TI TMS320AV7110

DSP
Revision 3.1
TMS320AV7110
Integrated Digital Set-top Box Decoder
Functional Specification
Last update: 07/06/98
Revision 3.1
DSP
TMS320AV7110
Revision 3.1
Table of Contents
1.
INTRODUCTION................................................................................................................................. 7
1.1
2.
PIN FUNCTIONS ................................................................................................................................. 8
2.1
3.
FEATURES ........................................................................................................................................ 7
PIN TYPES ...................................................................................................................................... 11
ARCHITECTURE .............................................................................................................................. 12
3.1
FUNCTIONAL BLOCK DIAGRAM...................................................................................................... 12
3.2
OVERVIEW ..................................................................................................................................... 12
3.2.1
Transport bit-stream processing ........................................................................................... 14
3.2.2
Audio and Video data processing ......................................................................................... 14
3.3
SOFTWARE SYSTEM OVERVIEW ..................................................................................................... 14
4.
ARM CPU............................................................................................................................................ 16
4.1
4.2
4.3
5.
FEATURES ...................................................................................................................................... 16
BLOCK DIAGRAM ........................................................................................................................... 16
RESOURCE MANAGEMENT.............................................................................................................. 17
TRAFFIC CONTROLLER (TC) ...................................................................................................... 18
5.1
FEATURES ...................................................................................................................................... 18
5.2
SDRAM INTERFACE ...................................................................................................................... 19
5.3
PRIORITIZED INTERRUPTS .............................................................................................................. 23
5.4
MANAGING DMA TRANSFER ......................................................................................................... 23
5.5
VIDEO/AUDIO BUFFER MONITORING SUPPORT............................................................................... 23
5.6
TRANSFER OF VIDEO/AUDIO DATA FROM THE HIGH SPEED DATA INTERFACE (HSDI) TO
SDRAM .................................................................................................................................................... 24
6.
MPEG TRANSPORT DECODER (TPP) ......................................................................................... 25
6.1
THE TPP MODULE ......................................................................................................................... 25
6.1.1
Features ................................................................................................................................ 25
6.1.2
Description............................................................................................................................ 25
6.1.3
Conditional access and Descrambling processing ............................................................... 26
6.1.4
Transport Parser Input Interface .......................................................................................... 26
6.2
HARDWARE SECTION FILTERING .................................................................................................... 27
6.2.1
Memory Map ......................................................................................................................... 28
6.2.2
Filter hardware definition..................................................................................................... 28
6.2.3
Filter Match Data Register definition ................................................................................... 29
6.2.4
Match Result Register Definition .......................................................................................... 30
6.2.5
Status Register Word Definition............................................................................................ 30
6.2.6
Filter Reset Control Register ................................................................................................ 31
6.2.7
Typical software process flow ............................................................................................... 31
6.2.8
CPU load assessment............................................................................................................ 32
6.3
HARDWARE CRC CIRCUIT ............................................................................................................. 33
7.
VIDEO DECODER............................................................................................................................. 34
7.1
FEATURES ...................................................................................................................................... 34
7.2
DESCRIPTION ................................................................................................................................. 34
7.3
TRICK MODE.................................................................................................................................. 35
7.4
HIGH-LEVEL COMMANDS .............................................................................................................. 35
7.5
VIDEO DECIMATION AND SCALING ................................................................................................ 35
7.6
FREE-RUN AND VBV-BASED DISPLAY SYNCHRONIZATION ............................................................ 37
7.7
MEMORY USAGE REDUCTION ........................................................................................................ 38
7.7.1
Vsync Reset ........................................................................................................................... 38
7.7.2
Split Video Input Buffer......................................................................................................... 39
7.8
CONFIGURATION OF THE VIDEO DECODER ..................................................................................... 39
7.8.1
Configuration of video display format ................................................................................. 39
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TMS320AV7110
7.8.2
7.8.3
7.8.4
8.
Revision 3.1
True Size Display Mode ........................................................................................................ 39
Video display synchronization mode..................................................................................... 40
Vsync reset and split VBV buffer........................................................................................... 40
OSD & GRAPHICS ACCELERATION........................................................................................... 41
8.1
OSD .............................................................................................................................................. 41
8.1.1
Description............................................................................................................................ 41
8.1.2
OSD data storage.................................................................................................................. 42
8.2
SETTING UP AN OSD WINDOW ...................................................................................................... 42
8.2.1
CAM Memory........................................................................................................................ 42
8.2.2
Window Attribute Memory .................................................................................................... 43
8.2.3
Color Look Up Table ............................................................................................................ 43
8.2.4
Blending and Transparency .................................................................................................. 43
8.2.5
Hardware Cursor .................................................................................................................. 45
8.2.6
Output Channels ................................................................................................................... 45
8.3
THE BITBLT HARDWARE............................................................................................................... 46
8.3.1
Sources and Destinations...................................................................................................... 47
8.3.2
Source and Destination Window Formats ............................................................................ 47
8.3.3
Transparency ........................................................................................................................ 47
9.
VIDEO OUTPUT INTERFACES ..................................................................................................... 48
9.1
ANALOG VIDEO OUTPUT - NTSC/PAL ENCODER MODULE ........................................................... 48
9.2
TELETEXT AND WIDE SCREEN SIGNALING (WSS) INSERTION (PAL MODE ONLY)......................... 48
9.2.1
Teletext insertion into PAL CVBS ......................................................................................... 48
9.2.2
WSS insertion into CVBS ...................................................................................................... 49
9.2.3
Insertion mode ...................................................................................................................... 49
9.3
CLOSED CAPTION, EXTENDED DATA SERVICES, AND VIDEO ASPECT RATIO IDENTIFICATION
SIGNAL INSERTION (NTSC MODE ONLY) ................................................................................................... 49
9.4
DIGITAL VIDEO OUTPUT ................................................................................................................ 50
9.4.1
PAL Mode Digital Video Output........................................................................................... 50
9.4.2
NTSC Mode Digital Video Output ........................................................................................ 50
10.
AUDIO DECODER ........................................................................................................................ 52
10.1 FEATURES ...................................................................................................................................... 52
10.2 PCM AUDIO OUTPUT..................................................................................................................... 53
10.2.1 Using an External Audio PLL ............................................................................................... 55
10.3 PCM BYPASS................................................................................................................................. 55
10.4 ELEMENTARY STREAM PLAYBACK ................................................................................................ 56
10.5 SPDIF AUDIO OUTPUT .................................................................................................................. 56
11.
11.1
11.2
11.3
11.4
11.5
11.6
12.
12.1
12.2
12.3
12.4
12.5
12.6
13.
SYNCHRONIZATION................................................................................................................... 57
SYSTEM TIME CLOCK .................................................................................................................... 57
STARTUP SYNCHRONIZATION ......................................................................................................... 57
RUNTIME SYNCHRONIZATION ........................................................................................................ 57
AUDIO SYNCHRONIZATION............................................................................................................. 58
VIDEO SYNCHRONIZATION ............................................................................................................. 58
AUDIO-VIDEO SYNCHRONIZATION (LIP-SYNC)................................................................................ 59
EXTENSION BUS INTERFACE (EBI)........................................................................................ 60
ADDRESS RANGE AND WAIT STATE OF CHIP SELECT ..................................................................... 60
EBI READ AND WRITE CYCLES ..................................................................................................... 61
INTERRUPTS ................................................................................................................................... 61
THE EXTWAIT SIGNAL ................................................................................................................ 62
THE EXTENSION BUS DRAM......................................................................................................... 62
BYTE ORDERING ON THE EXTENSION BUS ..................................................................................... 63
HIGH SPEED DATA INTERFACE (HSDI) ................................................................................ 65
13.1 IEEE 1394 INTERFACE .................................................................................................................. 66
13.1.1 The ‘AV7110 reads data from the MPEG2Lynx ................................................................... 67
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13.1.2 The ‘AV7110 writes data to the MPEG2Lynx....................................................................... 68
13.1.3 The ‘AV7110 Internal Data Path for 1394 ........................................................................... 68
13.2 EXTERNAL DMA INTERFACE......................................................................................................... 70
13.3 IEEE 1284 INTERFACE .................................................................................................................. 72
13.4 COMBINING THE 1394, 1284 AND EXTERNAL CONTROLLER INTERFACES ...................................... 73
14.
14.1
14.2
14.3
14.4
14.5
14.6
14.7
14.8
15.
15.1
15.2
16.
16.1
16.2
16.3
16.4
16.5
16.6
16.7
16.8
17.
COMMUNICATION PROCESSOR............................................................................................. 75
FEATURES ...................................................................................................................................... 75
SMART CARD INTERFACE .............................................................................................................. 75
TIMERS .......................................................................................................................................... 77
UARTS .......................................................................................................................................... 78
IR INPUT PORT .............................................................................................................................. 78
IR OUTPUT PORT ............................................................................................................................ 79
GENERAL PURPOSE I/OS ................................................................................................................ 80
I2C INTERFACE .............................................................................................................................. 81
DEVICE CONTROL INTERFACES............................................................................................ 82
RESET ............................................................................................................................................ 82
JTAG PINS .................................................................................................................................... 82
REGISTER MAPS.......................................................................................................................... 83
NTSC/PAL REGISTERS - BASE ADDRESS 0X72000000................................................................. 83
BITBLT REGISTERS - BASE ADDRESS 0X70000000....................................................................... 85
CCP REGISTERS - BASE ADDRESS 0X6E000000............................................................................ 86
AUDIO DECODER REGISTERS - BASE ADDRESS 0X6C000000 ........................................................ 94
VIDEO DECODER REGISTERS - BASE ADDRESS 0X6A000000 ........................................................ 96
OSD REGISTERS - BASE ADDRESS 0X68000000............................................................................ 99
TC REGISTERS - BASE ADDRESS 0X66000000............................................................................. 101
TPP REGISTERS - BASE ADDRESS 0X64000000........................................................................... 105
TIMING DIAGRAMS AND DC PARAMETERS ..................................................................... 108
17.1 DRAM INTERFACE TIMING ......................................................................................................... 109
17.2 EBI INTERFACE TIMING ............................................................................................................... 111
17.3 SDRAM INTERFACE TIMING ....................................................................................................... 115
17.4 VIDEO OUTPUT TIMINGS .............................................................................................................. 121
17.5 HSDI TIMING DIAGRAMS ............................................................................................................ 123
17.6 EXTERNAL DMA ......................................................................................................................... 125
17.7 INPUT STREAM TIMING ................................................................................................................ 127
17.8 DC CHARACTERISTICS ................................................................................................................. 128
17.9 SDRAM MEMORY MAP FOR FIRST SILICON FIRMWARE .............................................................. 129
17.9.1 PAL mode Memory Map ..................................................................................................... 129
17.9.2 NTSC mode Memory Map ................................................................................................... 130
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TMS320AV7110
Revision 3.1
List of Tables
TABLE 1. THE ‘AV7110 PINS.......................................................................................................................... 8
TABLE 2. SDRAM SELECTION REQUIREMENTS ............................................................................................. 19
TABLE 3. DECODED BITSTREAM INFORMATION ............................................................................................. 21
TABLE 4. ERROR STATISTICS AND MONITOR INFORMATION .......................................................................... 22
TABLE 5. FLAGS AND COMMANDS ................................................................................................................. 22
TABLE 6. GPDMA SOURCES AND DESTINATIONS ........................................................................................ 23
TABLE 7. TRANSPORT PACKET INPUT INTERFACE PIN DESCRIPTION .............................................................. 27
TABLE 8. SUPPORTED VIDEO RESOLUTIONS FOR AUTOMATIC UP-SAMPLING ............................................... 34
TABLE 9. VIDEO DECODER COMMANDS ....................................................................................................... 35
TABLE 10. SCALING FACTORS FOR 4:3 MONITOR FOR PAL FORMAT. ........................................................... 37
TABLE 11. SCALING FACTORS FOR 16:9 MONITOR FOR PAL FORMAT. ......................................................... 37
TABLE 12. SCALING FACTORS FOR 4:3 MONITOR FOR NTSC FORMAT.......................................................... 37
TABLE 13. SCALING FACTORS FOR 16:9 MONITOR FOR NTSC FORMAT........................................................ 37
TABLE 14. THE ‘AV7110 MEMORY USAGE ................................................................................................. 38
TABLE 15. STORAGE OF B FRAMES ............................................................................................................... 38
TABLE 16. TARGET OSD MEMORY SPACE IN SDRAM (IN BYTES).............................................................. 39
TABLE 17. SDRAM OSD WINDOW SIZE...................................................................................................... 42
TABLE 18. BLENDING LEVELS ...................................................................................................................... 44
TABLE 19. BLENDING AND TRANSPARENCY .................................................................................................. 44
TABLE 20. OSD MODULE OUTPUT CHANNEL CONTROL .............................................................................. 46
TABLE 21. SOURCE AND DESTINATION MEMORIES FOR BITBLT .................................................................. 47
TABLE 22. ALLOWABLE BITBLT WINDOW FORMATS .................................................................................. 47
TABLE 23. MULTIPLEXED VIDEO OUTPUT DEFINITIONS ............................................................................... 48
TABLE 24. DIGITAL OUTPUT CONTROL ......................................................................................................... 51
TABLE 25. VARIS CODE SPECIFICATION...................................................................................................... 51
TABLE 26. THREE BYTE VARIS CODE......................................................................................................... 51
TABLE 27. CODING OF ASPECT RATIO IN THE VARIS CODE......................................................................... 51
TABLE 28. AUDIO MODULE REGISTERS ........................................................................................................ 52
TABLE 29. PCMCLK FREQUENCIES ............................................................................................................. 55
TABLE 30. SYSTEM TIME CLOCK MODEL ....................................................................................................... 57
TABLE 31. EXTENSION BUS CHIP SELECT ASSIGNMENTS .............................................................................. 61
TABLE 32. HIGH SPEED DATA INTERFACE SIGNAL PIN ASSIGNMENT .......................................................... 65
TABLE 33. TYPES OF DMA TRANSFERS ALLOWED FOR DATA PORTS ......................................................... 65
TABLE 34. 1394 INTERFACE SIGNALS ........................................................................................................... 67
TABLE 35. 1394 CONTROL LINES DESCRIPTION ........................................................................................... 67
TABLE 36. EXTERNAL DMA INTERFACE SIGNALS ........................................................................................ 70
TABLE 37. EDMA REGISTER DEFINITION ..................................................................................................... 71
TABLE 38. IEEE 1284 INTERFACE SIGNALS ................................................................................................. 73
TABLE 39. SMART CARD PIN DESCRIPTION .................................................................................................. 75
TABLE 40. GROUP 1 F VALUES ................................................................................................................... 76
TABLE 41. GROUP 2 F VALUES ................................................................................................................... 76
TABLE 42. TIMER CONTROL AND STATUS REGISTERS .................................................................................. 77
TABLE 43. I/O CONTROL/STATUS REGISTERS, IOCSRN ............................................................................... 81
TABLE 44. GPIO_IRQ BIT DEFINITIONS ...................................................................................................... 81
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TMS320AV7110
Revision 3.1
List of Figures
FIGURE 1. THE ‘AV7110 BLOCK DIAGRAM .................................................................................................. 12
FIGURE 2. THE ‘AV7110 MEMORY MAP ...................................................................................................... 13
FIGURE 3. SOFTWARE BLOCK DIAGRAM ........................................................................................................ 15
FIGURE 4. ARM CORE DATA PATH .............................................................................................................. 17
FIGURE 5. TRAFFIC CONTROLLER DATA FLOW ............................................................................................. 18
FIGURE 6. DEFAULT MEMORY ALLOCATION OF SDRAM (NTSC) ............................................................... 20
FIGURE 7. DEFAULT MEMORY ALLOCATION OF SDRAM (PAL).................................................................. 21
FIGURE 8. EXAMPLE CIRCUIT FOR 27 MHZ CLOCK GENERATION ................................................................. 26
FIGURE 9. FEC INPUT INTERFACE TO TPP TIMING ....................................................................................... 27
FIGURE 10: HARDWARE FILTER LAYOUT ........................................................................................................ 28
FIGURE 11. DISPLAY FORMATS FOR THE ‘AV7110 ....................................................................................... 36
FIGURE 12. OSD MODULE BLOCK DIAGRAM ............................................................................................... 42
FIGURE 13. USING THE OSD_ACTIVE SIGNAL FOR EXTERNAL ANALOG VIDEO ......................................... 45
FIGURE 14. OSD OUTPUT CHANNELS MATRIX ............................................................................................. 46
FIGURE 15. EXTERNAL INSERTION OF TELETEXT SIGNAL .............................................................................. 49
FIGURE 16. DIGITAL VIDEO OUTPUT TIMING ................................................................................................. 50
FIGURE 17. PCM OUTPUT TIMING (16-BIT PCM FORMAT)........................................................................... 54
FIGURE 18. PTS TRACKING DIAGRAM ........................................................................................................... 58
FIGURE 19. EXAMPLES OF DRAM CONNECTIONS TO 16-BIT AND 32-BIT EXTENSION BUSSES ....................... 63
FIGURE 20. BYTE ORDERING ON THE EXTENSION BUS .................................................................................. 64
FIGURE 21. FUNCTIONAL BLOCK DIAGRAM OF HIGH SPEED DATA INTERFACE ............................................ 66
FIGURE 22. 1394 INTERFACE ........................................................................................................................ 66
FIGURE 23. 1394 INTERFACE READ SEQUENCE ............................................................................................ 68
FIGURE 24. 1394 INTERFACE WRITE SEQUENCE........................................................................................... 68
FIGURE 25. 1394 DATA FLOW BLOCK DIAGRAM .......................................................................................... 69
FIGURE 26. INTERFACING THE ‘AV7110 TO A SCSI CHIP ............................................................................. 70
FIGURE 27. PROGRAMMABLE DELAY FOR REGISTER ACCESSES ON THE EDMA PORT ................................. 71
FIGURE 28. PROGRAMMABLE DELAY FOR DMA ACCESSES ON THE EDMA PORT ........................................ 72
FIGURE 29. INTERFACING THE ‘AV7110 TO AN IEEE-1284 BUS ................................................................... 72
FIGURE 30. COMBINED MPEG2LYNX, 1284 AND SCSI CONTROLLER .......................................................... 74
FIGURE 31. THE ‘AV7110’S INTERFACE TO TWO SMART CARDS ................................................................ 76
FIGURE 32. READ ACCESS FROM DRAM..................................................................................................... 109
FIGURE 33. WRITE ACCESS FROM DRAM ................................................................................................... 109
FIGURE 34. READ-MODIFY-WRITE ACCESS FOR 32 BIT DRAM .................................................................. 110
FIGURE 35. READ-MODIFY-WRITE ACCESS FOR 32 BIT DRAM .................................................................. 110
FIGURE 36. CAS BEFORE RAS DRAM REFRESH TIMING ........................................................................... 111
FIGURE 37. EXTENSION BUS SINGLE ACCESS READ TIMING (4 WAIT STATES)........................................... 111
FIGURE 38. EXTENSION BUS WRITE TIMING (4 WAIT STATES)................................................................... 112
FIGURE 39. EXTENSION BUS TIMING FOR MULTI-ACCESS MODE (3 WAIT STATES) .................................... 112
FIGURE 40. READ WITH EXTWAIT ACTIVE ................................................................................................ 113
FIGURE 41. WRITE WITH EXTWAIT ACTIVE .............................................................................................. 114
FIGURE 42. SDRAM READ CYCLE ............................................................................................................. 115
FIGURE 43. SDRAM WRITE CYCLE ........................................................................................................... 116
FIGURE 44. SDRAM MULTI READ CYCLE.................................................................................................. 117
FIGURE 45. SDRAM MULTI WRITE CYCLE ................................................................................................ 118
FIGURE 46. SUCCESSIVE SDRAM OPERATIONS ......................................................................................... 119
FIGURE 47. VARIS CODE OUTPUT TIMING ................................................................................................ 121
FIGURE 48. DIGITAL VIDEO OUTPUT TIMING ............................................................................................... 122
FIGURE 49. 1394 READ CYCLE TIMING ...................................................................................................... 123
FIGURE 50. 1394 WRITE CYCLE TIMING ...................................................................................................... 124
FIGURE 51. EXTERNAL DMA CYCLE TIMING .............................................................................................. 125
FIGURE 52. EXTERNAL DMA “REGISTER ACCESS” TIMING ........................................................................ 126
FIGURE 53. INPUT INTERFACE TIMINGS ...................................................................................................... 127
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TMS320AV7110
Revision 3.1
1. Introduction
The TMS320AV7110 Integrated Set-top Box Decoder is the major component of a Digital Video
Broadcast (DVB) Settop Box. It incorporates: an ARM CPU and a transport packet parser (TPP) with
an integrated European Common Descrambler (ECD), an MPEG-2 video decoder, an MPEG-1 audio
decoder, an NTSC/ PAL video encoder, an on screen display (OSD) controller to mix graphics and
video, a configurable high speed data interface, three UART serial data interfaces, programmable infra
red (IR) input and output ports, a Smart Card interface, and an extension bus to connect peripherals
such as: additional RS232 ports, display and control panels, and extra ROM, DRAM, or EPROM
memory. External program and data memory expansion allows the IC to support a range of set-top
boxes from low end to high end.
1.1 Features
•
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•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
fully functional decoder using a single 16 Mbit external SDRAM
accepts transport bit-streams of up to 72.8Mbps burst rate (60 Mbps average over one transport
packet)
on-chip European Common Descrambler hardware
hardware CRC accelerator for SI/PSI information processing
video decoder that decodes MPEG-1 and MPEG-2 Main [email protected] Level bit-streams
audio decoder that decodes MPEG-1 Layer I and II and the basic stereo channels from MPEG-2
Multi-channel bit-streams
audio output in both PCM and SPDIF formats
OSD processor that enables mixture of OSD and video data with transparency
BitBLT hardware that accelerates memory block move
32/16 bit ARM/Thumb processor that removes the need of another CPU in the set-top box
firmware that controls device operation and provides application access to hardware resources
on-chip NTSC/PAL encoder that incorporates MacroVision logic for anti-taping protection
analog Y/C or RGB, and Composite video outputs with 9-bit precision
internally or externally generated video sync signals
on-chip SDRAM controller for 16, 20, or 32 Mbit SDRAM
general purpose 16-/32-bit Extension Bus Interface (EBI)
a configurable high speed data interface to connect to either an IEEE 1394 link device, an IEEE
1284 interface, or an external DMA device like SCSI that supports up to 16 Mbps data rate
two 4-wire UART data ports supporting up to 115.2Kbps rate, and one 2-wire UART data port
supporting up to 9.6Kbps rate
ISO 7816-3/NDC Smart Card interface
I2C master/slave interface
a programmable IR input port
a programmable IR output port
four dedicated general purpose I/O pins and five multiplexed pins which can be configured to be
general purpose I/O pins
2.5 volt device with 3.3 volt I/O
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TMS320AV7110
Revision 3.1
2. Pin Functions
The ‘AV7110 is packaged in a 272 pin BGA. Table 1 is a list of pin names and their descriptions.
Multiplexed pins (muxed pins) are those whose definitions can be selected by the user using APIs. For
example, if there is no need for the SCVccDetect signal for the smart card interface on the set top box,
the pin SCVccDetect can be configured to become general purpose IO pin IO3.
Table 1. the ‘AV7110 Pins
Pin Name
DATAIN[7:0]
DCLK
PACCLK
BYTE_START
DERROR
EXTRW
#
I/O
Description
Transport Parser
8
1
1
1
1
I
I
I
I
I
Data Input. Bit 7 is the first bit in the transport stream
Input Data Clock. (Note 1). The maximum frequency is 7.5 MHz.
Packet Clock. Indicates valid packet data on DATAIN.
Byte Start. Indicates the first byte of a transport packet for DVB.
Data Error, active high. Indicates an error in the input data. Tie
low if not used.
Extension Bus
1
O
Extension Bus Read/Write. Selects read when high, write when
low.
Active low, user programmable
EXTOE: default mode, asserted only during read cycles
EXTACTIVE: asserted for read/write cycles
Extension Bus Wait Request, active low
Extension Address bus: byte address
Extension Bus Data (16-bit or 32-bit EBI)
Extension Bus Data in 32-bit EBI mode
(muxed with other signal pins in 16-bit EBI mode)
EXTOE/EXTACTIVE
1
O
EXTWAIT
EXTADDR[24:0]
EXTDATA[31:16]
EXTDATA[15:0]
1
25
16
16
I
O
I/O
I/O
EXTINT[2:0]
EXTACK[2:0]
3
3
I
O
IO1
IO2
IO3
IO4
IO5
IO6
IO7
IO8
IO9
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
I/O
I/O
I/O
I/O
I/O
I/O
I/O
I/O
I/O
CLK40
1
O
40.5 MHz Clock output for the extension bus and HSDI interface
CS1
CS2
CS3
CS4
CS5
CS6
1
1
1
1
1
1
O
O
O
O
O
O
Chip Select 1. Selects EPROM
Chip Select 2.
Chip Select 3.
Chip Select 4.
Chip Select 5.
Chip Select 6.
RAS1
RAS2
RAS3
1
1
1
O
O
O
DRAM Row Address Strobe 1
DRAM Row Address Strobe 2 (for 32-bit support)
DRAM Row Address Strobe 3 (for 2nd DRAM module at a fixed
address partition).
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External Interrupt requests (IRQ) , active low.
External Interrupt request acknowledge, active low
General Purpose I/O
General Purpose I/O
General Purpose I/O
General Purpose I/O
General Purpose I/O
General Purpose I/O
General Purpose I/O
General Purpose I/O
General Purpose I/O
(muxed with SCVccDetect)
(muxed with EXTDATA[15])
(muxed with EXTDATA[14])
(muxed with EXTDATA[13])
(muxed with EXTDATA[12])
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TMS320AV7110
Pin Name
#
I/O
UCAS
LCAS
1
1
O
O
Revision 3.1
Description
DRAM Column address strobe for upper byte
DRAM Column address strobe for lower byte
High Speed Parallel Data Interface
(See Table 32 in Section 13 for details)
HSDI_DATA[7:0]
8
I/O
Data Bus
HSDI_SIG1
1
O
HSDI_SIG2
1
O
HSDI_SIG3
1
I or O
HSDI_SIG4
1
I/O, I or O
HSDI_SIG5
1
I/O, I or O
HSDI_SIG6
1
I/O or O
HSDI_SIG7
1
I
HSDI_SIG8
1
O
HSDI_SIG9
1
O
HSDI_STATUS[1:0]
2
O
Signals to indicate which of the three device interfaces (1394,
External DMA, or 1284) is active
SCDET1
SCDET2
SCRESET
SCCLK
SCVppEN
SCVccEN
SCDATAIO
SCSEL
Smart Card Interface
1
I
1
I
1
O
1
O
1
O
1
O
1
I/O
1
O
SCVccDetect
1
IRIN
IROUT
I
Communications Processor
1
I
1
O
UART_DI1
UART_DO1
UART_RTS1
UART_CTS1
UART_CK16
UART_DI2
UART_DO2
UART_RTS2
UART_CTS2
UART_DI3
UART_DO3
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
I
O
O
I
O
I
O
O
I
I
O
IICS_SDA
IICS_SCL
1
1
I/O
I/O
SDATA[15:0]
SADDR[11:0]
SRAS
SCAS
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SDRAM Interface
16
I/O
12
O
1
O
1
O
Smart Card Detect Card 1, (programmable polarity)
Smart Card Detect Card 2, (programmable polarity)
Smart Card Reset.
Smart Card Clock.
Smart Card Vpp enable (programmable polarity)
Smart Card Vcc enable (programmable polarity).
Smart Card data Input / Output.
Smart Card selection signal:
Low = Smart Card 1 Selected,
High = Smart Card 2 Selected.
Smart Card Vcc detect input signal (for NDC mode).
(muxed with IO3)
Infra-Red sensor input
Infra-Red sensor output.
UART port 1, Data Input
UART port 1, Data Output
UART port 1, RTS.
UART port 1, CTS.
UART port 1’s x16 UART clock output
UART port2, Data Input
UART port2, Data Output
UART port 2, RTS.
UART port 2, CTS.
UART port3, Data Input
UART port3, Data Output
I2C Interface Serial Data, open drain
I2C Interface Serial Clock, open drain
SDRAM Data bus.
SDRAM Address bus.
SDRAM Row Address Strobe
SDRAM Column Address Strobe
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DSP
TMS320AV7110
Pin Name
#
I/O
SWE
SDOMU
SDOML
SCLK
SCKE
SCS1
SCS2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
PCMDATA
LRCLK
PCMCLK
ASCLK
SPDIF
APLL_LOCK
CLK27
VCXO_CTRL
CLK_SEL
Audio Interface
1
1
1
1
1
1
VCXO
1
1
1
O
O
I /O
O
O
1
Description
SDRAM Write Enable
SDRAM Data Mask Enable, Upper byte.
SDRAM Data Mask Enable, Lower byte.
SDRAM Clock
SDRAM Clock Enable
SDRAM Chip Select 1
SDRAM Chip Select 2
PCM Data audio output.
Left/Right Clock for output PCM audio data.
PCM Clock (for Input - Note 1).
Audio Serial Data Clock
SPDIF audio output
O
Remains active while the Internal Audio PLL is stable.
I
O
I
27 MHz Clock input from an external VCXO (Note 1)
Digital pulse output for external VCXO Control.
Clock select: Low = 27 MHz input clock,
High = 81 MHz input clock.
Digital Video Interface
YCOUT[7:0]
8
O
YCCLK
1
O
YCCTRL[1:0]
2
O
TEXTEN
Revision 3.1
O
4:2:2 digital video output. (muxed with EXTDATA[7:0])
27 MHz digital video output clock. (muxed with EXTDATA[8])
Digital video output control signals (muxed with EXTDATA[11]
and EXTDATA[10] respectively)
Teletext window signal - active during Teletext lines. (muxed with
EXTDATA[9])
NTSC/PAL Encoder Interface
VSYNC
1
I/ O
HSYNC
1
I/ O
OSD_ACTIVE
1
O
Vertical synchronization signal
Horizontal synchronization signal
Active when OSD data is being output on video out (active high)
RC_OUT
BIAS_RC
GY_OUT
BIAS_GY
B_OUT
BIAS_B
Y/COMP_OUT
BIAS_COMP
COMP[3:0]
VREF
O
I
O
I
O
I
O
I
I
I
Red or C video signal Output.
Red or C D/A Bias terminal.
Green or Y video signal Output.
Green or Y D/A Bias terminal.
Blue video signal Output.
Blue D/A Bias terminal.
Composite or Y video signal Output.
Composite Bias terminal.
Compensation-capacitor terminals. [BGRC=3:0]
Voltage reference.
I
I
I
I
I
Reset, active low
JTAG Data Input. Can be tied high or left floating.
JTAG Clock. Must be tied low for normal operation.
JTAG Test Mode Select Can be tied high or left floating.
JTAG Test Reset, active low. Must be tied low or connected to
RESET for normal operations.
JTAG Data Output
Reserved for Test, tie to ground when not in use
RESET
TDI
TCK
TMS
TRST
TDO
test
10/08/99 22:18
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
4
1
Device Control
1
1
1
1
1
1
4
O
I
Page 10
DSP
TMS320AV7110
Pin Name
#
I/O
Revision 3.1
Description
Power
2.5 v supply to core of chip. ± 5% tolerance.
3.3 v Digital supply to IO of chip. ± 5% tolerance.
Digital Ground.
VDD2_5V
VDD3_3V
VSS
AVCC_CPLL
AGND_CPLL
AVCC_ APLL1
AGND_ APLL 1
AVCC_ APLL 2
AGND_ APLL 2
1
1
1
1
1
1
3.3 v Analog supply. ± 5% tolerance. - Clock PLL
Analog Ground - Clock PLL
3.3 v Analog Supply - Audio PLL1
Analog Ground - Audio PLL1
3.3 v Analog Supply - Audio PLL2
Analog Ground - Audio PLL2
AVCC_GY
AGND_GY
AVCC_RC
AGND_RC
AVCC_B
AGND_B
AVCC_COMP
AGND_COMP
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
3.3 v Analog Supply - DAC for GY_OUT
Analog Ground - DAC for GY_OUT
3.3 v Analog Supply - DAC for RC_OUT
Analog Ground - DAC for RC_OUT
3.3 v Analog Supply - DAC for B_OUT
Analog Ground - DAC for B_OUT
3.3 v Analog Supply - DAC for COMP_OUT
Analog Ground - DAC for COMP_OUT
Note 1:
These signals are Schottky inputs
2.1 Pin Types
• All I/O pins power up in input mode.
• All outputs are 3.3V output and will require external level shifters to interface with 5V devices.
• All digital inputs/outputs comply with normal TTL standard: Vih = 2.0Vmax, Vil = 0.8V min, Voh
= Vcc - 0.4V min, Vol = 0.4V max, for the specified source/sink currents.
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DSP
TMS320AV7110
Revision 3.1
3. Architecture
3.1 Functional Block Diagram
Figure 1 shows a functional block diagram of the TMS320AV7110.
Digital Video
Output
Transport Bitstream
from Front End
External
System Memory
NTSC/PAL
Encoder
OSD
TPP
Y/C or RGB,
and
Composite Video
Traffic Controller
Video Decoder
HSDI
ECD
1394
I/F
Audio Decoder
PCM Audio
Output
SPDIF Output
1284 I/F
Ext DMA
Extension
Bus
Interface
Comm.
Processor
ARM/
Thumb
Data
RAM
ROM
I2C
Smart Card
UART (three)
JTAG
IR
GPIO
Figure 1. The ‘AV7110 Block Diagram
3.2 Overview
Figure 2 shows the overall memory map for the ‘AV7110.
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DSP
TMS320AV7110
Comments
Address
FFFF FFFF
CE00 0000
CDFF FFFF
Unprotected but with some =>
Supervisor only access sub-regions CC00 0000
CBFF FFFF
A200 0000
A1FF FFFF
FIQ/BIT access only (protected) =>
A000 0C00
A000 0BFF
A000 0000
9FFF FFFF
FIQ/BIT access only (protected) =>
9E00 0D34
9E00 0D33
9E00 0000
9DFF FFFF
Supervisor access only (protected) =>
Supervisor access only (protected) =>
Supervisor access only (protected) =>
FIQ/BIT access only (protected) =>
FIQ/BIT access only (protected) =>
Supervisor access only (protected) =>
FIQ/BIT access only (protected) =>
FIQ/BIT access only (protected) =>
FIQ/BIT access only (protected - but with =>
some User accessable sub-regions)
USER Access (un-protected) =>
USER Access (un-protected) =>
USER Access (un-protected) =>
USER Access (un-protected) =>
USER Access (un-protected) =>
USER Access (un-protected) =>
7400 0000
73FF FFFF
7200 0000
71FF FFFF
7000 0000
6FFF FFFF
6E00 0000
6DFF FFFF
6C00 0000
6BFF FFFF
6A00 0000
69FF FFFF
6800 0000
67FF FFFF
6600 0000
65FF FFFF
6400 0000
63FF FFFF
6200 0000
61FF FFFF
3A00 0000
39FF FFFF
3800 0000
37FF FFFF
3600 0000
35FF FFFF
3400 0000
33FF FFFF
3200 0000
31FF FFFF
3000 0000
2FFF FFFF
2E00 0000
2DFF FFFF
USER Access (un-protected - but some =>
Supervisor only sub-regions and no 8-bit write access) 2C00 0000
2BFF FFFF
Revision 3.1
Content
General Description
NOT USED
SDRAM (4 MBytes)
* See SDRAM Memory Map Section
NOT USED
Reserved
SRAM (CPU)
On Chip SRAM
Reserved
SRAM (HW )
NOT USED
NTSC/PAL Encoder
BitBlt
CCP
Audio Decoder
Video Decoder
OSD
Hardware Registers
& Memory Region
(See Register descriptions
in Section 16)
TC
TPP
HDSI
NOT USED
CS6
CS5
CS4
CS3
EBI Space
(Section 12)
CS2
DRAM
CS1
NOT USED
0200 0000
Figure 2. The ‘AV7110 Memory Map
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DSP
TMS320AV7110
Revision 3.1
3.2.1 Transport bit-stream processing
The ‘AV7110 accepts a DVB transport bit-stream from the output of a Forward Error Correction (FEC)
device with a maximum (burst) throughput of 72.8 Mbits/s or 9.1 Mbytes/s (60Mbps average over one
transport packet). The Transport Packet Parser (TPP) in the ‘AV7110 processes the header of each
packet and determines whether the packet should be discarded, further processed by ARM CPU, or if
the packet only contains relevant data and needs to be stored without intervention from the ARM. The
TPP sends all packets requiring further processing or containing relevant data through the Traffic
Controller (TC) to the internal RAM. The TPP also activates or deactivates the decryption engine
(ECD) based on the content of the individual packet. The conditional access keys are stored in a local
key table and managed by special firmware running on the ARM CPU. The data transfer from TPP to
the Data RAM is done via DMA.
Further processing on the packet is done by the ARM firmware, which is activated by interrupt from the
TPP after the completion of the packet data transfer. Two types of transport packets are stored in the
Data RAM and managed as a FIFO. One is for pure data which is routed to SDRAM without
intervention from the ARM, and the other is for packets that need further processing. Within the
interrupt service routine, the ARM checks the FIFO for packets that need further processing, performs
necessary parsing, removes the header portion, and establishes DMA for transferring payload data from
the Data RAM to the SDRAM. The TC re-packs the data and gets rid of the voids created by the
header removal.
Together with the ARM, the TPP also handles Program Clock Reference (PCR) recovery with an
external VCXO. The TPP will latch and transfer to the ARM its internal system clock upon the arrival
of any packet which contains a PCR. After further processing on the packet and identifying the system
clock, the ARM calculates the difference between the system clock from a bit-stream and the actual
system clock at the time the packet arrives. Then, the ARM filters the difference and sends it through
an 8-bit Sigma-Delta DAC to control the external VCXO. The ARM will drive the VCXO to its center
frequency during start-up or, if enabled by an API, after channel change when there is no incoming
PCR.
The TPP hardware is capable of detecting packets lost from the transport stream. With error
concealment by the audio and the video decoders the ‘AV7110 minimizes the effect of lost data.
3.2.2 Audio and Video data processing
After removing packet headers and other system related information, both audio and video data is
stored in the external SDRAM. The video and audio decoders then read the bit-streams from the
SDRAM and process them according to the ISO standards. The chip decodes MPEG-1 and MPEG-2
main profile at main level for video and Layer I and II MPEG-1 and MPEG-2 stereo for audio. This
includes the abnormal cases such as discontinuity of reference clock or packet continuity counters as
well as splicing. Both Video and Audio decoders synchronize their presentation of reconstructed data
using the transmitted Presentation Time Stamps (PTS) and their local system clock. The local system
clock is continuously updated by the ARM.
3.3 Software System Overview
Software on the ‘AV7110 is divided into three sections: Firmware, API, and user application software.
The first section, firmware, is masked into the internal ROM of the ‘AV7110. This software is supplied
by Texas Instruments and is used for low level control of the hardware and bit-stream de-multiplexing
in the ‘AV7110. The user application software is resident in external memory and contains all the
software written by the application programmer. The user application software communicates with the
firmware through Application Programming Interfaces (APIs). These APIs are contained in external
ROM. API’s are written by TI and provided in the form of a Run Time Support Library (RTSL).
The ‘AV7110 firmware comprises a collection of interrupt (FIQ) service routines and supervisor mode
run-time support programs. This software isolates the application software from any direct interaction
with the hardware.
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DSP
TMS320AV7110
Revision 3.1
Figure 3 shows the high level block diagram of the complete software system. At the lowest level, each
hardware component has a firmware module associated with it. A module may consist of:
• Initialization code - executed at processor reset
• Interrupt Service Routines - executed from interrupt by the associated hardware module
The run-time support library provides an application programming interface for the user application
software. All run-time modules are written to be invoked from supervisory mode. This prevents
software running in user mode from interfering with the built-in firmware.
Functionally, the firmware consists of several software processes that are self contained at runtime and
operate for the most part, independently and asynchronously. Because of the nature of the processing of
a complex input stream, the processes are interrupt driven.
The interrupt priorities determine the processing sequence, and the de-multiplexed input stream packet
information determines the data path through the system. There is only minimal inter-process
dependency, which eliminates the need for a software control-flow process. Any inter-process
dependencies can be handled by proper structuring of the interrupt process in terms of priorities and
multi-level processing.
Application Software
Real Time Operating Systems
on chip
Firmware control
Firmware
TI Run-time
Support Library
Hardware
Cond.
Access
MPEG
A/V
Graphics
OSD
Comm
Processor
Traffic
Controller
TPP
Figure 3. Software block diagram
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DSP
TMS320AV7110
Revision 3.1
4. ARM CPU
4.1 Features
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Runs at 40.5 MHz
Supports byte (8-bit), half-word (16-bit), and word (32-bit) data types
Reads instructions from on-chip ROM or from the Extension Bus
Can switch between ARM (32-bit) or Thumb (16-bit) instruction mode
32-bit data and 32-bit address lines
7 processing modes
Two interrupts, FIQ and IRQ
The 32-bit ARM processor running at 40.5 MHz and its associated firmware provide the following:
• initialization and management of all hardware modules
• service for selected interrupts generated by hardware modules and I/O ports
• application program interface (API) for users to develop their own applications
The on-chip SRAM (also referred to as Internal Data RAM in this document) provides the space
necessary for the ‘AV7110 to properly decode transport bit-streams without losing any packets. The
run-time support library (RTSL) and all user application software are located outside the ‘AV7110.
Details of the firmware and RTSL are provided in a separate software specification document.
The CPU in the ‘AV7110 is a 32-bit RISC processor, the ARM7TDMI/Thumb, which has the
capability to execute instructions in 16- or 32-bit format at a clock frequency of 40.5 MHz. The
regular ARM instructions are exactly one word (32-bit) long, and the data operations are only
performed on word quantities. The LOAD and STORE instructions however, can transfer either byte,
half-word or word quantities.
The Thumb uses the same 32-bit architecture with a 16-bit instruction set. That is, it retains the 32-bit
performance but reduces the code size with 16-bit instructions. With 16-bit instruction, the Thumb still
gives 70 - 80% of the performance of the ARM running ARM instructions from 32-bit memory. ARM
and Thumb are used interchangeably, throughout this document.
4.2 Block Diagram
ARM uses a LOAD and STORE architecture; i.e. all operations are on the registers. ARM has 7
different processing modes with 16, 32-bit registers visible in user mode. In the Thumb state, there are
only 8 registers available in user mode. The high registers may still be accessed through special
instructions in this case. The instruction pipeline is three stage, fetch → decode → execute, and most
instructions only take one cycle to execute. Figure 4 shows the data path of ARM processor core.
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DSP
TMS320AV7110
B-Bus
Register
Bank
Barrel
Shifter
Revision 3.1
ALU
A-Bus
ALU-Bus
Booth
Multiplier
Figure 4. ARM Core Data Path
4.3 Resource management
The ARM CPU is responsible for managing all the hardware and software resources in the ‘AV7110.
At power up the ARM verifies the existence and size of external memory. Following that, it initializes
all the hardware modules by setting up control registers and tables and then resetting data pointers. It
then executes the default firmware from internal ROM and transfers control to the application software.
A set of run-time library routines provide the access to the firmware and hardware for user application
programs. The application programs are stored in external memory attached to the Extension Bus.
During normal operation, the ARM constantly responds, based on a programmable priority, to FIQ
interrupt requests from any of the hardware modules and devices on the Extension Bus. The types of
interrupt services include transport packet parsing, program clock recovery, traffic controller and OSD
service requests, service or data transfer requests from the Extension Bus and Communication
Processor, and service requests from the Audio/Video decoder.
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DSP
TMS320AV7110
Revision 3.1
5. Traffic Controller (TC)
5.1 Features
•
•
•
•
•
•
Manages interrupt requests
Authorizes and manages DMA transfers
Provides SDRAM interface
Manages the Extension Bus
Provides memory access protection
Manages the data flow between processors and memories
• TPP to / from internal Data RAM
• Data RAM to/from Extension Bus
• SDRAM to OSD
• OSD to / from internal Data RAM
• Audio / Video Decoder to / from SDRAM
• SDRAM to / from internal Data RAM
• High Speed Data Interface to / from internal Data RAM
• Generates chip selects (CS) for all internal modules and devices on the Extension Bus
• Generates programmable wait states for devices on the Extension Bus
• Provides 3 breakpoint registers and a 64x32-bit patch RAM space
Figure 5 depicts the data flow managed by the TC.
SDRAM
Palette
& Mixer
ECD
OSD
TPP
MPEG
Audio
&
Video
TC
HSDI
CP
32-bit
Program ROM
Extension
Bus I/F
ARM Core
32-bit
Data RAM
INT Vectors
Figure 5. Traffic Controller Data Flow
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DSP
TMS320AV7110
Revision 3.1
5.2 SDRAM Interface
The SDRAM must be 16-bits wide. The ‘AV7110 provides control signals for up to two SDRAMs.
Any combination of 4 or 16 Mbit SDRAMs may be used, provided they total at least 16 Mbits. Other
supported sizes and configurations are:
16 Mbit → one 16 Mbit SDRAM
20 Mbit → one 16 Mbit and one 4 Mbit SDRAM
32 Mbit → two 16 Mbit SDRAM
The SDRAM must operate at an 81 MHz clock frequency. After power up reset, the ‘AV7110 issues a
Mode Register Set (MRS) Cycle to configure the SDRAM. The format is fixed and automatic. It does
this by holding SRAS, SCAS, SWE, A11 and A10 Low while placing the input mode word value on
A9-A0 (SADDR[11:0] = 0000 0011 0111). This forces a Read Latency of 3, Serial operation and sets
the burst length to the maximum. In choosing SDRAM, the parameters of Table 2 represent some of
the critical requirements found to vary the most with SDRAM manufacturers. The 16 Mbit TI
TMS626162 SDRAM is recommended for use with the ‘AV7110 and meets these requirements.
Table 2. SDRAM Selection Requirements
PARAMETER (Note 1)
MIN
tAC
Access time, CLK↑ to data out
tRC
REFR command to ACTV, MRS, REFR, or SLFR command;
Read latency = 3
MAX
UNIT
10
ns
110
ns
ACTV command to ACTV, MRS, REFR, or SLFR command;
Self-refresh exit to ACTV, MRS, REFR, or SLFR command
tRAS
ACTV command to DEAC or DCAB command
72
ns
tRP
DEAC or DCAB command to ACTV, MRS, SLFR, or REFR command
40
ns
tRCD
ACTV command to READ or WRT command
35
ns
tRRD
ACTV command for one bank to ACTV command for the other bank
24
ns
tRWL
Final data in to DEAC or DCAB command
24
ns
Note 1: Command mnemonics
REFR
Auto refresh
ACTV
Bank activate
MRS
Mode-register set
SLFR
Self-refresh entry
DEAC
DCAB
READ
WRT
Bank deactivate (precharge)
Deactivate all banks
Column-address entry/read operation
Column-address entry/write operation
Timing diagrams for various cycles are given in Section 17.2. These represent the more detailed timing
parameters for the SDRAM interface of the ‘AV7110.
The access to the SDRAM can be by byte, half word, single word, continuous block, video line block,
or 2D macroblock. The interface also supports decrement mode for bitBLT block transfers.
The two chip selects correspond to the following address ranges:
SCS1 → 0xCC00 0000 - 0xCC1F FFFF
SCS2 → 0xCC20 0000 - 0xCDFF FFFF
During DVB decoding, the ‘AV7110 allocates the SDRAM for NTSC & PAL modes according to the
default layouts shown in Figure 6 & Figure 7, respectively. Address pointers for the Audio Buffer,
Video Buffer, B-Frame and primary OSD Space in the SDRAM partitioning (Shaded regions of Figure
6 and Figure 7) are configurable via API; hence, the actual layout can be customized. Note that more
OSD space can be obtained by: (1) synchronizing the video decoder and the VSYNC signal thus
reducing the Video Buffer, (2) storing the decoded B pictures in reduced resolution to reduce B-Frame
storage (the figures show a 0.6 B Frame reduction), (3) using DRAM as an overflow portion of the
video input buffer which would reduce the Video Buffer size. Refer to Section 7.7 for more details.
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DSP
TMS320AV7110
Address
CDFF FFFF
Content
Revision 3.1
Size *
Comments
Reserved
CC40 0000
CC3F FFFF
Expansion Memory Region
2 MB
(OSD/User Data)
CC20 0000
CC1F FFFF
Audio Buffer
65,536 b
or 8 kB **
CC1F E000
CC1F DFFF
Video Buffer
2,748,416 b or 335.5 kB **
CC1A A200
CC1A A1FF
OSD or other use
356,608 B
or 348.25 kB
CC15 3100
CC15 30FF
B Frame
CC10 7200
CC10 71FF
311,040 B or 303.75 kB
(0.6 Frame Size)
Second Reference Frame
518,400 B or 506.25 kB
CC08 8900
CC08 88FF
First Reference Frame
518,400 B or 506.25 kB
CC00 A000
CC00 9FFF
Video Microcode
36,864 B
or 36 kB
CC00 1000
CC00 0FFF
Tables and FIFOs
3 kB
CC00 0400
CC00 03FF
Pointers
1 kB
* See Table 3
through Table 5
CC00 0000
* B = Bytes, b = Bits
** This is the default size and may vary based on the application
Figure 6. Default Memory Allocation of SDRAM (NTSC)
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DSP
TMS320AV7110
Address
CDFF FFFF
Content
Revision 3.1
Size *
Comments
Reserved
CC40 0000
CC3F FFFF
Expansion Memory Region
2 MB
(OSD/User Data)
CC20 0000
CC1F FFFF
Audio Buffer
65,536 b
or 8 kB
CC1F E000
CC1F DFFF
Video Buffer
2,748,416 b or 335.5 kB **
CC1A A200
CC19 C1FF
OSD or other use
87,040 B
or 85 kB **
CC19 4E00
CC19 4DFF
B Frame
CC13 9C00
CC13 9BFF
373,248 B or 364.5 kB
(0.6 Frame Size)
Second Reference Frame
622,080 B or 607.5 kB
CC0A 1E00
CC0A 1DFF
First Reference Frame
622,080 B or 607.5 kB
CC00 A000
CC00 9FFF
Video Microcode
36,864 B
or 36 kB
CC00 1000
CC00 0FFF
Tables and FIFOs
3 kB
CC00 0400
CC00 03FF
Pointers
1 kB
* See Table 3
through Table 5
CC00 0000
* B = Bytes, b = Bits
** This is the default size and may vary based on the application
Figure 7. Default Memory Allocation of SDRAM (PAL)
The addresse range from 0xCC000000 to 0xCC000FFF contains decoded bitstream information, error
statistics and monitor information, and Commands and Flags that provide a communication channel
between the ARM CPU and the Video Decoder. The relative addresses for these locations are defined
in Table 3 through Table 5.
Table 3. Decoded Bitstream Information
Byte Address
Name
Sequence Header as defined in the ISO/IEC 13818-2
0x000C00
horizontal_size_value
0x000C04
vertical_size_value
0x000C08
aspect_ratio_information
0x000C0C
frame_rate_code
0x000C10
bit_rate_value
0x000C18
vbv_buffer_size_value
0x000C1C
constrained_parameters_flag
0x000C20
load_intra_quantizer_matrix
0x000C24
load_non_intra_quantizer_matrix
Sequence Extension as defined in the ISO/IEC 13818-2
0x000C60
profile_and_level_indication
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Usage
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DSP
TMS320AV7110
Revision 3.1
Byte Address
Name
Usage
0x000C64
progressive_sequence
0x000C68
chroma_format
0x000C6C
low_delay
0x000C70
frame_rate_extension_n
0x000C74
frame_rate_extension_d
Sequence Display Extension as defined in the ISO/IEC 13818-2
0x000C80
video_format
0x000C84
colour_description
0x000C88
colour_primaries
0x000C8C
transfer_characteristics
0x000C90
matrix_coefficients
0x000C94
display_horizontal_size
0x000C98
display_vertical_size
Group of Pictures Header as defined in the ISO/IEC 13818-2
0x000CA0
the first 12 bits of time_code
stores time_code_hours,
time_code_minutes
0x000CA4
the rest 12 bits of time_code
stores time_code_seconds, time_code_pictures
0x000CA8
closed_gop and broken_link
Picture header as defined in the ISO/IEC 13818-2
0x000CC0
temporal_reference
0x000CC4
vbv_delay
Table 4. Error Statistics and Monitor Information
Byte Address
0x000510
0x000514
0x000518
0x000544
SCR_Monitor
RATE_BUF_RPTR
RATE_BUF_WPTR
TOTAL_SKIP_PICS
0x000548
TOTAL_REPEAT_PICS
0x000184
ERRORS_IN_SLICE
0x000188
ERRORS_NOT_IN_SLICE
0x000194
0x000198
PIC_ERROR_COUNT
SEQ_ERROR_COUNT
0x00019C
VLD_ERROR_COUNT
Name
Usage
SCR value at the time of picture decode
read pointer of VBV buffer at the time of picture decode
write pointer of VBV buffer at the time of picture decode
total skipped pictures since last channel switch or power
up
total repeated pictures since last channel switch or power
up
accumulated error in slice layer; reset at power up or
channel change
accumulated error outside of slice layer; reset at power up
or channel change
accumulated error within a picture; reset at each picture
accumulated error within a sequence; reset at each
sequence
accumulated error in the variable length decode; reset at
power up or channel change
Table 5. Flags and Commands
Byte Address
0x000FA8
DISABLE_USER_SYNC
0x000FC4
DISABLE_PAN_SCAN
0x000400
0x0004FC
0x000500
CMD_FIFO_START
CMD_FIFO_END
HIGH_PRIORITY_CMD
0x000F00
0x000F04
CMD_FIFO_RPTR
CMD_FIFO_WPTR
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Name
Usage
0: default mode; use PTS given by application for video
synchronization
1: disable synchronization using PTS
0: default mode; apply Pan_Scan to 16:9 source video
1: disable Pan_Scan on 16:9 source video
FIFO for normal commands like Play, ½ Decimate etc…
End of Video Command FIFO
command like Reset and NewChannel has higher priority
and should use this location
read pointer of Command FIFO
write pointer of Command FIFO
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Name
DECIMATION_CMD
Usage
Designated location for decimation commands
5.3 Prioritized Interrupts
Interrupt requests are generated from internal modules like the TPP, OSD, A/V decoder,
Communication Processor, and devices on the Extension Bus. Some of the requests are for data
transfers to internal RAM, whereas others are true interrupts to the ARM CPU. The TC handles data
transfers, and the ARM provides services to true interrupts. The interrupts are grouped into FIQs and
IRQs. The firmware uses FIQs; the application software uses IRQs. The priorities for FIQs are
managed by the firmware while those of IRQs are managed by the application software.
5.4 Managing DMA transfer
The TC in the ‘AV7110 provides DMA capability to facilitate large block transfers between memories
and buffers. The burst length (in multiple of 4 bytes) of the DMAs are independently selectable via 6bit registers with an API. This provides a burst value from 4 to 188 bytes.
The SDRAM is used to store system-level tables, video and audio bit streams, reconstructed video
images, OSD data, video decoding codes, tables, and FIFOs. The internal Data RAM stores temporary
buffers, OSD window attributes, keys for conditional access, and other tables and buffers for firmware.
The TC manages two types of DMA transfers, but only the General Purpose DMA (GPDMA) is
accessible to the application software. DMAs initiated by the TPP, the video decoder, the audio
decoder, and the OSD module are inaccessible. The GPDMA includes ARM-generated and bitBLTgenerated DMAs. The TC can accept up to 4 GPDMAs at any given time. DMA from the Data RAM
to the Extension Bus (and vice versa) is byte aligned. Table 6 describes the allowable GPDMA
transfers.
Table 6. GPDMA Sources and Destinations
DMA Transfers Allowed by Hardware
SDRAM
Data RAM
Extension Bus
HSDI
SDRAM
NO
YES
NO
NO
Data RAM
YES
NO
YES
YES
Extension Bus
NO
YES
NO
NO
HSDI
NO
YES
NO
NO
Note that while there is no direct DMA transfer between the Extension Bus memories, HSDI or the
SDRAM. The user can use two general DMAs and the internal Data RAM as an intermediate step for
this process. Alternatively, an API is provided to transfer data between these interfaces. This is
accomplished using this internal Data RAM and two DMAs.
5.5 Video/Audio Buffer Monitoring support
The TC continuously monitors the fullness of the video and audio input buffers. If overflow or
underflow occurs, the firmware is alerted so that corrective action can be taken in a timely manner.
Alternatively, the application software can periodically inspect (read access) the read/write pointers of
the circular video and audio input buffers and take preemptive actions if overflow/underflow is deemed
imminent.
Moreover, the TC also keeps the number of bytes of video data being sent to the video decoder in a
wrap-around counter. This byte-count is used by the firmware for accurate video PTS synchronization.
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5.6 Transfer of Video/Audio Data from the High Speed Data Interface
(HSDI) to SDRAM
With APIs, it is possible to use the general purpose DMA (GPDMA) on the 'AV7110 to feed
audio/video data from the HSDI to the audio/video circular buffers in the SDRAM. Although it is not
recommended, it is possible to do this from the application software as well. Given restricted traffic
through the Transport Packet Parser (TPP, see Section 6.1), it is possible to transfer low-frequency
Elementary Stream Video Data using the appropriate API. Likewise, similar Audio PES or Elementary
Stream data can be transferred. No PTS processing can be done in this mode. Also, the application
software manages data types coming into the HSDI. Management of the audio and video circular
buffers will however be handled automatically by the TC hardware in this case.
When there is other TPP Audio/Video data traffic, the transfer mechanism is handled differently. When
audio or video is played from the HSDI, the same type of data cannot be demultiplexed from the
incoming DVB stream via the TPP hardware. The ARM sets up a transfer for the data from the HSDI
via an API called from the application software.
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6. MPEG Transport Decoder (TPP)
6.1 The TPP module
6.1.1 Features
•
•
•
Parses transport bit streams
Accepts bit stream either from the transport parser input or from the 1394 interface
Provides filtered decrypted or encrypted packets directly to the 1394 interface
Maximum Input bit rate (peak) Transport parser input ........................................................................... 72.8Mbps
Maximum Input bit rate (average over one transport packet) Transport parser input ................................ 60Mbps
Maximum Input bit rate through the 1394 interface................................................................................ 64.8Mbps
Max Video bit rate ..................................................................................................................................... 15Mbps
Max audio bit rate ................................................................................................................................... 1.13Mbps
Minimum time between two transport packets (providing input rate is less than average rate) ..................... 0 Sec
Maximum number of PIDs that can be filtered ................................................................................................... 32
Maximum number of PIDs that can be descrambled........................................................................................... 32
Maximum number of pairs of keys for the descrambler...................................................................................... 16
Recording mode through 1394 interface
• full transport stream without descrambling
• full transport stream with up to 32 PIDs descrambled
• up to 32 descrambled PIDs
6.1.2 Description
The Transport Packet Parser (TPP) in the ‘AV7110 filters the header of each packet according to the
PID and decides whether the packet should be discarded, further processed by the ARM CPU, or
stored without intervention from the CPU. At start up, the TPP discards all data until the firmware
enables reception. Individual encrypted channel data is then ignored until the first control word is
received or until the firmware indicates that data is acceptable. The TPP can filter up to 32 different
PIDs at any one time. All packets requiring further processing or containing relevant data are sent by
the TPP to the internal Data RAM. The TPP also activates or deactivates the European Common
Descrambler (ECD) hardware based on the content of individual packets or under the CPU control. Up
to 16 pairs of Conditional Access (CA) keys are stored in the TPP. The data transfer from TPP to the
internal Data RAM is done via DMA automatically.
Transport packets containing only audio or video payloads are automatically transferred to the proper
external SDRAM memory buffer space via DMA. Other packets that require further processing are
transferred to the CPU buffer, and an FIQ is issued to the CPU. Within the interrupt service routine, the
firmware checks the FIFO that contains packets for further processing. It then performs the necessary
parsing, removes the header portion, and establishes a DMA for transferring payload data from internal
Data RAM to the appropriate destination.
The TPP also detects packets lost from the transport stream. Together with error concealment by the
audio/video decoder, the TPP minimizes the effect of lost data.
Along with the CPU, the TPP handles Program Clock Reference (PCR) recovery to control the external
VCXO. The TPP latches and transfers to the CPU its internal system clock upon the arrival of any
packet containing a PCR. Firmware, through an interrupt handling routine (FIQ), performs minimal
filtering of the PCRs to control the external 27MHz VCXO. Application software can perform more
extensive filtering. Figure 8 shows an example circuit for the external VCXO. The output from the
‘AV7110 is a pulse width modulated signal with a resolution of 256 levels.
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100
1M
100
27 MHz
+5V
100 pF
100 pF
HVU359TRF
Vari-Cap
2.2 K
VCXO_CTRL
CLK27
22 K
100 K
HVU359TRF
Vari-Cap
100 K
100 K
0.1 µF
100
100 pF
Figure 8. Example Circuit for 27 MHz Clock Generation
6.1.3 Conditional access and Descrambling processing
The ‘AV7110 contains a full implementation of the European Common Descrambler (ECD) hardware.
The descrambling of the incoming data is performed automatically with minimum intervention by the
CPU. The TPP module detects which transport packets are scrambled, at either the program elementary
stream (PES) or the transport stream level, and routes the data through the ECD as necessary. The ECD
stores the descrambler keys locally and automatically selects the correct key of a specific PID. Up to 16
sets of keys are stored in the key table for use by the ECD. It is possible for more than one PID to use
the same key. The descrambler keys are derived by the conditional access software using the command
packet from the bit-stream.
6.1.4 Transport Parser Input Interface
The ‘AV7110 accepts DVB transport packet data from a front end such as a Forward Error Correction
(FEC) unit. Data is input one byte at a time using DCLK. PACCLK indicates when the data is valid.
BYTE_START signals the first byte of a 188 byte packet. The interface is compatible with the
common DVB Conditional Access. The diagram in Figure 9 shows the input timing for this interface.
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DCLK
Input
Data Not Valid
PACCLK
Input
Byte 0
DIN0-7
Input
Byte 1
Byte 2
Byte 3
Byte 4
Byte 5
Byte 187
Byte_Start
Input
Derror
Derror is only sampled during this period
Figure 9. FEC Input Interface to TPP Timing
DCLK is edge programmable; and PACCLK, BYTE_START, and DERROR are level programmable.
Figure 9 is shown with the default levels. The maximum burst bit rate for the transport parser interface
is 72.8Mbps. A more detailed timing diagram is included in Section 17.7 for reference.
Table 7. Transport packet Input interface pin description
DATAIN[0..7]
DCLK
PACCLK
BYTE_START
DERROR
Parallel data input
Data clock. Runs at the rate at which bytes are sent to the ‘AV7110 on D0-D7. (max 9.1MHz)
Programmable, edge triggered; default mode is rising edge triggered.
Packet clock. Level programmable, default is active high. Indicates valid data bytes on D0D7. All bytes of a transport packet may be consecutive, in which case PACCLK is high for
the whole duration of the transport packet. Certain clocking strategies adopted may require
there to be gaps of one or more byte times between some consecutive bytes within and/or
between transport packets. In this case PACCLK can go low for one or more byte times to
indicate data bytes that should be ignored.
Valid during the first byte of each transport packet on D0-D7. The edge of this signal is
synchronous with that of DATAIN. Level programmable, default is active high.
This pin is sampled by the ‘AV7110 during the 3rd byte of the header. The signal has the
same meaning as the Transport Error bit in the transport packet header. If the transport
enable error bit in the TPP status register is not set when this signal is detected, the ‘AV7110
discards the packet. During recording, such a packet is always be transferred to the 1394 port
with the Transport Error bit in its header set to signal the error. This DERROR pin must be
detected High at Byte 3 for an error to be detected.
6.2 Hardware Section Filtering
The hardware section filtering module comprises the following elements:
„
„
„
„
„
„
„
„
32 x 96 bit (12 byte) filters
32 x 96 bit (12 byte) mask
2 x 32 bit Match Data registers
2 x 32 bit Match Result Registers
1 x 32 bit Reset Control Register
1 x 32 bit Status register
1 x 32 bit Start Filter Enable
1 x 32 bit Stop Filter Enable
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All comparisons, irrespective of the number of active filters, require 32 machine cycles with the result
available in the 33'rd cycle.
6.2.1 Memory Map
The hardware section filtering module uses the following quick reference memory mapped locations:
Name
HW_FILT_CONTROL
HW_FILT_STATUS
MATCHDATA
MATCH_RESULT_REG
HW_FILT_BASE
HW_MASK_BASE
Description
Write of 1 to this register causes initialization of HW
Indicates result of the search, contains done, found bits
and index of first match
Register to write 8 bytes of data to compare against
filter values using masking
Bitmapped index of matches of data in the filter set
Starting address of the filter members (32 x 8 bytes)
Starting address of the filter masks (32 x 8 bytes)
6.2.2 Filter hardware definition
The filter hardware consists of a set of tables containing the filter to compare against and the mask to
apply to both the data to be compared and the filter. In addition the hardware engine contains an
attribute word for each element of the filter table.
Filter values, filter masks and attributes are all related in the tables and are addressed by the same index
in the respective tables as shown in Figure 10.
Filter
Number
0
.
.
.
31
High
Word
word0
Filter Data
Low
Very
Word
Low
word1
word2
Attrib
Data
word3
High
Word
word0
Filter Mask
Low
Very
Word
Low
word1
word2
Attrib
Data
word3
word0
word1
word3
word0
word1
word3
word2
word2
Figure 10: hardware filter layout
6.2.2.1 Filter Data Memory Addressing
The 32 filter entries are comprised of three WORDs of filter data plus one WORD of attribute
information.
Storage of the entries is memory mapped as follows. The starting word address of the filter is:
#define HW_FILT_BASE (ulong *)
The high word, or upper 4 bytes of the filter data, is stored in word 0. The remaining 4 bytes of the filter
data are word 1. Word 2 contains the attribute data, right justified. The attribute data is the 6 bit PID
field, 1 bit enable and a non-maskable filter. Word 3 is empty.
6.2.2.2 Filter Attribute Bit Definition
31
16
Difference Filter Control
15
8
non-maskable
filter byte
7
6
Enable
Flag
5
0
PID Index
[5:0] PID Index
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Six bit index into the PID filter table (PID CAM) that allows the application to attach each
filter entry to a given active PID. The PID index is 6 bits, or 64 entries. Currently, the
AV7110 hardware only supports 32 separate PIDs. The additional PID indexes are available
for potential future AV7XXX implementations using this filter.
[6] Enable Flag:
• ‘0’ indicates filter is inactive. No comparisons are performed on the associated filter data.
• ‘1’ indicates filter is enabled (active). Filtering will be performed on each valid section.
[15:8] Non-Maskable Filter Byte
Eight bit field that can be loaded with filter data. These eight bits cannot be masked.
[31:16] Difference filter control bits. When diffence filtering is enabled for a byte, that byte is a match
if any bits in the filter are different from the match register. Bit 31 enables diffence filtering for byte
15, bit 30 enables byte 14, etc.
6.2.2.3 Filter Mask Memory Addressing
The 32 mask entries are memory mapped as follows. The starting word address of the filter is defined
as:
#define HW_MASK_BASE (ulong *)
A mask entry corresponds to each filter. The mask is applied to both the filter memory words and the
input match data words before they are compared. A '1' in the mask bit position indicates that the
corresponding bits in the filter and input match data words should be compared. A '0' in the mask bit
position indicates that the corresponding bits in the filter and input match data words are ignored for the
comparison.
6.2.3 Filter Match Data Register definition
Two sets of input match data registers are available. The two sets of registers enable the search to be
taking place at the same time that the next search data is readied. The switching of the Filter Match
Data Register from one register to the other is automatic. After the Attribute word is written to the
match data register, subsequent writes to the Filter Match Data Register will load the other register.
The Match Data Attribute should be the last word written because a write to this register initiates a
search.
The match data registers contain 12 bytes of data that is loaded by the CPU and an attribute match
word. The match data is normally extracted from bytes 1,2 & 5-10 of the PSI/SI section header. Data
extraction is performed by the firmware, from the Transport Packet stored into one of the internal
SRAM TPP buffers.
The attribute is the value of the PID index of the Transport Packet, from which the section data is
extracted. Bits 8 to 15 of the match attribute word contains the one byte of non-maskable search data.
Match High
Word
Match Low
Word
Match Attribute word
31
Unused Bits
Match Low
Word
16
15
8
Non-maskable
search byte
Match Attribute
Word
7
6
5
0
PID Index
[0:5] PID Index
Six bit index. The PID Index in the Match attribute is compared with the PID Index in the
filter table to indicate which filter entries to perform the comparison.
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[8:15] Non-maskable search data
These search bits will be compared against bits 8 to 15 in each filter attribute word. These 8
bits in the Match Attribute Word and the Filter Attribute Word are not maskable.
[6:7,16:31] not used, must be written as all 0’s.
6.2.3.1 The Filter Match Data Register Memory Addressing
The two sets of registers enable the search to be taking place at the same time that the next search data
is readied. After the Attribute word is written to the match data register, subsequent writes to the Filter
Match Data Register will load the other register.
#define MATCHDATA (ulong *)
The matching operation performed by the hardware is as follows:
For i=1,32 {
MATCH[i] == if enable_bit[i] {
(filter_PID_index[i] == match_data_PID_index)
&((filter_data[i] & mask[i])==(match_data & mask[i]) } }
Although one match data register is mapped into the address space of the CPU, in reality there are two
of them operating in "flip-flop.” While one is used by the matching hardware to compare the match
data with each entry of the filter memory, the other is available to the CPU for loading new match data.
The full comparison duration of 33 CPU cycles ( @ 40.5 MHz) can be "masked" by the actual loading
of the data.
The software must ensure that a second search is not started by writing to the Match Data Attribute
Register until the current search is done. The filter status word contains the done flag.
6.2.4 Match Result Register Definition
Depending on the type of filtering being performed it is possible to have either one or multiple filter
matches for a given PID_Index. Multiple matches are caused when the application generates
overlapping definitions, or separate tasks request exactly the same filter data.
The result of the Match Register will be represented as a 32 bit result, where any matches in the search
will be indicated by a '1' in the corresponding bit position. For example, if Filter 0 matched, bit 0 of the
result register is set to a '1' (0x0000 0001).
The bit map of the match register are as follows:
31
0
6.2.4.1 Match Result Memory Addressing
The Match Result register is mapped as:
#define MATCH_RESULT (ulong *)
6.2.5 Status Register Word Definition
The status register can be polled to indicate the completion of a search. One bit is defined in the status
register. The most significant byte always contains the index of the first filter match. This is specifically
used for cached filters, where there will be ONLY one match per section. In this case the index will be
read instead of the bit pattern stored in the Match Result Register.
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When a search is initiated on an input match register, done is set to '0'. Upon the completion of the
search, done is set to a '1'.
31
25
Filter Index
24
not used
1
found bit
0
done bit
[0] done bit. Indicates completion of a filtering operation.
[1] found bit. If ‘1’, indicates that the Filter Index is valid. Also indicates that at least one bit in the
result vector is set.
[2:24] not used.
[25:31] Contains the index of the first filter match found
6.2.5.1 Status Register Memory Addressing
#define HW_FILT_STATUS (ulong *)
6.2.6 Filter Reset Control Register
A filter reset is achieved by writing a '1' to bit 0 of the control register. This operation resets only the
hardware filter circuitry. The hardware filter only needs to be reset in the event of a catastrophic system
failure or software crash.
Bit 1 of the control register contains the “escape on first match” flag. When this control bit is set to ‘1’,
the filtering operations stops on the first match. The hardware does not go through the rest of the filter
and search for further matches. The Status Register is valid after the first match. When the escape on
first match bit is set to ‘0’, all 32 locations of the filter are searched. In both cases, the Match Result
register is valid.
Bit 2 resets the Start/Stop filter settings
Bit 3 controls the difference mode
‘1’ Local mode: use each filter attributes for difference byte control
‘0’ Global mode: use control register for difference byte control
31
16
global difference control
3
difference
mode
2
start/stop
reset
1
escape on
first match
0
filter
reset
6.2.6.1 Filter Reset Control Register Memory Addressing
The filter reset control register is mapped as:
#define HW_FILT_CONTROL (ulong *)
The writing of a '1' to bit 0 pulses an internal reset. Following the reset, a write to the Match Data
Attribute register will initiate a search..
6.2.7 Typical software process flow
The software algorithm for accessing the hardware filter needs to take in account the time it takes to
complete the search (approx. 30+ cycles). Polling the completion bit in the status register is not
acceptable at the firmware level, where processing of the end of packet (EOP) interrupt is extremely
time critical. Completion of the interrupt process cannot extend over 25 microseconds in the general
case. Therefore it is important to use the search time in the hardware filter to pre-load the second match
to be done.
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The parallel processing will continue until the last data to compare is loaded from the firmware. At that
time the wait for the last completion can be used to pre-setup some of the DMA parameters. This
parallelism allows a zero time loss in case the DMA needed to be done. In case the DMA was not
needed, there is no processing penalty.
A typical payload processing sequence using this mechanism could be:
Reset Hardware
Load section data
;
Write attributes;
while( ptr < = payload end)
{
move ptr to start of next section;
load section data;
set next flag;
// Initialize the hardware filter state machine
// load first data into the hardware filter
// start the first compare
// Do for the whole payload
// setup the next data
// load into the data compare register
// don’t start the search yet
while (filter not complete) ;
// wait for previous search to complete
read result;
// see if match
if (next flag)
{
write attributes;
reset next flag;
}
// if new search pending
if(result == match)
process result;
}
while (filter not complete) ;
read last result
process last result
// start the hardware engine
// free up for next round
// process the previous result here
// setup DMA if needed
// wait for previous search to complete
// finish up the last search
// and process it
Note: The above algorithm is intended to be a functional example only.
6.2.8 CPU load assessment
6.2.8.1 Introduction
The CPU load for filtering of SI/PSI data will be depending on the following factors:
•
•
•
Bit-rate of incoming data
Number of sections per payload
Number of channels to perform filter on
Sample of current broadcast requirements are:
•
•
•
•
Maximum bit-rate = 5 Mb/s (3486 packets of 188 bytes each)
Maximum 4 sections per payload
Maximum 4 filters per PID
Only 1 PID for carrying electronic program guide information
Expected increases in the above requirements in the (near) future:
•
•
Maximum 6 sections per payload (including “start/stop” filters)
Possible up to 8 PID carrying this type of data
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In the Texas Instruments implementation of the hardware assisted filter, there is no time/CPU load
difference between using 1 filter per PID or 32 filters per PID. Therefore in the assessment below the
number of filters per PID will not be taken into account.
6.2.8.2 Assumptions
•
•
Maximum rate of filter data does not exceed 5 Mb/s
Assessments are based on 100% CPU load available for processing (High priority FIQ)
6.2.8.3 CPU load assessment
Packets/second
Processing time/packet
Processing time
% CPU
Data in one PID only
4 sections
6 sections
3324
3324
15 usec
25 usec
49.86 msec
83.1 msec
5.0
8.3
Data in 8 PID
4 sections
6 sections
26596
26596
15 usec
25 usec
398.94 msec
664.9 msec
39.9
66.5
As is clear from the above information, at a load of 8 PID with 6 sections each, there is significant
impact to the average available CPU for application use.
6.3 Hardware CRC circuit
A CRC-32 hardware module is available that allows an API to compute or verify checksums (for
example, the CRC-32 in PSI/SI data). The CRC is calculated with the following polynomial:
x32 + x26 + x23 + x22 + x16 + x12 + x11 + x10 + x8 + x7 + x5 + x4 + x2 + x +1.
Transfer of data from the DRAM to the hardware CRC circuit is transparent to the application software.
At completion of the CRC processing, an IRQ interrupt can be issued if requested by an API call.
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7. Video Decoder
7.1 Features
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Real-time decoding of MPEG-2 Main [email protected] level and MPEG-1 video bit-streams
Error detection and concealment
Internal 90 KHz/27 MHz System Time Clock
Sustained input rate of 15 Mbps
Supports Trick Mode with full size trick mode picture
Provides 1/4 and 1/16 decimated size picture
Extracts Closed Caption and other picture user data from the bit-stream
3:2 pulldown in NTSC mode
Provides read access to video input buffer’s read/write pointers
Pan-and-scan for 16:9 and 20:9 source material according to MPEG syntax
Letterbox support
High level command interface
Synchronization using Presentation Time Stamps (PTS); also supports VBV delay based and free
run (no synchronization) video playback
Supports automatic upsampling of the display format with polyphase horizontal resampling and
vertical chrominance filtering (see Table 8). Others can be done automatically by use of an API
call.
Table 8. Supported Video Resolutions for Automatic Up-Sampling
NTSC (30 Hz)
Source
Display
720 x 480
720 x 480
704 x 480
720 x 480
544 x 480
720 x 480
480 x 480
720 x 480
352 x 480
720 x 480
352 x 240
720 x 480
PAL (25 HZ)
Source
720 x 576
704 x 576
544 x 576
480 x 576
352 x 576
352 x 288
Display
720 x 576
720 x 576
720 x 576
720 x 576
720 x 576
720 x 576
7.2 Description
The Video Decoder module receives a video bit-stream from the SDRAM. It also uses the SDRAM as
its working memory to store tables, buffers, and reconstructed images. The decoding process is
controlled by a RISC engine which accepts high level commands from the ARM. In that fashion, the
ARM is acting as an external host to initialize and control the Video Decoder module. The output
video is sent to the OSD module for further blending with OSD data.
The ‘AV7110 synchronizes the presentation of video with the audio using the transmitted Presentation
Time Stamps (PTS) extracted by the ARM from the PES packets. It compares the PTS with the local
system time clock (STC) and performs synchronization recovery if the difference is outside of a user
programmable threshold range given as follows:
STC - threshold < PTS < STC + threshold
If synchronization recovery is needed, the video decoder either redisplays or skips a frame, depending
on the PTS value. If the PTS lags, that is, the time for displaying the current picture has already passed,
the video decoder discards the following B pictures without decoding them until the PTS catches up
with the STC. If the PTS leads, that is, the time for displaying the current picture has not arrived yet,
the video decoder pauses the decoding and continuously displays the last picture. See Section 11 for
more details.
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7.3 Trick Mode
When decoding a picture from a digital recorder, the decoder can handle trick modes (decode and
display I frame only. The limitation is that the data has to be a whole picture instead of several intraslices. Random bits are allowed in between trick mode pictures. It is important to note that if the
random bits emulate a start code, unpredictable decoding and display errors will likely occur. The trick
mode is activated by the scan command (see Table 9).
During trick mode decoding, the video decoder repeats the following steps:
• searches for a sequence header followed by an I picture
• ignores the video buffer under-flow error
• continuously displays the decoded I frame.
7.4 High-Level Commands
The Video decoder accepts the high-level commands detailed in Table 9.
Table 9. Video Decoder Commands
Play
Freeze
Freeze1
Freeze2
Stop
Scan
FastForward
SingleStep
SlowMotion (N)
FindIndex (N)
FreezeIndex (N)
NewChannel
Reset
Decimate1/2
Decimate1/4
TS_Display_On
TS_Display_Off
Normal decoding
Normal decoding but continue to display the last I or P picture (The choice of Top
field only or Full Frame is dependent on the data in the stream)
Normal decoding but continue to display the last picture (Top field)
Normal decoding but continue to display the last picture (Full frame)
Stops the decoding process. The display continue with the last picture
Searches for the first I picture, decodes it, displays it, then continues searching for
next I picture and repeats
Decode and display only the I and P pictures.
Decode and display the next picture, then stop. Applicable only when user has control
of the input bit-stream.
Decode pictures and display each picture N-frame times. Applicable only when user
has control of the input bit-stream.
Generate interrupt when N value is reached. N may be: PTS value, or time_code field
in the GOP layer.
Freeze on I picture at index value N. Index value is same as in FindIndex.
For channel change, the video decoder first finishes the current display picture. Then,
based on settings provided through an API in user software, selects what to display: a
pre-setup OSD window or blank background.
Halts execution of the current command. The bit-stream buffer is flushed and the
video decoder performs an internal reset
Continue normal decoding and displaying of a 1/2 x 1/2 decimated picture (controlled
by API)
Continue normal decoding and displaying of a 1/4 x 1/4 decimated picture (controlled
by API)
Turn on true size display mode (controlled by API).
Turn off true size display mode (controlled by API).
7.5 Video Decimation and Scaling
The video decoder contains a polyphase filter and a vertical interpolation filter for performing
horizontal resampling and luma/chroma vertical interpolation to support decimation and scaling of
pictures. In operation, the decoder first loads picture data from the video storage space in the SDRAM
to the internal buffer of the video decoder. Vertical and horizontal filters are then applied to the video
data to produce the 4:2:2 image.
The video decoder is capable of producing decimated pictures using 1/2 or 1/4 decimation per
dimension, which results in reduced areas of 1/4 or 1/16. Decimation is achieved by using field data out
of a frame, skipping lines, and performing vertical filter to smooth out the decimated image. However
this decimation mode does not apply when the picture is displayed in the letterbox format. The
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decimated picture can be viewed in real time. Such a decimated picture can be positioned anywhere on
the screen by inserting it into an OSD window and positioning the window at the desired location.
The picture can also be scaled in the vertical and horizontal direction to allow for changes to the display
format (see Figure 11). Various compression ratios in the vertical direction are supported to handle
vertical scaling required for PAL (Table 10 and Table 11) and NTSC (Table 12 and Table 13).
4:3 Monitor
Transmitted Format
4:3 Aspect Ratio
No adjustment
16:9 Aspect Ratio
Pan & Scan
16:9 Monitor
No adjustment
Vertical Compression
No adjustment
‘AV7110
Display Formats
Pan & Scan
Pan & Scan
Vertical Compression
Vertical Compression
2.21:1 Aspect Ratio (PAL only)
Pan & Scan
Vertical Compression
Figure 11. Display Formats for the ‘AV7110
For full size pictures, the pan & scan mode is supported up to 1/16-pel resolution (i.e., full-pel, ½-pel,
¼-pel and 1/8-pel). In the decimated picture the pan & scan resolution is 1/8-pel for ½ decimated
picture and ¼-pel for ¼ decimated picture. For non-full size pictures, the pan & scan mode is
supported at full-pel resolution only.
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Table 10. Scaling Factors for 4:3 monitor for PAL format.
4 : 3 Monitor
Source Aspect ratio
4:3
Display Type
Full Screen
16: 9
Pan & Scan
16 : 9
Letterbox
2.21:1
Letterbox
2.21:1
Pan & Scan
2.21 : 1
Letterbox and
Pan and Scan
720 x 576
H 1/1
V 1/1
H 4/3
V 1/1
H 1/1
V 3/4
H 1/1
V 3/5
H 5/3
V 1/1
H 5/4
V4/5
Source Luminance resolution Horz x vert.
544 x 576
480 x 576
352 x 576
H 4/3
H 3/2
H 2/1
V1/1
V 1/1
V 1/1
H 16/9
H 2/1
H 8/3
V 1/1
V 1/1
V 1/1
H 4/3
H 3/2
H 2/1
V 3/4
V 3/4
V 3/4
H 4/3
H 3/2
V 3/5
V 3/5
H 5/3
V 4/5
352 x 288
H 2/1
V 2/1
H 8/3
V 2/1
H 2/1
V 3/2
H 16/9
V 4/5
Table 11. Scaling Factors for 16:9 monitor for PAL format.
16 : 9 Monitor
Source Aspect ratio
4:3
Display Type
Stretched
16: 9
Full Screen
2.21:1
Pan & Scan
2.21 : 1
Letterbox
720 x 576
H 1/1
V 1/1
H 1/1
V 1/1
H 5/4
V 1/1
H 1/1
V 4/5
Source Luminance resolution Horz x vert.
544 x 576
480 x 576
352 x 576
H 4/3
H 3/2
H 2/1
V1/1
V 1/1
V 1/1
H 4/3
H 3/2
H 2/1
V 1/1
V 1/1
V 1/1
H 5/3
H 16/9
V 1/1
V 1/1
H 4/3
H 3/2
V 4/5
V 4/5
352 x 288
H 2/1
V 2/1
H 2/1
V 2/1
Table 12. Scaling Factors for 4:3 monitor for NTSC format.
4 : 3 Monitor
Source Aspect ratio
4:3
Display Type
Full Screen
16: 9
Pan & Scan
16:9
Letterbox
720 x 480
H 1/1
V 1/1
H 4/3
V 1/1
H 1/1
V 3/4
Source Luminance resolution Horz x vert.
544 x 480
480 x 480
352 x 480
H 4/3
H 3/2
H 2/1
V 1/1
V 1/1
V 1/1
H 16/9
H 2/1
H 8/3
V 1/1
V 1/1
V 1/1
H 4/3
H 3/2
H 2/1
V 3/4
V 3/4
V 3/4
352 x 240
H 2/1
V 2/1
H 8/3
V 2/1
Table 13. Scaling Factors for 16:9 monitor for NTSC format.
16 : 9 Monitor
Source Aspect ratio
4:3
Display Type
Stretched
16: 9
Full Screen
720 x 480
H 1/1
V 1/1
H 1/1
V 1/1
Source Luminance resolution Horz x vert.
544 x 480
480 x 480
352 x 480
H 4/3
H 3/2
H 2/1
V1/1
V 1/1
V 1/1
H 4/3
H 3/2
H 2/1
V 1/1
V 1/1
V 1/1
352 x 240
H 2/1
V 2/1
H 2/1
V 2/1
7.6 Free-run and VBV-based Display Synchronization
Typically, display of decoded pictures is synchronized using the transmitted PTS and the internal
system time clock (see Section 11 for more details). An API is also provided for the application
software to instruct the video decoder on the ‘AV7110 to display pictures as soon as possible (the freerun mode) or to wait for the duration specified in the VBV-delay field in each picture header before
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decoding the picture. In the VBV-based display mode no synchronization is applied at display time.
Note that the change in display synchronization mode takes effect only when a new channel is selected.
7.7 Memory Usage Reduction
In the minimum memory configuration, the ‘AV7110 is designed to work with two memory devices: a
single 16Mbit SDRAM device for system data storage (Audio, video data, etc.), and a 4Mbit DRAM
for local data storage (private data, SI information etc.). Table 14 shows what the two memories are
used for, in bytes. The amount of memory available for OSD applications depends upon the mode of
operation of the ‘AV7110. For example, if the letterbox display format is used, more memory is
required to store B frames and hence less OSD space is available. Table 15 shows the size of the B
frame buffer for different display formats at normal (full) resolution.
Table 14. The ‘AV7110 Memory Usage
Video Input Buffer (theoretical + decoder delay +
display synchronization = 229,376 + 52,000 + 75,000) - can
be split between SDRAM and DRAM
Audio Lip-sync buffer
MPEG I and P frames
Video decoder micro-code
Internal Tables FIFO’s and Scratch space
B frames
User application, SI data private data etc.
OSD
SDRAM (bytes)
107,000 to 356,376
DRAM (bytes)
249,376 to 0
8,192
1,244,160
36,864
4,096
See Table 15
393,216
See Table 16
Table 15. Storage of B frames
Display Format
Full Screen
Letterbox 3/4 ratio
Letterbox 3/5 ratio
Normal resolution (1.0 B Frame = 622,080 bytes)
Portion of each B-Frame to
Memory
be stored
Required (bytes)
0.60
373,248
0.72
447,898
0.78
485,223
The amount of available OSD space can be significantly improved by reducing SDRAM space usage
during video decoding. A combination of the following options is available: Vsync reset, and split
Video Input Buffer.
7.7.1 Vsync Reset
The video input buffer, which is located in the SDRAM, is made up of three components: a theoretical
rate control buffer whose size is specified in the MPEG-2 video standard (229,376 bytes); a buffer
space to compensate for the decoder delay (52,000 bytes); and additional storage space to synchronize
the video decoder timing with that of the NTSC/PAL encoder Vsync timing (75,000 bytes). On the
‘AV7110, an API is provided to allow user applications to synchronize the video sync pulse to the
video decoder timing at channel change. Doing so can potentially recover up to 75,000 bytes (15Mbps
x 40msecs) of storage space for OSD usage. When Vsync reset is activated, the display during channel
change is always blank.
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7.7.2 Split Video Input Buffer
It is also possible to split the video input buffer between DRAM and SDRAM to increase the amount of
SDRAM space available for OSD display. When this mode is selected, the DRAM portion is only used
as an overflow buffer. When the allocated buffer space in the SDRAM is full, the incoming data is
written directly to the DRAM. As soon as memory space is available in the SDRAM, the data is
transferred from the DRAM to the SDRAM via DMA automatically. Once the overflow buffer in the
DRAM has been emptied, incoming data is written directly to the SDRAM again. The video decoder
always takes data from the SDRAM. The size of the buffers in each area of memory is under API
control. At least 107 KBytes of the Video Input Buffer must be located in the SDRAM for the video
decoder to operate properly. The minimum total VBV buffer size required from combined SDRAM
and DRAM is 356,376 Bytes. The split should be changed only when the decoder is inactive to avoid
loss of data. A dedicated DMA channel is used for the automatic transfer of data from the DRAM to
SDRAM to implement this split buffer scheme. Table 16 shows the maximum amount of memory (in
bytes) that can be made available for OSD applications when the video input buffer is split off to the
DRAM (1Mbits and 1.5Mbits shown) on the extension bus.
Table 16. Target OSD Memory Space in SDRAM (in Bytes)
internal
display
sync
NO
YES
YES
YES
Decoder Options
Video Input Buffer split
SDRAM
356,376
356,376
225,304
159,768
DRAM
0
0
131,072
196,608
Max OSD space with a 16Mbit SDRAM
Letterbox 3/5 ratio
Letterbox 3/4 ratio
Normal Display
0.78 B frame
0.72 B frame
0.6 B frame
N/A
37,241
168,313
233,849
N/A
74,566
205,638
271,174
74,216
149,216
280,288
345,824
7.8 Configuration of the Video Decoder
7.8.1 Configuration of video display format
The ‘AV7110 processes video with aspect ratios of 4:3, 16:9, and 2.21:1. It also supports the display
aspect ratio of 4:3 and 16:9. Figure 10 details the various display formats supported by the ‘AV7110,
and the application can select the specific format using API.
The following 3 flags, controlled by the API, are used to define the specific display format.
16:9_DISPLAY:
This flag can only be set during power up; because setting this flag causes an
automatic hardware reset.
0: 4:3 display device, default value
1: 16:9 display device
DIS_PAN_SCAN:
This flag can be set at any time and it takes effect at the next sequence start.
0: [default value] Apply Pan_Scan mode when the source video is 2.21:1,
or when the source video is 16:9 and the display device is specified as 4:3.
1: [Letterbox mode] Selects letterbox display when the source video is 16:9
and the display is 4:3 or when the source video is 2.21 and the display is
16:9. If the source video is 2.21 and the display is 4:3, the specific display
depends on the flag LB_PAN_SCAN
This flag only applies to the case where the source is 2.21:1 and the output is
4:3
0: letterbox display only, default value
1: apply pan and scan followed by letterbox display
LB_PAN_SCAN:
7.8.2 True Size Display Mode
The MPEG-2 bit stream contains two types of image size information; the encoded source image size
and the active display size. Typically, these two sizes are equal. The size information specified by the
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output display device is usually equal to the largest allowable source image, 720 pixels by 576 lines, as
defined by the MPEG-2 main profile main level. In the ‘AV7110, the application software must specify
whether the display should follow active display size, the true size display mode, or the full screen
output display size, the default mode. An API is available for setting the TS_DISP flag to indicate true
size display mode, the specified OSD window to host true size video, and the location of the true size
display (X Y) The X value indicates left, right, or middle justification, whereas the Y value indicates
top, middle, or bottom. The true size display API takes effect at the start of the next video sequence.
In full screen output display size, the default mode, the active display size information is ignored. The
video decoder automatically adjusts the encoder source image size to the full screen of the display
device. During the parsing of the active display size, the video decoder always checks the TS_DISP
flag. If it is set, then the following sequence of actions occurs:
A. The video decoder compares the active display size against the previous display size; which
normally is the full screen size. If they are different, issue a FIQ interrupt to the ARM with
interrupt status register indicating that the active display size is different from previous display size.
If they are the same continue decoding.
B. The video FIQ interrupt service routine (ISR) reads the active display size from its fixed SDRAM
location. If the active display size equals the full screen size, the ISR issues TS_display_off to the
video decoder and disables the corresponding OSD window. If the size is different, then the ISR
sets up an OSD window with the active display size and adjusts the window to the location
specified by the (X, Y) pair defined above.
C. The interrupt service routine then issues the command, TS_display_on, to the video decoder to
start the True Size display mode.
D. Upon receiving the command, the video decoder turns off the automatic size conversion process
and only sends the number of pixels equivalent to the active display size to the OSD window
starting from the next available picture. The video decoder also converts aspect ratio, if needed,
with the active display size as the target size.
7.8.3 Video display synchronization mode
A 2-bit flag, SYNC_MODE, is used to specify the synchronization method for the video decoder. This
flag can be set by API as part of the channel switch initialization process. The meaning of this flag is
defined as follows:
SYNC_MODE
Set by API during channel change
00: default value, apply PTS based synchronization
01: free run, disable all synchronization
11: synchronization based on VBV delay of each picture and disable PTS
synchroniation
10: reserved
7.8.4 Vsync reset and split VBV buffer
The VSYNC_RESET and the VBV_SPLIT flags control the on or off status of vsync reset and split
VBV buffer modes, respectively. These two flags are specified by APIs during the hardware reset
initialization. The value “1” indicates the mode is ON, and the value”0” indicates OFF. The default of
these flags is “0”. When the VSYNC_RESET is ON, the screen always goes blank for 2 or 3 frames
during channel change. If the VBV_SPLIT mode is selected, the same API should also provide the size
allocated in the SDRAM, which should not be smaller than 107 Kbytes.
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8. OSD & Graphics Acceleration
8.1 OSD
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Supports up to eight hardware windows, one of which can be used for a cursor
Displays the nonoverlapped windows simultaneously
Displays overlapped windows obstructively with the highest priority window on top
Provides a hardware window-based cursor with programmable size, shape, color (two colors) and
blinking frequency
Provides a programmable background color, which defaults to black
Supports four window formats:
• empty window for decimated video
• bitmap
• YCrCb 4:4:4 graphics component
• YCrCb 4:2:2 CCIR 601 component
Supports blending of bitmap, YCrCb 4:4:4, or YCrCb 4:2:2 with motion video and with an empty
window
Supports window mode and color mode blending
Provides a programmable, Color Look Up table (CLUT) with 256 entries.
Outputs motion video or mixture with OSD in a programmable, 4:2:2 digital component format
Provides motion video or mixture with OSD to the on-chip NTSC/PAL encoder
Each hardware window has the following attributes:
• window position: any even pixel horizontal position on screen; windows with decimated
video have to start from an even numbered video line also
• window size: from 2 to 720 pixel wide (even values only) and from 1 to 576 lines
• window base address
• data format: bitmap, YCrCb 4:4:4, YCrCb 4:2:2, and empty
• bitmap resolution: 1, 2, 4, and 8 bits per pixel
• full or half resolution for bitmap and YCrCb 4:4:4 windows
• bitmap color palette base address
• blend enable flag
• 4 or 16 levels of blending
• transparency enable flag for YCrCb 4:4:4 and YCrCb 4:2:2
• output channel control
Provides graphics acceleration capability with bitBLT hardware
8.1.1 Description
The OSD module handles OSD data from different OSD windows and blends it with the video. It
accepts video from the Video Decoder, reads OSD data from SDRAM, and produces three sets of video
output: two go to the on-chip PAL/NTSC Encoder and another set to the digital output that goes off
chip. Contents of these three sets of video output can be individually chosen. The OSD module defaults
to standby mode, in which it simply sends video from the Video Decoder to all outputs. After being
configured and activated by the ARM CPU, the OSD module reads OSD data and mixes it with the
video output. The CPU is responsible for turning on and off OSD operations. The BitBlt hardware
which is attached to the OSD module provides acceleration for memory block moves and graphics
operations. Figure 12 shows the block diagram of the OSD module. The various functions of the OSD
are described in the following subsections.
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OSD
Data
OSD
Component Latch
FIFO
Video
Decoder
Revision 3.1
Analogue
CVBS
Analogue
RGB
Ch0
Ch2
CLUT and
Window Attributes
Video
Component Latch
Ch1
Output
Channel Selection
Blending
Window
Selection
X position
Y position
Digital
Y/C
Display
Control
Figure 12. OSD Module Block Diagram
8.1.2 OSD data storage
The OSD data has variable size. In the bitmap mode, each pixel can be 1, 2, 4, or 8 bits wide. In the
graphics YCrCb 4:4:4 or CCIR 601 YCrCb 4:2:2 modes, it takes 8-bit per components, and the
components are arranged according to 4:4:4 (Cb/Y/Cr/Cb/Y/Cr …) or 4:2:2 (Cb/Y/Cr/Y …) format. In
the case where RGB graphics data needs to be used as OSD, the application should perform software
conversion to Y/Cr/Cb before storing it. The OSD data is always packed into 32-bit words and left
justified. Starting from the upper left corner of the OSD window, all data is packed into adjacent 32-bit
words. The dedicated bitBLT hardware expedites the packing and unpacking of OSD data. This allows
the ARM to access individual pixels using an internal shifter within the OSD module.
Table 17 shows the fraction of a full size OSD window (720 x 576) supported by the available SDRAM
OSD space. This assumes that the decoded B picture is in normal display mode (non letterbox).
Table 17. SDRAM OSD Window Size
Decoder Options
internal
Video Input Buffer split
display sync SDRAM
DRAM
NO
356,376
0
YES
356,376
0
YES
225,304
131,072
YES
159,768
196,608
Fraction of a full-size OSD window supported
B
OSD window resolution (bits/pel)
storage
24
8
4
2
Full-res
0.06
0.18
0.36
0.72
Half-res
0.21
0.63
1.26
2.51
Full-res
0.12
0.36
0.72
1.44
Half-res
0.27
0.81
1.62
3.24
Full-res
0.27
0.81
1.62
3.24
Half-res
0.38
1.13
2.25
4.50
Full-res
0.28
0.83
1.67
3.34
Half-res
0.43
1.28
2.57
5.14
8.2 Setting Up an OSD Window
An OSD window is defined by its attributes. Besides storing OSD data for a window into SDRAM, the
application program also needs to update window attributes and other setup in the OSD module as
described in the following subsections.
8.2.1 CAM Memory
The CAM memory contains X and Y locations of the upper left and lower right corners of each
window. The application program needs to set up the CAM and enable selected OSD windows. The
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priority of each window is determined by its location in the CAM. That is, the lower address window
always has higher priority. In order to swap the priority of windows, the ARM has to exchange the
locations within the CAM.
8.2.2 Window Attribute Memory
The OSD module keeps a local copy of window attributes. These attributes allow the OSD module to
calculate the address for the OSD data, extract pixels of the proper size, control the blending factor, and
select the output channel.
8.2.3 Color Look Up Table
Before using bitmap OSD, the application program has to initialize the 256 entry color look up table
(CLUT). The CLUT is mainly used to convert bitmap data into Y/Cr/Cb components. Since bitmap
pixels can have either 1, 2, 4, or 8 bits, the whole CLUT can also be programmed to contain segments
of smaller size tables, such as sixteen separate 16-entry CLUTs.
8.2.4 Blending and Transparency
Bitmap or graphic 4:4:4 or 4:2:2 displays may be blended with an MPEG video display when they
overlap the video display or with the background color when they do not overlap an MPEG window. If
window blending is enabled, the amount of blending is determined by a blend factor. Table 18 indicates
the supported blending levels.
Color blending on the pixel level is also supported. This feature is available for the bitmap displays
only. If color blending is enabled, the amount of blending of each pixel is determined by the LSB of the
chrominance components of the pixel itself: in other words, the blend factor of a pixel corresponds to
the LSB of the Cb and Cr values that are stored in the CLUT entry corresponding to that pixel. As
shown in Table 18, window blending supports 16 different levels, whereas color blending can support
either 4 or 16 levels, according to the selected blending mode.
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Table 18. Blending Levels
Blending
Type
WindowB16
Window
Blend
Factor
don’t
care
don’t
care
don’t
care
don’t
care
don’t
care
don’t
care
don’t
care
don’t
care
don’t
care
don’t
care
don’t
care
don’t
care
0
WindowB16
0≤N≤15
WindowB16
15
NoBlend
ColorB4
ColorB4
ColorB4
ColorB4
ColorB16
ColorB16
ColorB16
ColorB16
ColorB16
ColorB16
ColorB16
Cb[0]
Cr[0]
Cb[1]
Cr[1]
OSD window
contribution
MPEG Video
contribution
don’t
care
0
don’t
care
0
0
1/4
3/4
1
1/2
1/2
1
0
3/4
1/4
1
1
1 (Opaque)
0
0
0
don’t
care
don’t
care
don’t
care
don’t
care
don’t
care
0
1
0
don’t
care
don’t
care
don’t
care
don’t
care
don’t
care
0
1/16
15/16
0
0
0
1
1/8
7/8
0
0
1
0
3/16
13/16
0
0
1
1
1/4
3/4
0
1
0
0
5/16
11/16
...
...
...
...
...
...
1
1
1
1
1 (Opaque)
0
don’t
care
don’t
care
don’t
care
don’t
care
don’t
care
don’t
care
don’t
care
don’t
care
don’t
care
don’t
care
don’t
care
don’t
care
1/16
15/16
(N+1)/16
(15−N)/16
1 (Opaque)
0
The hardware also supports a transparency mode with bitmap, graphic 4:4:4 or 4:2:2 displays. If
transparency is enabled, then any pixel on the graphic or bitmap display that has a value of 0 allows
video to be displayed. Essentially, 0 valued pixels are considered the transparent color, i.e. the MPEG
video underneath or the background color will show through the bitmap. Table 19 shows the connection
between transparency and blending on the same window.
Table 19. Blending and transparency
Transparency
Enable
Blending
Type
0
NoBlend
0
ColorB4
0
ColorB16
0
1
WindowB16
NoBlend
1
ColorB4
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Window
Blend
Factor
don’t
care
don’t
care
don’t
care
0→15
don’t
care
don’t
care
OSD window
contribution
MPEG Video contribution
1
0
depending on Cb0 and Cr0
depending on Cb0 and Cr0
depending on
Cb0,Cr0,Cb1,Cr1
depending on blend factor
0 if pixel value = 0
1 if pixel value ≠ 0
0 if pixel value = 0
else
depending on
Cb0,Cr0,Cb1,Cr1
depending on blend factor
1 if pixel value = 0
0 if pixel value ≠ 0
1 if pixel value = 0
else
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Transparency
Enable
Blending
Type
Window
Blend
Factor
1
ColorB16
don’t
care
1
WindowB16
0→15
Revision 3.1
OSD window
contribution
MPEG Video contribution
depending on Cb0 and Cr0
0 if pixel value = 0
else
depending on
Cb0,Cr0,Cb1,Cr1
0 if pixel value = 0
else
depending on blend factor
depending on Cb0 and Cr0
1 if pixel value = 0
else
depending on
Cb0,Cr0,Cb1,Cr1
1 if pixel value = 0
else
depending on blend factor
8.2.5 Hardware Cursor
A shape programmable cursor of up to a 32x24 pixels (if two colors; 64x24 pixels if single color)
rectangular area is provided using hardware window 0. With window 0, the cursor always appears on
top of other OSD Windows. The size, color (up to two), shape, and the blinking frequency of the cursor
can be specified via APIs. Furthermore, APIs are also provided to enable vertical (i.e., over the X-axis)
mirroring and/or 2x horizontal stretching of the cursor, effectively creating a cursor of up to 64x48
pixels (if two colors; 128x48 pixels if single color). When hardware window 0 is designated as the
cursor, only seven windows are available for the application. If a hardware cursor is not used, then the
application can use window 0 as a regular hardware window.
8.2.6 Output Channels
When an OSD window is enabled, it has an attribute, Disp_Ch_Cntl[2:0], that defines the output
channel on which the window is displayed. The signal OSD_ACTIVE is asserted for the duration when
an OSD window is being output on the RGB outputs. With an appropriate external delay element, this
signal can be used to control an external analog switch to mix the OSD graphics generated by the
‘AV7110 with external analog video source. The side effect of enabling OSD_ACTIVE is that the
CVBS will no longer be valid. Figure 13 shows the connections for synchronization and mixing of
OSD with external analog video data.
OSD_ACTIVE
OSD
27 MHz
RGB
‘AV7110
*
VSYNC
HSYNC
*
External
Analog
Switch
CVBS
Analog
Video
* The horizontal blanking delay of RGB (see Section 17.1 for
timing) and Analog Video may be different. In that case the user
needs to provide external delay to synchronize these two signals.
Figure 13. Using the OSD_ACTIVE Signal for External Analog Video
The following table shows how to control the output channels:
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Table 20. OSD Module Output Channel Control
Disp_Ch_Cntl
[2:0]
000
001
010
011
100
101
110
111
Channel 2 (4:4:4)
to Analog RGB matrix
MPEG Video
MPEG Video
MPEG Video
MPEG Video
Mixed OSD Window
Mixed OSD Window
Mixed OSD Window
Mixed OSD Window
Channel 1 (4:2:2)
to Digital Video Output
MPEG Video
MPEG Video
Mixed OSD Window
Mixed OSD Window
MPEG Video
MPEG Video
Mixed OSD Window
Mixed OSD Window
Channel 0 (4:2:2)
to PAL/NTSC Encoder
MPEG Video
Mixed OSD Window
MPEG Video
Mixed OSD Window
MPEG Video
Mixed OSD Window
MPEG Video
Mixed OSD Window
When windows are overlapping, it is not possible to view both complete windows on separate output
channels. For example, Figure 14 shows the display modes which are allowed between any two
channels (Channel 0 and Channel 1 in this example).
Video Only
Ch0 NTSC/PAL
Encoder Outputs
Full OSD picture
W1
Non-overlapped
OSD
W3
W3
**
Bottom of
Overlapped OSD
W1
W2
W2
Ch1 Digital video
Output
W4
Video Only
W1
W4
YES
YES
YES
YES
YES
YES
YES
NO
YES
YES
YES
NO
YES
YES
YES
NO
W3
W2
Full OSD
picture
W4
W3
Nonoverlapped
OSD
W2
W4
Top of
Overlapped
OSD
W2
** W2 has to be disabled in this case..
Figure 14. OSD Output Channels Matrix
8.3 The BitBLT hardware
The bitBLT hardware provides a faster way to move a block of memory from one space to the other. It
reads data from a source location, performs shift/mask/merge/expand operations on the data, and finally
writes it to a destination location. This hardware enables the following graphics functions:
•
•
•
Set/Get Pixel
Horizontal/Vertical Line Drawing
Block Fill
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•
•
•
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Revision 3.1
Font BitBLTing
Bitmap/graphic BitBLTing
Transparency
8.3.1 Sources and Destinations
The allowable source and destination memories for bitBLT are defined in Table 21.
Table 21. Source and Destination Memories for BitBLT
Source Memory
Destination Memory
SDRAM
Ext_Bus Memory
SDRAM
YES
YES
Ext_Bus Memory
YES
YES
8.3.2 Source and Destination Window Formats
The types of source and destination OSD windows supported by the bitBLT are the given in the
following table (HR stands for half horizontal resolution).
Table 22. Allowable BitBLT Window Formats
Source OSD Window
Destination OSD Window
YCrCb 4:4:4
YCrCb 4:4:4
YES
YCrCb
4:4:4_HR
YES
YCrCb
4:2:2
NO
Bitmap
Bitmap_HR
NO
NO
YCrCb 4:4:4_HR
YES
YES
NO
NO
NO
YCrCb 4:2:2
NO
NO
YES
NO
NO
Bitmap
YES
YES
NO
YES
YES
Bitmap_HR
YES
YES
NO
YES
YES
Since the bitmap allows resolutions of 1, 2, 4, or 8 bits per pixel, the bitBLT will drop the most
significant bits or pad with 0s when swapping between windows of different resolution. For half
horizontal resolution OSD, the horizontal pixel dimension must be even numbers. For YCrCb 4:2:2
data, the drawing operation is always on 32-bit words, two adjacent pixels that align with the word
boundary.
8.3.3 Transparency
In a block move operation, the block of data may also be made transparent to allow text or graphic
overlay. The pixels of the source data are combined with the pixels of the destination data. When
transparency is turned on and the value of the source pixel is non-zero, the pixel is written to the
destination. When the value of the pixel is zero, the destination pixel remains unchanged.
Transparency is only allowed from bitmap to bitmap, and from bitmap to YCrCb 4:4:4.
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9. Video Output Interfaces
9.1 Analog Video Output - NTSC/PAL Encoder module
• Supports NTSC and PAL B, D, G/H, and I display formats
• Outputs Y/C or RGB, and Composite video with 9-bit DACs
• Generates 100/75 format color bar for PAL mode testing
• Complies to the RS170A standard
• Composite and RGB signals comply with ITU-R BT. 470-3 and ITU-R BT. 471-1
• Supports MacroVision Anti-taping function on composite video
• Provides sync signals with option to accept external sync signals
The composite video output can be either PAL or NTSC format . The default output format at powerup
is PAL. Changing between NTSC and PAL mode can be done via an API which selects the output
mode of the NTSC/PAL encoder. Note that the Video decoder microcode ROM is specific to NTSC or
PAL and required for proper operation.
In addition to composite video, the ‘AV7110 also provides either an analog S-video (Y - Luminance, C
- Chrominance) signal or an analog RGB output with 720 pixel resolution. These signals share pins on
the ‘AV7110. All outputs conform to the RS170A standard. Table 23 shows the various combinations
of signals available at the output pins. Selection of output is done via application accessible API.
Table 23. Multiplexed Video Output Definitions
Pin Name
Video Signal Output onto Pin
CASE 1
CASE 2
CASE 3
CASE 4
Y/COMP_OUT
Composite
Composite
Composite
R/C_OUT
Red
---
G/Y_OUT
Green
---
B_OUT
Blue
Chrominance
(C)
Luminance
(Y)
---
Luminance
(Y)
Chrominance
(C)
---
---
---
The video synchronization signal pins VSYNC and HSYNC on the ‘AV7110 are digital outputs that
default to tri-state mode at power up. Internally generated synchronization signals are used by the
NTSC/PAL encoder. The user can select the source of video sync signals via an API. If internal source
is selected then the VSYNC and HSYNC pins are configured as output pins. In RGB output mode, the
horizontal blanking region is programmable via API and has a range with respect to the Composite
output of ± 81 clock cycles (± 1 µsec) from the default value.
MacroVision™ version 7.01 is enabled via an API; the default state is off. A version of the ‘AV7110
where the MacroVision anti-taping circuitry is permanently disabled is also available.
9.2 Teletext and Wide Screen Signaling (WSS) Insertion (PAL mode
only)
9.2.1 Teletext insertion into PAL CVBS
The ‘AV7110 supports the insertion of a Teletext signal onto PAL CVBS. Teletext data is transmitted
in PES packets. The ARM is responsible for processing the PES packets and saving them in memory
until they are needed by the OSD module.
• Teletext is inserted into TV lines 7-22 and 320-335 as specified in the ‘line offset’ field of the PES
data field
• Teletext is only inserted into the analog CVBS signal.
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• The clock period of the Teletext data should be 144nsec ± 5%
• Teletext transmission in DVB is covered by document ETS 300 472
• The Teletext bit rate is 6.9375MHz ± 100ppm.
• Teletext data starts at 10.2 µSec after the leading edge of the horizontal synchronization
pulse
• Teletext insertion conforms to the EBU Teletext spec ITU-R rec. 653 system B
• Each Teletext line contains 45 bytes of data
• 16 bits of clock run in, generated in the ‘AV7110
• 43 bytes of data from the PES payload
• Teletext is only inserted in PAL mode
9.2.2 WSS insertion into CVBS
• WSS data is inserted into TV line 23 only
• WSS transmission is specified in ESTI standard 300 294, ‘Television systems 625-line television
wide screen signaling (WSS)
• WSS is only inserted in PAL mode.
• WSS is only inserted into analog CVBS
• WSS data clock frequency is 5MHz ± 5%
9.2.3 Insertion mode
An API is provided for the user to select if the Teletext signal is to be inserted internally or externally.
WSS can only be inserted internally. Teletext data resolution in the composite signal for internal
insertion and on the TEXTEN pin for external insertion is 27MHz.
Internal insertion: The Teletext and WSS data are inserted by the on-chip NTSC/PAL encoder into
the analog CVBS signal.
External insertion: The Teletext signal is externally inserted via an external video encoder that has
Teletext insertion capability. To allow this mode of operation, the Teletext signal is always output on
the TEXTEN pin. The video signal on the digital out (YCOUT[7:0]) and the Teletext signal on
TEXTEN are compliant with Philips™ SA7182/3 digital video encoder’s input requirements.
Note that the external insertion option is not available if the 32-bit EBI mode is used due to pin
multiplexing. Figure 15 shows external insertion of the Teletext signal.
TEXTEN
‘AV7110
YCOUT[7:0]
YCCLK
External Video
encoder
(w/Teletext in)
e.g., Philips’
SAA7182/3
CVBS
Figure 15. External Insertion of Teletext signal
9.3 Closed Caption, Extended Data Services, and Video Aspect Ratio
Identification Signal Insertion (NTSC mode only)
Closed Caption (CC) and Extended Data Services (EDS) are transmitted as picture layer user data.
The video decoder extracts the CC and EDS information from the video bit-stream and sends it to the
NTSC/PAL encoder module.
The video decoder also extracts the aspect ratio from the bit-stream and sends it to the ARM which
prepares data according to the Video Aspect Ratio Identification Signal (VARIS) standard, EIAJ CPX 1204. The ARM then sends the code to the NTSC/PAL encoder to insert CC data into the analog or
digital video output.
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The CC is inserted as ASCII code into the 21st video line; VARIS codes into the 20th video line for
NTSC. An API is available to enable or disable the insertion.
9.4 Digital Video Output
NOTE: This interface is not supported when 32-bit EBI is used due to multiplexed signals.
A programmable blanking region is available which has a programmable range of +32/-31 YCCLK
cycles from the default value (Default = 248 cycles for PAL) and is configurable via API. Figure 16
shows this region for 4:2:2 digital video output. Note that this programmability does not affect the
Analog video output signals of the ‘AV7110. For that the user must use the Analog video output
programmable features described in section 9.1.
Programmable Region
YCCLK
@27MHz
4:2:2
YCOUT
HSYNC
Cb
Y
Cr
Y
Cb
Y
4:2:2 Mode
Figure 16. Digital Video Output Timing
9.4.1 PAL Mode Digital Video Output
The digital output is in 4:2:2 component format. The content of the video could be either pure video or
the blended combination of video and OSD.
The pin assignments for the digital video output signals are:
YCOUT(8)
YCCLK(1)
8-bit Cb/Y/Cr/Y data output
27 MHz clock output
9.4.2 NTSC Mode Digital Video Output
The digital output includes video in either 4:4:4 or 4:2:2 component format, plus the aspect ratio
VARIS code at the beginning of each video frame. The video output format is programmable by the
user but defaults to 4:2:2. The content of the video could be either pure video or the blended
combination of video and OSD.
The pin assignments for the digital video output signals are as follows:
YCOUT(8)
YCCLK(1)
YCCTRL(2)
8-bit Cb/Y/Cr/Y and VARIS multiplexed data output
27 MHz clock output
2-bit control signals to distinguish between Y/Cb/Cr components and
VARIS code
The interpretation of YCCTRL is defined in the following table.
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Table 24. Digital Output Control
SIGNALS
Component Y
Component Cb
Component Cr
VARIS code
YCCTRL[1]
0
0
1
1
YCCTRL[0]
0
1
0
1
The aspect ratio VARIS code includes 14 bits of data plus a 6-bit CRC, to make a total of 20 bits. In
NTSC the 14-bit data is specified as shown in Table 25.
Table 25. VARIS Code Specification
Bit Number
Word0 A
Word0 B
Contents
1
Communication aspect ratio: 1 = full mode (16:9), 0 = 4:3
2
Picture display system: 1 = letter box, 0 = normal
3
Not used
Identifying information for the picture and other signals (sound signals)
that are related to the picture transmitted simultaneously
Word1
4
5
6
4-bit range
Identification code associated to Word0
Word2
4-bit range
Identification code associated to Word0 and other information
The 6-bit CRC is calculated, with the preset value to be 63, based on the equation
6
G(X) = X + X + 1.
The 20-bit code is further packaged into 3 bytes according to the following format.
Table 26. Three Byte VARIS Code
1st Byte
b7
b6
---
---
2nd Byte
3rd Byte
b5
b4
b3
b2
Word0 B
b0
Word0 A
Word2
VID_
EN
b1
Word1
---
CRC
The three byte VARIS code is constructed by the ARM as part of the initialization process. The code is
transmitted during the non-active video line starting from the 1st byte. The application can set the
VID_EN bit that signals the NTSC/PAL encoder to enable (1) or disable (0) the VARIS code. The
value of the Aspect Ratio bit depends on the setup of ‘AV7110 video output and the source bit stream
as shown in the Table 27. The application can change the video output format using an software API
call.
Table 27. Coding of Aspect Ratio in the VARIS Code
Source 4:3
Source 16:9
Video Out 4:3
4:3
4:3
Video Out 16:9
4:3
16:9
The timing of the VARIS output based on a 27 MHz clock is shown in the timing diagrams in Section
17.1. The timing of both 4:4:4 and 4:2:2 digital video output formats is also described there.
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10. Audio Decoder
10.1 Features
• Decodes MPEG audio layers I and II
• Supports all MPEG-1 and MPEG-2 data rates and sampling frequencies
• Provides automatic audio synchronization
• Supports 16- and 18-bit PCM data
• Outputs in both PCM and SPDIF formats
• Provides error concealment (by muting) for synchronization or bit errors
• Provides frame-by-frame status information
• Supports half-frequency modes
• Supports playback of 16-bit PCM data (PCM bypass), audio elementary stream, and audio PES
• Provides read/write accesses to audio input buffers’ read/write pointers
The audio module receives MPEG compressed audio data from the TC, decodes it, and outputs audio
samples in PCM format. APIs are provided for the ARM CPU to initialize/control the audio decoder
via a control register and to read status information from the decoder’s status register.
Audio frame data and PTS information are stored in the SDRAM in packet form. The audio module
decodes the packets to extract the PTS and audio data. The audio decoder uses this PTS value to
perform playback synchronization (see Section 11 for more details). The application software
determines and enables the PID of the MPEG-1 compliant bit-stream in a MPEG-2 audio program
which contains both the MPEG-1 compliant bit-stream and the MPEG-2 extension bit-stream.
The ARM can control the operation of the audio module via a 32-bit control register. The ARM may
reset or mute the audio decoder, select the output precision and over-sampling ratio, and choose the
output format for dual channel mode. The ARM can read status information from the audio module.
One (32-bit) register provides the MPEG header information and sync, CRC, and PCM status.
The audio module has two 32-bit registers: a read/write control register and a read-only status register.
The registers are defined in Table 28.
Table 28. Audio Module Registers
Register #
0
(Control
Register R/W)
Location
31:22
21
20
19
18
17
16
15:9
8
0 (cont.)
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7:4
Description
Reserved (set to 0)
Disable Sync
0 = Enable sync
1 = Disable sync
Byte Swap
0 = No swap (bypass PCM data is in Little Endian)
1 = Swap bytes (bypass PCM data is in Big Endian)
Elementary Stream Playback
0 = Off (normal operation)
1 = On, incoming data goes directly to audio decoder,
bypassing the AFE
PCM Bypass
0 = Disable bypass (normal operation)
1 = Enable bypass of AFE and audio decoder
Copyright Bit Auto-Update Enable:
0 = Allows software to write to bit 16
1 = Bit 16 is updated from the MPEG header
See bit 17 above. (this bit is output through SPDIF)
category (programmed by user, output through SPDIF)
PCM Clock source select (PCMSRC) defaults to 0 for Internal
PLL
Output format select (also called PCMSEL[3:0])
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Register #
Location
(Control
Register R/W)
3:2
1
0
1
31
(Status
Register R only)
30:29
28:27
26
25
24
23:4
3:0
Revision 3.1
Description
See Table 29
Dual Channel Mode Output Mode Select
00 = Ch 0 on left, Ch 1 on right
01 = Ch 0 on both left and right
10 = Ch 1 on both left and right
11 = Reserved
Mute
0 = Normal operation
1 = Mute audio output
Reset
0 = Normal operation
1 = Reset audio module
Stereo Mode
0 = All other
1 = Dual mode
MPEG-1 Sampling Frequency [kHz]
MPEG ID (bit 23) = 1
MPEG ID (bit 23) = 0
00 = 44.1
= 22.05
01 = 48.0
= 24.0
10 = 32.0
= 16.0
11 = Reserved
= Reserved
De-emphasis Mode
00 = None
01 = 50/15 microseconds
10 = Reserved
11 = CCITT J.17
Synchronization Mode
0 = Normal operation
1 = Sync recovery mode
CRC Error
0 = No CRC error or CRC not enabled in bit-stream
1 = CRC error found
PCM Underflow
0 = Normal operation
1 = PCM output underflowed
MPEG header without sync word
bit(s) 23 = ID bit
(equals SAMPFREQ[2])
22:21 = Layer
20 = Protection bit
19:16 = Bitrate index
15:14 = Sampling frequency (equal SAMPFREQ[1:0])
13 = Padding bit
12 = Private bit
11:10 = Mode
9: 8 = Mode extension
7 = Copyright
6 = Original/home
5: 4 = Emphasis
Reserved
10.2 PCM Audio Output
The PCM audio output from the ‘AV7110 is a serial PCM data line, with associated Bit Clock
(ASCLK) and left/right clock (LRCLK). PCM data is output serially on PCMOUT using the serial
clock ASCLK, as shown in Figure 17. The data output of PCMOUT alternates between the two
channels, as designated by LRCLK. The data is output most significant bit first. In the case of 18-bit
output, the PCM word size is 24 bits. The first six bits are zero, followed by the 18-bit PCM value.
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ASCLK
50 ns
LRCLK
50 ns
PCMOUT
Left Bit 15
Left Bit 14
Left Bit 0
Right Bit 15
Right Bit 14
Figure 17. PCM Output Timing (16-bit PCM format)
Since the audio sampling frequency may change from one audio frame to another, whenever the
frequency changes, the audio decoder soft mutes its output for one audio frame and notifies the ARM
processor of the change in sampling frequency via an FIQ. Table 29 shows the SAMPFREQ and
PCMSEL values that are not reserved. Any not defined there should be set to 0. The output PCM
format and the over-sampling ratio between PCMCLK and ASCLK are specified by the four-bit register
PCMSEL[3:0] which can be set via an API. The relationship between ASCLK and LRCLK is given as
follows:
16-bit PCM format:
18-bit PCM format:
ASCLK = LRCLK × 32
ASCLK = LRCLK × 48
The PCMCLK equals ASCLK if there is no over-sampling; otherwise PCMCLK equals 8x of ASCLK.
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Table 29. PCMCLK frequencies
SAMPFREQ[2:0]
(output to
external PLL)
Sampling
Frequency
(LRCLK)
PCMSEL[1]
ASCLK
(Format select)
(bit clock)
110
32 KHz
= 0 (16-bit PCM)
1.0240MHz
1.0240MHz
8.1920MHz
= 1 (18-bit PCM)
1.5360MHz
1.5360MHz
12.2880MHz
= 0 (16-bit PCM)
1.4112MHz
1.4112MHz
11.2896MHz
= 1 (18-bit PCM)
2.1168MHz
2.1168MHz
16.9344MHz
= 0 (16-bit PCM)
1.5360MHz
1.5360MHz
12.2880MHz
= 1 (18-bit PCM)
2.3040MHz *
2.3040MHz *
18.4320MHz
= 0 (16-bit PCM)
0.5120MHz
0.5120MHz
4.0960MHz
= 1 (18-bit PCM)
0.7680MHz
0.7680MHz
6.1440MHz
= 0 (16-bit PCM)
0.7056MHz
0.7056MHz
5.6448MHz
= 1 (18-bit PCM)
1.0548MHz
1.0548MHz
8.4672MHz
= 0 (16-bit PCM)
0.7680Hz
0.7680MHz
6.1440MHz
= 1 (18-bit PCM)
1.1520MHz
1.1520MHz
9.2160MHz
100
101
010
000
001
44.1KHz
48KHz *
16 KHz
22.05KHz
24KHz
PCMCLK
PCMSEL[0] = 0 PCMSEL[0] = 1
(no over-sampling)
(8X oversampled)
* This is the Power on Default settings
10.2.1 Using an External Audio PLL
Either the internal PLL or an external PLL may be used based on the setting of the PCMSRC bit of the
Control Register (bit 8). If an External Audio PLL is used, the PCMCLK must be input to the device
from the external clock source. Depending on how the external PLL is connected to the ‘AV7110, the
control signals can either be sent via the extension bus interface (EBI - Section 12) or the I2C interface
(Section 14.8). According to these control signals the external audio PLL should adjust the clock
PCMCLK to that shown in Table 29. In the event the audio sampling frequency changes from one
audio frame to the next, an IRQ can be generated and the application software has the opportunity to
update the settings of the external PLL according to the setting of bits 23, 15, and 14
(SAMPFREQ[2:0]) in the audio status register.
10.3 PCM Bypass
The audio decoder has a PCM-bypass feature that allows 16-bit PCM data to be loaded into the audio
buffer and pass through the decoder to the PCMDATA output. Half-Sampling is not supported in PCM
Bypass mode. If PCM data is at 96KHz sampling frequency, it is necessary for the application software
(in conjunction with API’s) to first down sample the data to 48KHz or lower. On output, if the 18-bit
output data format is selected (see Table 29), the 16-bit bypass PCM data is padded with one zeroes on
the LSB end, and six zeroes on the MSB end.
API’s are provided to set up the audio decoder in the bypass mode and to obtain the start and end
addresses of the audio buffer in the SDRAM. User software can use these API routines to load PCM
data directly into the audio buffer. The input PCM data transfer can be carried out via the Extension
Bus Interface (Section 12) or via the 1394 interface (through the SRAM, then DMA; see Section 13.1).
The PCM data must be first reordered by the user into: 2 bytes left, 2 bytes right, 2 bytes left, etc., prior
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to the transfer. For each two bytes (left or right), the most significant byte is loaded first (Little Endian
data format). The front end of the audio decoder is also capable of performing byte swapping if the
PCM data is in the Big Endian format. This feature can be activated together with the PCM-bypass
mode through an API. If an incomplete block is loaded at the end, the entire block is not output. PCM
data starts to output after four blocks (512 bytes) have been loaded. To change back to compress-data
input, the audio decoder must be reset via an API.
10.4 Elementary Stream Playback
In normal operation, the audio decoder front end (Audio Front end, AFE) expects audio PES packets
from the TPP and performs synchronization and time stamp extraction. It is also possible to turn the
front end processing off through an API so that audio elementary stream can be fed directly to the
decoder, bypassing the front end processing. However, in such a case, user software will be completely
responsible for audio/video synchronization.
10.5 SPDIF Audio Output
The SPDIF output conforms to the consumer format of the AES3 standard for serial transmission of
digital audio data. When using an external PLL (PCMSRC=1), SPDIF is supported only if 8X oversampled PCMCLK is supplied (i.e., PCMSEL[0]=1). The validation bit is disabled prior to muting the
output during channel change or a Sample Frequency change. During Sample frequency change, the
SPDIF output is invalid. The External SPDIF decoder should recognize this and mute the output. It’s
PLL is expected to recover automatically when the new frequency is achieved.
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11. Synchronization
The ‘AV7110 uses the System Time Clock (STC) and Presentation Time Stamp (PTS) to determine the
playback time of the decoded audio and video data. The relationship between STC and PTS is
determined at the time of the generation of the respective elementary streams (ES). Upon reception, the
de-multiplexing software in the ‘AV7110 extracts the video PTS and inserts it in an array of PTS and
byte-count information maintained for the video decoder. For the audio, the PTS information is
extracted by the audio decoder front end from the PES. The Video decoder contains an STC counter
that is clocked by the system clock (27 MHz.) and normalized to a 90 KHz reference. The audio
decoder does not contain a counter. Instead, it gets updated from the system time reference counter
every 1.4 msec.
11.1 System Time Clock
The system reference counter is a 42 bit hardware/software hybrid counter as shown in Table 30.
Table 30. System time clock model
Bit 41 - 16
Software extension
Bit 15 - 9
Hardware counter (90 KHz.)
Bit 8 - 0
Hardware counter (27 MHz)
rollover at count of 300
A copy of the full 42 bit counter is kept in a set of two software long variables (64 bits total length)
When the lower 9 bits of the hardware counter roll over, the 90 KHz hardware counter is incremented.
When the hardware counter is incremented, an FIQ is generated to the firmware. The firmware will
increment the software extension and write the value of the STCsys + offset to the audio/video decoder if
the audio/video decoder synchronization is enabled.
11.2 Startup Synchronization
At startup the hardware STC counter is free running and the increments to the software extension of the
system STC take place every 1.4 ms. Both audio and video decoders are initialized to “free-run”. This
condition is identical for system startup as well as for re-synchronization after a channel change. When
a PCR channel is activated by the application software through an API, the on-chip software monitors
the incoming data in the PCR designated channel and reset the system common reference counter
STCsys to the first PCR that arrives in the designated stream (full 42 bits). At the same time, the video
and audio STC are initialized to the same value, if they are enabled via the appropriate API calls.
11.3 Runtime Synchronization
After the initial synchronization setup, the software will monitor the incoming video PTS values and
compares them to the most recent STC. The difference between the two should not exceed a user
programmable MAX_PTS_STC_DELTA. If it does, the PTS is discarded. Otherwise the delta is stored
in a circular 8 entry array. The average value of the array is calculated according to:
PTS_DELTA_AVRG = (ΣArray[0..7]) >> 3
The value of MAX_PTS_STC_DELTA is defined by the user via a call to the API function
sysSetSyncParms().
If the absolute value of the incoming PTS exceeds a pre-determined maximum delta from the
PTS_DELTA_AVRG, the value is discarded (see Figure 18). This condition is calculated according to:
unsigned (PTS - PTS_DELTA_AVRG) <= PTS_GUARDBAND
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Discarded PTS
Guard band Delta PTS
Incoming PTS
PTS_DELTA_AVRG
Discarded PTS-s
Figure 18. PTS tracking diagram
11.4 Audio Synchronization
The audio synchronization of STC and PTS can be enabled/disabled through an API. The STC for the
audio decoder time reference is loaded by the firmware every time the System reference counter
(STCsys) “rolls over”. This roll over will occur every 26 ticks of the 90 KHz portion of the hardware
system clock counter in the ‘AV7110. This is approximately every 1.4 msec. The firmware receives an
FIQ from the counter and write STCsys + aud_offset to the STC register in the audio decoder. The value
for aud_offset is 0 by default after initialization and after audio channel change. The value for
aud_offset can be derived from either of two sources:
1.
2.
Setup by application software via syncSetStcOffset() API.
Xideo decoder signal in case of Audio-video sync (lip-sync).
11.5 Video Synchronization
The video synchronization of STC and PTS can be enabled/disabled via an API. The STC for the video
decoder is clocked by the 27 MHz. system clock. The initial value of the video STC (STCvid) is written
to the video decoder from the firmware. This happens at the time that the first PCR from the designated
PCR channel arrives at the AF. In some cases the PTS can consistently be off by a certain amount,
causing the video buffer to eventually over- or under-run. If this occurs, the firmware will detect the
under/over-runs via FIQ-s and adjust the Video STC with an offset, such that the under/over-run ceases.
The algorithm to prevent the occurrence of under-flow caused by consistent PTS < STC is based on a
monitoring of the delta (PTS - STCsys ) every time the STCsys counter rollover interrupt occurs in the
following manner:
1.
2.
The current (PTS - STC) is read from the video decoder, software registers the delta
value.
If the STCsys + GUARDBAND_VALUE > PTS twice in a row, then adjust the STC in all
the appropriate channels by STC = STC - ADJUSTMENT. In case lip-sync is enabled, the
audio STC offset is updated and a new STC value is written out to the audio STC .
The values of GUARDBAND_VALUE and ADJUSTMENT_VALUE are defined by a call to the
function sysSetSyncParms().
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In case the user wants to force a reset of the video STC reference the video STC is re-initialized with
the sum of the vid_offset + STCsys. The video_offset variable can also be set by the application
software using the syncSetStcOffset() API.
11.6 Audio-video Synchronization (lip-sync)
If audio-video synchronization is required, the user application software should use the video decoder
as the reference for both audio and video synchronization. The video decoder will synchronize itself as
described in Section 11.5. The audio STC initialization and updates, however, are done differently
from the description given in Section 11.4.
If the firmware calculates that an offset to the video STC is required as described in Section 11.5, it
stores the video offset into the aud_offset variable too.
The (STCvid) should be used as reference for STCaud. Thus, every time the STCsys rolls over, the audio
decoder update is calculated as follows:
STCaud = STCsys + aud_offset
If this offset causes the audio decoder to generate audio buffer under- or over-run, then the firmware
signals to the application software that lip-sync could not be achieved.
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12. Extension Bus Interface (EBI)
The extension bus interface is a 32-bit or 16-bit bi-directional data bus with a 25-bit address. It also
provides 3 external interrupts and a wait line. All the external memories or I/O devices are mapped to
the 32-bit address space of the ARM. There are six internally generated Chip Selects (CSx) for devices
such as EPROM memory, modem, front panel, front end control, parallel output port, and 1394 Link
device. Each CS has its own defined memory space and a programmable wait register which has a
default of maximum allowable values as defined in Table 31. The number of wait states depends on the
content of the register, with a minimum of one wait state. The EXTWAIT signal can also be used to
lengthen the access time if a slower device exists in that memory space. These are all programmable by
the application software using APIs.
The active low output signal EXTOE/EXTACTIVE is user selectable to be either asserted during EBI
read cycles only (EXTOE), the default selection, or asserted for both read and write cycles
(EXTACTIVE). This signal equals the logical AND of all the chip selects as well as DRAM access on
the EBI. The timing relationship of this signal with respect to other signals can be found in Section
17.1.
When the 32-bit EBI mode is selected and the ARM is operating in Thumb mode, instruction pre-fetch
is supported. Each instruction fetch by the ARM to the external memory on the EBI will transfer two
16-bit instructions. One is sent immediately to the ARM and the other is stored in a local register to
service the next instruction access.
During the Reset of the ‘AV7110, all EBI signals are held in a tri-state condition until the Reset signal
is released. Note that this includes the full 32-bit version of the EBI because the device does not
configure the bus for 16 or 32 bit operation until it comes out of reset. External pull-up resistors are
required on the control logic to prevent falsely enabling external devices during reset. Furthermore,
roughly 10 kΩ pull-up resistors are recommended for the address and data lines as well to prevent
problems associated with “floating” busses.
12.1 Address Range and Wait State of Chip Select
The Extension Bus supports the connection of 6 devices using the pre-defined chip selects. Additional
devices may be used by externally decoding the address bus. Table 31 shows the name of the device,
its chip select, address range, and programmable wait state range. Every device connected to the EBI is
required to have tri-stated data outputs within 1 clock cycle (CLK40) following the removal of chipselect. DMA accesses to the EBI are interleaved with ARM based accesses. This one clock cycle (24
nanoseconds) constraint is to ensure a correct DRAM write when interleaved with DMA transfers. The
tri-state timing requirement after other transactions (including DRAM) is 2 clock cycles or 48 nssec.
with one exception. An ARM access to EPROM (CS1 region) during a DMA transfer to the EBI. This
transaction requires the 24 ns restriction between DMA access and CS1 access because of the priority
of code fetches to the ARM.
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Table 31. Extension Bus Chip Select Assignments
Chip Select
Byte Address Range
Wait State
Device
CS1
2C00 0000 - 2DFF FFFF
1-5
EPROM (up to 32 MBytes)
N/A
2E00 0000 - 2EFF FFFF
N/A
DRAM (up to 16 Mbytes, on RAS1)
N/A
2F00 0000 - 2FFF FFFF
N/A
DRAM (up to 16Mbytes, on RAS3)
CS2
3000 0000 - 31FF FFFF
1-7
Peripheral Device
CS3
3200 0000 - 33FF FFFF
1-7
Peripheral Device
CS4
3400 0000 - 35FF FFFF
1-7
Peripheral Device
CS5
3600 0000 - 37FF FFFF
1-7
Peripheral Device
CS6
3800 0000 - 39FF FFFF
1-7
Peripheral Device
CS2, CS3, CS4, CS5 and CS6 all have the same characteristics. The ARM performs reads and writes to
these devices through the Extension Bus. CS1 is intended for ARM application code, but writes will
not be prevented. The user needs to provide the number of wait states for each CS during the initial set
up. The default wait state is the maximum allowable wait state.
12.2 EBI Read and Write Cycles
The Extension Bus supports connection to external EPROM, SRAM, or ROM memory and DRAM
with its 32-bit or 16-bit data and 25-bit address. It also supports DMA transfers to/from the Extension
Bus. DMA transfers within the extension bus are not supported directly. They may be accomplished
from user application software by using one DMA to the internal Data RAM, followed by a second
DMA to transfer back to the EBI. Extension Bus single read and write cycle timings are shown in
Figure 37 and Figure 38 of Section 17.1 respectively. The number of wait states can be calculated by
the following formula:
# of wait states = round_up[ (8 + device_cycle_time) / 24.68 ]
For example, a device with 80 nsec read timing requires four wait states.
The user application software can program the read pattern on the Extension Bus as single or multiple.
The single access mode allows one access during each CS cycle; multiple access allows more than one
access during one CS cycle. The data is latched based on the programmed wait state for the respective
chip select. The write access is always single. Both the read and write timing examples shown in
Section 17.1 show the case of four wait states.
12.3 Interrupts
The ‘AV7110 Extension Bus has three external interrupt lines. Each interrupt has a dedicated
acknowledge pin (EXTACK[2:0]). One additional interrupt, BDIRQ (HSDI_SIG7), is dedicated to the
1394 interface and it has no associated acknowledge signal. All the interrupts generate an IRQ to the
ARM and application software is responsible for providing their service routine.
These interrupts are handled by a centralized interrupt controller. The interrupt mask and priority are
managed by the firmware. The BDIRQ and three extension bus interrupts are connected to a total of
four different IRQs. When the interrupt service routine on the ARM begins servicing one of the
extension bus IRQs, it should first issue the corresponding acknowledge signal. At the completion of
the IRQ, the ARM should reset the acknowledge signal.
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12.4 The EXTWAIT signal
The EXTWAIT signal is an alternative way for the ARM to communicate with slower devices. It can
be used together with the programmable wait state, but it has to become active before the programmable
wait cycle expires. When the combined total wait states exceeds its maximum, the decoder is not
guaranteed to function properly. The EXTWAIT signal is synchronized internally with the on-chip
81MHz clock. When a device needs to use the EXTWAIT signal, it should set the programmable wait
state to at least 3. The duration of EXTWAIT signal should be at least 24.7 nanoseconds. Because the
EXTWAIT signal has the potential to stall the whole decoding process, the ARM will cap its waiting to
500 nanoseconds. Afterwards, the ARM assumes the device that generated the EXTWAIT has failed
and will ignore EXTWAIT from then on. Only a software or hardware reset can activate the
EXTWAIT signal again. The timing diagram shown in Section 17.1 is an example of a read using the
EXTWAIT signal. This example assumes that the wait state is set to 3 and the final effect of using
EXTWAIT is equivalent to 5 wait states. If a device can not generate EXTWAIT within 30
nanoseconds, the user can set a larger wait state. The maximum response time of EXTWAIT signal can
be calculated as follows:
Max. response time of EXTWAIT (in nanoseconds) = 12 + (programmed wait state - 3) x 25
The maximum 500 nanoseconds wait time applies to each ARM access to the Extension Bus. If an 8 bit
device is connected to the Extension Bus, the EBI automatically converts the single ARM word access
to 4 consecutive byte accesses, and the maximum wait time applies to the total of the 4 byte accesses.
In the consecutive read access where the CS remains active during the reading of four bytes, each byte
access has to complete within 125 nanoseconds. For a device that requires longer access delay, say 250
nanoseconds, then the access from the ARM has to be limited only to half words. In the write access
where the CS toggles for each byte write, then each write can take 500 nanoseconds. For reference,
Section 17.1 also shows the same example but for a write cycle.
12.5 The Extension Bus DRAM
The Extension Bus supports access to 60ns and 70ns DRAM, as well as 60ns EDO DRAM; the default
is 70ns DRAM. Figure 32 and Figure 33 of Section 17.1 respectively show the read and write timing of
this DRAM interface. The DRAM must have a column address that is 8-bit, 9-bit, or 10-bit. The
DRAM must have a data width of 8 or 16 bits. Byte access is allowed even when the DRAM has a 16bit data width. The system default DRAM configuration is 9-bit column address and 16-bit data width.
The user can reconfigure the extension bus to 32-bit with an API. The firmware will automatically
verify the configuration during start up. Connection between the ‘AV7110 and the DRAM is glueless,
that is address bit A(i) on the EBI should be connected directly to address bit input A(i) on the DRAM.
The byte access is specified by the signal UCAS for EXTDATA[31:24], and LCAS for
EXTDATA[23:16]. Another RAS signal (RAS3) is available to support an additional (possibly
removable) DRAM device (such as a PCMCIA DRAM card) of 16-bit width. This DRAM device is to
be mapped to a fixed (pre-determined) address partition (see Table 31). Configuration and existence of
this additional DRAM device is determined by application software at power up of the set top box. Hot
insertion or removal of this additional DRAM device is not allowed. The RAS2 is for increasing the
width of DRAM configuration to 32-bit. Possible DRAM configurations are shown in Figure 19.
When the ‘AV7110 is transferring data to /from the DRAM via DMA, it makes full use of the page
mode read/write cycle and will read/write a byte/half-word/word every 50nsec (2 clock cycles). When
16-bit wide DRAM is accessed from the ARM, the DRAM controller will make use of page mode read
cycle to transfer each 32 bit word. Each new 32-bit write/read is addressed independently to the
DRAM.
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EXTDATA[31:16]
EXTDATA[31:16]
EXTDATA[15:0]
RAS1
RAS2
UCAS
x16
DRAM-1
LCAS
UCAS
x16
DRAM-1
UCAS
RAS1
x16
DRAM-2
LCAS
LCAS
RAS3
UCAS
x16
DRAM-2
LCAS
(a) two x16 DRAMs on a 32-bit extension
bus: RAS signals allow word, half word
accesses; U/LCAS control byte accesses.
(b) two x16 DRAMs on a 16-bit extension
bus to increase depth: DRAM-1 and
DRAM-2 can be of different sizes; RAS1
and RAS-2 select front or back bank;
U/LCAS control byte accesses.
EXTDATA[31:16]
EXTDATA[31:16]
RAS1 or RAS3
EXTDATA[15:0]
UCAS
UCAS
RAS1
RAS2
x16
DRAM-1
LCAS
UCAS
LCAS
x16
DRAM-2
RAS3
UCAS
LCAS
x16
DRAM-2
(c) three x16 DRAMs on a 32-bit extension bus: RAS
signals allow word, half word accesses; U/LCAS
control byte accesses.
x16
DRAM-1
LCAS
(d) one x16 DRAMs on a 16-bit
extension bus.
Figure 19. Examples of DRAM connections to 16-bit and 32-bit extension busses
12.6 Byte Ordering on the Extension Bus
The Big Endian byte ordering is adopted inside the ‘AV7110 and on the Extension Bus. That is, the
most significant byte on the Extension Bus is from EXTDATA[24] to EXTDATA[31]. Figure 20
illustrates how the 4 bytes from the ARM bus are converted to 2 consecutive 16-bit half words on the
Extension Bus or to 4 consecutive bytes if an 8-bit device were used.
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In the 'AV7100/ARM
address A1 A0 31
0
Byte 0
0
0
Byte 1
Byte 2
Byte 3
In the Extension Bus
16-bit device
address EA1 EA0 E D 3 1
8-bit device
ED
E D 1 6 address EA1 EA0 31
ED
24
0
X
Byte 0
Byte 1
0
0
Byte 0
1
X
Byte 2
Byte 3
0
1
Byte 1
1
0
Byte 2
1
1
Byte 3
Figure 20. Byte ordering on the Extension Bus
The application software initialization should specify the data size of the device connected to the Chip
Selects. They can be programmed individually as x8 or x16 interface(or x32, if 32-bit EBI is used).
The EBI does the routing between the internal 32 bit data and the 8 bit or 16 bit device on the Extension
Bus. That is, the application program can write a word to an 8-bit device on the Extension Bus and the
EBI will convert it to 4 consecutive byte writes. In read mode, the byte access is available to 8, 16 and
32 bit devices. In write mode, the byte access is available for DRAM and 8 bit device connecting to
EXTDATA[31:24]. Similar constraints applies to 16 bit access.
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13. High Speed Data Interface (HSDI)
The ‘AV7110 provides a high speed data interface. This allows the user to select between an external
connection to an IEEE 1284 parallel peripheral, an IEEE 1394 device, or an external DMA device.
Logic for these three interfaces shares signal pins and hence only one can be active at any given time.
Table 32 shows the pin definitions for the HSDI in it’s various configurations. Switching from one
interface to another will require a predefined sequence of API calls. Two signal pins
(HSDI_STATUS[1:0]) indicate which of the three interfaces is active. They can be used to control
external logic for interface arbitration. The definition of these signals is shown in Table 32. The
default configuration on power up is the IEEE 1394 device (HSD_STATUS[1:0] = 00).
Table 32. High Speed Data Interface Signal Pin Assignment
Pin Name
I/O
IEEE 1394 I/F
IEEE 1284 I/F
External DMA
HSDI_DATA[7:0]
I/O
BDI[7:0] (In/Out)
1284_D[7:0] (In/Out)
EDMA_DB[7:0] (In/Out)
HSDI_SIG1
O
BDIRW (Out)
1284_ERROR (Out)
EDMA_RD (Out)
HSDI_SIG2
O
BDIEN (Out)
1284_ACK (Out)
EDMA_DACK (Out) *
HSDI_SIG3
I or O
BDAVAIL (In)
1284_STROBE (In)
EDMA_A[3] (Out)
HSDI_SIG4
I/O, I or O
BDIF[2] (In/Out)
1284_SLCTIN (In)
EDMA_A[2] (Out)
HSDI_SIG5
I/O, I or O
BDIF[1] (In/Out)
1284_AF (In)
EDMA_A[1] (Out)
HSDI_SIG6
I/O or O
BDIF[0] (In/Out)
1284_SLT (Out)
EDMA_A[0] (Out)
HSDI_SIG7
I
BDIRQ (In)
1284_INIT (In)
EDMA_DREQ (In) *
HSDI_SIG8
O
N/A (Drives High)
1284_PEND (Out)
EDMA_CS (Out)
HSDI_SIG9
O
N/A (Drives High)
1284_BUSY (Out)
EDMA_WR (Out)
HSDI_STATUS[1:0]
O
00
1x (see Section 13.3)
01
* The polarity of these signals is selectable by a user callable API and defaults to active Low
An internal DMA unit is dedicated for the HSDI port and is under user level API control. There are
some restrictions to the source, destinations and data types of this DMA unit. These are detailed in
Table 33. A DMA write from the TPP to the HSDI in any of it’s configurations, only sends the
payload. It is impossible to view and perform a DMA transfer to the HSDI from the same data source.
The only exception to this is for 1394 M packets, where the entire transport packet is sent - including
the header.
Table 33. Types of DMA Transfers Allowed for Data Ports
Interface
Configuration
IEEE 1394/TPP
(Dedicated I/F 1 )
IEEE 1394 I/F
IEEE 1284 I/F
External DMA
Source
Data Types
M Packets
Possible Destination for
DMA Input
TPP
Possible Sources for
DMA Output
TPP
I/A Packets
Elementary Stream or
Data
Elementary Stream or
Data
DRAM or SDRAM 2
DRAM or SDRAM
TPP, DRAM or SDRAM
TPP, DRAM or SDRAM
DRAM or SDRAM
TPP, DRAM or SDRAM
(1) This is a dedicated data path which is separate from the DMA channel.
(2) The source or destination between DRAM and SDRAM is a two-stage process using the on chip SRAM as an
intermediate step.
The functional block diagram of HSDI is given in Figure 21. The HSDI supports the following
concurrent data transfers.
•
•
•
TPP/program to decoder; TPP/program to 1394 (using dedicated I/F - see note 1 of Table 33)
TPP/program to decoder; 1394/DMA to/from memory
TPP/program to decoder; memory/DMA to/from HSDI
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•
•
•
•
•
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TPP/program to decoder; TPP/DMA to HSDI (must be different PID’s)
TPP/program to decoder; TPP/program to 1394; memory/DMA to/from 1394
TPP/program to 1394; 1394/program to TPP; memory/DMA to/from 1394
1394/program to TPP; memory/DMA to/from 1394
1394/program to TPP; TPP/DMA to 1394
TPP
ECD
SRAM
DMA
DRAM
HSDI
SDRAM
Reconfigurable I/O
1394
1284
DMA
Controller
Ext. DMA
Chip Boundary
Figure 21. Functional Block Diagram of High Speed Data Interface
13.1 IEEE 1394 Interface
On power-up the IEEE 1394 Interface is enabled on the HSDI. An API call can be used to configure
the HSDI for another mode or to return to the 1394 Interface if necessary. To complete the 1394
implementation, the ‘AV7110 requires an external Packetizer and Link Layer Controller, and a Physical
Layer device. Figure 22 shows the connection between the ‘AV7110 and these devices.
‘AV7110
Ext.
Bus
Data
BD port
DVCR
Packetizer
LINK
Interface
MPEG2Lynx (TSB12LV41)
PHY
Interface
1394 port 1
1394 port 2
1394 port 3
Figure 22. 1394 Interface
The command and control between the Packetizer or the Link layer interface device and the CPU is
transmitted via the Extension Bus. The MPEG packet data from the bulk 1394 is transferred via
dedicated pins on the 1394 interface from/to the TPP. The HSDI DMA channel is used for transferring
Isochronous (I) or Asynchronous (A) packets to and from the Internal Data RAM. This data can then
be processed by the application software as needed.
The 1394 interface on the ‘AV7110 is designed to match that of Texas Instrument’s MPEG2Lynx
Integrated Circuit (IC - TSB12LV41) via the following 15 signals:
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Table 34. 1394 Interface Signals
Signals
BDICLK
(CLK40)
BDI[7:0]
I/O
Out
In/Out
BDIRW
Out
BDIEN
Out
BDAVAIL
In
BDIF[2:0]
In/Out
BDIRQ
In
Description
40.5 MHz clock for extension bus and peripherals.
8 bit parallel bi-directional data bus. This bus is only driven by the ‘AV7110
or the MPEG2Lynx when BDIEN is active in write mode.
When BDIEN is active, this signal indicates the direction of the transfer.
When high (READ mode), the ‘AV7110 reads data from the MPEG2Lynx
and vice versa.
This signal is active low.
• in READ mode : Indicates that ‘AV7110 wants to read a data. The
‘AV7110 will drive this signal low for one clock period only when
BDAVAIL is active.
• in WRITE mode : Indicates that data is ready for the MPEG2Lynx on
BDI[7:0].
This active low signal indicates to the ‘AV7110 that a full packet is available
on the bulky data interface. This signal should only be active when a full
packet is available and should stay active until the transfer of the last byte in a
packet is completed.
Type of transmitted data. These signals are driven by the ‘AV7110 when the
‘AV7110 writes data to the MPEG2Lynx, and by the MPEG2Lynx when the
‘AV7110 reads data from it. See Table 35 for meaning of these bits. For a full
description see the MPEG2Lynx’s specification. These signals are only driven
when BDIEN is low.
This is a general purpose interrupt line used for the ‘AV7110/MPEG2Lynx
interface. It must be set when a I/A packet is ready in the micro interface
FIFO. For the micro interface FIFO, the meaning of the interrupt must be
configurable as first or last “quadelet” of a I/A packet. The ‘AV7110 must be
able to access the interrupt register on the MPE2Lynx on the micro interface
to know which interrupt has been sent. The ‘AV7110 must also have access
to the write pointer of the 200 byte FIFO.
Table 35. 1394 Control Lines Description
BDIF[2]
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
BDIF[1]
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
BDIF[0]
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
Reserved
Byte of MPEG-2 transport packet (M-packet)
Byte of an unformatted Isonchronous packet (I-packet)
Byte from the A-packet except the last byte
Non Valid data
First byte of MPEG-2 transport stream (equivalent of BYTESTART)
Last byte of unformatted Isonchronous packet
The last byte of the A-packet
13.1.1 The ‘AV7110 reads data from the MPEG2Lynx
When a full packet of data for the ‘AV7110 to read is ready in its FIFO, the MPEG2Lynx sets the
BDAVAIL signal low (active). When ready, the ‘AV7110 activates the BDIEN (low) and BDIRW
(high) for each byte it reads from BDI[7:0]. For each data byte read, the ‘AV7110 also decodes the
BDIF signals. If these signals indicate an MPEG-2 byte (1 or 5), the ‘AV7110 generates the appropriate
FEC-equivalent signals (PACCLK, Byte_Start, and DCLK) to send the read data byte directly to the
TPP for further processing. If BDIF has value other than 1 or 5, the ‘AV7110 puts the data into a 4
byte shift register and transmits this word by DMA to the Internal Data RAM. Note that BDIF never
equals 4 since the ‘AV7110 always reads the data out of the MPEG2Lynx at a compatible rate.
Furthermore, the ‘AV7110 never drives BDIEN low more than once every two system clock periods.
The BDAVAIL should only be set active by the MPEG2Lynx when a full packet is ready in the FIFO.
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The MPEG2Lynx assumes the convention that MPEG-2 packets (M-packets) always have the highest
priority in using the Bulky Data interface. That is, the MPEG2Lynx will preempt an on-going
transmission of an I-packets before its completion to transmit an M-packet if it is ready for
transmission. An M-packet transmission, on the other hand, is never preempted.
Figure 23 shows the functionality of the interface signals when the ‘AV7110 reads data from the
MPEG2Lynx. The maximum input rate of MPEG-2 data coming from the MPEG2Lynx and routed
through the transport stream hardware demultiplexer block (TPP) is approximately 64.8 Mbits/second.
The maximum input bit rate over one transport packet is 60 Mbits/second. Additional timing details
can be found in Section 17.5.
BDICLK
5
BDIF[2:0]
1
1
1
5
(driven by LYNX)
BDIRW
BDIEN
BDI[7:0]
(driven By LYNX)
byte p (pack. start byte) byte p+1
byte p+187 (last byte in fifo)
byte p+n
BDAVAIL
Figure 23. 1394 Interface Read Sequence
13.1.2 The ‘AV7110 writes data to the MPEG2Lynx
When the ‘AV7110 writes data to the MPEG2Lynx (record mode), it drives BDIF, BDIEN, and
BDIRW for one clock (system) period. BDIEN is driven low for only one byte and must be driven high
between two byte transmissions. This is illustrated in Figure 24. Additional timing details can be found
in Section 17.5.
BDICLK
BDIF[2:0]
5
1
1
1
5
BDIRW
BDIEN
BDI[7:0]
byte p (pack. start byte) byte p+1
byte p+187 (last byte in fifo)
byte p+n
Figure 24. 1394 Interface Write Sequence
13.1.3 The ‘AV7110 Internal Data Path for 1394
In recording mode, the ‘AV7110 sends either encrypted or clean packets to the 1394 interface. The
packet is transferred as soon as it arrives. When recording encrypted data, the ECD module is
bypassed. In the case of recording decrypted data, the TPP sends the encrypted part of the payload to
the ECD module, and then forwards each byte to the 1394 interface. No CPU processing is done to the
packet during recording. The TPP automatically modifies the header if the packet is decrypted.
Note that the same bit stream cannot be sent to the 1394 interface twice (e.g., once after decryption, and
twice as part of a full transport stream with the by-pass capability). Both the MPEG2Lynx and the
‘AV7110 support only one MPEG-2 transport stream channel on the Bulky Data interface.
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During playback mode, MPEG-2 transport packets coming from the 1394 interface go directly to the
TPP module.
Figure 25 shows the functional block diagram of the data flow between the TPP, ECD, and 1394
interface. Note that the major portion of the 1394 interface function is implemented in the HSDI
module. Dedicated data lines are used for the 1394 interface that allows the ‘AV7110 to work in the
following different modes.
•
•
•
•
•
Decode/decrypt/display one channel and record it.
Decode/decrypt/display one channel and record it encrypted (pay-per-view).
Decode/display one channel while recording all or part of 32 PIDs from a transponder, with each
selected PIDs either encrypted or decrypted. In addition non selected PIDs can also be recorded in
their original format (decryption is not possible for non selected PIDs).
While the TPP is receiving MPEG-2 data from the 1394 port, the ‘AV7110 can also record part of
the bit stream it is receiving to the 1394 port
Send the whole transport stream from the FEC to the 1394 port without any filtering or decryption
and, at the same time, decode/decrypt/display a program from either the same transport stream or
from another transport stream received through the 1394 port.
.
If the 1394 is used in the mode where the input and the output are multiplexed, the total bandwidth of
the input data stream and the output data stream must be less than 160 Mbps. Note, however that these
limits represent only the constraints imposed by the hardware. More stringent limits on the bit rates
could be imposed by the ‘AV7110 software processing requirements.
TPP
MUX
Parser &
Controller
Data
RAM
ECD
1394 Interface
Traffic
Controller
Figure 25. 1394 Data Flow Block Diagram
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13.2 External DMA Interface
When configured for External DMA (EDMA) operation (HSDI_STATUS[1:0] = 01), the HSDI is
capable of being connected directly to an external data processing device. One example of this is an
Enhanced SCSI Controller (ESC) device such as the NCR 53CF94-1/53CF96-1. Figure 26 illustrates
the connections for this example configuration.
10-40 MHz
CLK
DMA[15-8]
EDMA_DB[7:0]
DMA[7:0]
EDMA_A[3:0]
A[3:0]
EDMA_DREQ
DREQ
EDMA_DACK
DACK
EDMA_CS
CS
RD
WR
DMAWR
EDMA_RD
EDMA_WR
EXTINT2
INT
AD[7-0]
Mode[1:0]
‘AV7110
SCSI
Controller
NCR 53CF94/53CF96
Figure 26. Interfacing the ‘AV7110 to a SCSI chip
Because there is only an 8-bit bus on the HSDI, the ESC is limited to an 8-bit, Single Bus Architecture
so it’s mode selection inputs should be set to mode 0. The upper data bits can be left floating because
they have internal pull-ups on the ESC. Likewise, the AD7-0 inputs of the ESC will not be used for this
mode and can be left unconnected. Note that the ESC requires an external clock source from 10 MHz
to 40 MHz. Because the CLK40 signal of the ‘Av7110 is actually a 40.5 MHz clock it should not be
used directly for this Controller without violating it’s specification. Table 36 shows the signals needed
for the EDMA interface.
Table 36. External DMA Interface Signals
Signals
EDMA_DB[7:0]
I/O
In/Out
Description
External Controller data bus.
EDMA_A[3:0]
Out
External Controller register select.
EDMA_WR
Out
Write signal. (Active Low)
EDMA_RD
Out
Read signal. (Active Low)
EDMA_DREQ
In
EDMA_DACK
Out
EDMA_CS
Out
DMA request signal. *
DMA Data strobe select *
Chip select for External Controller
(Active Low)
* The polarity of these signals is selectable by a user callable API and defaults to active Low
With the ‘AV7110 configured for External DMA operation on the HSDI, data can be transferred at a
maximum data rate of 5MBytes/sec. Interfacing to the HSDI DMA is done through API and so data
transfer is under firmware control. Specific data formats such as the Enhanced SCSI Controller (ESC)
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are handled by application software. Table 37 details the EDMA Register which allows the application
software to configure the wait states and other factors of the EDMA Port. This register defaults to all
0’s on power up.
Table 37. EDMA Register Definition
Location
31:16
15:10
Description
DMA Transfer Size [in Bytes] (total number of transfers)
DMA Burst Size [in Bytes] (transfers within a DACK frame)
0 = Bursts the entire DMA Transfer Size
9
DACK Polarity
0 = Active Low
1 = Active High
8
DREQ Polarity
0 = Active Low
1 = Active High
7:6
Register Access Low Delay (RLD) (see Note)
5:4
Register Access High Delay (RHD) (see Note)
3:2
DMA Transfer Low Delay (DLD) (see Note)
1:0
DMA Transfer High Delay (DHD) (see Note)
NOTE: This sets the number of internal (CLK40) clock cycles of delay to add.
Command communication from the ‘AV7110 to the ESC is done using the 4-bit EDMA_A bus which is
mapped into the ARM Addressing space of the ‘AV7110 when the EDMA port is selected. This will
allow the application software to perform such functions as writing directly to the registers of an
external ESC. The definition of the function of these memory locations is dependent on the external
device used and as such, entirely up to the user. An access to this memory space while the EDMA is
selected will automatically generate a read or write cycle on the HSDI using the EDMA_RD and
EDMA_WR signals and the EDMA_CS signal. The functionality as well as the programmability for
these accesses is shown in Figure 27.
NOTE: These Delay numbers are in units of internal clock (CLK40) cycles
Figure 27. Programmable Delay for Register Accesses on the EDMA port
The EDMA_DREQ signal should be used by the External Controller to initiate an external DMA
(‘AV7110 DMA between the HSDI and the external device). EDMA_DREQ is ignored until the DMA
has been properly configured using the appropriate API calls. The source/destination addresses, the
DMA size and the burst are under application software control via this API. Once asserted, the
‘AV7110 will respond by transferring the data one byte at a time between the external device and the
Internal Data RAM using the EDMA_RD and EDMA_WR signals and the EDMA_DACK signal as
shown in Figure 28.
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NOTE: These Delay numbers are in units of internal clock (CLK40) cycles
Figure 28. Programmable Delay for DMA Accesses on the EDMA port
13.3 IEEE 1284 Interface
The IEEE 1284 interface on the ‘AV7110 has the following characteristics:
• Supports transfer of up to 10 Mbits/second
• Supports the compatibility, nibble, and byte mode
• Supports the ECP mode except for run length coding compression
• Does not support the EPP mode
• Peripheral mode only
The IEEE 1284 interface is used to connect the 'AV7110 to an external host. An example of the
connections required is shown in Figure 29.
Figure 29. Interfacing the ‘AV7110 to an IEEE-1284 Bus
Table 38 describes the functionality of the 19 signals of the IEEE 1284 interface. Note that the
HSDI_STATUS[1] signal is used to select the 1284 interface. Once set to this configuration, the
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HSDI_STATUS[0] signal determines the communication direction of the 1284 interface. A Low on
this pin signals to the external device that the data direction is into the 1284 HSDI.
Table 38. IEEE 1284 Interface Signals
Signals
I/O
Description
1284_D [7:0]
In/Out
1284 data bus.
1284_ERROR
Out
1284 peripheral error (active low).
1284_ACK
Out
1284 data acknowledge (active low).
1284_STROBE
In
1284 data transition detect (active low).
1284_SLCTIN
In
1284 peripheral select (active low).
1284_AF
In
1284 peripheral auto-feed mode (active low).
1284_SLT
Out
1284_INIT
In
1284 peripheral on-line.
1284 peripheral reset (active low).
1284_PEND
Out
1284 paper end signal.
1284_BUSY
Out
1284 peripheral busy.
HSDI_STATUS[1]
Out
1284 Interface Enable
HSDI_STATUS[0]
Out
1284 Direction signal
The application software interfaces with the peripheral interface controller via API calls. To send data
to the host, the application software will issue an API call to transfer the data from memory to the
peripheral interface via a DMA. To receive data from the host, the application software will issue an
API to transfer a predetermined number of bytes between the peripheral interface to internal Data
Memory via the HSDI DMA unit. The application software must have a way to determine the number
of bytes of data that is to be processed by the DMA as well as how to process it.
13.4 Combining the 1394, 1284 and External Controller Interfaces
With additional external logic it is possible to combine the three HSDI interfaces within a single design.
Note that performing the API call to changes interfaces involves resetting the HSDI, so transfers
between interfaces is not possible (i.e. 1394 to 1284). Switching between HSDI modes should be
detected by external logic and proper care should be taken to prevent contention between the external
devices and the HSDI interface. Figure 30 shows the block diagram of an example of this configuration
based on the devices used previously.
The signals CS, DACK, BDIEN, DIR and HD are essentially enables for the various interface blocks.
Any signal not explicitly called out in the figure is connected in the same manner as the individual
interface descriptions of the previous sections.
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Av7110
SIG8
ST1
ST0
HSDI
SIG7
HD
SIG3
DATA[7:0]
DIR
DREQ
SIG1,4-6,
8,9
SIG1,3-6,9
53CF94/96
SCSI
Controller
SCSI Bus
Connector
BDIEN
Programmable Logic Device
BDAVAIL
BDIRQ
SIG1-9
SIG2
SIG1-9
CS
DACK
MPEG2
LYNX
IEEE 1394 Bus
Connector
1284 I/F
Block
IEEE 1284 Bus
Connector
Figure 30. Combined MPEG2Lynx, 1284 and SCSI Controller
In this example, the logic is grouped into a single programmable logic device. For simplicity, some of
the HSDI signal names have been shortened (i.e. ST1 & ST0 to represent HSDI_STATUS[1:0], etc.).
Note that the 1284 Interface Block is completely disabled (tri-stated) when it is not selected and so can
be directly connected to the HSDI bus with no additional glue logic.
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14. Communication Processor
14.1 Features
• Provides two programmable timers
• Provides three general purpose UARTs - two at up to 115.2Kbps and one at up to 9.6Kbps
• Accepts IR input signals
• Generates IR output signals
• Provides up to nine general purpose I/Os
• Manages I2C and JTAG interfaces
This module contains a collection of buffers, control registers, and control logic for various interfaces,
such as UARTs, IR, I2C, and JTAG. All the buffers and registers are memory mapped and individually
managed by the ARM CPU. Interrupts are used to communicate between these interface modules and
the ARM CPU.
14.2 Smart Card Interface
•
Both T=0 and T=1 protocols of the ISO 7816-3 standard are supported (except the bit-synchronous
protocol)
• Up to two Smart Card devices directly supported
• Transmission/reception of parity bits are user programmable
• Shared 8-byte FIFO for transmitter/receivers
• User-programmable FIFO fullness (one quarter, a half, or three quarters full) interrupt
• User-programmable FIFO timeout (maskable interrupt)
• User select hardware flow control
• Integer and half-integer baud rate divisors
• Loop back mode for self-test
The ‘AV7110 includes an interface to the Smart Card access control system. The interface consists of a
high speed UART and logic to comply with both the ISO 7816-3 and the NDC standards. Applicable
firmware drivers to control the interface are also included. Two Smart Cards can be supported via a
smart card select pin which can be set via an API (see Figure 31). Only one Smart Card can be active at
any time and switching from one smart card to another requires a full power down sequence of the
active card followed by a full power up sequence on the second card.
Table 39. Smart Card Pin description
Pin name
SCDET1,
SCDET2
SCRESET
SCCLK
SCVppEN
SCVccEN
SCDATAIO
SCVccDetect
SCSEL
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Description
Card detect inputs. Polarity of these pins when a card is inserted is under API control
Output to Smart Card to reset the card
Output to Smart Card for clock
Output to Smart Card to enable the programming voltage which needs to be generated
externally. Polarity of this pin when a card in inserted is under API control.
Output to Smart Card to enable the supply voltage which needs to be generated
externally. Polarity of this pin when a card is inserted is under API control.
Serial data line, bi-directional
Smart Card Vcc detect input signal (for NDC mode), this pin is multiplexed with IO3.
Smart Card selection signal:
Low = Smart Card 1 Selected,
High = Smart Card 2 Selected.
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PRES
SCDET1
Revision 3.1
Smartcard1
SCSEL
S
W
I
T
C
H
‘AV7110
PRES
SCDET2
Smartcard2
Figure 31. The ‘AV7110’s Interface to Two Smart Cards
Table 40 and Table 41 give the usable Smart Card Interface clock frequencies for a given F value. The
Nominal frequency for each ISO 7816-3 F value in the tables are calculated by multiplying F by
9600Hz. The Minimum values are 10% from Nominal and the Maximum values come from the ISO
specification. All frequencies are in MHz. 2.025 MHz and 8.1 MHz are also supported but do not fit
into the tables. All these clock frequencies are generated internally from the 81MHz clock.
Table 40. Group 1 F Values
F
372
558
744
1116
1488
1860
Maximum
5.0
6.0
8.0
12.0
16.0
20.0
Nominal
3.57
5.36
7.14
10.71
14.28
17.86
Minimum
3.22
4.83
6.43
9.65
12.86
16.08
Usable SC Interface Clocks
3.375, 4.05, 4.5
6.0
6.75
10.125
13.5
16.2, 18.0
Table 41. Group 2 F Values
F
512
768
1024
1536
2048
Maximum
5.0
7.5
10.0
15.0
20.0
Nominal
4.92
7.37
9.83
14.75
19.66
Minimum
4.43
6.64
8.85
13.28
17.70
Usable SC Interface Clocks
4.5
6.75
9.0
13.5
18.0
Although specific F/D pairs are not explicitly described here, every F/D pair is supported as long as the
equation “(F/D)/Iclkpb” would result in an integer or half integer (i.e. 1.5, 2.5 …). Note that the
minimum value is 1, hence 0.5 is excluded. Iclkpb is defined as the number of internal clocks per bit
(15.5 or 16). Both 15.5 and 16 internal clocks per bit are supported in the smart card interface
hardware of the ‘AV7110. Selection of this is under software control. The Group 1 entries use 15.5
internal clocks per bit, where the internal clock is the smart card clock divided by the Baud Rate
Divisor (BRD). Thus for F=372 and D=1 (default ISO 7816-3 values):
BRD
=
372/15.5
=
24
The Group 2 entries use 16 internal clocks per bit, where the internal clock is the smart card clock
divided by the Baud Rate Divisor (BRD). Thus for F=512 and D=1:
BRD
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=
512/16
32
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Integer and half-integer values for BRD are supported by the smart card interface hardware. Therefore,
if F=558 and D=8:
BRD
=
(F/D)/15.5
=
558/8 / 15.5
=
4.5
The ‘AV7110 will output control signals to turn the card’s VCC and VPP on and off as required but
external switching is also required. The data I/O pins are 3.3V and require external level shifters to
interface with 5V devices. These pins will require protection against over-voltage or ESD damage.
14.3 Timers
The ‘AV7110 has two general purpose timers which are user programmable. Both timers contain 16 bit
counters with 16 bit pre-scalers, allowing for timing intervals of 25 ns to 106 seconds. Each timer, timer
0 and timer 1, has an associated set of control and status registers. These registers are defined in Table
42.
Table 42. Timer Control and Status Registers
Register Name
tcr
Read/Write
R/W
31 - 6
5
4
3
2
1
0
preld
prd
R/W
31 - 16
tddr
tim32
tim
psc
16 - 0
R
31 - 16
16 - 0
Description
Control Register
Reserved (set to 0)
tint_mask - timer interrupt mask:
0 = enable interrupts
1 = mask interrupts
reserved (set to 0)
reserved (set to 0)
soft - soft stop:
0 = reload counters on 0
1 = stop timer on 0
tss - timer stop:
0 = start timer
1 = stop timer
trb - timer reload
0 = do not reload
1 = reload the timer (read 0)
Pre-load Values
Value for timer to preload at timer start
up or at timer rollover
Value for pre-scaler to preload at timer
start up or at pre-scaler rollover
Actual Time Value
Actual timer value
Actual pre-scaler value
The countdown timers are composed of two counters: the timer pre-scaler (psc), which is pre-loaded
from tddr and counts down every sys_clock; and the timer counter (tim), pre-loaded from prd. When
psc = 0, it pre-loads itself and decrements tim by one. This divides the sys_clock by the following
values:
(tddr + 1) * (prd + 1), if tddr and prd are not both 0, or
2,
if tddr and prd are both 0.
When tim = 0 and psc = 0, the timer will issue an interrupt if the corresponding tint_mask is not set.
Then both counters are pre-loaded if soft = 0. If soft is 1, the timer stops counting.
The timer control register (tcr) can override normal timer operations. The timer reload bit (trb), causes
both counters to pre-load, while the timer stop bit (tss), causes both counters to stop.
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14.4 UARTs
The ‘AV7110 includes three general purpose UARTs that are memory mapped and fully accessible by
user application programs. A set of APIs exists to assist in programming them. The output of the
UARTs are digital and requires external level shifters for RS232 compliance. These UARTs support
full duplex mode and are double buffered with sufficient FIFO space to minimize the interrupt
frequency to the ARM even when they are operating at their maximum transmission speeds.
UART 1 and 2 support handshaking through RTS and CTS signals. They work with baud rates of
1200, 2400, 4800, 9600, 14,400, 19,200, 28,800, 57,600 and 115,200 bps. These two UARTs
transmit/receive 1 start bit, 7 or 8 data bits, optional parity, and 1 or 2 stop bits.
UART 3 has no support for hardware handshaking, it works with baud rates of 1200, 2400, 4800, and
9600 bps. It is possible for the user application software to implement software handshaking with any
of the UARTs.
The UARTs are fully accessible using the API and can generate interrupts when data is received or the
transmit buffer is empty. The CPU also has access to a status register for each UART that contains
flags for such errors as data over-run or framing errors.
14.5 IR input port
Hardware is provided to capture and deliver IR data bits to user software for command decoding.
Sample IR command decoding driver software for several commonly used IR formats are provided with
the ‘AV7110.
API software is provided to configure the hardware to recognize IR format with different parameter
settings:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Programmable duration for High and low levels
data frame length (up to 32 bits)
maximum time between frame (a 13-bit counter, each count equals one period of CLK40)
LSB/MSB first
repeat pattern present
stop pattern present
compare enable (ignore repeated frames if this bit is set)
At start up, user application software sets up the parameters above and defines the encoding pattern of
the preamble, stop, repeat, data zero, and data one by storing the duration of the high and low levels of
each pattern in the IR-input-RAM. The IR hardware then looks for IR input (assumed demodulated)
which matches the pattern:
<preamble><data> [<stop>]
<repeat> [<repeat>]
The “<repeat> [<input>]” input is recognized only if the repeat-pattern-present parameter is set and the
input is preceded by a valid frame input. The ‘AV7110’s IR decoder supports the following two IR
frame formats:
• [<preamble><data>]
• [<preamble><data><stop>]
• [<repeat>]
The <stop> pattern is used in some IR formats at the end of the data stream.
The [<repeat>] frame is used by some IR remote transmitters to indicate that a command key is being
pressed and the command, which was sent right before the first [<repeat>], should be repeated. That is,
if the received sequence of IR frames is:
[<preamble><data>] [<repeat>] [<repeat>] ... [<repeat>]
… then the key which causes the first [<preamble><data>] frame should be assumed by the receiver to
be pressed for the duration of the [<repeat>] sequence.
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The patterns of the <preamble>, <stop> and <repeat> components are each defined by a sequence of
high (modulated) and low (not modulated) levels of programmable duration. Each duration is defined
by a minimum value and a maximum value (in counts of 200 ns to 100 µs) to allow some error
tolerances in the received pulse width.
The pattern of a <data> component is defined by the data bits being received. The number of data bits
in the <data> component is fixed by frame-data-length (max length 32). Encoding patterns of data bit
"one" and "zero" are each defined by a sequence of high and low levels of programmable duration.
Each duration is defined by a minimum value and a maximum value (in counts of 200 ns - 100 µs) to
allow some error tolerances in the received pulse width.
When a valid input frame is found, the IR input hardware stores the decoded data value in a register and
sends an IRQ to the application software. With this API, software users can develop customized
command decode driver software to decode virtually any IR format commonly in use. The only limit on
how many change of levels in each of the components is that this data has to fit into the IR format RAM
(size 64x12 bits).
14.6 IR output port
Hardware is provided on the ‘AV7110 to generate drive signal on the output pin according to input data
bit and format control signals provided by user software or to just retransmit the input signal received at
the IR input port. External buffering is required to drive an IR LED.
In the first mode, demodulated input IR signals from IRIN are relayed directly to IROUT. The user has
the option to have this signal modulated with a selected modulation frequency but NO transcoding is
done. That is, the output IR signal has the same format as the input signal.
In the second mode, the application software generates an IR data word and writes it to a register, D
Entry (or 2 registers A and D entries). Writing to the D Entry register by ARM activates the IR-encode
module which then reads this data from A and D registers, encodes the data according to the output IR
format stored in the IR format RAM and the content of the output-format-register, optionally modulates
it with a selected modulation frequency, and sends the signal out on IROUT.
In order to communicate with IR receivers of different IR formats, the ‘AV7110's IR output encoder
supports a very flexible IR frame format. The format of the frame is specified through APIs and can be
changed as frequently as per IR command transmission.
A frame format may consist of any combination of the following with up to 10 entries (including the E
entry):
<preamble>
H entry
<data1>
A entry
<data2>
D entry
<misc1>
X entry
<misc2>
Y entry
<stop>
Z entry
<eof>
E (End of Format) entry
For example, a frame format can be defined as one of the following (though not limited to these
examples):
[H D E]
(REPEAT-POSITION-START 1,
REPEAT-POSITION-END 2)
[H A H D H A E]
(REPEAT-POSITION-START
REPEAT-POSITION-END 4)
[H D X Y E]
(REPEAT-POSITION-START
3,
4,
REPEAT-POSITION-END 4)
[H H H A H D X Y Z E]
[H A X H D Y Z E]
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TMS320AV7110
Revision 3.1
Application software can also set up the registers REPEAT-POSITION-START and REPEATPOSITION-END to point to the range of entries within a frame format to be repeated. The encoder will
repeatedly send all the entries from that pointed to by REPEAT-POSITION-START to that pointed to
by REPEAT-POSITION-END until the software writes to a REPEAT-STOP register (indicating key
release). The encoder terminates the frame by sending the rest of the entries in the format register until
the one before the Z entry. The encoder will then send the Z pattern if applicable.
The period for repetition (the time interval between the successive repeat portions) and the time
interval between start of frame and the first repeat portion are also user programmable.
The pulse patterns for the different components (<preamble>, <data1/data2>-zero, <data1/data2>-one,
<misc1>, <misc2> <stop>), if applicable, are defined in the same fashion as for those in the frame
format for decoding, except that the level duration are defined by single counts instead of ranges. In
operation, the application software can select the entries to be included in the IR format, on a frame by
frame basis, through a control register (output-format) in the IR encoder.
The only limit on the number of change of levels in each of the entries is that the data has to fit into the
IR format RAM (total size 128 words approx. and 11 bits). Maximum storage space for each entry type
is given as follows:
•
•
•
•
•
•
<preamble>:
<data1/data2>-zero:
<data1/data2>-one:
<misc1>:
<misc2>:
<stop>:
9 words
5 words
5 words
9 words
9 words
9 words
14.7 General Purpose I/Os
The ‘AV7110 has four dedicated (IO1, IO2, IO4 and IO5) and five multiplexed general purpose I/O
pins (IO3 and IO6-IO9) which are user configurable. Each I/O port has its own 32-bit control/status
register, IOCSRn, where n ranges from 1 to 9.
If an I/O is configured as an input and the delta interrupt mask is cleared, an IRQ is generated when an
input changes state. If the delta interrupt mask is set, interrupts to the ARM are disabled. If no other
device drives the I/O pin while it is configured as an input, it is held high by an internal pull-up resistor.
If an I/O is configured as an output (by setting the cio bit in the corresponding control/status register),
the value contained in the io_out bit of the control/status register is output. Interrupt generation is
disabled when an I/O is configured as an output.
> iocsr io control/status register 0 (reset to 32'h00000020)
The definition of the control/status registers is given in Table 43 and Table 44.
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DSP
TMS320AV7110
Revision 3.1
Table 43. I/O Control/Status Registers, IOCSRn
Bit Number
31-6
5
4
Name
Reserved
gpio_en
ddio
3:2
1
gpio_irq1:0
cio
0
io
Description
Set to 0 (read only)
Selects register for muxed gpios, gpio=0, other=1(default)
Delta detect bit:
Configured as Output: (cio = 1)
Always Reads as a ‘0’
Configured as Input: (cio=0)
Reads a ‘1’ if bit 0 has changed since ddio was last cleared.
Otherwise reads a ‘0’
NOTE: Always write a ‘1’ to this bit when enabling IRQ
generation. This will clear the ddio bit.
See Table 44
configure I/O:
0 = input
1 = output
IO bit:
Writeable when IO is configured as an output (cio=1).
Reads value on IO pin when IO is configured as input (cio=0).
Table 44. GPIO_IRQ Bit Definitions
gpio_irq1
0
0
1
1
gpio_irq0
0
1
0
1
Function
Disable IRQ
An IRQ is generated on the Rising Edge
An IRQ is generated on the Falling Edge
An IRQ is generated on a State Change
14.8 I2C Interface
The ‘AV7110 includes an Inter Integrated Circuit (I2C) serial bus interface that can act as either a single
master (default) or slave. Only the ‘standard mode’ (100 kbit/s) I2C-bus system is implemented; ‘fast
mode’ is not supported. The interface uses 7-bit addressing only. In slave mode, the address of the
‘AV7110 is programmed by an API. In master mode, the ‘AV7110 initiates and terminates transfers
and generates clock signals.
To put the device in slave mode, the ARM must write to a control register in the block. The API must
set the slave mode select and a 7-bit address for the ‘AV7110. It must also send a software reset to the
I2C to complete the transition to slave mode.
In slave mode, when the programmable address bits match the applied address, the ‘AV7110 will
respond accordingly. The ‘AV7110 will also respond to general call commands issued to address 0 (the
general call address) that change the programmable part of the slave address. These commands are
0x04 and 0x06 No other general call commands are acknowledged, and no action is taken.
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TMS320AV7110
Revision 3.1
15. Device Control Interfaces
15.1 Reset
The ‘AV7110 requires a hardware reset on power up. Reset of the device is initiated by pulling the
RESET pin low, while the clock is running, for at least 100 ns. The following actions will then occur:
•
•
•
•
•
All signals on the EBI are held in a Tri-State condition until Reset is released
input data on all ports is ignored
external memory is sized
data pointers are reset
all modules are initialized and set to a default state
• the TPP tables are initialized
• the audio decoder is set for 16 bit output with 8x over-sampling
• the OSD background color is set to black and video data is selected for both the analog
and digital outputs
• MacroVision is disabled
• the I2C port is set to master mode
When the reset sequence is finished, the device begins to accept data. All data input prior to the end of
the reset sequence is ignored.
15.2 JTAG Pins
Five JTAG pins, which are connected to the internal ARM module, are available for debug purposes.
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DSP
TMS320AV7110
Revision 3.1
16. Register Maps
16.1 NTSC/PAL Registers - Base Address 0x72000000
Register
ENC_MODE0_REG
ENC_MODE2_REG
ENC_CC_EN_REG
ENC_CC_REG0
ENC_CC_REG1
ENC_ESD_REG0
ENC_ESD_REG1
ENC_MODE1_REG
10/08/99 22:18
Size R/W Offset Bits Value Description
8 R/W 0X0000
Video Mode register 0
7
BLNK - blanking enable
0 normal mode (default)
1 enforced blanking (Only sync and color
burst are encode in this mode)
6
0 reserved
5
0 reserved
4
FLTMOD - Chroma low pass filter select
0 1.5MHz cutoff frequency (default)
1 3MHz cutoff frequency
3:2
CBAR1,CBAR0 - color bars control
0,X normal mode (default)
1,0 75% color bars
1,1 100%(NTSC), 95%(PAL) color bars
1:0
0,0 reserved
6 R/W 0x0004
Video Mode register 2
5
Black and White mode (0=default, 1=BW)
4
1 reserved
3:2
CbYCr latch timing change
11 'to resolve vdata timing between OSD and
Encoder module (TBD)
1:0
0,0 Reserved
2 R/W 0x0008
closed caption enable
1
CCEN1 - 2nd field caption encode enable
0
CCEN0 - 1st field caption encode enable
0 disable (default)
1 enable
If CCEN0=0, caption data reg0/1 can not be
written and have all zero values.
If CCEN1=0, caption data reg2/3 can not be
written and have all zero values.
8 R/W 0x000C
caption data0
7
always zero (but odd parity is encoded for
caption signal)
6:0
1st caption data in 1st field(ODD)
8 R/W 0x0010
caption data1
7
always zero (but odd parity is encoded for
caption signal)
6:0
2nd caption data in 1st field(ODD)
8 R/W 0x0014
caption data2
7
always zero (but odd parity is encoded for
caption signal)
6:0
1st caption data in 2nd field(EVEN)
8 R/W 0x0018
caption data3
7
always zero (but odd parity is encoded for
caption signal)
6:0
2nd caption data in 2nd field(EVEN)
7 R/W 0x001C
video mode register 1
7
VYNCRST - Vsync Reset
Page 83
DSP
Register
ENC_STATUS_REG
10/08/99 22:18
TMS320AV7110
Size R/W
4
R/W
5
R/W
5
R/W
3
R/W
4
R
Revision 3.1
Offset Bits Value Description
5
SYNCSEL - Sync source selection
0 Internal Sync
1 External Sync
4:3
NTSC/PAL mode selection
00 NTSC
01 General Pal (BGI) (default)
10 reserved
11 reserved
2
CBKILL - Color burst kill on/off
0 CBKILL off (default)
1 CBKILL on (no color burst signal)
1
SYNCIOCTL - Vsync/Hsync port direction
0 Vsync/Hsync are output
1 Input mode
0SETUP - setup level select (valid when NTSC
format)
0 0% setup
1 7.5% setup
0x0020
video mode3
3
Video DAC output enable (composite)
2
Video DAC output enable (R when
RGB/YC_SEL=0 else C)
1
Video DAC output enable (G when
RGB/YC_SEL=0 else Y)
0
Video DAC output enable (B when
RGB/YC_SEL=0, else testdump)
0x0024
RGB control register 1
Offset for rgb active display area start point
recommended value is '01000'
0x0028
RGB control register 2
Offset for rgb active display area end point
recommended value is '11011'
0x002C
RGB control register 3
2
RGB/YC_SEL (DAC input mux select)
0 R/G/B selection
1 Y/C/testdump selection
1:0
Phase control of 444 YCbCr input for RGB
0x011C
Status
7:4
reserved (read zeroes)
3
EVEN - even/odd field indicator
0 odd
1 even
2
VBLNK - Vertical blanking period indicator
0 active video line
1 blanking line
1
CST1 - caption data status 1
0 Just after 2nd field caption enable OR
Whenever vertical line counter goes to 21.
1 After H/W reset or just after 2nd field(EVEN)
caption disable or whenever caption data reg0
or reg1 are updated during 1st field caption
enable.
0
CST0 - caption data status 0
0 Just after 1st field caption enable, OR
Page 84
DSP
Register
TMS320AV7110
Size R/W
Revision 3.1
Offset Bits Value Description
Whenever vertical line counter goes to 21.
1 After H/W reset or just after 1st field(ODD)
caption disable or whenever caption data reg0
or reg1 are updated during 1st field caption
enable.
Actually, CST1 and CST0 can be regarded as
data flag with caption data register 0/1 and 2/3
respectively. Whenever the caption module is
enabled, they are cleared. Then, they are set
to 1 just after the caption data register is
updated by ARM or VDEC module. On line 21
(caption transfer line), the CST1 and CST0 are
cleared for EVEN and ODD field respectively.
Video decoder module generates interrupt to
ARM processor after transferring caption data
into caption data register in encoder module.
Then, ARM processor can read caption data
from encoder and provide it to external
encoder if needed.
ENC_ATTR0_REG
8
R/W 0x0120
7:6
5:3
2:0
ENC_ATTR1_REG
8
R/W 0x0124
7:4
3:0
ENC_ATTR2_REG
8
R/W 0x0128
7
6
ENC_HSYNC_REG
6
R/W 0x0130
5:0
video attribute0
- not used
- PAL: not used, NTSC: WORD0-B
- PAL: not used, NTSC: WORD0-A
video attribute1
- PAL: GROUP2, NTSC: WORD2
- PAL: GROUP1, NTSC: WORD1
video attribute2
NTSC: {ATR_EN,-,CRC(6bit)}
PAL: {ATR_EN,-,GROUP4(3bit),GROUP3(3bit)}
ATR_EN - attribute insertion enable
0 = no insertion (default)
1 = insertion
- not used
Whenever the video attr data reg2 is written,
the current value of video attr reg0 and reg1
is latched for active use. Though reg0 and
reg1 can be updated several times, but the
final value of reg0 and reg1 will not be used as
actual ID value until the reg2 is written.
Active region offset with respect to hsync pin
HSOF - hsyn offset (This value controls the
adjustment timing as indicated in Section 9
Figure 18) This is to control Td value between
82 and 146 based on DCP requirements.
16.2 BitBLT Registers - Base Address 0x70000000
Register
Size R/W Offset Bits Value Description
BLT_GO
0x30
BLT_FREE_SEMA
1
R
0x34 0
0 module is currently in use
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DSP
TMS320AV7110
Revision 3.1
Register
Size R/W Offset Bits Value Description
1 module is free
BLT_RESET_REG
1
W
0x38 0
reset_semaphore - A soft reset feature is
provided to interrupt a BitBLT task
BLT_HOLD_SEMA
0x3C
16.3 CCP Registers - Base Address 0x6E000000
Register
SCURB
Size R/W
16
R
Offset
0x0000
Bits
Value
15:9
8
0
1
7:0
SCUTB
16
W
0x0000
15:9
8
0
1
7:0
SCCCR
16
R/W
0x0004
19
0
1
18
0
1
17
0
1
16
0
1
15:8
7:4
3:0
SCSR
16
R
0x0008
14
0
1
13
0
1
12
0
1
11:8
7:4
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Uart receive buffer
reserved (read zeroes)
Parity
Good
Error
received value, underflow returns most
recent value
Uart transmit buffer
reserved (write data ignored)
Last information field byte (T=1 only)
Not last byte
Last information field byte
transmit data, overflow data ignored
Smart card control (reset to 0x0033)
clock mode
16x clock mode
15.5 clock mode
Parity enable
Disable parity generation and checking
Parity enabled
VCC detect
SCVCCDETECT input pin not used
SCVCCDETECT input pin used
FIFO interrupt level
half
1/4 transmit & 3/4 receive
gtim - additional guardtime etus
nnak - number of nak retries allowed
per character
nper - number of parity error retries
allowed per character
Smart card status register
Error detection code status
Good
Bad
Rx/TX status for turnarounds
No loopback: HW/SW reset or last char
Loopback: HW/SW reset or wrt to BRD rcvd.
No loopback: HW/SW reset or wrt to BRD rcv
Loopback: set when char is received.
Icc
Direct convention
Inverse
Transmit FIFO byte count
Receive FIFO byte count
Page 86
DSP
Register
TMS320AV7110
Size R/W
Offset
Bits
3
Revision 3.1
Value
0
1
2
0
1
1
0
0
1
SCICR
16
R/W 0x000C
21
0
1
20
0
1
19
0
1
18
0
1
17
16
0
1
15
0
1
14
0
1
13
0
1
12
0
1
11
0
1
10
0
1
9
8
7
6
5
4
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Smart card 1 status
Card is out
Card is in
Smart card 0 status
Card is out
Card is in
Smart card Vcc
tx_enz
SCI is driving SMIO line
SCI is not driving SMIO line
Control register (reset to 0x000204)
SCVppEN,SCVccEN active level
Active High
Active Low
Vcc enable
disable
enable
Smart Card select
Card 0
Card 1
Waiting time Rollover
No rollover
Rollover
FIFO time-out mask
Loopback transmit to receive
No loop back
Loop back
Transmitter/receiver FIFO mask
Unmask
Mask
Error detection code
LRC (Checksum)
CRC (Only valid if pts = 1)
Protocol type selection (pts)
T=0
T=1
Flow control
disable
enable
Uart reset
inactive
active
Initial character override
No override
Inhibits deactivation of contacts if TS is bad
Allows incoming stream from smart card to be
read
Smart card detect level
Initialization complete mask
Data ready mask
Work waiting time mask
Transmitter holding register emth mask
Vpp enable
Page 87
DSP
Register
TMS320AV7110
Size R/W
Offset
Bits
3:0
SCBRD
16
R/W
0x0010
14
13:0
VDTIM
WWTIM
SCRXEDC
SCBWT
SCFTO
SCIS
16
16
16
16
16
16
R/W 0x0014
R/W 0x0018
R 0x001C
R/W 0x0020
R/W 0x0024
R/W 0x0028
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
SCRC
16
R
0x002C
15:8
7:6
5
4
10/08/99 22:18
Revision 3.1
Value
0 Disable
1 Enable
Clock select
0x0 2.025 MHz clock
0x4 3.375 MHz clock
0x1 4.050 MHz clock
0x5 4.500 MHz clock
0x2 6.000 MHz clock
0x6 6.750 MHz clock
0x3 8.100 MHz clock
0x8 9.000 MHz clock
0x9 10.125 MHz clock
0x7 13.500 MHz clock
0xA 16.200 MHz clock
0xB 18.000 MHz clock
Baud rate divisor (reset to 0x18)
Baud rate control
0 No effect
1 Subtract 1/2 from Brd [13:0]
baudrate divisor
Vcc detect time (reset to 0x704E)
Work wait time (reset to 0x39F7)
Receiver error detect code (reset to 0xFFFF)
Block waiting time (Reset to 0x4B9A)
FIFO time out (reset to 0x4B9A)
Smart Card status register (reset to 0x0000)
(write one to clear)
FIFO time-out status
0 No Rx FIFO time-out
1 Rx FIFO time-out occurred
oe - (one to clear) overflow error
0 No overflow error
1 Overrun error
Transmit FIFO half full
Transmitter holding register interrupt
Receive FIFO half full
Data Ready
Work waiting time error
Smart card interface initialization completed
Smart card 1 detect event
Smart card 0 detect event
Vcc detect event
Answer to reset never occurred
Nak error
Parity error
Smart card register (Reset to 0x0255)
Inf Bytes
reserved (read zeros)
Direct lsb
0 If direct convention, transmit CRC msb first
1 If direct convention, transmit CRC lsb first
Not used in inverse convention
rxcrc
Page 88
DSP
Register
TMS320AV7110
Size R/W
Offset
Bits
3:1
0
Revision 3.1
Value
0 Inhibit CRC generation in receiver for last
two bytes
1 Do not inhibit
Length byte position in frame
0
1
SCTXEDC
16
16
R
R
0x0030
0x0100
15:0
15:8
7:0
16
W
0x0100
15:8
7:0
16
R
0x0104
15:7
6:0
16
W
0x0104
15:7
6:0
16
R/C
0x0108
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
16
R/W 0x010C
15
14
13
12
11
10
9:0
16
10/08/99 22:18
W
0x0110
Generate CRC with lsb first
Generate CRC with msb first
Transmit EDC register
i2crb : Used to send i2c data to arm
reserved (read zeroes)
received value, underflow returns
most recent value
i2ctb : Used to send arm data to i2c
reserved (write data ignored)
transmit data, overflow data ignored
i2car : Used to send received address to arm
reserved (read zeroes)
received value, underflow returns
most recent value
i2caw : Used by arm to send address to i2c
reserved (write data ignored)
transmit data, overflow data ignored
i2cs : Status register (reset to 0x2200)
strt - detected that start occurred (1)
stop - detected that a stop occurred
rnw_slv - slave mode received r/w bit
write to master (1), read (0)
ack - no acknowledge received (1)
cnt_scl - clock output tri state contrl
cnt_sda - data output tri state control
acka - address acknowledge received (0)
ackd - data acknowledge received (0)
int_req - one cycle interrupt to arm
gencall - general call address received
addr_cmplt - complete address received
data_cmplt - complete byte received
ireq (write one to clear) - status of
interrupt clear(0), pending(1)
busy_bit - tells when i2c state machine
is busy
reserved (read zero)
reserved (read zero)
i2cc : Control register (reset to 0x8000)
mstr - set to master(1) or slave(0)
rnw - master mode=> read from slave(1)
write to slave(0)
rpt_strt - generate a repeated start
init_strt - initiate a start
time_out - a time out has occurred,
reset when a start is detected
not_ack - a not acknowledge sent after
the last data byte
reserved (read zero)
i2ccas : Used by arm to set i2c address
Page 89
DSP
Register
TMS320AV7110
Size R/W
Offset
16
W
0x0114
16
R/W
0x0300
Bits
15:7
6:0
Revision 3.1
Value
15:0
31:6
5
0
1
4
3
2
1
0
16
16
16
W
R/W
R/W
0x0304
31:16
15:0
0x0308 31:0
0x0400
31:6
5
0
1
4
3
2
1
0
1
URB
16
16
16
W
R/W
R
0x0404
0x0408
0x0500
0
31:0
31:0
15:8
7:0
UTB
16
W
0x0500
15:8
7:0
ASPCR
16
R/W
0x0504
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
0
1
8
0
1
10/08/99 22:18
reserved (write data ignored)
transmit data, overflow data ignored
i2cti : Timing interrupt value used by to set i2c
timing interrupt
interrupt data, overflow data ignored
tcr : Timer control register
reserved (read zeros)
tint_mask - mask tint
don't mask timer interrupt
mask timer interrupt
free - emulation mode free bit
softe - emulation mode soft bit
softn - normal mode soft bit
tss - timer stop
trb - timer reload, read zero
prld
prd - period register
tddr - timer divide down
count: Actual timer value
tcr
reserved (read zeros)
timer interrupt mask
don't mask timer interrupt
mask timer interrupt
emulation mode free bit
emulation mode soft bit
normal mode soft bit
timer stop
start
stop - detected that a stop occurred
timer reload
Preload value
Actual timer value
uart receive buffer
reserved (read zeros)
received value, underflow returns most recent
value
uart transmit buffer
reserved (write data ignored)
transmit data, overflow data ignored
async serial port control register
free
soft
uart reset
reserved (read zero)
transmit interrupt mask
received interrupt mask
data bits
seven
eight
parity select for seven bits
if pen=1, odd parity
if pen=0, low (space)
if pen=1, even parity
Page 90
DSP
Register
TMS320AV7110
Size R/W
Offset
Bits
Revision 3.1
Value
7
0
1
6
0
1
5
4
0
1
3:2
00
01
10
11
1
0
USTAT
BRD
16
16
16
R/C
0x0508
R/W 0x050C
R
0x0600
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7:3
2
1:0
11:0
15:8
7:0
16
W
0x0600
15:8
7:0
16
R/W
0x0604
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
0
1
8
0
1
7
0
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if pen=0, high (mark)
parity enable
no parity
parity
stop bits
1 stop bit
2 stop bits
reserved (read zero)
set break
normal operation
force a zero on tx commands
fifo interrupt level
1/4
1/2
3/4
enable hardware handshaking
reserved (read zero)
uart status register
parity error occurred
reserved (read zero)
break interrupt occurred
transmitter empty
transmitter fifo empty
framing error
overflow error
data ready
receive fifo count
interrupt: inserted for testing purposes
reserved (read zeros)
baud rate divisor register
uart receive buffer
reserved (read zeros)
received value, underflow returns most recent
value
uart transmit buffer
reserved (write data ignored)
transmit data, overflow data ignored
async serial port control register
free
soft
uart reset
reserved (read zero)
transmit interrupt mask
received interrupt mask
data bits
seven
eight
parity select for seven bits
if pen=1, odd parity
if pen=0, low (space)
if pen=1, even parity
if pen=0, high (mark)
parity enable
no parity
Page 91
DSP
Register
TMS320AV7110
Size R/W
Offset
Bits
6
5
4
3:2
1
0
16
UART2
16
16
R/C
0x0608
R/W 0x060C
R
0x0700
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7:3
2
1:0
11:0
15:8
7:0
16
W
0x0700
15:8
7:0
16
R/W
0x0704
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
10/08/99 22:18
Revision 3.1
Value
1 parity
stop bits
0 1 stop bit
1 2 stop bits
reserved (read zero)
set break
0 normal operation
1 force a zero on tx commands
fifo interrupt level
01 1/4
10 1/2
11 3/4
enable hardware handshaking
reserved (read zeros)
uart status register
parity error occurred
reserved (read zero)
break interrupt occurred
transmitter empty
transmitter holding register empty
framing error
overflow error
data ready
receive fifo count
interrupt: inserted for testing purposes
reserved (read zeros)
baud rate divisor register
uart receive buffer
reserved (read zeros)
received value, underflow returns most recent
value
uart transmit buffer
reserved (write data ignored)
transmit data, overflow data ignored
async serial port control register
free
soft
uart reset
reserved (read zero)
transmit interrupt mask
received interrupt mask
data bits
0 seven
1 eight
parity select for seven bits
0 if pen=1, odd parity
if pen=0, low (space)
1 if pen=1, even parity
if pen=0, high (mark)
parity enable
0 no parity
1 parity
stop bits
0 1 stop bit
1 2 stop bits
reserved (read zero)
Page 92
DSP
Register
TMS320AV7110
Size R/W
Offset
Bits
4
Revision 3.1
Value
0
1
3:0
16
IR_DEC_PREAMBLE_BASE
IR_DEC_REPEAT_BASE
IR_DEC_STOP_BASE
IR_DEC_DATA0_BASE
IR_DEC_DATA1_BASE
IR_ENC_PREAMBLE_BASE
IR_ENC_MISC1_BASE
IR_ENC_MISC2_BASE
IR_ENC_STOP_BASE
IR_ENC_DATA0_BASE
IR_ENC_DATA1_BASE
IR_DEC_REG_BASE
IR_PROGRAM_ADDR
IR_INBUSY_ADDR
IR_DOUT_ADDR
IR_ENC_REG_BASE
10/08/99 22:18
16
17w
11w
7w
9w
9w
9w
9w
9w
9w
5w
5w
9
15
12
1
3
32
9
R/C
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R
0x0708
0x070C
0x0800
0x0850
0x0880
0x08A0
0x08D0
0x0900
0x0924
0x0948
0x0990
0x09C0
0x09E4
0x0C00
0x0C04
0x0C08
0x0C0C
0x0C10
R 0x0C14
R/W 0x0E00
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7:6
5:0
11:0
set break
normal operation
force a zero on tx commands
reserved (read zeros)
uart status register
parity error occurred
reserved (read zero)
break interrupt occurred
transmitter empty
transmitter fifo empty
framing error
overflow error
data ready
receive fifo count
reserved (read zeros)
baud rate divisor register
preamble
repeat
stop
data 0
data 1
preamble
misc 1
misc 2
stop
A/D entry 0
A/D entry 1
9
8-4
3
2
1
0
14:0
11:0
0
IRIN inverted
Frame length
compare enable
Stop pattern present
Repeat pattern present
LSB/MSB first
Max time between frames
Count enable period
Program
2
1
0
31:0
DIRQ_ST
NEW_FRAME
IRINBUSY
DOUT
9
8-4
3
2
1
0
IROUT inverted
A/D entries data length
Relay/software commands
Modulated/Pulse
INTERVAL_CNT_MODE
LSB/MSB first
30
R/W 0x0E04
12
29-15
14-0
R/W 0x0E08 11-0
Interval 1
Interval 0
Count Enable Period
Page 93
DSP
TMS320AV7110
Register
IR_FORMAT_ADDR
IR_REPEAT_POS_ADDR
IR_REPEAT_STOP_ADDR
IR_CARRIER_ADDR
IR_A_ENTRY_ADDR
IR_D_ENTRY_ADDR
IR_OUTRDY_ADDR
GPIO1
GPIO2
GPIO3
GPIO4
GPIO5
GPIO6
GPIO7
GPIO8
GPIO9
Revision 3.1
Size R/W Offset Bits Value
30 R/W 0x0E0C 29-0
Format register
10 R/W 0x0E10
9-5
REPEAT-POSITION-END
4-0
REPEAT-POSITION-BEGIN
1 R/W 0x0E14
0
REPEAT-STOP
22 R/W 0x0E18
21-11
Carrier HI width
10-0
Carrier LO width
32 R/W 0x0E20 31-0
A entry
32 R/W 0x0E24 31-0
D entry
2
R
0x0E28
1
EORQ_ST
0
OROUTRDY
32 R/W 0x1000
31:6
reserved (read zeros)
5
select register for muxed gpios
0 gpio
1 other
4
ddio0 - delta detect io bit. Write a one to clear
ddio0.
3:2
gpio0_irq1: gpio1_irq0
00 Disable IRQ
01 Rising edge IRQ
10 Falling edge IRQ
11 State change IRQ
1
cio0 - configure IO
0 input
1 output
0
io0 writeable if cio0 is 1, reads value on gpio
pad
32 R/W 0x1100
Same as GPIO1
32 R/W 0x1200
Same as GPIO1
32 R/W 0x1300
Same as GPIO1
32 R/W 0x1400
Same as GPIO1
32 R/W 0x1500
Same as GPIO1
32 R/W 0x0600
Same as GPIO1
32 R/W 0x1700
Same as GPIO1
32 R/W 0x1800
Same as GPIO1
16.4 Audio Decoder Registers - Base Address 0x6C000000
Register
AUD_CTRL_REG
10/08/99 22:18
Size R/W Offset Bits Value Description
32 R/W 0x0020 31:22
reserved (read zeroes)
21
Disable Sync
0 Enable Sync
1 Disable Sync
20
Byte Swap
0 no swap (bypass PCM data is in Little Endian)
1 swap bytes (bypass PCM data is in Big Endian)
19
Elementary Stream Playback
0 off (normal operation)
1 on, incoming data goes directly to audio decoder
bypassing the AFE
Page 94
DSP
Register
AUDIO_SCR
TMS320AV7110
Size R/W
AUD_PLL_REG
AUD_PLL_CNT
AUD_FIQ_STAT_REG
32
32
32
16
32
AUD_STAT_REG
32
10/08/99 22:18
Offset
R/W 0x0024
R/W 0x0028
0x0040
0x0080
R/W 0x0400
R
0x0800
Revision 3.1
Bits
18
Value Description
PCM bypass
0 disable bypass (normal operation)
1 enable bypass of AFE and audio decoder
17
Copyright bit auto-update enable
0 allows software to write to bit 16
1 Bit 16 is updated from the MPEG header
16
see bit 17 above (bit is output through SPDIF)
15:9
Category (programmed by user, output through
SPDIF)
8
PCM Clock source select (PCMSRC) defaults to
0 for Internal PLL
7:4
Output format select (also called PCMSEL[3:0]
See PCMCLK frequencies table in Section 10.
3:2
Dual channel mode output mode select
00 Ch 0 on left, Ch1 on right
01 Ch 0 on both left and right
10 Ch 1 on both left and right
11 reserved
1
Mute
0 Normal operation
1 Mute audio output
0
Reset
0 Normal operation
1 Reset audio module
31:0
Audio SCR register bits 31:0
31:0
Audio SCR register bit 32
Audio PLL control register
Audio PLL counter
0
FIQ Status register
0 PLL Locked
1 SF Change
31
Stereo Mode
0 all other
1 dual mode
30:29
Sampling Frequency
00 44.1 KHz if MPEG ID equals 1
22.05 KHz if MPEG ID equals 0
01 48.0 KHz if MPEG ID equals 1
24.0 KHz if MPEG ID equals 0
10 32.0 KHz if MPEG ID equals 1
16.0 KHz if MPEG ID equals 0
11 reserved
28:27
De-emphasis Mode
00 None
01 50/15 microseconds
10 Reserved
11 CCITT J.17
26
Synchronization Mode
0 Normal operation
1 Sync recovery mode
25
CRC Error
0 No CRC error or CRC not enabled in stream
1 CRC error found
Page 95
DSP
TMS320AV7110
Register
Size R/W
Offset
Bits
24
23
22:21
20
19:16
15:14
13
12
11:10
9:8
7
6
5:4
3:0
Revision 3.1
Value Description
PCM Underflow
0 Normal operation
1 PCM output underflowed
23:4 - MPEG header without sync word
ID bit (equals SAMPFREQ[2]
Layer
Protection bit
Bitrate index
Sampling frequency (equals SAMPFREAQ[1:0])
Padding bit
Private bit
Mode
Mode extension
Copyright
Original/home
Emphasis
Version number of the audio decoder
16.5 Video Decoder Registers - Base Address 0x6A000000
Register
VID_ARM_IF
Size R/W
24 R/W
OVFLMODE
R
VIDEO_SCR
24
R/W
VID_STAT_REG
8
R
10/08/99 22:18
Offset Bits Value Description
0x00
Host control register
23:22
local state (reset to 10)
00 run
01 reserved
10 halt
11 reset
11
host_int
0
video_irq
0x04
Overflow Mode
0 All data is in the SDRAM
1 Split buffer is active and video data
may exist in DRAM
0x0C
SCR timer_high
23:0
SCR(31:8)
0x10
SCR timer mode reg
0
SCR frequency
0 27 MHz
1 90 KHz
0x14
10
Vsync Reset
0 no reset
1 Vsync Reset
9
Valid EDS Data (NTSC)
0 EDS data not valid
1 EDS data is valid
8
Valid CC Data (NTSC)
0 CC data not valid
1 CC data is valid
7
Interactive Command Done
0 command in progress
1 Command done
6
User Data Ready
0 not ready
Page 96
DSP
Register
VID_CMD_REG
TMS320AV7110
Size R/W
8
R
32
R
Offset Bits Value
1
5
0
1
4
0
1
3
0
1
2
0
1
1
0
0
1
0x18
1
0
1
0
0
1
0x34
23
22
21
vid_control
0x40
23:22
00
01
10
11
21
20:16
00000
00010
00011
00100
01nnn
11nnn
15
14:13
12
0
1
11
0
10/08/99 22:18
Revision 3.1
Description
user data ready
Aspect Ratio Change
no change
aspect ratio has changed
True Size Change
Full size picture
True size picture
Vid Watermark Underflow
no error
WM Underflow
Vid Watermark Overflow
no error
WM Overflow
Reserved
Bitstream Error
no error
bitstream error
Interrupt status
Wide Screen
enable pan scan
disable pan scan
SCR Valid
not valid
valid
Video decoder status
blk_busy bit indicates VLD is busy in
decoding blocks.
error bit is set if a bitstream error is
detected.
reserved
Control and status register
Operating mode
run
single step
halt
reset
unused
Normal operation
read horizontal ROM lower 32 bits
read horizontal ROM upper 16 bits
read vertical ROM
read linnebuffer nnn
write linebuffer nnn
Test data is written to and read from
the vid_test register. The address is
writen to the vid_addr register
reserved for midrocode internal use
unused
blank output
normal display
black output
sync_deci
sync video output to send_norm
Page 97
DSP
Register
vid_mode
TMS320AV7110
Size R/W
Offset Bits Value
1
10
0
1
9
0
1
8:7
00
01
10
11
6
0
1
5:2
n
1
0
1
0
0
1
0x44
23
0
1
22:15
0
96
128
144
153
170
192
250
…
14:12
000
001
010
011
100
101
110
111
11:6
5
0
1
10/08/99 22:18
Revision 3.1
Description
sync video output to send_deci
inverted fsync (field polarity)
even field (bottom)
odd field (top)
fsync (field polarity)
odd field (top)
even field (bottom)
Line offset for even field
same as odd field (normal)
+1 (even field starts one line later)
-2 (even field starts two lines earlier)
-1 (even field starts one line earlier)
active area
current line is in inactive area
current line is in active area
data request delay (n*4 cycles)
provide next luma line address
provide two next luma line addresses
don't provide chroma line address
provide next chroma line address
VideoOut operating modes
test mode
no test mode
test mode (12/24 instead of 480/576)
Increment value for horizontal filter.
This value controls the upsampling
ratio.
1/1 (no upsampling)
8/3 upsampling
2/1 upsampling
16/9 upsampling
5/3 upsampling
3/2 upsampling
4/3 upsampling
720/704 upsampling
increment value = round_down(256 *
source_pixels/output_pixels)
vertical ration
1/1 (normal)
3/4 (letterbox)
3/5 (letterbox)
4/5 (letterbox)
unused
1/2 (decimation)
1/4 (decimation)
unused
horizontal pan-scan offset (n/16th pel
resolution)
SIF mode
no SIF mode
SIF mode on
Page 98
DSP
Register
TMS320AV7110
Size R/W
vid_lptr1
22
R/W
vid_cptr
22
R/W
vid_lptr2
22
R/W
10
R/W
vid_cc
vid_htime
vid_vfifo
vid_addr
R/W
W
R
R
R
R/W
R
W
Revision 3.1
Offset Bits Value Description
4
PAL/NTSC
0 NTSC mode (480 lines)
1 PAL mode (576 lines)
3
0 frame type chroma interpolation
1 field type chroma interpolation
2
monochrome
0 color
1 black and white
1:0
Number of source pixels to transfer
from SDRAM into the line memories
(May be more or less than the actual
number of pixels in source image)
00 720
01 544
10 480
11 360
0x48
Byte start address of next luma line,
word aligned
0x4C
Byte start address of next chroma
line, word aligned
0x50
Byte start address of one line after
next luma line, word aligned
0x54
Closed captioning register
16
Closed caption mode
0 normal
1 extended
15:0
closed caption data
0x58 9:0
Number of active output pixels per line
720 Normal mode
360 Half decimation
180 Quarter decimation
0x5C
FIFO data input
31:0
FIFO input register for data from
SDRAM
23:16
Version number of the FIFO stage
15:8
Version number of the vertical stage
7:0
Version number of the horizontal stage
0x60
21:0
Byte start address for data transfer
from SDRAM
7:0
Test address for memory test mode.
16.6 OSD Registers - Base Address 0x68000000
Register
OSDCUR_REG
Size R/W Offset
12 R/W 0x0000
Bits
11
10
9
10/08/99 22:18
Value Description
Cursor Configuration register
Mirror repeat mode bit
0
off
1
on
Line repeat mode bit
0
off
1
on
Pixel repeat mode (half-resolution)
Page 99
DSP
Register
TMS320AV7110
Size R/W
OSDREG_BGCOLOR
24
OSDREG_WINENMASK
8
OSDREG_MPEGVIDEOEN
2
OSDREG_DECX0Y0Y1
30
12
3
10/08/99 22:18
Offset
Revision 3.1
Bits
Value Description
0
off
1
on
8
Cursor dual color mode bit
0
single
1
dual
7
Display cursor channel : cvbs
0
off
1
on
6
Display cursor channel : digital video
0
off
1
on
5
Display cursor channel : encoder
0
off
1
on
4
Cursor enable bit
0
Off
1
On
3:0
N
Cursor blinking rate control
N fields on - N fields off
R/W 0x0004 23:0
Background color register
Cb,Y,Cr of background color
default : black (0x801080)
R/W 0x0008
Window enable mask register
7
Window 7 enable
6
Window 6 enable
5
Window 5 enable
4
Window 4 enable
3
Window 3 enable
2
Window 2 enable
1
Window 1 enable
0
Window 0 enable
0x000C
MPEG video input enable
1
video "audio-enable" feature enable bit
0
auto-enable off
1
HW re-enables bit 0 after 3 fields and then
clears this bit
0
mpeg video enable
0
Background
1
MPEG Video Decoder output
R 0x0018
Y1 X0Y0Y1- Decimation window coord
29:20
x0 coord (actual written = x0 + 1)
19:10
y0 coord (actual written = y0 + 1)
9:0
y1 coord (actual written = y1 + 1)
default "0000000001","0000000000","0111011111"
0x001C
Reserved
0x0020
Reserved
0x0024
BB request disable configuration
11
control EBI access
10
control SDRAM access
9
vbi always enable
8
hbi always enable
7:4
y-based control
3:0
x-based control
0x0028
OSD test configuration mode
Page 100
DSP
TMS320AV7110
Register
Size R/W
OSDCUR_COLOR0
OSDCUR_COLOR1
TT_WSS_CFG
TT_LINE_BIT
24
24
15
32
Offset
Bits
1
0
0x0030
0x0034
0x0038
0x003C
23:0
23:0
14:0
31:0
Revision 3.1
Value Description
iddq testing on : disable all memories
memory read/write test on: disable OSD
local memory write
Cb,Y,Cr of cursor color 0
Cb,Y,Cr of cursor color 1
Teletext/WSS configuration register
Teletext valid line flag for two fields
16.7 TC Registers - Base Address 0x66000000
Register
IRQ_SET_REG
Size R/W Offset
32
W 0x0010
IRQ_RST_REG
32
IRQ_MASK_REG
32
IRQ_STAT_REG
32
W
Bits
Value Description
Sets bits in the (unmapped) IRQ request
register. Each '1 written sets the
corresponding irqreq bit.
Clears bits in the (unmapped) IRQ request
register. Each '1' written resets the
corresponding irqreq bit.
Each '1' causes the corresponding IRQ
request to be masked.
Combination of (unmapped) IRQ request
and irqmask. Any '1' will cause a IRQ to
be generated.
29
27
25
23
21
19
17
15
13
11
9
7
5
3
1
hspint
external interrupt 2
external interrupt 1
external interrupt 0
CCP GPIO
CCP UART2
CCP UART1
CCP UART0
CCP IR_DIRQ
CCP I2C
OSD vblank end
OSD vblank begin
CCP TIMER1
CCP SCI
CCP TIMER0
All others reserved for software use.
0x0014
R/W 0x0018
R
0x001C
IRQ Bit definitions
EBI_WAIT
TC_WAIT
32
EBI_INTACK
32
R/W 0x0020
27-24
23-20
19-16
15-12
11-8
7-4
3-0
R/W 0x0024
W
W
W
10/08/99 22:18
8
7
6
Programmable wait states for ebi devices
CS6. resets to 0100.
CS5. resets to 0111.
CS4. resets to 0111.
CS3. resets to 0111.
CS2. resets to 0111.
CS1. resets to 0101.
Reserved
extintack[2:0] directly feed the
extack pins. extintack[8:3] are used
for bitwise control of extintack[2:0]:
writing '1' clears extack[2]
writing '1' clears extack[1]
writing '1' clears extack[0]
Page 101
DSP
Register
TC_EXTMEMCFG
10/08/99 22:18
TMS320AV7110
Size R/W Offset
W
W
W
R
32 R/W 0x002C
Revision 3.1
Bits
5
4
3
2-0
Value Description
writing '1' sets extack[2]
writing '1' sets extack[1]
writing '1' sets extack[0]
External interrupt status
extension bus configuration.
22
extoen control pin.
0 low during read (default)
1 during chip select
21
Reserved - set to zero
20
cs6n access mode
0 multi access
1 single access
19
cs5n access mode
0 multi access
1 single access
18
cs4n access mode
0 multi access
1 single access
17
cs3n access mode
0 multi access
1 single access
16
cs2n access mode
0 multi access
1 single access
14
cs1n access mode
0 multi access
1 single access
13:12
Eb bus width : cs6n
00 8 bit bus
01 16 bit bus
11 32 bit (RAS2) bus
11:10
Eb bus width : cs5n
00 8 bit bus
01 16 bit bus
11 32 bit (RAS2) bus
9:8
Eb bus width : cs4n
00 8 bit bus
01 16 bit bus
11 32 bit (RAS2) bus
7:6
Eb bus width : cs3n
00 8 bit bus
01 16 bit bus
11 32 bit (RAS2) bus
5:4
Eb bus width : cs2n
00 8 bit bus
01 16 bit bus
11 32 bit (RAS2) bus
3:2
Eb bus width : dram
00 8 bit bus
01 16 bit bus
11 32 bit (RAS2) bus
1:0
Eb bus width : cs1n
00 8 bit bus
01 16 bit bus
Page 102
DSP
Register
TMS320AV7110
Size R/W
Offset
Bits
DMAGENINT
4
R
0x0030
3:0
DMAGENSET
4
W
0x0034
3:0
DMAGENXTFREE
3
R
0x0038
2
1:0
ARM_GP_BURST_SIZ
10
R/W 0x0048
9:0
SD_BUF0_START
SD_BUF0_END
SD_BUF1_START
SD_BUF1_END
VID_WRITE_COPY
VID_WRITE_LIMIT
TC_AUD_RESET
22
22
22
22
22
22
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R
R
W
0x0054
0x0058
0x005C
0x0060
0x0064
0x0068
0x006C
TC_SW_RESET
TC_IRQ_RAW_STAT
1
32
W
R
0x00A0
0x00B4
TC_STAT
32
R
0x00BC
10/08/99 22:18
Revision 3.1
Value Description
11 32 bit (RAS2) bus
General DMA init
There are four general DMAs and each bit
3:0, when set to '1', indicates that DMA is
either pending or executing.
Set General DMA init
Mark a general DMA for processing by
writing a '1' to the corresponding location.
The location should have been determined
and reserved by reading register #15. In
overflow mode, every time this register is
written, the general DMA count is
incremented to determine when to place
backflow DMA at high priority.
Next general DMA init
A '1' indicates that the DMA setup location
given in bits 1:0 is in use.
When read returns the value 0-3 of the
next available general DMA.
The DMA pointer is incremented so that
the given location is now reserved for the
ARM. This DMA must be setup and the
init pin set (register 14) or the general
DMA will stall.
General DMA burst size
The largest general DMA in bytes that
can be performed by the hardware before
returning to the idle state. Note: A DMA
can be larger, the hardware will break it
down into DMAs of the burst size or less.
Video circular buffer address in SDRAM
Audio circular buffer address in SDRAM
Copy of video write pointer
Video's don't step over point
Flush Audio BS buffer
A write to this register will cause the audio
read/write pointers to be reset to the start
of circular buffer #1. The audio is forced to
perform a read on circular buffer #1.
Write '1' to reset chip
IRQ Status
Each bit corresponds to one of the 32 FIQ
interrupts listed in register #1. If a bit is
high, it is active and may or may not have
caused the interrupt to the ARM. More
than one can be active at a time. The FIQ
mask has no effect on this register. The
fiqn signal will return high only after all
unmasked values in this register are low.
TC status
The TC status register is related to the TC
FIQ. Bits 6:0 can cause a FIQ.
Page 103
DSP
Register
TMS320AV7110
Size R/W
Offset
Bits
30
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
TC_PTS_COUNT
24
R
0x00C0
23:0
TC_PTS_RESET
1
W
0x00C4
0
22
R/W 0x00C8
21:0
22
9
R 0x00CC
R/W 0x00D4
21:0
8:0
25
R/W 0x00D8
24:0
25
R/W 0x00DC
24:0
8
R/W 0x00E0
7:0
25
R
0x00E4
24:0
25
R
0x00E8
24:0
24
R
0x00EC
23:0
2
W
0x00F0
1
0
16
R/W 0x00F4
15:0
10/08/99 22:18
Revision 3.1
Value Description
1 Entered overflow buffer mode. Packets are
being set to DRAM.
1 The next EOP packet has come in before
the last was serviced.
1 The split buffer has overflowed.
1 HSP input buffer has overflowed.
1 Audio has overflowed.
1 Audio has underflowed.
1 Video has overflowed, not valid in split
buffer mode.
1 TPP has been stalled.
Video PTS counter
Counts every byte sent to the video buffer.
The count is incorrect if the TPP DMA
has stalled as a result of an overflow.
1 Reset video PTS counter
Note: There is not synchronization
between video DMAs and the reset
Audio read pointer
Writes must be word address.
Audio write pointer
GPIO interrupt status
On a read, this is the status of the GPIOs
9:1. Each bit has to be cleared by writing
a '1' to its location.
Overflow buffer start addr
LSBs of the overflow buffer start address
in DRAM
Overflow buffer end addr
LSBs of the overflow buffer end address
in DRAM.
Backflow burst size
Backflow transfer size in bytes. A
multiple of the burst size or slightly less
is the most efficient size.
Overflow buf read pointer
25 LSBs of the read pointer DRAM
address for the overflow buffer.
Overflow buf write pointer
25 LSBs of the write pointer DRAM
address for the overflow buffer.
Overflow buffer byte count
The number of video data bytes in the split
buffer.
Overflow control
1 Enable overflow
1 Force overflow. this will force all packets
through the overflow buffer.
Backflow try
The amount of space that must be
available in the SDRAM before a backflow
is performed. This value must be
larger than the backflow burst size register
#57. Ideally it should be a multiple of the
Page 104
DSP
Register
TMS320AV7110
Size R/W
16
Offset
Bits
R/W 0x00F8
15:0
EBI_DRAM_CFG
4
R/W 0x00FC
3:2
1
0
1
R/W 0x0100
Revision 3.1
Value Description
burst size.
Backflow Priority
The number of general DMAs that can be
set up before the backflow DMA is given
highest priority. If backflow can not be
performed when given the highest priority,
the DMA count is reset.
EBI DRAM configuration
CAS
00 8-bit cas address
01 9-bit cas address
10 10-bit cas address
Dual DRAM
0 depth-wise (RAS)
1 width-wise
Extended Tcp Mode
0 Extended Tcp Mode
1 Reduced Tcp Mode
EBI enable prefetch
0
0
1
2
2
R
R
0x0104
1
1
0
1
0x0108
prefetch disabled
prefetch enabled
HSP DMA init
DMA for buffer 1 has been initialized and
is pending
DMA for buffer 0 has been initialized and
is pending
Next free HSP buffer
1
0
1
The DMA is available
The DMA setup is busy
0
1
Buffer 0
Buffer 1
HSP set DMA Ready
HSP clear DMA ready
HSP Acknowledge delay
HSP select 1284/1394/EXTDMA
Address Debug
Bit Blit overflow mask
Split buffer overflow
HSP output buffer
0
2
22
2
2
32
24
3
32
W
W
R/W
R/W
R
R/W
R/W
R/W
0x010C
0x0110
0x0114
0x0118
0x011C
0x0120
0x0124
0x01F0
16.8 TPP Registers - Base Address 0x64000000
Register
TPP_STATUS_REG
10/08/99 22:18
Size R/W Offset
32 R/W 0x0020
Bits Value Description
Status Register
31
TC Error/FIFO Error
30:25
Unused
24:23
Packet Type
22
Auto buffer bit
21
Stream error
20
unused
Page 105
DSP
Register
TMS320AV7110
Size R/W Offset
TPP_CPU_CNTR
23
TPP_SCR_COUNT
16
R
0x0028
TPP_SCR_LATCH
16
R
0x002C
TPP_SIGMA_DAC
1
2
8
W 0x0030
R 0x0034
R/W 0x0038
TPP_SIGMA_LOW
16
R/W 0x003C
10/08/99 22:18
R/W 0x0024
Revision 3.1
Bits Value Description
19
Duplicat Packet
18
Continuity count error
17
unused
16
PID/SCID Valid
15:12
Current Continuity count
11:10
Adaptation Field
9
Transport Priority
8
unused
7
Packet unit start
6:5
Descrambling Control
4:0
Logical Channel
Control Register
22
Enable FEC on power up
21
Enable Armbuf back 2 back PID's
20
CAM test mode
19
CAM test search
18
CAM Bypass
17
CpuMemLock
16
input source select - fec or 1394
15
full bypass selective decode
14
full bypass for 1394
13
Transfer AF Reserve Types Enable
12
Stream Cipher Disable
11
Virtical Blanking Update
10
Sigma Delta Mode
9
PCR Mode
8
PACWAIT mode enable <unused>
7
DERROR pin polarity
6
BYTESTRT Valid Polarity
5
PACCLK Valid Polarity
4
DCLK direction
3
DCLK polarity
2
Enable Duplicate Packets
1
Transport Error Enable
0
Enable Match
This 16 bit hardware reference clock
counter runs at 27MHz. It is user to
trigger a SCR FIQ upon wraparound.
The SCR register latches the scr counter
when an Auxiliary packet is encountered
from the bitstream.
HW filter control
HW filter status
This eight bit data register
affects the input voltage to the
VCxO. A midpoint value of 127 or
128 represents baseline.
The sigma delta operating
frequency is directly related to
the noise. Essentially, the
faster the frequency, the lower
the noise. This frequency is
divided from the 40MHz input
clock. The divider can be set in
Page 106
DSP
Register
TPP_SIGMA_HI
TPP_EOP_POS
TMS320AV7110
Size R/W Offset
32
32
7
32
32
5
8
8
32
32
8
2
32
32
10/08/99 22:18
Revision 3.1
Bits Value Description
this 16 bit register. A default
divider value is loaded on
reset. The divider is not an
ordinary clock divider. Rather, it
is a counter value which pulses a
sigma delta cycle
when the count value reaches the
registered value. Then, the
counter is reset to zero and
starts over again.
R/W 0x0040
HW filter high order match word
R/W 0x0044
HW filter low order match word
W 0x0048
HW filter attr
R 0x004C
HW filter left results
R 0x0050
HW filter right results
R/W 0x005C
This 8 bit register moves the EOP FIQ
location. If the EOP FIQ is wanted on
the 100th input byte, set EOP compreg
to 99.
R/W 0x0060
cntrl1_1394
R 0x0068
status_1394
R/W 0x0070
crc_input
R/W 0x0074
crc output
R 0x0078
crc status
W 0x007C
crc control
R/W 0x0800
HW Filter table
R/W 0x1000
HW Filter mask
Page 107
DSP
TMS320AV7110
Revision 3.1
17. Timing Diagrams and DC Parameters
10/08/99 22:18
Page 108
DSP
Revision 3.1
17.1 DRAM Interface Timing
Figure 32. Read Access from DRAM
Figure 33. Write Access from DRAM
DSP
TMS320AV7110
Revision 3.1
Figure 34. Read-Modify-Write Access for 32 Bit DRAM
Figure 35. Read-Modify-Write Access for 32 Bit DRAM
10/08/99 22:18
Page 110
DSP
TMS320AV7110
Revision 3.1
Figure 36. CAS Before RAS DRAM Refresh Timing
17.2 EBI Interface Timing
* This delay could be a max of 24 or 48 nsec. See explanation on tristate requirements in Section 12.1
Figure 37. Extension Bus Single Access Read Timing (4 Wait States)
10/08/99 22:18
Page 111
DSP
TMS320AV7110
Revision 3.1
Figure 38. Extension Bus Write Timing (4 Wait States)
Figure 39. Extension Bus Timing for Multi-Access Mode (3 Wait States)
10/08/99 22:18
Page 112
DSP
TMS320AV7110
Revision 3.1
Figure 40. Read with EXTWAIT Active
10/08/99 22:18
Page 113
DSP
TMS320AV7110
PARM
CLK40
tcsd
tcwd
PARAMETER DESCRIPTION
System Clock Frequency
Clock Period
Chip Select Delay
Chip Select to EXTWAIT Delay
tcs
tws
twcd
Chip Select Active time
EXTWAIT Setup to Clock
EXTWAIT to Chip Select Inactive delay
t1
Revision 3.1
MIN
TYP
MAX
40.5
*
UNIT
MHz
ns
ns
ns
24
8
48
ns
ns
ns
24.7
3
* = (waits - 3) x t1, where programmed waits >3
61
Figure 41. Write with EXTWAIT Active
10/08/99 22:18
Page 114
DSP
TMS320AV7110
Revision 3.1
17.3 SDRAM Interface Timing
PARAMETER
tras
trcd
tlat
tcmax
tcmin
tds
tdh
PARAMETER DESCRIPTION
RAS to RAS Delay (Activation to Activation)
RAS to CAS Delay (Activation to access)
Latency Delay
Chip Select/Address Active Delay
Chip Select/Address Inactive Delay
Data Setup time
Data Hold time
MIN
TYP
6
3
3
MAX
9.0
3.0
3.0
3.0
UNIT
clks
clks
clks
ns
ns
ns
ns
Figure 42. SDRAM Read Cycle
10/08/99 22:18
Page 115
DSP
TMS320AV7110
PARAMETER
tras
trcd
trwl
tcmax
tcmin
tdmax
tdmin
PARAMETER DESCRIPTION
RAS to RAS Delay (Activation to Activation)
RAS to CAS Delay (Activation to access)
Data to RAS Delay (Last data to next Activation)
Chip Select/Address Active Delay
Chip Select/Address Inactive Delay
Data Valid Delay
Data Invalid Delay
Revision 3.1
MIN
TYP
6
3
2
MAX
9.0
3.0
9.0
3.0
UNIT
clks
clks
clks
ns
ns
ns
ns
Figure 43. SDRAM Write Cycle
10/08/99 22:18
Page 116
DSP
TMS320AV7110
PARAMETER
trrd
trcd
tlat
tcmax
tcmin
tds
tdh
PARAMETER DESCRIPTION
RAS to RAS Delay (dual bank Activate)
RAS to CAS Delay (for same Bank)
Latency Delay
Chip Select/Address Active Delay
Chip Select/Address Inactive Delay
Data Setup Time
Data Hold Time
Revision 3.1
MIN
TYP
2
3
3
MAX
9.0
3.0
3.0
3.0
UNIT
clks
clks
clks
ns
ns
ns
ns
Figure 44. SDRAM Multi Read Cycle
10/08/99 22:18
Page 117
DSP
TMS320AV7110
PARAMETER
trrd
trcd
tcmax
tcmin
tdmax
tdmin
PARAMETER DESCRIPTION
RAS to RAS Delay (dual bank Activate)
RAS to CAS Delay (for same Bank)
Chip Select/Address Active Delay
Chip Select/Address Inactive Delay
Data Valid Delay
Data Invalid Delay
Revision 3.1
MIN
TYP
2
3
MAX
9.0
3.0
9.0
3.0
UNIT
clks
clks
ns
ns
ns
ns
Figure 45. SDRAM Multi Write Cycle
10/08/99 22:18
Page 118
DSP
TMS320AV7110
PARAMETER
trp
tcmax
tcmin
PARAMETER DESCRIPTION
RAS to RAS Delay (Deactivate to Activate)
Chip Select/Address Active Delay
Chip Select/Address Inactive Delay
Revision 3.1
MIN
TYP
3
MAX
9.0
3.0
UNIT
clks
ns
ns
Figure 46. Successive SDRAM Operations
10/08/99 22:18
Page 119
DSP
10/08/99 22:18
TMS320AV7110
Revision 3.1
Page 120
DSP
TMS320AV7110
Revision 3.1
17.4 Video Output Timings
PARA
td1
td2
PARAMETER DESCRIPTION
YCCLK to HSYNC (internal sync mode)
YCLK to YCOUT[7:0], YCCTRL[1:0] valid
MIN
5
TYP
MAX
5
25
UNIT
ns
ns
YCCLK
@ 27 Mhz
nVSYNC
nHSYNC
YCOUT
W0
W1
W2
YCCTRL
(a)
VARIS byte output
YCCLK
td1
nHSYNC
td2
YCOUT
W0
W1
W2
td2
YCCTRL
(b) HSYNC and VARIS byte relationship to YCCLK
Figure 47. VARIS Code Output Timing
10/08/99 22:18
Page 121
DSP
PARA
td1
td2
td3
TMS320AV7110
Revision 3.1
PARAMETER DESCRIPTION
Data Start Timing
NTSC
fclk = 27 MHz
(4:2:2 Data Output)
PAL
fclk = 27 MHz
Data Start Timing
NTSC
fclk = 40.5 MHz
(4:4:4 Data Output)
PAL
fclk = 40.5 MHz
YCLK to YCOUT[7:0], YCCTRL[1:0]
MIN
TYP MAX
232/fclk
248/fclk
232/fclk
248/fclk
25
5
UNIT
s
s
ns
YCCLK
@ 27 Mhz
4:2:2
YCOUT
Cb0
Cb2
Y1
Cr0
Y0
Y2
Cr2
Y3
td1
nHSYNC
YCCTRL0
YCCTRL1
(a) 4:2:2 Output
YCCLK
@ 40.5 Mhz
4:4:4
YCOUT
Cb0
Y0
Cr0
Cb1
Y1
Cr1
Cb2
Y2
td2
nHSYNC
YCCTRL0
YCCTRL1
(b) 4:4:4 Output
YCCLK
td3
YCOUT
Y
Cb
Y
YCCTRL
(c) Component output timing (4:2:2 format shown)
Figure 48. Digital Video Output Timing
10/08/99 22:18
Page 122
DSP
TMS320AV7110
Revision 3.1
17.5 HSDI Timing Diagrams
PARM
CLK40
t1
t2
t3
t4
t5
t6
t7
t8
t9
PARAMETER DESCRIPTION
System Clock Frequency
Clock Period
Clock High Time
Clock Low Time
_SIG1, _SIG2 Valid Delay
_SIG1, _SIG2 Hold Time
_SIG[4:6], _DATA[7:0] Setup Time
_SIG[4:6], _DATA[7:0] Hold Time
HSDI_SIG3 Setup Time
HSDI_SIG3 Hold Time
MIN
24.7
10
10
2
2
10
3
10
3
TYP
MAX
40.5
12
12
UNIT
MHz
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
Figure 49. 1394 Read Cycle Timing
10/08/99 22:18
Page 123
DSP
TMS320AV7110
PARM
CLK40
t1
t2
t3
t4
t5
t6
t7
t8
PARAMETER DESCRIPTION
System Clock Frequency
Clock Period
Clock High Time
Clock Low Time
_SIG1, _SIG2, _SIG[4:6], _DATA[7:0] Valid
Delay
_SIG1, _SIG2 _SIG[4:6], _DATA[7:0] Hold
Time
HSDI_SIG7 Setup Time
HSDI_SIG7 Hold Time
HSDI_SIG7 Pulse Width
Revision 3.1
MIN
24.7
10
10
2
12
UNIT
MHz
ns
ns
ns
ns
2
12
ns
10
3
35
TYP
MAX
40.5
ns
ns
ns
Figure 50. 1394 Write Cycle Timing
10/08/99 22:18
Page 124
DSP
TMS320AV7110
Revision 3.1
17.6 External DMA
PARM
CLK40
tclk
t1
t2
t3
t4
t5
trds7
trdh8
twds
twdh
PARAMETER DESCRIPTION
System Clock Frequency
Clock Period
DREQ Active to DACK ActiveClock
Period
DACK Active to RD or WR
ActiveClock High Time
RD/WR Inactive to RD or WR
ActiveClock Low Time
RD or WR Inactive to DACK
Inactive_SIG1, _SIG2, _SIG[4:6],
_DATA[7:0] Valid Delay
DACK Inactive to DREQ
Active_SIG1, _SIG2 _SIG[4:6],
_DATA[7:0] Hold Time
Read Data Setup time HSDI_SIG7
Hold Time
Read Data Hold time HSDI_SIG7
Pulse Width
Write Data Setup time
Write Data Hold time
MIN
TYP
40.5
24.7
MAX
24.7
2 tclk + 4
UNIT
MHz
ns
nsns
10
tclk + 4
nsns
10
(DHD)tclk + 4 *
nsns
2
tclk + 4
12
nsns
2
(DHD)tclk + 4 *
12
nsns
3
(DLD)tclk + 10 *
nsns
35
(DHD)tclk + 4 *
nsns
(DLD)tclk + 10 *
(DHD)tclk + 4 *
ns
ns
* See Description of DHD/DLD for details about these programmable delay values.
DLD*
DHD*
DLD*
DHD*
CLK40
t5
_DREQ
t1
t3
t4
_nDACK
_nRD,
_nWR
_DATA[7:0]
t2
tds
Valid Data
tdh
Valid Data
Figure 51. External DMA Cycle Timing
10/08/99 22:18
Page 125
DSP
TMS320AV7110
PARM
CLK40
tclk
t1
t2
trds6
trdh7
twds
twdh
PARAMETER DESCRIPTION
System Clock Frequency
Clock Period
CS Active to RD or WR ActiveClock
Period
RD or WR Inactive to CS, ADDR
InvalidClock High Time
Read Data Setup time HSDI_SIG7 Setup
Time
Read Data Hold time HSDI_SIG7 Hold
Time
Write Data Setup time
Write Data Hold time
Revision 3.1
MIN
TYP
40.5
24.7
MAX
24.7
tclk + 4
UNIT
MHz
ns
nsns
10
(RHD)tclk + 4 *
nsns
10
(RLD)tclk + 10 *
nsns
3
(RHD)tclk + 4 *
nsns
(RLD)tclk + 10 *
(RHD)tclk + 10 *
ns
ns
* See Description of RHD/RLD for details about these programmable delay values.
RLD*
RHD*
CLK40
_ADDR[3:0]
Valid Address
t1
tds
tdh
t2
_nCS
_nRD,
_nWR
_DATA[7:0]
Valid Data
Figure 52. External DMA “Register Access” Timing
10/08/99 22:18
Page 126
DSP
TMS320AV7110
Revision 3.1
17.7 Input Stream Timing
PARAMETER
t1
t2
t3
t4
t5
PARAMETER DESCRIPTION
DCLK Clock Frequency
Clock Period
Clock High Time
Clock Low Time
PACCLK, BYTE_START,
DATAIN[7:0], DERROR Setup Time
PACCLK, BYTE_START,
DATAIN[7:0], DERROR Hold Time
MIN
TYP
MAX
9.1
109.89
50
50
10
UNIT
MHz
ns
ns
ns
ns
2
ns
Figure 53. Input Interface Timings
10/08/99 22:18
Page 127
DSP
TMS320AV7110
Revision 3.1
17.8 DC Characteristics
Recommended commercial operating conditions
Parameter
Description
VDD3_3V
Digital Supply Voltage 3.3V
VDD2_5V
Digital Supply Voltage 2.5V
VCC0A-VCC3A
Video DAC Supply Voltage
VCCLA1-VCCLA2 Audio PLL Supply Voltage
VI
Signal Input Voltage
VO
Signal Output Voltage
VIH
High Level DC input Voltage
VIL
Low Level DC input Voltage
TA
free-air temp range
TJ
Junction temperature range
MIN
3.1
2.4
3.1
3.1
0.0
0.0
2.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
NOM
3.3
2.5
3.3
3.3
MAX
3.5
2.7
3.5
3.5
VDD3_3V
VDD3_3V
VDD3_3V
0.8
70
115
Units
V
V
V
V
V
V
V
V
°C
°C
Electrical Characteristics over recommended operating free-air temperature range (unless otherwise noted)
Param Description
Test Conditions
MIN NOM
MAX
Units
VOH
High-Level Output Voltage IOH = -4mA
VDD3_3V-0.6
V
VOL
Low-Level Output Voltage
IOL = 4mA
0.5
V
IIL
Low-Level input current
VI = VIL
+/- 20
µA
IIH
High-Level input current
VI = VIH
+/- 20
µA
IOZ
Off-state output current
VI = VCC or 0 V
+/- 20
µA
ICC
Digital Supply current
VDD2_5V = 2.7V
480
mA
and
CLK27= 27 MHZ
ICC2
Digital Supply Current
VDD3_3V = 3.6V
110
mA
and
CLK27 = 27 MHZ
Ci
Input Capacitance
8
pf
Co
Output Capacitance
8
pf
10/08/99 22:18
Page 128
DSP
TMS320AV7110
Revision 3.1
17.9 SDRAM Memory Map for First Silicon firmware
17.9.1 PAL mode Memory Map
Address
Content
CDFF FFFF
Expansion Memory Region
Size *
Comments
2 MB
(OSD/User Data)
CC20 0000
CC1F FFFF
OSD or other use
230,400 B or 225 kB
CC1C 7C00
CC1C 7BFF
B Frame
CC18 F800
CC18 F7FF
230,400 B or 225 kB
(.82 Frames)
Second Reference Frame
622,080 B or 607.5 kB
CC0F 7A00
CC0F 79FF
First Reference Frame
622,080 B or 607.5 kB
CC05 FC00
CC05 FBFF
Video Buffer
2,744,320 b or 335 kB
CC00 C000
CC00 BFFF
Audio Buffer
65,536 b
or 8 kB
36,864 B
or 36 kB
CC00 A000
CC00 9FFF
Video Microcode
CC00 1000
CC00 0FFF
Tables and FIFOs
3 kB
CC00 0400
CC00 03FF
Pointers
1 kB
* See Table 3
through Table 5
CC00 0000
* B = Bytes, b = Bits
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DSP
TMS320AV7110
17.9.2 NTSC mode Memory Map
Address
Content
CDFF FFFF
Expansion Memory Region
Revision 3.1
Size *
Comments
2 MB
(OSD/User Data)
CC20 0000
CC1F FFFF
OSD or other use
241,408 B or 235.75 kB
CC1C 5100
CC1C 50FF
B Frame
CC15 D000
CC15 CFFF
426,240 B or 416.25 kB
(.82 Frames)
Second Reference Frame
518,400 B or 506.25 kB
CC0D E700
CC0D E6FF
First Reference Frame
518,400 B or 506.25 kB
CC05 FE00
CC05 FDFF
Video Buffer
2,748,416 b or 335.5 kB
CC00 C000
CC00 BFFF
Audio Buffer
65,536 b
or 8 kB
36,864 B
or 36 kB
CC00 A000
CC00 9FFF
Video Microcode
CC00 1000
CC00 0FFF
Tables and FIFOs
3 kB
CC00 0400
CC00 03FF
Pointers
1 kB
* See Table 3
through Table 5
CC00 0000
* B = Bytes, b = Bits
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DSP
TMS320AV7110
Revision 3.1
IMPORTANT NOTICE
Texas Instruments (TI) reserves the right to make
changes to or to discontinue any semiconductor
product or service identified in this publication
without notice. TI advises its customer to obtain the
latest version of the relevant information to verify,
before placing orders, that the information being
relied on is current.
TI warrants performance of its semiconductor
products to current specifications in accordance with
TI’s standard warranty. Testing and other quality
control techniques are utilized to the extent TI deems
necessary to support this warranty. Unless mandated
by government requirements, specific testing of all
parameters of each device is not necessarily
performed.
TI assumes no liability for TI applications assistance,
customer product design, software performance, or
infringement of patents or services described herein.
Nor does TI warrant or represent that any license,
express or implied, is granted under any patent right,
copyright, mask work right, or any other intellectual
property right of TI covering or relating to any
combination, machine, or process in which such
semiconductor products or services might be used.
10/08/99 22:18
Page 131