Atmel AT42QT2100 QTouch Touch Sensor IC DATASHEET Features • Number of QTouch® Keys: – 0 to 7, one slider or one wheel • Technology: • • • • • • • • • • • • • – Patented spread-spectrum charge-transfer Key Outline Sizes: – 5 mm x 5 mm or larger (panel thickness dependent); widely different sizes and shapes possible Key Spacing: – 6 mm or wider, center to center (panel thickness, human factors dependent) Key Design: – Single solid or ring shaped electrodes; wide variety of possible layouts Wheel Size: – Typically 30 – 50 mm diameter, resistively interpolated wheel up to 80 mm diameter, typical width 12 mm Slider Size: – Typically 50 – 100 mm length, typical width 12 mm Slider/Wheel Electrode Design: – Choice of spatially interpolated (resistorless) or resistively interpolated design – Slider can be an arc or other irregular shape Layers Required: – One layer substrate; electrodes and components can be on same side Substrates: – FR-4, low cost CEM-1 or FR-2 PCB materials; polyamide FPCB; PET films, glass Electrode Materials: – Copper, silver, carbon, ITO, virtually anything electrically conductive Panel materials: – Plastic, glass, composites, painted surfaces (nonconductive paints) Adjacent Metal: – Compatible with grounded metal immediately next to keys Panel Thickness: – For keys, up to 15 mm glass, 10 mm plastic (key size dependent) – For slider/wheel, up to 4 mm glass, 3 mm plastic Key Sensitivity: – Adjustable via change in sampling capacitor (Cs) value 9554E–AT42–01/13 • Interface: • • • • • – SPI @ 750 kHz, CHANGE and DRDY status indicator pins Moisture Tolerance: – Increased moisture tolerance based on hardware design and firmware tuning Power: – 2.0 V to 5.5 V Signal Processing: – Self-calibration, autodrift compensation, noise filtering, patented Adjacent Key Suppression® (AKS®) Package: – 32-pin 5 x 5 mm MLF RoHS compliant – 32-pin 7 x 7 mm TQFP RoHS compliant Applications: – Portable devices, domestic appliances and A/V equipment, PC peripherals, office equipment AT42QT2100 [DATASHEET] 9554E–AT42–01/13 2 SNSA2 SNSKA2 SNSA3 SNSKA3 29 28 27 26 25 24 32 31 30 SNSKA1 SNSKB2 1 SNSB3 2 23 SNSA1 SNSKB3 3 22 SPREAD VDD 4 21 VSS VSS 5 20 CHANGE SNSKB4 6 19 DRDY SNSB4 7 18 VDD SNSB5 8 17 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 SCK MISO MOSI SS SNSB7 SNSB6 SNSKB7 SNSKB6 QT2100 SNSKB5 1.2 RESET Pinout Configuration SNSB1 1.1 SNSKB Pinout and Schematic SNSB2 1. Pin Descriptions Table 1-1. Pin Listing Pin Name Type Function If Unused, Connect To... 1 SNSKB2 I/O Sense pin. Connect to any CsB + Key Open 2 SNSB3 (1) I/O Sense pin. Connect to CsB3 Open 3 SNSKB3 I/O Sense pin. Connect to any CsB + Key Open 4 VDD P Power - 5 VSS P Ground - 6 SNSKB4 I/O Sense pin. Connect to any CsB + Key Open 7 SNSB4 (1) I/O Sense pin. Connect to CsB4 Open 8 SNSB5 (1) I/O Sense pin. Connect to CsB5 Open 9 SNSKB5 I/O Sense pin. Connect to any CsB + Key Open 10 SNSKB6 I/O Sense pin. Connect to any CsB + Key Open 11 SNSKB7 I/O Sense pin. Connect to any CsB + Key Open 12 SNSB6 (1) I/O Sense pin. Connect to CsB6 Open AT42QT2100 [DATASHEET] 9554E–AT42–01/13 3 Table 1-1. 1. Pin Listing (Continued) Pin Name Type Function If Unused, Connect To... 13 SNSB7 (1) I/O Sense pin. Connect to CsB7 Open 14 SS I SPI Slave Select (active low) - 15 MOSI I SPI Master Out /Slave In - 16 MISO OF SPI Master In/Serial Out - 17 SCK I SPI Clock - 18 VDD P Power - 19 DRDY OF SPI Data Ready handshake line Open 20 CHANGE OF State change notification Open 21 VSS P 22 SPREAD 23 24 Ground - OD Spread-spectrum drive Connect to Vdd (high) to enable Connect to Vss (low) to disable - SNSA1 (1) I/O Sense pin. Connect to CsA1 Open SNSKA1 I/O Sense pin. Connect to any CsA + slider/wheel Open I/O Sense pin. Connect to CsA2 Open (1) 25 SNSA2 26 SNSKA2 I/O Sense pin. Connect to any CsA + slider/wheel Open 27 SNSA3 (1) I/O Sense pin. Connect to CsA3 Open 28 SNSKA3 I/O Sense pin. Connect to any CsA + slider/wheel Open 29 RESET I 30 SNSB1 (1) I/O Sense pin. Connect to CsB1 Open 31 SNSKB1 I/O Sense pin. Connect to any CsB + Key Open 32 SNSB2 (1) I/O Sense pin. Connect to CsB2 Open Reset (active low) Vdd via resistor SNS terminals can be paired with any SNSK terminals of the same group. For example, SNSA1 can be paired with any SNSKA terminal. I/O CMOS input/output I CMOS input only OD CMOS open drain output (pull-up to Vdd) OF CMOS output that can float during Reset, Sleep or LP modes P Ground or power AT42QT2100 [DATASHEET] 9554E–AT42–01/13 4 Schematic Figure 1-1. Connection Diagram (32-MLF Package) 4 18 VDD 29 22 RESET CsB1 SNSB1 SNSKB1 SPREAD SNSB2 SNSKB2 SNSB3 SNSKB3 SNSB4 SNSKB4 SS 14 MOSI 15 MISO 16 SCK 17 DRDY 19 CHANGE 20 R4 SS SNSB5 MOSI SNSKB5 MISO SNSB6 SCK SNSKB6 DRDY SNSB7 CHANGE SNSKB7 30 QT Key 31 Key B2 CsB2 32 QT Key Key B3 CsB3 2 SNSA2 GND SNSKA2 SNSA3 5 VSS VSS SNSKA3 RsB3 QT Key Key B4 3 CsB4 7 RsB4 QT Key Key B5 6 CsB5 8 RsB5 QT Key Key B6 9 CsB6 12 RsB6 QT Key Key B7 10 CsB7 13 RsB7 QT Key 11 CsA1 SNSKA1 RsB2 1 R5 SNSA1 RsB1 23 RsA1 Wheel/Slider 24 CsA2 25 Ch1 RsA2 Ch2 26 CsA3 27 Ch3 RsA3 28 Voltage Regulator VCC C1 C2 Vin GND GND R3 VDD R2 VDD Key B1 R1 21 1.3 Vout VDD C3 C4 GND Important Design Guidelines: The sensitivities of the various sense channels are determined by the values of the respective Cs capacitors (that is, CsB1, CsB7, and so on); these values will require adjustment based on building a prototype product and testing the sensitivity experimentally. Signals DRDY and CHANGE may need pull-down resistors. Re Figure 1-1, check the following sections for the variable component values: Section 3.1 on page 9: Cs capacitors (CsB) Section 3.2 on page 9: Sample resistors (RSNS) Section 3.3 on page 9: Voltage levels AT42QT2100 [DATASHEET] 9554E–AT42–01/13 5 2. Overview 2.1 Introduction The AT42QT2100 (QT2100) is an easy-to-use sensor IC based on the Atmel-patented charge-transfer (QT™) principles for robust operation and ease of design. This device has many advanced features which provide for reliable, trouble-free operation over the life of the product. In particular the QT2100 features advanced selfcalibration, drift compensation, and fast thermal tracking. The QT2100 can tolerate some fluctuations in the power supply, and in many applications will not require a dedicated voltage regulator. The QT2100 is capable of detecting near-proximity or touch on up to seven electrodes and a slider/wheel. It allows electrodes to project sense fields through any dielectric such as glass or plastic. These electrodes are laid out as a scroller (slider or wheel), plus seven additional independent keys. Each key channel can be tuned for a unique sensitivity level by simply changing a corresponding external Cs capacitor, whereas the slider/wheel sensitivity can be changed dynamically through SPI commands. Any number of key channels can be optimized for operation as hand proximity sensors by increasing the sensitivity for the corresponding channel. Note: There are special conditions if using AKS (see Section 4.3.6 on page 15). The slider/wheel uses a simple, inexpensive sensing element between three connection points. The QT2100 can report a single rapid touch anywhere along the sense elements, or it can track a finger moving along the slider/wheel's surface in real time. By using the charge-transfer principle, this device delivers a level of performance clearly superior to older technologies yet is highly cost-effective. Spread-spectrum burst technology provides superior noise rejection. 2.2 Burst Operation The device operates in burst mode. Each key is acquired using a burst of charge-transfer sensing pulses whose count varies depending on the value of the sense capacitors (CsA1 to CSA3 and CsB1 to CSB7) and the load capacitance Cx (finger touch capacitance and circuit stray capacitance). The channels’ signals are acquired using three successive bursts of pulses: Burst 1: B1, B2, B3 Burst 2: B4, B5, B6, B7 Burst 3: A1, A2, A3 where B1 to B7 are the individual key sensors and A1 to A3 are the slider/wheel sensors. Bursts operate in sequence and occur one after the other with minimum delay. During each burst the DRDY pin is held low. The groups are separated by an interval of 500 µs when DRDY is held high to signal an appropriate time for SPI communications. Communications may be carried out at any time, however, regardless of the state of the DRDY pin. 2.3 User Interface Layout and Options The QT2100 can sense through all common plastics or glass or other dielectric materials up to 10 mm thick. It can be used to implement a linear slider or rotary scroll wheel plus seven additional discrete keys. The slider or wheel indicates absolute positions. 2.4 Slider and Wheel Construction The QT2100 can be connected to a linear slider element (see Section 3.5 on page 10) or a wheel. Selection of linear operation or wheel is set through an SPI command. AT42QT2100 [DATASHEET] 9554E–AT42–01/13 6 2.5 Proximity Effect Any number of keys can be programmed to have hand or body proximity. By using a relatively large electrode inside the product enclosure and a larger value of CsB, the product can auto power up or activate its display with hand approach. This simple feature can add enormous sales appeal to almost any product.However, if using AKS see Section 4.3.6 on page 15. 2.6 Moisture Tolerance The presence of water (condensation, sweat, spilt water, and so on) on a sensor can alter the signal values measured and thereby affect the performance of any capacitive device. The moisture tolerance of QTouch devices can be improved by designing the hardware and fine-tuning the firmware following the recommendations in the application note Atmel AVR3002: Moisture Tolerant QTouch Design (www.atmel.com/Images/doc42017.pdf). 2.7 SPI Interface The QT2100 is an SPI slave mode device, utilizing a four-wire full-duplex SPI interface. In addition to the standard four SPI signals (SS, SCK, MOSI and MISO), there is a DRDY (data ready) output which may optionally be used to time communications such that they do not occur during channel measurement bursts. During each burst DRDY is held low by the QT2100. After each group burst, DRDY is driven high for 500 µs or until 3 bytes have been exchanged. The QT2100 also provides a CHANGE signal to indicate when there has been a change in detection state. This removes the need for the host to poll the QT2100 continuously. On each SPI transfer the host sends three bytes to the QT2100 and the QT2100 simultaneously sends three bytes to the host. The bytes sent from the host provide the QT2100 with all its configuration information; the bytes sent from the QT2100 convey the states of the touch keys and slider or wheel. AT42QT2100 [DATASHEET] 9554E–AT42–01/13 7 2.8 Operating Modes The device features a number of operating modes to set the current drain and speed of response. The available operating modes are: Free Run Mode This mode uses a continuous stream of acquire bursts. Free Run mode has, in consequence, the highest power drain of all the QT2100 operating modes but the fastest response time. LP Mode In LP (low power) modes, the QT2100 spends a portion of the time sleeping to conserve power; it wakes itself periodically to perform acquire bursts, then normally goes back to sleep again. The QT2100 provides a choice of intervals between acquire bursts to allow an appropriate trade-off between speed and power to be made for each product. Sleep Mode In Sleep mode, the QT2100 shuts down to conserve power; it remains in this mode, carrying out no acquisition bursts until the host wakes it using the SS pin. Sync Mode In this mode the device synchronizes to the host in a way that allows for the suppression of heavy low frequency noise; for example, from mains frequencies and their harmonics. AT42QT2100 [DATASHEET] 9554E–AT42–01/13 8 3. Wiring and Parts 3.1 Cs Sample Capacitors The Cs (CsA1 to CSA3 and CsB1 to CSB7) sample capacitors accumulate the charge from the key electrodes and determine sensitivity. Higher values of Cs make the corresponding sensing channel more sensitive. The values of Cs can differ for each channel, permitting differences in sensitivity from key to key or to balance unequal sensitivities. Unequal sensitivities can occur due to key size and placement differences and stray wiring capacitances. More stray capacitance on a sense trace will desensitize the corresponding key; increasing the Cs for that key will compensate for the loss of sensitivity. The Cs capacitors can be virtually any plastic film or low to medium-K ceramic capacitor. Acceptable capacitor types for most uses include PPS film, polypropylene film, and NP0 and X7R ceramics. Lower grade ceramics than X7R are not advised; the X5R grade should be avoided because it is less stable than X7R. Larger values of Cs require better quality to ensure reliable sensing The normal Cs range is 1 nF to 100 nF for the keys and 4.7 nF to 220 nF for each channel of the slider or wheel for good performance and position detection. The actual value used depends on the sensitivity required. A 3 nF to 5 nF capacitor is typical for a touch key with an electrode diameter of 10 to 12 mm and a cover of 1 to 2 mm plastic, and approximately 10 nF to 15 nF for slider or wheel electrodes. 3.2 Rs Series Resistors Series Rs resistors (RsA1 to RSA3 and RsB1 to RSB7) are in-line with the electrode connections and are used to limit electrostatic discharge (ESD) currents and to suppress radio frequency interference (RFI). For most applications the Rs resistors will be in the range 4.7 k to 33 k each. In a few applications with low loading on the sense keys the value may be up to 100 k. Although these resistors may be omitted, the device may become susceptible to external noise or RFI. For details of how to select these resistors refer to Application Note QTAN0079 Buttons, Sliders and Wheels Sensor Design Guide. 3.3 Power Supply The power supply can range from 2.0 V to 5.5 V. If this fluctuates slowly with temperature, the device will track and compensate for these changes automatically with only minor changes in sensitivity. If the supply voltage drifts or shifts quickly, the drift compensation mechanism will not be able to keep up, causing sensitivity anomalies or false detections. In this situation a dedicated voltage regulator should be included in the circuit. The QT2100 power supply should be locally regulated using a three-terminal device, to between 2.0 V and 5.5 V. If the supply is shared with another electronic system, care should be taken to ensure that the supply is free of digital spikes, sags, and surges, all of which can cause adverse effects. For proper operation a 0.1 µF, or greater, bypass capacitor must be used between Vdd and Vss; the bypass capacitor should be routed with very short tracks to the QT2100 VSS and VDD pins. 3.4 MLF Package Restrictions The central pad on the underside of the MLF chip should be connected to ground. Do not run any tracks underneath the body of the chip, only ground. Figure 3-1 shows an example of good and bad tracking. AT42QT2100 [DATASHEET] 9554E–AT42–01/13 9 Figure 3-1. Examples of Good and Bad Tracking Example of GOOD tracking 3.5 Example of BAD tracking Slider and Wheel Construction The QT2100 can be connected to a linear slider element or a wheel (see Figure 3-2). Selection of linear slider operation or a wheel is set through an SPI command. As with touch button electrodes, sliders and wheels can be constructed as etched areas on a PCB or flex circuit, or from clear conductors such as Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) or screenprinted PEDOT to allow backlighting effects, or for use over an LCD display. Figure 3-2. All-Metal Slider and Wheel Construction (Downloadable CAD files can be found on the Atmel website) SNSA3 SNSA2 SNSA1 SNSA3 Tips of triangles should Position 0 be spaced 4 mm apart. SNSA3 4 mm 4 mm 0 1 to 126 127 Position (at 7 bits: 0 to 127) Position 85 SNSA2 3.6 Position 43 SNSA1 Oscillator No external oscillator is needed. 3.7 PCB Layout and Construction Refer to Application Note QTAN0079, Buttons, Sliders and Wheels Sensor Design Guide and the Touch Sensors Design Guide (both downloadable from the Atmel website), for more information on construction and design methods. The sensing channels used for the individual keys can be implemented as per the Touch Sensors Design Guide. AT42QT2100 [DATASHEET] 9554E–AT42–01/13 10 3.8 PCB Cleanliness Modern no-clean-flux is generally compatible with capacitive sensing circuits. CAUTION: If a PCB is reworked to correct soldering faults relating to the QT2100, or to any associated traces or components, be sure that you fully understand the nature of the flux used during the rework process. Leakage currents from hygroscopic ionic residues can stop capacitive sensors from functioning. If you have any doubts, a thorough cleaning after rework may be the only safe option. 3.9 Spread-spectrum Circuit The QT2100 offers the ability to spectrally spread its frequency of operation to heavily reduce susceptibility to external noise sources and to limit RF emissions. With this option enabled, bursts operate over a spread of frequencies, so that external fields will have minimal effect on key operation and emissions are very weak. Spread-spectrum operation works together with the Detect Integrator (DI) mechanism to dramatically reduce the probability of false detection due to noise. Spread spectrum may be enabled by connecting the SPREAD pin to Vdd via a pull-up resistor, or disabled by connecting to Vss via a pull-down resistor. AT42QT2100 [DATASHEET] 9554E–AT42–01/13 11 4. Detailed Operation 4.1 Reset 4.1.1 Introduction When starting from power-up or RESET reset there are a few additional factors to be aware of. In most applications the host will not need to take special action. During hardware reset all outputs are disabled. To define the levels of the CHANGE and DRDY during reset these signals should pulled down by resistors to 0 V. Otherwise, they may drift high causing the host to detect a false logic 1. When the initial reset phase ends, CHANGE and DRDY outputs are enabled. DRDY will drive low and CHANGE will drive high. 4.1.2 Delay to SPI Functionality The QT2100 SPI interface is not operational while the device is being reset. However, SPI is made operational early in the start-up procedure. After any reset (either via the RESET pin or via power-up), SPI typically becomes operational within 50 ms of RESET going high or power-up. CHANGE is pulled high, and held high until the device status is read by the host microcontroller, to indicate completion of the initialization sequence after power-on or reset. 4.1.3 Reset Delay to Touch Detection After power-up or reset, the QT2100 calibrates all electrodes. During this time, touch detection cannot be reported. Calibration completes after 15 burst cycles, which takes approximately 350 ms, depending on the electrode layout and Cs selection. In total, 400 ms are required from reset or power-up for the device to be fully functional. 4.1.4 Disabled Keys: Keys with missing Cs capacitors, or that otherwise have an out-of-range signal during calibration, are considered to be unused or faulty and are disabled. Disabled keys are re-examined for operation after each reset or recalibration event. 4.1.5 Mode Setting After Reset After a reset the device will enter Free Run mode, with AKS disabled. 4.2 Communications 4.2.1 Introduction The QT2100 communicates as a slave device over a full-duplex 4-wire (MISO, MOSI, SCK, SS) SPI interface. In addition there is a DRDY pin which indicates when the QT2100 is carrying out acquisition bursts and a CHANGE pin which is asserted when a change occurs in the status of the touch sensors (see Table 4-1). Table 4-1. Additional Pins Pin High Low DRDY Burst is complete Burst is active CHANGE New touch data Latest data has already been read by host AT42QT2100 [DATASHEET] 9554E–AT42–01/13 12 See Section 6.5 on page 32 for details of the SPI Configuration and Timing Parameters. The host must always transfer three bytes in succession within the allotted time (10 ms maximum). If all bytes are not received in this interval it is treated by the QT2100 as an error. In this case the exchange is reset and the next read will contain the first data byte of a new exchange. Messages from the host to the QT2100 carry configuration information; return data from the QT2100 carries key state information. For details of the message contents see Section 5. on page 19. Figure 6-1 and Figure 6-2 on page 33 show the basic timing for SPI operation. The host does the clocking and controls the timing of the transfers from the QT2100. Transfers are always clocked as a set of three bytes, Byte 1, 2, and 3. DRDY stays high for 500 µs. It falls again after Byte 3 has shifted to indicate completion. DRDY goes high after each burst. After the host asserts SS low, it should wait >22 µs in low power mode before starting SCK; in Free run mode, a delay of 2 µs is sufficient. The QT2100 reads the MOSI pin with each rising edge of SCK, and shifts data out on the MISO pin on falling edges. The host should do the same to ensure proper operation. Between the end of the Byte 1 shift and the start of the Byte 2 shift (and between Byte 2 and Byte 3), the host may raise SS again, but this is not required. SS should be held high when not communicating; if SS is low this is taken as an indication of impending communications. In this case, extra current is drawn, as the QT2100 does not enter its lowest power sleep mode. All timings not mentioned above should be as in Figure 6-2 on page 33. 4.2.2 Change Pin The QT2100 has a CHANGE output pin which allows for key state change notification. Use of the CHANGE signal relieves the host of the burden of regularly polling the QT2100 to get key states. CHANGE goes high when an event occurs that causes a change to the contents of the Normal Data bytes; that is, when a new key is pressed, or released, or a movement is detected on the slider/wheel. Similarly, when a custom threshold or LPM is sent to the QT2100, the CHANGE line is asserted to indicate that the new setting has been applied and is shown in the Normal Exchange data. CHANGE also goes high after a reset to indicate to the host that it should do an SPI transfer in order to provide initial configuration information to the QT2100 (as it does on every SPI transfer). CHANGE is driven low only once the data has been read through an SPI transfer. In the case of a transient touch on one of the sensors, in which the touch has been removed before the host has read the status of the sensors, the Change line remains asserted. Note: 4.2.3 In this case the data that will be read may be identical to the data that was previously read. DRDY Pin The Data Ready (DRDY) pin is a quick indication of the QT2100 activity. During channel acquisition bursts the pin is held low by the device, and driven high for ~500 µs in between bursts. During processing and sleep the pin is driven high continuously, unless a 3-byte communications exchange has taken place since the last acquisition burst. After a 3-byte exchange has completed the pin is pulled low and remains low until the next burst completion, after which the normal cycle resumes. This allows the host to detect if the 3-byte exchange packets have become de-synchronized. The QT2100 has a DRDY grace period. If communications start during the 20 µs after DRDY has been deasserted (pulled low) by the QT2100, then DRDY is reasserted and held high until the exchange is complete. Key measurement bursts do not take place during this time. AT42QT2100 [DATASHEET] 9554E–AT42–01/13 13 Figure 4-1. DRDY Cycle without Communications Burst 1 Burst 2 Burst 3 Processing & Sleep Burst 1 Burst 2 Burst 3 Burst 3 Processing & Sleep Burst 1 Burst 2 Burst 3 DRDY Burst 1 Burst 2 Burst 3 Figure 4-2. DRDY Cycle with Communications Burst 1 Burst 2 DRDY Burst 1 Burst 2 Burst 3 SCK 4.3 Signal Processing 4.3.1 Power-up Self-calibration On power-up, or after reset, all 10 channels are typically calibrated and operational within 350 ms. 4.3.2 Drift Compensation This operates to correct the reference level of each key automatically over time; it suppresses false detections caused by changes in temperature, humidity, dirt and other environmental effects. The QT2100 drifts towards touch at a rate limited to 1 count every 3 seconds, and away from touch at a rate limited to 1 count every 0.5 s. Reference drift is paused during touch detection, and for 2 s after touch detection ends. These timings may be slower in Sync mode, or where asynchronous acquisition is triggered with LPB, as timing calculations are derived from the acquisition interval. AT42QT2100 [DATASHEET] 9554E–AT42–01/13 14 4.3.3 Detection Integrator Filter Detect Integrator (DI) filter confirmation reduces the effects of noise on key states. The DI mechanism requires a specified number of measurements that qualify as detections (and these must occur in a row) or the detection will not be reported. In a similar manner, the end of a touch (loss of signal) also has to be confirmed over several measurements. The QT2100 provides a choice of either two or six DI measurements. 4.3.4 Adjacent Key Suppression (AKS) This patented feature works to prevent multiple keys from incorrectly responding to a single touch. This can happen with closely spaced keys, or a scroll wheel that has buttons very near. Adjacent Key Suppression (AKS) operates by comparing signal strengths from keys within a group of keys to suppress touch detections from those that have a weaker signal change than the dominant one. When enabled globally on the QT2100, AKS allows only one key or the scroll section to indicate a touch at a time. The QT2100 has a range of preset AKS groupings, where only one key in an AKS group can indicate a touch at any time while keys in different groups can indicate touch in any combination. AKS can also be disabled. 4.3.5 Autorecalibration (MOD) The device can time out and recalibrate all sensors after a continuous touch detection that lasts for the chosen Maximum On Duration (MOD). This ensures that a key can never become stuck on due to foreign objects or other external influences. After recalibration the key will resume normal functionality. The nominal delay is selectable to be 10 s, 20 s, 60 s, or infinite (disabled) though the actual delay is different in Sleep mode, as timing is entirely driven by host communications. The device also automatically recalibrates a key when its associated signal reflects a sufficient decrease in capacitance from the reference level (signal error). In this case, unlike MOD recalibration, only the key that shows a signal error is recalibrated. This recalibration is triggered when the decrease in capacitance is seen on the key signal for more than 1.5 s. 4.3.6 Proximity Sensor Any key can be optimized for operation as a hand proximity sensor. The sensitivity can be increased by a higher value of Cs. However, If using AKS only channel seven can be used as a proximity sensor and the AKS bits should be set to 101, to ensure that the proximity key does not lock out other keys or the slider/wheel (see Table 5-2 on page 20). Design of proximity electrodes requires care, so as to ensure that the electrode area is maximized whilst ensuring adequate and easy coupling to a hand as it approaches the equipment. 4.3.7 Faulty and Unused Keys Any sense channel that does not have its sense capacitor (Cs) fitted is assumed to be either faulty or unused. A sensor fault is detected by an out-of-range signal count during calibration, where the minimum allowed signal is 32 counts and the maximum is 8192. This channel takes no further part in operation unless a host-commanded recalibration operation shows it to have an in-range burst count again. This is important for sense channels that have an open or short circuit fault across Cs. Such channels would otherwise cause very long acquire bursts, and in consequence would slow the operation of the device. Note that acquisition pulses will still be generated on these channels, but no measurements of their state will be carried out. The burst will finish when all the enabled channels on the burst group have completed acquisition. AT42QT2100 [DATASHEET] 9554E–AT42–01/13 15 4.4 Operating Modes 4.4.1 Introduction Four basic operating modes are possible: Free Run, Low Power (LP), Sleep and Sync. Sleep is a special case of LP mode, where the sleep time is infinite. Sync is a special case of LP mode where the timing of host communications is used as the timing basis for the QT2100 acquisition cycle. In the absence of host communications, the device operates in its most power-efficient low power mode, LP Mode 4. See below for further details. 4.4.2 Free Run Mode In this mode the device operates continuously with short intervals between burst groups; there are three bursts, one burst for each electrode group. DRDY goes high for approximately 500 µs between bursts and stays high during signal processing. In this mode, the acquisition bursts are unsynchronized, making this mode unsuitable if synchronization to mains frequency is needed. 4.4.3 Low Power Mode LP mode is designed to allow low power operation while still retaining full operation but at a slower speed. This mode is useful for devices that must use the touch keys to wake up a product, yet minimize power consumption. Several LP timings allow the user to trade power versus response time: the slower the response time, the lower the power consumed. In LP mode, the device spends a portion of the time sleeping between bursts; it wakes periodically to measure all channels with a set of three acquisition bursts, then goes back to sleep. If a touch is detected, the device operates as in Free Run mode and attempts to perform the Detect Integrator (DI) noise filter function to completion; if the DI filter fails to confirm a detection the device goes back to sleep and resumes LP mode. During the DI function the LPS bit will be cleared. If a key is found to be in detection the CHANGE pin will go high and the part will remain in Free Run mode. To go back into LP mode the host has to request LP mode again with an SPI communications exchange after the touch detection has been cleared by removal of touch or recalibration. CHANGE Pin in LP Mode: During the sleep portion of LP mode, CHANGE is held low. If however a change of key state is confirmed, CHANGE goes high and the part runs from then on in Free Run mode until the host reads the key state and puts the device back into LP mode or some other mode. MISO in LP Mode: During the sleep portion of LP mode, MISO floats. DRDY during LP Mode: DRDY remains high while the QT2100 is sleeping, to indicate to the host that SPI communications are possible. During an actual acquire burst, DRDY is held low. Command During LP Mode: The device can be woken from sleep by the SS pin being pulled low. Note that the SS pin must be pulled high in order for the device to enter its lowest power sleep mode. If SS is held low, the device enters a higher power sleep mode to enable SPI communications. The host may perform a normal SPI transfer as shown in Figure 4-3 on page 17. AT42QT2100 [DATASHEET] 9554E–AT42–01/13 16 Figure 4-3. LP Mode SPI Operation SPI Operation with LPB = 0 No SPI Communication SPI Communication Acquire Bursts >22us /SS from host SCLK from Host Host Data Output (QT2100 Input - MOSI) don't care don't care don't care don't care don't care don't care command bytes response bytes QT Data Output (QT2100 Out - MISO) 3-state 3-state SPI Operation with LPB = 1 Acquire Bursts >22us /SS from host SCLK from Host Host Data Output (QT2100 Input - MOSI) command bytes response bytes QT Data Output (QT2100 Out - MISO) Note: 3-state 3-state don't care don't care With LPB = 1, a pulse on SS with or without communications triggers an acquisition burst to follow communications. Pulse width > 22 µs. After the SPI transfer is completed, the QT2100 will generate a set of three acquire bursts if LPB = 1, during which DRDY will be low. The mode and options settings sent from the host to the QT2100 during the SPI transfer take effect after the set of acquire bursts. If either LP mode or Sleep mode is selected, the QT2100 will go back to sleep with DRDY high provided no key is detected as possibly touched. If Sync mode is selected, the QT2100 will go back to sleep with DRDY high provided no key is detected as possibly touched. The CHANGE pin will go high at this time if a key is confirmed as touched. SS Wake pulse: In LP Mode, a wake pulse may be used on the SS pin to either trigger an LPB acquire burst or to wake the device in advance of communications. The pulse should be at least 22 µs in duration. When used prior to communications, there should be a delay of 100 µs to 1 ms between the end of the SS Pulse and the following SS assertion. 4.4.4 Sleep Mode Sleep mode offers the lowest possible current drain, in the low microamp region. AT42QT2100 [DATASHEET] 9554E–AT42–01/13 17 Sleep mode is a special case of LP mode, where the sleep duration between bursts is infinite. All comments concerning LP mode, including about SPI communications, apply equally to Sleep mode, except that the LPB bit is ignored and bursts are always generated after an SPI transfer or SS wake pulse as if LPB = 1. Note: In Sleep mode the QT2100 only performs acquisition bursts following being woken by SS. This has two effects: Touch detection only occurs following SS-wake pulses, and hence CHANGE can only go high at that time. The QT2100 cannot drift its internal references unless the host sends periodic SS-wake pulses. If the host does not do this, then it should command the QT2100 to recalibrate when it sets the QT2100 into a different operating mode. This mode can be used by the host to create its own LP Mode timings via the SS wakeup pulse method. 4.4.5 Sync Mode This mode is useful for low frequency noise suppression, for example from mains frequencies in line-operated appliances. Acquisition bursts are synchronized to the SS-wake pulses from the host. Sync mode is very similar to LP Mode 4, with two differences: It does not operate as in Free Run mode when a touch is first detected The LPB bit is ignored and a burst is always generated after each SS wakeup or SPI transfer as if LPB = 1 Not operating as in Free Run mode when a touch is first detected (before DI confirmation has taken place) means that acquisition bursts are restricted to the immediate time after a sync signal (SS), heightening the effect of low frequency noise suppression. In many applications of Sync mode the DI filter will need to be set to two counts, to avoid the QT2100 response time being unacceptably lengthened as a consequence of this. AT42QT2100 [DATASHEET] 9554E–AT42–01/13 18 5. SPI Commands 5.1 Introduction Each communication exchange between the QT2100 and the host device consists of 3 bytes transmitted each way. The host controls the clock signals and the timing of the exchange. The data sent by the host indicates the command mode and the device settings where appropriate. There are four command modes, selectable through bits 5 – 7 of the first byte (byte 0, Req bits): Normal Exchange mode (Req = 000) Custom Threshold command mode (Req = 100) Send Signal command mode (Req = 001) Device Version command mode (Req = 010) The device settings sent by the host in its three command bytes becomes effective immediately after all three bytes are received by the QT2100. The response to these three bytes is three data bytes containing key detection information. 5.2 Normal Exchange Mode 5.2.1 Introduction The Normal Exchange mode (Req = 000) is the normal mode for communication between the host and the device. Data is sent every time an SPI communication occurs in Normal Exchange mode. If one of the other commands is sent by the host, the corresponding response will be sent during the subsequent 3-byte exchange. This Normal Exchange response forms the default (start-up) QT2100 data. 5.2.2 Host Data In Normal Exchange mode (Req = 000) the host sends the 3-byte data in Table 5-1. Table 5-1. Host Byte Normal Exchange Mode – Host Command Bytes Bit 7 0 1 2 Note: 6 5 Req = 000 0 MOD Resolution 4 3 2 1 0 PROX SLD AKS DI LPB LP Mode CalW CalK Cal Key Num Bits labelled 0 should not be altered AT42QT2100 [DATASHEET] 9554E–AT42–01/13 19 Byte 0 AKS – Three bits used to determine the AKS mode, as shown in Table 5-2 (see Section 4.3.4 on page 15 for further information). Table 5-2. AKS Mode AKS Bits AKS Option 000 AKS disabled (default) 001 AKS global: All 7 keys + slider/wheel are in the same group AKS group 1: all keys 010 AKS group 2: slider/wheel AKS group 1: keys 1 – 4 011 AKS group 2: keys 5 – 7 AKS group 3: slider/wheel AKS group 1: keys 1 – 4 100 AKS group 2: keys 5 – 7 + slider/wheel AKS group 1: keys 1 – 6 + slider/wheel 101 AKS group 2: key 7 SLD – Scrolling device type selection. SLD = 0: Wheel mode (default) SLD = 1: Linear slider mode PROX – This setting is included to ensure compatibility with host drivers designed for the QT1106. Any key may be optimized as a proximity sensor but key 7 should be used in any application where AKS is required, as it can be excluded from AKS by selecting AKS mode 101. Req – Set to 000 to indicate Normal Exchange mode. Byte 1 LP Mode – After each measurement and processing cycle the device goes to sleep for a period, the duration of which is set by the LP mode as per Table 5-3. Table 5-3. Sleep/Low Power Modes LP Mode Bits Operating Mode 000 Free run – 0 ms sleep period in each cycle (default): Acquisition and processing carried out continuously with no sleep. This mode has the highest power consumption, but the quickest response. 001 60 ms sleep period in each cycle 010 120 ms sleep period in each cycle 011 240 ms sleep period in each cycle 100 480 ms sleep period in each cycle AT42QT2100 [DATASHEET] 9554E–AT42–01/13 20 Table 5-3. Sleep/Low Power Modes (Continued) LP Mode Bits Operating Mode 101 Sync mode: The QT2100 performs an acquisition burst when triggered by a rising edge on SS and ‘heartbeat’ bursts at the same interval as LP Mode 4 110 Sleep: The QT2100 performs an acquisition and processing cycle only when triggered by a rising edge on SS, whether a low pulse or a communication exchange. 111 Reserved LPB – Sets the LP mode following burst option. See Figure 4-2 on page 14. LPB = 0: If the host communicates with the device, or there is an SS pulse during any LP mode (modes 001 to 100), there will be no following burst. The only bursts that will take place are those that occur as naturally defined by the LP mode noted above. LPB = 1: If the host communicates with the device, or there is an SS pulse during any LP mode (modes 001 to 100), there will be an additional burst following SS raising high (default). In modes 101 (Sync) and 110 (Sleep), there will always be a burst following SS raising high, regardless of the LPB Setting. See Table 5-3 for a description of the Mode settings. DI - Set the Detect Integrator noise filter function. DI = 0: Two detections required to confirm a touch (faster but less noise immune). DI = 1: Six detections required to confirm a touch (slower but more noise immune; appropriate for most applications) (default). MOD (Recal Time) – Sets the Maximum On-duration for all keys and slider/wheel. Controls the time from the start of a detection to automatic recalibration of all channels. See Table 5-4 for allowed MOD times. Table 5-4. Maximum On-duration in Free Run Mode MOD Bits Maximum On-duration 00 10 s (default) 01 20 s 10 60 s 11 Infinite MOD – timeout disabled Note: in Sleep mode, all device timing is dependent on the regularity of SPI communications. See Section 4.4.4 on page 17 for more information. AT42QT2100 [DATASHEET] 9554E–AT42–01/13 21 Byte 2 Cal Key Num – key to be recalibrated when CalK = 1 (see Table 5-5). Table 5-5. Key Recalibration Cal Key Num Bits Key 000 Recalibrate all keys (excluding slider/wheel) 001 Recalibrate Key 1 010 Recalibrate Key 2 011 Recalibrate Key 3 100 Recalibrate Key 4 101 Recalibrate Key 5 110 Recalibrate Key 6 111 Recalibrate Key 7 CalK – Recalibrates the key(s) specified by Cal Key Num. CalK = 0: No recalibration (normal state of this bit). CalK = 1: The device recalibrates key(s). CalW – Recalibrates the slider/wheel. CalW = 0: No recalibration (normal state of this bit). CalW = 1: The device recalibrates the slider/wheel. Set CalK/CalW only once when required, and set CalK/CalW = 0 thereafter. If the bit is constantly set to 1, the device will keep recalibrating and will never detect a touch. Note that the device recalibrates automatically on power-up, so that the use of Recal should rarely be required. Any channel used as a proximity detector should be recalibrated soon after each proximity detection, to ensure stability. Resolution – the resolution of the slider/wheel reported position (see Table 5-6 and Figure 5-1). Table 5-6. Resolution Resolution Bits Resolution 000 Reserved 001 2 Bits: 4 positions (0 – 3) 010 3 Bits: 8 positions (0 – 7) 011 4 Bits: 16 positions (0 – 15) 100 5 Bits: 32 positions (0 – 31) 101 6 Bits: 64 positions (0 – 63) 110 7 Bits: 128 positions (0 – 127) (default) 111 8 Bits: 256 positions (0 – 255) Note: A resolution change will only become effective on the next touch. AT42QT2100 [DATASHEET] 9554E–AT42–01/13 22 Figure 5-1. Slider and Wheel Resolution Slider M ode W heelM ode SNSKA SNSA3 SNSKA SNSA3 SNSKA SNSA1 2 bits 1 0 SNSKA SNSA3 3 bits SNSKA SNSA2 1 SNSKA SNSA2 3 2 4 SNSKA SNSA2 SNSKA SNSA3 SNSKA SNSA1 5 6 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 SNSKA SNSA2 7 8 2 1 SNSKA SNSA3 9 10 11 12 13 14 SNSKA SNSA1 SNSKA SNSA3 7 1 6 SNSKA SNSA2 15 SNSKA SNSA3 0 5 4 bits 0 2 bits 7 SNSKA SNSA3 3 3 2 SNSKA SNSA1 0 SNSKA SNSA3 2 3 4 SNSKA SNSA1 14 15 0 1 13 2 3 12 4 11 5 10 9 8 7 6 SNSKA SNSA2 SNSKA SNSA1 4 bits 3 bits N ote: the first and last slider positions (shaded) have larger touch areas. 5.2.3 QT2100 Data The three return bytes contain the response to the previously sent command. Initially it is assumed that the previously sent command was a Normal Exchange command. The return bytes for the Normal Exchange command is shown in Table 5-7. Table 5-7. Normal Exchange Mode – Return Bytes Bit QT2100 Byte 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 0 CW CK EW EK LPS PM 0 CTL 1 W K7 K6 K5 K4 K3 K2 K1 2 Position Byte 0 CTL: Custom Threshold Loaded: If CTL = 1, a custom slider/wheel threshold has been loaded from the host. This is set as a result of a Custom Threshold command. Once the QT2100 has received a custom threshold, this bit is set and stays set until reset. PM: Proximity Mode: This setting is disabled as there is no proximity mode on the QT2100 because each key can be configured as a proximity sensor. This setting has been left to ensure compatibility with the QT1106. LPS: LP/Sleep State: If LPS = 1, the device was in LP, Sync, or Sleep mode when the requesting command was received. If LPS = 0, the device was in Free Run mode. AT42QT2100 [DATASHEET] 9554E–AT42–01/13 23 EK: Key(s) in Error: If EK = 1, there is a sufficient decrease in capacitance of one or more normal key(s) from the reference level. The affected key will be recalibrated if this condition is seen for more than 1.5 seconds. EW: Slider/Wheel in Error: If EW = 1, there is a sufficient decrease in capacitance of the slider/wheel from the reference level. The slider/wheel will be recalibrated if this condition is seen for six successive cycles. CK: Key(s) in Calibration: If CK = 1, one or more key(s) are being calibrated. CW: Slider/Wheel in Calibration: If CW = 1, the slider/wheel is being calibrated. Byte 1 K1 – K7: Contains the key states of each key. A 1 in a bit position means the key is confirmed as being touched. W: The state of the wheel/rotor. A 1 means the slider/wheel is confirmed as being touched. Byte 2 Position: The position of touch on the slider/wheel. If the slider/wheel is not being touched, the position will be the position of the last touch. AT42QT2100 [DATASHEET] 9554E–AT42–01/13 24 5.3 Custom Threshold 5.3.1 Introduction The Custom Threshold command mode (Req = 100) is used to modify the detection threshold of the slider/wheel. It only needs to be sent once, for the new value to take effect, and then the Normal Exchange mode resumes (see Section 5.2 on page 19). The new value will be in use until the chip is reset or a new custom threshold is sent. 5.3.2 Host Data In Custom Threshold command mode the host sends the 3-byte data in Table 5-8. Table 5-8. Custom Threshold Command Mode – Host Command Bytes Bit Host Byte 7 0 6 5 Req = 100 1 3 2 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 T1 – Slider/Wheel Threshold 2 Note: 4 0 0 0 0 0 Bits labelled 0 should not be altered Byte 0 Req – Set to 100 to indicate Custom Threshold command mode. Byte 1 T1: Custom threshold value of the slider/wheel. Higher numbers are less sensitive. Touch detection uses this threshold combined with a hysteresis equal to 25% of the threshold (with a minimum hysteresis value of one). Power-up default setting: 30 Note: Custom Threshold Command is only used if the detection threshold of the slider/wheel needs to be changed from the power-up default. Byte 2 Always set to 0. 5.3.3 QT2100 Data The QT2100 response to the Custom Threshold command is the Normal Exchange report. Once the custom thresholds have been set, the CTL bit in the Normal Exchange report is set to 1 to indicate that the changed threshold has been applied (see Table 5-7). AT42QT2100 [DATASHEET] 9554E–AT42–01/13 25 5.4 Send Debug Data 5.4.1 Introduction In a Send Debug Data exchange (Req = 001) the host requests the QT2100 to send 16-bit debug data on the next 3-byte exchange. 5.4.2 Host Data In Send Debug Data command mode the host sends the 3-byte data in Table 5-9. Table 5-9. Host Byte Send Debug Data Command Mode – Host Command Bytes Bit 7 0 6 5 Req = 001 4 3 2 1 0 0 0 0 0 Debug Data 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 Note: Channel 0 0 Bits labelled 0 should not be altered Byte 0 Debug Data: 1 bit, specifying the debug data that should be returned. Either of two 16-bit debug data states may be requested: Debug Data = 0: Reference – the reference level used by the QT2100 for comparison with the current measurements to detect touch. The reference value is a 16-bit unsigned integer. Debug Data = 1: Delta – the difference between the reference level and the current level, indicating how close the channel is to detecting touch. The delta value is a 16-bit signed integer. Req: Set to 001 to indicate Send Debug Data command mode. Byte 1 Channel: 4 bits indicating the measurement channel for which the Send Debug Data is requested. Channels are mapped to keys or slider/wheel electrodes, as in Table 5-10. Table 5-10. Channel Mappings Channel Sensing Object 0 Key B1 1 Key B2 2 Key B3 3 Key B4 4 Key B5 5 Key B6 6 Key B7 AT42QT2100 [DATASHEET] 9554E–AT42–01/13 26 Table 5-10. Channel Mappings (Continued) Channel Sensing Object 7 Slider/Wheel A1 8 Slider/Wheel A2 9 Slider/Wheel A3 Byte 2 Always set to 0. 5.4.3 QT2100 Data During this exchange, the QT2100 returns the data requested on the previous exchange (Normal Data by default), and at the next exchange the requested debug data is returned. Table 5-11. Send Debug Data Command Mode – Return Bytes QT2100 Byte Bit 7 6 5 4 3 0 State of Channel 1 LSB Delta/LSB Reference 2 MSB Delta/MSB Reference 2 1 0 Byte 0 State of Channel: Indicates the current state of the channel. Table 5-12. Sensor States State Code Sensor State 0x01 Calibration 0x02 No Detect (no touch) 0x04 Filter In (to confirm touch) 0x08 Detect (touched) 0x10 Filter out (to confirm release) 0x20 Recal (positive error recalibration) 0x40 Fault Check Byte 1 LSB Delta/LSB Reference: The least significant 8 bits (LSB) of the Reference/Delta signal. Byte 2 MSB Delta/MSB Reference: The most significant 8 bits (MSB) of the Reference/Delta signal. AT42QT2100 [DATASHEET] 9554E–AT42–01/13 27 5.5 Device Version 5.5.1 Introduction In a Device Version exchange (Req = 010) the host requests the QT2100 to send the device ID and Firmware version information. 5.5.2 Host Data In Device Version command mode the host sends the 3-byte data in Table 5-13. Table 5-13. Device Version Command Mode – Host Command Bytes Bit Host Byte 7 0 6 5 Req = 010 4 3 2 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Note: Bits labelled 0 should not be altered Byte 0 Req: Set to 010 to indicate Device Version command mode. Byte 1 Always set to 0. Byte 2 Always set to 0. 5.5.3 QT2100 Data During this exchange, the QT2100 returns the data requested on the previous exchange (Normal Data by default), and at the next exchange the requested data is returned. Table 5-14. Device Version Command Mode – Return Bytes QT2100 Byte Bit 7 6 5 0 1 4 3 2 1 0 Device ID = 108 (0x6C) Version Major 2 Version Minor Build Byte 0 Device ID: the device ID; always 108 (0x6C) Byte 1 Version Major: 4 bits, indicating the major version of the device. Version Minor: 4 bits, indicating the minor version of the device. For example, firmware version 1.0 would be indicated as 0x10. AT42QT2100 [DATASHEET] 9554E–AT42–01/13 28 Byte 2 Build: The build of this firmware version. AT42QT2100 [DATASHEET] 9554E–AT42–01/13 29 6. Specifications 6.1 Absolute Maximum Specifications VDD –0.3 to +6.0 V Max continuous pin current, any control or drive pin ±20 mA Short circuit duration to ground or Vdd, any pin Infinite Voltage forced onto any pin –0.3 V to (Vdd + 0.3) V CAUTION: Stresses beyond those listed under Absolute Maximum Specifications may cause permanent damage to the device. This is a stress rating only and functional operation of the device at these or other conditions beyond those indicated in the operational sections of this specification is not implied. Exposure to absolute maximum specification conditions for extended periods may affect device reliability 6.2 Recommended Operating Conditions Operating temperature –40°C to +85°C Storage temperature –50°C to +125°C VDD +2.0 to 5.5 V Short-term supply ripple + noise ±20 mV / s Long-term supply stability ±100 mV Cs range, keys 1 to 100 nF Cs range, slider/wheel 4.7 to 220 nF Cx range 0 to 50 pF AT42QT2100 [DATASHEET] 9554E–AT42–01/13 30 6.3 AC Specifications Vdd = 5.0V, Cs keys = 4.7 nF, Cs slider/wheel = 15 nF; circuit of Figure 1-1 Parameter Description Min Typ Max Units Notes Tsu Start-up to SPI time – 50 60 ms From cold start Trc Recalibration time – 300 – ms Depends on ground loading of electrodes and Cs selection Fc Burst center frequency – 100 80 – kHz Spread spectrum disabled Spread spectrum enabled Fm Burst modulation, percent – 15 – % Total deviation Tpc Sample pulse duration – 2.66 5.85 – µs Spread spectrum disabled Spread spectrum enabled Tbd Acquire burst duration – 20 25 – ms Spread spectrum disabled Spread spectrum enabled (Total for all 3 acquire burst groups) Tdf6 Response time – Free Run mode, DI 6 samples – 120 – ms Spread spectrum disabled Tdf2 Response time – Free Run mode, DI 2 samples – 40 – ms Spread spectrum disabled Tdl Response time – LP mode – 280 – ms LP Mode 2, DI = six counts Tdr Release time – all modes – 40 – ms End of touch 6.4 DC Specifications Vdd = 5.0V, Cs keys = 4.7 nF, Cs slider/wheel = 15 nF; circuit of Figure 1-1 Parameter Description Min Typ Max Units Vil Low input logic level 0 – 0.3 × Vdd V Vhl High input logic level 0.7 × Vdd – Vdd V Vol Low output voltage – – 0.5 V Voh High output voltage Vdd – 0.5 – – bits Iil Input leakage current – – ±1 µA Ar Acquisition resolution – 14 – bits External reset low pulse width 2 – – µs Trst Notes 7 mA sink 2.5 mA source AT42QT2100 [DATASHEET] 9554E–AT42–01/13 31 6.5 SPI Bus Specifications Parameter Specification Data bits 8 data bits Shift out on falling edge Data transmission Shift in on rising edge Three bytes per transmission, byte 1 most significant bit sent first Clock idle Clock idle high Maximum clock rate 750 kHz Minimum time between exchanges 500 µs Figure 6-1. Data Byte Exchange – Signals SCK SAMPLE MOSI/MISO CHANGE MOSI PIN CHANGE MISO PIN SS MSB Bit 6 Bit 5 Bit 4 Bit 3 Bit 2 Bit 1 LSB AT42QT2100 [DATASHEET] 9554E–AT42–01/13 32 Figure 6-2. Data Byte Exchange – Timings SS must be held low between bytes of an exchange. Period Min Max Unit SS Low to SCK – Free-run mode 2 – µs SS Low to SCK – LP mode 22 – S2 SCK to SS High 20 S3 SCK Low Pulse S4 SCK High Pulse S5 SCK Period General Min Max Unit Rise/Fall Time – 1600 ns µs Setup 10 – ns – µs Hold 333 – ns 666 – ns 666 – ns – ns – µs 20 ns S1 6.6 S6 Between Bytes S7 SS High to Tristate External Reset Parameter VRST 6.7 – Description Operation Threshold voltage low (Activate) Threshold voltage high (Release) 0.2 × Vdd 0.9 × Vdd Internal Resonator Parameter Operation Internal RC oscillator 8 MHz with spread-spectrum modifier during measurement bursts, if enabled AT42QT2100 [DATASHEET] 9554E–AT42–01/13 33 6.8 Signal Processing Vdd = 5.0V, Cs keys = 4.7 nF, Cs slider/wheel = 15 nF; circuit of Figure 1-1 Description Min Units Notes Detection threshold (keys) 10 counts Threshold for increase in Cx load Detection threshold (slider/wheel) 30 counts Changeable through SPI Detection hysteresis (keys) 2 counts Detection hysteresis (slider/wheel) 5 counts DI filter, start of touch, normal mode 6 samples Must be consecutive or detection fails DI filter, start of touch, fast DI mode 2 samples Must be consecutive or detection fails 6.9 Power Consumption 6.9.1 Spread Spectrum Disabled Table 6-1. 25 percent of slider/wheel detection threshold Power Consumption (µA) Vdd Note: LP Mode 2V 3.3 V 5V 0 950 1940 4350 1 190 420 1050 2 95 205 640 3 60 120 320 4 40 80 200 Sleep 15 18 22 Power measurements taken 4.7 nF capacitors on the keys and 15 nF capacitors on the slider electrodes. Figure 6-3. Idd Curve Vdd = 2V Vdd = 3.3V Vdd = 5V Current (uA) 5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 0 0 1 2 3 4 LP Mode AT42QT2100 [DATASHEET] 9554E–AT42–01/13 34 Spread Spectrum Enabled Table 6-2. Power Consumption (µA) Vdd Note: LP Mode 2V 3.3 V 5V 0 955 2050 4450 1 210 510 1250 2 105 260 760 3 65 150 390 4 40 95 235 Sleep 10 18 22 Power measurements taken 4.7 nF capacitors on the keys and 15 nF capacitors on the slider electrodes. Figure 6-4. Idd Curve Vdd = 2V Vdd = 3.3V Vdd = 5V 5000 Current (uA) 6.9.2 4000 3000 2000 1000 0 0 1 2 3 4 LP Mode AT42QT2100 [DATASHEET] 9554E–AT42–01/13 35 6.10 Mechanical Dimensions 6.10.1 32-pin 5 x 5 mm MLF ; ( );( ;(O ( &% ;(O $ N +#+B %%$;($);%$) 6<?8@!!9 ;$ $% A +#B+ +#BC #++ +#++ +#+ +#+C D +#EC +#F+ +#+G(/ )K%L P$Q 6+#+G9 ( N H L K%&&% ;(O $%&() *(()%+,/67")8"9, ::# H +#B +# +#+ J#I+ C#++ C#+ J#F+ J#FC J#B+ #IC #+ #C ( J#I+ C#++ C#+ ( J#F+ J#FC J#B+ ( #IC #+ #C +#C+K) L +#+ +#J+ +#C+ D D +#E+ D D N +#+ D $%&( M D !"#! ,,CRCR#+!!KS,LQ +#C+!!,#+!!(R, S&Q, /QT8/"$L6 T/$9 AT42QT2100 [DATASHEET] 9554E–AT42–01/13 36 6.10.2 32-pin 7 x 7 mm TQFP ( ( H K%&&% ;(O &% ;(O +MWFM L %%$;($);%$) 6<?8@!!9 );( ;(O $ #&Q?!*((?)+E, K# #!("8!"8#""H" 8+#C!!#!(!R!8! "HSU!"8!"!!Q# #L"S+#+!!!R!8!# )K%L ;$ $% A D D #+ +#+C D +#C +#IC #++ #+C B#FC I#++ I#C E#I+ F#++ F#+ ( B#FC I#++ I#C ( E#I+ F#++ F#+ H+#+ D +#JC +#+I D +#+ L +#JC D +#FC +#B+& $%&( $ $ !"#! ,"F#+RF#+R#+!!KS,+#B+!! LQ,&Q?""T8/" 6&T/9 <& AT42QT2100 [DATASHEET] 9554E–AT42–01/13 37 6.11 Part Marking 6.11.1 32-pin 5 x 5 mm MLF Either part marking may be used. They are functionally identical. 32 Pin 1 ID 1 Abbreviated part number Please use this marking to obscure any reference to ATtiny88 (or similar). Atmel and lot marking are acceptable to remain visible (Bar position may be altered to match existing markings) Date Code Code revision 1.1, Released Date Code Description W=Week code W week code number 1-52 where: A=1 B=2 .... Z=26 then using the underscore A=27...Z=52 32 Pin 1 ID 1 Code revision 1.1, Released Shortened part number LINE 4: ATMEL LOTCODE TRACEABILITY (Variable field) AT42QT2100 [DATASHEET] 9554E–AT42–01/13 38 6.11.2 32-pin 7 x 7 mm TQFP Either part marking may be used. They are functionally identical 32 Pin 1 ID 1 QT2100 AU 1R1 Shortened Part Number Code Revision 1.1, Release Date Code Date Code Description YWW= Date programmed WW week code number 1-52 Y year code letter 1-26 where: A=2001...J=2010 ...Z=2026 . 32 Pin 1 ID 1 Shortened Part Number Lot Number (Variable Text) ATMEL QT2100 AU 1R1 LOTCODE Code Revision 1.1 Released AT42QT2100 [DATASHEET] 9554E–AT42–01/13 39 6.12 Part Numbers Part Number Description AT42QT2100-MU 32-pin 5 × 5 mm MLF RoHS compliant IC AT42QT2100-MUR 32-pin 5 × 5 mm MLF RoHS compliant IC AT42QT2100-AU 32-pin 7 × 7 mm TQFP RoHS compliant IC AT42QT2100-AUR 32-pin 7 × 7 mm TQFP RoHS compliant IC The part number comprises: AT = Atmel 42 = Touch Business Unit QT = Charge-transfer technology 2100= (2) Slider/Wheel (10) number of channels (0) variant number AU = TQFP chip MU = MLF chip R = Tape and reel 6.13 Moisture Sensitivity Level (MSL) MSL Rating Peak Body Temperature Specifications MSL3 260oC IPC/JEDEC J-STD-020 AT42QT2100 [DATASHEET] 9554E–AT42–01/13 40 Appendix A. A.1 Migrating From QT1106 to QT2100 Introduction The QT2100 is a replacement for the QT1106. As such, it is host-compatible with the QT1106 allowing existing applications to be switched over without any changes to the host firmware. Some changes to the application circuit will, however, be required and these are documented in this appendix. A.2 Pin Configuration The QT2100 has a different pin-out to the QT1106 (see Table A-1). Table A-1. Pin Pin Compatibility QT2100 Name QT1106 Compatibility 1 SNSKB SNSB 2 SNSB3 3 SNSKB SNSB 4 VDD QT1106 range is +2.8 V to +5.0 V 5 VSS 6 SNSKB 7 SNSB4 8 SNSB5 9 SNSKB SNSB 10 SNSKB SNSB 11 SNSKB SNSB 12 SNSB6 13 SNSB7 14 SS 15 MOSI 16 MISO 17 SCK 18 VDD QT1106 range is +2.8 V to +5.0 V 19 DRDY Optional use on QT2100 20 CHANGE 21 VSS 22 SPREAD 23 SNSA1 24 SNSKA 25 SNSA2 SNSB External oscillator circuit not required for QT2100 SNSA AT42QT2100 [DATASHEET] 9554E–AT42–01/13 41 Table A-1. A.3 Pin Compatibility (Continued) Pin QT2100 Name QT1106 Compatibility 26 SNSKA SNSA 27 SNSA3 28 SNSKA 29 RESET 30 SNSB1 31 SNSKB 32 SNSB2 SNSA SNSB Spread Spectrum Implementation A SPREAD pin is provided which may be tied to Vdd or Ground via a resistor to enable/disable spread-spectrum operation. A.4 Component Retuning In general it is expected that unchanged sense components will show little difference with the QT2100 for the same sensor electrodes as the QT1106, but there may be cases where performance is improved by retuning component values of Cs and Rs to the application circuit. A.5 Components An external oscillator is not required for QT2100. A.6 Proximity On the QT2100 any of the keys can be configured as proximity sensors but see Section 4.3.6 on page 15 for the exception to this. AT42QT2100 [DATASHEET] 9554E–AT42–01/13 42 Associated Documents For additional information, refer to the following document (downloadable from the Touch Technology area of the Atmel website, www.atmel.com): QTAN0079 Buttons, Sliders and Wheels Sensor Design Guide Atmel AVR3000: QTouch Conducted Immunity Application Note QTAN0087 Proximity Design Guide Revision History Revision No. History Revision AX – March 2011 Initial release for chip revision 0.6 – Preliminary Revision BX – March 2011 Updated for chip revision 1.0 Revision CX – November 2011 Updated for chip revision 1.1 – Released Revision D – November 2012 General update Revision E – January 2013 Applied new template AT42QT2100 [DATASHEET] 9554E–AT42–01/13 43 Atmel Corporation 1600 Technology Drive Atmel Asia Limited Unit 01-5 & 16, 19F Atmel München GmbH Business Campus Atmel Japan G.K. 16F Shin-Osaki Kangyo Bldg San Jose, CA 95110 BEA Tower, Millennium City 5 Parkring 4 1-6-4 Osaki, Shinagawa-ku USA 418 Kwun Tong Roa D-85748 Garching bei München Tokyo 141-0032 Tel: (+1) (408) 441-0311 Kwun Tong, Kowloon GERMANY JAPAN Fax: (+1) (408) 487-2600 HONG KONG Tel: (+49) 89-31970-0 Tel: (+81) (3) 6417-0300 www.atmel.com Tel: (+852) 2245-6100 Fax: (+49) 89-3194621 Fax: (+81) (3) 6417-0370 Fax: (+852) 2722-1369 © 2011 – 2013 Atmel Corporation. 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