FREESCALE AN1207

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SEMICONDUCTOR TECHNICAL DATA
ARCHIVED BY FREESCALE SEMICONDUCTOR, INC. 2005
ARCHIVED BY FREESCALE SEMICONDUCTOR, INC. 2005
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Prepared by: David Babin and Mark Clark
Phase–locked loop (PLL) frequency synthesizers are commonly found in communication gear today. The carrier oscillator in a transmitter and local oscillator (LO) in a receiver are
where PLL frequency synthesizers are utilized. In some cellular phones, a synthesizer can also be used to generate 90
MHz for an offset loop. In addition, synthesizers can be used
in computers and other digital systems to create different
clocks which are synchronized to a master clock.
The MC145170 is available to address some of these
applications. The frequency capability of the newest version,
the MC145170–2, is very broad — from a few hertz to
185 MHz.
ADVANTAGES
Frequency synthesizers, such as the MC145170, use digital dividers which can be placed under MCU control. Usually,
all that is required to change frequencies is to change the divide ratio of the N Counter. Tuning in less than a millisecond
is achievable.
The MC145170 can generate many frequencies based on
the accuracy of a single reference source. For example, the
reference can be a low–cost basic crystal oscillator or a temperature–compensated crystal oscillator (TCXO). Therefore,
high tuning accuracies can be achieved. Boosting of the reference frequency by 100x or more is achievable.
ELEMENTS IN THE LOOP
The components used in the PLL frequency synthesizer of
Figure 1 are the MC145170 PLL chip, low–pass filter, and
voltage–controlled oscillator (VCO). Sometimes a voltage–
controlled multivibrator (VCM) is used in place of the VCO.
The output of a VCM is a square wave and is usually
integrated before being fed to other sections of the radio. The
VCM output can be directly used in computers and other digital equipment. The output of a VCO or VCM is typically buffered, as shown.
As shown in Figure 2, the MC145170 contains a reference
oscillator, reference counter (R Counter), VCO/VCM counter
(N Counter), and phase detector. A more detailed block diagram is shown in the data sheet.
HF SYNTHESIZER
The basic information required for designing a stable high–
frequency PLL frequency synthesizer is the frequencies
required, tuning resolution, lock time, and overshoot. For the
example design of Figure 3, the frequencies needed are
9.20 MHz to 12.19 MHz. The resolution (usually the same as
the frequency steps or channel spacing) is 230 kHz. The lock
time is 8 ms and a maximum overshoot of approximately 15%
is targeted. For purposes of this example, lock is considered
to be when the frequency is within about 1% of the final value.
HF SYNTHESIZER LOW–PASS FILTER
In this design, assume a square wave output is acceptable.
To generate a square wave, a MC1658 VCM chip is chosen.
Per the transfer characteristic given in the data sheet, the
MC1658 transfer function, KVCM, is approximately 1 x 108 radians/second/volt. The loading presented by the MC1658
control input is large; the maximum input current is 350 µA.
Therefore, an active low–pass filter is used so that loading
does not affect the filter’s response. See Figure 3. In the filter,
a 2N7002 FET is chosen because it has very high transconductance (80 mmhos) and low input leakage (100 nA).
DIVIDE VALUE
REFERENCE
OSCILLATOR
MC145170
PLL
CHIP
LOW–PASS
FILTER
VCO
OR
VCM
REFERENCE
COUNTER
(R COUNTER)
fR
PHASE
DETECTOR
FROM
VCO/VCM
BUFFER
OUTPUT
REFERENCE
OSCILLATOR
VCO/VCM
COUNTER
(N COUNTER)
TO
LOW–PASS
FILTER
fV
MULTIPLYING VALUE
Figure 1. PLL Frequency Synthesizer
Figure 2. Detail of the MC145170
REV 2
1/98
TN98011500
 Motorola, Inc. 1998
MOTOROLA
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+5V
+5V
+5V
1.5 kΩ
PLL
BIAS
R2
FREQUENCY
2.4 kΩ
LOW–PASS
ARCHIVEDSYNTHESIZER
BY FREESCALE SEMICONDUCTOR,
FILTER
1 MΩ
1
16
4.6 MHz
1 – 2 V p–p
SOURCE
0.01 µF
0.01 µF
0.01 µF
MCU
MC145170
1
1 µF
0.01 µF
2N7002
MC1658
1.8 MΩ
0.01 µF
8
0.01
µF
9
8
0.01 µF
0.01 µF
A
B
MC74HCU04
510 Ω
LOW–PASS FILTER
OUTPUT
MC74HCU04
PULLDOWN
BUFFER/FILTER
Figure 3. HF Synthesizer
In order to calculate the average divide value for the N
Counter, follow this procedure. First, determine the average
frequency; this is (12.19 + 9.2)/2 = 10.695 MHz or approximately 10.7 MHz. Next, divide this frequency by the resolution: 10.7 MHz/230 kHz = about 47.
Next, reference application note AN535 (see book
DL136/D Rev 3 or 4). The active filter chosen takes the form
shown in Figure 9 of the application note. This filter is used
with the single–ended phase detector output of the
MC145170, PDout. The phase detector associated with PDout
has a gain Kφ = VDD/4π. For a supply of 5 V, this is 5/4π =
0.398 V/rad. The system’s step response is shown in Figure
4. To achieve about 15% overshoot, a damping factor of 0.8
is used. This causes frequency to settle to within 1% at ωnt
= 5.5.
The information up to this point is as follows.
fref = 230 kHz
fVCM = 9.2 to 12.19 MHz; the average is 10.7 MHz,
average N = 47
power supply = 5 V for the phase detector
KVCM = 1 x 108 rad/s/V
overshoot = approximately 15%, yields a damping
factor = 0.8
lock time t = 8 ms settling to within 1%, ωnt = 5.5
Kφ or Kp = 0.398 V/rad.
From the application note, equation 61, ω n = 5.5/t =
5.5/0.008 = 687.5 rad/s.
Equation 59 is R1C = (Kp Kv)/ωn2 N
= (0.398 x 1 x 108)/687.52 x 47
= 1.79
Equation 59 is used because of the high–gain FET.
Next, the capacitor C is picked to be 1 µF. Therefore,
R1 = 1.79/C which is 1.79 MΩ. The standard value of 1.8 MΩ
is used for R1.
Equation 63 is R2
= (2ζ)/C ωn
= (2 x 0.8)/(1 x 10–6 x 687.5)
= 2.33 kΩ.
A standard value for R2 of 2.4 kΩ is utilized.
AN1207
2
1.8
ζ = 0.1
1.7
0.2
1.6
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
1.5
1.4
θo (t), NORMALIZED OUTPUT FREQUENCY
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1 MΩ
1 MΩ
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16
47 pF
R1
PDout
DATA IN
ENABLE
CLOCK
C
INC. 2005VCM
1.3
1.2
1.1
1.0
0.9
0.8
0.8
1.0
2.0
0.7
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0
0 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0 8.0 9.0 10
ωnt
11 12 13
14
Figure 4. Type 2 Second Order Step Response
HF SYNTHESIZER PROGRAMMING
Programming the MC145170 is straightforward. The three
registers may be programmed in a byte–oriented fashion.
The registers retain their values as long as power is applied.
Thus, usually both the C and R Registers are programmed
just once, right after power up.
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The C Register, which configures the device, is proVHF SYNTHESIZER
grammed with $C0 (1 byte). This sets the phase detector to
The MC145170 may be used in VHF designs, also. The
the proper polarity and activates PDout. This also turns off the
range
for this next example is 140 to 160 MHz in 100 kHz
unused outputs. The phase detector polarity is determined by
increments.
the filter and the VCM. For this example, the MC1658 data
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sheet shows that a higher
voltage level
is needed
if speed isSEMICONDUCTOR,
VHF SYNTHESIZER LOW–PASS FILTER
to be increased. However, the low–pass filter inverts the sigTo illustrate design with the doubled–ended phase detecnal from the phase detector (due to the active element configtor, the φR and φV outputs are used. This requires an operauration). Therefore, the programming of the polarity for the
tional amplifier, as shown in Figure 5. From the design
phase detector means that the POL bit must be a “1.”
guidelines shown in the MC145170 data sheet, the following
The R Register is programmed for a divide value that
equations are used:
results in the proper frequency at the phase detector reference input. In this case, 230 kHz is needed. Therefore, with
KφKVCO
the 4.6 MHz source shown in Figure 3, the R Register needs
(1)
ωn =
N C R1
a value of $000014 (3 bytes, 20 in decimal).
The N Register determines the frequency tuned. Tuning
ω R C
ζ= n 2
damping factor
(2)
9.2 MHz requires the proper value for N to multiply up the
2
reference of 230 kHz to 9.2 MHz. This is 40 decimal. For
where, from the data sheet, the equation for the φR and φV
12.19 MHz, the value is 53 decimal. To tune over the range,
phase detector,
change the value in the N Register within the range of 40 to 53
V
5
Kφ = DD =
= 0.796 V/rad
(3)
with a 2–byte transfer. Table 1 shows the possible frequen2π
2π
cies.
ζ = 0.707,
Table 1. The HF Oscillator Frequencies
N Value
Frequency, MHz
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
9.20
9.43
9.66
9.89
10.12
10.35
10.58
10.81
11.04
11.27
11.50
11.73
11.96
12.19
EXTRA FILTERING FOR THE HF LOOP
When the HF oscillator was built, the proper frequencies
could not be tuned. The output of the MC1658 was examined
with an oscilloscope and the switching edges were discovered to be “ragged.” That is, the output did not appear to be a
square wave with clean transitions.
The fin input of the MC145170 is sensitive to 500 mV p–p
signals, and the ragged edges were being amplified and
counted down by the N Counter. Therefore, the edges needed cleaning up. One method would have been to add a low–
pass filter between the MC1658 and MC145170. However,
because an additional buffer was needed elsewhere in the
circuit, an MC74HCU04 inverter was used in place of the filter. This inverter’s frequency response is low enough to clean
up the ragged edges. That is, filtering of the ragged edges
occurred, and the output had smoother transitions. As mentioned previously, one of the elements in the inverter package
was used to buffer the output of the VCM before feeding it to
the outside world. See Figure 3.
MOTOROLA
ωn =
2πfR 2π x 100 kHz
=
= 12,566 rad/s
50
50
KVCO =
2π ∆ fVCO 2π x (160 – 140 MHz)
=
∆ VVCO
10 – 2
(4)
and
= 1.57 x 107 rad/s/V
(5)
The control voltage range on the input to the VCO is picked
to be 2 to 10 V.
The average frequency = (140 + 160)/2 = 150 MHz. Therefore, the average N = 1500.
The above choices for ζ and ωn are rules of thumb that are
a good design starting point. A larger ωn value results in faster
loop lock times and higher reference frequency VCO
sidebands for similar sideband filtering. (See Advanced
Considerations.)
Choosing C1 to be 4700 pF, R1 is calculated from the
rearranged expression for ωn as:
K K
(0.796 V/rad)(1.57 x 107 rad/s/V)
R1= φ VCO =
2
C1ωnN
(4700 pF)(12,566 rad/s)2 (1500)
= 11.23 kΩ
(6)
Therefore, chose an 11 kΩ standard value resistor.
R2 is determined from:
2ζ
(2)(0.707)
R2 =
=
ωnC1
(12,566)(4700 pF)
= 23.94 kΩ or
24 kΩ (standard value)
(7)
VHF SYNTHESIZER EXTRA FILTERING
For more demanding applications, extra filtering is sometimes added. This reduces the VCO sidebands caused by a
small amount of the reference frequency feeding through the
filter. One form of this filtering consists of spitting R1 into two
resistors; each resistor is one–half the value of R1, as indicated by R1/2 in Figure 5. Capacitors CC are added from the
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4700 pF
24 kΩ
4 x 5.6 kΩ
2 x 1500 pF
+5V
1 MHz
Y1
R1/2
R1/2
+ 12 V
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1
CC
16
20 pF
R1/2
1 MΩ
–
LF351
+
R1/2
MC145170
CC
24 kΩ
20 pF
100 pF
4700 pF
8
9
1 kΩ
TEST POINT
(LOCK DETECT)
DATA OUT
CLK
EN
DATA IN
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OUTPUT
+5V
+5V
20 nH
1
2 x MV2115
R14
10 kΩ
14
MC1648
7
1000 pF
8
390 pF
C5
0.1 µF
Figure 5. VHF Synthesizer
midpoints to ground to further filter the reference sidebands.
The value of CC is chosen so that the corner frequency of this
added network does not significantly affect the original loop
bandwidth ωB.
The rule of thumb for an initial value is CC = 4 / ( R1 ωRC),
where ωRC is the filter cutoff frequency. A good value is to
choose ωRC to be 10 x ωB, so as to not significantly impact the
original filter.
ωB = ωn
1 + 2ζ2 + 2 + 4ζ2 + 4ζ4
= 12,566
1
1
=
ωRCR14 (258,600)(10 kΩ)
(11)
= 387 pF ≈ 390 pF
1+(2)(0.707)2+ 2+(4)(0.707)2+ (4)(0.707)4
ωRC = 10 ωB = (10)(25,860) = 258,600 rad/s
(9)
4
4
=
R1ωRC (11.23 kΩ)(258,600 rad/s)
(10)
= 1377 pF ≈ 1500 pF
There is also a filter formed at the input to the VCO. Again,
this should be selected to ensure that it does not significantly
affect the loop bandwidth. For this example, the filter is domi-
AN1207
4
C5 =
(8)
= 25,860 rad/s
CC =
nated by R14 with C5. The capacitance of the varactors (in
series with the rest of the circuit) is much smaller than C5 and
can therefore be neglected for this calculation.
As above, let ωRC = 258,600 rad/s be the cutoff of this filter.
R14 is chosen to be 10 kΩ. Therefore,
THE VARACTOR
The MV2115 was selected for its tuning ratio of 2.6 to 1.
The capacitance can be changed from 49.1 pF to 127.7 pF
over a reverse bias swing of 2 to 30 volts. Contact your Motorola representative for information regarding the MV2115 varactor diode.
For example, three parameters are considered.
CT = Nominal capacitance
CR = Capacitance ratio
fR = Frequency ratio
CR=
Cvmin
=
Cvmax
Vmax
Vmin
ρ
(12)
where ρ = the capacitance exponent
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Therefore,
30
CR = 2.6 =
2
fmax =
ρ
(13)
1
= 173 MHz
2π[(19.9 nH)(42.2 pF)]0.5
(22)
Solving for Cvmax:
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The frequency ratio is 1.5 to 1 and is impacted by the tuning
range of the MV2115 varactor diode used in the tank circuit.
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Therefore, the required range of 140 to 160 MHz is not limited
log(2.6) = ρlog(15)
(14)
by this VCO design.
A pc board should be used to obtain favorable results with
ρ = log(2.6)/log(15) = 0.3528
(15)
this VHF circuit. The lead lengths in the tank circuit should be
kept short to minimize parasitic inductance. The length of the
Using the nominal capacitance of 100 pF at 4 volts:
trace from the VCO output to the PLL input should be kept as
0.3528
short as possible. In addition, use of surface–mount compo100 pF
10
=
(16)
nents is recommended to help minimize strays.
4V
Cvmax
VHF SYNTHESIZER PROGRAMMING
100 pF
Again, programming the three registers of the MC145170
= 1.382
Cvmax
is straightforward. Also, usually both the C and the R Regis-
100 pF
= 72.4 pF
1.382
Solving for Cvmin:
2.6 =
Cvmin
49.1 pF
(17)
Cvmin = (2.6)(49.1 pF)
Cvmin = 127.7 pF
THE VCO
For convenience, the MC1648 VCO is selected. The tuning
range of the VCO may be calculated as
fmax
(Cdmax + Cs)0.5
=
fmin
(Cdmin + Cs)0.5
(18)
where
fmin =
1
2π[L(Cdmax + Cs)]0.5
(19)
As shown in Figure 8 of the data sheet, the VCO tank circuit
is comprised of two varactors and an inductor. Typically, a
single varactor might be used in either a series or parallel
configuration. However, the second varactor has a two–fold
purpose. First, if the 10 kΩ isolating impedance is left in place,
the varactors add in series for a smaller capacitance. Second, the added varactor acts to eliminate distortion due to
the tank voltage changing.
Therefore, with the two varactors in series, Cdmax′ =
Cdmax/2. The shunt capacitance (input plus external capacitance) is symbolized by Cs.
Therefore, solving for the inductance:
L=
1
= 19.9 nH ≈ 20 nH
2
(2πfmin) (Cdmax′ + Cs)
(20)
The Q of the inductor should be more than 100 for best performance.
fmin =
1
= 135 MHz
2π[(19.9 nH)(69.85 pF)]0.5
MOTOROLA
(21)
ters are programmed only once, after power up.
The C Register configures the device and is programmed
with $80 (1 byte). This sets the phase detector to the correct
polarity and activates the φR and φV outputs while turning off
the other outputs. Like the HF oscillator, the phase detector
polarity is determined by how the filter is hooked up and the
VCO.
The R Register is programmed for a divide value that
delivers the proper frequency at the phase detector reference
input. In this case, 100 kHz is needed. Therefore, with the
1 MHz crystal shown, the R Register needs a value of
$00000A (3 bytes, 10 in decimal).
The N Register determines the frequency tuned. To tune
140 MHz, the value required for N to multiply up the reference
of 100 kHz to 140 MHz is 1400 decimal. For 160 MHz, the
value is 1600 decimal. To tune over the range, simply change
the value in the N Register with a 2–byte transfer.
ADVANCED CONSIDERATIONS
The circuit of Figure 5 may not function at very–high temperature. The reason is that the MC145170 is guaranteed to
a maximum frequency of 160 MHz at 85°C. Therefore, there
is no margin for overshoot (reference Figure 4) at high temperature. There are two possible solutions: (1) use the
MC145170–1 or MC145170–2 which are rated to 185 MHz,
or (2) limit the tuning to less than 160 MHz.
Operational amplifiers are usually too noisy for critical applications. Therefore, if an active element is required in the integrator, one or more discrete transistors are utilized. These
may be FETs or bipolar devices. However, active filter elements are not needed if the VCO loading is not severe, such
as is encountered with most discrete VCO designs. Because
active elements add noise, some performance parameters
are improved if they are not used. On the other hand, an active filter can be used to scale up the VCO control voltage. For
example, to tune a wide range, the control voltage may have
to range up to 10 V. For a 5 V PLL output, this would be scaled
by 2x via use of active elements.
Some applications have requirements that must be met in
the areas of phase noise and reference suppression. These
parameters are in conflict with fast lock times. That is, as lock
times are reduced, reference suppression becomes more difficult. Both reference suppression and phase noise are advanced areas that are covered in several publications. As an
example, consider that the VCO input voltage range for
the above VHF loop was merely picked to be 8 V. Advanced
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techniques demand a trade off between this voltage range
sidebands appear at 100 kHz as expected, and are 50 dB
and the spectral purity of the VCO output. This is because the
down.
lower the control voltage range, the more sensitive the VCO
is to noise coming into its control input.
REFERENCES
A VCO IC may not offer enough performance for some
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Motorola data sheet
MC145170/D
applications. Therefore,
the VCO mayBY
have
to be designedSEMICONDUCTOR,
Motorola data sheet MC145170–1/D
from discrete components.
Motorola data sheet MC145170–2/D
Figure 6 shows the performance of the VHF Oscillator
Motorola application note AN535/D
prototype on a spectrum analyzer. Note that the reference
100 kHz
CENTER = 150 MHz, SPAN = 250 kHz
100 kHz
Figure 6. VHF Oscillator Performance
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