (INT0)
0003h
1
Timer 0 (TF0)
000Bh
2
external interrupt (INT1)
0013h
3
Timer 1 (TF1)
001Bh
4
PCA (CF or CCFn)
0033h
5
UART (RI or TI)
0023h
6
Timer 2 (TF2)
002Bh
7
ADC (ADCI)
0043h
9
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4127D–8051–02/03
Registers
Table 64. IEN0 Register
IEN0 (S:A8h)
Interrupt Enable Register
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
EA
EC
ET2
ES
ET1
EX1
ET0
EX0
Bit
Number
Bit
Mnemonic Description
7
EA
Enable All Interrupt bit
Clear to disable all interrupts.
Set to enable all interrupts.
If EA=1, each interrupt source is individually enabled or disabled by setting or
clearing its interrupt enable bit.
6
EC
PCA Interrupt Enable
Clear to disable the PCA interrupt.
Set to enable the PCA interrupt.
5
ET2
Timer 2 Overflow Interrupt Enable bit
Clear to disable Timer 2 overflow interrupt.
Set to enable Timer 2 overflow interrupt.
4
ES
Serial Port Enable bit
Clear to disable serial port interrupt.
Set to enable serial port interrupt.
3
ET1
Timer 1 Overflow Interrupt Enable bit
Clear to disable timer 1 overflow interrupt.
Set to enable timer 1 overflow interrupt.
2
EX1
External Interrupt 1 Enable bit
Clear to disable external interrupt 1.
Set to enable external interrupt 1.
1
ET0
Timer 0 Overflow Interrupt Enable bit
Clear to disable timer 0 overflow interrupt.
Set to enable timer 0 overflow interrupt.
0
EX0
External Interrupt 0 Enable bit
Clear to disable external interrupt 0.
Set to enable external interrupt 0.
Reset Value = 0000 0000b
bit addressable
92
T89C51AC2
4127D–8051–02/03
T89C51AC2
Table 65. IEN1 Register
IEN1 (S:E8h)
Interrupt Enable Register
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
-
-
-
-
-
-
EADC
-
Bit
Number
Bit
Mnemonic Description
7
-
Reserved
The value read from this bit is indeterminate. Do not set this bit.
6
-
Reserved
The value read from this bit is indeterminate. Do not set this bit.
5
-
Reserved
The value read from this bit is indeterminate. Do not set this bit.
4
-
Reserved
The value read from this bit is indeterminate. Do not set this bit.
3
-
Reserved
The value read from this bit is indeterminate. Do not set this bit.
2
-
Reserved
The value read from this bit is indeterminate. Do not set this bit.
1
EADC
0
-
ADC Interrupt Enable bit
Clear to disable the ADC interrupt.
Set to enable the ADC interrupt.
Reserved
The value read from this bit is indeterminate. Do not set this bit.
Reset Value = xxxx xx00b
bit addressable
93
4127D–8051–02/03
Table 66. IPL0 Register
IPL0 (S:B8h)
Interrupt Enable Register
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
-
PPC
PT2
PS
PT1
PX1
PT0
PX0
Bit
Number
Bit
Mnemonic Description
Reserved
The value read from this bit is indeterminate. Do not set this bit.
7
-
6
PPC
PCA Interrupt Priority bit
Refer to PPCH for priority level
5
PT2
Timer 2 Overflow Interrupt Priority bit
Refer to PT2H for priority level.
4
PS
Serial Port Priority bit
Refer to PSH for priority level.
3
PT1
Timer 1 Overflow Interrupt Priority bit
Refer to PT1H for priority level.
2
PX1
External Interrupt 1 Priority bit
Refer to PX1H for priority level.
1
PT0
Timer 0 Overflow Interrupt Priority bit
Refer to PT0H for priority level.
0
PX0
External Interrupt 0 Priority bit
Refer to PX0H for priority level.
Reset Value = X000 0000b
bit addressable
94
T89C51AC2
4127D–8051–02/03
T89C51AC2
Table 67. IPL1 Register
IPL1 (S:F8h)
Interrupt Priority Low Register 1
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
-
-
-
-
-
-
PADCL
-
Bit
Number
Bit
Mnemonic Description
7
-
Reserved
The value read from this bit is indeterminate. Do not set this bit.
6
-
Reserved
The value read from this bit is indeterminate. Do not set this bit.
5
-
Reserved
The value read from this bit is indeterminate. Do not set this bit.
4
-
Reserved
The value read from this bit is indeterminate. Do not set this bit.
3
-
Reserved
The value read from this bit is indeterminate. Do not set this bit.
2
-
Reserved
The value read from this bit is indeterminate. Do not set this bit.
1
PADCL
0
-
ADC Interrupt Priority Level Less Significant Bit
Refer to PSPIH for priority level.
Reserved
The value read from this bit is indeterminate. Do not set this bit.
Reset Value = XXXX XX0Xb
bit addressable
95
4127D–8051–02/03
Table 68. IPH0 Register
IPH0 (B7h)
Interrupt High Priority Register
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
-
PPCH
PT2H
PSH
PT1H
PX1H
PT0H
PX0H
Bit
Number
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Bit
Mnemonic Description
-
Reserved
The value read from this bit is indeterminate. Do not set this bit.
PPCH
PCA Interrupt Priority Level Most Significant bit
PPC
Priority level
PPCH
0
0
Lowest
0
1
1
0
1
1
Highest priority
PT2H
Timer 2 Overflow Interrupt High Priority bit
PT2H
PT2
Priority Level
0
0
Lowest
0
1
1
0
1
1
Highest
PSH
Serial Port High Priority bit
PS
Priority Level
PSH
0
0
Lowest
0
1
1
0
1
1
Highest
PT1H
Timer 1 Overflow Interrupt High Priority bit
PT1
Priority Level
PT1H
0
0
Lowest
0
1
1
0
1
1
Highest
PX1H
External Interrupt 1 High Priority bit
PX1H
PX1
Priority Level
0
0
Lowest
0
1
1
0
1
1
Highest
PT0H
Timer 0 Overflow Interrupt High Priority bit
PT0
Priority Level
PT0H
0
0
Lowest
0
1
1
0
1
1
Highest
PX0H
External Interrupt 0 high priority bit
PX0
Priority Level
PX0H
0
0
Lowest
0
1
1
0
1
1
Highest
Reset Value = X000 0000b
96
T89C51AC2
4127D–8051–02/03
T89C51AC2
Table 69. IPH1 Register
IPH1 (S:F7h)
Interrupt High Priority Register 1
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
-
-
-
-
-
-
PADCH
-
Bit
Number
Bit
Mnemonic Description
7
-
Reserved
The value read from this bit is indeterminate. Do not set this bit.
6
-
Reserved
The value read from this bit is indeterminate. Do not set this bit.
5
-
Reserved
The value read from this bit is indeterminate. Do not set this bit.
4
-
Reserved
The value read from this bit is indeterminate. Do not set this bit.
3
-
Reserved
The value read from this bit is indeterminate. Do not set this bit.
2
-
Reserved
The value read from this bit is indeterminate. Do not set this bit.
1
PADCH
0
-
ADC Interrupt Priority Level Most Significant bit
PADCH PADCL Priority level
0
0
Lowest
0
1
1
0
1
1
Highest
Reserved
The value read from this bit is indeterminate. Do not set this bit.
Reset Value = XXXX X000b
97
4127D–8051–02/03
Electrical Characteristics
Absolute Maximum Ratings*
*NOTICE:
Ambiant Temperature Under Bias:
I = industrial ....................................................... -40°C to 85°C
Storage Temperature .................................... -65°C to + 150°C
Voltage on VCC from VSS ......................................-0.5V to + 6V
Voltage on Any Pin from VSS ..................... -0.5V to VCC + 0.2V
Power Dissipation ............................................................... 1W
Stresses at or above those listed under “Absolute Maximum Ratings” may cause permanent damage to the
device. This is a stress rating only and functional operation of the device at these or any other conditions
above those indicated in the operational sections of
this specification is not implied. Exposure to absolute
maximum rating conditions may affect device reliability.
The power dissipation is based on the maximum allowable die temperature and the thermal resistance of the
package.
DC Parameters for Standard Voltage
TA = -40°C to +85°C; VSS = 0V; VCC = 3V to 5.5V; F = 0 to 40 MHz
Table 70. DC Parameters in Standard Voltage
Symbol
Parameter
Min
VIL
Input Low Voltage
VIH
Input High Voltage except XTAL1, RST
VIH1
Input High Voltage, XTAL1, RST
VOL
VOL1
VOH
VOH1
RRST
Output Low Voltage, ports 1, 2, 3 and 4
Typ(5)
Max
Unit
-0.5
0.2Vcc - 0.1
V
0.2 VCC + 0.9
VCC + 0.5
V
0.7 VCC
VCC + 0.5
V
0.3
V
IOL = 100 µA(4)
0.45
V
IOL = 1.6 mA(4)
1.0
V
IOL = 3.5 mA(4)
0.3
V
IOL = 200 µA(4)
0.45
V
IOL = 3.2 mA(4)
1.0
V
IOL = 7.0 mA(4)
(6)
Output Low Voltage, port 0, ALE, PSEN
(6)
Output High Voltage, ports 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5
Output High Voltage, port 0, ALE, PSEN
RST Pulldown Resistor
Test Conditions
VCC - 0.3
V
IOH = -10 µA
VCC - 0.7
V
IOH = -30 µA
VCC - 1.5
V
IOH = -60 µA
VCC - 0.3
V
IOH = -200 µA
VCC - 0.7
V
IOH = -3.2 mA
VCC - 1.5
V
IOH = -7.0 mA
20
40
200
kΩ
IIL
Logical 0 Input Current ports 1, 2, 3 and 4
-50
µA
Vin = 0.45V
ILI
Input Leakage Current
±10
µA
0.45V < Vin < VCC
ITL
Logical 1 to 0 Transition Current, ports 1, 2, 3
and 4
-650
µA
Vin = 2.0V
CIO
Capacitance of I/O Buffer
10
pF
Fc = 1 MHz
TA = 25°C
IPD
Power-down Current
350
µA
3V < VCC < 5.5V(3)
ICC
Power Supply Current
160
ICCOP = 0.7 Freq (MHz) + 3 mA
ICC_FLASH_WRITE(7) =0.4 Freq (MHz) + 20 mA
3V < VCC < 5.5V(1)(2)
ICCIDLE = 0.6 Freq (MHz) + 2 mA
98
T89C51AC2
4127D–8051–02/03
T89C51AC2
Notes:
1. Operating ICC is measured with all output pins disconnected; XTAL1 driven with
TCLCH, TCHCL = 5 ns (see Figure 53.), VIL = VSS + 0.5V,
VIH = VCC - 0.5V; XTAL2 N.C.; EA = RST = Port 0 = VCC. ICC would be slightly higher
if a crystal oscillator used (see Figure 50.).
2. Idle ICC is measured with all output pins disconnected; XTAL1 driven with TCLCH,
TCHCL = 5 ns, VIL = VSS + 0.5V, VIH = VCC - 0.5V; XTAL2 N.C; Port 0 = VCC; EA = RST
= VSS (see Figure 51.).
3. Power-down ICC is measured with all output pins disconnected; EA = VCC, PORT 0 =
VCC; XTAL2 NC.; RST = VSS (see Figure 52.). In addition, the WDT must be inactive
and the POF flag must be set.
4. Capacitance loading on Ports 0 and 2 may cause spurious noise pulses to be superimposed on the VOLs of ALE and Ports 1 and 3. The noise is due to external bus
capacitance discharging into the Port 0 and Port 2 pins when these pins make 1 to 0
transitions during bus operation. In the worst cases (capacitive loading 100pF), the
noise pulse on the ALE line may exceed 0.45V with maxi VOL peak 0.6V. A Schmitt
Trigger use is not necessary.
5. Typicals are based on a limited number of samples and are not guaranteed. The values listed are at room temperature.
6. Under steady state (non-transient) conditions, IOL must be externally limited as follows:
Maximum IOL per port pin: 10 mA
Maximum IOL per 8-bit port:
Port 0: 26 mA
Ports 1, 2 and 3: 15 mA
Maximum total IOL for all output pins: 71 mA
If IOL exceeds the test condition, VOL may exceed the related specification. Pins are
not guaranteed to sink current greater than the listed test conditions.
7. ICC_FLASH_WRITE operating current while a Flash block write is on going.
Figure 50. ICC Test Condition, Active Mode
VCC
ICC
VCC
P0
VCC
RST
(NC)
CLOCK
SIGNAL
VCC
EA
XTAL2
XTAL1
VSS
All other pins are disconnected.
99
4127D–8051–02/03
Figure 51. ICC Test Condition, Idle Mode
VCC
ICC
VCC
VCC
P0
RST
EA
XTAL2
XTAL1
VSS
(NC)
CLOCK
SIGNAL
All other pins are disconnected.
Figure 52. ICC Test Condition, Power-Down Mode
VCC
ICC
VCC
VCC
P0
RST
(NC)
EA
XTAL2
XTAL1
VSS
All other pins are disconnected.
Figure 53. Clock Signal Waveform for ICC Tests in Active and Idle Modes
VCC-0.5V
0.45V
TCLCH
TCHCL
TCLCH = TCHCL = 5ns.
100
0.7VCC
0.2VCC-0.1
T89C51AC2
4127D–8051–02/03
T89C51AC2
DC Parameters for A/D Converter
Table 71. DC Parameters for AD Converter in Precision Conversion
Symbol
AVin
Rref(2)
Parameter
Min
Analog input voltage
Typ(1)
Vss- 0.2
Resistance between Vref and Vss
12
Max
Unit
Vref + 0.2
V
24
kΩ
3.00
V
16
Vref
Reference voltage
2.40
Cai
Analog input Capacitance
60
INL
Integral non linearity
1
2
lsb
DNL
Differential non linearity
0.5
1
lsb
OE
Offset error
2
lsb
-2
Notes:
pF
Test Conditions
During sampling
1. Typicals are based on a limited number of samples and are not guaranteed.
2. With ADC enabled.
AC Parameters
Explanation of the AC
Symbols
Each timing symbol has 5 characters. The first character is always a “T” (stands for
time). The other characters, depending on their positions, stand for the name of a signal
or the logical status of that signal. The following is a list of all the characters and what
they stand for.
Example: TAVLL = Time for Address Valid to ALE Low.
TLLPL = Time for ALE Low to PSEN Low.
TA = -40°C to +85°C; VSS = 0V; VCC = 5V ±10%; F = 0 to 40 MHz.
TA = -40°C to +85°C; VSS = 0V; VCC = 5V ± 10%.
(Load Capacitance for port 0, ALE and PSEN = 60 pF; Load Capacitance for all other
outputs = 60 pF.)
Table 72, Table 75 and Table 78 give the description of each AC symbols.
Table 73, Table 77 and Table 79 give for each range the AC parameter.
Table 74, Table 77 and Table 80 give the frequency derating formula of the AC parameter for each speed range description. To calculate each AC symbols: Take the x value
and use this value in the formula.
Example: TLLIV and 20 MHz, Standard clock.
x = 30 ns
T = 50 ns
TCCIV = 4T - x = 170 ns
101
4127D–8051–02/03
External Program Memory
Characteristics
Table 72. Symbol Description
Symbol
T
Parameter
Oscillator clock period
TLHLL
ALE pulse width
TAVLL
Address Valid to ALE
TLLAX
Address Hold After ALE
TLLIV
ALE to Valid Instruction In
TLLPL
ALE to PSEN
TPLPH
PSEN Pulse Width
TPLIV
PSEN to Valid Instruction In
TPXIX
Input Instruction Hold After PSEN
TPXIZ
Input Instruction Float After PSEN
TAVIV
Address to Valid Instruction In
TPLAZ
PSEN Low to Address Float
Table 73. AC Parameters for a Fix Clock (F = 40 MHz)
Symbol
Min
T
25
ns
TLHLL
40
ns
TAVLL
10
ns
TLLAX
10
ns
TLLIV
70
Units
ns
TLLPL
15
ns
TPLPH
55
ns
TPLIV
TPXIX
102
Max
35
0
ns
ns
TPXIZ
18
ns
TAVIV
85
ns
TPLAZ
10
ns
T89C51AC2
4127D–8051–02/03
T89C51AC2
Table 74. AC Parameters for a Variable Clock
Symbol
Type
Standard
Clock
X2 Clock
X parameter
Units
TLHLL
Min
2T-x
T-x
10
ns
TAVLL
Min
T-x
0.5 T - x
15
ns
TLLAX
Min
T-x
0.5 T - x
15
ns
TLLIV
Max
4T-x
2T-x
30
ns
TLLPL
Min
T-x
0.5 T - x
10
ns
TPLPH
Min
3T-x
1.5 T - x
20
ns
TPLIV
Max
3T-x
1.5 T - x
40
ns
TPXIX
Min
x
x
0
ns
TPXIZ
Max
T-x
0.5 T - x
7
ns
TAVIV
Max
5T-x
2.5 T - x
40
ns
TPLAZ
Max
x
x
10
ns
External Program Memory Read Cycle
12 TCLCL
TLHLL
TLLIV
ALE
TLLPL
TPLPH
PSEN
TLLAX
TAVLL
PORT 0
INSTR IN
TPLIV
TPLAZ
A0-A7
TPXAV
TPXIZ
TPXIX
INSTR IN
A0-A7
INSTR IN
TAVIV
PORT 2
ADDRESS
OR SFR-P2
ADDRESS A8-A15
ADDRESS A8-A15
103
4127D–8051–02/03
External Data Memory
Characteristics
Table 75. Symbol Description
Symbol
Parameter
TRLRH
RD Pulse Width
TWLWH
WR Pulse Width
TRLDV
RD to Valid Data In
TRHDX
Data Hold After RD
TRHDZ
Data Float After RD
TLLDV
ALE to Valid Data In
TAVDV
Address to Valid Data In
TLLWL
ALE to WR or RD
TAVWL
Address to WR or RD
TQVWX
Data Valid to WR Transition
TQVWH
Data set-up to WR High
TWHQX
Data Hold After WR
TRLAZ
RD Low to Address Float
TWHLH
RD or WR High to ALE high
Table 76. AC Parameters for a Variable Clock (F = 40 MHz)
Symbol
Min
TRLRH
130
ns
TWLWH
130
ns
TRLDV
TRHDX
100
0
Units
ns
ns
TRHDZ
30
ns
TLLDV
160
ns
TAVDV
165
ns
100
ns
TLLWL
50
TAVWL
75
ns
TQVWX
10
ns
TQVWH
160
ns
TWHQX
15
ns
TRLAZ
TWHLH
104
Max
10
0
ns
40
ns
T89C51AC2
4127D–8051–02/03
T89C51AC2
Table 77. AC Parameters for a Variable Clock
Symbol
Type
Standard
Clock
X2 Clock
X parameter
Units
TRLRH
Min
6T-x
3T-x
20
ns
TWLWH
Min
6T-x
3T-x
20
ns
TRLDV
Max
5T-x
2.5 T - x
25
ns
TRHDX
Min
x
x
0
ns
TRHDZ
Max
2T-x
T-x
20
ns
TLLDV
Max
8T-x
4T -x
40
ns
TAVDV
Max
9T-x
4.5 T - x
60
ns
TLLWL
Min
3T-x
1.5 T - x
25
ns
TLLWL
Max
3T+x
1.5 T + x
25
ns
TAVWL
Min
4T-x
2T-x
25
ns
TQVWX
Min
T-x
0.5 T - x
15
ns
TQVWH
Min
7T-x
3.5 T - x
25
ns
TWHQX
Min
T-x
0.5 T - x
10
ns
TRLAZ
Max
x
x
0
ns
TWHLH
Min
T-x
0.5 T - x
15
ns
TWHLH
Max
T+x
0.5 T + x
15
ns
105
4127D–8051–02/03
External Data Memory Write Cycle
TWHLH
ALE
PSEN
TLLWL
TWLWH
WR
TQVWX
TLLAX
PORT 0
A0-A7
TWHQX
TQVWH
DATA OUT
TAVWL
PORT 2
ADDRESS
OR SFR-P2
ADDRESS A8-A15 OR SFR P2
External Data Memory Read Cycle
TWHLH
TLLDV
ALE
PSEN
TLLWL
TRLRH
RD
TRHDZ
TAVDV
TLLAX
PORT 0
TAVWL
PORT 2
TRHDX
A0-A7
ADDRESS
OR SFR-P2
DATA IN
TRLAZ
ADDRESS A8-A15 OR SFR P2
Serial Port Timing – Shift Register Mode
Table 78. Symbol Description (F = 40 MHz)
106
Symbol
Parameter
TXLXL
Serial port clock cycle time
TQVHX
Output data set-up to clock rising edge
TXHQX
Output data hold after clock rising edge
TXHDX
Input data hold after clock rising edge
TXHDV
Clock rising edge to input data valid
T89C51AC2
4127D–8051–02/03
T89C51AC2
Table 79. AC Parameters for a Fix Clock (F = 40 MHz)
Symbol
Min
Max
TXLXL
300
ns
TQVHX
200
ns
TXHQX
30
ns
TXHDX
0
ns
TXHDV
Units
117
ns
Table 80. AC Parameters for a Variable Clock
Symbol
Type
Standard
Clock
X2 Clock
X parameter
for -M range
TXLXL
Min
12 T
6T
TQVHX
Min
10 T - x
5T-x
50
ns
TXHQX
Min
2T-x
T-x
20
ns
TXHDX
Min
x
x
0
ns
TXHDV
Max
10 T - x
5 T- x
133
ns
Units
ns
Shift Register Timing
Waveforms
0
INSTRUCTION
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
ALE
TXLXL
CLOCK
TXHQX
TQVXH
0
OUTPUT DATA
WRITE to SBUF
1
2
4
5
6
TXHDX
TXHDV
INPUT DATA
3
VALID
VALID
VALID
SET TI
VALID
VALID
VALID
VALID
VALID
SET RI
CLEAR RI
External Clock Drive
Characteristics (XTAL1)
7
Table 81. AC Parameters
Symbol
Parameter
Min
Max
Units
TCLCL
Oscillator Period
25
ns
TCHCX
High Time
5
ns
TCLCX
Low Time
5
ns
TCLCH
Rise Time
5
ns
TCHCL
Fall Time
5
ns
60
%
TCHCX/TCLCX
Cyclic ratio in X2 mode
40
107
4127D–8051–02/03
External Clock Drive
Waveforms
VCC-0.5V
0.45V
0.7VCC
0.2VCC-0.1
TCHCX
TCLCH
TCLCX
TCHCL
TCLCL
AC Testing Input/Output
Waveforms
VCC -0.5V
0.2 VCC + 0.9
INPUT/OUTPUT
0.2 VCC - 0.1
0.45V
AC inputs during testing are driven at VCC - 0.5 for a logic “1” and 0.45V for a logic “0”.
Timing measurement are made at VIH min for a logic “1” and VIL max for a logic “0”.
Float Waveforms
FLOAT
VOH - 0.1 V
VOL + 0.1 V
VLOAD
VLOAD + 0.1 V
VLOAD - 0.1 V
For timing purposes as port pin is no longer floating when a 100 mV change from load
voltage occurs and begins to float when a 100 mV change from the loaded VOH/VOL level
occurs. IOL/IOH ≥ ± 20 mA.
108
T89C51AC2
4127D–8051–02/03
T89C51AC2
Clock Waveforms
Valid in normal clock mode. In X2 mode XTAL2 must be changed to XTAL2/2.
INTERNAL
CLOCK
STATE4
STATE5
STATE6
STATE1
STATE2
STATE3
STATE4
STATE5
P1
P1
P1
P1
P1
P1
P1
P1
P2
P2
P2
P2
P2
P2
P2
P2
XTAL2
ALE
THESE SIGNALS ARE NOT ACTIVATED DURING THE
EXECUTION OF A MOVX INSTRUCTION
EXTERNAL PROGRAM MEMORY FETCH
PSEN
P0
DATA
SAMPLED
PCL OUT
DATA
SAMPLED
FLOAT
P2 (EXT)
PCL OUT
FLOAT
DATA
SAMPLED
PCL OUT
FLOAT
INDICATES ADDRESS TRANSITIONS
READ CYCLE
RD
PCL OUT (IF PROGRAM
MEMORY IS EXTERNAL)
P0
DPL OR Rt OUT
DATA
SAMPLED
FLOAT
INDICATES DPH OR P2 SFR TO PCH TRANSITION
P2
WRITE CYCLE
WR
P0
PCL OUT (EVEN IF PROGRAM
MEMORY IS INTERNAL)
DPL OR Rt OUT
PCL OUT (IF PROGRAM
MEMORY IS EXTERNAL
DATA OUT
INDICATES DPH OR P2 SFR TO PCH TRANSITION
P2
PORT OPERATION
OLD DATA NEW DATA
MOV PORT SRC
P0 PINS SAMPLED
P0 PINS SAMPLED
MOV DEST P0
MOV DEST PORT (P1. P2. P3)
(INCLUDES INTO. INT1. TO T1)
SERIAL PORT SHIFT CLOCK
P1, P2, P3 PINS SAMPLED
RXD SAMPLED
P1, P2, P3 PINS SAMPLED
RXD SAMPLED
TXD (MODE 0)
This diagram indicates when signals are clocked internally. The time it takes the signals to propagate to the pins, however,
ranges from 25 to 125 ns. This propagation delay is dependent on variables such as temperature and pin loading. Propagation also varies from output to output and component. Typically though (TA=25°C fully loaded) RD and WR propagation
delays are approximately 50ns. The other signals are typically 85 ns. Propagation delays are incorporated in the AC
specifications.
109
4127D–8051–02/03
Flash Memory
Table 82. Timing Symbol Definitions
Signals
Conditions
S (Hardware
condition)
PSEN#,EA
L
Low
R
RST
V
Valid
B
FBUSY flag
X
No Longer Valid
Table 83. Memory AC Timing
VDD = 5V ± 10%, TA = -40 to +85°C
Symbol
Parameter
Min
Typ
Max
TSVRL
Input PSEN# Valid to RST Edge
50
ns
TRLSX
Input PSEN# Hold after RST Edge
50
ns
TBHBL
Flash Internal Busy (Programming) Time
10
Unit
ms
Figure 54. Flash Memory – ISP Waveforms
RST
TSVRL
TRLSX
PSEN#1
Figure 55. Flash Memory – Internal Busy Waveforms
FBUSY bit
TBHBL
Table 84. AC Parameters for A/D Conversion
Symbol
TSETUP
ADC Clock Frequency
110
Parameter
Min
Typ
4
Max
Unit
µs
700
KHz
T89C51AC2
4127D–8051–02/03
T89C51AC2
Ordering Information
Table 85. Possible Order Entries
Part Number
Supply Voltage
Temperature Range
Max Frequency
Package
Packing
T89C51AC2-RLTIM
3V to 5.5V + 10%
Industrial
40 MHz
VQFP44
Tray
T89C51AC2-SLSIM
3V to 5.5V + 10%
Industrial
40 MHz
PLCC44
Stick
111
4127D–8051–02/03
Package Drawings
VQFP44
112
T89C51AC2
4127D–8051–02/03
T89C51AC2
PLCC44
113
4127D–8051–02/03
Preliminary/Confidential
Table of Contents
Features ................................................................................................. 1
Description ............................................................................................ 2
Block Diagram ....................................................................................... 2
Pin Configuration .................................................................................. 3
I/O Configurations.................................................................................................
Port 1, Port 3 and Port 4 .......................................................................................
Port 0 and Port 2...................................................................................................
Read-Modify-Write Instructions ............................................................................
Quasi-Bidirectional Port Operation .......................................................................
6
6
6
7
8
SFR Mapping ....................................................................................... 10
Clock .................................................................................................... 14
Description.......................................................................................................... 14
Register 17
Power Management ............................................................................ 18
Reset Pin ............................................................................................................
At Power-up (Cold Reset)...................................................................................
Reset Recommendation to Prevent Flash Corruption ........................................
Idle Mode ............................................................................................................
Power-down Mode..............................................................................................
Registers.............................................................................................................
18
18
19
19
20
22
Data Memory ....................................................................................... 23
Internal Space 24
External Space ................................................................................................... 25
Dual Data Pointer 27
Registers............................................................................................................. 28
EEPROM Data Memory ....................................................................... 30
Write Data in the Column Latches ......................................................................
Programming ......................................................................................................
Read Data...........................................................................................................
Examples ............................................................................................................
Registers.............................................................................................................
30
30
30
31
32
Program/Code Memory ...................................................................... 33
External Code Memory Access 34
Flash Memory Architecture................................................................................. 35
Overview of FM0 Operations .............................................................................. 37
i
T89C51AC2
4127D–8051–02/03
T89C51AC2
Registers............................................................................................................. 43
In-System Programming (ISP) ........................................................... 44
Flash Programming and Erasure........................................................................
Boot Process ......................................................................................................
Application Programming Interface.....................................................................
XROW Bytes.......................................................................................................
Hardware Security Byte ......................................................................................
44
45
46
46
47
Serial I/O Port ...................................................................................... 48
Framing Error Detection ....................................................................................
Automatic Address Recognition..........................................................................
Given Address 50
Broadcast Address .............................................................................................
Registers.............................................................................................................
48
49
50
51
Timers/Counters ................................................................................. 54
Timer/Counter Operations ..................................................................................
Timer 0................................................................................................................
Timer 1 57
Interrupt ..............................................................................................................
Registers.............................................................................................................
54
54
57
59
Timer 2 ................................................................................................. 63
Auto-Reload Mode............................................................................................. 63
Programmable Clock-Output .............................................................................. 64
Registers............................................................................................................. 65
Watchdog Timer .................................................................................. 68
Watchdog Programming 69
Watchdog Timer During Power-down Mode and Idle 70
Programmable Counter Array (PCA) ................................................ 72
PCA Timer ..........................................................................................................
PCA Modules......................................................................................................
PCA Interrupt ......................................................................................................
PCA Capture Mode.............................................................................................
16-bit Software Timer Mode ...............................................................................
High Speed Output Mode 76
Pulse Width Modulator Mode..............................................................................
PCA Watchdog Timer .........................................................................................
PCA Registers 78
72
73
74
74
75
76
77
Analog-to-Digital Converter (ADC) .................................................... 83
Features.............................................................................................................. 83
ADC Port 1 I/O Functions ................................................................................... 83
ii
4127D–8051–02/03
Preliminary/Confidential
ADC Converter Operation...................................................................................
Voltage Conversion ............................................................................................
VAREF................................................................................................................
Clock Selection ...................................................................................................
ADC Standby Mode ............................................................................................
IT ADC Management ..........................................................................................
Routines Examples.............................................................................................
Registers 88
85
85
85
85
86
86
86
Interrupt System ................................................................................. 90
Introduction ......................................................................................................... 90
Registers............................................................................................................. 92
Electrical Characteristics ................................................................... 98
Absolute Maximum Ratings* ...............................................................................98
DC Parameters for Standard Voltage .................................................................98
DC Parameters for A/D Converter ....................................................................101
AC Parameters .................................................................................................101
Ordering Information ........................................................................ 111
Package Drawings 112
VQFP44 ............................................................................................................ 112
PLCC44 ............................................................................................................ 113
iii
T89C51AC2
4127D–8051–02/03
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4127D–8051–02/03
/xM