ALD EHJ3C

ADVANCED
LINEAR
DEVICES, INC.
TM
e
®
EPAD
D
LE
AB
EN
EH4295
MICROPOWER STEP UP LOW VOLTAGE BOOSTER MODULE
GENERAL DESCRIPTION
FEATURES
The EH4295 Micropower Step Up Low Voltage Booster Module,
part of the EH4200 Series of Micropower Step Up Low Voltage
Boosters, is a self-powered voltage-booster module that converts
a low DC voltage input to a higher AC or DC voltage output suitable
for many low-power energy harvesting applications using photodiodes, thermoelectric or electromagnetic generators as the input
source. The EH4295 does not need a separate power supply to
operate and it derives its power directly from the low input voltage
source. The EH4200 Series draws input power levels starting at as
low as 2µW, which enables an on-board self-starting oscillator.
• Nominal input impedance of [email protected]=0.25V
• Small footprint and volume less than 1 cu. in.
• Simple and easy to use - just connect a 2-wire input source
and 2-wire output load
• Ready-to-Use out of the box, no circuit design required
• Direct interface to ALD's EH300/EH301 series of Energy
Harvesting Modules
• A range of models suitable for a variety of energy gener
ating sources
• Self-starting at both very low operating voltage and low
operating current levels
• Self-contained booster with all components on-board
• Built-in on-board miniature transformer for high-efficiency
energy conversion
• Unique custom on-board EPAD® MOSFET arrays
• Optional user-installed full wave rectifier on board to
produce DC voltages
• Compatible with a wide range of voltage sources and a
wide range of source impedances
• Adaptable for use with a broad range of applications
• No calibration or setup required
• Maintenance free operation
• Long operating life
• Virtually unlimited operating cycles
• Moisture and dust protection
• RoHS compliant
The EH4295 features nominal input impedance of 950Ω, making
it suitable for many different energy generating sources. The
EH4200 Series is part of a growing family of Micro-power Low
Voltage Booster Modules, Energy Harvesting Modules and Energy Harvesting Integrated Circuits.
The EH4295 is designed primarily for driving loads such as the
ALD EH300/EH301 Series Energy Harvesting Modules. The AC
outputs of the EH4295 are connected directly to the input terminals
of the EH300/EH301 Series Energy Harvesting Modules with a
two-wire cable. They can also be used for trickle-charge applications such as battery charger or super-cap charger, including
situations where the energy input is not well controlled or regulated. For certain applications, the EH4295 can also be used
without the EH300/EH301 Series Energy Harvesting Modules.
The EH4295 self-starting oscillator oscillates at a natural frequency of about 400Hz, which depends on the source impedance,
the source voltage, the loading at the output and the resonating
components on board the EH4295. The oscillator waveform is
coupled to a transformer inside the module that provides an AC
output signal that is limited in amplitude by the output loading. A
typical output loading is a full wave rectifier that can handle AC
inputs over 20V and input power as limited by the output of the
EH4295.
For many energy-harvesting applications, the EH4295, combined
with EH300 Series Energy Harvesting Modules, offers a simple
and efficient solution when used with a low-voltage low-energy
generating source that only delivers sporadic intermittent amounts
of input power. The combined EH4295 and EH300 Series Modules
can ramp from zero output power to useable levels for operating
ORDERING INFORMATION
Part Number
Description
EH4295
Micropower Step Up Low Voltage Booster
Module, 950Ω Input
EHJ3C
EHJ4C
6 in. Input Cable for EH4200 Series Modules
6 in. Output Cable for EH4200 Series Modules
with connector to the EH300/EH301
6 in. Output Cable for EH4200 Series Modules
EHJ5C
APPLICATIONS
• Charge EH300/EH301/EH300A/EH301A series
EH Modules from low voltage sources
• Energy Harvesting from low-voltage micro-power
energy-generating sources
• Direct or Indirect remote-node power supplies for
Wireless Sensor Networks
• Low duty-cycle metering, control and sensing networks
• Energy capture from Intermittent energy sources
• Trickle-charger for Standby backup power such as
battery-packs or super-capacitor networks
• Backup power for switching between different power
sources
• Industrial and Business systems with always-charged
temporary backup power supplies
• Micro-power Self-boosting oscillator
• Low DC Voltage Booster to supply operating voltage
for another Step-up DC-DC converter
• Extreme life-span power sources
• EH energy capture, storage, and power management
from mechanical, thermal, chemical, solar, biological,
and human body sources
• EH based battery substitution and/or remote battery
charging systems
• Hybrid or alternative power source conditioning
• Condition-based monitoring systems
• Self-powered remote control switching systems
• Hybrid power (dual power) systems with extended
operating lives
• System power reliability enhancement
• Intermittent duty cycle remote site applications
Rev 2.1 ©2012 Advanced Linear Devices, Inc. 415 Tasman Drive, Sunnyvale, CA 94089-1706 Tel: (408) 747-1155 Fax: (408) 747-1286
www.aldinc.com
many remote sensor networks and circuits requiring DC supply
voltages in the 1.8V to 6.8V range. The boosted AC or DC output
voltage levels can also be used to generate a reference DC output
to drive or to initiate other electronic circuits such as external Power
Step-up DC-DC converters requiring DC supply voltages over
1.0V in order to operate.
ENERGY HARVESTING APPLICATIONS
Featuring micro-power and highly efficient operation, the EH4295
is well suited for many EH applications that operate on low-voltage
power supply or battery sources at low power levels. The EH4295
is designed to accommodate a voltage input source that changes
in voltage and internal impedance similar to that of an EH energy
generator source, such as a single-cell photovoltaic cell or a low
voltage thermoelectric generator (TEG).
When input energy to an EH energy-generator source is at zero, a
typical DC output of the energy generator source is at a voltage that
corresponds to a zero energy output state. The corresponding
output power of the energy-generator source is also at zero. As
external energy builds up at the energy-generator source, the DC
voltage at its output starts to rise from its previous state, its internal
impedance changes, and it starts to output current as well. When
coupled to the EH4295, the energy-generator source internal
impedance and the EH4295 input impedance form a network
where the energy-generator source starts to deliver power to the
EH4295. As soon as the internal oscillation threshold power level
is reached, oscillation begins, and energy transfer is initiated.
Typically this power level is less than 5µW for the EH4295, and
varies across different models and units. Hence the EH4295 is
excellent for high efficiency, low power applications where the
minimum operating power range are very low, and where otherwise wasted energy cannot be captured and stored in a battery
pack or capacitor storage bank using other means.
As input energy builds up at the energy-generator source, the
amount of power transferred also changes accordingly. The maximum power rating of the EH4295 limits its power handling capability, but it does allow an external secondary DC-DC converter to
take over at some higher power point. The AC output generated by
the on-board oscillator enables the EH4295 to support other
switching circuits to convert at a higher voltage and power level.
FUNCTIONAL DESCRIPTION
The EH4295 Micropower Step Up Low Voltage Booster Module is
a simple but sophisticated development that thrives on ultra low
power operation as well as ultra low voltage operation. At its core
is an ALD EPAD® MOSFET array that is designed and developed
for this application. An on-board transformer that couples to a
dedicated EPAD MOSFET Array forms the heart of the self-starting
oscillation circuit.
An input decoupling capacitor integrates and filters the input signal
to drive the transformer primary winding core. An input ground
voltage also turns on an EPAD MOSFET Array through the
connection of a resistor to its Gate Input. A current flows through
the primary winding of the transformer, coupling and developing a
corresponding current in the secondary winding. Upon being
energized, a voltage develops across the secondary winding of the
transformer. A small coupling resistor-capacitor network then
provides negative feedback from the secondary winding to drive
the EPAD MOSFET to an 'off' state. This RC network then charges
the gate voltage of the EPAD MOSFET until it is again in an 'on'
state. Once the EPAD MOSFET is turned on again, the cycle
repeats itself and the circuit oscillates at a frequency that is
determined by the source generator impedance characteristics,
the output loading characteristics, the parameters of the RC
network, the characteristics of the EPAD MOSFET array and that
of the transformer. This 'natural' frequency also varies with varying
input source impedance and the input voltages at the source as
well as the changing output characteristics of the output loading.
The EH4295 module is self-starting, and begins operating as soon
as enough energy is available for the oscillator to start oscillating.
This minimum self-starting energy level may vary slightly from unit
to unit. However, it starts boosting voltages at such a low energy
level that it generally can capture very low levels of energy spurts
before many other industry low-voltage booster modules would
begin to function. For select members of the EH4200 MLVB Series
of Modules, the oscillator can initiate oscillation at less than 1uW
average input power.
The EH4295 primary output is an AC output, which delivers the
output waveforms of the oscillator. This AC output can be connected directly to the inputs of an EH300 Series Energy Harvesting
Module through a 2-wire connection.
While the primary intent of the EH4295 is to charge ALD's EH300/
EH301 Energy Harvesting Modules, an optional bridge rectifier can
be added on the pcb of the module by the user to produce a fullwave rectified DC output. The output of the full-wave rectifier can
be used to drive an output DC load and can be useful as a trickle
charger for rechargeable batteries or super-cap capacitor banks.
This DC output can also be used to power an electronic circuit
directly, which requires that a compatible current consumption be
designed for the electronic circuit.
OPTIONAL PARTS LIST
• Full wave rectifier - MBS Series
• Socket Adapter:
Hirose DF13-2S
Hirose DF13-4S
EH4295
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ABSOLUTE MAXIMUM and MINIMUM RATINGS
Max. input voltage
Max. input current
Max. input power
Operating temperature range
Max. output voltage
+4V
50mA
250 mW
0°C to +70°C
+12V
CAUTION: ESD Sensitive Device. Use static control procedures in ESD controlled environment.
OPERATING ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS
TA = 25oC VIN = 0.25V unless otherwise specified
EH4295
Parameter
Symbol
Min
Typ
Max
Unit
Test Conditions
Input Power
PIN
65
µW
Input Impedance
RIN
950
Ω
Min. Startup Input Voltage
VINS
60
mV
VOUT = 4.0V
Min. Operating Input Voltage
VINMIN
60
mV
VOUT = 4.0V
Input Current
IIN
260
µA
Power Efficiency
η
48
%
Output Voltage (peak to peak)
VOUT
12
Min. Output Voltage
VOUTMIN
Min. Operating Input Power
PINMIN
2
Max. Input Voltage
VINMAX
3
Max. Input Current
IINMAX
15
Max. Input Power
PINMAX
Max. Power Efficiency
ηMAX
Operating Tempurature
DC-DC Voltage Gain
EH4295
VOUT
VIN
V
6.0
V
µW
4
60
V
mW
%
70
VIN = 0.75V
C
o
400
Hz
90
V/V
Advanced Linear Devices
VIN = 0.06V
mA
250
0
Oscillator Frequency
15
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ENVIRONMENTAL SPECIFICATIONS
MECHANICAL SPECIFICATIONS
•
•
•
•
•
• Outline Dimensions:
W x L x H: 1.00 in. x 1.50 in. x 0.60 in.
2.54 cm. x 3.81 cm. x 1.52 cm.
• 4 Mounting Holes: 0.085 in. diameter
• Weight: 0.35 ounce (10 grams) nominal
Leadfree (ROHS) compliant
Operating Temperature Range: 0 to 70° C
Storage Temperature: -40 to +85° C
Humidity: To 90% (no condensation)
Protection: Conformal and Epoxy coated
EH4295 MODULE DIMENSIONS
TYPICAL CABLE CONNECTIONS
BLACK
RED
J4
4
3
2
1
1
2
J1
OUTPUT CABLE
EHJ4C
BROWN
BROWN
1000
INPUT CABLE
EHJ3C
1
TO
2 EH300/301
1500 mil
EH4295 MODULE TOP VIEW
INPUT CABLE
EHJ3C
BLACK
RED
J4
OUTPUT CABLE
EHJ5C
1
2
J1
J4
BLACK
BROWN
BROWN
RED
4
3
2
1
GND
VIN
4
3
2
1
1
2
J1
GND
AC
AC
V+
Notes: J1 pin 1: Ground, J1 pin 2: Positive Input VIN
J4 pins 2/3: Standard AC Output
J4 pins 1/4: DC Output when optional full wave rectifier
is installed by user.
EH4295 CONNECTION TO EH300/301
EH4200 MODULE
DC
LOW
VOLTAGE
ENERGY
SOURCE
_
+
CABLE:
EHJ3C
EH4295
J4
1
2
J1
4
3
2
1
EH300/EH301 MODULE
CABLE:
EHJ4C
J1
1
2
J2
1
2
3
4
DC
VOLTMETER
CABLE:
EHJ2C
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TYPICAL PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS
INPUT POWER AS A FUNCTION
OF INPUT VOLTAGE
INPUT POWER AS A FUNCTION
OF INPUT VOLTAGE
5.0
1.0
VOUT CONNECTED TO EH301
INPUT POWER (mW)
INPUT POWER (mW)
VOUT CONNECTED TO EH301
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
4.0
3.0
2.0
1.0
0
0
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.0
0
2.5
2.5
INPUT CURRENT (mA)
VOUT CONNECTED TO EH301
0.8
0.6
0.4
VOUT CONNECTED TO EH301
2.0
1.5
1.0
0.5
0
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
0
1.0
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
2.5
INPUT VOLTAGE (V)
INPUT VOLTAGE (V)
POWER EFFICIENCY AS A FUNCTION
OF INPUT VOLTAGE
INPUT IMPEDANCE AS A FUNCTION
OF INPUT VOLTAGE
60
POWER EFFICIENCY (%)
1200
INPUT IMPEDANCE (Ω)
2.0
INPUT CURRENT AS A FUNCTION
OF INPUT VOLTAGE
0
1000
800
600
400
VOUT CONNECTED TO EH301
50
40
30
20
VOUT CONNECTED TO EH301
200
10
0
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
2.5
0
0.5
INPUT VOLTAGE (V)
1.0
1.5
2.0
2.5
INPUT VOLTAGE (V)
OUTPUT POWER AS A FUNCTION
OF INPUT POWER
OUTPUT POWER AS A FUNCTION
OF INPUT POWER
0.25
5
VOUT CONNECTED TO EH301
VOUT CONNECTED TO EH301
OUTPUT POWER (mW)
OUTPUT POWER (mW)
1.5
INPUT CURRENT AS A FUNCTION
OF INPUT VOLTAGE
0.2
0.20
0.15
0.10
0.05
4
3
2
1
0
0
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0
2
4
6
8
10
INPUT POWER (mW)
INPUT POWER (mW)
EH4295
1.0
INPUT VOLTAGE (V)
1.0
INPUT CURRENT (mA)
0.5
INPUT VOLTAGE (V)
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