MICROCHIP HCS370_11

HCS370
KEELOQ® Code Hopping Encoder
FEATURES
Security
PDIP, SOIC,
TSSOP
Two programmable 32-bit serial numbers
Two programmable 64-bit encoder keys
Two programmable 60-bit seed values
Each transmission is unique
67/69-bit transmission code length
32-bit hopping code
Crypt keys are read protected
S0
1
14
VDD
S1
2
13
LED
S2
3
12
DATA
S3
4
11
Vss
S4
5
10
RFEN
SLEEP/S5
6
9
STEP
SHIFT
7
8
VIN
HCS370
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
PACKAGE TYPES
Operating
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
2.05-5.5V operation
Six button inputs
15 functions available
Four selectable baud rates
Selectable minimum code word completion
Battery low signal transmitted to receiver
Nonvolatile synchronization data
PWM, VPWM, PPM, and Manchester modulation
Button queue information transmitted
Dual Encoder functionality
HCS370 BLOCK DIAGRAM
Oscillator
VIN
Step-up
STEP regulator
LED
RFEN
Power SLEEP
latching
and
switching
Controller
RESET circuit
LED driver
RF Enable
EEPROM
DATA
Encoder
32-bit SHIFT register
Other
• On-chip EEPROM
• On-chip tuned oscillator (±10% over voltage and
temperature)
• Button inputs have internal pull-down resistors
• LED output
• PLL control for ASK and FSK
• Low external component count
• Step-up voltage regulator
Typical Applications
The HCS370 is ideal for Remote Keyless Entry (RKE)
applications. These applications include:
•
•
•
•
•
•
Automotive RKE systems
Automotive alarm systems
Automotive immobilizers
Gate and garage door openers
Identity tokens
Burglar alarm systems
2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
VSS
Button input port
VDD
SHIFT
S5
S4
S3
S2
S1
S0
GENERAL DESCRIPTION
The HCS370 is a code hopping encoder designed for
secure Remote Keyless Entry (RKE) and secure
remote control systems. The HCS370 utilizes the
KEELOQ ® code hopping technology, which incorporates high security, a small package outline, and low
cost to make this device a perfect solution for unidirectional authentication systems and access control systems.
The HCS370 combines a hopping code generated by a
nonlinear encryption algorithm, a serial number, and
status bits to create a secure transmission code. The
length of the transmission eliminates the threat of code
scanning and code grabbing access techniques.
DS41111E-page 1
HCS370
The crypt key, serial number, and configuration data
are stored in an EEPROM array which is not accessible
via any external connection. The EEPROM data is programmable but read protected. The data can be verified only after an automatic erase and programming
operation. This protects against attempts to gain
access to keys or manipulate synchronization values.
In addition, the HCS370 supports a dual encoder. This
allows two manufacturers to use the same device without having to use the same manufacturer’s code in
each of the encoders. The HCS370 provides an easy
to use serial interface for programming the necessary
keys, system parameters, and configuration data.
1.0
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
Key Terms
The following is a list of key terms used throughout this
data sheet. For additional information on KEELOQ and
code hopping, refer to Technical Brief (TB003).
• RKE - Remote Keyless Entry
• Button Status - Indicates what button input(s)
activated the transmission. Encompasses the 6
button status bits S5, S4, S3, S2, S1 and S0
(Figure 3-2).
• Code Hopping - A method by which a code,
viewed externally to the system, appears to
change unpredictably each time it is transmitted.
• Code Word - A block of data that is repeatedly
transmitted upon button activation (Figure 3-2).
• Transmission - A data stream consisting of
repeating code words (Figure 4-1).
• Crypt Key - A unique and secret 64-bit number
used to encrypt and decrypt data. In a symmetrical block cipher such as the KEELOQ algorithm,
the encryption and decryption keys are equal and
will therefore be referred to generally as the crypt
key.
• Encoder - A device that generates and encodes
data.
• Encryption Algorithm - A recipe whereby data is
scrambled using a crypt key. The data can only be
interpreted by the respective decryption algorithm
using the same crypt key.
• Decoder - A device that decodes data received
from an encoder (i.e., HCS5XX).
• Decryption Algorithm - A recipe whereby data
scrambled by an encryption algorithm can be
unscrambled using the same crypt key.
• Learn – Learning involves the receiver calculating
the transmitter’s appropriate crypt key, decrypting
the received hopping code and storing the serial
number, synchronization counter value, and crypt
key in EEPROM. The KEELOQ product family facilitates several learning strategies to be implemented on the decoder. The following are
examples of what can be done.
DS41111E-page 2
- Simple Learning
The receiver uses a fixed crypt key. The crypt
key is common to every component used by
the same manufacturer.
- Normal Learning
The receiver derives a crypt key from the
encoder serial number. Every transmitter has
a unique crypt key.
- Secure Learning
The receiver derives a crypt key from the
encoder seed value. Every encoder has a
unique seed value that is only transmitted by
a special button combination.
• Manufacturer’s Code – A unique and secret 64bit number used to derive crypt keys. Each
encoder is programmed with a crypt key that is a
function of the manufacturer’s code. Each
decoder is programmed with the manufacturer
code itself.
The HCS370 code hopping encoder is designed specifically for keyless entry systems. In particular, typical
applications include vehicles and home garage door
openers. The encoder portion of a keyless entry system is integrated into a transmitter carried by the user.
The transmitter is operated to gain access to a vehicle
or restricted area. The HCS370 is meant to be a costeffective yet secure solution to such systems requiring
very few external components (Figure 2-1).
Most low end keyless entry transmitters are given a
fixed identification code that is transmitted every time a
button is pushed. The number of unique identification
codes in a low end system is usually a relatively small
number. These shortcomings provide an opportunity
for a sophisticated thief to create a device that ‘grabs’
a transmission and retransmits it later or a device that
quickly ‘scans’ all possible identification codes until the
correct one is found.
The HCS370, on the other hand, employs the KEELOQ
code hopping technology coupled with a transmission
length of 67 bits to virtually eliminate the use of code
‘grabbing’ or code ‘scanning’. The high security level of
the HCS370 is based on the patented KEELOQ technology. A block cipher based on a block length of 32 bits
and a key length of 64 bits is used. The algorithm
obscures the information in such a way that if a single
hopping code data bit changes (before encryption), statistically more than 50% of the encrypted data bits will
change.
2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
HCS370
As indicated in the block diagram on page one, the
HCS370 has a small EEPROM array which must be
loaded with several parameters before use; most often
programmed by the manufacturer at the time of production. The most important of these are:
• A serial number, typically unique for every
encoder
• A crypt key
• An initial synchronization value
FIGURE 1-1:
The crypt key generation typically inputs the transmitter
serial number and 64-bit manufacturer’s code into the
key generation algorithm (Figure 1-1). The manufacturer’s code is chosen by the system manufacturer and
must be carefully controlled as it is a pivotal part of the
overall system security.
CREATION AND STORAGE OF CRYPT KEY DURING PRODUCTION
Production
Programmer
HCS370
Transmitter
Serial Number
EEPROM Array
Serial Number
Crypt Key
Sync Counter
Manufacturer’s
Code
Key
Generation
Algorithm
The synchronization counter is the basis behind the
transmitted code word changing for each transmission;
it increments each time a button is pressed. Each increment of the synchronization value results in more than
50% of the hopping code bits changing.
Crypt
Key
.
.
.
Finally, the button status is checked to see what operation is requested. Figure 1-3 shows the relationship
between some of the values stored by the receiver and
the values received from the transmitter.
For detailed decoder operation, see Section 7.0.
Figure 1-2 shows how the key values in EEPROM are
used in the encoder. Once the encoder detects a button
press, it reads the button inputs and updates the synchronization counter. The synchronization counter and
crypt key are input to the encryption algorithm and the
output is 32 bits of encrypted information. This data will
change with every button press while its value will
appear to ‘randomly hop around’. Hence, this data is
referred to as the hopping portion of the code word.
The 32-bit hopping code is combined with the button
information and serial number to form the code word
transmitted to the receiver. The code word format is
explained in greater detail in Section 4.1.
A receiver may use any type of controller as a decoder.
Typically, it is a microcontroller with compatible firmware that allows the decoder to operate in conjunction
with an HCS370 based transmitter.
A transmitter must first be ‘learned’ by the receiver
before its use is allowed in the system. Learning
includes calculating the transmitter’s appropriate crypt
key, decrypting the received hopping code, storing the
serial number, storing the synchronization counter
value, and storing crypt key in EEPROM.
In normal operation, each received message of valid
format is evaluated. The serial number is used to determine if it is from a learned transmitter. If the serial number is from a learned transmitter, the message is
decrypted and the synchronization counter is verified.
2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS41111E-page 3
HCS370
FIGURE 1-2:
BUILDING THE TRANSMITTED CODE WORD (ENCODER)
EEPROM Array
KEELOQ®
Encryption
Algorithm
Crypt Key
Sync Counter
Serial Number
Button Press
Information
32 Bits
Encrypted Data
Serial Number
Transmitted Information
FIGURE 1-3:
BASIC OPERATION OF RECEIVER (DECODER)
1 Received Information
EEPROM Array
Button Press
Information
Serial Number
2
32 Bits of
Encrypted Data
Check for
Match
Manufacturer Code
B0
Serial Number
B1
Sync Counter
Crypt Key
3
KEELOQ®
Decryption
Algorithm
Decrypted
Synchronization
Counter
Verify
4 Counter
Perform Function
5 Indicated by
button press
NOTE: Circled numbers indicate the order of execution.
DS41111E-page 4
2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
HCS370
2.0
DEVICE DESCRIPTION
As shown in the typical application circuits (Figure 2-1),
the HCS370 is an easy device to use. It requires only
the addition of buttons and RF circuitry for use as the
encoder in your security application. A description of
each pin is described in Table 2-1. Refer to Figure 2-3
for information on the I/O pins.
Note:
S0-S5 and SHIFT inputs have pull-down
resistors. VIN should be tied high if the
step-up regulator is not used.
TABLE 2-1:
PIN DESCRIPTIONS
Name
Pin
Number
S0
1
Switch input S0
S1
2
Switch input S1
S2
3
Switch input S2
S3
4
Switch input S3
S4
5
Switch input S4
S5/SLEEP
6
Switch input S5, or SLEEP
output
SHIFT
7
SHIFT input
VIN
8
Step-up regulator input
STEP
9
RFEN
FIGURE 2-1:
TYPICAL CIRCUITS
Figure 2-1(A)
VDD
RLED
B0
S0
S1
LED
B2
S2
DATA
B3
S3
VSS
B4
S4
RFEN
B5
S5
STEP
Description
SHIFT
Step-up pulses output
S2
DATA
10
RF enable output
S3
VSS
VSS
11
Ground reference
S4
RFEN
DATA
12
Transmission output pin
SLEEP
STEP
14
Positive supply voltage
The HCS370 will normally be in a low power SLEEP
mode. When a button input is taken high, the device will
wake-up, start the step-up regulator, and go through
the button debounce delay of TDB before the button
code is latched. In addition, the device will then read
the configuration options. Depending on the configuration options and the button code, the device will determine what the data and modulation format will be for
the transmission. The transmission will consist of a
stream of code words and will be transmitted TPU after
the button is pressed for as long as the buttons are held
down or until a time-out occurs. The code word format
can be either a code hopping format or a seed format.
The time-out time can be selected with the Time-out
Select (TSEL) configuration option. This option allows
the time-out to be set to 0.8s, 3.2s, 12.8s, or 25.6s.
When a time-out occurs, the device will go into SLEEP
mode to protect the battery from draining when a button
gets stuck. This option must be chosen to meet maximum transmission length regulatory limits which vary
by country.
2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
VDD
VIN
330 μH
VDD
VDD
ENABLE
Figure 2-1(B)
LED
Open drain output for LED
with pull-up resistor
DATA IN
2.05-5.5V
S1
13
RF PLL
Tx out
Six Button remote with PLL control
S0
LED
VDD
B1
SHIFT
VIN
1N4148
[email protected] mA
Tx out
33kΩ
COUT
22 μF
10kΩ
2N3904
2.2 kΩ
1000 pF
Two Button remote with Step-up circuit
Note: Using SLEEP output low instead of grounding the resistor
divider reduces battery drain between transmissions
Figure 2-1(C)
Tx2
VDD
Tx1
S0
RLED
VDD
S1
LED
S2
DATA
S3
VSS
S4
RFEN
S5
STEP
SHIFT
Tx out
VDD
VIN
DUAL Transmitter remote control
DS41111E-page 5
HCS370
If the device is in the transmit process and detects that
a new button is pressed, the current code word will be
aborted, a new code word will be transmitted and the
time-out counter will RESET. If all the buttons are
released, a minimum number of code words will still be
completed. The minimum code words can be set to 1,
2, 4, or 8 using the Minimum Code Words (MTX) configuration option. If the time for transmitting the minimum code words is longer than the time-out time, the
device will not complete the minimum code words.
The HCS370 has an onboard nonvolatile EEPROM.
This EEPROM is used to store user programmable
data and the synchronization counter. The data is programmed at the time of production and includes the
security related information such as encoder keys,
serial numbers, discrimination values, and seed values. All the security related options are read protected.
The initial counter value is also programmed at the time
of production. From then on the device maintains the
counter itself. The HCS370 has built in redundancy for
counter protection and can recover from counter corruption.
The counter will not increment if the previous write was
corrupted by low voltage RESET or power failure during TPLL. Instead, the counter will revert back to the
previous count and the HCS370 will attempt to correct
the bad bits. This will continue on every button press
until the voltage increases and the counter is successfully corrected.
FIGURE 2-2:
I/O CIRCUITS
Figure 2-2(D)
VDD
P
DATA, RFEN
STEP
Outputs
N
Figure 2-2(E)
-
VIN
+
1.2V
FIGURE 2-3:
I/O CIRCUITS (CONTINUED)
Figure 2-3(A)
S0, S1, S2
S3, S4, SHIFT
Inputs
ZIN
Figure 2-3(B)
S5
VDD
P
SLEEP
S5/SLEEP
N
ZIN
SOEN
N
Figure 2-3(C)
VDD
Weak P
LED
LED Output
N
DS41111E-page 6
LED
2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
HCS370
FIGURE 2-4:
BASIC FLOW DIAGRAM OF
THE DEVICE OPERATION
START
Sample Buttons
Get Config
Yes
Seed
TX?
Read
Seed
No
Increment
Counter
Encrypt
Transmit
Yes
Time
Out
No
No
MTX
STOP
Yes
No
Buttons
Yes
No
Seed
Time
Yes
No
No
Seed
Button
Yes
No
New
Buttons
Yes
2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS41111E-page 7
HCS370
3.0
EEPROM ORGANIZATION
entire option size. Options such as SEED1, which
have a length that is not an exact multiple of 8 bits, is
stored right justified in the reserved space. Additional
smaller options such as SDBT1 may be stored in the
same address as the Most Significant bits.
A summary of the HCS370 EEPROM organization is
shown in the three tables below. The address column
shows the starting address of the option, and its length
or bit position. Options larger than 8 bits are stored
with the Most Significant bits at the given address.
Enough consecutive 8-bit blocks are reserved for the
TABLE 3-1:
Symbol
ENCODER1 OPTIONS (SHIFT = 0)
Reference
Section
Description(1)
Address16:Bits
KEY1
1E: 64 bits
Encoder Key
3.2.2
SEED1
14: 60 bits
Encoder Seed Value
3.3
SYNC1
00: 20 bits
00: 18 bits
Encoder Synchronization Counter (CNTSEL=1)
Encoder Synchronization Counter (CNTSEL=0) plus overflow
3.2, 3.2.1
SER1
10: 32 bits
Encoder Serial Number
3.2.2
DISC1
1C: 10 bits
Encoder Discrimination value
MSEL1
1C: ---- 32--
Transmission Modulation Format
3.2, 3.2.1
Value2
Format
00
PWM
01
Manchester
10
VPWM
11
PPM
4.1
HSEL1
1C: ---4 ----
Header Select
4 TE = 0
10 TE = 1
4.1
XSER1
1C: --5- ----
Extended Serial Number
28 bits = 0
32 bits = 1
3.2
QUEN1
1C: -6-- ----
Queue counter Enable
Disable = 0
Enable = 1
5.6
STEN1
1C: 7--- ----
START/STOP Pulse Enable
Disable = 0
Enable = 1
4.1
LEDBL1
3F: -6-- ----
Low Voltage LED Blink
Never = 0
Once = 1
5.3
LEDOS1
3F: 7--- ----
LED On Time Select
(1)
SDLM1
3C: ---- ---0
Limited Seed
SDMD1
3C: ---- --1-
Seed Mode
SDBT1
14: 7654 ----
Seed Button Code
SDTM1
3C: ---- 32--
Time Before Seed Code Word(1)
BSEL1
GSEL1
3C: --54 ----
3C: 76-- ----
Transmission Baud Rate Select(1)
Guard Time Select(1)
50 ms = 0
100 ms = 1
5.3
Disable = 0
Enable = 1
3.3
User = 0
Production = 1
3.3
Value2
Time (s)
00
0.0
01
0.8
10
1.6
3.3
11
3.2
Value2
TE (μs)
00
100
01
200
10
400
11
800
Value2
Time (ms)
00
2 TE
01
6.4
10
51.2
11
102.4
3.3
4.1
4.1, 5.2
Note 1: All Timing values vary ±10%.
DS41111E-page 8
2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
HCS370
TABLE 3-2:
Symbol
ENCODER2 OPTIONS (SHIFT = 1)
Reference
Section
Description(1)
Address16:Bits
KEY2
34: 64 bits
Encoder Key
3.2.1
SEED2
2A: 60 bits
Encoder Seed Value
3.3
SYNC2
08: 20 bits
08: 18 bits
Encoder Synchronization Counter (CNTSEL=1)
Encoder Synchronization Counter (CNTSEL=0) plus overflow
3.2,
3.2.1
SER2
26: 32 bits
Encoder Serial Number
3.2, 3.2.2
DISC2
32: 10 bits
Encoder Discrimination value
MSEL2
32: ---- 32--
Transmission Modulation
Format
HSEL2
32: ---4 ----
Header Select
XSER2
32: --5- ----
Extended Serial Number
QUEN2
32: -6-- ----
Queue counter Enable
STEN2
32: 7--- ----
START/STOP Pulse Enable
LEDBL2
3D: -6-- ----
Low Voltage LED Blink
LEDOS2
3D: 7--- ----
LED On Time Select(1)
SDLM2
3E: ---- ---0
Limited Seed
SDMD2
3E: ---- --1-
Seed Mode
SDBT2
2A: 7654 ----
Seed Button Code
SDTM2
3E: ---- 32--
Time Before Seed Code word(1)
BSEL2
GSEL2
3E: --54 ----
3E: 76-- ----
Transmission Baud Rate
Select(1)
Guard Time Select(1)
3.2, 3.2.1
Value2
Format
00
PWM
01
Manchester
10
VPWM
11
PPM
4.1
4 TE = 0
10 TE = 1
4.1
28 bits = 0
32 bits = 1
3.2
Disable = 0
Enable = 1
5.6
Disable = 0
Enable = 1
4.1
Never = 0
Once = 1
5.3
50 ms = 0
100 ms = 1
5.3
Disable = 0
Enable = 1
3.3
User = 0
Production = 1
3.3
Value2
Time (s)
3.3
00
0.0
01
0.8
10
1.6
11
3.2
Value2
TE (μs)
00
100
01
200
10
400
3.3
11
800
Value2
Time (ms)
00
2 TE
01
6.4
10
51.2
11
102.4
4.1
4.1, 5.2
Note 1: All Timing values vary ±10%.
2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS41111E-page 9
HCS370
TABLE 3-3:
Symbol
WAKE
DEVICE OPTIONS
3F: ---- --10
Reference
Section
Description(1)
Address16:Bits
Wake-up(1)
Value2
Value
00
No Wake-up
01
75 ms 50%
10
50 ms 33.3%
11
100 ms 16.7%
4.1
CNTSEL
3F: ---- -2--
Counter Select
16 bits = 0
20 bits = 1
3.2.1
VLOWL
3F: ---- 3---
Low Voltage Latch Enable
Disable = 0
Enable = 1
3.2.3.1
2.2 V = 0
3.2V = 1
3.2.3.1
ASK = 0
FSK = 1
5.2
Value2
Value
2.0
00
1
01
2
10
4
VLOWSEL
3F: ---4 ----
Low Voltage Trip Point
PLLSEL
3F: --5- ----
PLL Interface Select
MTX
3D: ---- --10
Minimum Code Words
Select(2)
11
8
3D: ---- 3---
SLEEP Output Enable
Disable = 0
Enable = 1
WAIT
3D: ---- -2--
Wait for Step-Up Regulator
Disable = 0
Enable = 1
TSEL
3D: --54 ----
Time-out Select(1)
Value2
Time(s)
00
0.8
01
3.2
SOEN
10
12.8
11
25.6
5.4
5.2, 5.4
2.0
Note 1: All Timing values vary ±10%.
2: Voltage thresholds are ±150 mV.
3.1
Dual Encoder Operation
The HCS370 contains two transmitter configurations
with separate serial numbers, encoder keys, discrimination values, syncronization counters, and seed values. The code word is calculated using one of two
possible encoder configurations. Most options for code
word and modulation formats can be different from
Encoder 1 and Encoder 2. However, LED and RF
transmitter options have to be the same. The SHIFT
input pin is used to select between the encoder configurations. A low on the SHIFT pin will select Encoder 1
and a high will select Encoder 2.
DS41111E-page 10
2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
HCS370
3.2
Code Word Format
serial number. This will be stored by the receiver system after a transmitter has been learned. The discrimination bits are part of the information that is to form the
encrypted portion of the transmission.
A KEELOQ code word consists of 32 bits of hopping
code data, 32 bits of fixed code data, and between 3 to
5 bits of status information. Various code word formats
are shown in Figure 3-1 and Figure 3-2.
3.2.1
3.2.2
FIXED CODE PORTION
The 32 bits of fixed code consist of 28 bits of the serial
number (SER) and a copy of the 4-bit function code.
This can be changed to contain the whole 32-bit serial
number by setting the Extended Serial Number (XSER)
configuration option to a 1. If more than one button is
pressed, the function codes are logically OR’ed
together. The function code is repeated in the
encrypted and unencrypted data of a transmission.
HOPPING CODE PORTION
The hopping code portion is calculated by encrypting
the counter, discrimination value, and function code
with the Encoder Key (KEY). The hopping code is calculated when a button press is debounced and remains
unchanged until the next button press.
The synchronization counter can be either a 16- or 20bit value. The Configuration Option Counter Select
(CNTSEL) will determine this. The counter select option
must be the same for both Encoder 1 and Encoder 2.
TABLE 3-4:
FUNCTION CODES
If the 16-bit counter is selected, the discrimination value
is 10 bits long and there are 2 counter overflow bits
(OVR0, OVR1). Set both bits in production and OVR0
will be cleared on the first counter overflow and OVR1 on
the second. Clearing OVR0 with OVR1 set will only
detect the first overflow. Clearing both OVR bits will
effectively give 12 constant bits for discrimination.
Button
Function Code2
S0
xx1x2
S1
x1xx2
S2
1xxx2
S3
xxx12
S4
111x2
If the counter is 20 bits, the discrimination value is 8 bits
long and there are no overflow bits. The rest of the 32
bits are made up of the function code also known as the
button inputs.
S5
11x12
3.2.3
The status bits will always contain the output of the Low
Voltage (VLOW) detector and Cyclic Redundancy
Check (CRC). If Queue (QUEN) is enabled, button
queue information will be included in the code words.
The discrimination value can be programmed with any
value to serve as a post decryption check on the
decoder end. In a typical system, this will be programmed with the 8 or 10 Least Significant bits of the
FIGURE 3-1:
STATUS INFORMATION
CODE WORD DATA FORMAT (16-BIT COUNTER)
With XSER=0, 16-bit Counter, QUEN=0
Fixed Code Portion (32 Bits)
Status Information
(3 Bits)
CRC
2 Bits
C1
VLOW
1-Bit
C0
BUT
4 Bits
Hopping Code Portion (32 Bits)
Counter
BUT Overflow
4 Bits 2 Bits
SERIAL NUMBER
(28 Bits)
S2 S1 S0 S3
S2 S1 S0 S3
OVR1
DISC
10 Bits
Synchronization
Counter
16 Bits
0
15
OVR0
With XSER=1, 16-bit Counter, QUEN=1
Status Information
(5 Bits)
QUE
2 Bits
CRC
2 Bits
VLOW
1-Bit
Q1 Q0 C1 C0
Fixed Code Portion (32 Bits)
Hopping Code Portion (32 Bits)
Counter
BUT Overflow
4 Bits 2 Bits
SERIAL NUMBER
(32 Bits)
S2
S1
S0 S3
OVR1
DISC
10 Bits
Synchronization
Counter
16 Bits
0
15
OVR0
Transmission Direction LSB First
2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS41111E-page 11
HCS370
FIGURE 3-2:
CODE WORD DATA FORMAT (20-BIT COUNTER)
With XSER=0, 20-bit Counter, QUEN=1
QUE
2 Bits
CRC
2 Bits
Q1 Q0 C1 C0
VLOW
1-Bit
Hopping Code Portion (32 Bits)
Fixed Code Portion (32 Bits)
Status Information
(5 Bits)
BUT
4 Bits
S2 S1 S0
BUT
4 Bits
SERIAL NUMBER
(28 Bits)
S3
S2
S1
DISC
8 Bits
Synchronization
Counter
20 Bits
0
19
S0 S3
With XSER=1, 20-bit Counter, QUEN=0
Status Information
(3 Bits)
CRC
2 Bits
VLOW
1-Bit
Fixed Code Portion (32 Bits)
Hopping Code Portion (32 Bits)
SERIAL NUMBER
(32 Bits)
C1 C0
BUT
4 Bits
S2
S1
DISC
8 Bits
Synchronization
Counter
20 Bits
19
0
S0 S3
Transmission Direction LSB First
3.2.3.1
Low Voltage Detector Status (VLOW)
A low battery voltage detector onboard the HCS370
can indicate when the operating voltage drops below a
predetermined value. There are two options available
depending on the Low Voltage Trip Point Select
(VLOWSEL) configuration option. The two options provided are:
• A 2.2V nominal level for 3V operation
• A 3.2V nominal level for 5V operation
The output of the low voltage detector is checked on
the first preamble pulse of each code word with the
LED momentarily turned off. The VLOW bit is transmitted in each code word so the decoder can give an indication to the user that the transmitter battery is low.
Operation of the LED changes as well to further indicate that the battery is low and needs replacing.
The output of the Low Voltage Detector can also be
latched once it has dropped below the selected value.
The Low Voltage Latch (VLOWL) configuration option
enables this option. If this option is enabled, the detector level is raised to 3V or 5V once a low battery voltage
has been detected, like a Schmitt Trigger.
This will effectively hold the VLOW bit high until the battery is replaced. If the Low Voltage Latch is enabled,
then the low TE after the first preamble pulse can
stretch by 4 ms one time as the latch changes state.
DS41111E-page 12
2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
HCS370
3.3
Seed Code Word Data Format
A seed transmission transmits a code word that consists of 60 bits of fixed data that is stored in the
EEPROM. This can be used for secure learning of
encoders or whenever a fixed code transmission is
required. The seed code word is identified by the function bits = 11112. The seed code word also contains the
status information (VLOW, CRC, and QUEUE). The
Seed code word format is shown in Figure 3-3. The
function code for seed code words is always 11112.
Seed code words for Encoder 1 and Encoder 2 can be
configured as follows:
• Enabled with the Seed Button Code (SDBT) configuration option, or disabled if SDBT = 00002.
• If the Limited Seed (SDLM) configuration option is
set, seed transmissions will be disabled when the
synchronization counter is bigger than 127. Seed
transmissions remain disabled even if the 16/20bit counter rolls over to 0.
• The delay before the seed transmission is sent
can be set to 0.0s, 0.8s, 1.6s and 3.2s with the
Seed Time (SDTM) configuration option. When
SDTM is set to a value other than 0.0s, the
HCS370 will transmit a code hopping transmission until the selected time expires. After the
selected time expires, the seed code words are
transmitted. This is useful for the decoder to learn
FIGURE 3-3:
the serial number and the seed from a single button press.
• The button code for transmitting a seed code
word can be selected with the Seed Button
(SDBT) configuration option. SDBT bits 0 to 3 correspond to button inputs S0 to S3. Set the bits
high for the button combination that should trigger
a seed transmission (i.e., If SDBT = 10102 then,
S3+S1 will trigger a seed transmission).
• The seed transmissions before the counter increments past 128 can be modified with the Seed
Mode (SDMD) configuration option. Setting this
bit for Production mode will cause the selected
seed button combination to first transmit a normal
hopping code word for the selected Minimum
Code words (MTX) and then at least MTX seed
code words until all buttons are released. This
mode is disabled after the counter reaches 128
even if the 16/20-bit counter rolls over to 0.
• The limit of 127 for SDLM or SDMD can be
reduced by using an initial counter value >0.
Note:
The synchronization counter only increments on code hopping transmissions.
The counter will not advance on a seed
transmission unless Seed Delay or Production mode options are on.
SEED CODE WORD FORMAT
With QUEN = 1
SEED Code
(60 bits)
Open Portion (Not Encrypted)
(9 bits)
QUE
CRC VLOW
(2 Bits) (2 Bits) (1-Bit)
Q1 Q0 C1 C0
1
SEED
Function
(4 Bits)
1
1
1
Transmission Direction LSB First
2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS41111E-page 13
HCS370
4.0
TRANSMITTED WORD
4.1
Transmission Modulation Format
800 μs with the Baud Rate Select (BSEL) configuration
option. The Header time can be set to 4TE or 10TE with
the Header Select (HSEL) configuration option. These
options can all be set individually for Encoder 1 and
Encoder 2.
The HCS370 transmission is made up of several code
words. Each code word contains a preamble, header,
and data. A code word is separated from another code
word by guard time. The Guard Time Select (GSEL)
configuration option can be set to 0 ms, 6.4 ms, 51.2
ms, or 102.4 ms.
There are four different modulation formats available,
the Modulation Select (MSEL) Configuration Option is
used to select between:
•
•
•
•
All other timing specifications for the modulation formats are based on a basic timing element (TE). This
Timing Element can be set to 100 μs, 200 μs, 400 μs or
FIGURE 4-1:
Pulse Width Modulation (PWM)
Manchester (MAN)
Variable Pulse Width Modulation (VPWM)
Pulse Position Modulation (PPM)
PULSE WIDTH MODULATION (PWM)
TE
TE
TE
LOGIC "0"
LOGIC "1"
TBP
1
16
4-10
xTE
Header
31xTE 50% Preamble
FIGURE 4-2:
Encrypted Portion
Fixed Code Portion
Guard
Time
MANCHESTER (MAN)
TE
TE
LOGIC "0"
LOGIC "1"
TBP
1
2
16
31xTE 50% Preamble
START bit
bit 0 bit 1 bit 2
4xTE
Header
DS41111E-page 14
Encrypted Portion
STOP bit
Fixed Code Portion
Guard
Time
2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
HCS370
FIGURE 4-3:
VARIABLE PULSE WIDTH MODULATION (VPWM)
LOGIC “0”
LOGIC “1”
TE
VPWM BIT ENCODING:
TE
on Transition Low to High
TBP
TBP
2XTE
on Transition High to Low
LOGIC “0”
TE
LOGIC “1”
TE TE
TBP
1
2
31xTE 50% Preamble
FIGURE 4-4:
TBP
2XTE
16
10xTE Header
Encrypted Portion
Guard
Time
Fixed Code Portion
PULSE POSITION MODULATION (PPM)
TE TE TE
LOGIC "0"
LOGIC "1"
TBP
3 X TE
START bit
1
2
16
31xTE 50% Preamble
STOP bit
TBP
10xTE Header
In addition to the Modulation Format, Guard Time, and
Baud Rate, the following options are also available to
change the transmission format:
• If the START/STOP Pulse Enable (STEN) configuration option is enabled, the HCS370 will place a
leading and trailing ‘1’ on each code word. This is
necessary for modulation formats such as Manchester and PPM to interpret the first and last data
bit.
• A wake-up sequence can be transmitted before
the transmission starts. The wake-up sequence is
configured with the Wake-up (WAKE) configuration option and can be disabled or set to 50 ms,
75 ms, or 100 ms of pulses as indicated in
Figure 4-5.
• The WAKE option is the same for both Encoder 1
and Encoder 2.
Encrypted Portion
FIGURE 4-5:
Fixed Code Portion
Guard
Time
WAKE-UP ENABLE
TE TE
WAKE-UP = 75 ms
TE
2TE
WAKE-UP = 50 ms
TE
5TE
WAKE-UP = 100 ms
TG
WAKE-UP CODE
TG
CODE
Guard Time = 6.4 ms, 51.2 ms, or 102.4 ms
2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS41111E-page 15
HCS370
5.0
SPECIAL FEATURES
5.2
5.1
Internal RC Oscillator
The RFEN pin will be driven high whenever data is
transmitted through the DATA pin.
The HCS370 has an onboard RC oscillator that controls all the logic output timing characteristics. The
oscillator frequency varies over temperature and voltage variances, but stays within ±10% of the tuned
value. All the timing values specified in this document
are subject to this oscillator variation.
FIGURE 5-1:
RF Enable and PLL Interface
The RFEN and DATA outputs also interface with RF
PLL’s. The PLL Interface Select (PLLSEL) configuration option selects between ASK and FSK interfaces.
Figure 5-1 shows the startup sequence for both ASK
and FSK interface options. The RFEN signal will go low
at the end of the last code word, including the guard
time (TG). The power-up time (TPU) is the debounce
time plus the step-up regulator ramp up delay if the
Wait For Step-Up Regulator (WAIT) configuration
option is a ‘1’. The PLL step-up time (TPLL) is also used
to update the EEPROM counter.
ASK/FSK INTERFACE
S0
SLEEP
VREG
VBAT
STEP
ASK RFEN
CODE WORD
CODE WORD
CODE WORD
CODE WORD
ASK DATA
FSK RFEN
FSK DATA
TPU
5.3
TPLL
TG
LED Output
The LED pin will be driven low while the HCS370 is
transmitting data. The LED On Time (TLEDON) can be
selected between 50 ms and 100 ms with the LED On
Time Select (LEDOS) configuration option. The LED
Off Time (TLEDOFF) is fixed at 500 ms. When the VDD
voltage drops below the selected VLOW trip point, the
LED will not blink unless the LED Blink (LEDBL) option
DS41111E-page 16
TE
Wait 2 seconds for next
button if QUEN=1
is set. If LEDBL is set and VDD is low, then the LED will
only flash once. Waveforms of the LED behavior are
shown in Figure 5-2.
For circuits with VDD greater than 3 volts, be sure to
limit the LED circuit with a series resistor. The LED output can safely sink up to 25 mA but adding an external
resistor will conserve battery power. This is an open
drain output but it does have a weak pull-up capable of
driving a CMOS input.
2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
HCS370
FIGURE 5-2:
LED OPERATION
EQUATION 5-1:
CRC [ 1 ]n + 1 = CRC [ 0 ] n ⊕ Di n
SN
TLEDON
TLEDOFF
LED
VDD > VLOW
and
CRC [ 0 ] n + 1 = ( CRC [ 0 ] n ⊕ Di n ) ⊕ CRC [ 1 ] n
LED
VDD < VLOW
LEDBL=1
with
CRC [ 1, 0 ] 0 = 0
LED
VDD < VLOW
LEDBL=0
5.4
Step-Up Voltage Regulator
To create your own step-up regulator circuit, first decide
on an output voltage. Second, set the VIN resistor
divider to drop it down to 1.2 volts. Keep the sum of the
two resistors around 100 kΩ. Third, put your maximum
load on the output and increase the inductance until
COUT charges from 0 volts to your output voltage in
about 30 ms from the minimum input voltage. Finally,
test over your temperature and input voltage ranges.
The WAIT option will delay RF transmissions until
COUT is charged. This permits a trade off in slower button response times to save money on cheaper inductors. This can also optimize performance for good
batteries and let response times drift for weak batteries.
Also, this option will indicate failure to reach regulation
voltage after 250 ms by not transmitting and not flashing the LED. If WAIT is disabled, the step-up regulator
still operates and transmissions will always start 30 ms
after a button press.
The SLEEP Output Enable (SOEN) option can be
enabled if S5 is not used. This reconfigures S5 to be an
output high when the HCS370 is sleeping. S5 will be an
output low when a button press wakes it up. One way
to use this option is to save power on the step-up regulator. The problem is that the VIN resistor divider
makes a DC path through the inductor and diode to discharge the battery. By tying the bottom of the divider to
SLEEP as shown in Figure 2-1, the path is broken
between transmissions.
5.5
CRC Calculation
Cyclic Redundancy Check (CRC)
The CRC bits are calculated on the 65 previously transmitted bits. These bits contain the 32-bit hopping code,
32-bit fixed code, and VLOW bit. The decoder can use
the CRC bits to check the data integrity before processing starts. The CRC can detect all single bit errors and
66% of double bit errors. The CRC is computed as follows:
and Din the nth transmission bit 0 <= n <= 64
5.6
Button Queue Information
(QUEUE)
The queuing or repeated pressing of the same buttons
can be handled in two ways on the HCS370. This is
controlled with the Queue Counter Enable (QUEN)
configuration option. This option can be different for
Encoder 1 and Encoder 2.
When the QUEN option is disabled, the device will register up to two sequential button presses. In this case,
the device will complete the minimum code words
selected with the MTX option before the second code
word is calculated and transmitted. The code word will
be 67 bits in this case, with no additional queue bits
transmitted.
If the QUEN option is enabled, the queue bits are
added to the standard code word. The queue bits are a
2-bit counter that does not wrap. The counter value
starts at 002 and is incremented if a button is pushed
within 2 seconds from the start of the previous button
press. The current code word is terminated when a button is queued. This allows additional functionality for
double or triple button presses.
FIGURE 5-3:
CODE WORD COMPLETION
WITH QUEN SETTINGS
MTX = 012, WAKE > 002
SN
QUEN = Disabled
DATA
WAKE-UP CODE1
CODE1
WAKE-UP CODE2
CODE2
QUEN = Enabled
DATA
6.0
WAKE-UP CODE1 00
WAKE-UP CODE2 01
CODE2 01
PROGRAMMING
SPECIFICATIONS
Refer to the “HCS370 Programming Specifications”
document (DS41157) in Microchip Literature.
2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS41111E-page 17
HCS370
7.0
INTEGRATING THE HCS370
INTO A SYSTEM
Use of the HCS370 in a system requires a compatible
decoder. This decoder is typically a microcontroller with
compatible firmware. Microchip will provide (via a
license agreement) firmware routines that accept
transmissions from the HCS370 and decrypt the
hopping code portion of the data stream. These
routines provide system designers the means to
develop their own decoding system.
7.1
Learning a Transmitter to a
Receiver
A transmitter must first be 'learned' by a decoder before
its use is allowed in the system. Several learning strategies are possible. Figure 7-1 details a typical learn
sequence. The decoder must minimally store each
learned transmitter's serial number and current synchronization counter value in EEPROM. Additionally,
the decoder typically stores each transmitter's unique
crypt key. The maximum number of learned transmitters will therefore be relative to the available EEPROM.
A transmitter's serial number is transmitted in the 32-bit
fixed code, but the synchronization counter only exists
in the code word's encrypted portion. The decoder
obtains the counter value by decrypting using the same
key used to encrypt the information. The KEELOQ algorithm is a symmetrical block cipher so the encryption
and decryption keys are identical and referred to generally as the crypt key. The encoder receives its crypt
key during manufacturing. The decoder typically calculates the crypt key by running the encoder serial number or seed through the key generation routine.
Figure 7-1 summarizes a typical learn sequence. The
decoder receives and authenticates a first transmission; first button press. Authentication involves generating the appropriate crypt key, decrypting, validating
the correct key usage via the discrimination bits, and
buffering the counter value. A second transmission is
received and authenticated. A final check verifies the
counter values were sequential; consecutive button
presses. If the learn sequence is successfully completed, the decoder stores the learned transmitter's
serial number, current synchronization counter value,
and appropriate crypt key. From now on, the crypt key
will be retrieved from EEPROM during normal operation instead of recalculating it for each transmission
received.
FIGURE 7-1:
TYPICAL LEARN
SEQUENCE
Enter Learn
Mode
Wait for Reception
of a Valid Code
Generate Key
from Serial Number
Use Generated Key
to Decrypt
Compare Discrimination
Value with Fixed Value
Equal
?
No
Yes
Wait for Reception
of Second Valid Code
Use Generated Key
to Decrypt
Compare Discrimination
Value with Fixed Value
Equal
?
No
Yes
Counters
Sequential
?
Yes
No
Learn successful Store:
Learn
Unsuccessful
Serial number
Encryption key
Synchronization counter
Exit
Certain learning strategies have been patented by 3rd
parties and care must be taken not to infringe.
DS41111E-page 18
2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
HCS370
7.2
Decoder Operation
7.3
Figure 7-2 summarizes normal decoder operation. The
decoder waits until a transmission is received. The
received serial number is compared to the EEPROM
table of learned transmitters to first determine if this
transmitter's use is allowed in the system. If from a
learned transmitter, the transmission is decrypted
using the stored crypt key and authenticated via the
discrimination bits for appropriate crypt key usage. If
the decryption was valid the synchronization value is
evaluated.
FIGURE 7-2:
TYPICAL DECODER
OPERATION
Start
No
Transmission
Received
?
Yes
No
Is
Decryption
Valid
?
Yes
No
Is
Counter
Within 16
?
No
No
Is
Counter
Within 32K
?
Yes
Save Counter
in Temp Location
2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
Yes
The KEELOQ technology patent scope includes a
sophisticated synchronization technique that does not
require the calculation and storage of future codes. The
technique securely blocks invalid transmissions while
providing transparent resynchronization to transmitters
inadvertently activated away from the receiver.
Figure 7-3 shows a 3-partition, rotating synchronization
window. The size of each window is optional but the
technique is fundamental. Each time a transmission is
authenticated, the intended function is executed and
the transmission's synchronization counter value is
stored in EEPROM. From the currently stored counter
value there is an initial "Single Operation" forward window of 16 codes. If the difference between a received
synchronization counter and the last stored counter is
within 16, the intended function will be executed on the
single button press and the new synchronization counter will be stored. Storing the new synchronization
counter value effectively rotates the entire synchronization window.
A "Double Operation" (resynchronization) window further exists from the “Single Operation” window up to
32K codes forward of the currently stored counter
value. It is referred to as "Double Operation" because a
transmission with synchronization counter value in this
window will require an additional, sequential counter
transmission prior to executing the intended function.
Upon receiving the sequential transmission the
decoder executes the intended function and stores the
synchronization counter value. This resynchronization
occurs transparently to the user as it is human nature
to press the button a second time if the first was unsuccessful.
Does
Serial Number
Match
?
Yes
Decrypt Transmission
No
Synchronization with Decoder
(Evaluating the Counter)
Execute
Command
and
Update
Counter
The third window is a "Blocked Window" ranging from
the double operation window to the currently stored
synchronization counter value. Any transmission with
synchronization counter value within this window will
be ignored. This window excludes previously used,
perhaps code grabbed transmissions from accessing
the system.
Note:
The synchronization method described in
this section is only a typical implementation
and because it is usually implemented in
firmware, it can be altered to fit the needs
of a particular system.
DS41111E-page 19
HCS370
FIGURE 7-3:
SYNCHRONIZATION WINDOW
Entire Window
rotates to eliminate
use of previously
used codes
Blocked
Window
(32K Codes)
Double Operation
(resynchronization)
Window
(32K Codes)
7.4
Security Considerations
The strength of this security is based on keeping a
secret inside the transmitter that can be verified by
encrypted transmissions to a trained receiver. The
transmitter's secret is the manufacturer's key, not the
encryption algorithm. If that key is compromised then a
smart transceiver can capture any serial number, create a valid code word, and trick all receivers trained
with that serial number. The key cannot be read from
the EEPROM without costly die probing but it can be
calculated by brute force decryption attacks on transmitted code words. The cost for these attacks should
exceed what you would want to protect.
Stored
Synchronization
Counter Value
Single Operation
Window
(16 Codes)
receiver more secure it could increment the counter on
questionable code word receptions. To make the transmitter more secure, it could use separate buttons for
lock and unlock functions. Another way would be to
require two different buttons in sequence to gain
access.
There are more ways to make KEELOQ systems more
secure, but they all have trade offs. You need to find a
balance between security, design effort, and usability,
particularly in failure modes. For example, if a button
sticks or kids play with it, the counter should not end up
in the blocked code window rendering the transmitter
useless or requiring retraining.
To protect the security of other receivers with the same
manufacturer's code, you need to use the random seed
for secure learn. It is a second secret that is unique for
each transmitter. Its transmission on a special button
press combination can be disabled if the receiver has
another way to find it, or limited to the first 127 transmissions for the receiver to learn it. This way, it is very
unlikely to ever be captured. Now if a manufacturer's
key is compromised, clone transmitters can be created,
but without the unique seed they have to be relearned
by the receiver. In the same way if the transmissions
are decrypted by brute force on a computer, the random seed hides the manufacturer's key and prevents
more than one transmitter from being compromised.
The length of the code word at these baud rates makes
brute force attacks that guess the hopping code take
years. To make the receiver less susceptible to this
attack, make sure that you test all the bits in the
decrypted code for the correct value. Do not just test
low counter bits for sync and the bit for the button input
of interest.
The main benefit of hopping codes is to prevent the
retransmission of captured code words. This works
very well for code words that the receiver decodes. Its
weakness is if a code is captured when the receiver
misses it, the code may trick the receiver once if it is
used before the next valid transmission. To make the
DS41111E-page 20
2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
HCS370
8.0
DEVELOPMENT SUPPORT
The PIC® microcontrollers and dsPIC® digital signal
controllers are supported with a full range of software
and hardware development tools:
• Integrated Development Environment
- MPLAB® IDE Software
• Compilers/Assemblers/Linkers
- MPLAB C Compiler for Various Device
Families
- HI-TECH C for Various Device Families
- MPASMTM Assembler
- MPLINKTM Object Linker/
MPLIBTM Object Librarian
- MPLAB Assembler/Linker/Librarian for
Various Device Families
• Simulators
- MPLAB SIM Software Simulator
• Emulators
- MPLAB REAL ICE™ In-Circuit Emulator
• In-Circuit Debuggers
- MPLAB ICD 3
- PICkit™ 3 Debug Express
• Device Programmers
- PICkit™ 2 Programmer
- MPLAB PM3 Device Programmer
• Low-Cost Demonstration/Development Boards,
Evaluation Kits, and Starter Kits
8.1
MPLAB Integrated Development
Environment Software
The MPLAB IDE software brings an ease of software
development previously unseen in the 8/16/32-bit
microcontroller market. The MPLAB IDE is a Windows®
operating system-based application that contains:
• A single graphical interface to all debugging tools
- Simulator
- Programmer (sold separately)
- In-Circuit Emulator (sold separately)
- In-Circuit Debugger (sold separately)
• A full-featured editor with color-coded context
• A multiple project manager
• Customizable data windows with direct edit of
contents
• High-level source code debugging
• Mouse over variable inspection
• Drag and drop variables from source to watch
windows
• Extensive on-line help
• Integration of select third party tools, such as
IAR C Compilers
The MPLAB IDE allows you to:
• Edit your source files (either C or assembly)
• One-touch compile or assemble, and download to
emulator and simulator tools (automatically
updates all project information)
• Debug using:
- Source files (C or assembly)
- Mixed C and assembly
- Machine code
MPLAB IDE supports multiple debugging tools in a
single development paradigm, from the cost-effective
simulators, through low-cost in-circuit debuggers, to
full-featured emulators. This eliminates the learning
curve when upgrading to tools with increased flexibility
and power.
2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS41111E-page 21
HCS370
8.2
MPLAB C Compilers for Various
Device Families
The MPLAB C Compiler code development systems
are complete ANSI C compilers for Microchip’s PIC18,
PIC24 and PIC32 families of microcontrollers and the
dsPIC30 and dsPIC33 families of digital signal controllers. These compilers provide powerful integration
capabilities, superior code optimization and ease of
use.
For easy source level debugging, the compilers provide
symbol information that is optimized to the MPLAB IDE
debugger.
8.3
HI-TECH C for Various Device
Families
The HI-TECH C Compiler code development systems
are complete ANSI C compilers for Microchip’s PIC
family of microcontrollers and the dsPIC family of digital
signal controllers. These compilers provide powerful
integration capabilities, omniscient code generation
and ease of use.
For easy source level debugging, the compilers provide
symbol information that is optimized to the MPLAB IDE
debugger.
The compilers include a macro assembler, linker, preprocessor, and one-step driver, and can run on multiple
platforms.
8.4
MPASM Assembler
The MPASM Assembler is a full-featured, universal
macro assembler for PIC10/12/16/18 MCUs.
The MPASM Assembler generates relocatable object
files for the MPLINK Object Linker, Intel® standard HEX
files, MAP files to detail memory usage and symbol
reference, absolute LST files that contain source lines
and generated machine code and COFF files for
debugging.
The MPASM Assembler features include:
8.5
MPLINK Object Linker/
MPLIB Object Librarian
The MPLINK Object Linker combines relocatable
objects created by the MPASM Assembler and the
MPLAB C18 C Compiler. It can link relocatable objects
from precompiled libraries, using directives from a
linker script.
The MPLIB Object Librarian manages the creation and
modification of library files of precompiled code. When
a routine from a library is called from a source file, only
the modules that contain that routine will be linked in
with the application. This allows large libraries to be
used efficiently in many different applications.
The object linker/library features include:
• Efficient linking of single libraries instead of many
smaller files
• Enhanced code maintainability by grouping
related modules together
• Flexible creation of libraries with easy module
listing, replacement, deletion and extraction
8.6
MPLAB Assembler, Linker and
Librarian for Various Device
Families
MPLAB Assembler produces relocatable machine
code from symbolic assembly language for PIC24,
PIC32 and dsPIC devices. MPLAB C Compiler uses
the assembler to produce its object file. The assembler
generates relocatable object files that can then be
archived or linked with other relocatable object files and
archives to create an executable file. Notable features
of the assembler include:
•
•
•
•
•
•
Support for the entire device instruction set
Support for fixed-point and floating-point data
Command line interface
Rich directive set
Flexible macro language
MPLAB IDE compatibility
• Integration into MPLAB IDE projects
• User-defined macros to streamline
assembly code
• Conditional assembly for multi-purpose
source files
• Directives that allow complete control over the
assembly process
DS41111E-page 22
2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
HCS370
8.7
MPLAB SIM Software Simulator
The MPLAB SIM Software Simulator allows code
development in a PC-hosted environment by simulating the PIC® MCUs and dsPIC® DSCs on an instruction
level. On any given instruction, the data areas can be
examined or modified and stimuli can be applied from
a comprehensive stimulus controller. Registers can be
logged to files for further run-time analysis. The trace
buffer and logic analyzer display extend the power of
the simulator to record and track program execution,
actions on I/O, most peripherals and internal registers.
The MPLAB SIM Software Simulator fully supports
symbolic debugging using the MPLAB C Compilers,
and the MPASM and MPLAB Assemblers. The software simulator offers the flexibility to develop and
debug code outside of the hardware laboratory environment, making it an excellent, economical software
development tool.
8.8
MPLAB REAL ICE In-Circuit
Emulator System
MPLAB REAL ICE In-Circuit Emulator System is
Microchip’s next generation high-speed emulator for
Microchip Flash DSC and MCU devices. It debugs and
programs PIC® Flash MCUs and dsPIC® Flash DSCs
with the easy-to-use, powerful graphical user interface of
the MPLAB Integrated Development Environment (IDE),
included with each kit.
The emulator is connected to the design engineer’s PC
using a high-speed USB 2.0 interface and is connected
to the target with either a connector compatible with incircuit debugger systems (RJ11) or with the new highspeed, noise tolerant, Low-Voltage Differential Signal
(LVDS) interconnection (CAT5).
The emulator is field upgradable through future firmware
downloads in MPLAB IDE. In upcoming releases of
MPLAB IDE, new devices will be supported, and new
features will be added. MPLAB REAL ICE offers
significant advantages over competitive emulators
including low-cost, full-speed emulation, run-time
variable watches, trace analysis, complex breakpoints, a
ruggedized probe interface and long (up to three meters)
interconnection cables.
2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
8.9
MPLAB ICD 3 In-Circuit Debugger
System
MPLAB ICD 3 In-Circuit Debugger System is Microchip's most cost effective high-speed hardware
debugger/programmer for Microchip Flash Digital Signal Controller (DSC) and microcontroller (MCU)
devices. It debugs and programs PIC® Flash microcontrollers and dsPIC® DSCs with the powerful, yet easyto-use graphical user interface of MPLAB Integrated
Development Environment (IDE).
The MPLAB ICD 3 In-Circuit Debugger probe is connected to the design engineer's PC using a high-speed
USB 2.0 interface and is connected to the target with a
connector compatible with the MPLAB ICD 2 or MPLAB
REAL ICE systems (RJ-11). MPLAB ICD 3 supports all
MPLAB ICD 2 headers.
8.10
PICkit 3 In-Circuit Debugger/
Programmer and
PICkit 3 Debug Express
The MPLAB PICkit 3 allows debugging and programming of PIC® and dsPIC® Flash microcontrollers at a
most affordable price point using the powerful graphical
user interface of the MPLAB Integrated Development
Environment (IDE). The MPLAB PICkit 3 is connected
to the design engineer's PC using a full speed USB
interface and can be connected to the target via an
Microchip debug (RJ-11) connector (compatible with
MPLAB ICD 3 and MPLAB REAL ICE). The connector
uses two device I/O pins and the reset line to implement in-circuit debugging and In-Circuit Serial Programming™.
The PICkit 3 Debug Express include the PICkit 3, demo
board and microcontroller, hookup cables and CDROM
with user’s guide, lessons, tutorial, compiler and
MPLAB IDE software.
DS41111E-page 23
HCS370
8.11
PICkit 2 Development
Programmer/Debugger and
PICkit 2 Debug Express
The PICkit™ 2 Development Programmer/Debugger is
a low-cost development tool with an easy to use interface for programming and debugging Microchip’s Flash
families of microcontrollers. The full featured
Windows® programming interface supports baseline
(PIC10F,
PIC12F5xx,
PIC16F5xx),
midrange
(PIC12F6xx, PIC16F), PIC18F, PIC24, dsPIC30,
dsPIC33, and PIC32 families of 8-bit, 16-bit, and 32-bit
microcontrollers, and many Microchip Serial EEPROM
products. With Microchip’s powerful MPLAB Integrated
Development Environment (IDE) the PICkit™ 2
enables in-circuit debugging on most PIC® microcontrollers. In-Circuit-Debugging runs, halts and single
steps the program while the PIC microcontroller is
embedded in the application. When halted at a breakpoint, the file registers can be examined and modified.
The PICkit 2 Debug Express include the PICkit 2, demo
board and microcontroller, hookup cables and CDROM
with user’s guide, lessons, tutorial, compiler and
MPLAB IDE software.
8.12
MPLAB PM3 Device Programmer
The MPLAB PM3 Device Programmer is a universal,
CE compliant device programmer with programmable
voltage verification at VDDMIN and VDDMAX for
maximum reliability. It features a large LCD display
(128 x 64) for menus and error messages and a modular, detachable socket assembly to support various
package types. The ICSP™ cable assembly is included
as a standard item. In Stand-Alone mode, the MPLAB
PM3 Device Programmer can read, verify and program
PIC devices without a PC connection. It can also set
code protection in this mode. The MPLAB PM3
connects to the host PC via an RS-232 or USB cable.
The MPLAB PM3 has high-speed communications and
optimized algorithms for quick programming of large
memory devices and incorporates an MMC card for file
storage and data applications.
DS41111E-page 24
8.13
Demonstration/Development
Boards, Evaluation Kits, and
Starter Kits
A wide variety of demonstration, development and
evaluation boards for various PIC MCUs and dsPIC
DSCs allows quick application development on fully functional systems. Most boards include prototyping areas for
adding custom circuitry and provide application firmware
and source code for examination and modification.
The boards support a variety of features, including LEDs,
temperature sensors, switches, speakers, RS-232
interfaces, LCD displays, potentiometers and additional
EEPROM memory.
The demonstration and development boards can be
used in teaching environments, for prototyping custom
circuits and for learning about various microcontroller
applications.
In addition to the PICDEM™ and dsPICDEM™ demonstration/development board series of circuits, Microchip
has a line of evaluation kits and demonstration software
for analog filter design, KEELOQ® security ICs, CAN,
IrDA®, PowerSmart battery management, SEEVAL®
evaluation system, Sigma-Delta ADC, flow rate
sensing, plus many more.
Also available are starter kits that contain everything
needed to experience the specified device. This usually
includes a single application and debug capability, all
on one board.
Check the Microchip web page (www.microchip.com)
for the complete list of demonstration, development
and evaluation kits.
2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
HCS370
9.0
ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS
9.1
Maximum Ratings*
Ambient temperature under bias............................................................................................................. -40°C to +125°C
Storage temperature .............................................................................................................................. -65°C to +150°C
Voltage on VDD w/respect to VSS ................................................................................................................ -0.3 to +7.5V
Voltage on LED w/respect to VSS ..................................................................................................................-0.3 to +11V
Voltage on all other pins w/respect to VSS ........................................................................................-0.3V to VDD + 0.3V
Total power dissipation (Note 1) ..........................................................................................................................500 mW
Maximum current out of VSS pin ...........................................................................................................................100 mA
Maximum current into VDD pin ..............................................................................................................................100 mA
Input clamp current, IIK (VI < 0 or VI > VDD) .........................................................................................................± 20 mA
Output clamp current, IOK (Vo < 0 or Vo >VDD)....................................................................................................± 20 mA
Maximum output current sunk by any Output pin....................................................................................................25 mA
Maximum output current sourced by any Output pin ..............................................................................................25 mA
*Notice: Stresses above those listed under “Maximum ratings” may cause permanent damage to the device. This is a
stress rating only and functional operation of the device at those or any other conditions above those indicated in the
operational listings of this specification is not implied. Exposure to maximum rating conditions for extended periods may
affect device reliability.
Note 1: Power dissipation is calculated as follows: Pdis=VDD x {IDD - Â IOH} + Â {(VDD-VOH) x IOH} + Â(VOl x IOL).
2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS41111E-page 25
HCS370
TABLE 9-1:
DC CHARACTERISTICS: HCS370
DC Characteristics
All Pins Except
Power Supply Pins
Param
No.
Sym.
Standard Operating Conditions (unless otherwise stated)
Operating Temperature 0° C ≤TA ≤+70° C (Commercial)
-40° C ≤TA ≤+85° C (Industrial)
Characteristic
Min.
Typ.†
Max.
Units
2.05(4)
—
5.5
V
—
VSS
—
V
—
V/ms
Conditions
D001
VDD
Supply Voltage
D003
VPOR
VDD start voltage to ensure
internal Power-on Reset
signal
D004
SVDD
VDD rise rate to ensure
internal Power-on Reset
signal
0.05*
—
D005
VBOR
Brown-out Reset Voltage
—
1.9
2
V
D010
IDD
Supply Current(2)
—
1.0
5
mA
FOSC = 4 MHz,
VDD = 5.5V(3)
2.0
mA
FOSC = 4 MHz,
VDD = 3.5V(3)
D010B
Cold RESET
—
0.1
1.0
μA
VDD = 5.5V
With TTL Buffer
VSS
—
0.8
V
4.5V ≤VDD ≤5.5V
VSS
—
0.15 VDD
V
Otherwise
D031
With Schmitt Trigger Buffer
VSS
—
0.2 VDD
V
D032
SHIFT
VSS
—
0.2 VDD
V
D021A IPD
Shutdown Current
Input Low Voltage
VIL
D030
Input pins
D030A
Input High Voltage
VIH
Input pins
—
D040
D040A
With TTL Buffer
2.0
(0.25 VDD
+0.8)
—
—
VDD
VDD
V
V
D041
With Schmitt Trigger Buffer
0.8 VDD
—
VDD
V
D042
SHIFT
0.8 VDD
—
VDD
V
4.5V ≤VDD ≤5.5V
Otherwise
Input Threshold Voltage
D050
VTH
SHIFT
0.4
—
1.2
V
2.05 ≤VDD ≤3.5V
0.9
V
2.05 ≤VDD ≤3.5V
Data Internally Inverted
D051
VTH
SLEEP/S5
0.3
0.6
D052
VIN
VIN
1.05
1.19
1.33
V
D053
Vtol
Vlow detect tolerance
—
—
—
—
+200
+350
mV
mV
setting 5 = 2.25V
setting 25 = 4.25V
Input pins
—
—
±1
μA
VSS ≤VPIN ≤VDD, Pin at Hiimpedance, no pull-downs
enabled
SHIFT
—
—
±5
μA
VSS ≤VPIN ≤VDD
Input Leakage Current
D060
IIL
D061
DS41111E-page 26
2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
HCS370
TABLE 9-1:
DC CHARACTERISTICS: HCS370 (CONTINUED)
DC Characteristics
All Pins Except
Power Supply Pins
Param
No.
Sym.
Standard Operating Conditions (unless otherwise stated)
Operating Temperature 0° C ≤TA ≤+70° C (Commercial)
-40° C ≤TA ≤+85° C (Industrial)
Characteristic
Min.
Typ.†
Max.
Units
—
—
0.6
V
Conditions
Output Low Voltage
D080
VOL
Output pins
IOL = 8.5 mA, VDD = 4.5V
Output High Voltage
D090
VOH
Output pins
D091
VOH
LED
VDD-0.7
—
—
V
IOH = -3.0 mA, VDD = 4.5V
1.5
—
—
V
IOH = -0.5 mA, VDD = 4.5V
40
75
100
Internal Pull-down Resistance
D100
Rpd
S0 - S5, SHIFT
KOhms If enabled
Data EEPROM Memory
D120
ED
Endurance
200K
1000K
—
D121
Vdrw
VDD for Read/Write
2.05
—
5.5
V
D122
Tdew
Erase/Write Cycle Time(1)
—
4
10
ms
E/W
25° C at 5V
Note 1: * These parameters are characterized but not tested.
2: † "Typ" column data is at 5.0V, 25°C unless otherwise stated. These parameters are for design guidance only and are
not tested.
3:
The supply current is mainly a function of the operating voltage and frequency. Other factors such as I/O pin loading
and switching rate, oscillator type, internal code execution pattern, and temperature also have an impact on the current
consumption.
4:
Should operate down to VBOR but not tested below 2.0V.
The test conditions for all IDD measurements in active Operation mode are: all I/O pins tristated, pulled to VDD. MCLR = VDD; WDT
enabled/disabled as specified. The power-down/shutdown current in SLEEP mode does not depend on the oscillator frequency. Powerdown current is measured with the part in SLEEP mode, with all I/O pins in hi-impedance state and tied to VDD or VSS. The Δ current is
the additional current consumed when the WDT is enabled. This current should be added to the base IDD or IPD measurement.
2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS41111E-page 27
HCS370
TABLE 9-2:
AC CHARACTERISTICS
Commercial (C): TAMB = 0° C to +70° C
Industrial (I):
TAMB = -40° C to +85° C
2.05V < VDD < 5.5
Sym.
Min.
Typ.(1)
Max.
TE
90
—
880
μs
Power-up Time
TPU
—
25
—
ms
PLL Set-up Time
TPLL
10
—
15
—
30
285
ms
ms
WAIT = 0
WAIT = 1
LED On Time
TLEDON
45
—
110
ms
LEDOS = 0 (min) or
LEDOS = 1 (max)
LED Off Time
TLEDOFF
450
500
550
ms
TG
1.8
5.6
46.1
96.1
2TE
6.4
51.2
102.4
112.6
7.0
56.3
42.6
ms
ms
ms
ms
Parameter
Timing Element
Guard Time
Unit Conditions
BSEL = 002 (min) or
BSEL = 012
BSEL = 102
BSEL = 112 (max)
GSEL = 002(min)
GSEL = 012
GSEL = 102
GSEL = 112(max)
Note 1: All timing values are subject to the oscillator variance. These parameters are characterized but not tested.
DS41111E-page 28
2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
HCS370
10.0
PACKAGING INFORMATION
10.1
Package Marking Information
14-Lead PDIP
Example
XXXXXXXXXXXXXX
XXXXXXXXXXXXXX
YYWWNNN
14-Lead SOIC
XXXXXXXXXX
XXXXXXXXXX
YYWWNNN
14-Lead TSSOP
XXXXXX
NNN
Legend:
*
Example
HCS370
XXXXXXXXXX
9904NNN
Example
HCS370
9904
NNN
YYWW
Note:
HCS370
XXXXXXXXXXXXXX
9904NNN
XX...X
YY
WW
NNN
Customer specific information*
Year code (last 2 digits of calendar year)
Week code (week of January 1 is week ‘01’)
Alphanumeric traceability code
In the event the full Microchip part number cannot be marked on one line, it will
be carried over to the next line thus limiting the number of available characters
for customer specific information.
Standard marking consists of Microchip part number, year code, week code, facility code, mask rev#,
and assembly code. For marking beyond this, certain price adders apply. Please check with your
Microchip Sales Office. For SQTP devices, any special marking adders are included in SQTP price.
2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS41111E-page 29
HCS370
10.2
Package Details
3
%&
%!%4") ' %
4$%
%"%
%%255)))&
&54
N
NOTE 1
E1
1
3
2
D
E
A2
A
L
A1
c
b1
b
e
eB
6%
& 9&%
7!&(
$
7+8-
7
7
7:
;
%
%
%
<
<
""44
0
,
0
1 %
%
0
<
<
!"%
!"="%
-
,
,0
""4="%
-
0
>
:9%
,0
0
0
%
%
9
0
,
0
9"4
>
0
(
0
?
(
>
1
<
<
69"="%
9
)9"="%
:
)*
1+
,
!"#$%!&'(!%&! %(
%")%%%"
*$%+% %
, & "-"
%!"&
"$ %! "$ %! %#". "
& "%
-/0
1+21 & %#%! ))%
!%%
) +01
DS41111E-page 30
2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
HCS370
Note:
For the most current package drawings, please see the Microchip Packaging Specification located at
http://www.microchip.com/packaging
2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS41111E-page 31
HCS370
Note:
For the most current package drawings, please see the Microchip Packaging Specification located at
http://www.microchip.com/packaging
DS41111E-page 32
2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
HCS370
3
%&
%!%4") ' %
4$%
%"%
%%255)))&
&54
2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS41111E-page 33
HCS370
Note:
For the most current package drawings, please see the Microchip Packaging Specification located at
http://www.microchip.com/packaging
DS41111E-page 34
2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
HCS370
Note:
For the most current package drawings, please see the Microchip Packaging Specification located at
http://www.microchip.com/packaging
2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS41111E-page 35
HCS370
Note:
For the most current package drawings, please see the Microchip Packaging Specification located at
http://www.microchip.com/packaging
DS41111E-page 36
2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
HCS370
APPENDIX A:
ADDITIONAL
INFORMATION
Microchip’s Secure Data Products are covered by
some or all of the following:
Code hopping encoder patents issued in European
countries and U.S.A.
Secure learning patents issued in European countries,
U.S.A. and R.S.A.
REVISION HISTORY
Revision E (June 2011)
• Updated the following sections: Development Support, The Microchip Web Site, Reader Response
and HCS370 Product Identification System
• Added new section Appendix A
• Minor formatting and text changes were incorporated
throughout the document
2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS41111E-page 37
HCS370
THE MICROCHIP WEB SITE
CUSTOMER SUPPORT
Microchip provides online support via our WWW site at
www.microchip.com. This web site is used as a means
to make files and information easily available to
customers. Accessible by using your favorite Internet
browser, the web site contains the following
information:
Users of Microchip products can receive assistance
through several channels:
• Product Support – Data sheets and errata,
application notes and sample programs, design
resources, user’s guides and hardware support
documents, latest software releases and archived
software
• General Technical Support – Frequently Asked
Questions (FAQ), technical support requests,
online discussion groups, Microchip consultant
program member listing
• Business of Microchip – Product selector and
ordering guides, latest Microchip press releases,
listing of seminars and events, listings of
Microchip sales offices, distributors and factory
representatives
•
•
•
•
•
Distributor or Representative
Local Sales Office
Field Application Engineer (FAE)
Technical Support
Development Systems Information Line
Customers
should
contact
their
distributor,
representative or field application engineer (FAE) for
support. Local sales offices are also available to help
customers. A listing of sales offices and locations is
included in the back of this document.
Technical support is available through the web site
at: http://microchip.com/support
CUSTOMER CHANGE NOTIFICATION
SERVICE
Microchip’s customer notification service helps keep
customers current on Microchip products. Subscribers
will receive e-mail notification whenever there are
changes, updates, revisions or errata related to a
specified product family or development tool of interest.
To register, access the Microchip web site at
www.microchip.com. Under “Support”, click on
“Customer Change Notification” and follow the
registration instructions.
DS41111E-page 38
2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
HCS370
READER RESPONSE
It is our intention to provide you with the best documentation possible to ensure successful use of your Microchip
product. If you wish to provide your comments on organization, clarity, subject matter, and ways in which our
documentation can better serve you, please FAX your comments to the Technical Publications Manager at
(480) 792-4150.
Please list the following information, and use this outline to provide us with your comments about this document.
TO:
Technical Publications Manager
RE:
Reader Response
Total Pages Sent ________
From: Name
Company
Address
City / State / ZIP / Country
Telephone: (_______) _________ - _________
FAX: (______) _________ - _________
Application (optional):
Would you like a reply?
Y
N
Device: HCS370
Literature Number: DS41111E
Questions:
1. What are the best features of this document?
2. How does this document meet your hardware and software development needs?
3. Do you find the organization of this document easy to follow? If not, why?
4. What additions to the document do you think would enhance the structure and subject?
5. What deletions from the document could be made without affecting the overall usefulness?
6. Is there any incorrect or misleading information (what and where)?
7. How would you improve this document?
2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS41111E-page 39
HCS370
HCS370 PRODUCT IDENTIFICATION SYSTEM
.To order or obtain information, e.g., on pricing or delivery, refer to the factory or the listed sales office.
PART NO.
Device
X
Temperature
Range
/XX
XXX
Package
Pattern
Device
HCS370: Code Hopping Encoder
HCS370T: Code Hopping Encoder (Tape and Reel - SL
only)
Temperature Range
I
Package
P
SL
ST
=
=
0×C to +70×C
-40×C to +85×C
=
=
=
Plastice DIP (300 mil body), 14-lead
Plastic SOIC (150 mil body), 14-lead
Plastic TSSOP (4.4mm body), 14-lead
Pattern
* JW Devices are UV erasable and can be programmed to any device configuration. JW Devices meet the electrical requirement of
each oscillator type.
DS41111E-page 40
2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
Note the following details of the code protection feature on Microchip devices:
•
Microchip products meet the specification contained in their particular Microchip Data Sheet.
•
Microchip believes that its family of products is one of the most secure families of its kind on the market today, when used in the
intended manner and under normal conditions.
•
There are dishonest and possibly illegal methods used to breach the code protection feature. All of these methods, to our
knowledge, require using the Microchip products in a manner outside the operating specifications contained in Microchip’s Data
Sheets. Most likely, the person doing so is engaged in theft of intellectual property.
•
Microchip is willing to work with the customer who is concerned about the integrity of their code.
•
Neither Microchip nor any other semiconductor manufacturer can guarantee the security of their code. Code protection does not
mean that we are guaranteeing the product as “unbreakable.”
Code protection is constantly evolving. We at Microchip are committed to continuously improving the code protection features of our
products. Attempts to break Microchip’s code protection feature may be a violation of the Digital Millennium Copyright Act. If such acts
allow unauthorized access to your software or other copyrighted work, you may have a right to sue for relief under that Act.
Information contained in this publication regarding device
applications and the like is provided only for your convenience
and may be superseded by updates. It is your responsibility to
ensure that your application meets with your specifications.
MICROCHIP MAKES NO REPRESENTATIONS OR
WARRANTIES OF ANY KIND WHETHER EXPRESS OR
IMPLIED, WRITTEN OR ORAL, STATUTORY OR
OTHERWISE, RELATED TO THE INFORMATION,
INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO ITS CONDITION,
QUALITY, PERFORMANCE, MERCHANTABILITY OR
FITNESS FOR PURPOSE. Microchip disclaims all liability
arising from this information and its use. Use of Microchip
devices in life support and/or safety applications is entirely at
the buyer’s risk, and the buyer agrees to defend, indemnify and
hold harmless Microchip from any and all damages, claims,
suits, or expenses resulting from such use. No licenses are
conveyed, implicitly or otherwise, under any Microchip
intellectual property rights.
Trademarks
The Microchip name and logo, the Microchip logo, dsPIC,
KEELOQ, KEELOQ logo, MPLAB, PIC, PICmicro, PICSTART,
PIC32 logo, rfPIC and UNI/O are registered trademarks of
Microchip Technology Incorporated in the U.S.A. and other
countries.
FilterLab, Hampshire, HI-TECH C, Linear Active Thermistor,
MXDEV, MXLAB, SEEVAL and The Embedded Control
Solutions Company are registered trademarks of Microchip
Technology Incorporated in the U.S.A.
Analog-for-the-Digital Age, Application Maestro, CodeGuard,
dsPICDEM, dsPICDEM.net, dsPICworks, dsSPEAK, ECAN,
ECONOMONITOR, FanSense, HI-TIDE, In-Circuit Serial
Programming, ICSP, Mindi, MiWi, MPASM, MPLAB Certified
logo, MPLIB, MPLINK, mTouch, Omniscient Code
Generation, PICC, PICC-18, PICDEM, PICDEM.net, PICkit,
PICtail, REAL ICE, rfLAB, Select Mode, Total Endurance,
TSHARC, UniWinDriver, WiperLock and ZENA are
trademarks of Microchip Technology Incorporated in the
U.S.A. and other countries.
SQTP is a service mark of Microchip Technology Incorporated
in the U.S.A.
All other trademarks mentioned herein are property of their
respective companies.
© 2011, Microchip Technology Incorporated, Printed in the
U.S.A., All Rights Reserved.
Printed on recycled paper.
ISBN: 978-1-61341-233-6
Microchip received ISO/TS-16949:2002 certification for its worldwide
headquarters, design and wafer fabrication facilities in Chandler and
Tempe, Arizona; Gresham, Oregon and design centers in California
and India. The Company’s quality system processes and procedures
are for its PIC® MCUs and dsPIC® DSCs, KEELOQ® code hopping
devices, Serial EEPROMs, microperipherals, nonvolatile memory and
analog products. In addition, Microchip’s quality system for the design
and manufacture of development systems is ISO 9001:2000 certified.
© 2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS41111E-page 41
Worldwide Sales and Service
AMERICAS
ASIA/PACIFIC
ASIA/PACIFIC
EUROPE
Corporate Office
2355 West Chandler Blvd.
Chandler, AZ 85224-6199
Tel: 480-792-7200
Fax: 480-792-7277
Technical Support:
http://www.microchip.com/
support
Web Address:
www.microchip.com
Asia Pacific Office
Suites 3707-14, 37th Floor
Tower 6, The Gateway
Harbour City, Kowloon
Hong Kong
Tel: 852-2401-1200
Fax: 852-2401-3431
India - Bangalore
Tel: 91-80-3090-4444
Fax: 91-80-3090-4123
India - New Delhi
Tel: 91-11-4160-8631
Fax: 91-11-4160-8632
Austria - Wels
Tel: 43-7242-2244-39
Fax: 43-7242-2244-393
Denmark - Copenhagen
Tel: 45-4450-2828
Fax: 45-4485-2829
India - Pune
Tel: 91-20-2566-1512
Fax: 91-20-2566-1513
France - Paris
Tel: 33-1-69-53-63-20
Fax: 33-1-69-30-90-79
Japan - Yokohama
Tel: 81-45-471- 6166
Fax: 81-45-471-6122
Germany - Munich
Tel: 49-89-627-144-0
Fax: 49-89-627-144-44
Atlanta
Duluth, GA
Tel: 678-957-9614
Fax: 678-957-1455
Boston
Westborough, MA
Tel: 774-760-0087
Fax: 774-760-0088
Chicago
Itasca, IL
Tel: 630-285-0071
Fax: 630-285-0075
Cleveland
Independence, OH
Tel: 216-447-0464
Fax: 216-447-0643
Dallas
Addison, TX
Tel: 972-818-7423
Fax: 972-818-2924
Detroit
Farmington Hills, MI
Tel: 248-538-2250
Fax: 248-538-2260
Indianapolis
Noblesville, IN
Tel: 317-773-8323
Fax: 317-773-5453
Los Angeles
Mission Viejo, CA
Tel: 949-462-9523
Fax: 949-462-9608
Santa Clara
Santa Clara, CA
Tel: 408-961-6444
Fax: 408-961-6445
Toronto
Mississauga, Ontario,
Canada
Tel: 905-673-0699
Fax: 905-673-6509
Australia - Sydney
Tel: 61-2-9868-6733
Fax: 61-2-9868-6755
China - Beijing
Tel: 86-10-8569-7000
Fax: 86-10-8528-2104
China - Chengdu
Tel: 86-28-8665-5511
Fax: 86-28-8665-7889
China - Chongqing
Tel: 86-23-8980-9588
Fax: 86-23-8980-9500
Korea - Seoul
Tel: 82-2-554-7200
Fax: 82-2-558-5932 or
82-2-558-5934
China - Hangzhou
Tel: 86-571-2819-3180
Fax: 86-571-2819-3189
Malaysia - Kuala Lumpur
Tel: 60-3-6201-9857
Fax: 60-3-6201-9859
China - Hong Kong SAR
Tel: 852-2401-1200
Fax: 852-2401-3431
Malaysia - Penang
Tel: 60-4-227-8870
Fax: 60-4-227-4068
China - Nanjing
Tel: 86-25-8473-2460
Fax: 86-25-8473-2470
Philippines - Manila
Tel: 63-2-634-9065
Fax: 63-2-634-9069
China - Qingdao
Tel: 86-532-8502-7355
Fax: 86-532-8502-7205
Singapore
Tel: 65-6334-8870
Fax: 65-6334-8850
China - Shanghai
Tel: 86-21-5407-5533
Fax: 86-21-5407-5066
Taiwan - Hsin Chu
Tel: 886-3-6578-300
Fax: 886-3-6578-370
China - Shenyang
Tel: 86-24-2334-2829
Fax: 86-24-2334-2393
Taiwan - Kaohsiung
Tel: 886-7-213-7830
Fax: 886-7-330-9305
China - Shenzhen
Tel: 86-755-8203-2660
Fax: 86-755-8203-1760
Taiwan - Taipei
Tel: 886-2-2500-6610
Fax: 886-2-2508-0102
China - Wuhan
Tel: 86-27-5980-5300
Fax: 86-27-5980-5118
Thailand - Bangkok
Tel: 66-2-694-1351
Fax: 66-2-694-1350
Italy - Milan
Tel: 39-0331-742611
Fax: 39-0331-466781
Netherlands - Drunen
Tel: 31-416-690399
Fax: 31-416-690340
Spain - Madrid
Tel: 34-91-708-08-90
Fax: 34-91-708-08-91
UK - Wokingham
Tel: 44-118-921-5869
Fax: 44-118-921-5820
China - Xian
Tel: 86-29-8833-7252
Fax: 86-29-8833-7256
China - Xiamen
Tel: 86-592-2388138
Fax: 86-592-2388130
China - Zhuhai
Tel: 86-756-3210040
Fax: 86-756-3210049
DS41111E-page 42
Korea - Daegu
Tel: 82-53-744-4301
Fax: 82-53-744-4302
05/02/11
© 2011 Microchip Technology Inc.