CMLMICRO MX429A

DATA BULLETIN
1200/2400bps MSK Modem
MX429A
for Trunked Radio Systems
Features
Band III & General Purpose Trunked Radio
Apps
Full-Duplex 1200 and 2400 Baud Operation
Error Check Word Generation and Checking
Preamble Generation
µProcessor Compatible Interface
CARRIER DETECT
TIME CONSTANT
RECEIVER INPUT
DATA
RX MESSAGE FORMAT
MSK
RECEIVER
SYNC/SYNT
DETECTOR
1200/2400 BAUD
CHECKSUM
CHECKER
STATUS
REGISTER
SYNC
DATA
SYNT
RX DATA READY
8-BIT uP BUS
RX CARRIER DET.
RX DATA
BUFFER
RX CHECKSUM TRUE
TX DATA READY
8-BIT uP BUS
TX IDLE
TX DATA
BUFFER
CONTROL
REGISTER
TIMER EXPIRED
CHECKSUM
GENERATOR
RX ENABLE
TX ENABLE
RX MESSAGE FORMAT
TX PARITY ENABLE
MSK
TRANSMITTER
BYTE
COUNTER
XTAL/CLOCK
CLOCK
GENERATORS
TX PARITY
ENABLE
TX DATA
REGISTER
CLOCKS
VDD
XTAL
RX CHECKSUM TRUE
RX DATA
REGISTER
VBIAS
VSS
BYTE
COUNTER
RECOVERED CLOCK
MICROPROCESSOR
INTERFACE
STROBE
RX CARRIER
DETECT
R/W
A1
A0
D7
D6
D5
D4
D3
D2
D1
D0
Frame SYNC and SYNT
Detection
Low Power Consumption
General Purpose Timer
TIMER
1.008 MHz
OUTPUT
RX DATA RDY
TX DATA RDY
SYNC
SYNT
TX IDLE
TRANSMITTER
OUTPUT
INTERRUPT IRQ
GENERATOR
The MX429A is a single-chip CMOS 1200 and 2400 baud MSK modem, designed primarily for use in Trunked
Radio Systems but may also be employed in other general purpose radio or line data communication
applications. The device has been designed to conform to the UK Band III trunked radio protocols MPT
1317/1327.
The MX429A is full duplex at 1200 and 2400 baud and includes an 8-bit parallel microprocessor interface and
a programmable timer which may be set for interrupt periods of 8 to 120 bits. Preamble may be generated by
the device in transmit. The 16-bit SYNC or SYNT words are detected in receive. An error check word is
automatically generated in transmit and error checking is performed in the receive mode. An on-chip
Xtal/clock generator requiring an external 4.032MHz Xtal or clock input provides both 4.032MHz and
1.008MHz outputs and performs all modem timings.
The MX429A requires a single 5-volt power supply, has a powersave facility, and is available in the following
package styles: 24-pin CDIP (MX429AJ), 24-pin PDIP (MX429AP), and 24-pin PLCC (MX429ALH).
© 1998 MX-COM Inc.
www.mxcom.com Tel: 800 638-5577 336 744-5050
4800 Bethania Station Road, Winston-Salem, NC 27105-1201 USA
Fax: 336 744-5054
Doc. # 20480128.007
All trademarks and service marks are held by their respective companies.
1200/2400bps MSK Modem for Trunked Radio Systems
2
MX429A
CONTENTS
Section
Page
1 Block Diagram................................................................................................................. 3
2 Signal List........................................................................................................................ 3
3 External Components..................................................................................................... 5
4 General Description........................................................................................................ 6
4.1 Modems in Mobile Data Signaling .......................................................................................... 6
4.1.1 Digital Code Format.................................................................................................................... 6
4.1.2 Operation.................................................................................................................................... 6
4.1.3 Non MPT Application – Full-Duplex.......................................................................................... 7
4.1.4 Control Register (A1 = 1, A0 = 1, R/ W = 0, Write Only)........................................................... 7
4.1.5 Status Register (A1 = 1, A0 = 1, R/ W = 1, Read Only) ............................................................ 8
4.1.6 Rx Data Buffer (A1 = 1, A0 = 0, R/ W = 1, Read Only) ............................................................. 9
4.1.7 Tx Data Buffer (A1 = 1, A0 = 0, R/ W = 0, Write Only).............................................................. 9
4.2 Syndrome Word.................................................................................................................... 10
4.2.1 Syndrome Low Byte (A1 = 0, A0 = 0, R/ W = 1, Read Only) .................................................. 10
4.2.2 Syndrome High Byte (A1 = 0, A0 = 1, R/ W = 1, Read Only).................................................. 10
4.3 Carrier Detect Time Constant............................................................................................... 10
5 Application .................................................................................................................... 11
5.1 Checksum Generation and Checking................................................................................... 11
5.2 Receive Operation................................................................................................................ 11
5.3 Transmit Operation............................................................................................................... 12
5.4 Basic Power Up Software..................................................................................................... 13
5.5 Basic Software Interrupt Flow............................................................................................... 14
5.6 Bus Interface Timing............................................................................................................. 15
5.6.1 Bus interface design migration from MX429 to MX429A .......................................................... 15
6 Performance Specification........................................................................................... 15
6.1 Electrical Performance ......................................................................................................... 15
6.1.1 Absolute Maximum Ratings ...................................................................................................... 15
6.1.2 Operating Limits ....................................................................................................................... 15
6.1.3 Operating Characteristics ......................................................................................................... 16
6.1.4 Timing....................................................................................................................................... 18
6.2 Packaging............................................................................................................................. 18
MX•COM, Inc. reserves the right to change specifications at any time and without notice.
© 1998 MX-COM Inc.
www.mxcom.com Tel: 800 638-5577 336 744-5050
4800 Bethania Station Road, Winston-Salem, NC 27105-1201 USA
Fax: 336 744-5054
Doc. # 20480128.007
All trademarks and service marks are held by their respective companies.
1200/2400bps MSK Modem for Trunked Radio Systems
3
MX429A
1 Block Diagram
CARRIER DETECT
TIME CONSTANT
RECEIVER INPUT
DATA
RX MESSAGE FORMAT
MSK
RECEIVER
SYNC/SYNT
DETECTOR
1200/2400 BAUD
BYTE
COUNTER
CHECKSUM
CHECKER
RX CHECKSUM TRUE
STATUS
REGISTER
RECOVERED CLOCK
MICROPROCESSOR
INTERFACE
STROBE
RX CARRIER
DATA
DETECT
R/W
A1
A0
D7
D6
8-BIT uP BUS
D5
D4
D3
D2
D1
D0
SYNC
RX DATA
REGISTER
SYNT
RX DATA READY
8-BIT uP BUS
RX CARRIER DET.
RX DATA
BUFFER
RX CHECKSUM TRUE
TX DATA READY
TX IDLE
TX DATA
BUFFER
CONTROL
REGISTER
TIMER EXPIRED
CHECKSUM
GENERATOR
RX ENABLE
TX ENABLE
RX MESSAGE FORMAT
VBIAS
TX PARITY ENABLE
TX DATA
REGISTER
CLOCKS
VSS
MSK
TRANSMITTER
VDD
BYTE
COUNTER
XTAL/CLOCK
CLOCK
GENERATORS
XTAL
TIMER
1.008 MHz
OUTPUT
TX PARITY
ENABLE
RX DATA RDY
TX DATA RDY
SYNC
SYNT
TX IDLE
TRANSMITTER
OUTPUT
INTERRUPT IRQ
GENERATOR
Figure 1: Block Diagram
2 Signal List
Pin No.
Signal
Description
J/P
LH
Name
1
1
VBIAS
2
2
Transmit Output
Output
3
4
Receiver Input
Input
The 1200/2400 baud received MSK signal input. The
1200Hz/1800Hz, 1200Hz/2400Hz audio to this pin must be ac
coupled via a capacitor, see Figure 2.
5
5
VDD
Power
Positive Supply. A single +5V regulated supply is required. It is
recommended that this power rail be decoupled to VSS by a
capacitor, see Figure 2.
6
6
Carrier Detect
Time Constant:
7
7
Xtal/Clock
8
8
XTAL
© 1998 MX-COM Inc.
Type
The internal circuitry bias line, held at VDD/2 this pin must be
decoupled to VSS by a capacitor, see Figure 2.
The 1200 baud, 1200Hz/1800Hz and 2400 baud, 1200Hz/2400Hz
MSK Tx output. When not enabled by the Control Register (D0) its
output impedance is set high.
The on-chip Carrier Detect function requires external
component(s) on this pin. See Figure 2for recommended
component(s).
The input to the clock oscillator inverter. A 4.032 MHz Xtal or
externally derived clock pulse input should be connected here,
see Figure 2.
The output of the 4.032 MHz clock oscillator.
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Fax: 336 744-5054
Doc. # 20480128.007
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1200/2400bps MSK Modem for Trunked Radio Systems
Pin No.
4
MX429A
Signal
Description
J/P
LH
Name
Type
9
9
D0
10
10
D1
11
11
D2
Microprocessor Data Interface
12
12
D3
These 8 lines are used by the device to communicate with a
micro-
13
13
D4
processor with the R/ W , A0 and A1 inputs determining register
selection.
14
14
D5
15
15
D6
16
16
D7
17
17
A0
18
18
A1
required register to the data bus as shown in Table 2
19
19
STROBE
Performs the dual functions of selecting the device for Read or
Write and strobing data in or out. It should be generated by gating
the high order address bits with a Read/Write clock. The MX429A
is selected when this pin is a logic ‘0’.
20
20
R/ W
Used in conjunction with A1 and A0 to determine which internal
registers are connected to the data interface pins (D0 to D7)
during Strobe.
21
21
IRQ
Interrupt Request. This line will go to a logic '0' when an interrupt
occurs. This output can be "wire OR'd" with other active low
components (100kW pullup to VDD). The conditions that cause
the interrupts are indicated at the Status Register and are as
follows: Timer Expired, Rx Data Ready, Tx Data Ready, Tx Idle,
Rx SYNC Detect, Rx SYNT Detect
22
24
1200 / 2400 Baud
Select
23
22
VSS
24
23
Clock/4
4
3
Register Selection: These inputs, with the R/ W input, select the
A logic ‘1’ on this pin selects the 1200 baud option. Tone
frequencies are: one cycle of 1200Hz represents a logic ‘1’, one
and a half cycles of 1800Hz represents a logic ‘0’.
A logic ‘0’ on this pin selects the 2400 baud option. Tone
frequencies are: one half cycle of 1200Hz represents a logic ‘1’,
one cycle of 2400Hz represents a logic ‘0’. This pin has an
internal 1M pullup resistor.
Power
Negative Supply (GND)
A 1.008 MHz (X1 ÷ 4) clock is available at this output for external
circuit use, note the source impedance and source current limits.
Leave this pin open-circuit
Table 1: Signal List
Register
R/ W
A0
A1
0
1
1
Status
1
1
1
Rx Data
1
0
1
Tx Data
0
0
1
Syndrome Low
1
0
0
Syndrome High
1
1
0
Control
Table 2: Register Selection
© 1998 MX-COM Inc.
www.mxcom.com Tel: 800 638-5577 336 744-5050
4800 Bethania Station Road, Winston-Salem, NC 27105-1201 USA
Fax: 336 744-5054
Doc. # 20480128.007
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1200/2400bps MSK Modem for Trunked Radio Systems
5
MX429A
3 External Components
VDD
VBIAS
TRANSMIT OUTPUT
RECEIVE INPUT
C4
C3
C5
R2
VDD
'CD' TIME CONSTANT
XTAL/CLOCK
XTAL
D0
C6
D1
D2
Recommended Xtal
Component
Xtal/Clock
X1
C1 C2
D3
CLOCK/4
VSS
1
24
2
23
3
22
1200/2400 BAUD SELECT
4
21
IRQ
5
20
R/W
6
19
7
18
STROBE
A1
8
17
9
16
10
15
11
14
12
13
A0
D7
D6
D5
D4
7
R1
MX429A
8
XTAL
D0 D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 D7
MICROPROCESSOR DATA INTERFACE
Figure 2: Recommended External Components
1M
10%
C4
1.0F
20%
R2
1M
10%
C5
1.0F
20%
C1
33pF
20%
C6
1.0F
20%
C2
33pF
20%
C3
0.1F
20%
R1
X1
Note 1
4.032MHz
Table 3: Recommended External Components
Notes:
1. For best results, a crystal oscillator design should drive the clock inverter input with signal levels of at
least 40% of VDD, peak to peak. Tuning fork crystals generally cannot meet this requirement. To
obtain crystal oscillator design assistance, consult your crystal manufacturer.
© 1998 MX-COM Inc.
www.mxcom.com Tel: 800 638-5577 336 744-5050
4800 Bethania Station Road, Winston-Salem, NC 27105-1201 USA
Fax: 336 744-5054
Doc. # 20480128.007
All trademarks and service marks are held by their respective companies.
1200/2400bps MSK Modem for Trunked Radio Systems
6
MX429A
4 General Description
4.1
4.1.1
Modems in Mobile Data Signaling
Digital Code Format
The MPT 1327 Signaling Standard for Trunked LMR Systems protocol is used by the MX429 for
communication between a Trunking System Controller (TSC) and users' radio units. These data stream
formats are summarized in Figure 3.
Preamble
SYNC or SYNT
For bit sync.
101010...10..- bit reversals
Minimum 16 bits, ending in
logic'0'
SYNC Word
1100010011010111
SYNT Word
0011101100101000
Address Code
Word
(Bit number 1 is transmitted first)
Address Code Word Structure
Bit No.
1
No. of Bits
1
Bit Name
Logic '1'
2
to
Optional Data
Code Words
64 Bits
8
9
to
48
49
to
64
7
40
16
User Identity
Address
&
Data
Check Bits
(Checksum)
Figure 3: Tx and Rx Data Stream
4.1.2
Operation
The MX429A can be used for Full-Duplex operation with the host microprocessor only having to operate on
the data while the modem (MX429A) handles all other signaling routines and requirements.
In the Tx mode the MX429A will :
1. Internally generate and transmit a preamble – bit reversals, for system bit synchronization.
2. Accept from the host, and transmit, a 16-bit 'SYNC' or 'SYNT' word.
3. Accept from the host, and transmit, 6 bytes of data (Address Code Word):
A. Upon a software command, internally calculate and transmit a 2-byte checksum based on the
previous 6 data bytes.
B. Upon a software command, disable internal checksum generation and allow continuous data
transmission.
4. Transmit 1 'hang bit' and go idle when all loaded data traffic has been sent (followed by a "Tx Idle"
interrupt).
In the Rx mode the MX429A will:
1. Detect and achieve bit synchronization within 16 bits.
2. Search for and detect the 16-bit 'SYNC'/'SYNT' word.
3. Output all received data after 'SYNC/SYNT,' in byte form.
4. Upon a software command (Rx Message Format), use the received checksum to calculate the
presence (if any) of errors, and advise the host with an interrupt and a 16-bit Syndrome word.
Note: In Rx, a software command is used to determine whether a 'SYNC'/'SYNT' word is required after
every 8 (6 data + 2 checksum ) received bytes, or "data" is received continually.
Normally the 'SYNC' word is used on the Control data channel and the 'SYNT' word is used on the
Traffic data channel.
© 1998 MX-COM Inc.
www.mxcom.com Tel: 800 638-5577 336 744-5050
4800 Bethania Station Road, Winston-Salem, NC 27105-1201 USA
Fax: 336 744-5054
Doc. # 20480128.007
All trademarks and service marks are held by their respective companies.
1200/2400bps MSK Modem for Trunked Radio Systems
4.1.3
7
MX429A
Non MPT Application – Full-Duplex
The functions described in this section, to allow the MX429A modem to operate as a general purpose device,
are obtained using the commands and indications detailed in the “Register Instructions” pages.
Tx: When enabled the device transmits a “101010......10” preamble until data for transmission is loaded by
the host microprocessor. Transmits 6 bytes of the loaded data followed by a 2-byte checksum based on
that data. As long as Tx data is loaded the transmitter will transmit, the 2-byte checksum being produced
after every 6 bytes (8 byte packages). Automatic checksum generation can be inhibited by a software
command to allow transmission of continuous data streams.
Rx: When enabled requires the 16-bit SYNC or SYNT word (see notes) before outputting data bytes. The
modem receiver will then output continuous bytes of data, after every 6 bytes received a 2-byte
checksum word will be output and can be ignored or used for error checking.
4.1.4
Control Register (A1 = 1, A0 = 1, R/ W = 0, Write Only)
The Control Register, when selected, directs the modem’s operation as described in Table 4
Bit
Description
Bit 0
D0
TX Enable
Bit 1
D1
Tx Parity
Enable
Set: D1 indicates to the transmitter that 2–byte checksums are to be generated by the
modem. A '0 – 1' transition starts checksum generation on the next six bytes loaded
from the Tx Data Buffer into the Tx Data Register. Checksum generation continues for
every 6 bytes loaded until this bit is cleared. The transmitter will send the generated
checksum (2 bytes) after the last of each 6 bytes have been sent. If an underrun (no
more data loaded) condition occurs before 6 bytes have been loaded checksum
generation will abort, the transmission will cease after one 'hang' bit has been sent and
Bit 4 in the Status Register (Tx Idle) will be set. No checksum will be transmitted.
Clear: No checksum generation is carried out and the host may supply the checksum
bytes. The output is then “as written”.
Bit 2
D2
Rx Enable
Set: D2 enables the receiver for operation. No data is produced (i.e. No Rx Data
Ready interrupts) until a 'SYNC' or 'SYNT' word is found in the received bit stream.
Clear: The receiver is disabled and all interrupts caused by the receiver are inhibited.
Bit 3
D3
Rx Message
Format
Bit 4
D4
Timer LSB
Bit 5
D5
Timer
Bit 6
D6
Timer
Bit 7
D7
Timer MSB
Tx Enable
© 1998 MX-COM Inc.
Function
Set: D0 enables the transmitter for operation. A '0 – 1' transition causes bit
synchronization and the start of 1010.........10 preamble pattern transmission. At least
one byte of preamble will be transmitted. If data is loaded into the Tx Data Buffer before
one byte has been sent then that data will follow, otherwise whole bytes of preamble will
continue until data is loaded.
Clear: The Transmitter Output pin is set to a high impedance and no transmitter
interrupts are produced.
Set: D3 is sampled after a checksum has been received and allows the host to control
the way the receiver handles the following data bits. If 'set' the receiver will assume that
the next 6 bytes are data and will start error checking accordingly.
Clear: The receiver will stop data transfer to the host after the 2 checksum bytes until
another 'SYNC' or 'SYNT' frame word is received.
Reference Table 5
If a new timer value is written to these inputs within 1 byte period of the last timer
interrupt then the next timer period will be correct without first having to reset the timer,
otherwise the timer must be reset to zero and then set to the new time.
If using the internal Tx preamble generation facility, e.g. with the internal timer setting
the preamble length, the device may occasionally produce a Tx Ready interrupt
immediately after a Tx Enable command. User software should handle this occurrence
by either:
a. Detecting that the timer interrupt status bit is not set and that it is not appropriate to
load Tx data at this time.
b. Not using the timer. i.e. immediately after Tx Enable, reading the Status Register and
loading a byte of preamble. This resets any interrupt. The length of preamble
transmitted is now controlled by the number of bytes loaded.
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Fax: 336 744-5054
Doc. # 20480128.007
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1200/2400bps MSK Modem for Trunked Radio Systems
8
MX429A
Table 4: Control Register
D7
D6
D5
D4
0
0
0
0
Reset counter and disable timer interrupts
0
0
0
1
“
“
“
8
bits
0
0
1
0
"
"
"
16
bits
0
0
1
1
"
"
"
24
bits
0
1
0
0
"
"
"
32
bits
0
1
0
1
"
"
"
40
bits
0
1
1
0
"
"
"
48
bits
0
1
1
1
"
"
"
56
bits
1
0
0
0
"
"
"
64
bits
1
0
0
1
"
"
"
72
bits
1
0
1
0
"
"
"
80
bits
1
0
1
1
"
"
"
88
bits
1
1
0
0
"
"
"
96
bits
1
1
0
1
"
"
"
104
bits
1
1
1
0
"
"
"
112
bits
1
1
1
1
"
"
"
120
bits
Count and interrupt every
Table 5: Timer Control Bits
4.1.5
Status Register (A1 = 1, A0 = 1, R/ W = 1, Read Only)
When an interrupt is generated, the IRQ Output goes low with the Status Register bits indicating the sources
of the interrupt.
Bit
Description
Bit 0
D0
Rx Data
Ready
Bit 1
D1
Rx Checksum
True
D1: when set, indicates that the error checking on the previous 6 bytes agreed with the
received checksum. This function, which is valid when the Rx Data Ready bit (D0) is
set for the second byte of the received checksum, does not cause an interrupt.
Set: by a correct comparison between the received and generated checksums.
Cleared:
(i). by a read of the Status Register followed by a read of the Rx Data Buffer
(ii). by Rx Enable going Low.
Bit 2
D2
Rx Carrier
Detect
D2: is a “Real Time” indication from the modem receiver's carrier detect circuit and
does not cause an interrupt. When MSK tones are present at the receiver input this bit
goes High, for no MSK input this bit goes Low. When the Rx Enable bit (D2– Control
Register) is Low Rx Carrier Detect will go Low.
Bit 3
D3
Tx Data
Ready
© 1998 MX-COM Inc.
Function
D0: when set, causes an interrupt indicating that received data is ready to be read
from the Rx Data Buffer. This data must be read within 8 bit periods.
Set when a byte of data is loaded into the Rx Data Buffer, if a frame (SYNC/SYNT)
word has been received.
Bit and Interrupt Cleared:
(i). by a read of the Status Register followed by a read of the Rx Data Buffer
(ii). by Rx Enable going Low.
D3: when set, causes an interrupt to indicate that a byte of data should be written to
the Tx Data Buffer within 8 bit periods.
Set:
(i). when the contents of the Tx Data Buffer are transferred to the Tx Data Register
(ii). when the Tx Enable is set (No interrupt is generated in this case.
Bit Cleared:
(i). by a read of the Status Register followed by a write to the Tx Data Buffer
(ii). by Tx Enable going Low.
Interrupt Cleared:
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1200/2400bps MSK Modem for Trunked Radio Systems
9
MX429A
Bit
Description
Function
(i). by a read of the Status Register
(ii). by Tx Enable going Low.
Bit 4
D4
Tx Idle
D4: causes an interrupt when set, to indicate that all loaded data and one 'hang' bit
have been transmitted.
Set: one bit period after the last byte is transmitted. This last byte could be either
“checksum” or “ loaded data” depending upon the Tx Parity Enable state (Control
Register D1).
Bit Cleared:
(i). by a write to the Tx Data Buffer
(ii). by Tx Enable going Low.
Interrupt Cleared:
(i). by a read of the Status Register
(ii). by Tx Enable going Low.
Bit 5
D5
Timer Interrupt
D4: causes an interrupt when set, to indicate that all loaded data and one 'hang' bit
have been transmitted.
Set: one bit period after the last byte is transmitted. This last byte could be either
“checksum” or “ loaded data” depending upon the Tx Parity Enable state (Control
Register D1).
Bit Cleared:
(i). by a write to the Tx Data Buffer
(ii). by Tx Enable going Low
Interrupt Cleared:
(i). by a read of the Status Register
(ii). by Tx Enable going Low.
Bit 6
D6
Rx SYNC
Detect *
D6: when set, causes an interrupt to indicate that a 16-bit 'SYNC' word
(1100010011010111) has been detected in the received bit stream.
Set: on receipt of the 16th bit of a 'SYNC' word.
Bit and Interrupt Cleared:
(i). by a read of the Status Register
(ii). by Rx Enable going Low.
Bit 7
D7
Rx SYNT
Detect *
D7: when set, causes an interrupt to indicate that a 16-bit 'SYNT' word
(0011101100101000 ) has been detected in the received bit stream.
Set: on receipt of the 16th bit of a 'SYNT' word.
Bit and Interrupt Cleared:
(i). by a read of the Status Register
(ii). by Rx Enable going Low.
* SYNC and SYNT Detection is disabled while the checksum checker is running.
Table 6: Status Register
4.1.6
Rx Data Buffer (A1 = 1, A0 = 0, R/ W = 1, Read Only)
These 8 bits are the last byte of data received with bit 7 being received first. Note the relative positions of the
MSB and LSB presented in this bit stream, the position may be different to the convention used in other
µProcessor peripherals.
D0
LSB
4.1.7
D1
D2
D3
D4
D5
D6
D7
MSB
Tx Data Buffer (A1 = 1, A0 = 0, R/ W = 0, Write Only)
These 8 bits loaded to the Tx Data Buffer are the next byte of data that will be transmitted, with bit 7 being
transmitted first. Note the relative positions of the MSB and LSB presented in this bit stream, the position may
be different to the convention used in other µProcessor peripherals. If the Tx Parity Enable bit (Control
Register D1 ) is set, a 2–byte checksum will be inserted and transmitted by the modem after every 6
transmitted “message” bytes.
D0
LSB
© 1998 MX-COM Inc.
D1
D2
D3
D4
D5
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D6
D7
MSB
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1200/2400bps MSK Modem for Trunked Radio Systems
4.2
10
MX429A
Syndrome Word
This 16-bit word (both Low and High bytes) may be used to correct errors. Bits S1 to S15 are the 15 bits
remaining in the polynomial divider of the checksum checker at the end of 6 bytes of “ received message.”
For a correct message all 15 bits (S1 to S15) will be zero. The 2 Syndrome bytes are valid when the Rx Data
Ready bit (Status Register D0) is set for the second byte of the received checksum and should be read, if
required, before 8 byte periods.
4.2.1
Syndrome Low Byte (A1 = 0, A0 = 0, R/ W = 1, Read Only)
D0
S1
4.2.2
D1
S2
D2
S3
D3
S4
D4
S5
D5
S6
D6
S7
D7
S8
Syndrome High Byte (A1 = 0, A0 = 1, R/ W = 1, Read Only)
D0
S9
D1
S10
D2
S11
D3
S12
D4
S13
D5
S14
D6
S15
D7
Parity Error
D7: This is a “Parity Error Bit”. Indicating an error between the received parity bit and the parity bit internally
generated from the incoming message. Therefore a correctly received message all 16 bits of the Syndrome
Word
(S1 to S15 and Parity Error) will be zero.
4.3
Carrier Detect Time Constant
The value of the Carrier Detect capacitor, C5, determines the carrier detect time constant. A long time
constant (larger value C5) results in improved noise immunity but increased response time. C5 may be varied
to optimize noise immunity/response time.
1. With R2 = 1M and C5 = 1µF as external components for the carrier detect function at 1200 baud
only.
2. By using C5 = 0.1µF and removing R2 completely the MX429A will operate at both 1200 and 2400
baud rates.
2 x 10-2
10-2
Bit Error Rate
(Logarithmic Scale)
Ideal Coherent MSK
Characteristic
MX429A
Characteristic
10-3
10-4
8
6
4
3
2
10-5
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
Signal to Noise Ratio (dB) [Bit-Rate Bandwidth]
(Linear Scale)
Figure 4: Bit Error Rate vs. Signal to Noise Ratio
© 1998 MX-COM Inc.
www.mxcom.com Tel: 800 638-5577 336 744-5050
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Fax: 336 744-5054
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1200/2400bps MSK Modem for Trunked Radio Systems
11
MX429A
5 Application
5.1
Checksum Generation and Checking
Generation – The checksum generator takes the 48 bits from the 6 bytes loaded into the Tx Data Buffer and
divides them modulo–2, by the generating polynomial;X15 + X14 + X13 + X11 + X4 + X2 + 1
It then takes the 15-bit remainder from the polynomial divider, inverts the last bit and appends an EVEN parity
bit generated from the initial 48 bits and the 15 bit remainder (with the last bit inverted). This 16–bit word is
used as the "Checksum."
Checking – The checksum checker does two things:
It takes the first 63 bits of a received message, inverts bit 63, and divides them modulo–2, by the generating
polynomial;X15 + X14 + X13 + X11 + X4 + X2 + 1
The 15 bits remaining in the polynomial divider are checked for all zero. Secondly, it generates an EVEN
parity bit from the first 63 bits of a received message and compares this bit with the received parity bit (bit 64).
If the 15 bits in the polynomial divider are all zero, and the two parity bits are equal, then the Rx Checksum
True bit (SR D1) bit is set.
5.2
Receive Operation
MODE 1
Where SYNC/SYNT is required after every message
Rx ENABLE
Rx INPUT
SYNC
SYNC
A1
A2
A3
A4
A5
A6
C1
C2
SYNC
A1
A2
A3
A4
A5
A6
C1
C2
SYNC
A1
A2
A3
A4
A5
A6
C1
C2
SYNC
A1
A2
A3
A4
A5
A6
C1
C2
IRQ OUTPUT
READ STATUS
REGISTER
Rx DATA
READY
SYNC (SYNT)
DETECT
Rx CHECKSUM
TRUE
READ Rx
DATA BUFFER
Rx MESSAGE
FORMAT
MODE 2
Where additional data will follow the initial address data, indicated by the state of the Rx Message Format bit
{additional Data Words}
Rx INPUT
SYNC
SYNC
A1
A2
A3
A4
A5
A6
C1
C2
D1
D2
D3
D4
D5
D6
C1
C2
D1
IRQ OUTPUT
READ STATUS
REGISTER
Rx DATA
READY
SYNC (SYNT)
DETECT
Rx CHECKSUM
TRUE
READ Rx
DATA BUFFER
A1
A2
A3
A4
A5
A6
C1
C2
D1
D2
D2
D4
D5
D6
C1
C2
Rx MESSAGE
FORMAT
Rx Message Format is sampled at this point to decide,
(a) whether the message is complete or (b), more data follows
Note: A - Address, C - Checksum, D - Datacode
Figure 5: Receive Operation
© 1998 MX-COM Inc.
www.mxcom.com Tel: 800 638-5577 336 744-5050
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Fax: 336 744-5054
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1200/2400bps MSK Modem for Trunked Radio Systems
5.3
12
MX429A
Transmit Operation
(a) Tx - one message with checksum supplied by host
Tx ENABLE
(2)
Tx INPUT
P1
P2
Pn
S1
S2
A1
A2
A3
A4
A5
A6
C1
C2
H
(3)
C2
H
(3)
C1
C2
(1)
(2)
IRQ OUTPUT
Tx DATA
READY
WRITE TO Tx
DATA BUFFER
S1
A2
A1
S2
A4
A3
A5
A6
C1
C2
READ STATUS REGISTER
Tx PARITY
ENABLE
Tx IDLE
(b) Tx - one message with checksum generated internally
Tx ENABLE
(2)
Tx INPUT
P1
P2
S1
Pn
S2
A1
A2
A3
A4
A5
A6
C1
(1)
(2)
IRQ OUTPUT
Tx DATA
READY
WRITE TO Tx
DATA BUFFER
A5
A4
A3
A2
A1
S2
S1
A6
READ STATUS REGISTER
Tx PARITY
ENABLE
Tx IDLE
(c) Tx - more than one message, with checksum generated internally
Tx ENABLE
(2)
Tx INPUT
P1
P2
Pn
S1
S2
A1
A2
A3
A4
A5
A6
C1
C2
S1
S2
A1
A2
A3
A4
A5
A6
S1
IRQ OUTPUT
Tx DATA
READY
WRITE TO Tx
DATA BUFFER
S1
S2
A1
A2
A3
A4
A5
A6
S2
S1
A1
A2
A3
A4
A5
A6
S1
READ STATUS REGISTER
Tx PARITY
ENABLE
Tx Parity Enable is 'Low' - indicating that the
SYNC/SYNT word is not to be included in the
next checksum
A6
Notes:
A
C
D
H
P
S
(1)
(2)
(3)
-
Address Code
Checksum
Data Code
Hang Bit
Preamble
SYNC/SYNT
Tx Output at bias level
Tx Output at High Impedance
If Tx Data Ready is Set here, it inhibits Tx Data Ready
Interrupt - The Tx Idle Interrupt occurs 1 bit later
C1
C2
D1
D2
D3
D4
D5
D6
C1
C2 H
Tx INPUT
IRQ OUTPUT
Tx DATA
READY
D1
D2
D3
D4
D5
D6
WRITE TO Tx
DATA BUFFER
READ STATUS
REGISTER
Tx PARITY
ENABLE
Tx Parity Enable remains 'High' - indicating that
all following data is to be included in the checksum
Tx IDLE
Figure 6: Transmit Operation
© 1998 MX-COM Inc.
www.mxcom.com Tel: 800 638-5577 336 744-5050
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Fax: 336 744-5054
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1200/2400bps MSK Modem for Trunked Radio Systems
5.4
13
MX429A
Basic Power Up Software
Power Up
Set up a 1 byte variable - initialise to zero
(Rx Msg Length)
Set up an 8 byte buffer
start address - (Rx Buffer)
Set up a 1 byte variable - initialise to zero
(Tx Msg Sent)
Set up an 8 byte variable
start address - (Tx Buffer)
Write 04 to Control Register
- Wait at least 1 bit -
Write zeros to MX 429A Control
Register
Enable microprocessor interrupts
Transmit
Receive
or
Transmit?
Receive
Put message for transmission into
buffer [Tx Buffer]
Write to Control Register
Bit0 - Tx Enable = '1'
Bit1 - Tx Parity Enable = '0'
Write to Control Register
Bit2 - Rx Enable = '1'
Bit3 - Rx Message Format = '0'
Wait 1 byte
(Specification requires a minimum of
two bytes preamble)
Write [Tx Buffer{Ø}]
to
Tx Data Buffer
Return to Main Program
Figure 7: Basic Power-Up Software
© 1998 MX-COM Inc.
www.mxcom.com Tel: 800 638-5577 336 744-5050
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Fax: 336 744-5054
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1200/2400bps MSK Modem for Trunked Radio Systems
5.5
14
MX429A
Basic Software Interrupt Flow
Figure 8: Basic Software Interrupt Flow
© 1998 MX-COM Inc.
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1200/2400bps MSK Modem for Trunked Radio Systems
5.6
15
MX429A
Bus Interface Timing
It is very important that circuit designs conform to the bus interface timing specification as described in
Section 6.1.4. Failure to do so can result in intermittent operation that is difficult to troubleshoot.
For example, if the bus timing is incorrect, the required two step READ Rx data transaction (1: Read Status
Register, 2: Read Rx Data Buffer) may fail on step 2. As a result, the MX429A IRQ will not be reset and
subsequently expected IRQ’s will not occur. This symptom might be incorrectly interpreted as an MX429A
functional failure but is, in fact, caused by the circuit design’s bus interface timing violation.
Other examples can occur on WRITE transactions that fail to properly clear the IRQ and so prevent
subsequently expected IRQ’s from occurring.
Circuit designs should be careful to strictly conform to the tDHW specification, the Data Hold Time (Write), as
assumed requirements may be incorrect.
5.6.1
Bus interface design migration from MX429 to MX429A
The MX429A bus interface timing requirements precisely match those of its predecessor, the MX429. As a
result, properly designed and operated MX429 bus interface circuits are compatible with the MX429A device.
It should be noted that the MX429 and MX429A device may behave differently in those designs, which
violate the bus timing specification. However, this is caused by the timing violation rather than an
incompatibility between the two devices.
6 Performance Specification
6.1
Electrical Performance
6.1.1
Absolute Maximum Ratings
Exceeding these maximum ratings can result in damage to the device.
General
Notes
Min.
Typ.
Max.
Units
Supply (VDD-VSS)
-0.3
7.0
V
Voltage on any pin to VSS
-0.3
VDD + 0.3
V
VDD
-30
30
mA
VSS
-30
30
mA
Any other pin
-20
20
mA
800
mW
Current
J / P / LH Package
Total allowable Power Dissipation at TAMB = 25C
mW/C above C
10
Derating above 25C
Operating Temperature
-40
85
C
Storage Temperature
-55
125
C
6.1.2
Operating Limits
Correct operation of the device outside these limits is not implied.
Notes
Min.
Typ.
Max.
Units
Supply (VDD-VSS)
4.5
5.0
5.5
V
Operating Temperature
-40
85
C
Xtal Frequency
© 1998 MX-COM Inc.
4.032
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MHz
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1200/2400bps MSK Modem for Trunked Radio Systems
6.1.3
16
MX429A
Operating Characteristics
For the following conditions unless otherwise specified:
VDD = 5.0V, TAMB = 25C, Xtal/Clock f0 = 4.032MHz
Bit Rate Bandwidth = 1200Hz, Audio Level 0dB ref: = 300mVRMS
Static Values
Notes
Min.
Typ.
Max.
Units
7.0
mA
6.0
mA
7.0
mA
2.5
mA
Supply Current Ranges
Rx and Tx Enabled
Rx Enabled, Tx Disabled
4.0
Rx Disabled, Tx Enabled
Rx and Tx Disabled
1.5
Dynamic Values
Modem Internal Delay
1.5
ms
Interface Levels
Output Logic '1' Source Current
2
120
µA
Output Logic '0' Sink Current
3
360
µA
4.0
µA
Three State Output Leakage Current
1
D0 – D7 Data In/Out
Logic '1' Level
3.5
V
Logic '0' Level
1.5
V
4
A1, A0, R/W, STROBE, IRQ
Logic '1' Level
4.0
V
Logic '0' Level
1.0
V
Analog Impedance's
Rx Input
100
k
Tx Output (Enabled)
10
k
Tx Output (Disabled)
5.0
M
On-Chip Xtal Oscillator
RIN
10.0
ROUT
5
M
30.0
k
Oscillator Gain
25.0
dB
Xtal frequency
4.032
MHz
Receiver
Signal Input Levels
6
Bit Error Rate
7
–9.0
–2.0
10.5
dB
@ 12dB Signal/Noise Ratio
7.0
10–4
@ 20dB Signal/Noise Ratio
1.0
10–8
99.5
%
13.0
ms
Synchronization @ 12dB Signal/Noise Ratio
8
Probability of Bit 16 being correct
Carrier Detect Response Time
© 1998 MX-COM Inc.
8
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1200/2400bps MSK Modem for Trunked Radio Systems
17
Static Values
MX429A
Notes
Min.
Typ.
Max.
Units
Transmitter
Output Level
8.25
Output Level Variation
1.0
dB
Output Distortion
3.0
5.0
%
3rd Harmonic Distortion
2.0
3.0
%
Logic '1' Frequency
Logic '0' Frequency
10
-1.0
dB
1200 baud
9
1200
Hz
2400 baud
9
1200
Hz
1200 baud
9
1800
Hz
2400 baud
9
2400
Hz
Isochronous Distortion
1200Hz – 1800Hz/1200Hz - 2400Hz
25
40
µs
1800Hz – 1200Hz/2400Hz - 1200Hz
20
40
µs
Operating Characteristics Notes:
1. With each data line loaded as, C = 50pf and R = 10k.
2. VOUT = 4.6V.
3. VOUT = 0.4V
4. Sink/Source currents 0.1mA.
5. Both Xtal and Xtal 4 Outputs.
6. With 50dB Signal/Noise Ratio.
7. See Figure 4, Bit Error Rate.
8. This Response Time is measured using a 10101010101.... 01 pattern input signal at a level of
230mVRMS (-2.3dB) with no noise.
9. Dependent upon Xtal tolerance.
10. The amplitude difference between the Transmit Output signals (tones) representing a logic ‘0’ a
logic ‘1’.
© 1998 MX-COM Inc.
www.mxcom.com Tel: 800 638-5577 336 744-5050
4800 Bethania Station Road, Winston-Salem, NC 27105-1201 USA
Fax: 336 744-5054
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1200/2400bps MSK Modem for Trunked Radio Systems
6.1.4
18
MX429A
Timing
Timing see Figure 9
Max.
Units
135
ns
Access Time
(tAH)
Address Hold Time
0
ns
(tAS)
Address Set-up Time
0
ns
Data Hold Time (Write)
85
ns
(tDS)
Data Set-up Time (Write)
0
ns
(tOHR)
Output Hold Time (Read)
15
Strobe Time
140
(tST)
A1
Typ.
(tACS)
(tDHW)
A0
Min.
105
ns
ns
A2
tAS
tAH
STROBE
tOHR
tST
DATA OUT (READ)
VALID DATA
tDS
tACS
tDHW
DATA IN (WRITE)
VALID DATA
tACS - Access Time
tAS - Address Set-Up Time
tDS - Data Set-Up Time
tAH
tDHW
tOHR
tST
-
Address Hold Time
Data Hold Time (Write)
Output Hold Time (Read)
Strobe Time
Figure 9: Timing Diagram
6.2
Packaging
A
Package Tolerances
DIM.
B
E
E1
T
PIN1
K
K1 C
H
L
J
J1
P
A
B
C
E
E1
F
H
J
J1
K
K1
L
P
T
MIN.
TYP.
MAX.
1.260 (32.00)
1.240 (31.50)
0.583 (14.79)
0.514 (13.06)
0.165 (4.19)
0.230 (5.84)
0.600 (15.23)
0.670 (17.00)
0.594 (15.09)
0.615 (15.61)
1.100 (27.94)
0.02 (0.51)
0.018 (0.46)
0.055 (1.39)
0.050 (1.27)
0.080 (2.03)
0.074 (1.88)
0.080 (2.03)
0.115 (2.92)
0.200 (5.08)
0.10 (2.54)
0.0106 (0.269)
0.0094 (0.239)
NOTE : All dimensions in inches (mm.)
Angles are in degrees
F
Figure 10: 24-pin CDIP Mechanical Outline: order as part no. MX429AJ
© 1998 MX-COM Inc.
www.mxcom.com Tel: 800 638-5577 336 744-5050
4800 Bethania Station Road, Winston-Salem, NC 27105-1201 USA
Fax: 336 744-5054
Doc. # 20480128.007
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1200/2400bps MSK Modem for Trunked Radio Systems
19
MX429A
A
Package Tolerances
B
E
E1
Y
T
PIN1
K
H
L
C
J
J1
P
DIM.
A
B
C
E
E1
H
J
J1
K
L
P
T
Y
MIN.
TYP.
MAX.
1.270 (32.26)
1.200 (30.48)
0.555 (14.04)
0.500 (12.70)
0.151 (3.84)
0.220 (5.59)
0.600 (15.24)
0.670 (17.02)
0.590 (14.99)
0.625 (15.88)
0.015 (0.38)
0.045 (1.14)
0.015 (0.38)
0.023 (0.58)
0.040 (1.02)
0.065 (1.65)
0.066 (1.67)
0.074 (1.88)
0.121 (3.07)
0.160 (4.05)
0.100 (2.54)
0.008 (0.20)
0.015 (0.38)
7°
NOTE : All dimensions in inches (mm.)
Angles are in degrees
Figure 11: 24-pin PDIP Mechanical Outline: order as part no. MX429AP
E
B
C
Package Tolerances
K
DIM.
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
J
K
P
T
W
Y
Y
DA
W
J
W
T
PIN 1
H
P
G
MIN.
TYP.
MAX.
0.409 (10.40)
0.380 (9.61)
0.409 (10.40)
0.380 (9.61)
0.146 (3.70)
0.128 (3.25)
0.417 (10.60)
0.435 (11.05)
0.435 (11.05)
0.417 (10.60)
0.250 (6.35)
0.250 (6.35)
0.023 (0.58)
0.018 (0.45)
0.022 (0.55)
0.047 (1.19)
0.048 (1.22)
0.051 (1.30)
0.049 (1.24)
0.009 (0.22)
0.006 (0.152)
30°
45°
6°
NOTE : All dimensions in inches (mm.)
Angles are in degrees
F
Figure 12: 24-pin PLCC Mechanical Outline: order as part no. MX429ALH
© 1998 MX-COM Inc.
www.mxcom.com Tel: 800 638-5577 336 744-5050
4800 Bethania Station Road, Winston-Salem, NC 27105-1201 USA
Fax: 336 744-5054
Doc. # 20480128.007
All trademarks and service marks are held by their respective companies.
CML Microcircuits
COMMUNICATION SEMICONDUCTORS
CML Product Data
In the process of creating a more global image, the three standard product semiconductor
companies of CML Microsystems Plc (Consumer Microcircuits Limited (UK), MX-COM, Inc
(USA) and CML Microcircuits (Singapore) Pte Ltd) have undergone name changes and, whilst
maintaining their separate new names (CML Microcircuits (UK) Ltd, CML Microcircuits (USA)
Inc and CML Microcircuits (Singapore) Pte Ltd), now operate under the single title CML
Microcircuits.
These companies are all 100% owned operating companies of the CML Microsystems Plc
Group and these changes are purely changes of name and do not change any underlying legal
entities and hence will have no effect on any agreements or contacts currently in force.
CML Microcircuits Product Prefix Codes
Until the latter part of 1996, the differentiator between products manufactured and sold from
MXCOM, Inc. and Consumer Microcircuits Limited were denoted by the prefixes MX and FX
respectively. These products use the same silicon etc. and today still carry the same prefixes.
In the latter part of 1996, both companies adopted the common prefix: CMX.
This notification is relevant product information to which it is attached.
CML Microcircuits (USA) [formerly MX-COM, Inc.] Product Textual Marking
On CML Microcircuits (USA) products, the ‘MX-COM’ textual logo is being replaced by a ‘CML’
textual logo.
Company contact information is as below:
CML Microcircuits
(UK)Ltd
CML Microcircuits
(USA) Inc.
CML Microcircuits
(Singapore)PteLtd
COMMUNICATION SEMICONDUCTORS
COMMUNICATION SEMICONDUCTORS
COMMUNICATION SEMICONDUCTORS
Oval Park, Langford, Maldon,
Essex, CM9 6WG, England
Tel: +44 (0)1621 875500
Fax: +44 (0)1621 875600
[email protected]
www.cmlmicro.com
4800 Bethania Station Road,
Winston-Salem, NC 27105, USA
Tel: +1 336 744 5050,
0800 638 5577
Fax: +1 336 744 5054
us.sa[email protected]
www.cmlmicro.com
No 2 Kallang Pudding Road, 09-05/
06 Mactech Industrial Building,
Singapore 349307
Tel: +65 7450426
Fax: +65 7452917
[email protected]
www.cmlmicro.com
D/CML (D)/2 May 2002