MICROCHIP PIC18F97J60T-I/PF

PIC18F97J60 Family
Data Sheet
64/80/100-Pin High-Performance,
1-Mbit Flash Microcontrollers
with Ethernet
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS39762E
Note the following details of the code protection feature on Microchip devices:
•
Microchip products meet the specification contained in their particular Microchip Data Sheet.
•
Microchip believes that its family of products is one of the most secure families of its kind on the market today, when used in the
intended manner and under normal conditions.
•
There are dishonest and possibly illegal methods used to breach the code protection feature. All of these methods, to our
knowledge, require using the Microchip products in a manner outside the operating specifications contained in Microchip’s Data
Sheets. Most likely, the person doing so is engaged in theft of intellectual property.
•
Microchip is willing to work with the customer who is concerned about the integrity of their code.
•
Neither Microchip nor any other semiconductor manufacturer can guarantee the security of their code. Code protection does not
mean that we are guaranteeing the product as “unbreakable.”
Code protection is constantly evolving. We at Microchip are committed to continuously improving the code protection features of our
products. Attempts to break Microchip’s code protection feature may be a violation of the Digital Millennium Copyright Act. If such acts
allow unauthorized access to your software or other copyrighted work, you may have a right to sue for relief under that Act.
Information contained in this publication regarding device
applications and the like is provided only for your convenience
and may be superseded by updates. It is your responsibility to
ensure that your application meets with your specifications.
MICROCHIP MAKES NO REPRESENTATIONS OR
WARRANTIES OF ANY KIND WHETHER EXPRESS OR
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OTHERWISE, RELATED TO THE INFORMATION,
INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO ITS CONDITION,
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suits, or expenses resulting from such use. No licenses are
conveyed, implicitly or otherwise, under any Microchip
intellectual property rights.
Trademarks
The Microchip name and logo, the Microchip logo, dsPIC,
KEELOQ, KEELOQ logo, MPLAB, PIC, PICmicro, PICSTART,
rfPIC and UNI/O are registered trademarks of Microchip
Technology Incorporated in the U.S.A. and other countries.
FilterLab, Hampshire, HI-TECH C, Linear Active Thermistor,
MXDEV, MXLAB, SEEVAL and The Embedded Control
Solutions Company are registered trademarks of Microchip
Technology Incorporated in the U.S.A.
Analog-for-the-Digital Age, Application Maestro, CodeGuard,
dsPICDEM, dsPICDEM.net, dsPICworks, dsSPEAK, ECAN,
ECONOMONITOR, FanSense, HI-TIDE, In-Circuit Serial
Programming, ICSP, Mindi, MiWi, MPASM, MPLAB Certified
logo, MPLIB, MPLINK, mTouch, Octopus, Omniscient Code
Generation, PICC, PICC-18, PICDEM, PICDEM.net, PICkit,
PICtail, PIC32 logo, REAL ICE, rfLAB, Select Mode, Total
Endurance, TSHARC, UniWinDriver, WiperLock and ZENA
are trademarks of Microchip Technology Incorporated in the
U.S.A. and other countries.
SQTP is a service mark of Microchip Technology Incorporated
in the U.S.A.
All other trademarks mentioned herein are property of their
respective companies.
© 2009, Microchip Technology Incorporated, Printed in the
U.S.A., All Rights Reserved.
Printed on recycled paper.
Microchip received ISO/TS-16949:2002 certification for its worldwide
headquarters, design and wafer fabrication facilities in Chandler and
Tempe, Arizona; Gresham, Oregon and design centers in California
and India. The Company’s quality system processes and procedures
are for its PIC® MCUs and dsPIC® DSCs, KEELOQ® code hopping
devices, Serial EEPROMs, microperipherals, nonvolatile memory and
analog products. In addition, Microchip’s quality system for the design
and manufacture of development systems is ISO 9001:2000 certified.
DS39762E-page 2
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
64/80/100-Pin High-Performance,
1-Mbit Flash Microcontrollers with Ethernet
Ethernet Features:
Peripheral Highlights:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
• High-Current Sink/Source: 25 mA/25 mA on PORTB
and PORTC
• Five Timer modules (Timer0 to Timer4)
• Four External Interrupt pins
• Two Capture/Compare/PWM (CCP) modules
• Three Enhanced Capture/Compare/PWM (ECCP)
modules:
- One, two or four PWM outputs
- Selectable polarity
- Programmable dead time
- Auto-shutdown and auto-restart
• Up to Two Master Synchronous Serial Port (MSSP)
modules supporting SPI (all 4 modes) and I2C™
Master and Slave modes
• Up to Two Enhanced USART modules:
- Supports RS-485, RS-232 and LIN 1.2
- Auto-wake-up on Start bit
- Auto-Baud Detect (ABD)
• 10-Bit, Up to 16-Channel Analog-to-Digital Converter
module (A/D):
- Auto-acquisition capability
- Conversion available during Sleep
• Dual Analog Comparators with Input Multiplexing
• Parallel Slave Port (PSP) module
(100-pin devices only)
•
•
•
•
IEEE 802.3™ Compatible Ethernet Controller
Fully Compatible with 10/100/1000Base-T Networks
Integrated MAC and 10Base-T PHY
8-Kbyte Transmit/Receive Packet Buffer SRAM
Supports One 10Base-T Port
Programmable Automatic Retransmit on Collision
Programmable Padding and CRC Generation
Programmable Automatic Rejection of Erroneous
Packets
Activity Outputs for 2 LED Indicators
Buffer:
- Configurable transmit/receive buffer size
- Hardware-managed circular receive FIFO
- Byte-wide random and sequential access
- Internal DMA for fast memory copying
- Hardware assisted checksum calculation for
various protocols
MAC:
- Support for Unicast, Multicast and Broadcast
packets
- Programmable Pattern Match of up to 64 bytes
within packet at user-defined offset
- Programmable wake-up on multiple packet
formats
PHY:
- Wave shaping output filter
Flexible Oscillator Structure:
• Selectable System Clock derived from Single
25 MHz External Source:
- 2.778 to 41.667 MHz
• Internal 31 kHz Oscillator
• Secondary Oscillator using Timer1 @ 32 kHz
• Fail-Safe Clock Monitor:
- Allows for safe shutdown if oscillator stops
• Two-Speed Oscillator Start-up
External Memory Bus
(100-pin devices only):
• Address Capability of up to 2 Mbytes
• 8-Bit or 16-Bit Interface
• 12-Bit, 16-Bit and 20-Bit Addressing modes
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
Special Microcontroller Features:
• 5.5V Tolerant Inputs (digital-only pins)
• Low-Power, High-Speed CMOS Flash Technology:
- Self-reprogrammable under software control
• C compiler Optimized Architecture for Reentrant Code
• Power Management Features:
- Run: CPU on, peripherals on
- Idle: CPU off, peripherals on
- Sleep: CPU off, peripherals off
• Priority Levels for Interrupts
• 8 x 8 Single-Cycle Hardware Multiplier
• Extended Watchdog Timer (WDT):
- Programmable period from 4 ms to 134s
• Single-Supply 3.3V In-Circuit Serial Programming™
(ICSP™) via Two Pins
• In-Circuit Debug (ICD) with 3 Breakpoints via
Two Pins
• Operating Voltage Range of 2.35V to 3.6V (3.1V to
3.6V using Ethernet module)
• On-Chip 2.5V Regulator
DS39762E-page 3
Comparators
PIC18F66J60
64K
3808
8192
39
11
2/3
1
Y
Y
1
2
2/3
N
N
PIC18F66J65
96K
3808
8192
39
11
2/3
1
Y
Y
1
2
2/3
N
N
PIC18F67J60
128K
3808
8192
39
11
2/3
1
Y
Y
1
2
2/3
N
N
PIC18F86J60
64K
3808
8192
55
15
2/3
1
Y
Y
2
2
2/3
N
N
PIC18F86J65
96K
3808
8192
55
15
2/3
1
Y
Y
2
2
2/3
N
N
PIC18F87J60
128K
3808
8192
55
15
2/3
1
Y
Y
2
2
2/3
N
N
PIC18F96J60
64K
3808
8192
70
16
2/3
2
Y
Y
2
2
2/3
Y
Y
PIC18F96J65
96K
3808
8192
70
16
2/3
2
Y
Y
2
2
2/3
Y
Y
PIC18F97J60
128K
3808
8192
70
16
2/3
2
Y
Y
2
2
2/3
Y
Y
Device
SRAM
Flash
Data
Program
Memory Memory
(bytes)
(bytes)
DS39762E-page 4
Ethernet
TX/RX
Buffer
(bytes)
MSSP
I/O
10-Bit
A/D (ch)
CCP/
ECCP
SPI
Master
I2C™
Timers
PSP
8/16-Bit
External
Memory Bus
EUSART
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
VDDTX
TPOUT-
TPOUT+
VSSTX
RBIAS
VDDPLL
VSSPLL
VSS
VDD
RD2/CCP4/P3D
RD0/P1B
RE5/P1C
RE4/P3B
RE3/P3C
RE2/P2B
64-Pin TQFP
RD1/ECCP3/P3A
Pin Diagrams
64 63 62 61 60 59 58 57 56 55 54 53 52 51 50 49
RE1/P2C
1
48
RE0/P2D
2
RB0/INT0/FLT0
RB1/INT1
RB2/INT2
3
4
5
47
46
45
RB3/INT3
MCLR
RG4/CCP5/P1D
6
44
43
7
8
9
PIC18F66J60
PIC18F67J60
RF4/AN9
10
11
12
13
14
RF3/AN8
RF2/AN7/C1OUT
15
16
VSS
VDDCORE/VCAP
RF7/SS1
RF6/AN11
RF5/AN10/CVREF
42
41
40
PIC18F66J65
39
38
37
36
35
34
33
VDDRX
TPIN+
TPINVSSRX
RB4/KBI0
RB5/KBI1
RB6/KBI2/PGC
VSS
OSC2/CLKO
OSC1/CLKI
VDD
RB7/KBI3/PGD
RC5/SDO1
RC4/SDI1/SDA1
RC3/SCK1/SCL1
RC2/ECCP1/P1A
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
RC7/RX1/DT1
RC6/TX1/CK1
RC0/T1OSO/T13CKI
RA4/T0CKI
RC1/T1OSI/ECCP2/P2A
RA5/AN4
VDD
VSS
RA0/LEDA/AN0
RA1/LEDB/AN1
RA2/AN2/VREF-
RA3/AN3/VREF+
AVSS
AVDD
ENVREG
RF1/AN6/C2OUT
17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32
DS39762E-page 5
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
Pin Diagrams (Continued)
VDDTX
TPOUT+
TPOUT-
VSSTX
RBIAS
VDDPLL
VSSPLL
RD2
RD1
VSS
VDD
RE7/ECCP2(1)/P2A(1)
RD0
RE6/P1B(2)
RE5/P1C(2)
RE4/P3B(2)
RE3/P3C(2)
RE2/P2B
RH0
RH1
80-Pin TQFP
80 79 78 77 76 75 74 73 72 71 70 69 68 67 66 65 64 63 62 61
RH2
1
60
VDDRX
RH3
2
RE1/P2C
RE0/P2D
3
4
5
6
7
59
58
57
56
55
TPIN+
TPINVSSRX
RG0/ECCP3/P3A
RG1/TX2/CK2
RB4/KBI0
RB5/KBI1
RB6/KBI2/PGC
VSS
OSC2/CLKO
OSC1/CLKI
VDD
RB7/KBI3/PGD
RC5/SDO1
RB0/INT0/FLT0
RB1/INT1
RB2/INT2
RB3/INT3
MCLR
RG4/CCP5/P1D
VSS
VDDCORE/VCAP
RF7/SS1
RF6/AN11
RF5/AN10/CVREF
RF4/AN9
RF3/AN8
RF2/AN7/C1OUT
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
RH7/AN15/P1B(2)
17
18
19
RH6/AN14/P1C(2)
20
54
53
52
51
50
PIC18F86J60
PIC18F86J65
PIC18F87J60
49
48
47
46
45
44
43
42
41
RC4/SDI1/SDA1
RC3/SCK1/SCL1
RC2/ECCP1/P1A
RG2/RX2/DT2
RG3/CCP4/P3D
RJ5
RJ4
RC7/RX1/DT1
RC6/TX1/CK1
RC1/T1OSI/ECCP2(1)/P2A(1)
RC0/T1OSO/T13CKI
RA4/T0CKI
RA5/AN4
VDD
VSS
RA0/LEDA/AN0
RA1/LEDB/AN1
RA2/AN2/VREF-
RA3/AN3/VREF+
AVSS
AVDD
ENVREG
RF1/AN6/C2OUT
RH5/AN13/P3B(2)
Note 1:
2:
RH4/AN12/P3C(2)
21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40
The ECCP2/P2A pin placement depends on the CCP2MX Configuration bit setting.
P1B, P1C, P3B and P3C pin placement depends on the ECCPMX Configuration bit setting.
DS39762E-page 6
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
Pin Diagrams (Continued)
100
99
98
97
96
95
94
93
92
91
90
89
88
87
86
85
84
83
82
81
80
79
78
77
76
RH1/A17
RH0/A16
RE2/AD10/CS/P2B
RE3/AD11/P3C(2)
RE4/AD12/P3B(2)
RE5/AD13/P1C(2)
RE6/AD14/P1B(2)
RE7/AD15/ECCP2(1)/P2A(1)
RD0/AD0/PSP0
RD1/AD1/PSP1
RD2/AD2/PSP2
RD3/AD3/PSP3
RD4/AD4/PSP4/SDO2
RD5/AD5/PSP5/SDI2/SDA2
VDD
VSS
RD6/AD6/PSP6/SCK2/SCL2
RD7/AD7/PSP7/SS2
VSSPLL
VDDPLL
RBIAS
VSSTX
TPOUT+
TPOUTVDDTX
100-Pin TQFP
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
PIC18F96J60
PIC18F96J65
PIC18F97J60
75
74
73
72
71
70
69
68
67
66
65
64
63
62
61
60
59
58
57
56
55
54
53
52
51
VDDRX
TPIN+
TPINVSSRX
RG0/ECCP3/P3A
RG1/TX2/CK2
RB4/KBI0
RB5/KBI1
RB6/KBI2/PGC
RJ2/WRL
VSS
OSC2/CLKO
OSC1/CLKI
VDD
RJ3/WRH
VSS
VDD
RJ6/LB
RB7/KBI3/PGD
RC5/SDO1
RC4/SDI1/SDA1
RC3/SCK1/SCL1
RC2/ECCP1/P1A
RG2/RX2/DT2
RG3/CCP4/P3D
Note 1:
2:
RC1/T1OSI/ECCP2(1)/P2A(1)
RC0/T1OSO/T13CKI
RC6/TX1/CK1
RC7/RX1/DT1
RJ4/BA0
RJ5/CE
RJ0/ALE
RJ1/OE
RH5/AN13/P3B(2)
RH4/AN12/P3C(2)
RF1/AN6/C2OUT
ENVREG
AVDD
AVSS
RA3/AN3/VREF+
RA2/AN2/VREFRA1/LEDB/AN1
RA0/LEDA/AN0
VSS
VDD
RG7
RJ7/UB
VSS
RA5/AN4
RA4/T0CKI
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
RH2/A18
RH3/A19
RE1/AD9/WR/P2C
RE0/AD8/RD/P2D
RB0/INT0/FLT0
RB1/INT1
RB2/INT2
RB3/INT3/ECCP2(1)/P2A(1)
NC
RG6
RG5
RF0/AN5
MCLR
RG4/CCP5/P1D
VSS
VDDCORE/VCAP
VDD
RF7/SS1
RF6/AN11
RF5/AN10/CVREF
RF4/AN9
RF3/AN8
RF2/AN7/C1OUT
RH7/AN15/P1B(2)
RH6/AN14/P1C(2)
The ECCP2/P2A pin placement depends on the CCP2MX Configuration bit and Processor mode settings.
P1B, P1C, P3B and P3C pin placement depends on the ECCPMX Configuration bit setting.
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS39762E-page 7
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
Table of Contents
1.0 Device Overview ........................................................................................................................................................................ 11
2.0 Oscillator Configurations ............................................................................................................................................................ 43
3.0 Power-Managed Modes ............................................................................................................................................................. 49
4.0 Reset .......................................................................................................................................................................................... 57
5.0 Memory Organization ................................................................................................................................................................. 71
6.0 Flash Program Memory .............................................................................................................................................................. 99
7.0 External Memory Bus ............................................................................................................................................................... 109
8.0 8 x 8 Hardware Multiplier.......................................................................................................................................................... 121
9.0 Interrupts .................................................................................................................................................................................. 123
10.0 I/O Ports ................................................................................................................................................................................... 139
11.0 Timer0 Module ......................................................................................................................................................................... 167
12.0 Timer1 Module ......................................................................................................................................................................... 171
13.0 Timer2 Module ......................................................................................................................................................................... 177
14.0 Timer3 Module ......................................................................................................................................................................... 179
15.0 Timer4 Module ......................................................................................................................................................................... 183
16.0 Capture/Compare/PWM (CCP) Modules ................................................................................................................................. 185
17.0 Enhanced Capture/Compare/PWM (ECCP) Modules .............................................................................................................. 193
18.0 Ethernet Module ....................................................................................................................................................................... 209
19.0 Master Synchronous Serial Port (MSSP) Module .................................................................................................................... 259
20.0 Enhanced Universal Synchronous Asynchronous Receiver Transmitter (EUSART) ............................................................... 305
21.0 10-Bit Analog-to-Digital Converter (A/D) Module ..................................................................................................................... 329
22.0 Comparator Module.................................................................................................................................................................. 339
23.0 Comparator Voltage Reference Module ................................................................................................................................... 345
24.0 Special Features of the CPU .................................................................................................................................................... 349
25.0 Instruction Set Summary .......................................................................................................................................................... 363
26.0 Development Support............................................................................................................................................................... 413
27.0 Electrical Characteristics .......................................................................................................................................................... 417
28.0 Packaging Information.............................................................................................................................................................. 453
Appendix A: Revision History............................................................................................................................................................. 463
Appendix B: Device Differences......................................................................................................................................................... 464
Index .................................................................................................................................................................................................. 465
The Microchip Web Site ..................................................................................................................................................................... 477
Customer Change Notification Service .............................................................................................................................................. 477
Customer Support .............................................................................................................................................................................. 477
Reader Response .............................................................................................................................................................................. 478
Product Identification System............................................................................................................................................................. 479
DS39762E-page 8
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
TO OUR VALUED CUSTOMERS
It is our intention to provide our valued customers with the best documentation possible to ensure successful use of your Microchip
products. To this end, we will continue to improve our publications to better suit your needs. Our publications will be refined and
enhanced as new volumes and updates are introduced.
If you have any questions or comments regarding this publication, please contact the Marketing Communications Department via
E-mail at [email protected] or fax the Reader Response Form in the back of this data sheet to (480) 792-4150. We
welcome your feedback.
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You can determine the version of a data sheet by examining its literature number found on the bottom outside corner of any page.
The last character of the literature number is the version number, (e.g., DS30000A is version A of document DS30000).
Errata
An errata sheet, describing minor operational differences from the data sheet and recommended workarounds, may exist for current
devices. As device/documentation issues become known to us, we will publish an errata sheet. The errata will specify the revision
of silicon and revision of document to which it applies.
To determine if an errata sheet exists for a particular device, please check with one of the following:
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When contacting a sales office, please specify which device, revision of silicon and data sheet (include literature number) you are
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© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS39762E-page 9
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
NOTES:
DS39762E-page 10
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
1.0
DEVICE OVERVIEW
This document contains device-specific information for
the following devices:
• PIC18F66J60
• PIC18F87J60
• PIC18F66J65
• PIC18F96J60
• PIC18F67J60
• PIC18F96J65
• PIC18F86J60
• PIC18F97J60
• PIC18F86J65
This family introduces a new line of low-voltage devices
with the foremost traditional advantage of all PIC18
microcontrollers – namely, high computational performance and a rich feature set at an extremely
competitive price point. These features make the
PIC18F97J60 family a logical choice for many
high-performance applications where cost is a primary
consideration.
1.1
1.1.1
Core Features
OSCILLATOR OPTIONS AND
FEATURES
All of the devices in the PIC18F97J60 family offer five
different oscillator options, allowing users a range of
choices in developing application hardware. These
options include:
• Two Crystal modes, using crystals or ceramic
resonators.
• Two External Clock modes, offering the option of
a divide-by-4 clock output.
• A Phase Lock Loop (PLL) frequency multiplier,
available to the external oscillator modes, which
allows clock speeds of up to 41.667 MHz.
• An internal RC oscillator with a fixed 31 kHz
output which provides an extremely low-power
option for timing-insensitive applications.
The internal oscillator block provides a stable reference
source that gives the family additional features for
robust operation:
1.1.2
EXPANDED MEMORY
The PIC18F97J60 family provides ample room for
application code, from 64 Kbytes to 128 Kbytes of code
space. The Flash cells for program memory are rated
to last 100 erase/write cycles. Data retention without
refresh is conservatively estimated to be greater than
20 years.
The PIC18F97J60 family also provides plenty of room
for dynamic application data with 3808 bytes of data
RAM.
1.1.3
EXTERNAL MEMORY BUS
In the unlikely event that 128 Kbytes of memory are
inadequate for an application, the 100-pin members of
the PIC18F97J60 family also implement an External
Memory Bus (EMB). This allows the controller’s internal program counter to address a memory space of up
to 2 Mbytes, permitting a level of data access that few
8-bit devices can claim. This allows additional memory
options, including:
• Using combinations of on-chip and external
memory up to the 2-Mbyte limit
• Using external Flash memory for reprogrammable
application code or large data tables
• Using external RAM devices for storing large
amounts of variable data
1.1.4
EXTENDED INSTRUCTION SET
The PIC18F97J60 family implements the optional
extension to the PIC18 instruction set, adding eight
new instructions and an Indexed Addressing mode.
Enabled as a device configuration option, the extension
has been specifically designed to optimize reentrant
application code originally developed in high-level
languages, such as C.
1.1.5
EASY MIGRATION
Regardless of the memory size, all devices share the
same rich set of peripherals, allowing for a smooth
migration path as applications grow and evolve.
• Fail-Safe Clock Monitor: This option constantly
monitors the main clock source against a reference
signal provided by the internal oscillator. If a clock
failure occurs, the controller is switched to the
internal oscillator, allowing for continued low-speed
operation or a safe application shutdown.
• Two-Speed Start-up: This option allows the
internal oscillator to serve as the clock source
from Power-on Reset, or wake-up from Sleep
mode, until the primary clock source is available.
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS39762E-page 11
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
1.2
Other Special Features
• Communications: The PIC18F97J60 family
incorporates a range of serial communication
peripherals, including up to two independent
Enhanced USARTs and up to two Master SSP
modules, capable of both SPI and I2C™ (Master
and Slave) modes of operation. In addition, one of
the general purpose I/O ports can be reconfigured
as an 8-bit Parallel Slave Port for direct
processor-to-processor communications.
• CCP Modules: All devices in the family incorporate
two Capture/Compare/PWM (CCP) modules and
three Enhanced CCP (ECCP) modules to maximize
flexibility in control applications. Up to four different
time bases may be used to perform several
different operations at once. Each of the three
ECCP modules offers up to four PWM outputs,
allowing for a total of twelve PWMs. The ECCP
modules also offer many beneficial features,
including polarity selection, programmable dead
time, auto-shutdown and restart and Half-Bridge
and Full-Bridge Output modes.
• 10-Bit A/D Converter: This module incorporates
programmable acquisition time, allowing for a
channel to be selected and a conversion to be
initiated without waiting for a sampling period and
thus, reducing code overhead.
• Extended Watchdog Timer (WDT): This
enhanced version incorporates a 16-bit prescaler,
allowing an extended time-out range. See
Section 27.0 “Electrical Characteristics” for
time-out periods.
DS39762E-page 12
1.3
Details on Individual Family
Members
Devices in the PIC18F97J60 family are available in
64-pin, 80-pin and 100-pin packages. Block diagrams
for the three groups are shown in Figure 1-1,
Figure 1-2 and Figure 1-3.
The devices are differentiated from each other in four
ways:
1.
2.
3.
4.
Flash program memory (three sizes, ranging
from 64 Kbytes for PIC18FX6J60 devices to
128 Kbytes for PIC18FX7J60 devices).
A/D channels (eleven for 64-pin devices, fifteen
for 80-pin pin devices and sixteen for 100-pin
devices).
Serial communication modules (one EUSART
module and one MSSP module on 64-pin
devices, two EUSART modules and one MSSP
module on 80-pin devices and two EUSART
modules and two MSSP modules on 100-pin
devices).
I/O pins (39 on 64-pin devices, 55 on 80-pin
devices and 70 on 100-pin devices).
All other features for devices in this family are identical.
These are summarized in Table 1-1, Table 1-2 and
Table 1-3.
The pinouts for all devices are listed in Table 1-4,
Table 1-5 and Table 1-6.
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
TABLE 1-1:
DEVICE FEATURES FOR THE PIC18F97J60 FAMILY (64-PIN DEVICES)
Features
Operating Frequency
Program Memory (Bytes)
Program Memory (Instructions)
PIC18F66J60
PIC18F66J65
PIC18F67J60
DC – 41.667 MHz
DC – 41.667 MHz
DC – 41.667 MHz
64K
96K
128K
32764
49148
65532
Data Memory (Bytes)
3808
Interrupt Sources
26
I/O Ports
Ports A, B, C, D, E, F, G
I/O Pins
39
Timers
5
Capture/Compare/PWM Modules
2
Enhanced Capture/Compare/PWM Modules
3
Serial Communications
MSSP (1), Enhanced USART (1)
Ethernet Communications (10Base-T)
Yes
Parallel Slave Port Communications (PSP)
No
External Memory Bus
No
10-Bit Analog-to-Digital Module
Resets (and Delays)
Instruction Set
11 Input Channels
POR, BOR, RESET Instruction, Stack Full,
Stack Underflow, MCLR , WDT (PWRT, OST)
75 Instructions, 83 with Extended Instruction Set Enabled
Packages
TABLE 1-2:
64-Pin TQFP
DEVICE FEATURES FOR THE PIC18F97J60 FAMILY (80-PIN DEVICES)
Features
Operating Frequency
Program Memory (Bytes)
Program Memory (Instructions)
Data Memory (Bytes)
Interrupt Sources
PIC18F86J60
PIC18F86J65
PIC18F87J60
DC – 41.667 MHz
DC – 41.667 MHz
DC – 41.667 MHz
64K
96K
128K
32764
49148
65532
3808
27
I/O Ports
Ports A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, J
I/O Pins
55
Timers
5
Capture/Compare/PWM Modules
2
Enhanced Capture/Compare/PWM Modules
Serial Communications
3
MSSP (1), Enhanced USART (2)
Ethernet Communications (10Base-T)
Yes
Parallel Slave Port Communications (PSP)
No
External Memory Bus
10-Bit Analog-to-Digital Module
Resets (and Delays)
Instruction Set
Packages
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
No
15 Input Channels
POR, BOR, RESET Instruction, Stack Full,
Stack Underflow, MCLR , WDT (PWRT, OST)
75 Instructions, 83 with Extended Instruction Set Enabled
80-Pin TQFP
DS39762E-page 13
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
TABLE 1-3:
DEVICE FEATURES FOR THE PIC18F97J60 FAMILY (100-pin DEVICES)
Features
Operating Frequency
Program Memory (Bytes)
Program Memory (Instructions)
Data Memory (Bytes)
Interrupt Sources
PIC18F96J60
PIC18F96J65
PIC18F97J60
DC – 41.667 MHz
DC – 41.667 MHz
DC – 41.667 MHz
64K
96K
128K
32764
49148
65532
3808
29
I/O Ports
Ports A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, J
I/O Pins
70
Timers
5
Capture/Compare/PWM Modules
2
Enhanced Capture/Compare/PWM Modules
3
Serial Communications
Ethernet Communications (10Base-T)
MSSP (2), Enhanced USART (2)
Yes
Parallel Slave Port Communications (PSP)
Yes
External Memory Bus
Yes
10-Bit Analog-to-Digital Module
Resets (and Delays)
Instruction Set
Packages
DS39762E-page 14
16 Input Channels
POR, BOR, RESET Instruction, Stack Full,
Stack Underflow, MCLR , WDT (PWRT, OST)
75 Instructions, 83 with Extended Instruction Set Enabled
100-Pin TQFP
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
FIGURE 1-1:
PIC18F66J60/66J65/67J60 (64-PIN) BLOCK DIAGRAM
Data Bus<8>
Table Pointer<21>
20
Address Latch
PCU PCH PCL
Program Counter
12
Data Address<12>
31 Level Stack
4
BSR
Address Latch
STKPTR
Program Memory
(64, 96, 128 Kbytes)
12
PORTC
RC0:RC7(1)
inc/dec
logic
Table Latch
Address
Decode
ROM Latch
Instruction Bus <16>
PORTB
RB0:RB7(1)
4
Access
Bank
12
FSR0
FSR1
FSR2
Data Latch
8
RA0:RA5(1)
Data Memory
(3808 Bytes)
PCLATU PCLATH
21
PORTA
Data Latch
8
8
inc/dec logic
PORTD
RD0:RD2(1)
IR
Instruction
Decode and
Control
OSC2/CLKO
OSC1/CLKI
INTRC
Oscillator
ENVREG
PRODH PRODL
3
Power-up
Timer
Timing
Generation
8
State Machine
Control Signals
Precision
Band Gap
Reference
Watchdog
Timer
Voltage
Regulator
Brown-out
Reset(2)
8
W
8
8
8
8
Power-on
Reset
RE0:RE5(1)
8 x 8 Multiply
BITOP
Oscillator
Start-up Timer
PORTE
8
PORTF
RF1:RF7(1)
ALU<8>
8
PORTG
RG4(1)
VDDCORE/VCAP
Note
VDD, VSS
MCLR
ADC
10-Bit
Timer0
Timer1
Timer2
Timer3
Timer4
Comparators
ECCP1
ECCP2
ECCP3
CCP4
CCP5
MSSP1
EUSART1
1:
See Table 1-4 for I/O port pin descriptions.
2:
BOR functionality is provided when the on-board voltage regulator is enabled.
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
Ethernet
DS39762E-page 15
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
FIGURE 1-2:
PIC18F86J60/86J65/87J60 (80-PIN) BLOCK DIAGRAM
Data Bus<8>
Table Pointer<21>
20
Address Latch
PCU PCH PCL
Program Counter
31 Level Stack
4
BSR
STKPTR
12
FSR0
FSR1
FSR2
PORTC
RC0:RC7(1)
12
inc/dec
logic
Table Latch
PORTD
RD0:RD2(1)
Address
Decode
ROM Latch
Instruction Bus <16>
RB0:RB7(1)
4
Access
Bank
Data Latch
8
PORTB
12
Data Address<12>
Address Latch
Program Memory
(64, 96, 128 Kbytes)
RA0:RA5(1)
Data Memory
(3808 Bytes)
PCLATU PCLATH
21
PORTA
Data Latch
8
8
inc/dec logic
PORTE
IR
RE0:RE7(1)
8
Instruction
Decode &
Control
OSC2/CLKO
OSC1/CLKI
ENVREG
3
Power-on
Reset
8
W
8
8
PORTG
8
RG0:RG4(1)
8
ALU<8>
Watchdog
Timer
PORTH
8
Brown-out
Reset(2)
Voltage
Regulator
RF1:RF7(1)
8 x 8 Multiply
BITOP
8
Oscillator
Start-up Timer
Precision
Band Gap
Reference
PORTF
PRODH PRODL
Power-up
Timer
Timing
Generation
INTRC
Oscillator
State Machine
Control Signals
RH0:RH7(1)
PORTJ
VDDCORE/VCAP
ECCP1
Note
VDD, VSS
RJ4:RJ5(1)
MCLR
ADC
10-Bit
Timer0
Timer1
Timer2
Timer3
Timer4
Comparators
ECCP2
ECCP3
CCP4
CCP5
EUSART1
EUSART2
MSSP1
1:
See Table 1-5 for I/O port pin descriptions.
2:
BOR functionality is provided when the on-board voltage regulator is enabled.
DS39762E-page 16
Ethernet
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
FIGURE 1-3:
PIC18F96J60/96J65/97J60 (100-PIN) BLOCK DIAGRAM
Data Bus<8>
Table Pointer<21>
inc/dec logic
21
Address Latch
PCU PCH PCL
Program Counter
System Bus Interface
31 Level Stack
STKPTR
PORTB
RB0:RB7(1)
12
Data Address<12>
4
Address Latch
Program Memory
(64, 96, 128 Kbytes)
RA0:RA5(1)
Data Memory
(3808 Bytes)
PCLATU PCLATH
20
PORTA
Data Latch
8
8
4
12
BSR
PORTC
Access
Bank
FSR0
FSR1
FSR2
RC0:RC7(1)
12
Data Latch
inc/dec
logic
8
Table Latch
PORTD
RD0:RD7(1)
Address
Decode
ROM Latch
Instruction Bus <16>
PORTE
IR
RE0:RE7(1)
AD15:AD0, A19:A16
(Multiplexed with PORTD,
PORTE and PORTH)
State Machine
Control Signals
OSC2/CLKO
OSC1/CLKI
Timing
Generation
INTRC
Oscillator
ENVREG
8
Power-up
Timer
3
Voltage
Regulator
Brown-out
Reset(2)
8
W
PORTG
8
8
RG0:RG7(1)
8
8
ALU<8>
Power-on
Reset
Watchdog
Timer
RF0:RF7(1)
8 x 8 Multiply
BITOP
8
Oscillator
Start-up Timer
Precision
Band Gap
Reference
PORTF
PRODH PRODL
Instruction
Decode &
Control
PORTH
8
RH0:RH7(1)
PORTJ
RJ0:RJ7(1)
VDDCORE/VCAP
VDD, VSS
MCLR
ADC
10-Bit
Timer0
Timer1
Timer2
Timer3
Timer4
ECCP1
ECCP2
ECCP3
CCP4
CCP5
EUSART1
Note
Comparators
EUSART2
1:
See Table 1-6 for I/O port pin descriptions.
2:
BOR functionality is provided when the on-board voltage regulator is enabled.
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
MSSP1
MSSP2
Ethernet
DS39762E-page 17
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
TABLE 1-4:
PIC18F66J60/66J65/67J60 PINOUT I/O DESCRIPTIONS
Pin Number
TQFP
Pin
Type
Buffer
Type
MCLR
7
I
ST
OSC1/CLKI
OSC1
39
Pin Name
I
CLKI
I
OSC2/CLKO
OSC2
Master Clear (Reset) input. This pin is an active-low Reset
to the device.
Oscillator crystal or external clock input.
Oscillator crystal input or external clock source input.
ST buffer when configured in internal RC mode; CMOS
otherwise.
CMOS
External clock source input. Always associated
with pin function OSC1. (See related OSC2/CLKO pin.)
ST
40
CLKO
Description
O
—
O
—
Oscillator crystal or clock output.
Oscillator crystal output. Connects to crystal or
resonator in Crystal Oscillator mode.
In Internal RC mode, OSC2 pin outputs CLKO which has
1/4 the frequency of OSC1 and denotes the
instruction cycle rate.
PORTA is a bidirectional I/O port.
RA0/LEDA/AN0
RA0
LEDA
AN0
24
RA1/LEDB/AN1
RA1
LEDB
AN1
23
RA2/AN2/VREFRA2
AN2
VREF-
22
RA3/AN3/VREF+
RA3
AN3
VREF+
21
RA4/T0CKI
RA4
T0CKI
28
RA5/AN4
RA5
AN4
27
Legend:
TTL
ST
I
P
=
=
=
=
DS39762E-page 18
I/O
O
I
TTL
—
Analog
Digital I/O.
Ethernet LEDA indicator output.
Analog input 0.
I/O
O
I
TTL
—
Analog
Digital I/O.
Ethernet LEDB indicator output.
Analog input 1.
I/O
I
I
TTL
Analog
Analog
Digital I/O.
Analog input 2.
A/D reference voltage (low) input.
I/O
I
I
TTL
Analog
Analog
Digital I/O.
Analog input 3.
A/D reference voltage (high) input.
I/O
I
ST
ST
I/O
I
TTL
Analog
TTL compatible input
Schmitt Trigger input with CMOS levels
Input
Power
Digital I/O.
Timer0 external clock input.
Digital I/O.
Analog input 4.
CMOS
Analog
O
OD
=
=
=
=
CMOS compatible input or output
Analog input
Output
Open-Drain (no P diode to VDD)
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
TABLE 1-4:
PIC18F66J60/66J65/67J60 PINOUT I/O DESCRIPTIONS (CONTINUED)
Pin Name
Pin Number
TQFP
Pin
Type
Buffer
Type
Description
PORTB is a bidirectional I/O port. PORTB can be software
programmed for internal weak pull-ups on all inputs.
RB0/INT0/FLT0
RB0
INT0
FLT0
3
RB1/INT1
RB1
INT1
4
RB2/INT2
RB2
INT2
5
RB3/INT3
RB3
INT3
6
RB4/KBI0
RB4
KBI0
44
RB5/KBI1
RB5
KBI1
43
RB6/KBI2/PGC
RB6
KBI2
PGC
42
RB7/KBI3/PGD
RB7
KBI3
PGD
37
Legend:
TTL
ST
I
P
=
=
=
=
I/O
I
I
TTL
ST
ST
Digital I/O.
External interrupt 0.
Enhanced PWM Fault input (ECCP modules); enabled
in software.
I/O
I
TTL
ST
Digital I/O.
External interrupt 1.
I/O
I
TTL
ST
Digital I/O.
External interrupt 2.
I/O
I
TTL
ST
Digital I/O.
External interrupt 3.
I/O
I
TTL
TTL
Digital I/O.
Interrupt-on-change pin.
I/O
I
TTL
TTL
Digital I/O.
Interrupt-on-change pin.
I/O
I
I/O
TTL
TTL
ST
Digital I/O.
Interrupt-on-change pin.
In-Circuit Debugger and ICSP™ programming clock pin.
I/O
I
I/O
TTL
TTL
ST
Digital I/O.
Interrupt-on-change pin.
In-Circuit Debugger and ICSP programming data pin.
TTL compatible input
Schmitt Trigger input with CMOS levels
Input
Power
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
CMOS
Analog
O
OD
=
=
=
=
CMOS compatible input or output
Analog input
Output
Open-Drain (no P diode to VDD)
DS39762E-page 19
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
TABLE 1-4:
PIC18F66J60/66J65/67J60 PINOUT I/O DESCRIPTIONS (CONTINUED)
Pin Number
Pin Name
TQFP
Pin
Type
Buffer
Type
Description
PORTC is a bidirectional I/O port.
RC0/T1OSO/T13CKI
RC0
T1OSO
T13CKI
30
RC1/T1OSI/ECCP2/P2A
RC1
T1OSI
ECCP2
P2A
29
RC2/ECCP1/P1A
RC2
ECCP1
P1A
33
RC3/SCK1/SCL1
RC3
SCK1
SCL1
34
RC4/SDI1/SDA1
RC4
SDI1
SDA1
35
RC5/SDO1
RC5
SDO1
36
RC6/TX1/CK1
RC6
TX1
CK1
31
RC7/RX1/DT1
RC7
RX1
DT1
32
Legend:
TTL
ST
I
P
=
=
=
=
DS39762E-page 20
I/O
O
I
ST
—
ST
I/O
I
I/O
O
ST
CMOS
ST
—
Digital I/O.
Timer1 oscillator input.
Capture 2 input/Compare 2 output/PWM2 output.
ECCP2 PWM output A.
I/O
I/O
O
ST
ST
—
Digital I/O.
Capture 1 input/Compare 1 output/PWM1 output.
ECCP1 PWM output A.
I/O
I/O
I/O
ST
ST
ST
Digital I/O.
Synchronous serial clock input/output for SPI mode.
Synchronous serial clock input/output for I2C™ mode.
I/O
I
I/O
ST
ST
ST
Digital I/O.
SPI data in.
I2C data I/O.
I/O
O
ST
—
Digital I/O.
SPI data out.
I/O
O
I/O
ST
—
ST
Digital I/O.
EUSART1 asynchronous transmit.
EUSART1 synchronous clock (see related RX1/DT1 pin).
I/O
I
I/O
ST
ST
ST
Digital I/O.
EUSART1 asynchronous receive.
EUSART1 synchronous data (see related TX1/CK1 pin).
TTL compatible input
Schmitt Trigger input with CMOS levels
Input
Power
Digital I/O.
Timer1 oscillator output.
Timer1/Timer3 external clock input.
CMOS
Analog
O
OD
=
=
=
=
CMOS compatible input or output
Analog input
Output
Open-Drain (no P diode to VDD)
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
TABLE 1-4:
PIC18F66J60/66J65/67J60 PINOUT I/O DESCRIPTIONS (CONTINUED)
Pin Name
Pin Number
TQFP
Pin
Type
Buffer
Type
Description
PORTD is a bidirectional I/O port.
RD0/P1B
RD0
P1B
60
RD1/ECCP3/P3A
RD1
ECCP3
P3A
59
RD2/CCP4/P3D
RD2
CCP4
P3D
58
Legend:
TTL
ST
I
P
=
=
=
=
I/O
O
ST
—
Digital I/O.
ECCP1 PWM output B.
I/O
I/O
O
ST
ST
—
Digital I/O.
Capture 3 input/Compare 3 output/PWM3 output.
ECCP3 PWM output A.
I/O
I/O
O
ST
ST
—
Digital I/O.
Capture 4 input/Compare 4 output/PWM4 output.
CCP4 PWM output D.
TTL compatible input
Schmitt Trigger input with CMOS levels
Input
Power
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
CMOS
Analog
O
OD
=
=
=
=
CMOS compatible input or output
Analog input
Output
Open-Drain (no P diode to VDD)
DS39762E-page 21
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
TABLE 1-4:
PIC18F66J60/66J65/67J60 PINOUT I/O DESCRIPTIONS (CONTINUED)
Pin Name
Pin Number
TQFP
Pin
Type
Buffer
Type
Description
PORTE is a bidirectional I/O port.
RE0/P2D
RE0
P2D
2
RE1/P2C
RE1
P2C
1
RE2/P2B
RE2
P2B
64
RE3/P3C
RE3
P3C
63
RE4/P3B
RE4
P3B
62
RE5/P1C
RE5
P1C
61
Legend:
TTL
ST
I
P
=
=
=
=
DS39762E-page 22
I/O
O
ST
—
Digital I/O.
ECCP2 PWM output D.
I/O
O
ST
—
Digital I/O.
ECCP2 PWM output C.
I/O
O
ST
—
Digital I/O.
ECCP2 PWM output B.
I/O
O
ST
—
Digital I/O.
ECCP3 PWM output C.
I/O
O
ST
—
Digital I/O.
ECCP3 PWM output B.
I/O
O
ST
—
Digital I/O.
ECCP1 PWM output C.
TTL compatible input
Schmitt Trigger input with CMOS levels
Input
Power
CMOS
Analog
O
OD
=
=
=
=
CMOS compatible input or output
Analog input
Output
Open-Drain (no P diode to VDD)
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
TABLE 1-4:
PIC18F66J60/66J65/67J60 PINOUT I/O DESCRIPTIONS (CONTINUED)
Pin Name
Pin Number
TQFP
Pin
Type
Buffer
Type
Description
PORTF is a bidirectional I/O port.
RF1/AN6/C2OUT
RF1
AN6
C2OUT
17
RF2/AN7/C1OUT
RF2
AN7
C1OUT
16
RF3/AN8
RF3
AN8
15
RF4/AN9
RF4
AN9
14
RF5/AN10/CVREF
RF5
AN10
CVREF
13
RF6/AN11
RF6
AN11
12
RF7/SS1
RF7
SS1
11
Legend:
TTL
ST
I
P
=
=
=
=
I/O
I
O
ST
Analog
—
Digital I/O.
Analog input 6.
Comparator 2 output.
I/O
I
O
ST
Analog
—
Digital I/O.
Analog input 7.
Comparator 1 output.
I/O
I
ST
Analog
Digital I/O.
Analog input 8.
I/O
I
ST
Analog
Digital I/O.
Analog input 9.
I/O
I
O
ST
Analog
—
Digital I/O.
Analog input 10.
Comparator reference voltage output.
I/O
I
ST
Analog
Digital I/O.
Analog input 11.
I/O
I
ST
TTL
TTL compatible input
Schmitt Trigger input with CMOS levels
Input
Power
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
Digital I/O.
SPI slave select input.
CMOS
Analog
O
OD
=
=
=
=
CMOS compatible input or output
Analog input
Output
Open-Drain (no P diode to VDD)
DS39762E-page 23
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
TABLE 1-4:
PIC18F66J60/66J65/67J60 PINOUT I/O DESCRIPTIONS (CONTINUED)
Pin Name
Pin Number
TQFP
Pin
Type
Buffer
Type
Description
PORTG is a bidirectional I/O port.
8
RG4/CCP5/P1D
RG4
CCP5
P1D
I/O
I/O
O
ST
ST
—
Digital I/O.
Capture 5 input/Compare 5 output/PWM5 output.
ECCP1 PWM output D.
VSS
9, 25, 41, 56
P
—
Ground reference for logic and I/O pins.
VDD
26, 38, 57
P
—
Positive supply for peripheral digital logic and I/O pins.
AVSS
20
P
—
Ground reference for analog modules.
AVDD
19
P
—
Positive supply for analog modules.
ENVREG
18
I
ST
Enable for on-chip voltage regulator.
VDDCORE/VCAP
VDDCORE
10
P
—
VCAP
P
—
Core logic power or external filter capacitor connection.
Positive supply for microcontroller core logic
(regulator disabled).
External filter capacitor connection (regulator enabled).
P
—
Ground reference for Ethernet PHY PLL.
VSSPLL
55
VDDPLL
54
P
—
Positive 3.3V supply for Ethernet PHY PLL.
VSSTX
52
P
—
Ground reference for Ethernet PHY transmit subsystem.
VDDTX
49
P
—
Positive 3.3V supply for Ethernet PHY transmit subsystem.
VSSRX
45
P
—
Ground reference for Ethernet PHY receive subsystem.
VDDRX
48
P
—
Positive 3.3V supply for Ethernet PHY receive subsystem.
RBIAS
53
I
TPOUT+
51
O
TPOUT-
50
O
TPIN+
47
I
Analog Ethernet differential signal input.
46
I
Analog Ethernet differential signal input.
TPINLegend:
TTL
ST
I
P
=
=
=
=
DS39762E-page 24
Analog Bias current for Ethernet PHY. Must be tied to VSS via a resistor;
see Section 18.0 “Ethernet Module” for specification.
—
Ethernet differential signal output.
—
Ethernet differential signal output.
TTL compatible input
Schmitt Trigger input with CMOS levels
Input
Power
CMOS
Analog
O
OD
=
=
=
=
CMOS compatible input or output
Analog input
Output
Open-Drain (no P diode to VDD)
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
TABLE 1-5:
PIC18F86J60/86J65/87J60 PINOUT I/O DESCRIPTIONS
Pin Number
TQFP
Pin
Type
Buffer
Type
MCLR
9
I
ST
OSC1/CLKI
OSC1
49
Pin Name
I
CLKI
I
OSC2/CLKO
OSC2
Master Clear (Reset) input. This pin is an active-low Reset to
the device.
Oscillator crystal or external clock input.
Oscillator crystal input or external clock source input.
ST buffer when configured in internal RC mode; CMOS
otherwise.
CMOS
External clock source input. Always associated with
pin function OSC1. (See related OSC2/CLKO pin.)
ST
50
CLKO
Description
O
—
O
—
Oscillator crystal or clock output.
Oscillator crystal output. Connects to crystal or
resonator in Crystal Oscillator mode.
In Internal RC mode, OSC2 pin outputs CLKO which has
1/4 the frequency of OSC1 and denotes the
instruction cycle rate.
PORTA is a bidirectional I/O port.
RA0/LEDA/AN0
RA0
LEDA
AN0
30
RA1/LEDB/AN1
RA1
LEDB
AN1
29
RA2/AN2/VREFRA2
AN2
VREF-
28
RA3/AN3/VREF+
RA3
AN3
VREF+
27
RA4/T0CKI
RA4
T0CKI
34
RA5/AN4
RA5
AN4
33
Legend:
Note 1:
2:
3:
4:
I/O
O
I
TTL
—
Analog
Digital I/O.
Ethernet LEDA indicator output.
Analog input 0.
I/O
O
I
TTL
—
Analog
Digital I/O.
Ethernet LEDB indicator output.
Analog input 1.
I/O
I
I
TTL
Analog
Analog
Digital I/O.
Analog input 2.
A/D reference voltage (low) input.
I/O
I
I
TTL
Analog
Analog
Digital I/O.
Analog input 3.
A/D reference voltage (high) input.
I/O
I
ST
ST
I/O
I
TTL
Analog
Digital I/O.
Timer0 external clock input.
Digital I/O.
Analog input 4.
TTL = TTL compatible input
CMOS = CMOS compatible input or output
ST = Schmitt Trigger input with CMOS levels
Analog = Analog input
I
= Input
O
= Output
P
= Power
OD
= Open-Drain (no P diode to VDD)
Default assignment for ECCP2/P2A when CCP2MX Configuration bit is set.
Default assignments for P1B/P1C/P3B/P3C (ECCPMX Configuration bit is set).
Alternate assignment for ECCP2/P2A when CCP2MX Configuration bit is cleared.
Alternate assignments for P1B/P1C/P3B/P3C (ECCPMX Configuration bit is cleared).
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS39762E-page 25
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
TABLE 1-5:
Pin Name
PIC18F86J60/86J65/87J60 PINOUT I/O DESCRIPTIONS (CONTINUED)
Pin Number
TQFP
Pin
Type
Buffer
Type
Description
PORTB is a bidirectional I/O port. PORTB can be software
programmed for internal weak pull-ups on all inputs.
RB0/INT0/FLT0
RB0
INT0
FLT0
5
RB1/INT1
RB1
INT1
6
RB2/INT2
RB2
INT2
7
RB3/INT3
RB3
INT3
8
RB4/KBI0
RB4
KBI0
54
RB5/KBI1
RB5
KBI1
53
RB6/KBI2/PGC
RB6
KBI2
PGC
52
RB7/KBI3/PGD
RB7
KBI3
PGD
47
Legend:
Note 1:
2:
3:
4:
I/O
I
I
TTL
ST
ST
Digital I/O.
External interrupt 0.
Enhanced PWM Fault input (ECCP modules); enabled
in software.
I/O
I
TTL
ST
Digital I/O.
External interrupt 1.
I/O
I
TTL
ST
Digital I/O.
External interrupt 2.
I/O
I
TTL
ST
Digital I/O.
External interrupt 3.
I/O
I
TTL
TTL
Digital I/O.
Interrupt-on-change pin.
I/O
I
TTL
TTL
Digital I/O.
Interrupt-on-change pin.
I/O
I
I/O
TTL
TTL
ST
Digital I/O.
Interrupt-on-change pin.
In-Circuit Debugger and ICSP™ programming clock pin.
I/O
I
I/O
TTL
TTL
ST
Digital I/O.
Interrupt-on-change pin.
In-Circuit Debugger and ICSP programming data pin.
TTL = TTL compatible input
CMOS = CMOS compatible input or output
ST = Schmitt Trigger input with CMOS levels
Analog = Analog input
I
= Input
O
= Output
P
= Power
OD
= Open-Drain (no P diode to VDD)
Default assignment for ECCP2/P2A when CCP2MX Configuration bit is set.
Default assignments for P1B/P1C/P3B/P3C (ECCPMX Configuration bit is set).
Alternate assignment for ECCP2/P2A when CCP2MX Configuration bit is cleared.
Alternate assignments for P1B/P1C/P3B/P3C (ECCPMX Configuration bit is cleared).
DS39762E-page 26
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
TABLE 1-5:
PIC18F86J60/86J65/87J60 PINOUT I/O DESCRIPTIONS (CONTINUED)
Pin Name
Pin Number
TQFP
Pin
Type
Buffer
Type
Description
PORTC is a bidirectional I/O port.
RC0/T1OSO/T13CKI
RC0
T1OSO
T13CKI
36
RC1/T1OSI/ECCP2/P2A
RC1
T1OSI
ECCP2(1)
P2A(1)
35
RC2/ECCP1/P1A
RC2
ECCP1
P1A
43
RC3/SCK1/SCL1
RC3
SCK1
SCL1
44
RC4/SDI1/SDA1
RC4
SDI1
SDA1
45
RC5/SDO1
RC5
SDO1
46
RC6/TX1/CK1
RC6
TX1
CK1
37
RC7/RX1/DT1
RC7
RX1
DT1
38
Legend:
Note 1:
2:
3:
4:
I/O
O
I
ST
—
ST
Digital I/O.
Timer1 oscillator output.
Timer1/Timer3 external clock input.
I/O
I
I/O
O
ST
CMOS
ST
—
Digital I/O.
Timer1 oscillator input.
Capture 2 input/Compare 2 output/PWM2 output.
ECCP2 PWM output A.
I/O
I/O
O
ST
ST
—
Digital I/O.
Capture 1 input/Compare 1 output/PWM1 output.
ECCP1 PWM output A.
I/O
I/O
I/O
ST
ST
ST
Digital I/O.
Synchronous serial clock input/output for SPI mode.
Synchronous serial clock input/output for I2C™ mode.
I/O
I
I/O
ST
ST
ST
Digital I/O.
SPI data in.
I2C data I/O.
I/O
O
ST
—
Digital I/O.
SPI data out.
I/O
O
I/O
ST
—
ST
Digital I/O.
EUSART1 asynchronous transmit.
EUSART1 synchronous clock (see related RX1/DT1 pin).
I/O
I
I/O
ST
ST
ST
Digital I/O.
EUSART1 asynchronous receive.
EUSART1 synchronous data (see related TX1/CK1 pin).
TTL = TTL compatible input
CMOS = CMOS compatible input or output
ST = Schmitt Trigger input with CMOS levels
Analog = Analog input
I
= Input
O
= Output
P
= Power
OD
= Open-Drain (no P diode to VDD)
Default assignment for ECCP2/P2A when CCP2MX Configuration bit is set.
Default assignments for P1B/P1C/P3B/P3C (ECCPMX Configuration bit is set).
Alternate assignment for ECCP2/P2A when CCP2MX Configuration bit is cleared.
Alternate assignments for P1B/P1C/P3B/P3C (ECCPMX Configuration bit is cleared).
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS39762E-page 27
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
TABLE 1-5:
Pin Name
PIC18F86J60/86J65/87J60 PINOUT I/O DESCRIPTIONS (CONTINUED)
Pin Number
TQFP
Pin
Type
Buffer
Type
Description
PORTD is a bidirectional I/O port.
RD0
72
I/O
ST
Digital I/O.
RD1
69
I/O
ST
Digital I/O.
RD2
68
I/O
ST
Digital I/O.
PORTE is a bidirectional I/O port.
RE0/P2D
RE0
P2D
4
RE1/P2C
RE1
P2C
3
RE2/P2B
RE2
P2B
78
RE3/P3C
RE3
P3C(2)
77
RE4/P3B
RE4
P3B(2)
76
RE5/P1C
RE5
P1C(2)
75
RE6/P1B
RE6
P1B(2)
74
RE7/ECCP2/P2A
RE7
ECCP2(3)
P2A(3)
73
Legend:
Note 1:
2:
3:
4:
I/O
O
ST
—
Digital I/O.
ECCP2 PWM output D.
I/O
O
ST
—
Digital I/O.
ECCP2 PWM output C.
I/O
O
ST
—
Digital I/O.
ECCP2 PWM output B.
I/O
O
ST
—
Digital I/O.
ECCP3 PWM output C.
I/O
O
ST
—
Digital I/O.
ECCP3 PWM output B.
I/O
O
ST
—
Digital I/O.
ECCP1 PWM output C.
I/O
O
ST
—
Digital I/O.
ECCP1 PWM output B.
I/O
I/O
O
ST
ST
—
Digital I/O.
Capture 2 input/Compare 2 output/PWM2 output.
ECCP2 PWM output A.
TTL = TTL compatible input
CMOS = CMOS compatible input or output
ST = Schmitt Trigger input with CMOS levels
Analog = Analog input
I
= Input
O
= Output
P
= Power
OD
= Open-Drain (no P diode to VDD)
Default assignment for ECCP2/P2A when CCP2MX Configuration bit is set.
Default assignments for P1B/P1C/P3B/P3C (ECCPMX Configuration bit is set).
Alternate assignment for ECCP2/P2A when CCP2MX Configuration bit is cleared.
Alternate assignments for P1B/P1C/P3B/P3C (ECCPMX Configuration bit is cleared).
DS39762E-page 28
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
TABLE 1-5:
Pin Name
PIC18F86J60/86J65/87J60 PINOUT I/O DESCRIPTIONS (CONTINUED)
Pin Number
TQFP
Pin
Type
Buffer
Type
Description
PORTF is a bidirectional I/O port.
RF1/AN6/C2OUT
RF1
AN6
C2OUT
23
RF2/AN7/C1OUT
RF2
AN7
C1OUT
18
RF3/AN8
RF3
AN8
17
RF4/AN9
RF4
AN9
16
RF5/AN10/CVREF
RF5
AN10
CVREF
15
RF6/AN11
RF6
AN11
14
RF7/SS1
RF7
SS1
13
Legend:
Note 1:
2:
3:
4:
I/O
I
O
ST
Analog
—
Digital I/O.
Analog input 6.
Comparator 2 output.
I/O
I
O
ST
Analog
—
Digital I/O.
Analog input 7.
Comparator 1 output.
I/O
I
ST
Analog
Digital I/O.
Analog input 8.
I/O
I
ST
Analog
Digital I/O.
Analog input 9.
I/O
I
O
ST
Analog
—
Digital I/O.
Analog input 10.
Comparator reference voltage output.
I/O
I
ST
Analog
Digital I/O.
Analog input 11.
I/O
I
ST
TTL
Digital I/O.
SPI slave select input.
TTL = TTL compatible input
CMOS = CMOS compatible input or output
ST = Schmitt Trigger input with CMOS levels
Analog = Analog input
I
= Input
O
= Output
P
= Power
OD
= Open-Drain (no P diode to VDD)
Default assignment for ECCP2/P2A when CCP2MX Configuration bit is set.
Default assignments for P1B/P1C/P3B/P3C (ECCPMX Configuration bit is set).
Alternate assignment for ECCP2/P2A when CCP2MX Configuration bit is cleared.
Alternate assignments for P1B/P1C/P3B/P3C (ECCPMX Configuration bit is cleared).
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS39762E-page 29
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
TABLE 1-5:
Pin Name
PIC18F86J60/86J65/87J60 PINOUT I/O DESCRIPTIONS (CONTINUED)
Pin Number
TQFP
Pin
Type
Buffer
Type
Description
PORTG is a bidirectional I/O port.
RG0/ECCP3/P3A
RG0
ECCP3
P3A
56
RG1/TX2/CK2
RG1
TX2
CK2
55
RG2/RX2/DT2
RG2
RX2
DT2
42
RG3/CCP4/P3D
RG3
CCP4
P3D
41
RG4/CCP5/P1D
RG4
CCP5
P1D
10
Legend:
Note 1:
2:
3:
4:
I/O
I/O
O
ST
ST
—
Digital I/O.
Capture 3 input/Compare 3 output/PWM3 output.
ECCP3 PWM output A.
I/O
O
I/O
ST
—
ST
Digital I/O.
EUSART2 asynchronous transmit.
EUSART2 synchronous clock (see related RX2/DT2 pin).
I/O
I
I/O
ST
ST
ST
Digital I/O.
EUSART2 asynchronous receive.
EUSART2 synchronous data (see related TX2/CK2 pin).
I/O
I/O
O
ST
ST
—
Digital I/O.
Capture 4 input/Compare 4 output/PWM4 output.
ECCP3 PWM output D.
I/O
I/O
O
ST
ST
—
Digital I/O.
Capture 5 input/Compare 5 output/PWM5 output.
ECCP1 PWM output D.
TTL = TTL compatible input
CMOS = CMOS compatible input or output
ST = Schmitt Trigger input with CMOS levels
Analog = Analog input
I
= Input
O
= Output
P
= Power
OD
= Open-Drain (no P diode to VDD)
Default assignment for ECCP2/P2A when CCP2MX Configuration bit is set.
Default assignments for P1B/P1C/P3B/P3C (ECCPMX Configuration bit is set).
Alternate assignment for ECCP2/P2A when CCP2MX Configuration bit is cleared.
Alternate assignments for P1B/P1C/P3B/P3C (ECCPMX Configuration bit is cleared).
DS39762E-page 30
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
TABLE 1-5:
Pin Name
PIC18F86J60/86J65/87J60 PINOUT I/O DESCRIPTIONS (CONTINUED)
Pin Number
TQFP
Pin
Type
Buffer
Type
Description
PORTH is a bidirectional I/O port.
RH0
79
I/O
ST
Digital I/O.
RH1
80
I/O
ST
Digital I/O.
RH2
1
I/O
ST
Digital I/O.
RH3
2
I/O
ST
Digital I/O.
RH4/AN12/P3C
RH4
AN12
P3C(4)
22
I/O
I
O
ST
Analog
—
Digital I/O.
Analog input 12.
ECCP3 PWM output C.
RH5/AN13/P3B
RH5
AN13
P3B(4)
21
I/O
I
O
ST
Analog
—
Digital I/O.
Analog input 13.
ECCP3 PWM output B.
RH6/AN14/P1C
RH6
AN14
P1C(4)
20
I/O
I
O
ST
Analog
—
Digital I/O.
Analog input 14.
ECCP1 PWM output C.
RH7/AN15/P1B
RH7
AN15
P1B(4)
19
I/O
I
O
ST
Analog
—
Digital I/O.
Analog input 15.
ECCP1 PWM output B.
Legend:
Note 1:
2:
3:
4:
TTL = TTL compatible input
CMOS = CMOS compatible input or output
ST = Schmitt Trigger input with CMOS levels
Analog = Analog input
I
= Input
O
= Output
P
= Power
OD
= Open-Drain (no P diode to VDD)
Default assignment for ECCP2/P2A when CCP2MX Configuration bit is set.
Default assignments for P1B/P1C/P3B/P3C (ECCPMX Configuration bit is set).
Alternate assignment for ECCP2/P2A when CCP2MX Configuration bit is cleared.
Alternate assignments for P1B/P1C/P3B/P3C (ECCPMX Configuration bit is cleared).
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS39762E-page 31
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
TABLE 1-5:
Pin Name
PIC18F86J60/86J65/87J60 PINOUT I/O DESCRIPTIONS (CONTINUED)
Pin Number
TQFP
Pin
Type
Buffer
Type
Description
PORTJ is a bidirectional I/O port.
RJ4
39
I/O
ST
RJ5
40
I/O
ST
VSS
11, 31, 51, 70
P
—
Ground reference for logic and I/O pins.
VDD
32, 48, 71
P
—
Positive supply for peripheral digital logic and I/O pins.
AVSS
26
P
—
Ground reference for analog modules.
AVDD
25
P
—
Positive supply for analog modules.
ENVREG
24
I
ST
Enable for on-chip voltage regulator.
VDDCORE/VCAP
VDDCORE
12
P
—
P
—
Core logic power or external filter capacitor connection.
Positive supply for microcontroller core logic
(regulator disabled).
External filter capacitor connection (regulator enabled).
P
—
Ground reference for Ethernet PHY PLL.
VCAP
Digital I/O.
Digital I/O
VSSPLL
67
VDDPLL
66
P
—
Positive 3.3V supply for Ethernet PHY PLL.
VSSTX
64
P
—
Ground reference for Ethernet PHY transmit subsystem.
VDDTX
61
P
—
Positive 3.3V supply for Ethernet PHY transmit subsystem.
VSSRX
57
P
—
Ground reference for Ethernet PHY receive subsystem.
VDDRX
60
P
—
Positive 3.3V supply for Ethernet PHY receive subsystem.
RBIAS
65
I
TPOUT+
63
O
TPOUT-
62
O
TPIN+
59
I
Analog Ethernet differential signal input.
58
I
Analog Ethernet differential signal input.
TPINLegend:
Note 1:
2:
3:
4:
Analog Bias current for Ethernet PHY. Must be tied to VSS via a resistor;
see Section 18.0 “Ethernet Module” for specification.
—
Ethernet differential signal output.
—
Ethernet differential signal output.
TTL = TTL compatible input
CMOS = CMOS compatible input or output
ST = Schmitt Trigger input with CMOS levels
Analog = Analog input
I
= Input
O
= Output
P
= Power
OD
= Open-Drain (no P diode to VDD)
Default assignment for ECCP2/P2A when CCP2MX Configuration bit is set.
Default assignments for P1B/P1C/P3B/P3C (ECCPMX Configuration bit is set).
Alternate assignment for ECCP2/P2A when CCP2MX Configuration bit is cleared.
Alternate assignments for P1B/P1C/P3B/P3C (ECCPMX Configuration bit is cleared).
DS39762E-page 32
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
TABLE 1-6:
PIC18F96J60/96J65/97J60 PINOUT I/O DESCRIPTIONS
Pin Number
TQFP
Pin
Type
Buffer
Type
MCLR
13
I
ST
OSC1/CLKI
OSC1
63
Pin Name
I
CLKI
I
OSC2/CLKO
OSC2
Master Clear (Reset) input. This pin is an active-low Reset to
the device.
Oscillator crystal or external clock input.
Oscillator crystal input or external clock source input.
ST buffer when configured in internal RC mode; CMOS
otherwise.
CMOS
External clock source input. Always associated with
pin function OSC1. (See related OSC2/CLKO pin.)
ST
64
CLKO
Description
O
—
O
—
Oscillator crystal or clock output.
Oscillator crystal output. Connects to crystal or resonator
in Crystal Oscillator mode.
In Internal RC mode, OSC2 pin outputs CLKO which has 1/4
the frequency of OSC1 and denotes the instruction cycle rate.
PORTA is a bidirectional I/O port.
RA0/LEDA/AN0
RA0
LEDA
AN0
35
RA1/LEDB/AN1
RA1
LEDB
AN1
34
RA2/AN2/VREFRA2
AN2
VREF-
33
RA3/AN3/VREF+
RA3
AN3
VREF+
32
RA4/T0CKI
RA4
T0CKI
42
RA5/AN4
RA5
AN4
41
Legend:
Note 1:
2:
3:
4:
5:
I/O
O
I
TTL
—
Analog
Digital I/O.
Ethernet LEDA indicator output.
Analog input 0.
I/O
O
I
TTL
—
Analog
Digital I/O.
Ethernet LEDB indicator output.
Analog input 1.
I/O
I
I
TTL
Analog
Analog
Digital I/O.
Analog input 2.
A/D reference voltage (low) input.
I/O
I
I
TTL
Analog
Analog
Digital I/O.
Analog input 3.
A/D reference voltage (high) input.
I/O
I
ST
ST
I/O
I
TTL
Analog
Digital I/O.
Timer0 external clock input.
Digital I/O.
Analog input 4.
TTL = TTL compatible input
CMOS = CMOS compatible input or output
ST = Schmitt Trigger input with CMOS levels
Analog = Analog input
I
= Input
O
= Output
P
= Power
OD
= Open-Drain (no P diode to VDD)
Alternate assignment for ECCP2/P2A when CCP2MX Configuration bit is cleared (Extended Microcontroller mode).
Default assignment for ECCP2/P2A for all devices in all operating modes (CCP2MX Configuration bit is set).
Default assignments for P1B/P1C/P3B/P3C (ECCPMX Configuration bit is set).
Alternate assignment for ECCP2/P2A when CCP2MX Configuration bit is cleared (Microcontroller mode).
Alternate assignments for P1B/P1C/P3B/P3C (ECCPMX Configuration bit is cleared).
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS39762E-page 33
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
TABLE 1-6:
PIC18F96J60/96J65/97J60 PINOUT I/O DESCRIPTIONS (CONTINUED)
Pin Name
Pin Number
TQFP
Pin
Type
Buffer
Type
Description
PORTB is a bidirectional I/O port. PORTB can be software
programmed for internal weak pull-ups on all inputs.
RB0/INT0/FLT0
RB0
INT0
FLT0
5
RB1/INT1
RB1
INT1
6
RB2/INT2
RB2
INT2
7
RB3/INT3/ECCP2/P2A
RB3
INT3
ECCP2(1)
P2A(1)
8
RB4/KBI0
RB4
KBI0
69
RB5/KBI1
RB5
KBI1
68
RB6/KBI2/PGC
RB6
KBI2
PGC
67
RB7/KBI3/PGD
RB7
KBI3
PGD
57
Legend:
Note 1:
2:
3:
4:
5:
I/O
I
I
TTL
ST
ST
Digital I/O.
External interrupt 0.
Enhanced PWM Fault input (ECCP modules); enabled
in software.
I/O
I
TTL
ST
Digital I/O.
External interrupt 1.
I/O
I
TTL
ST
Digital I/O.
External interrupt 2.
I/O
I
I/O
O
TTL
ST
ST
—
Digital I/O.
External interrupt 3.
Capture 2 input/Compare 2 output/PWM2 output.
ECCP2 PWM output A.
I/O
I
TTL
TTL
Digital I/O.
Interrupt-on-change pin.
I/O
I
TTL
TTL
Digital I/O.
Interrupt-on-change pin.
I/O
I
I/O
TTL
TTL
ST
Digital I/O.
Interrupt-on-change pin.
In-Circuit Debugger and ICSP™ programming clock pin.
I/O
I
I/O
TTL
TTL
ST
Digital I/O.
Interrupt-on-change pin.
In-Circuit Debugger and ICSP programming data pin.
TTL = TTL compatible input
CMOS = CMOS compatible input or output
ST = Schmitt Trigger input with CMOS levels
Analog = Analog input
I
= Input
O
= Output
P
= Power
OD
= Open-Drain (no P diode to VDD)
Alternate assignment for ECCP2/P2A when CCP2MX Configuration bit is cleared (Extended Microcontroller mode).
Default assignment for ECCP2/P2A for all devices in all operating modes (CCP2MX Configuration bit is set).
Default assignments for P1B/P1C/P3B/P3C (ECCPMX Configuration bit is set).
Alternate assignment for ECCP2/P2A when CCP2MX Configuration bit is cleared (Microcontroller mode).
Alternate assignments for P1B/P1C/P3B/P3C (ECCPMX Configuration bit is cleared).
DS39762E-page 34
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
TABLE 1-6:
PIC18F96J60/96J65/97J60 PINOUT I/O DESCRIPTIONS (CONTINUED)
Pin Name
Pin Number
TQFP
Pin
Type
Buffer
Type
Description
PORTC is a bidirectional I/O port.
RC0/T1OSO/T13CKI
RC0
T1OSO
T13CKI
44
RC1/T1OSI/ECCP2/P2A
RC1
T1OSI
ECCP2(2)
P2A(2)
43
RC2/ECCP1/P1A
RC2
ECCP1
P1A
53
RC3/SCK1/SCL1
RC3
SCK1
SCL1
54
RC4/SDI1/SDA1
RC4
SDI1
SDA1
55
RC5/SDO1
RC5
SDO1
56
RC6/TX1/CK1
RC6
TX1
CK1
45
RC7/RX1/DT1
RC7
RX1
DT1
46
Legend:
Note 1:
2:
3:
4:
5:
I/O
O
I
ST
—
ST
Digital I/O.
Timer1 oscillator output.
Timer1/Timer3 external clock input.
I/O
I
I/O
O
ST
CMOS
ST
—
Digital I/O.
Timer1 oscillator input.
Capture 2 input/Compare 2 output/PWM2 output.
ECCP2 PWM output A.
I/O
I/O
O
ST
ST
—
Digital I/O.
Capture 1 input/Compare 1 output/PWM1 output.
ECCP1 PWM output A.
I/O
I/O
I/O
ST
ST
ST
Digital I/O.
Synchronous serial clock input/output for SPI mode.
Synchronous serial clock input/output for I2C™ mode.
I/O
I
I/O
ST
ST
ST
Digital I/O.
SPI data in.
I2C data I/O.
I/O
O
ST
—
Digital I/O.
SPI data out.
I/O
O
I/O
ST
—
ST
Digital I/O.
EUSART1 asynchronous transmit.
EUSART1 synchronous clock (see related RX1/DT1 pin).
I/O
I
I/O
ST
ST
ST
Digital I/O.
EUSART1 asynchronous receive.
EUSART1 synchronous data (see related TX1/CK1 pin).
TTL = TTL compatible input
CMOS = CMOS compatible input or output
ST = Schmitt Trigger input with CMOS levels
Analog = Analog input
I
= Input
O
= Output
P
= Power
OD
= Open-Drain (no P diode to VDD)
Alternate assignment for ECCP2/P2A when CCP2MX Configuration bit is cleared (Extended Microcontroller mode).
Default assignment for ECCP2/P2A for all devices in all operating modes (CCP2MX Configuration bit is set).
Default assignments for P1B/P1C/P3B/P3C (ECCPMX Configuration bit is set).
Alternate assignment for ECCP2/P2A when CCP2MX Configuration bit is cleared (Microcontroller mode).
Alternate assignments for P1B/P1C/P3B/P3C (ECCPMX Configuration bit is cleared).
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS39762E-page 35
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
TABLE 1-6:
PIC18F96J60/96J65/97J60 PINOUT I/O DESCRIPTIONS (CONTINUED)
Pin Name
Pin Number
TQFP
Pin
Type
Buffer
Type
Description
PORTD is a bidirectional I/O port.
RD0/AD0/PSP0
RD0
AD0
PSP0
92
RD1/AD1/PSP1
RD1
AD1
PSP1
91
RD2/AD2/PSP2
RD2
AD2
PSP2
90
RD3/AD3/PSP3
RD3
AD3
PSP3
89
RD4/AD4/PSP4/SDO2
RD4
AD4
PSP4
SDO2
88
RD5/AD5/PSP5/
SDI2/SDA2
RD5
AD5
PSP5
SDI2
SDA2
87
RD6/AD6/PSP6/
SCK2/SCL2
RD6
AD6
PSP6
SCK2
SCL2
84
RD7/AD7/PSP7/SS2
RD7
AD7
PSP7
SS2
83
Legend:
Note 1:
2:
3:
4:
5:
I/O
I/O
I/O
ST
TTL
TTL
Digital I/O.
External memory address/data 0.
Parallel Slave Port data.
I/O
I/O
I/O
ST
TTL
TTL
Digital I/O.
External memory address/data 1.
Parallel Slave Port data.
I/O
I/O
I/O
ST
TTL
TTL
Digital I/O.
External memory address/data 2.
Parallel Slave Port data.
I/O
I/O
I/O
ST
TTL
TTL
Digital I/O.
External memory address/data 3.
Parallel Slave Port data.
I/O
I/O
I/O
O
ST
TTL
TTL
—
Digital I/O.
External memory address/data 4.
Parallel Slave Port data.
SPI data out.
I/O
I/O
I/O
I
I/O
ST
TTL
TTL
ST
ST
Digital I/O.
External memory address/data 5.
Parallel Slave Port data.
SPI data in.
I2C™ data I/O.
I/O
I/O
I/O
I/O
I/O
ST
TTL
TTL
ST
ST
Digital I/O.
External memory address/data 6.
Parallel Slave Port data.
Synchronous serial clock input/output for SPI mode.
Synchronous serial clock input/output for I2C mode.
I/O
I/O
I/O
I
ST
TTL
TTL
TTL
Digital I/O.
External memory address/data 7.
Parallel Slave Port data.
SPI slave select input.
TTL = TTL compatible input
CMOS = CMOS compatible input or output
ST = Schmitt Trigger input with CMOS levels
Analog = Analog input
I
= Input
O
= Output
P
= Power
OD
= Open-Drain (no P diode to VDD)
Alternate assignment for ECCP2/P2A when CCP2MX Configuration bit is cleared (Extended Microcontroller mode).
Default assignment for ECCP2/P2A for all devices in all operating modes (CCP2MX Configuration bit is set).
Default assignments for P1B/P1C/P3B/P3C (ECCPMX Configuration bit is set).
Alternate assignment for ECCP2/P2A when CCP2MX Configuration bit is cleared (Microcontroller mode).
Alternate assignments for P1B/P1C/P3B/P3C (ECCPMX Configuration bit is cleared).
DS39762E-page 36
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
TABLE 1-6:
PIC18F96J60/96J65/97J60 PINOUT I/O DESCRIPTIONS (CONTINUED)
Pin Name
Pin Number
TQFP
Pin
Type
Buffer
Type
Description
PORTE is a bidirectional I/O port.
RE0/AD8/RD/P2D
RE0
AD8
RD
P2D
4
RE1/AD9/WR/P2C
RE1
AD9
WR
P2C
3
RE2/AD10/CS/P2B
RE2
AD10
CS
P2B
98
RE3/AD11/P3C
RE3
AD11
P3C(3)
97
RE4/AD12/P3B
RE4
AD12
P3B(3)
96
RE5/AD13/P1C
RE5
AD13
P1C(3)
95
RE6/AD14/P1B
RE6
AD14
P1B(3)
94
RE7/AD15/ECCP2/P2A
RE7
AD15
ECCP2(4)
P2A(4)
93
Legend:
Note 1:
2:
3:
4:
5:
I/O
I/O
I
O
ST
TTL
TTL
—
Digital I/O.
External memory address/data 8.
Read control for Parallel Slave Port.
ECCP2 PWM output D.
I/O
I/O
I
O
ST
TTL
TTL
—
Digital I/O.
External memory address/data 9.
Write control for Parallel Slave Port.
ECCP2 PWM output C.
I/O
I/O
I
O
ST
TTL
TTL
—
Digital I/O.
External memory address/data 10.
Chip select control for Parallel Slave Port.
ECCP2 PWM output B.
I/O
I/O
O
ST
TTL
—
Digital I/O.
External memory address/data 11.
ECCP3 PWM output C.
I/O
I/O
O
ST
TTL
—
Digital I/O.
External memory address/data 12.
ECCP3 PWM output B.
I/O
I/O
O
ST
TTL
—
Digital I/O.
External memory address/data 13.
ECCP1 PWM output C.
I/O
I/O
O
ST
TTL
—
Digital I/O.
External memory address/data 14.
ECCP1 PWM output B.
I/O
I/O
I/O
O
ST
TTL
ST
—
Digital I/O.
External memory address/data 15.
Capture 2 input/Compare 2 output/PWM2 output.
ECCP2 PWM output A.
TTL = TTL compatible input
CMOS = CMOS compatible input or output
ST = Schmitt Trigger input with CMOS levels
Analog = Analog input
I
= Input
O
= Output
P
= Power
OD
= Open-Drain (no P diode to VDD)
Alternate assignment for ECCP2/P2A when CCP2MX Configuration bit is cleared (Extended Microcontroller mode).
Default assignment for ECCP2/P2A for all devices in all operating modes (CCP2MX Configuration bit is set).
Default assignments for P1B/P1C/P3B/P3C (ECCPMX Configuration bit is set).
Alternate assignment for ECCP2/P2A when CCP2MX Configuration bit is cleared (Microcontroller mode).
Alternate assignments for P1B/P1C/P3B/P3C (ECCPMX Configuration bit is cleared).
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS39762E-page 37
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
TABLE 1-6:
Pin Name
PIC18F96J60/96J65/97J60 PINOUT I/O DESCRIPTIONS (CONTINUED)
Pin Number
TQFP
Pin
Type
Buffer
Type
Description
PORTF is a bidirectional I/O port.
RF0/AN5
RF0
AN5
12
RF1/AN6/C2OUT
RF1
AN6
C2OUT
28
RF2/AN7/C1OUT
RF2
AN7
C1OUT
23
RF3/AN8
RF3
AN8
22
RF4/AN9
RF4
AN9
21
RF5/AN10/CVREF
RF5
AN10
CVREF
20
RF6/AN11
RF6
AN11
19
RF7/SS1
RF7
SS1
18
Legend:
Note 1:
2:
3:
4:
5:
I/O
I
ST
Analog
Digital I/O.
Analog input 5.
I/O
I
O
ST
Analog
—
Digital I/O.
Analog input 6.
Comparator 2 output.
I/O
I
O
ST
Analog
—
Digital I/O.
Analog input 7.
Comparator 1 output.
I/O
I
ST
Analog
Digital I/O.
Analog input 8.
I/O
I
ST
Analog
Digital I/O.
Analog input 9.
I/O
I
O
ST
Analog
—
Digital I/O.
Analog input 10.
Comparator reference voltage output.
I/O
I
ST
Analog
Digital I/O.
Analog input 11.
I/O
I
ST
TTL
Digital I/O.
SPI slave select input.
TTL = TTL compatible input
CMOS = CMOS compatible input or output
ST = Schmitt Trigger input with CMOS levels
Analog = Analog input
I
= Input
O
= Output
P
= Power
OD
= Open-Drain (no P diode to VDD)
Alternate assignment for ECCP2/P2A when CCP2MX Configuration bit is cleared (Extended Microcontroller mode).
Default assignment for ECCP2/P2A for all devices in all operating modes (CCP2MX Configuration bit is set).
Default assignments for P1B/P1C/P3B/P3C (ECCPMX Configuration bit is set).
Alternate assignment for ECCP2/P2A when CCP2MX Configuration bit is cleared (Microcontroller mode).
Alternate assignments for P1B/P1C/P3B/P3C (ECCPMX Configuration bit is cleared).
DS39762E-page 38
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
TABLE 1-6:
Pin Name
PIC18F96J60/96J65/97J60 PINOUT I/O DESCRIPTIONS (CONTINUED)
Pin Number
TQFP
Pin
Type
Buffer
Type
Description
PORTG is a bidirectional I/O port.
RG0/ECCP3/P3A
RG0
ECCP3
P3A
71
RG1/TX2/CK2
RG1
TX2
CK2
70
RG2/RX2/DT2
RG2
RX2
DT2
52
RG3/CCP4/P3D
RG3
CCP4
P3D
51
RG4/CCP5/P1D
RG4
CCP5
P1D
14
I/O
I/O
O
ST
ST
—
Digital I/O.
Capture 3 input/Compare 3 output/PWM3 output.
ECCP3 PWM output A.
I/O
O
I/O
ST
—
ST
Digital I/O.
EUSART2 asynchronous transmit.
EUSART2 synchronous clock (see related RX2/DT2 pin).
I/O
I
I/O
ST
ST
ST
Digital I/O.
EUSART2 asynchronous receive.
EUSART2 synchronous data (see related TX2/CK2 pin).
I/O
I/O
O
ST
ST
—
Digital I/O.
Capture 4 input/Compare 4 output/PWM4 output.
ECCP3 PWM output D.
I/O
I/O
O
ST
ST
—
Digital I/O.
Capture 5 input/Compare 5 output/PWM5 output.
ECCP1 PWM output D.
RG5
11
I/O
ST
Digital I/O.
RG6
10
I/O
ST
Digital I/O.
RG7
38
I/O
ST
Digital I/O.
Legend:
Note 1:
2:
3:
4:
5:
TTL = TTL compatible input
CMOS = CMOS compatible input or output
ST = Schmitt Trigger input with CMOS levels
Analog = Analog input
I
= Input
O
= Output
P
= Power
OD
= Open-Drain (no P diode to VDD)
Alternate assignment for ECCP2/P2A when CCP2MX Configuration bit is cleared (Extended Microcontroller mode).
Default assignment for ECCP2/P2A for all devices in all operating modes (CCP2MX Configuration bit is set).
Default assignments for P1B/P1C/P3B/P3C (ECCPMX Configuration bit is set).
Alternate assignment for ECCP2/P2A when CCP2MX Configuration bit is cleared (Microcontroller mode).
Alternate assignments for P1B/P1C/P3B/P3C (ECCPMX Configuration bit is cleared).
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS39762E-page 39
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
TABLE 1-6:
Pin Name
PIC18F96J60/96J65/97J60 PINOUT I/O DESCRIPTIONS (CONTINUED)
Pin Number
TQFP
Pin
Type
Buffer
Type
Description
PORTH is a bidirectional I/O port.
RH0/A16
RH0
A16
99
RH1/A17
RH1
A17
100
RH2/A18
RH2
A18
1
RH3/A19
RH3
A19
2
RH4/AN12/P3C
RH4
AN12
P3C(5)
27
RH5/AN13/P3B
RH5
AN13
P3B(5)
26
RH6/AN14/P1C
RH6
AN14
P1C(5)
25
RH7/AN15/P1B
RH7
AN15
P1B(5)
24
Legend:
Note 1:
2:
3:
4:
5:
I/O
O
ST
—
Digital I/O.
External memory address 16.
I/O
O
ST
—
Digital I/O.
External memory address 17.
I/O
O
ST
—
Digital I/O.
External memory address 18.
I/O
O
ST
—
Digital I/O.
External memory address 19.
I/O
I
O
ST
Analog
—
Digital I/O.
Analog input 12.
ECCP3 PWM output C.
I/O
I
O
ST
Analog
—
Digital I/O.
Analog input 13.
ECCP3 PWM output B.
I/O
I
O
ST
Analog
—
Digital I/O.
Analog input 14.
ECCP1 PWM output C.
I/O
I
O
ST
Analog
—
Digital I/O.
Analog input 15.
ECCP1 PWM output B.
TTL = TTL compatible input
CMOS = CMOS compatible input or output
ST = Schmitt Trigger input with CMOS levels
Analog = Analog input
I
= Input
O
= Output
P
= Power
OD
= Open-Drain (no P diode to VDD)
Alternate assignment for ECCP2/P2A when CCP2MX Configuration bit is cleared (Extended Microcontroller mode).
Default assignment for ECCP2/P2A for all devices in all operating modes (CCP2MX Configuration bit is set).
Default assignments for P1B/P1C/P3B/P3C (ECCPMX Configuration bit is set).
Alternate assignment for ECCP2/P2A when CCP2MX Configuration bit is cleared (Microcontroller mode).
Alternate assignments for P1B/P1C/P3B/P3C (ECCPMX Configuration bit is cleared).
DS39762E-page 40
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
TABLE 1-6:
Pin Name
PIC18F96J60/96J65/97J60 PINOUT I/O DESCRIPTIONS (CONTINUED)
Pin Number
TQFP
Pin
Type
Buffer
Type
Description
PORTJ is a bidirectional I/O port.
RJ0/ALE
RJ0
ALE
49
RJ1/OE
RJ1
OE
50
RJ2/WRL
RJ2
WRL
66
RJ3/WRH
RJ3
WRH
61
RJ4/BA0
RJ4
BA0
47
RJ5/CE
RJ5
CE
48
RJ6/LB
RJ6
LB
58
RJ7/UB
RJ7
UB
39
Legend:
Note 1:
2:
3:
4:
5:
I/O
O
ST
—
Digital I/O.
External memory address latch enable.
I/O
O
ST
—
Digital I/O.
External memory output enable.
I/O
O
ST
—
Digital I/O.
External memory write low control.
I/O
O
ST
—
Digital I/O.
External memory write high control.
I/O
O
ST
—
Digital I/O.
External memory byte address 0 control.
I/O
O
ST
—
Digital I/O
External memory chip enable control.
I/O
O
ST
—
Digital I/O.
External memory low byte control.
I/O
O
ST
—
Digital I/O.
External memory high byte control.
TTL = TTL compatible input
CMOS = CMOS compatible input or output
ST = Schmitt Trigger input with CMOS levels
Analog = Analog input
I
= Input
O
= Output
P
= Power
OD
= Open-Drain (no P diode to VDD)
Alternate assignment for ECCP2/P2A when CCP2MX Configuration bit is cleared (Extended Microcontroller mode).
Default assignment for ECCP2/P2A for all devices in all operating modes (CCP2MX Configuration bit is set).
Default assignments for P1B/P1C/P3B/P3C (ECCPMX Configuration bit is set).
Alternate assignment for ECCP2/P2A when CCP2MX Configuration bit is cleared (Microcontroller mode).
Alternate assignments for P1B/P1C/P3B/P3C (ECCPMX Configuration bit is cleared).
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS39762E-page 41
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
TABLE 1-6:
PIC18F96J60/96J65/97J60 PINOUT I/O DESCRIPTIONS (CONTINUED)
Pin Number
TQFP
Pin
Type
Buffer
Type
NC
9
—
—
No connect.
VSS
15, 36, 40,
60, 65, 85
P
—
Ground reference for logic and I/O pins.
VDD
17, 37, 59,
62, 86
P
—
Positive supply for peripheral digital logic and I/O pins.
AVSS
31
P
—
Ground reference for analog modules.
AVDD
30
P
—
Positive supply for analog modules.
ENVREG
29
I
ST
Enable for on-chip voltage regulator.
VDDCORE/VCAP
VDDCORE
16
P
—
P
—
Core logic power or external filter capacitor connection.
Positive supply for microcontroller core logic
(regulator disabled).
External filter capacitor connection (regulator enabled).
P
—
Ground reference for Ethernet PHY PLL.
Pin Name
VCAP
Description
VSSPLL
82
VDDPLL
81
P
—
Positive 3.3V supply for Ethernet PHY PLL.
VSSTX
79
P
—
Ground reference for Ethernet PHY transmit subsystem.
VDDTX
76
P
—
Positive 3.3V supply for Ethernet PHY transmit subsystem.
VSSRX
72
P
—
Ground reference for Ethernet PHY receive subsystem.
VDDRX
75
P
—
Positive 3.3V supply for Ethernet PHY receive subsystem.
RBIAS
80
I
TPOUT+
78
O
TPOUT-
77
O
TPIN+
74
I
Analog Ethernet differential signal input.
73
I
Analog Ethernet differential signal input.
TPINLegend:
Note 1:
2:
3:
4:
5:
Analog Bias current for Ethernet PHY. Must be tied to VSS via a resistor;
see Section 18.0 “Ethernet Module” for specification.
—
Ethernet differential signal output.
—
Ethernet differential signal output.
TTL = TTL compatible input
CMOS = CMOS compatible input or output
ST = Schmitt Trigger input with CMOS levels
Analog = Analog input
I
= Input
O
= Output
P
= Power
OD
= Open-Drain (no P diode to VDD)
Alternate assignment for ECCP2/P2A when CCP2MX Configuration bit is cleared (Extended Microcontroller mode).
Default assignment for ECCP2/P2A for all devices in all operating modes (CCP2MX Configuration bit is set).
Default assignments for P1B/P1C/P3B/P3C (ECCPMX Configuration bit is set).
Alternate assignment for ECCP2/P2A when CCP2MX Configuration bit is cleared (Microcontroller mode).
Alternate assignments for P1B/P1C/P3B/P3C (ECCPMX Configuration bit is cleared).
DS39762E-page 42
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
2.0
2.1
OSCILLATOR
CONFIGURATIONS
2.2
Oscillator Types
The PIC18F97J60 family of devices can be operated in
five different oscillator modes:
Overview
Devices in the PIC18F97J60 family incorporate an
oscillator and microcontroller clock system that differs
from standard PIC18FXXJXX devices. The addition of
the Ethernet module, with its requirement for a stable
25 MHz clock source, makes it necessary to provide a
primary oscillator that can provide this frequency as
well as a range of different microcontroller clock
speeds. An overview of the oscillator structure is shown
in Figure 2-1.
1.
2.
HS
HSPLL
3.
4.
EC
ECPLL
5.
INTRC
2.2.1
High-Speed Crystal/Resonator
High-Speed Crystal/Resonator
with Software PLL Control
External Clock with FOSC/4 Output
External Clock with Software PLL
Control
Internal 31 kHz Oscillator
OSCILLATOR CONTROL
The oscillator mode is selected by programming the
FOSC2:FOSC0 Configuration bits. FOSC1:FOSC0
bits select the default primary oscillator modes, while
FOSC2 selects when INTRC may be invoked.
Other oscillator features used in PIC18FXXJXX
enhanced microcontrollers, such as the internal RC
oscillator and clock switching, remain the same. They
are discussed later in this chapter.
The OSCCON register (Register 2-2) selects the Active
Clock mode. It is primarily used in controlling clock
switching in power-managed modes. Its use is discussed
in Section 2.7.1 “Oscillator Control Register”.
The OSCTUNE register (Register 2-1) is used to select
the system clock frequency from the primary oscillator
source by selecting combinations of prescaler/postscaler
settings and enabling the PLL. Its use is described in
Section 2.6.1 “PLL Block”.
FIGURE 2-1:
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY CLOCK DIAGRAM
PIC18F97J60 Family
Primary Oscillator
Ethernet Clock
OSC2
OSC1
PLL
Prescaler
5x PLL
T1OSO
T1OSI
Clock
Control
PLL
Postscaler
FOSC2:FOSC0
OSCCON<1:0>
EC, HS, ECPLL, HSPLL
Secondary Oscillator
T1OSCEN
Enable
Oscillator
OSCTUNE<7:5>(1)
PLL/Prescaler/Postscaler
T1OSC
INTRC
Source
MUX
Sleep
Peripherals
CPU
Internal Oscillator
IDLEN
WDT, PWRT, FSCM
and Two-Speed Start-up
Clock Source Option
for Other Modules
Note 1:
See Table 2-2 for OSCTUNE register configurations and their corresponding frequencies.
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS39762E-page 43
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
2.3
Crystal Oscillator/Ceramic
Resonators (HS Modes)
In HS or HSPLL Oscillator modes, a crystal is
connected to the OSC1 and OSC2 pins to establish
oscillation. Figure 2-2 shows the pin connections.
Note 1: Higher capacitance increases the stability
of the oscillator but also increases the
start-up time.
2: Since each crystal has its own characteristics, the user should consult the crystal
manufacturer for appropriate values of
external components.
The oscillator design requires the use of a crystal that
is rated for parallel resonant operation.
Note:
FIGURE 2-2:
CRYSTAL OSCILLATOR
OPERATION (HS OR
HSPLL CONFIGURATION)
C1(1)
OSC1
XTAL
C2(1)
To
Internal
Logic
RF(3)
Sleep
OSC2
Note 1:
RS(2)
PIC18FXXJ6X
See Table 2-1 for initial values of C1 and C2.
2:
A series resistor (RS) may be required for
crystals with a low drive specification.
3:
RF varies with the oscillator mode chosen.
TABLE 2-1:
Osc Type
HS
3: Rs may be required to avoid overdriving
crystals with low drive level specifications.
Use of a crystal rated for series resonant
operation may give a frequency out of the
crystal manufacturer’s specifications.
CAPACITOR SELECTION FOR
CRYSTAL OSCILLATOR
Crystal
Freq.
25 MHz
4: Always verify oscillator performance over
the VDD and temperature range that is
expected for the application.
2.4
External Clock Input (EC Modes)
The EC and ECPLL Oscillator modes require an external clock source to be connected to the OSC1 pin.
There is no oscillator start-up time required after a
Power-on Reset or after an exit from Sleep mode.
In the EC Oscillator mode, the oscillator frequency
divided by 4 is available on the OSC2 pin. This signal
may be used for test purposes or to synchronize other
logic. Figure 2-3 shows the pin connections for the EC
Oscillator mode.
FIGURE 2-3:
Clock from
Ext. System
C2
33 pF
33 pF
Capacitor values are for design guidance only.
Different capacitor values may be required to produce
acceptable oscillator operation. The user should test
the performance of the oscillator over the expected
VDD and temperature range for the application. Refer
to the following application notes for oscillator specific
information:
• AN588, “PIC® Microcontroller Oscillator Design
Guide”
• AN826, “Crystal Oscillator Basics and Crystal
Selection for rfPIC® and PIC® Devices”
• AN849, “Basic PIC® Oscillator Design”
• AN943, “Practical PIC® Oscillator Analysis and
Design”
• AN949, “Making Your Oscillator Work”
OSC1/CLKI
PIC18FXXJ6X
FOSC/4
Typical Capacitor Values
Tested:
C1
EXTERNAL CLOCK
INPUT OPERATION
(EC CONFIGURATION)
OSC2/CLKO
An external clock source may also be connected to the
OSC1 pin in the HS mode, as shown in Figure 2-4. In
this configuration, the OSC2 pin is left open. Current
consumption in this configuration will be somewhat
higher than EC mode, as the internal oscillator’s
feedback circuitry will be enabled (in EC mode, the
feedback circuit is disabled).
FIGURE 2-4:
EXTERNAL CLOCK
INPUT OPERATION
(HS CONFIGURATION)
OSC1
Clock from
Ext. System
PIC18FXXJ6X
(HS Mode)
Open
OSC2
See the notes following this table for additional
information.
DS39762E-page 44
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
2.5
Internal Oscillator Block
The PIC18F97J60 family of devices includes an internal
oscillator source (INTRC) which provides a nominal
31 kHz output. The INTRC is enabled on device
power-up and clocks the device during its configuration
cycle until it enters operating mode. INTRC is also
enabled if it is selected as the device clock source or if
any of the following are enabled:
• Fail-Safe Clock Monitor
• Watchdog Timer
• Two-Speed Start-up
These features are discussed in greater detail in
Section 24.0 “Special Features of the CPU”.
The INTRC can also be optionally configured as the
default clock source on device start-up by setting the
FOSC2 Configuration bit. This is discussed in
Section 2.7.1 “Oscillator Control Register”.
2.6
Ethernet Operation and the
Microcontroller Clock
Although devices of the PIC18F97J60 family can accept
a wide range of crystals and external oscillator inputs,
they must always have a 25 MHz clock source when
REGISTER 2-1:
used for Ethernet applications. No provision is made for
internally generating the required Ethernet clock from a
primary oscillator source of a different frequency. A
frequency tolerance is specified, likely excluding the use
of ceramic resonators. See Section 27.0 “Electrical
Characteristics”, Table 27-6, parameter 5, for more
details.
2.6.1
PLL BLOCK
To accommodate a range of applications and microcontroller clock speeds, a separate PLL block is
incorporated into the clock system. It consists of three
components:
• A configurable prescaler (1:2 or 1:3)
• A 5x PLL frequency multiplier
• A configurable postscaler (1:1, 1:2, or 1:3)
The operation of the PLL block’s components is
controlled by the OSCTUNE register (Register 2-1).
The use of the PLL block’s prescaler and postscaler,
with or without the PLL itself, provides a range of system clock frequencies to choose from, including the
unaltered 25 MHz of the primary oscillator. The full
range of possible oscillator configurations compatible
with Ethernet operation is shown in Table 2-2.
OSCTUNE: PLL BLOCK CONTROL REGISTER
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
U-0
U-0
U-0
U-0
PPST1
PLLEN(1)
PPST0
PPRE
—
—
—
—
bit 7
bit 0
Legend:
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
-n = Value at POR
‘1’ = Bit is set
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
bit 7
PPST1: PLL Postscaler Configuration bit
1 = Divide-by-2
0 = Divide-by-3
bit 6
PLLEN: 5x Frequency Multiplier PLL Enable bit(1)
1 = PLL enabled
0 = PLL disabled
bit 5
PPST0: PLL Postscaler Enable bit
1 = Postscaler enabled
0 = Postscaler disabled
bit 4
PPRE: PLL Prescaler Configuration bit
1 = Divide-by-2
0 = Divide-by-3
bit 3-0
Unimplemented: Read as ‘0’
Note 1:
x = Bit is unknown
Available only for ECPLL and HSPLL oscillator configurations; otherwise, this bit is unavailable and is read
as ‘0’.
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS39762E-page 45
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
TABLE 2-2:
DEVICE CLOCK SPEEDS FOR VARIOUS PLL BLOCK CONFIGURATIONS
5x PLL
PLL Prescaler
PLL Postscaler
PLL Block
Configuration
(OSCTUNE<7:4>)
Clock Frequency
(MHz)
Disabled
x101
(Note 1)
÷2
1111
31.2500
÷3
0111
20.8333
÷2
Enabled
Disabled
Disabled
x100
41.6667
÷3
÷2
1110
20.8333
÷3
0110
13.8889
Disabled(2)
Disabled
x00x
25 (Default)
÷2
1011
6.2500
÷3
0011
4.1667
÷2
1010
4.1667
÷3
0010
2.7778
÷2
÷3
Legend: x = Don’t care
Note 1: Reserved configuration; represents a clock frequency beyond the microcontroller’s operating range.
2: The prescaler is automatically disabled when the PLL and postscaler are both disabled.
2.7
Clock Sources and Oscillator
Switching
The PIC18F97J60 family of devices includes a feature
that allows the device clock source to be switched from
the main oscillator to an alternate clock source. These
devices also offer two alternate clock sources. When
an alternate clock source is enabled, the various
power-managed operating modes are available.
Essentially, there are three clock sources for these
devices:
• Primary oscillators
• Secondary oscillators
• Internal oscillator block
The primary oscillators include the External Crystal
and Resonator modes and the External Clock modes.
The particular mode is defined by the FOSC2:FOSC0
Configuration bits. The details of these modes are
covered earlier in this chapter.
DS39762E-page 46
The secondary oscillators are those external sources
not connected to the OSC1 or OSC2 pins. These
sources may continue to operate even after the controller
is placed in a power-managed mode. The PIC18F97J60
family of devices offers the Timer1 oscillator as a secondary oscillator. In all power-managed modes, this oscillator
is often the time base for functions such as a Real-Time
Clock (RTC).
Most often, a 32.768 kHz watch crystal is connected
between the RC0/T1OSO/T13CKI and RC1/T1OSI
pins. Loading capacitors are also connected from each
pin to ground. The Timer1 oscillator is discussed in
greater detail in Section 12.3 “Timer1 Oscillator”.
In addition to being a primary clock source, the internal
oscillator is available as a power-managed mode
clock source. The INTRC source is also used as the
clock source for several special features, such as the
WDT and Fail-Safe Clock Monitor.
The clock sources for the PIC18F97J60 family devices
are shown in Figure 2-1. See Section 24.0 “Special
Features of the CPU” for Configuration register details.
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
2.7.1
OSCILLATOR CONTROL REGISTER
The OSCCON register (Register 2-2) controls several
aspects of the device clock’s operation, both in
full-power operation and in power-managed modes.
The System Clock Select bits, SCS1:SCS0, select the
clock source. The available clock sources are the
primary clock (defined by the FOSC2:FOSC0 Configuration bits), the secondary clock (Timer1 oscillator) and
the internal oscillator. The clock source changes after
one or more of the bits are changed, following a brief
clock transition interval.
The OSTS (OSCCON<3>) and T1RUN (T1CON<6>)
bits indicate which clock source is currently providing
the device clock. The T1RUN bit indicates when the
Timer1 oscillator is providing the device clock in
secondary clock modes. In power-managed modes,
only one of these bits will be set at any time. If neither
bit is set, the INTRC source is providing the clock, or
the internal oscillator has just started and is not yet
stable.
REGISTER 2-2:
R/W-0
The use of the flag and control bits in the OSCCON
register is discussed in more detail in Section 3.0
“Power-Managed Modes”.
Note 1: The Timer1 oscillator must be enabled to
select the secondary clock source. The
Timer1 oscillator is enabled by setting the
T1OSCEN bit in the Timer1 Control register (T1CON<3>). If the Timer1 oscillator
is not enabled, then any attempt to select
a secondary clock source will be ignored.
2: It is recommended that the Timer1
oscillator be operating and stable before
executing the SLEEP instruction or a very
long delay may occur while the Timer1
oscillator starts.
OSCCON: OSCILLATOR CONTROL REGISTER
U-0
IDLEN
The IDLEN bit determines if the device goes into Sleep
mode or one of the Idle modes when the SLEEP
instruction is executed.
—
U-0
—
U-0
R-q
U-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
—
OSTS(1)
—
SCS1
SCS0
bit 7
bit 0
Legend:
q = Value determined by configuration
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
-n = Value at POR
‘1’ = Bit is set
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
x = Bit is unknown
bit 7
IDLEN: Idle Enable bit
1 = Device enters Idle mode on SLEEP instruction
0 = Device enters Sleep mode on SLEEP instruction
bit 6-4
Unimplemented: Read as ‘0’
bit 3
OSTS: Oscillator Status bit(1)
1 = Device is running from oscillator source defined when SCS1:SCS0 = 00
0 = Device is running from oscillator source defined when SCS1:SCS0 = 01, 10 or 11
bit 2
Unimplemented: Read as ‘0’
bit 1-0
SCS1:SCS0: System Clock Select bits
11 = Internal oscillator
10 = Primary oscillator
01 = Timer1 oscillator
When FOSC2 = 1;
00 = Primary oscillator
When FOSC2 = 0;
00 = Internal oscillator
Note 1:
Reset value is ‘0’ when Two-Speed Start-up is enabled and ‘1’ if disabled.
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS39762E-page 47
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
2.7.1.1
System Clock Selection and the
FOSC2 Configuration Bit
The SCS bits are cleared on all forms of Reset. In the
device’s default configuration, this means the primary
oscillator defined by FOSC1:FOSC0 (that is, one of the
HC or EC modes) is used as the primary clock source
on device Resets.
The default clock configuration on Reset can be changed
with the FOSC2 Configuration bit. This bit affects the
clock source selection setting when SCS1:SCS0 = 00.
When FOSC2 = 1 (default), the oscillator source
defined by FOSC1:FOSC0 is selected whenever
SCS1:SCS0 = 00. When FOSC2 = 0, the INTRC oscillator is selected whenever SCS1:SCS2 = 00. Because the
SCS bits are cleared on Reset, the FOSC2 setting also
changes the default oscillator mode on Reset.
Regardless of the setting of FOSC2, INTRC will always
be enabled on device power-up. It will serve as the
clock source until the device has loaded its configuration values from memory. It is at this point that the
FOSC Configuration bits are read and the oscillator
selection of operational mode is made.
Note that either the primary clock or the internal
oscillator will have two bit setting options, at any given
time, depending on the setting of FOSC2.
2.7.2
OSCILLATOR TRANSITIONS
PIC18F97J60 family devices contain circuitry to
prevent clock “glitches” when switching between clock
sources. A short pause in the device clock occurs
during the clock switch. The length of this pause is the
sum of two cycles of the old clock source and three to
four cycles of the new clock source. This formula
assumes that the new clock source is stable.
Clock transitions are discussed in greater detail in
Section 3.1.2 “Entering Power-Managed Modes”.
2.8
Effects of Power-Managed Modes
on the Various Clock Sources
When PRI_IDLE mode is selected, the designated
primary oscillator continues to run without interruption.
For all other power-managed modes, the oscillator
using the OSC1 pin is disabled. The OSC1 pin (and
OSC2 pin if used by the oscillator) will stop oscillating.
In secondary clock modes (SEC_RUN and
SEC_IDLE), the Timer1 oscillator is operating and
providing the device clock. The Timer1 oscillator may
also run in all power-managed modes if required to
clock Timer1 or Timer3.
In RC_RUN and RC_IDLE modes, the internal oscillator provides the device clock source. The 31 kHz
INTRC output can be used directly to provide the clock
and may be enabled to support various special
features, regardless of the power-managed mode (see
Section 24.2 “Watchdog Timer (WDT)” through
Section 24.5 “Fail-Safe Clock Monitor” for more
information on WDT, Fail-Safe Clock Monitor and
Two-Speed Start-up).
If the Sleep mode is selected, all clock sources are
stopped. Since all the transistor switching currents have
been stopped, Sleep mode achieves the lowest current
consumption of the device (only leakage currents).
Enabling any on-chip feature that will operate during
Sleep will increase the current consumed during Sleep.
The INTRC is required to support WDT operation. The
Timer1 oscillator may be operating to support a
Real-Time Clock. Other features may be operating that
do not require a device clock source (i.e., MSSP slave,
PSP, INTx pins and others). Peripherals that may add
significant current consumption are listed in
Section 27.2 “DC Characteristics: Power-Down and
Supply Current”.
2.9
Power-up Delays
Power-up delays are controlled by two timers, so that
no external Reset circuitry is required for most applications. The delays ensure that the device is kept in
Reset until the device power supply is stable under normal circumstances and the primary clock is operating
and stable. For additional information on power-up
delays, see Section 4.6 “Power-up Timer (PWRT)”.
The first timer is the Power-up Timer (PWRT), which
provides a fixed delay on power-up (parameter 33,
Table 27-12); it is always enabled.
The second timer is the Oscillator Start-up Timer
(OST), intended to keep the chip in Reset until the
crystal oscillator is stable (HS modes). The OST does
this by counting 1024 oscillator cycles before allowing
the oscillator to clock the device.
There is a delay of interval TCSD (parameter 38,
Table 27-12), following POR, while the controller
becomes ready to execute instructions.
TABLE 2-3:
OSC1 AND OSC2 PIN STATES IN SLEEP MODE
Oscillator Mode
OSC1 Pin
OSC2 Pin
EC, ECPLL
Floating, pulled by external clock
At logic low (clock/4 output)
HS, HSPLL
Feedback inverter disabled at quiescent
voltage level
Feedback inverter disabled at quiescent
voltage level
Note:
See Table 4-2 in Section 4.0 “Reset” for time-outs due to Sleep and MCLR Reset.
DS39762E-page 48
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
3.0
POWER-MANAGED MODES
3.1.1
CLOCK SOURCES
The PIC18F97J60 family devices provide the ability to
manage power consumption by simply managing clocking to the CPU and the peripherals. In general, a lower
clock frequency and a reduction in the number of circuits
being clocked constitutes lower consumed power. For
the sake of managing power in an application, there are
three primary modes of operation:
The SCS1:SCS0 bits allow the selection of one of three
clock sources for power-managed modes. They are:
• Run mode
• Idle mode
• Sleep mode
3.1.2
These modes define which portions of the device are
clocked and at what speed. The Run and Idle modes
may use any of the three available clock sources
(primary, secondary or internal oscillator block); the
Sleep mode does not use a clock source.
The power-managed modes include several
power-saving features offered on previous PIC® MCU
devices. One is the clock switching feature, offered in
other PIC18 devices, allowing the controller to use the
Timer1 oscillator in place of the primary oscillator. Also
included is the Sleep mode, offered by all PIC MCU
devices, where all device clocks are stopped.
3.1
Selecting Power-Managed Modes
Selecting a power-managed mode requires two
decisions: if the CPU is to be clocked or not and which
clock source is to be used. The IDLEN bit
(OSCCON<7>) controls CPU clocking, while the
SCS1:SCS0 bits (OSCCON<1:0>) select the clock
source. The individual modes, bit settings, clock sources
and affected modules are summarized in Table 3-1.
TABLE 3-1:
ENTERING POWER-MANAGED
MODES
Switching from one power-managed mode to another
begins by loading the OSCCON register. The
SCS1:SCS0 bits select the clock source and determine
which Run or Idle mode is to be used. Changing these
bits causes an immediate switch to the new clock
source, assuming that it is running. The switch may
also be subject to clock transition delays. These are
discussed in Section 3.1.3 “Clock Transitions and
Status Indicators” and subsequent sections.
Entry to the power-managed Idle or Sleep modes is
triggered by the execution of a SLEEP instruction. The
actual mode that results depends on the status of the
IDLEN bit.
Depending on the current mode and the mode being
switched to, a change to a power-managed mode does
not always require setting all of these bits. Many
transitions may be done by changing the oscillator
select bits, or changing the IDLEN bit, prior to issuing a
SLEEP instruction. If the IDLEN bit is already
configured correctly, it may only be necessary to
perform a SLEEP instruction to switch to the desired
mode.
POWER-MANAGED MODES
OSCCON<7,1:0>
Mode
• The primary clock, as defined by the
FOSC2:FOSC0 Configuration bits
• The secondary clock (Timer1 oscillator)
• The internal oscillator
Module Clocking
Available Clock and Oscillator Source
IDLEN(1)
SCS1:SCS0
CPU
Peripherals
0
N/A
Off
Off
PRI_RUN
N/A
10
Clocked
Clocked
SEC_RUN
N/A
01
Clocked
Clocked
Secondary – Timer1 Oscillator
RC_RUN
N/A
11
Clocked
Clocked
Internal Oscillator
PRI_IDLE
1
10
Off
Clocked
Primary – HS, EC, HSPLL, ECPLL
SEC_IDLE
1
01
Off
Clocked
Secondary – Timer1 Oscillator
RC_IDLE
1
11
Off
Clocked
Internal Oscillator
Sleep
Note 1:
None – All clocks are disabled
Primary – HS, EC, HSPLL, ECPLL;
this is the normal, full-power execution mode
IDLEN reflects its value when the SLEEP instruction is executed.
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS39762E-page 49
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
3.1.3
CLOCK TRANSITIONS AND STATUS
INDICATORS
The length of the transition between clock sources is
the sum of two cycles of the old clock source and three
to four cycles of the new clock source. This formula
assumes that the new clock source is stable.
Two bits indicate the current clock source and its
status:
OSTS
(OSCCON<3>)
and
T1RUN
(T1CON<6>). In general, only one of these bits will be
set while in a given power-managed mode. When the
OSTS bit is set, the primary clock is providing the
device clock. When the T1RUN bit is set, the Timer1
oscillator is providing the clock. If neither of these bits
is set, INTRC is clocking the device.
Note:
3.1.4
Executing a SLEEP instruction does not
necessarily place the device into Sleep
mode. It acts as the trigger to place the
controller into either the Sleep mode, or
one of the Idle modes, depending on the
setting of the IDLEN bit.
MULTIPLE SLEEP COMMANDS
The power-managed mode that is invoked with the
SLEEP instruction is determined by the setting of the
IDLEN bit at the time the instruction is executed. If
another SLEEP instruction is executed, the device will
enter the power-managed mode specified by IDLEN at
that time. If IDLEN has changed, the device will enter the
new power-managed mode specified by the new setting.
3.2
Run Modes
In the Run modes, clocks to both the core and
peripherals are active. The difference between these
modes is the clock source.
3.2.1
3.2.2
SEC_RUN MODE
The SEC_RUN mode is the compatible mode to the
“clock switching” feature offered in other PIC18
devices. In this mode, the CPU and peripherals are
clocked from the Timer1 oscillator. This gives users the
option of lower power consumption while still using a
high accuracy clock source.
SEC_RUN mode is entered by setting the SCS1:SCS0
bits to ‘01’. The device clock source is switched to the
Timer1 oscillator (see Figure 3-1), the primary
oscillator is shut down, the T1RUN bit (T1CON<6>) is
set and the OSTS bit is cleared.
Note:
The Timer1 oscillator should already be
running prior to entering SEC_RUN mode.
If the T1OSCEN bit is not set when the
SCS1:SCS0 bits are set to ‘01’, entry to
SEC_RUN mode will not occur. If the
Timer1 oscillator is enabled, but not yet
running, device clocks will be delayed until
the oscillator has started. In such
situations, initial oscillator operation is far
from stable and unpredictable operation
may result.
On transitions from SEC_RUN mode to PRI_RUN, the
peripherals and CPU continue to be clocked from the
Timer1 oscillator while the primary clock is started.
When the primary clock becomes ready, a clock switch
back to the primary clock occurs (see Figure 3-2).
When the clock switch is complete, the T1RUN bit is
cleared, the OSTS bit is set and the primary clock is
providing the clock. The IDLEN and SCS bits are not
affected by the wake-up; the Timer1 oscillator
continues to run.
PRI_RUN MODE
The PRI_RUN mode is the normal, full-power execution mode of the microcontroller. This is also the default
mode upon a device Reset unless Two-Speed Start-up
is enabled (see Section 24.4 “Two-Speed Start-up”
for details). In this mode, the OSTS bit is set. (see
Section 2.7.1 “Oscillator Control Register”).
DS39762E-page 50
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
FIGURE 3-1:
TRANSITION TIMING FOR ENTRY TO SEC_RUN MODE
Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1
T1OSI
Q2
1
2
3
n-1
Q3
Q4
Q1
Q2
Q3
n
Clock Transition
OSC1
CPU
Clock
Peripheral
Clock
Program
Counter
PC
FIGURE 3-2:
PC + 2
PC + 4
TRANSITION TIMING FROM SEC_RUN MODE TO PRI_RUN MODE (HSPLL)
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
Q1
Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3
T1OSI
OSC1
TOST(1)
TPLL(1)
1
PLL Clock
Output
2
n-1 n
Clock
Transition
CPU Clock
Peripheral
Clock
Program
Counter
SCS1:SCS0 bits Changed
PC + 2
PC
PC + 4
OSTS bit Set
Note 1: TOST = 1024 TOSC; TPLL = 2 ms (approx). These intervals are not shown to scale.
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS39762E-page 51
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
3.2.3
RC_RUN MODE
On transitions from RC_RUN mode to PRI_RUN mode,
the device continues to be clocked from the INTRC
while the primary clock is started. When the primary
clock becomes ready, a clock switch to the primary
clock occurs (see Figure 3-4). When the clock switch is
complete, the OSTS bit is set and the primary clock is
providing the device clock. The IDLEN and SCS bits
are not affected by the switch. The INTRC source will
continue to run if either the WDT or Fail-Safe Clock
Monitor is enabled.
In RC_RUN mode, the CPU and peripherals are
clocked from the internal oscillator; the primary clock is
shut down. This mode provides the best power conservation of all the Run modes while still executing code.
It works well for user applications which are not highly
timing sensitive or do not require high-speed clocks at
all times.
This mode is entered by setting SCS<1:0> to ‘11’.
When the clock source is switched to the INTRC (see
Figure 3-3), the primary oscillator is shut down and the
OSTS bit is cleared.
FIGURE 3-3:
TRANSITION TIMING TO RC_RUN MODE
Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1
INTRC
Q2
1
2
3
n-1
Q3
Q4
Q1
Q2
Q3
n
Clock Transition
OSC1
CPU
Clock
Peripheral
Clock
Program
Counter
PC
FIGURE 3-4:
PC + 2
PC + 4
TRANSITION TIMING FROM RC_RUN MODE TO PRI_RUN MODE
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3
Q1
INTRC
OSC1
TOST(1)
TPLL(1)
1
PLL Clock
Output
2
n-1 n
Clock
Transition
CPU Clock
Peripheral
Clock
Program
Counter
SCS1:SCS0 bits Changed
PC
PC + 2
PC + 4
OSTS bit Set
Note 1: TOST = 1024 TOSC; TPLL = 2 ms (approx). These intervals are not shown to scale.
DS39762E-page 52
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
3.3
Sleep Mode
3.4
The power-managed Sleep mode is identical to the
legacy Sleep mode offered in all other PIC MCU
devices. It is entered by clearing the IDLEN bit (the
default state on device Reset) and executing the
SLEEP instruction. This shuts down the selected
oscillator (Figure 3-5). All clock source status bits are
cleared.
Idle Modes
The Idle modes allow the controller’s CPU to be
selectively shut down while the peripherals continue to
operate. Selecting a particular Idle mode allows users
to further manage power consumption.
If the IDLEN bit is set to ‘1’ when a SLEEP instruction is
executed, the peripherals will be clocked from the clock
source selected using the SCS1:SCS0 bits; however, the
CPU will not be clocked. The clock source status bits are
not affected. Setting IDLEN and executing a SLEEP
instruction provides a quick method of switching from a
given Run mode to its corresponding Idle mode.
Entering the Sleep mode from any other mode does not
require a clock switch. This is because no clocks are
needed once the controller has entered Sleep. If the
WDT is selected, the INTRC source will continue to
operate. If the Timer1 oscillator is enabled, it will also
continue to run.
If the WDT is selected, the INTRC source will continue
to operate. If the Timer1 oscillator is enabled, it will also
continue to run.
When a wake event occurs in Sleep mode (by interrupt,
Reset or WDT time-out), the device will not be clocked
until the clock source selected by the SCS1:SCS0 bits
becomes ready (see Figure 3-6), or it will be clocked
from the internal oscillator if either the Two-Speed
Start-up or the Fail-Safe Clock Monitor is enabled (see
Section 24.0 “Special Features of the CPU”). In
either case, the OSTS bit is set when the primary clock
is providing the device clocks. The IDLEN and SCS bits
are not affected by the wake-up.
Since the CPU is not executing instructions, the only exits
from any of the Idle modes are by interrupt, WDT
time-out or a Reset. When a wake event occurs, CPU
execution is delayed by an interval of TCSD
(parameter 38, Table 27-12) while it becomes ready to
execute code. When the CPU begins executing code, it
resumes with the same clock source for the current Idle
mode. For example, when waking from RC_IDLE mode,
the internal oscillator block will clock the CPU and peripherals (in other words, RC_RUN mode). The IDLEN and
SCS bits are not affected by the wake-up.
While in any Idle mode or the Sleep mode, a WDT
time-out will result in a WDT wake-up to the Run mode
currently specified by the SCS1:SCS0 bits.
FIGURE 3-5:
TRANSITION TIMING FOR ENTRY TO SLEEP MODE
Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1
OSC1
CPU
Clock
Peripheral
Clock
Sleep
Program
Counter
PC
FIGURE 3-6:
PC + 2
TRANSITION TIMING FOR WAKE FROM SLEEP MODE (HSPLL)
Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4
Q1
OSC1
PLL Clock
Output
TOST(1)
TPLL(1)
CPU Clock
Peripheral
Clock
Program
Counter
PC
Wake Event
PC + 2
PC + 4
PC + 6
OSTS bit Set
Note1: TOST = 1024 TOSC; TPLL = 2 ms (approx). These intervals are not shown to scale.
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS39762E-page 53
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
3.4.1
PRI_IDLE MODE
3.4.2
This mode is unique among the three low-power Idle
modes in that it does not disable the primary device
clock. For timing sensitive applications, this allows for
the fastest resumption of device operation with its more
accurate primary clock source, since the clock source
does not have to “warm up” or transition from another
oscillator.
PRI_IDLE mode is entered from PRI_RUN mode by
setting the IDLEN bit and executing a SLEEP instruction. If the device is in another Run mode, set IDLEN
first, then set the SCS<1:0> bits to ‘10’ and execute
SLEEP. Although the CPU is disabled, the peripherals
continue to be clocked from the primary clock source
specified by the FOSC1:FOSC0 Configuration bits.
The OSTS bit remains set (see Figure 3-7).
In SEC_IDLE mode, the CPU is disabled but the
peripherals continue to be clocked from the Timer1
oscillator. This mode is entered from SEC_RUN by setting the IDLEN bit and executing a SLEEP instruction. If
the device is in another Run mode, set IDLEN first, then
set SCS<1:0> to ‘01’ and execute SLEEP. When the
clock source is switched to the Timer1 oscillator, the
primary oscillator is shut down, the OSTS bit is cleared
and the T1RUN bit is set.
When a wake event occurs, the peripherals continue to
be clocked from the Timer1 oscillator. After an interval
of TCSD following the wake event, the CPU begins executing code being clocked by the Timer1 oscillator. The
IDLEN and SCS bits are not affected by the wake-up;
the Timer1 oscillator continues to run (see Figure 3-8).
When a wake event occurs, the CPU is clocked from the
primary clock source. A delay of interval TCSD is
required between the wake event and when code
execution starts. This is required to allow the CPU to
become ready to execute instructions. After the
wake-up, the OSTS bit remains set. The IDLEN and
SCS bits are not affected by the wake-up (see
Figure 3-8).
FIGURE 3-7:
SEC_IDLE MODE
Note:
The Timer1 oscillator should already be
running prior to entering SEC_IDLE mode.
If the T1OSCEN bit is not set when the
SLEEP instruction is executed, the SLEEP
instruction will be ignored and entry to
SEC_IDLE mode will not occur. If the
Timer1 oscillator is enabled, but not yet running, peripheral clocks will be delayed until
the oscillator has started. In such situations,
initial oscillator operation is far from stable
and unpredictable operation may result.
TRANSITION TIMING FOR ENTRY TO IDLE MODE
Q1
Q4
Q3
Q2
Q1
OSC1
CPU Clock
Peripheral
Clock
Program
Counter
FIGURE 3-8:
PC
PC + 2
TRANSITION TIMING FOR WAKE FROM IDLE TO RUN MODE
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
OSC1
TCSD
CPU Clock
Peripheral
Clock
Program
Counter
PC
Wake Event
DS39762E-page 54
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
3.4.3
RC_IDLE MODE
In RC_IDLE mode, the CPU is disabled but the peripherals continue to be clocked from the internal oscillator.
This mode allows for controllable power conservation
during Idle periods.
From RC_RUN mode, RC_IDLE mode is entered by
setting the IDLEN bit and executing a SLEEP instruction.
If the device is in another Run mode, first set IDLEN,
then clear the SCS bits and execute SLEEP. When the
clock source is switched to the INTRC, the primary
oscillator is shut down and the OSTS bit is cleared.
When a wake event occurs, the peripherals continue to
be clocked from the INTRC. After a delay of TCSD
following the wake event, the CPU begins executing
code being clocked by the INTRC. The IDLEN and
SCS bits are not affected by the wake-up. The INTRC
source will continue to run if either the WDT or the
Fail-Safe Clock Monitor is enabled.
3.5
Exiting Idle and Sleep Modes
An exit from Sleep mode, or any of the Idle modes, is
triggered by an interrupt, a Reset or a WDT time-out.
This section discusses the triggers that cause exits
from power-managed modes. The clocking subsystem
actions are discussed in each of the power-managed
modes sections (see Section 3.2 “Run Modes”,
Section 3.3 “Sleep Mode” and Section 3.4 “Idle
Modes”).
3.5.1
EXIT BY INTERRUPT
Any of the available interrupt sources can cause the
device to exit from an Idle mode, or the Sleep mode, to
a Run mode. To enable this functionality, an interrupt
source must be enabled by setting its enable bit in one
of the INTCON or PIE registers. The exit sequence is
initiated when the corresponding interrupt flag bit is set.
On all exits from Idle or Sleep modes by interrupt, code
execution branches to the interrupt vector if the
GIE/GIEH bit (INTCON<7>) is set. Otherwise, code
execution continues or resumes without branching
(see Section 9.0 “Interrupts”).
3.5.2
EXIT BY WDT TIME-OUT
A WDT time-out will cause different actions depending
on which power-managed mode the device is in when
the time-out occurs.
If the device is not executing code (all Idle modes and
Sleep mode), the time-out will result in an exit from the
power-managed mode (see Section 3.2 “Run
Modes” and Section 3.3 “Sleep Mode”). If the device
is executing code (all Run modes), the time-out will
result in a WDT Reset (see Section 24.2 “Watchdog
Timer (WDT)”).
The WDT timer and postscaler are cleared by one of
the following events:
• Executing a SLEEP or CLRWDT instruction
• The loss of a currently selected clock source (if
the Fail-Safe Clock Monitor is enabled)
3.5.3
EXIT BY RESET
Exiting an Idle or Sleep mode by Reset automatically
forces the device to run from the INTRC.
3.5.4
EXIT WITHOUT AN OSCILLATOR
START-UP TIMER DELAY
Certain exits from power-managed modes do not
invoke the OST at all. There are two cases:
• PRI_IDLE mode, where the primary clock source
is not stopped
• The primary clock source is either the EC or
ECPLL mode
In these instances, the primary clock source either
does not require an oscillator start-up delay since it is
already running (PRI_IDLE), or normally does not
require an oscillator start-up delay (EC). However, a
fixed delay of interval TCSD following the wake event is
still required when leaving the Sleep and Idle modes to
allow the CPU to prepare for execution. Instruction
execution resumes on the first clock cycle following this
delay.
A fixed delay of interval TCSD following the wake event
is required when leaving the Sleep and Idle modes.
This delay is required for the CPU to prepare for execution. Instruction execution resumes on the first clock
cycle following this delay.
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS39762E-page 55
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
NOTES:
DS39762E-page 56
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
4.0
RESET
The PIC18F97J60 family of devices differentiates
between various kinds of Reset:
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
f)
g)
h)
i)
MCLR Reset during normal operation
MCLR Reset during power-managed modes
Power-on Reset (POR)
Brown-out Reset (BOR)
Configuration Mismatch (CM)
RESET Instruction
Stack Full Reset
Stack Underflow Reset
Watchdog Timer (WDT) Reset during execution
This section discusses Resets generated by hard
events (MCLR), power events (POR and BOR) and
Configuration Mismatches (CM). It also covers the
operation of the various start-up timers. Stack Reset
events are covered in Section 5.1.6.4 “Stack Full and
Underflow Resets”. WDT Resets are covered in
Section 24.2 “Watchdog Timer (WDT)”.
FIGURE 4-1:
A simplified block diagram of the on-chip Reset circuit
is shown in Figure 4-1.
4.1
RCON Register
Device Reset events are tracked through the RCON
register (Register 4-1). The lower six bits of the register
indicate that a specific Reset event has occurred. In
most cases, these bits can only be set by the event and
must be cleared by the application after the event. The
state of these flag bits, taken together, can be read to
indicate the type of Reset that just occurred. This is
described in more detail in Section 4.7 “Reset State
of Registers”.
The RCON register also has a control bit for setting
interrupt priority (IPEN). Interrupt priority is discussed
in Section 9.0 “Interrupts”.
SIMPLIFIED BLOCK DIAGRAM OF ON-CHIP RESET CIRCUIT
RESET Instruction
Configuration Word Mismatch
Stack
Pointer
Stack Full/Underflow Reset
External Reset
MCLR
( )_IDLE
Sleep
WDT
Time-out
VDD Rise
Detect
VDD
POR Pulse
Brown-out
Reset(1)
S
PWRT
32 μs
PWRT
INTRC
Note 1:
66 ms
11-Bit Ripple Counter
R
Q
Chip_Reset
The ENVREG pin must be tied high to enable Brown-out Reset. The Brown-out Reset is provided by the on-chip
voltage regulator when there is insufficient source voltage to maintain regulation.
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS39762E-page 57
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
REGISTER 4-1:
RCON: RESET CONTROL REGISTER
R/W-0
U-0
R/W-1
R/W-1
R-1
R-1
R/W-0
R/W-0
IPEN
—
CM
RI
TO
PD
POR
BOR
bit 7
bit 0
Legend:
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
-n = Value at POR
‘1’ = Bit is set
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
x = Bit is unknown
bit 7
IPEN: Interrupt Priority Enable bit
1 = Enable priority levels on interrupts
0 = Disable priority levels on interrupts (PIC16CXXX Compatibility mode)
bit 6
Unimplemented: Read as ‘0’
bit 5
CM: Configuration Mismatch Flag bit
1 = A Configuration Mismatch Reset has not occurred
0 = A Configuration Mismatch Reset has occurred (must be set in software after a Configuration
Mismatch Reset occurs)
bit 4
RI: RESET Instruction Flag bit
1 = The RESET instruction was not executed (set by firmware only)
0 = The RESET instruction was executed causing a device Reset (must be set in software after a
Brown-out Reset occurs)
bit 3
TO: Watchdog Timer Time-out Flag bit
1 = Set by power-up, CLRWDT instruction or SLEEP instruction
0 = A WDT time-out occurred
bit 2
PD: Power-Down Detection Flag bit
1 = Set by power-up or by the CLRWDT instruction
0 = Set by execution of the SLEEP instruction
bit 1
POR: Power-on Reset Status bit
1 = A Power-on Reset has not occurred (set by firmware only)
0 = A Power-on Reset occurred (must be set in software after a Power-on Reset occurs)
bit 0
BOR: Brown-out Reset Status bit
1 = A Brown-out Reset has not occurred (set by firmware only)
0 = A Brown-out Reset occurred (must be set in software after a Brown-out Reset occurs)
Note 1: It is recommended that the POR bit be set after a Power-on Reset has been detected so that subsequent
Power-on Resets may be detected.
2: If the on-chip voltage regulator is disabled, BOR remains ‘0’ at all times. See Section 4.4.1 “Detecting
BOR” for more information.
3: Brown-out Reset is said to have occurred when BOR is ‘0’ and POR is ‘1’ (assuming that POR was set to
‘1’ by software immediately after a Power-on Reset).
DS39762E-page 58
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
4.2
Master Clear (MCLR)
FIGURE 4-2:
The MCLR pin provides a method for triggering a hard
external Reset of the device. A Reset is generated by
holding the pin low. PIC18 extended microcontroller
devices have a noise filter in the MCLR Reset path
which detects and ignores small pulses.
4.3
D(1)
C
POR events are captured by the POR bit (RCON<1>).
The state of the bit is set to ‘0’ whenever a Power-on
Reset occurs; it does not change for any other Reset
event. POR is not reset to ‘1’ by any hardware event.
To capture multiple events, the user manually resets
the bit to ‘1’ in software following any Power-on Reset.
4.4
Brown-out Reset (BOR)
The PIC18F97J60 family of devices incorporates a
simple BOR function when the internal regulator is
enabled (ENVREG pin is tied to VDD). Any drop of VDD
below VBOR (parameter D005), for greater than time
TBOR (parameter 35), will reset the device. A Reset
may or may not occur if VDD falls below VBOR for less
than TBOR. The chip will remain in Brown-out Reset
until VDD rises above VBOR.
Once a BOR has occurred, the Power-up Timer will
keep the chip in Reset for TPWRT (parameter 33). If
VDD drops below VBOR while the Power-up Timer is
running, the chip will go back into a Brown-out Reset
and the Power-up Timer will be initialized. Once VDD
rises above VBOR, the Power-up Timer will execute the
additional time delay.
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
MCLR
PIC18FXXJ6X
Note 1:
External Power-on Reset circuit is required
only if the VDD power-up slope is too slow.
The diode D helps discharge the capacitor
quickly when VDD powers down.
2:
R < 40 kΩ is recommended to make sure that
the voltage drop across R does not violate
the device’s electrical specification.
3:
R1 ≥ 1 kΩ will limit any current flowing into
MCLR from external capacitor C in the event
of MCLR/VPP pin breakdown, due to
Electrostatic Discharge (ESD), or Electrical
Overstress (EOS).
To take advantage of the POR circuitry, tie the MCLR
pin through a resistor (1 kΩ to 10 kΩ) to VDD. This will
eliminate external RC components usually needed to
create a Power-on Reset delay. A minimum rise rate for
VDD is specified (parameter D004). For a slow rise
time, see Figure 4-2.
When the device starts normal operation (i.e., exits the
Reset condition), device operating parameters
(voltage, frequency, temperature, etc.) must be met to
ensure operation. If these conditions are not met, the
device must be held in Reset until the operating
conditions are met.
R(2)
R1(3)
Power-on Reset (POR)
A Power-on Reset condition is generated on-chip
whenever VDD rises above a certain threshold. This
allows the device to start in the initialized state when
VDD is adequate for operation.
VDD
VDD
The MCLR pin is not driven low by any internal Resets,
including the WDT.
EXTERNAL POWER-ON
RESET CIRCUIT (FOR
SLOW VDD POWER-UP)
4.4.1
DETECTING BOR
The BOR bit always resets to ‘0’ on any Brown-out
Reset or Power-on Reset event. This makes it difficult
to determine if a Brown-out Reset event has occurred
just by reading the state of BOR alone. A more reliable
method is to simultaneously check the state of both
POR and BOR. This assumes that the POR bit is reset
to ‘1’ in software immediately after any Power-on Reset
event. If BOR is ‘0’ while POR is ‘1’, it can be reliably
assumed that a Brown-out Reset event has occurred.
If the voltage regulator is disabled, Brown-out Reset
functionality is disabled. In this case, the BOR bit
cannot be used to determine a Brown-out Reset event.
The BOR bit is still cleared by a Power-on Reset event.
4.5
Configuration Mismatch (CM)
The Configuration Mismatch (CM) Reset is designed to
detect and attempt to recover from random, memory
corrupting events. These include Electrostatic
Discharge (ESD) events which can cause widespread
single-bit changes throughout the device and result in
catastrophic failure.
In PIC18FXXJ Flash devices, the device Configuration
registers (located in the configuration memory space)
are continuously monitored during operation by comparing their values to complimentary shadow registers.
If a mismatch is detected between the two sets of
registers, a CM Reset automatically occurs. These
events are captured by the CM bit (RCON<5>). The
state of the bit is set to ‘0’ whenever a CM event occurs;
it does not change for any other Reset event.
DS39762E-page 59
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
A CM Reset behaves similarly to a Master Clear Reset,
RESET instruction, WDT time-out or Stack Event Reset.
As with all hard and power Reset events, the device
Configuration Words are reloaded from the Flash Configuration Words in program memory as the device
restarts.
4.6
Power-up Timer (PWRT)
PIC18F97J60 family of devices incorporates an
on-chip Power-up Timer (PWRT) to help regulate the
Power-on Reset process. The PWRT is always
enabled. The main function is to ensure that the device
voltage is stable before code is executed.
The Power-up Timer (PWRT) of the PIC18F97J60 family devices is an 11-bit counter which uses the INTRC
source as the clock input. This yields an approximate
time interval of 2048 x 32 μs = 66 ms. While the PWRT
is counting, the device is held in Reset.
FIGURE 4-3:
The power-up time delay depends on the INTRC clock
and will vary from chip-to-chip due to temperature and
process variation. See DC parameter 33 for details.
4.6.1
TIME-OUT SEQUENCE
The PWRT time-out is invoked after the POR pulse has
cleared. The total time-out will vary based on the status
of the PWRT. Figure 4-3, Figure 4-4, Figure 4-5 and
Figure 4-6 all depict time-out sequences on power-up.
Since the time-outs occur from the POR pulse, if MCLR
is kept low long enough, the PWRT will expire. Bringing
MCLR high will begin execution immediately
(Figure 4-5). This is useful for testing purposes or to
synchronize more than one PIC18FXXJ6X device
operating in parallel.
TIME-OUT SEQUENCE ON POWER-UP (MCLR TIED TO VDD, VDD RISE < TPWRT)
VDD
MCLR
INTERNAL POR
TPWRT
PWRT TIME-OUT
INTERNAL RESET
TIME-OUT SEQUENCE ON POWER-UP (MCLR NOT TIED TO VDD): CASE 1
FIGURE 4-4:
VDD
MCLR
INTERNAL POR
TPWRT
PWRT TIME-OUT
INTERNAL RESET
DS39762E-page 60
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
FIGURE 4-5:
TIME-OUT SEQUENCE ON POWER-UP (MCLR NOT TIED TO VDD): CASE 2
VDD
MCLR
INTERNAL POR
TPWRT
PWRT TIME-OUT
INTERNAL RESET
FIGURE 4-6:
SLOW RISE TIME (MCLR TIED TO VDD, VDD RISE > TPWRT)
3.3V
VDD
0V
1V
MCLR
INTERNAL POR
TPWRT
PWRT TIME-OUT
INTERNAL RESET
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS39762E-page 61
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
4.7
Reset State of Registers
TO, PD, POR and BOR) are set or cleared differently in
different Reset situations, as indicated in Table 4-1.
These bits are used in software to determine the nature
of the Reset.
Most registers are unaffected by a Reset. Their status
is unknown on POR and unchanged by all other
Resets. The other registers are forced to a “Reset
state” depending on the type of Reset that occurred.
Table 4-2 describes the Reset states for all of the
Special Function Registers. These are categorized by
Power-on and Brown-out Resets, Master Clear and
WDT Resets and WDT wake-ups.
Most registers are not affected by a WDT wake-up
since this is viewed as the resumption of normal
operation. Status bits from the RCON register (CM, RI,
TABLE 4-1:
STATUS BITS, THEIR SIGNIFICANCE AND THE INITIALIZATION CONDITION FOR
RCON REGISTER
Condition
Program
Counter(1)
RCON Register
STKPTR Register
CM
RI
TO
PD
POR
BOR
STKFUL
STKUNF
Power-on Reset
0000h
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
RESET Instruction
0000h
u
0
u
u
u
u
u
u
Brown-out Reset
0000h
1
1
1
1
u
0
u
u
Configuration Mismatch Reset
0000h
0
u
u
u
u
u
u
u
MCLR during power-managed
Run modes
0000h
u
u
1
u
u
u
u
u
MCLR during power-managed
Idle modes and Sleep mode
0000h
u
u
1
0
u
u
u
u
MCLR during full-power
execution
0000h
u
u
u
u
u
u
u
u
Stack Full Reset (STVREN = 1)
0000h
u
u
u
u
u
u
1
u
Stack Underflow Reset
(STVREN = 1)
0000h
u
u
u
u
u
u
u
1
Stack Underflow Error (not an
actual Reset, STVREN = 0)
0000h
u
u
u
u
u
u
u
1
WDT time-out during full power
or power-managed Run modes
0000h
u
u
0
u
u
u
u
u
WDT time-out during
power-managed Idle or Sleep
modes
PC + 2
u
u
0
0
u
u
u
u
Interrupt exit from
power-managed modes
PC + 2
u
u
u
0
u
u
u
u
Legend: u = unchanged
Note 1: When the wake-up is due to an interrupt, and the GIEH or GIEL bit is set, the PC is loaded with the interrupt
vector (0008h or 0018h).
DS39762E-page 62
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
TABLE 4-2:
Register
INITIALIZATION CONDITIONS FOR ALL REGISTERS
Applicable Devices
Power-on Reset,
Brown-out Reset
MCLR Reset,
WDT Reset,
RESET Instruction,
Stack Resets,
CM Reset
Wake-up via WDT
or Interrupt
TOSU
PIC18F6XJ6X
PIC18F8XJ6X
PIC18F9XJ6X
---0 0000
---0 0000
---0 uuuu(1)
TOSH
PIC18F6XJ6X
PIC18F8XJ6X
PIC18F9XJ6X
0000 0000
0000 0000
uuuu uuuu(1)
TOSL
PIC18F6XJ6X
PIC18F8XJ6X
PIC18F9XJ6X
0000 0000
0000 0000
uuuu uuuu(1)
STKPTR
PIC18F6XJ6X
PIC18F8XJ6X
PIC18F9XJ6X
00-0 0000
uu-0 0000
uu-u uuuu(1)
PCLATU
PIC18F6XJ6X
PIC18F8XJ6X
PIC18F9XJ6X
---0 0000
---0 0000
---u uuuu
PCLATH
PIC18F6XJ6X
PIC18F8XJ6X
PIC18F9XJ6X
0000 0000
0000 0000
uuuu uuuu
PCL
PIC18F6XJ6X
PIC18F8XJ6X
PIC18F9XJ6X
0000 0000
0000 0000
PC + 2(2)
TBLPTRU
PIC18F6XJ6X
PIC18F8XJ6X
PIC18F9XJ6X
--00 0000
--00 0000
--uu uuuu
TBLPTRH
PIC18F6XJ6X
PIC18F8XJ6X
PIC18F9XJ6X
0000 0000
0000 0000
uuuu uuuu
TBLPTRL
PIC18F6XJ6X
PIC18F8XJ6X
PIC18F9XJ6X
0000 0000
0000 0000
uuuu uuuu
TABLAT
PIC18F6XJ6X
PIC18F8XJ6X
PIC18F9XJ6X
0000 0000
0000 0000
uuuu uuuu
PRODH
PIC18F6XJ6X
PIC18F8XJ6X
PIC18F9XJ6X
xxxx xxxx
uuuu uuuu
uuuu uuuu
PRODL
PIC18F6XJ6X
PIC18F8XJ6X
PIC18F9XJ6X
xxxx xxxx
uuuu uuuu
uuuu uuuu
INTCON
PIC18F6XJ6X
PIC18F8XJ6X
PIC18F9XJ6X
0000 000x
0000 000u
uuuu uuuu(3)
INTCON2
PIC18F6XJ6X
PIC18F8XJ6X
PIC18F9XJ6X
1111 1111
1111 1111
uuuu uuuu(3)
INTCON3
PIC18F6XJ6X
PIC18F8XJ6X
PIC18F9XJ6X
1100 0000
1100 0000
uuuu uuuu(3)
INDF0
PIC18F6XJ6X
PIC18F8XJ6X
PIC18F9XJ6X
N/A
N/A
N/A
POSTINC0
PIC18F6XJ6X
PIC18F8XJ6X
PIC18F9XJ6X
N/A
N/A
N/A
POSTDEC0
PIC18F6XJ6X
PIC18F8XJ6X
PIC18F9XJ6X
N/A
N/A
N/A
PREINC0
PIC18F6XJ6X
PIC18F8XJ6X
PIC18F9XJ6X
N/A
N/A
N/A
PLUSW0
PIC18F6XJ6X
PIC18F8XJ6X
PIC18F9XJ6X
N/A
N/A
N/A
FSR0H
PIC18F6XJ6X
PIC18F8XJ6X
PIC18F9XJ6X
---- xxxx
---- uuuu
---- uuuu
FSR0L
PIC18F6XJ6X
PIC18F8XJ6X
PIC18F9XJ6X
xxxx xxxx
uuuu uuuu
uuuu uuuu
WREG
PIC18F6XJ6X
PIC18F8XJ6X
PIC18F9XJ6X
xxxx xxxx
uuuu uuuu
uuuu uuuu
INDF1
PIC18F6XJ6X
PIC18F8XJ6X
PIC18F9XJ6X
N/A
N/A
N/A
POSTINC1
PIC18F6XJ6X
PIC18F8XJ6X
PIC18F9XJ6X
N/A
N/A
N/A
POSTDEC1
PIC18F6XJ6X
PIC18F8XJ6X
PIC18F9XJ6X
N/A
N/A
N/A
PREINC1
PIC18F6XJ6X
PIC18F8XJ6X
PIC18F9XJ6X
N/A
N/A
N/A
PLUSW1
PIC18F6XJ6X
PIC18F8XJ6X
PIC18F9XJ6X
N/A
N/A
N/A
FSR1H
PIC18F6XJ6X
PIC18F8XJ6X
PIC18F9XJ6X
---- xxxx
---- uuuu
---- uuuu
FSR1L
PIC18F6XJ6X
PIC18F8XJ6X
PIC18F9XJ6X
xxxx xxxx
uuuu uuuu
uuuu uuuu
BSR
PIC18F6XJ6X
PIC18F8XJ6X
PIC18F9XJ6X
---- 0000
---- 0000
---- uuuu
INDF2
PIC18F6XJ6X
PIC18F8XJ6X
PIC18F9XJ6X
N/A
N/A
N/A
POSTINC2
PIC18F6XJ6X
PIC18F8XJ6X
PIC18F9XJ6X
N/A
N/A
N/A
POSTDEC2
PIC18F6XJ6X
PIC18F8XJ6X
PIC18F9XJ6X
N/A
N/A
N/A
PREINC2
PIC18F6XJ6X
PIC18F8XJ6X
PIC18F9XJ6X
N/A
N/A
N/A
PLUSW2
PIC18F6XJ6X
PIC18F8XJ6X
PIC18F9XJ6X
N/A
N/A
N/A
FSR2H
PIC18F6XJ6X
PIC18F8XJ6X
PIC18F9XJ6X
---- xxxx
---- uuuu
---- uuuu
PIC18F6XJ6X
PIC18F8XJ6X
PIC18F9XJ6X
xxxx xxxx
uuuu uuuu
uuuu uuuu
FSR2L
Legend:
Note 1:
2:
3:
4:
u = unchanged, x = unknown, - = unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’, q = value depends on condition.
Shaded cells indicate conditions do not apply for the designated device.
When the wake-up is due to an interrupt and the GIEL or GIEH bit is set, the TOSU, TOSH and TOSL are updated with
the current value of the PC. The STKPTR is modified to point to the next location in the hardware stack.
When the wake-up is due to an interrupt and the GIEL or GIEH bit is set, the PC is loaded with the interrupt vector
(0008h or 0018h).
One or more bits in the INTCONx or PIRx registers will be affected (to cause wake-up).
See Table 4-1 for Reset value for specific condition.
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS39762E-page 63
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
TABLE 4-2:
INITIALIZATION CONDITIONS FOR ALL REGISTERS (CONTINUED)
Register
Applicable Devices
Power-on Reset,
Brown-out Reset
MCLR Reset,
WDT Reset,
RESET Instruction,
Stack Resets,
CM Reset
Wake-up via WDT
or Interrupt
STATUS
PIC18F6XJ6X
PIC18F8XJ6X
PIC18F9XJ6X
---x xxxx
---u uuuu
---u uuuu
TMR0H
PIC18F6XJ6X
PIC18F8XJ6X
PIC18F9XJ6X
0000 0000
0000 0000
uuuu uuuu
TMR0L
PIC18F6XJ6X
PIC18F8XJ6X
PIC18F9XJ6X
xxxx xxxx
uuuu uuuu
uuuu uuuu
T0CON
PIC18F6XJ6X
PIC18F8XJ6X
PIC18F9XJ6X
1111 1111
1111 1111
uuuu uuuu
OSCCON
PIC18F6XJ6X
PIC18F8XJ6X
PIC18F9XJ6X
0--- q-00
0--- q-00
u--- q-uu
ECON1
PIC18F6XJ6X
PIC18F8XJ6X
PIC18F9XJ6X
0000 00--
0000 00--
uuuu uu--
WDTCON
PIC18F6XJ6X
PIC18F8XJ6X
PIC18F9XJ6X
---- ---0
---- ---0
---- ---u
(4)
PIC18F6XJ6X
PIC18F8XJ6X
PIC18F9XJ6X
0-q1 1100
0-uq qquu
u-uu qquu
TMR1H
PIC18F6XJ6X
PIC18F8XJ6X
PIC18F9XJ6X
xxxx xxxx
uuuu uuuu
uuuu uuuu
TMR1L
PIC18F6XJ6X
PIC18F8XJ6X
PIC18F9XJ6X
xxxx xxxx
uuuu uuuu
uuuu uuuu
T1CON
PIC18F6XJ6X
PIC18F8XJ6X
PIC18F9XJ6X
0000 0000
u0uu uuuu
uuuu uuuu
TMR2
PIC18F6XJ6X
PIC18F8XJ6X
PIC18F9XJ6X
0000 0000
0000 0000
uuuu uuuu
PR2
PIC18F6XJ6X
PIC18F8XJ6X
PIC18F9XJ6X
1111 1111
1111 1111
1111 1111
T2CON
PIC18F6XJ6X
PIC18F8XJ6X
PIC18F9XJ6X
-000 0000
-000 0000
-uuu uuuu
SSP1BUF
PIC18F6XJ6X
PIC18F8XJ6X
PIC18F9XJ6X
xxxx xxxx
uuuu uuuu
uuuu uuuu
SSP1ADD
PIC18F6XJ6X
PIC18F8XJ6X
PIC18F9XJ6X
0000 0000
0000 0000
uuuu uuuu
SSP1STAT
PIC18F6XJ6X
PIC18F8XJ6X
PIC18F9XJ6X
0000 0000
0000 0000
uuuu uuuu
SSP1CON1
PIC18F6XJ6X
PIC18F8XJ6X
PIC18F9XJ6X
0000 0000
0000 0000
uuuu uuuu
SSP1CON2
PIC18F6XJ6X
PIC18F8XJ6X
PIC18F9XJ6X
0000 0000
0000 0000
uuuu uuuu
ADRESH
PIC18F6XJ6X
PIC18F8XJ6X
PIC18F9XJ6X
xxxx xxxx
uuuu uuuu
uuuu uuuu
ADRESL
PIC18F6XJ6X
PIC18F8XJ6X
PIC18F9XJ6X
xxxx xxxx
uuuu uuuu
uuuu uuuu
ADCON0
PIC18F6XJ6X
PIC18F8XJ6X
PIC18F9XJ6X
0-00 0000
0-00 0000
u-uu uuuu
ADCON1
PIC18F6XJ6X
PIC18F8XJ6X
PIC18F9XJ6X
--00 0000
--00 0000
--uu uuuu
RCON
ADCON2
PIC18F6XJ6X
PIC18F8XJ6X
PIC18F9XJ6X
0-00 0000
0-00 0000
u-uu uuuu
CCPR1H
PIC18F6XJ6X
PIC18F8XJ6X
PIC18F9XJ6X
xxxx xxxx
uuuu uuuu
uuuu uuuu
CCPR1L
PIC18F6XJ6X
PIC18F8XJ6X
PIC18F9XJ6X
xxxx xxxx
uuuu uuuu
uuuu uuuu
CCP1CON
PIC18F6XJ6X
PIC18F8XJ6X
PIC18F9XJ6X
0000 0000
0000 0000
uuuu uuuu
CCPR2H
PIC18F6XJ6X
PIC18F8XJ6X
PIC18F9XJ6X
xxxx xxxx
uuuu uuuu
uuuu uuuu
CCPR2L
PIC18F6XJ6X
PIC18F8XJ6X
PIC18F9XJ6X
xxxx xxxx
uuuu uuuu
uuuu uuuu
CCP2CON
PIC18F6XJ6X
PIC18F8XJ6X
PIC18F9XJ6X
0000 0000
0000 0000
uuuu uuuu
CCPR3H
PIC18F6XJ6X
PIC18F8XJ6X
PIC18F9XJ6X
xxxx xxxx
uuuu uuuu
uuuu uuuu
CCPR3L
PIC18F6XJ6X
PIC18F8XJ6X
PIC18F9XJ6X
xxxx xxxx
uuuu uuuu
uuuu uuuu
CCP3CON
PIC18F6XJ6X
PIC18F8XJ6X
PIC18F9XJ6X
0000 0000
0000 0000
uuuu uuuu
ECCP1AS
PIC18F6XJ6X
PIC18F8XJ6X
PIC18F9XJ6X
0000 0000
0000 0000
uuuu uuuu
CVRCON
PIC18F6XJ6X
PIC18F8XJ6X
PIC18F9XJ6X
0000 0000
0000 0000
uuuu uuuu
CMCON
PIC18F6XJ6X
PIC18F8XJ6X
PIC18F9XJ6X
0000 0111
0000 0111
uuuu uuuu
TMR3H
PIC18F6XJ6X
PIC18F8XJ6X
PIC18F9XJ6X
xxxx xxxx
uuuu uuuu
uuuu uuuu
TMR3L
PIC18F6XJ6X
PIC18F8XJ6X
PIC18F9XJ6X
xxxx xxxx
uuuu uuuu
uuuu uuuu
Legend:
Note 1:
2:
3:
4:
u = unchanged, x = unknown, - = unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’, q = value depends on condition.
Shaded cells indicate conditions do not apply for the designated device.
When the wake-up is due to an interrupt and the GIEL or GIEH bit is set, the TOSU, TOSH and TOSL are updated with
the current value of the PC. The STKPTR is modified to point to the next location in the hardware stack.
When the wake-up is due to an interrupt and the GIEL or GIEH bit is set, the PC is loaded with the interrupt vector
(0008h or 0018h).
One or more bits in the INTCONx or PIRx registers will be affected (to cause wake-up).
See Table 4-1 for Reset value for specific condition.
DS39762E-page 64
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
TABLE 4-2:
Register
INITIALIZATION CONDITIONS FOR ALL REGISTERS (CONTINUED)
Applicable Devices
Power-on Reset,
Brown-out Reset
MCLR Reset,
WDT Reset,
RESET Instruction,
Stack Resets,
CM Reset
Wake-up via WDT
or Interrupt
T3CON
PIC18F6XJ6X
PIC18F8XJ6X
PIC18F9XJ6X
0000 0000
uuuu uuuu
uuuu uuuu
PSPCON
PIC18F6XJ6X
PIC18F8XJ6X
PIC18F9XJ6X
0000 ----
0000 ----
uuuu ----
SPBRG1
PIC18F6XJ6X
PIC18F8XJ6X
PIC18F9XJ6X
0000 0000
0000 0000
uuuu uuuu
RCREG1
PIC18F6XJ6X
PIC18F8XJ6X
PIC18F9XJ6X
0000 0000
0000 0000
uuuu uuuu
TXREG1
PIC18F6XJ6X
PIC18F8XJ6X
PIC18F9XJ6X
xxxx xxxx
uuuu uuuu
uuuu uuuu
TXSTA1
PIC18F6XJ6X
PIC18F8XJ6X
PIC18F9XJ6X
0000 0010
0000 0010
uuuu uuuu
RCSTA1
PIC18F6XJ6X
PIC18F8XJ6X
PIC18F9XJ6X
0000 000x
0000 000x
uuuu uuuu
EECON2
PIC18F6XJ6X
PIC18F8XJ6X
PIC18F9XJ6X
---- ----
---- ----
---- ----
EECON1
PIC18F6XJ6X
PIC18F8XJ6X
PIC18F9XJ6X
---0 x00-
---0 x00-
---u uuu-
IPR3
PIC18F6XJ6X
PIC18F8XJ6X
PIC18F9XJ6X
1111 1111
1111 1111
uuuu uuuu
PIR3
PIC18F6XJ6X
PIC18F8XJ6X
PIC18F9XJ6X
0000 0000
0000 0000
uuuu uuuu(3)
PIE3
PIC18F6XJ6X
PIC18F8XJ6X
PIC18F9XJ6X
0000 0000
0000 0000
uuuu uuuu
IPR2
PIC18F6XJ6X
PIC18F8XJ6X
PIC18F9XJ6X
1111 1-11
1111 1-11
uuuu u-uu
PIR2
PIC18F6XJ6X
PIC18F8XJ6X
PIC18F9XJ6X
0000 0-00
0000 0-00
uuuu u-uu(3)
PIE2
PIC18F6XJ6X
PIC18F8XJ6X
PIC18F9XJ6X
0000 0-00
0000 0-00
uuuu u-uu
IPR1
PIC18F6XJ6X
PIC18F8XJ6X
PIC18F9XJ6X
1111 1111
1111 1111
uuuu uuuu
PIR1
PIC18F6XJ6X
PIC18F8XJ6X
PIC18F9XJ6X
0000 0000
0000 0000
uuuu uuuu(3)
PIE1
PIC18F6XJ6X
PIC18F8XJ6X
PIC18F9XJ6X
0000 0000
0000 0000
uuuu uuuu
MEMCON
PIC18F6XJ6X
PIC18F8XJ6X
PIC18F9XJ6X
0-00 --00
0-00 --00
u-uu --uu
OSCTUNE
PIC18F6XJ6X
PIC18F8XJ6X
PIC18F9XJ6X
0000 ----
0000 ----
uuuu ----
TRISJ
PIC18F6XJ6X
PIC18F8XJ6X
PIC18F9XJ6X
--11 ----
--11 ----
--uu ----
PIC18F6XJ6X
PIC18F8XJ6X
PIC18F9XJ6X
1111 1111
1111 1111
uuuu uuuu
PIC18F6XJ6X
PIC18F8XJ6X
PIC18F9XJ6X
1111 1111
1111 1111
uuuu uuuu
---u ----
TRISH
TRISG
TRISF
TRISE
TRISD
PIC18F6XJ6X
PIC18F8XJ6X
PIC18F9XJ6X
---1 ----
---1 ----
PIC18F6XJ6X
PIC18F8XJ6X
PIC18F9XJ6X
---1 1111
---1 1111
---u uuuu
PIC18F6XJ6X
PIC18F8XJ6X
PIC18F9XJ6X
1111 1111
1111 1111
uuuu uuuu
PIC18F6XJ6X
PIC18F8XJ6X
PIC18F9XJ6X
1111 111-
1111 111-
uuuu uuu-
PIC18F6XJ6X
PIC18F8XJ6X
PIC18F9XJ6X
1111 1111
1111 1111
uuuu uuuu
PIC18F6XJ6X
PIC18F8XJ6X
PIC18F9XJ6X
--11 1111
--11 1111
--uu uuuu
PIC18F6XJ6X
PIC18F8XJ6X
PIC18F9XJ6X
1111 1111
1111 1111
uuuu uuuu
PIC18F6XJ6X
PIC18F8XJ6X
PIC18F9XJ6X
---- -111
---- -111
---- -uuu
PIC18F6XJ6X
PIC18F8XJ6X
PIC18F9XJ6X
1111 1111
1111 1111
uuuu uuuu
TRISC
PIC18F6XJ6X
PIC18F8XJ6X
PIC18F9XJ6X
1111 1111
1111 1111
uuuu uuuu
TRISB
PIC18F6XJ6X
PIC18F8XJ6X
PIC18F9XJ6X
1111 1111
1111 1111
uuuu uuuu
TRISA
PIC18F6XJ6X
PIC18F8XJ6X
PIC18F9XJ6X
--11 1111
--11 1111
--uu uuuu
LATJ
PIC18F6XJ6X
PIC18F8XJ6X
PIC18F9XJ6X
--xx ----
--uu ----
--uu ----
PIC18F6XJ6X
PIC18F8XJ6X
PIC18F9XJ6X
xxxx xxxx
uuuu uuuu
uuuu uuuu
PIC18F6XJ6X
PIC18F8XJ6X
PIC18F9XJ6X
xxxx xxxx
uuuu uuuu
uuuu uuuu
LATH
Legend:
Note 1:
2:
3:
4:
u = unchanged, x = unknown, - = unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’, q = value depends on condition.
Shaded cells indicate conditions do not apply for the designated device.
When the wake-up is due to an interrupt and the GIEL or GIEH bit is set, the TOSU, TOSH and TOSL are updated with
the current value of the PC. The STKPTR is modified to point to the next location in the hardware stack.
When the wake-up is due to an interrupt and the GIEL or GIEH bit is set, the PC is loaded with the interrupt vector
(0008h or 0018h).
One or more bits in the INTCONx or PIRx registers will be affected (to cause wake-up).
See Table 4-1 for Reset value for specific condition.
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS39762E-page 65
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
TABLE 4-2:
INITIALIZATION CONDITIONS FOR ALL REGISTERS (CONTINUED)
Register
LATG
LATF
Applicable Devices
Power-on Reset,
Brown-out Reset
MCLR Reset,
WDT Reset,
RESET Instruction,
Stack Resets,
CM Reset
Wake-up via WDT
or Interrupt
---u ----
PIC18F6XJ6X
PIC18F8XJ6X
PIC18F9XJ6X
---x ----
---u ----
PIC18F6XJ6X
PIC18F8XJ6X
PIC18F9XJ6X
---x xxxx
---u uuuu
---u uuuu
PIC18F6XJ6X
PIC18F8XJ6X
PIC18F9XJ6X
xxxx xxxx
uuuu uuuu
uuuu uuuu
PIC18F6XJ6X
PIC18F8XJ6X
PIC18F9XJ6X
xxxx xxx-
uuuu uuu-
uuuu uuu-
PIC18F6XJ6X
PIC18F8XJ6X
PIC18F9XJ6X
xxxx xxxx
uuuu uuuu
uuuu uuuu
PIC18F6XJ6X
PIC18F8XJ6X
PIC18F9XJ6X
--xx xxxx
--uu uuuu
--uu uuuu
PIC18F6XJ6X
PIC18F8XJ6X
PIC18F9XJ6X
xxxx xxxx
uuuu uuuu
uuuu uuuu
PIC18F6XJ6X
PIC18F8XJ6X
PIC18F9XJ6X
---- -xxx
---- -uuu
---- -uuu
PIC18F6XJ6X
PIC18F8XJ6X
PIC18F9XJ6X
xxxx xxxx
uuuu uuuu
uuuu uuuu
LATC
PIC18F6XJ6X
PIC18F8XJ6X
PIC18F9XJ6X
xxxx xxxx
uuuu uuuu
uuuu uuuu
LATB
PIC18F6XJ6X
PIC18F8XJ6X
PIC18F9XJ6X
xxxx xxxx
uuuu uuuu
uuuu uuuu
LATA
PIC18F6XJ6X
PIC18F8XJ6X
PIC18F9XJ6X
00xx xxxx
00uu uuuu
uuuu uuuu
PORTJ
PIC18F6XJ6X
PIC18F8XJ6X
PIC18F9XJ6X
--xx ----
--uu ----
--uu ----
PIC18F6XJ6X
PIC18F8XJ6X
PIC18F9XJ6X
xxxx xxxx
uuuu uuuu
uuuu uuuu
PORTH
PIC18F6XJ6X
PIC18F8XJ6X
PIC18F9XJ6X
xxxx xxxx
uuuu uuuu
uuuu uuuu
PORTG
PIC18F6XJ6X
PIC18F8XJ6X
PIC18F9XJ6X
---x ----
---u ----
---u ----
PIC18F6XJ6X
PIC18F8XJ6X
PIC18F9XJ6X
---x xxxx
---u uuuu
---u uuuu
PIC18F6XJ6X
PIC18F8XJ6X
PIC18F9XJ6X
111x xxxx
111u uuuu
uuuu uuuu
PORTF
PIC18F6XJ6X
PIC18F8XJ6X
PIC18F9XJ6X
x000 000-
x000 000-
uuuu uuu-
PIC18F6XJ6X
PIC18F8XJ6X
PIC18F9XJ6X
x000 000-
x000 000-
uuuu uuu-
PORTE
PIC18F6XJ6X
PIC18F8XJ6X
PIC18F9XJ6X
--xx xxxx
--uu uuuu
--uu uuuu
PIC18F6XJ6X
PIC18F8XJ6X
PIC18F9XJ6X
xxxx xxxx
uuuu uuuu
uuuu uuuu
PORTD
PIC18F6XJ6X
PIC18F8XJ6X
PIC18F9XJ6X
---- -xxx
---- -uuu
---- -uuu
PIC18F6XJ6X
PIC18F8XJ6X
PIC18F9XJ6X
xxxx xxxx
uuuu uuuu
uuuu uuuu
PORTC
PIC18F6XJ6X
PIC18F8XJ6X
PIC18F9XJ6X
xxxx xxxx
uuuu uuuu
uuuu uuuu
PORTB
PIC18F6XJ6X
PIC18F8XJ6X
PIC18F9XJ6X
xxxx xxxx
uuuu uuuu
uuuu uuuu
PORTA
PIC18F6XJ6X
PIC18F8XJ6X
PIC18F9XJ6X
0-0x 0000
0-0u 0000
u-uu uuuu
LATE
LATD
SPBRGH1
PIC18F6XJ6X
PIC18F8XJ6X
PIC18F9XJ6X
0000 0000
0000 0000
uuuu uuuu
BAUDCON1
PIC18F6XJ6X
PIC18F8XJ6X
PIC18F9XJ6X
0100 0-00
0100 0-00
uuuu u-uu
SPBRGH2
PIC18F6XJ6X
PIC18F8XJ6X
PIC18F9XJ6X
0000 0000
0000 0000
uuuu uuuu
BAUDCON2
PIC18F6XJ6X
PIC18F8XJ6X
PIC18F9XJ6X
0100 0-00
0100 0-00
uuuu u-uu
ERDPTH
PIC18F6XJ6X
PIC18F8XJ6X
PIC18F9XJ6X
---0 1010
---0 1010
---u uuuu
ERDPTL
PIC18F6XJ6X
PIC18F8XJ6X
PIC18F9XJ6X
1111 0101
1111 0101
uuuu uuuu
ECCP1DEL
PIC18F6XJ6X
PIC18F8XJ6X
PIC18F9XJ6X
0000 0000
0000 0000
uuuu uuuu
TMR4
PIC18F6XJ6X
PIC18F8XJ6X
PIC18F9XJ6X
0000 0000
0000 0000
uuuu uuuu
PR4
PIC18F6XJ6X
PIC18F8XJ6X
PIC18F9XJ6X
1111 1111
1111 1111
1111 1111
T4CON
PIC18F6XJ6X
PIC18F8XJ6X
PIC18F9XJ6X
-000 0000
-000 0000
-uuu uuuu
CCPR4H
PIC18F6XJ6X
PIC18F8XJ6X
PIC18F9XJ6X
xxxx xxxx
uuuu uuuu
uuuu uuuu
CCPR4L
PIC18F6XJ6X
PIC18F8XJ6X
PIC18F9XJ6X
xxxx xxxx
uuuu uuuu
uuuu uuuu
Legend:
Note 1:
2:
3:
4:
u = unchanged, x = unknown, - = unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’, q = value depends on condition.
Shaded cells indicate conditions do not apply for the designated device.
When the wake-up is due to an interrupt and the GIEL or GIEH bit is set, the TOSU, TOSH and TOSL are updated with
the current value of the PC. The STKPTR is modified to point to the next location in the hardware stack.
When the wake-up is due to an interrupt and the GIEL or GIEH bit is set, the PC is loaded with the interrupt vector
(0008h or 0018h).
One or more bits in the INTCONx or PIRx registers will be affected (to cause wake-up).
See Table 4-1 for Reset value for specific condition.
DS39762E-page 66
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
TABLE 4-2:
Register
INITIALIZATION CONDITIONS FOR ALL REGISTERS (CONTINUED)
Applicable Devices
Power-on Reset,
Brown-out Reset
MCLR Reset,
WDT Reset,
RESET Instruction,
Stack Resets,
CM Reset
Wake-up via WDT
or Interrupt
CCP4CON
PIC18F6XJ6X
PIC18F8XJ6X
PIC18F9XJ6X
--00 0000
--00 0000
--uu uuuu
CCPR5H
PIC18F6XJ6X
PIC18F8XJ6X
PIC18F9XJ6X
xxxx xxxx
uuuu uuuu
uuuu uuuu
CCPR5L
PIC18F6XJ6X
PIC18F8XJ6X
PIC18F9XJ6X
xxxx xxxx
uuuu uuuu
uuuu uuuu
CCP5CON
PIC18F6XJ6X
PIC18F8XJ6X
PIC18F9XJ6X
--00 0000
--00 0000
--uu uuuu
SPBRG2
PIC18F6XJ6X
PIC18F8XJ6X
PIC18F9XJ6X
0000 0000
0000 0000
uuuu uuuu
RCREG2
PIC18F6XJ6X
PIC18F8XJ6X
PIC18F9XJ6X
0000 0000
0000 0000
uuuu uuuu
TXREG2
PIC18F6XJ6X
PIC18F8XJ6X
PIC18F9XJ6X
0000 0000
0000 0000
uuuu uuuu
TXSTA2
PIC18F6XJ6X
PIC18F8XJ6X
PIC18F9XJ6X
0000 0010
0000 0010
uuuu uuuu
RCSTA2
PIC18F6XJ6X
PIC18F8XJ6X
PIC18F9XJ6X
0000 000x
0000 000x
uuuu uuuu
ECCP3AS
PIC18F6XJ6X
PIC18F8XJ6X
PIC18F9XJ6X
0000 0000
0000 0000
uuuu uuuu
ECCP3DEL
PIC18F6XJ6X
PIC18F8XJ6X
PIC18F9XJ6X
0000 0000
0000 0000
uuuu uuuu
ECCP2AS
PIC18F6XJ6X
PIC18F8XJ6X
PIC18F9XJ6X
0000 0000
0000 0000
uuuu uuuu
ECCP2DEL
PIC18F6XJ6X
PIC18F8XJ6X
PIC18F9XJ6X
0000 0000
0000 0000
uuuu uuuu
SSP2BUF
PIC18F6XJ6X
PIC18F8XJ6X
PIC18F9XJ6X
xxxx xxxx
uuuu uuuu
uuuu uuuu
SSP2ADD
PIC18F6XJ6X
PIC18F8XJ6X
PIC18F9XJ6X
0000 0000
0000 0000
uuuu uuuu
SSP2STAT
PIC18F6XJ6X
PIC18F8XJ6X
PIC18F9XJ6X
0000 0000
0000 0000
uuuu uuuu
SSP2CON1
PIC18F6XJ6X
PIC18F8XJ6X
PIC18F9XJ6X
0000 0000
0000 0000
uuuu uuuu
SSP2CON2
PIC18F6XJ6X
PIC18F8XJ6X
PIC18F9XJ6X
0000 0000
0000 0000
uuuu uuuu
EDATA
PIC18F6XJ6X
PIC18F8XJ6X
PIC18F9XJ6X
xxxx xxxx
uuuu uuuu
uuuu uuuu
EIR
PIC18F6XJ6X
PIC18F8XJ6X
PIC18F9XJ6X
-000 0-00
-000 0-00
-uuu u-uu
ECON2
PIC18F6XJ6X
PIC18F8XJ6X
PIC18F9XJ6X
100- ----
100- ----
uuu- ----
ESTAT
PIC18F6XJ6X
PIC18F8XJ6X
PIC18F9XJ6X
-0-0 -000
-0-0 -000
-u-u -uuu
EIE
PIC18F6XJ6X
PIC18F8XJ6X
PIC18F9XJ6X
-000 0-00
-000 0-00
-uuu u-uu
EDMACSH
PIC18F6XJ6X
PIC18F8XJ6X
PIC18F9XJ6X
0000 0000
0000 0000
uuuu uuuu
EDMACSL
PIC18F6XJ6X
PIC18F8XJ6X
PIC18F9XJ6X
0000 0000
0000 0000
uuuu uuuu
EDMADSTH
PIC18F6XJ6X
PIC18F8XJ6X
PIC18F9XJ6X
---0 0000
---0 0000
---u uuuu
EDMADSTL
PIC18F6XJ6X
PIC18F8XJ6X
PIC18F9XJ6X
0000 0000
0000 0000
uuuu uuuu
EDMANDH
PIC18F6XJ6X
PIC18F8XJ6X
PIC18F9XJ6X
---0 0000
---0 0000
---u uuuu
EDMANDL
PIC18F6XJ6X
PIC18F8XJ6X
PIC18F9XJ6X
0000 0000
0000 0000
uuuu uuuu
EDMASTH
PIC18F6XJ6X
PIC18F8XJ6X
PIC18F9XJ6X
---0 0000
---0 0000
---u uuuu
EDMASTL
PIC18F6XJ6X
PIC18F8XJ6X
PIC18F9XJ6X
0000 0000
0000 0000
uuuu uuuu
ERXWRPTH
PIC18F6XJ6X
PIC18F8XJ6X
PIC18F9XJ6X
---0 0000
---0 0000
---u uuuu
ERXWRPTL
PIC18F6XJ6X
PIC18F8XJ6X
PIC18F9XJ6X
0000 0000
0000 0000
uuuu uuuu
ERXRDPTH
PIC18F6XJ6X
PIC18F8XJ6X
PIC18F9XJ6X
---0 0101
---0 0101
---u uuuu
ERXRDPTL
PIC18F6XJ6X
PIC18F8XJ6X
PIC18F9XJ6X
1111 1010
1111 1010
uuuu uuuu
ERXNDH
PIC18F6XJ6X
PIC18F8XJ6X
PIC18F9XJ6X
---1 1111
---1 1111
---u uuuu
ERXNDL
PIC18F6XJ6X
PIC18F8XJ6X
PIC18F9XJ6X
1111 1111
1111 1111
uuuu uuuu
ERXSTH
PIC18F6XJ6X
PIC18F8XJ6X
PIC18F9XJ6X
---0 0101
---0 0101
---u uuuu
ERXSTL
PIC18F6XJ6X
PIC18F8XJ6X
PIC18F9XJ6X
1111 1010
1111 1010
uuuu uuuu
Legend:
Note 1:
2:
3:
4:
u = unchanged, x = unknown, - = unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’, q = value depends on condition.
Shaded cells indicate conditions do not apply for the designated device.
When the wake-up is due to an interrupt and the GIEL or GIEH bit is set, the TOSU, TOSH and TOSL are updated with
the current value of the PC. The STKPTR is modified to point to the next location in the hardware stack.
When the wake-up is due to an interrupt and the GIEL or GIEH bit is set, the PC is loaded with the interrupt vector
(0008h or 0018h).
One or more bits in the INTCONx or PIRx registers will be affected (to cause wake-up).
See Table 4-1 for Reset value for specific condition.
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS39762E-page 67
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
TABLE 4-2:
INITIALIZATION CONDITIONS FOR ALL REGISTERS (CONTINUED)
Register
Applicable Devices
Power-on Reset,
Brown-out Reset
MCLR Reset,
WDT Reset,
RESET Instruction,
Stack Resets,
CM Reset
Wake-up via WDT
or Interrupt
ETXNDH
PIC18F6XJ6X
PIC18F8XJ6X
PIC18F9XJ6X
---0 0000
---0 0000
---u uuuu
ETXNDL
PIC18F6XJ6X
PIC18F8XJ6X
PIC18F9XJ6X
0000 0000
0000 0000
uuuu uuuu
ETXSTH
PIC18F6XJ6X
PIC18F8XJ6X
PIC18F9XJ6X
---0 0000
---0 0000
---u uuuu
ETXSTL
PIC18F6XJ6X
PIC18F8XJ6X
PIC18F9XJ6X
0000 0000
0000 0000
uuuu uuuu
EWRPTH
PIC18F6XJ6X
PIC18F8XJ6X
PIC18F9XJ6X
---0 0000
---0 0000
---u uuuu
EWRPTL
PIC18F6XJ6X
PIC18F8XJ6X
PIC18F9XJ6X
0000 0000
0000 0000
uuuu uuuu
EPKTCNT
PIC18F6XJ6X
PIC18F8XJ6X
PIC18F9XJ6X
0000 0000
0000 0000
uuuu uuuu
ERXFCON
PIC18F6XJ6X
PIC18F8XJ6X
PIC18F9XJ6X
1010 0001
1010 0001
uuuu uuuu
EPMOH
PIC18F6XJ6X
PIC18F8XJ6X
PIC18F9XJ6X
---0 0000
---0 0000
---u uuuu
EPMOL
PIC18F6XJ6X
PIC18F8XJ6X
PIC18F9XJ6X
0000 0000
0000 0000
uuuu uuuu
EPMCSH
PIC18F6XJ6X
PIC18F8XJ6X
PIC18F9XJ6X
0000 0000
0000 0000
uuuu uuuu
EPMCSL
PIC18F6XJ6X
PIC18F8XJ6X
PIC18F9XJ6X
0000 0000
0000 0000
uuuu uuuu
EPMM7
PIC18F6XJ6X
PIC18F8XJ6X
PIC18F9XJ6X
0000 0000
0000 0000
uuuu uuuu
EPMM6
PIC18F6XJ6X
PIC18F8XJ6X
PIC18F9XJ6X
0000 0000
0000 0000
uuuu uuuu
EPMM5
PIC18F6XJ6X
PIC18F8XJ6X
PIC18F9XJ6X
0000 0000
0000 0000
uuuu uuuu
EPMM4
PIC18F6XJ6X
PIC18F8XJ6X
PIC18F9XJ6X
0000 0000
0000 0000
uuuu uuuu
EPMM3
PIC18F6XJ6X
PIC18F8XJ6X
PIC18F9XJ6X
0000 0000
0000 0000
uuuu uuuu
EPMM2
PIC18F6XJ6X
PIC18F8XJ6X
PIC18F9XJ6X
0000 0000
0000 0000
uuuu uuuu
EPMM1
PIC18F6XJ6X
PIC18F8XJ6X
PIC18F9XJ6X
0000 0000
0000 0000
uuuu uuuu
EPMM0
PIC18F6XJ6X
PIC18F8XJ6X
PIC18F9XJ6X
0000 0000
0000 0000
uuuu uuuu
EHT7
PIC18F6XJ6X
PIC18F8XJ6X
PIC18F9XJ6X
0000 0000
0000 0000
uuuu uuuu
EHT6
PIC18F6XJ6X
PIC18F8XJ6X
PIC18F9XJ6X
0000 0000
0000 0000
uuuu uuuu
EHT5
PIC18F6XJ6X
PIC18F8XJ6X
PIC18F9XJ6X
0000 0000
0000 0000
uuuu uuuu
EHT4
PIC18F6XJ6X
PIC18F8XJ6X
PIC18F9XJ6X
0000 0000
0000 0000
uuuu uuuu
EHT3
PIC18F6XJ6X
PIC18F8XJ6X
PIC18F9XJ6X
0000 0000
0000 0000
uuuu uuuu
EHT2
PIC18F6XJ6X
PIC18F8XJ6X
PIC18F9XJ6X
0000 0000
0000 0000
uuuu uuuu
EHT1
PIC18F6XJ6X
PIC18F8XJ6X
PIC18F9XJ6X
0000 0000
0000 0000
uuuu uuuu
EHT0
PIC18F6XJ6X
PIC18F8XJ6X
PIC18F9XJ6X
0000 0000
0000 0000
uuuu uuuu
MIRDH
PIC18F6XJ6X
PIC18F8XJ6X
PIC18F9XJ6X
0000 0000
0000 0000
uuuu uuuu
MIRDL
PIC18F6XJ6X
PIC18F8XJ6X
PIC18F9XJ6X
0000 0000
0000 0000
uuuu uuuu
MIWRH
PIC18F6XJ6X
PIC18F8XJ6X
PIC18F9XJ6X
0000 0000
0000 0000
uuuu uuuu
MIWRL
PIC18F6XJ6X
PIC18F8XJ6X
PIC18F9XJ6X
0000 0000
0000 0000
uuuu uuuu
MIREGADR
PIC18F6XJ6X
PIC18F8XJ6X
PIC18F9XJ6X
---0 0000
---0 0000
---u uuuu
MICMD
PIC18F6XJ6X
PIC18F8XJ6X
PIC18F9XJ6X
---- --00
---- --00
---- --uu
MAMXFLH
PIC18F6XJ6X
PIC18F8XJ6X
PIC18F9XJ6X
0000 0110
0000 0110
uuuu uuuu
PIC18F6XJ6X
PIC18F8XJ6X
PIC18F9XJ6X
0000 0000
0000 0000
uuuu uuuu
MAMXFLL
Legend:
Note 1:
2:
3:
4:
u = unchanged, x = unknown, - = unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’, q = value depends on condition.
Shaded cells indicate conditions do not apply for the designated device.
When the wake-up is due to an interrupt and the GIEL or GIEH bit is set, the TOSU, TOSH and TOSL are updated with
the current value of the PC. The STKPTR is modified to point to the next location in the hardware stack.
When the wake-up is due to an interrupt and the GIEL or GIEH bit is set, the PC is loaded with the interrupt vector
(0008h or 0018h).
One or more bits in the INTCONx or PIRx registers will be affected (to cause wake-up).
See Table 4-1 for Reset value for specific condition.
DS39762E-page 68
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
TABLE 4-2:
Register
INITIALIZATION CONDITIONS FOR ALL REGISTERS (CONTINUED)
Applicable Devices
Power-on Reset,
Brown-out Reset
MCLR Reset,
WDT Reset,
RESET Instruction,
Stack Resets,
CM Reset
Wake-up via WDT
or Interrupt
MAIPGH
PIC18F6XJ6X
PIC18F8XJ6X
PIC18F9XJ6X
-000 0000
-000 0000
-uuu uuuu
MAIPGL
PIC18F6XJ6X
PIC18F8XJ6X
PIC18F9XJ6X
-000 0000
-000 0000
-uuu uuuu
MABBIPG
PIC18F6XJ6X
PIC18F8XJ6X
PIC18F9XJ6X
-000 0000
-000 0000
-uuu uuuu
MACON4
PIC18F6XJ6X
PIC18F8XJ6X
PIC18F9XJ6X
-000 --00
-000 --00
-uuu --uu
MACON3
PIC18F6XJ6X
PIC18F8XJ6X
PIC18F9XJ6X
0000 0000
0000 0000
uuuu uuuu
MACON1
PIC18F6XJ6X
PIC18F8XJ6X
PIC18F9XJ6X
---0 0000
---0 0000
---u uuuu
EPAUSH
PIC18F6XJ6X
PIC18F8XJ6X
PIC18F9XJ6X
0001 0000
0001 0000
000u uuuu
EPAUSL
PIC18F6XJ6X
PIC18F8XJ6X
PIC18F9XJ6X
0000 0000
0000 0000
uuuu uuuu
EFLOCON
PIC18F6XJ6X
PIC18F8XJ6X
PIC18F9XJ6X
---- -000
---- -000
---- -uuu
MISTAT
PIC18F6XJ6X
PIC18F8XJ6X
PIC18F9XJ6X
---- 0000
---- 0000
---- uuuu
MAADR2
PIC18F6XJ6X
PIC18F8XJ6X
PIC18F9XJ6X
0000 0000
0000 0000
uuuu uuuu
MAADR1
PIC18F6XJ6X
PIC18F8XJ6X
PIC18F9XJ6X
0000 0000
0000 0000
uuuu uuuu
MAADR4
PIC18F6XJ6X
PIC18F8XJ6X
PIC18F9XJ6X
0000 0000
0000 0000
uuuu uuuu
MAADR3
PIC18F6XJ6X
PIC18F8XJ6X
PIC18F9XJ6X
0000 0000
0000 0000
uuuu uuuu
MAADR6
PIC18F6XJ6X
PIC18F8XJ6X
PIC18F9XJ6X
0000 0000
0000 0000
uuuu uuuu
PIC18F6XJ6X
PIC18F8XJ6X
PIC18F9XJ6X
0000 0000
0000 0000
uuuu uuuu
MAADR5
Legend:
Note 1:
2:
3:
4:
u = unchanged, x = unknown, - = unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’, q = value depends on condition.
Shaded cells indicate conditions do not apply for the designated device.
When the wake-up is due to an interrupt and the GIEL or GIEH bit is set, the TOSU, TOSH and TOSL are updated with
the current value of the PC. The STKPTR is modified to point to the next location in the hardware stack.
When the wake-up is due to an interrupt and the GIEL or GIEH bit is set, the PC is loaded with the interrupt vector
(0008h or 0018h).
One or more bits in the INTCONx or PIRx registers will be affected (to cause wake-up).
See Table 4-1 for Reset value for specific condition.
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS39762E-page 69
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
NOTES:
DS39762E-page 70
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
MEMORY ORGANIZATION
There are two types of memory in PIC18 Flash
microcontroller devices:
• Program Memory
• Data RAM
As Harvard architecture devices, the data and program
memories use separate busses. This allows for
concurrent access of the two memory spaces.
Additional detailed information on the operation of the
Flash program memory is provided in Section 6.0
“Flash Program Memory”.
FIGURE 5-1:
5.1
Program Memory Organization
PIC18 microcontrollers implement a 21-bit program
counter which is capable of addressing a 2-Mbyte
program memory space. Accessing a location between
the upper boundary of the physically implemented
memory and the 2-Mbyte address will return all ‘0’s (a
NOP instruction).
The entire PIC18F97J60 family offers three sizes of
on-chip Flash program memory, from 64 Kbytes (up
to 32,764 single-word instructions) to 128 Kbytes
(65,532 single-word instructions). The program memory maps for individual family members are shown in
Figure 5-1.
MEMORY MAPS FOR PIC18F97J60 FAMILY DEVICES
CALL, CALLW, RCALL,
RETURN, RETFIE, RETLW,
ADDULNK, SUBULNK
PC<20:0>
21
Stack Level 1
••
•
Stack Level 31
PIC18FX6J60
PIC18FX6J65
PIC18FX7J60
On-Chip
Memory
On-Chip
Memory
On-Chip
Memory
Config. Words
00FFFFh
Config. Words
017FFFh
Config. Words
Unimplemented
Read as ‘0’
000000h
Unimplemented
Read as ‘0’
01FFFFh
User Memory Space
5.0
Unimplemented
Read as ‘0’
1FFFFFh
Note:
Sizes of memory areas are not to scale. Sizes of program memory areas are enhanced to show detail.
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS39762E-page 71
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
5.1.1
HARD MEMORY VECTORS
5.1.2
FLASH CONFIGURATION WORDS
All PIC18 devices have a total of three hard-coded
return vectors in their program memory space. The
Reset vector address is the default value to which the
program counter returns on all device Resets; it is
located at 0000h.
Because the PIC18F97J60 family devices do not have
persistent configuration memory, the top four words of
on-chip program memory are reserved for configuration
information. On Reset, the configuration information is
copied into the Configuration registers.
PIC18 devices also have two interrupt vector
addresses for the handling of high-priority and
low-priority interrupts. The high-priority interrupt vector
is located at 0008h and the low-priority interrupt vector
is at 0018h. Their locations in relation to the program
memory map are shown in Figure 5-2.
The Configuration Words are stored in their program
memory location in numerical order, starting with the
lower byte of CONFIG1 at the lowest address and ending with the upper byte of CONFIG4. For these devices,
only Configuration Words, CONFIG1 through
CONFIG3, are used; CONFIG4 is reserved. The actual
addresses of the Flash Configuration Words for
devices in the PIC18F97J60 family are shown in
Table 5-1. Their location in the memory map is shown
with the other memory vectors in Figure 5-2.
FIGURE 5-2:
HARD VECTOR AND
CONFIGURATION WORD
LOCATIONS FOR
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
DEVICES
Reset Vector
0000h
High-Priority Interrupt Vector
0008h
Low-Priority Interrupt Vector
0018h
Additional details on the device Configuration Words
are provided in Section 24.1 “Configuration Bits”.
TABLE 5-1:
Device
FLASH CONFIGURATION
WORDS FOR PIC18F97J60
FAMILY DEVICES
Program
Memory
(Kbytes)
Configuration
Word Addresses
64
FFF8h to FFFFh
96
17FF8h to
17FFFh
128
1FFF8h to
1FFFFh
PIC18F66J60
On-Chip
Program Memory
PIC18F86J60
PIC18F96J60
PIC18F66J65
PIC18F86J65
PIC18F96J65
Flash Configuration Words
(Top of Memory-7)
(Top of Memory)
PIC18F67J60
PIC18F87J60
PIC18F97J60
Read as ‘0’
1FFFFFh
Legend:
(Top of Memory) represents upper boundary
of on-chip program memory space (see
Figure 5-1 for device-specific values).
Shaded area represents unimplemented
memory. Areas are not shown to scale.
DS39762E-page 72
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
5.1.3
PIC18F9XJ60/9XJ65 PROGRAM
MEMORY MODES
The 100-pin devices in this family can address up to a
total of 2 Mbytes of program memory. This is achieved
through the external memory bus. There are two
distinct operating modes available to the controllers:
• Microcontroller (MC)
• Extended Microcontroller (EMC)
The program memory mode is determined by setting
the EMB Configuration bits (CONFIG3L<5:4>), as
shown in Register 5-1. (See also Section 24.1
“Configuration Bits” for additional details on the
device Configuration bits.)
The program memory modes operate as follows:
• The Microcontroller Mode accesses only on-chip
Flash memory. Attempts to read above the top of
on-chip memory causes a read of all ‘0’s (a NOP
instruction).
The Microcontroller mode is also the only operating
mode available to 64-pin and 80-pin devices.
REGISTER 5-1:
• The Extended Microcontroller Mode allows
access to both internal and external program
memories as a single block. The device can
access its entire on-chip program memory. Above
this, the device accesses external program
memory up to the 2-Mbyte program space limit.
Execution automatically switches between the
two memories as required.
The setting of the EMB Configuration bits also controls
the address bus width of the external memory bus. This
is covered in more detail in Section 7.0 “External
Memory Bus”.
In all modes, the microcontroller has complete access
to data RAM.
Figure 5-3 compares the memory maps of the different
program memory modes. The differences between
on-chip and external memory access limitations are
more fully explained in Table 5-2.
CONFIG3L: CONFIGURATION REGISTER 3 LOW
R/WO-1
R/WO-1
R/WO-1
R/WO-1
R/WO-1
U-0
U-0
U-0
WAIT(1)
BW(1)
EMB1(1)
EMB0(1)
EASHFT(1)
—
—
—
bit 7
bit 0
Legend:
R = Readable bit
WO = Write-Once bit
-n = Value when device is unprogrammed
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
‘1’ = Bit is set
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
bit 7
WAIT: External Bus Wait Enable bit(1)
1 = Wait states for operations on external memory bus disabled
0 = Wait states for operations on external memory bus enabled and selected by MEMCON<5:4>
bit 6
BW: Data Bus Width Select bit(1)
1 = 16-Bit Data Width mode
0 = 8-Bit Data Width mode
bit 5-4
EMB1:EMB0: External Memory Bus Configuration bits(1)
11 = Microcontroller mode, external bus disabled
10 = Extended Microcontroller mode,12-Bit Addressing mode
01 = Extended Microcontroller mode,16-Bit Addressing mode
00 = Extended Microcontroller mode, 20-Bit Addressing mode
bit 3
EASHFT: External Address Bus Shift Enable bit(1)
1 = Address shifting enabled; address on external bus is offset to start at 000000h
0 = Address shifting disabled; address on external bus reflects the PC value
bit 2-0
Unimplemented: Read as ‘0’
Note 1:
Implemented on 100-pin devices only.
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS39762E-page 73
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
5.1.4
EXTENDED MICROCONTROLLER
MODE AND ADDRESS SHIFTING
To avoid this, the Extended Microcontroller mode
implements an address shifting option to enable automatic address translation. In this mode, addresses
presented on the external bus are shifted down by the
size of the on-chip program memory and are remapped
to start at 0000h. This allows the complete use of the
external memory device’s memory space.
By default, devices in Extended Microcontroller mode
directly present the program counter value on the
external address bus for those addresses in the range
of the external memory space. In practical terms, this
means addresses in the external memory device below
the top of on-chip memory are unavailable.
FIGURE 5-3:
MEMORY MAPS FOR PIC18F97J60 FAMILY PROGRAM MEMORY MODES
Microcontroller Mode(1)
On-Chip
Memory
Space
Extended Microcontroller Mode(2)
External
Memory
Space
On-Chip
Memory
Space
No
Access
Note 1:
2:
000000h
(Top of Memory)
(Top of Memory) + 1
External
Memory
(Top of Memory)
(Top of Memory) + 1
External
Memory
Mapped
to
External
Memory
Space
Mapped
to
External
Memory
Space
1FFFFFh –
(Top of Memory)
1FFFFFh
1FFFFFh
1FFFFFh
Legend:
On-Chip
Memory
Space
On-Chip
Program
Memory
On-Chip
Program
Memory
(Top of Memory)
(Top of Memory) + 1
Reads
‘0’s
External
Memory
Space
000000h
000000h
On-Chip
Program
Memory
Extended Microcontroller Mode
with Address Shifting(2)
(Top of Memory) represents upper boundary of on-chip program memory space (see Figure 5-1 for device-specific
values). Shaded areas represent unimplemented or inaccessible areas depending on the mode.
This mode is the only available mode on 64-pin and 80-pin devices and the default on 100-pin devices.
These modes are only available on 100-pin devices.
TABLE 5-2:
MEMORY ACCESS FOR PIC18F9XJ60/9XJ65 PROGRAM MEMORY MODES
Internal Program Memory
Operating Mode
External Program Memory
Execution
From
Table Read
From
Table Write
To
Execution
From
Table Read
From
Table Write
To
Microcontroller
Yes
Yes
Yes
No Access
No Access
No Access
Extended Microcontroller
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
DS39762E-page 74
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
5.1.5
PROGRAM COUNTER
The Program Counter (PC) specifies the address of the
instruction to fetch for execution. The PC is 21 bits wide
and is contained in three separate 8-bit registers. The
low byte, known as the PCL register, is both readable
and writable. The high byte, or PCH register, contains
the PC<15:8> bits; it is not directly readable or writable.
Updates to the PCH register are performed through the
PCLATH register. The upper byte is called PCU. This
register contains the PC<20:16> bits; it is also not
directly readable or writable. Updates to the PCU
register are performed through the PCLATU register.
The contents of PCLATH and PCLATU are transferred
to the program counter by any operation that writes to
the PCL. Similarly, the upper two bytes of the program
counter are transferred to PCLATH and PCLATU by an
operation that reads PCL. This is useful for computed
offsets to the PC (see Section 5.1.8.1 “Computed
GOTO”).
The PC addresses bytes in the program memory. To
prevent the PC from becoming misaligned with word
instructions, the Least Significant bit of PCL is fixed to
a value of ‘0’. The PC increments by 2 to address
sequential instructions in the program memory.
The CALL, RCALL, GOTO and program branch
instructions write to the program counter directly. For
these instructions, the contents of PCLATH and
PCLATU are not transferred to the program counter.
5.1.6
RETURN ADDRESS STACK
The return address stack allows any combination of up to
31 program calls and interrupts to occur. The PC is
pushed onto the stack when a CALL or RCALL instruction
is executed, or an interrupt is Acknowledged. The PC
value is pulled off the stack on a RETURN, RETLW or a
RETFIE instruction (and on ADDULNK and SUBULNK
instructions if the extended instruction set is enabled).
PCLATU and PCLATH are not affected by any of the
RETURN or CALL instructions.
FIGURE 5-4:
The stack operates as a 31-word by 21-bit RAM and a
5-bit Stack Pointer, STKPTR. The stack space is not
part of either program or data space. The Stack Pointer
is readable and writable and the address on the top of
the stack is readable and writable through the
Top-of-Stack Special Function Registers. Data can also
be pushed to, or popped from the stack, using these
registers.
A CALL type instruction causes a push onto the stack.
The Stack Pointer is first incremented and the location
pointed to by the Stack Pointer is written with the
contents of the PC (already pointing to the instruction
following the CALL). A RETURN type instruction causes
a pop from the stack. The contents of the location
pointed to by the STKPTR are transferred to the PC
and then the Stack Pointer is decremented.
The Stack Pointer is initialized to ‘00000’ after all
Resets. There is no RAM associated with the location
corresponding to a Stack Pointer value of ‘00000’; this
is only a Reset value. Status bits indicate if the stack is
full, has overflowed or has underflowed.
5.1.6.1
Top-of-Stack Access
Only the top of the return address stack (TOS) is readable and writable. A set of three registers,
TOSU:TOSH:TOSL, holds the contents of the stack
location pointed to by the STKPTR register
(Figure 5-4). This allows users to implement a software
stack if necessary. After a CALL, RCALL or interrupt
(and ADDULNK and SUBULNK instructions if the
extended instruction set is enabled), the software can
read
the
pushed
value
by
reading
the
TOSU:TOSH:TOSL registers. These values can be
placed on a user-defined software stack. At return time,
the software can return these values to
TOSU:TOSH:TOSL and do a return.
The user must disable the global interrupt enable bits
while accessing the stack to prevent inadvertent stack
corruption.
RETURN ADDRESS STACK AND ASSOCIATED REGISTERS
Return Address Stack <20:0>
Top-of-Stack Registers
TOSU
00h
TOSH
1Ah
TOSL
34h
Top-of-Stack
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
11111
11110
11101
001A34h
000D58h
Stack Pointer
STKPTR<4:0>
00010
00011
00010
00001
00000
DS39762E-page 75
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
5.1.6.2
Return Stack Pointer (STKPTR)
When the stack has been popped enough times to
unload the stack, the next pop returns a value of zero
to the PC, and sets the STKUNF bit, while the Stack
Pointer remains at zero. The STKUNF bit will remain
set until cleared by software or until a POR occurs.
The STKPTR register (Register 5-2) contains the Stack
Pointer value, the STKFUL (Stack Full) status bit and
the STKUNF (Stack Underflow) status bit. The value of
the Stack Pointer can be 0 through 31. The Stack
Pointer increments before values are pushed onto the
stack and decrements after values are popped off the
stack. On Reset, the Stack Pointer value will be zero.
The user may read and write the Stack Pointer value.
This feature can be used by a Real-Time Operating
System (RTOS) for return stack maintenance.
Note:
After the PC is pushed onto the stack 31 times (without
popping any values off the stack), the STKFUL bit is
set. The STKFUL bit is cleared by software or by a
POR.
5.1.6.3
PUSH and POP Instructions
Since the Top-of-Stack is readable and writable, the
ability to push values onto the stack and pull values off
the stack, without disturbing normal program execution, is a desirable feature. The PIC18 instruction set
includes two instructions, PUSH and POP, that permit
the TOS to be manipulated under software control.
TOSU, TOSH and TOSL can be modified to place data
or a return address on the stack.
The action that takes place when the stack becomes
full depends on the state of the STVREN (Stack Overflow Reset Enable) Configuration bit. (Refer to
Section 24.1 “Configuration Bits” for a description of
the device Configuration bits.) If STVREN is set
(default), the 31st push will push the (PC + 2) value
onto the stack, set the STKFUL bit and reset the
device. The STKFUL bit will remain set and the Stack
Pointer will be set to zero.
The PUSH instruction places the current PC value onto
the stack. This increments the Stack Pointer and loads
the current PC value onto the stack.
If STVREN is cleared, the STKFUL bit will be set on the
31st push and the Stack Pointer will increment to 31.
Any additional pushes will not overwrite the 31st push
and the STKPTR will remain at 31.
REGISTER 5-2:
Returning a value of zero to the PC on an
underflow has the effect of vectoring the
program to the Reset vector, where the
stack conditions can be verified and
appropriate actions can be taken. This is
not the same as a Reset, as the contents
of the SFRs are not affected.
The POP instruction discards the current TOS by
decrementing the Stack Pointer. The previous value
pushed onto the stack then becomes the TOS value.
STKPTR: STACK POINTER REGISTER
R/C-0
R/C-0
U-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
STKFUL(1)
STKUNF(1)
—
SP4
SP3
SP2
SP1
SP0
bit 7
bit 0
Legend:
C = Clearable bit
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
-n = Value at POR
‘1’ = Bit is set
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
bit 7
STKFUL: Stack Full Flag bit(1)
1 = Stack became full or overflowed
0 = Stack has not become full or overflowed
bit 6
STKUNF: Stack Underflow Flag bit(1)
1 = Stack underflow occurred
0 = Stack underflow did not occur
bit 5
Unimplemented: Read as ‘0’
bit 4-0
SP4:SP0: Stack Pointer Location bits
Note 1:
x = Bit is unknown
Bit 7 and bit 6 are cleared by user software or by a POR.
DS39762E-page 76
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
5.1.6.4
Stack Full and Underflow Resets
Device Resets on stack overflow and stack underflow
conditions are enabled by setting the STVREN bit in
Configuration Register 1L. When STVREN is set, a full
or underflow condition will set the appropriate STKFUL
or STKUNF bit and then cause a device Reset. When
STVREN is cleared, a full or underflow condition will set
the appropriate STKFUL or STKUNF bit, but not cause
a device Reset. The STKFUL or STKUNF bit is cleared
by user software or a Power-on Reset.
5.1.7
FAST REGISTER STACK
A Fast Register Stack is provided for the STATUS,
WREG and BSR registers to provide a “fast return”
option for interrupts. This stack is only one level deep
and is neither readable nor writable. It is loaded with the
current value of the corresponding register when the
processor vectors for an interrupt. All interrupt sources
will push values into the Stack registers. The values in
the registers are then loaded back into the working
registers if the RETFIE, FAST instruction is used to
return from the interrupt.
5.1.8
LOOK-UP TABLES IN PROGRAM
MEMORY
There may be programming situations that require the
creation of data structures, or look-up tables, in
program memory. For PIC18 devices, look-up tables
can be implemented in two ways:
• Computed GOTO
• Table Reads
5.1.8.1
Computed GOTO
A computed GOTO is accomplished by adding an offset
to the program counter. An example is shown in
Example 5-2.
A look-up table can be formed with an ADDWF PCL
instruction and a group of RETLW nn instructions. The
W register is loaded with an offset into the table before
executing a call to that table. The first instruction of the
called routine is the ADDWF PCL instruction. The next
instruction executed will be one of the RETLW nn
instructions, that returns the value ‘nn’ to the calling
function.
If both low and high-priority interrupts are enabled, the
Stack registers cannot be used reliably to return from
low-priority interrupts. If a high-priority interrupt occurs
while servicing a low-priority interrupt, the Stack
register values stored by the low-priority interrupt will
be overwritten. In these cases, users must save the key
registers in software during a low-priority interrupt.
The offset value (in WREG) specifies the number of
bytes that the program counter should advance and
should be multiples of 2 (LSb = 0).
If interrupt priority is not used, all interrupts may use the
Fast Register Stack for returns from interrupt. If no
interrupts are used, the Fast Register Stack can be
used to restore the STATUS, WREG and BSR registers
at the end of a subroutine call. To use the Fast Register
Stack for a subroutine call, a CALL label, FAST
instruction must be executed to save the STATUS,
WREG and BSR registers to the Fast Register Stack. A
RETURN, FAST instruction is then executed to restore
these registers from the Fast Register Stack.
EXAMPLE 5-2:
Example 5-1 shows a source code example that uses
the Fast Register Stack during a subroutine call and
return.
EXAMPLE 5-1:
CALL
SUB1, FAST
•
•
SUB1
•
•
RETURN FAST
FAST REGISTER STACK
CODE EXAMPLE
;STATUS, WREG, BSR
;SAVED IN FAST REGISTER
;STACK
;RESTORE VALUES SAVED
;IN FAST REGISTER STACK
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
In this method, only one data byte may be stored in
each instruction location and room on the return
address stack is required.
ORG
TABLE
5.1.8.2
MOVF
CALL
nn00h
ADDWF
RETLW
RETLW
RETLW
.
.
.
COMPUTED GOTO USING
AN OFFSET VALUE
OFFSET, W
TABLE
PCL
nnh
nnh
nnh
Table Reads
A better method of storing data in program memory
allows two bytes of data to be stored in each instruction
location.
Look-up table data may be stored two bytes per
program word while programming. The Table Pointer
(TBLPTR) specifies the byte address and the Table
Latch (TABLAT) contains the data that is read from the
program memory. Data is transferred from program
memory one byte at a time.
Table read operation is discussed further
Section 6.1 “Table Reads and Table Writes”.
in
DS39762E-page 77
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
5.2
PIC18 Instruction Cycle
5.2.1
5.2.2
An “Instruction Cycle” consists of four Q cycles, Q1
through Q4. The instruction fetch and execute are
pipelined in such a manner that a fetch takes one
instruction cycle, while the decode and execute take
another instruction cycle. However, due to the pipelining,
each instruction effectively executes in one cycle. If an
instruction causes the program counter to change
(e.g., GOTO), then two cycles are required to complete
the instruction (Example 5-3).
CLOCKING SCHEME
The microcontroller clock input, whether from an
internal or external source, is internally divided by four
to generate four non-overlapping quadrature clocks
(Q1, Q2, Q3 and Q4). Internally, the program counter is
incremented on every Q1. The instruction is fetched
from the program memory and latched into the
Instruction Register (IR) during Q4. The instruction is
decoded and executed during the following Q1 through
Q4. The clocks and instruction execution flow are
shown in Figure 5-5.
FIGURE 5-5:
INSTRUCTION FLOW/PIPELINING
A fetch cycle begins with the Program Counter (PC)
incrementing in Q1.
In the execution cycle, the fetched instruction is latched
into the Instruction Register (IR) in cycle Q1. This
instruction is then decoded and executed during the Q2,
Q3 and Q4 cycles. Data memory is read during Q2
(operand read) and written during Q4 (destination write).
CLOCK/INSTRUCTION CYCLE
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
Q2
Q1
Q3
Q4
OSC1
Q1
Q2
Internal
Phase
Clock
Q3
Q4
PC
PC
PC + 2
PC + 4
OSC2/CLKO
(RC mode)
Execute INST (PC – 2)
Fetch INST (PC)
EXAMPLE 5-3:
1. MOVLW 55h
4. BSF
Execute INST (PC + 2)
Fetch INST (PC + 4)
INSTRUCTION PIPELINE FLOW
TCY0
TCY1
Fetch 1
Execute 1
2. MOVWF PORTB
3. BRA
Execute INST (PC)
Fetch INST (PC + 2)
SUB_1
PORTA, BIT3 (Forced NOP)
5. Instruction @ address SUB_1
Fetch 2
TCY2
TCY3
TCY4
TCY5
Execute 2
Fetch 3
Execute 3
Fetch 4
Flush (NOP)
Fetch SUB_1 Execute SUB_1
All instructions are single cycle, except for any program branches. These take two cycles since the fetch instruction
is “flushed” from the pipeline while the new instruction is being fetched and then executed.
DS39762E-page 78
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
5.2.3
INSTRUCTIONS IN PROGRAM
MEMORY
The program memory is addressed in bytes. Instructions are stored as two bytes or four bytes in program
memory. The Least Significant Byte of an instruction
word is always stored in a program memory location
with an even address (LSb = 0). To maintain alignment
with instruction boundaries, the PC increments in steps
of 2 and the LSb will always read ‘0’ (see Section 5.1.5
“Program Counter”).
Figure 5-6 shows an example of how instruction words
are stored in the program memory.
FIGURE 5-6:
INSTRUCTIONS IN PROGRAM MEMORY
Program Memory
Byte Locations →
5.2.4
The CALL and GOTO instructions have the absolute
program memory address embedded into the instruction.
Since instructions are always stored on word boundaries,
the data contained in the instruction is a word address.
The word address is written to PC<20:1> which
accesses the desired byte address in program memory.
Instruction #2 in Figure 5-6 shows how the instruction,
GOTO 0006h, is encoded in the program memory.
Program branch instructions, which encode a relative
address offset, operate in the same manner. The offset
value stored in a branch instruction represents the
number of single-word instructions that the PC will be
offset by. Section 25.0 “Instruction Set Summary”
provides further details of the instruction set.
Instruction 1:
Instruction 2:
MOVLW
GOTO
055h
0006h
Instruction 3:
MOVFF
123h, 456h
TWO-WORD INSTRUCTIONS
The standard PIC18 instruction set has four, two-word
instructions: CALL, MOVFF, GOTO and LSFR. In all
cases, the second word of the instructions always has
‘1111’ as its four Most Significant bits; the other 12 bits
are literal data, usually a data memory address.
The use of ‘1111’ in the 4 MSbs of an instruction
specifies a special form of NOP. If the instruction is
executed in proper sequence – immediately after the
first word – the data in the second word is accessed
EXAMPLE 5-4:
LSB = 1
LSB = 0
0Fh
EFh
F0h
C1h
F4h
55h
03h
00h
23h
56h
Word Address
↓
000000h
000002h
000004h
000006h
000008h
00000Ah
00000Ch
00000Eh
000010h
000012h
000014h
and used by the instruction sequence. If the first word
is skipped for some reason and the second word is
executed by itself, a NOP is executed instead. This is
necessary for cases when the two-word instruction is
preceded by a conditional instruction that changes the
PC. Example 5-4 shows how this works.
Note:
See Section 5.5 “Program Memory and
the Extended Instruction Set” for
information on two-word instructions in the
extended instruction set.
TWO-WORD INSTRUCTIONS
CASE 1:
Object Code
Source Code
0110 0110 0000 0000
TSTFSZ
REG1
; is RAM location 0?
1100 0001 0010 0011
MOVFF
REG1, REG2
; No, skip this word
ADDWF
REG3
; continue code
1111 0100 0101 0110
0010 0100 0000 0000
; Execute this word as a NOP
CASE 2:
Object Code
Source Code
0110 0110 0000 0000
TSTFSZ
REG1
; is RAM location 0?
1100 0001 0010 0011
MOVFF
REG1, REG2
; Yes, execute this word
ADDWF
REG3
; continue code
1111 0100 0101 0110
0010 0100 0000 0000
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
; 2nd word of instruction
DS39762E-page 79
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
5.3
Note:
Data Memory Organization
The operation of some aspects of data
memory are changed when the PIC18
extended instruction set is enabled. See
Section 5.6 “Data Memory and the
Extended Instruction Set” for more
information.
The data memory in PIC18 devices is implemented as
static RAM. Each register in the data memory has a
12-bit address, allowing up to 4096 bytes of addressable
memory. The memory space is divided into 16 banks
that contain 256 bytes each. All of the PIC18F97J60
family devices implement all available banks and provide 3808 bytes of data memory available to the user.
Figure 5-7 shows the data memory organization for the
devices.
The data memory contains Special Function Registers
(SFRs) and General Purpose Registers (GPRs). The
SFRs are used for control and status of the controller
and peripheral functions, while GPRs are used for data
storage and scratchpad operations in the user’s
application. Any read of an unimplemented location will
read as ‘0’s.
The instruction set and architecture allow operations
across all banks. The entire data memory may be
accessed by Direct, Indirect or Indexed Addressing
modes. Addressing modes are discussed later in this
section.
To ensure that commonly used registers (most SFRs
and select GPRs) can be accessed in a single cycle,
PIC18 devices implement an Access Bank. This is a
256-byte memory space that provides fast access to
the majority of SFRs and the lower portion of GPR
Bank 0 without using the BSR. Section 5.3.2 “Access
Bank” provides a detailed description of the Access
RAM.
5.3.1
BANK SELECT REGISTER
Large areas of data memory require an efficient
addressing scheme to make rapid access to any
address possible. Ideally, this means that an entire
address does not need to be provided for each read or
write operation. For PIC18 devices, this is accomplished with a RAM banking scheme. This divides the
memory space into 16 contiguous banks of 256 bytes.
Depending on the instruction, each location can be
addressed directly by its full 12-bit address, or an 8-bit
low-order address and a 4-bit Bank Pointer.
Most instructions in the PIC18 instruction set make use
of the Bank Pointer, known as the Bank Select Register
(BSR). This SFR holds the 4 Most Significant bits of a
location’s address; the instruction itself includes the
8 Least Significant bits. Only the four lower bits of the
BSR are implemented (BSR3:BSR0). The upper four
bits are unused; they will always read ‘0’ and cannot be
written to. The BSR can be loaded directly by using the
MOVLB instruction.
The value of the BSR indicates the bank in data memory.
The 8 bits in the instruction show the location in the bank
and can be thought of as an offset from the bank’s lower
boundary. The relationship between the BSR’s value
and the bank division in data memory is shown in
Figure 5-8.
Since up to 16 registers may share the same low-order
address, the user must always be careful to ensure that
the proper bank is selected before performing a data
read or write. For example, writing what should be
program data to an 8-bit address of F9h, while the BSR
is 0Fh, will end up resetting the program counter.
While any bank can be selected, only those banks that
are actually implemented can be read or written to.
Writes to unimplemented banks are ignored, while
reads from unimplemented banks will return ‘0’s. Even
so, the STATUS register will still be affected as if the
operation was successful. The data memory map in
Figure 5-7 indicates which banks are implemented.
In the core PIC18 instruction set, only the MOVFF
instruction fully specifies the 12-bit address of the
source and target registers. This instruction ignores the
BSR completely when it executes. All other instructions
include only the low-order address as an operand and
must use either the BSR or the Access Bank to locate
their target registers.
DS39762E-page 80
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
FIGURE 5-7:
DATA MEMORY MAP FOR PIC18F97J60 FAMILY DEVICES
When a = 0:
BSR<3:0>
Data Memory Map
00h
= 0000
= 0001
= 0010
= 0011
= 0100
= 0101
= 0110
= 0111
= 1000
= 1001
= 1010
= 1011
= 1100
= 1101
= 1110
= 1111
Bank 0
FFh
00h
Bank 1
Access RAM
GPR
GPR
1FFh
200h
FFh
00h
Bank 2
GPR
FFh
00h
Bank 3
2FFh
300h
Bank 4
The remaining 160 bytes are
Special Function Registers
(from Bank 15).
When a = 1:
The BSR specifies the bank
used by the instruction.
3FFh
400h
GPR
FFh
00h
4FFh
500h
GPR
Bank 5
FFh
00h
5FFh
600h
GPR
Bank 6
FFh
00h
6FFh
700h
GPR
Bank 7
FFh
00h
FFh
00h
Bank 9
7FFh
800h
FFh
00h
Bank 10
GPR
GPR
FFh
00h
GPR
FFh
00h
Bank 12
FFh
00h
Bank 13
FFh
00h
Bank 14
GPR
GPR
GPR
FFh
00h
Ethernet SFR
FFh
SFR
Bank 15
GPR
Access Bank
Access RAM Low
GPR
Bank 8
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
The first 96 bytes are general
purpose RAM (from Bank 0).
GPR
FFh
00h
Bank 11
000h
05Fh
060h
0FFh
100h
The BSR is ignored and the
Access Bank is used.
00h
5Fh
Access RAM High 60h
(SFRs)
FFh
8FFh
900h
9FFh
A00h
AFFh
B00h
BFFh
C00h
CFFh
D00h
DFFh
E00h
E7Fh
E80h
EFFh
F00h
F5Fh
F60h
FFFh
DS39762E-page 81
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
FIGURE 5-8:
USE OF THE BANK SELECT REGISTER (DIRECT ADDRESSING)
BSR(1)
7
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Bank Select(2)
1
0
000h
Data Memory
Bank 0
100h
Bank 1
200h
300h
Bank 2
00h
7
FFh
00h
11
From Opcode(2)
11
11
11
11
1
0
1
1
FFh
00h
FFh
00h
Bank 3
through
Bank 13
E00h
Bank 14
F00h
FFFh
Note 1:
2:
5.3.2
Bank 15
FFh
00h
FFh
The Access RAM bit of the instruction can be used to force an override of the selected bank (BSR<3:0>) to
the registers of the Access Bank.
The MOVFF instruction embeds the entire 12-bit address in the instruction.
ACCESS BANK
While the use of the BSR with an embedded 8-bit
address allows users to address the entire range of
data memory, it also means that the user must always
ensure that the correct bank is selected. Otherwise,
data may be read from or written to the wrong location.
This can be disastrous if a GPR is the intended target
of an operation but an SFR is written to instead.
Verifying and/or changing the BSR for each read or
write to data memory can become very inefficient.
To streamline access for the most commonly used data
memory locations, the data memory is configured with
an Access Bank, which allows users to access a
mapped block of memory without specifying a BSR.
The Access Bank consists of the first 96 bytes of
memory (00h-5Fh) in Bank 0 and the last 160 bytes of
memory (60h-FFh) in Bank 15. The lower block is
known as the “Access RAM” and is composed of
GPRs. The upper block is where the device’s SFRs are
mapped. These two areas are mapped contiguously in
the Access Bank and can be addressed in a linear
fashion by an 8-bit address (Figure 5-7).
The Access Bank is used by core PIC18 instructions
that include the Access RAM bit (the ‘a’ parameter in
the instruction). When ‘a’ is equal to ‘1’, the instruction
uses the BSR and the 8-bit address included in the
opcode for the data memory address. When ‘a’ is ‘0’,
however, the instruction is forced to use the Access
Bank address map; the current value of the BSR is
ignored entirely.
DS39762E-page 82
FFh
00h
Using this “forced” addressing allows the instruction to
operate on a data address in a single cycle without
updating the BSR first. For 8-bit addresses of 60h and
above, this means that users can evaluate and operate
on SFRs more efficiently. The Access RAM below 60h
is a good place for data values that the user might need
to access rapidly, such as immediate computational
results or common program variables. Access RAM
also allows for faster and more code efficient context
saving and switching of variables.
The mapping of the Access Bank is slightly different
when the extended instruction set is enabled (XINST
Configuration bit = 1). This is discussed in more detail
in Section 5.6.3 “Mapping the Access Bank in
Indexed Literal Offset Mode”.
5.3.3
GENERAL PURPOSE
REGISTER FILE
PIC18 devices may have banked memory in the GPR
area. This is data RAM which is available for use by all
instructions. GPRs start at the bottom of Bank 0
(address 000h) and grow upwards towards the bottom
of the SFR area. GPRs are not initialized by a
Power-on Reset and are unchanged on all other
Resets.
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
5.3.4
SPECIAL FUNCTION REGISTERS
Reset and Interrupt registers are described in their
respective chapters, while the ALU’s STATUS register
is described later in this section. Registers related to
the operation of the peripheral features are described
in the chapter for that peripheral.
The Special Function Registers (SFRs) are registers
used by the CPU and peripheral modules for controlling
the desired operation of the device. These registers are
implemented as static RAM.
The SFRs are typically distributed among the
peripherals whose functions they control. Unused SFR
locations are unimplemented and read as ‘0’s. A list of
SFRs is given in Table 5-3; a full description is provided
in Table 5-5.
The main group of SFRs start at the top of data memory
(FFFh) and extend downward to occupy more than the
top half of Bank 15 (F60h to FFFh). These SFRs can
be classified into two sets: those associated with the
“core” device functionality (ALU, Resets and interrupts)
and those related to the peripheral functions. The
TABLE 5-3:
SPECIAL FUNCTION REGISTER MAP FOR PIC18F97J60 FAMILY DEVICES
Address
Name
Address
FFFh
TOSU
FDFh
Name
FFEh
TOSH
FDEh POSTINC2(1)
FBEh
FFDh
TOSL
FDDh POSTDEC2(1)
FBDh
FFCh
STKPTR
FDCh
PREINC2(1)
FBCh
FFBh
PCLATU
FDBh
PLUSW2(1)
FBBh
INDF2(1)
Address
Name
Address
Name
Address
F9Fh
IPR1
F7Fh
SPBRGH1
CCPR1L
F9Eh
PIR1
F7Eh
BAUDCON1
CCP1CON
F9Dh
PIE1
F7Dh
SPBRGH2
CCPR2H
F9Ch
MEMCON(4)
F7Ch
BAUDCON2
CCPR2L
F9Bh
OSCTUNE
F7Bh
ERDPTH
FBFh
CCPR1H
Name
(3)
F7Ah
ERDPTL
F79h
ECCP1DEL
FFAh
PCLATH
FDAh
FSR2H
FBAh
CCP2CON
F9Ah
TRISJ
FF9h
PCL
FD9h
FSR2L
FB9h
CCPR3H
F99h
TRISH(3)
FF8h
TBLPTRU
FD8h
STATUS
FB8h
CCPR3L
F98h
TRISG
F78h
TMR4
FF7h
TBLPTRH
FD7h
TMR0H
FB7h
CCP3CON
F97h
TRISF
F77h
PR4
FF6h
TBLPTRL
FD6h
TMR0L
FB6h
ECCP1AS
F96h
TRISE
F76h
T4CON
FF5h
TABLAT
FD5h
T0CON
FB5h
CVRCON
F95h
TRISD
F75h
CCPR4H
FF4h
PRODH
FD4h
—(2)
FB4h
CMCON
F94h
TRISC
F74h
CCPR4L
FF3h
PRODL
FD3h
OSCCON
FB3h
TMR3H
F93h
TRISB
F73h
CCP4CON
FF2h
INTCON
FD2h
ECON1
FB2h
TMR3L
F92h
TRISA
F72h
CCPR5H
FF1h
INTCON2
FD1h
WDTCON
FB1h
T3CON
F91h
LATJ(3)
F71h
CCPR5L
FF0h
INTCON3
FD0h
RCON
FB0h
PSPCON
F90h
LATH(3)
F70h
CCP5CON
FEFh
INDF0(1)
FCFh
TMR1H
FAFh
SPBRG1
F8Fh
LATG
F6Fh
SPBRG2
(1)
FCEh
TMR1L
FAEh
RCREG1
F8Eh
LATF
F6Eh
RCREG2
FEDh POSTDEC0(1)
FCDh
T1CON
FADh
TXREG1
F8Dh
LATE
F6Dh
TXREG2
FEEh POSTINC0
FECh
PREINC0(1)
FCCh
TMR2
FACh
TXSTA1
F8Ch
LATD
F6Ch
TXSTA2
FEBh
PLUSW0(1)
FCBh
PR2
FABh
RCSTA1
F8Bh
LATC
F6Bh
RCSTA2
FEAh
FSR0H
FCAh
T2CON
FAAh
—(2)
F8Ah
LATB
F6Ah
ECCP3AS
FE9h
FSR0L
FC9h
SSP1BUF
FA9h
—(2)
F89h
LATA
F69h
ECCP3DEL
FE8h
WREG
FC8h
SSP1ADD
FA8h
—(2)
F88h
PORTJ(3)
F68h
ECCP2AS
FE7h
INDF1(1)
FC7h
SSP1STAT
FA7h
EECON2(1)
F87h
PORTH(3)
F67h
ECCP2DEL
FE6h
POSTINC1(1)
FC6h
SSP1CON1
FA6h
EECON1
F86h
PORTG
F66h
SSP2BUF
FE5h POSTDEC1(1)
FC5h
SSP1CON2
FA5h
IPR3
F85h
PORTF
F65h
SSP2ADD
FE4h
PREINC1(1)
FC4h
ADRESH
FA4h
PIR3
F84h
PORTE
F64h
SSP2STAT
FE3h
PLUSW1(1)
FC3h
ADRESL
FA3h
PIE3
F83h
PORTD
F63h
SSP2CON1
FE2h
FSR1H
FC2h
ADCON0
FA2h
IPR2
F82h
PORTC
F62h
SSP2CON2
FE1h
FSR1L
FC1h
ADCON1
FA1h
PIR2
F81h
PORTB
F61h
EDATA
FE0h
BSR
FC0h
ADCON2
FA0h
PIE2
F80h
PORTA
F60h
EIR
Note 1:
2:
3:
4:
This is not a physical register.
Unimplemented registers are read as ‘0’.
This register is not available on 64-pin devices.
This register is not available on 64 and 80-pin devices.
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS39762E-page 83
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
5.3.5
ETHERNET SFRs
Note:
In addition to the standard SFR set in Bank 15,
members of the PIC18F97J60 family have a second
set of SFRs. This group, associated exclusively with
the Ethernet module, occupies the top half of Bank 14
(E80h to EFFh).
TABLE 5-4:
A complete list of Ethernet SFRs is given in Table 5-4.
All SFRs are fully described in Table 5-5
ETHERNET SFR MAP FOR PIC18F97J60 FAMILY DEVICES
Address
Name
EFFh
EFEh
To improve performance, frequently
accessed Ethernet registers are located in
the standard SFR bank (F60h through
FFFh).
—
(1)
ECON2
Address
EDFh
Name
(1)
—
(1)
Address
EBFh
Name
Address
Name
—
(1)
E9Fh
—(1)
(1)
EDEh
—
EBEh
—
E9Eh
—(1)
EBDh
—(1)
E9Dh
—(1)
EBCh
—(1)
E9Ch
—(1)
EBBh
—
(1)
E9Bh
—(1)
EBAh
—(1)
E9Ah
—(1)
EFDh
ESTAT
EDDh
—(1)
EFCh
—(1)
EDCh
—(1)
(1)
EFBh
EIE
EDBh
—
EFAh
—(1)
EDAh
—(1)
EF9h
—
(2)
ED9h
EPKTCNT
EB9h
MIRDH
E99h
EPAUSH
EF8h
—(2)
ED8h
ERXFCON
EB8h
MIRDL
E98h
EPAUSL
EB7h
MIWRH
E97h
EFLOCON
EB6h
MIWRL
E96h
—(2)
E95h
—(2)
E94h
—(2)
E93h
—(2)
EF7h
EDMACSH
ED7h
—(1)
EF6h
EDMACSL
ED6h
—(1)
EF5h
EDMADSTH
ED5h
EPMOH
EB5h
EF4h
EDMADSTL
ED4h
EPMOL
EB4h
EF3h
EF2h
EDMANDH
EDMANDL
ED3h
—
(2)
EB3h
ED2h
—(2)
EB2h
—
(1)
MIREGADR
—
(2)
E92h
—(2)
(1)
E91h
—(2)
MICMD
EF1h
EDMASTH
ED1h
EPMCSH
EB1h
—
EF0h
EDMASTL
ED0h
EPMCSL
EB0h
—(1)
E90h
—(2)
EAFh
—(2)
E8Fh
—(2)
EAEh
—
(1)
E8Eh
—(2)
(1)
E8Dh
—(2)
EEFh
EEEh
ERXWRPTH
ERXWRPTL
ECFh
ECEh
EPMM7
EPMM6
EEDh
ERXRDPTH
ECDh
EPMM5
EADh
—
EECh
ERXRDPTL
ECCh
EPMM4
EACh
—(1)
E8Ch
—(2)
EEBh
ERXNDH
ECBh
EPMM3
EABh
MAMXFLH
E8Bh
—(2)
EEAh
ERXNDL
ECAh
EPMM2
EAAh
MAMXFLL
E8Ah
MISTAT
EE9h
ERXSTH
EC9h
EPMM1
EA9h
—(1)
E89h
—(1)
EE8h
ERXSTL
EC8h
EPMM0
EA8h
—(1)
E88h
—(1)
EE7h
ETXNDH
EC7h
EHT7
EA7h
MAIPGH
E87h
—(1)
EE6h
ETXNDL
EC6h
EHT6
EA6h
MAIPGL
E86h
—(1)
EE5h
ETXSTH
EC5h
EHT5
EA5h
E85h
MAADR2
EE4h
ETXSTL
EC4h
EHT4
EA4h
MABBIPG
E84h
MAADR1
EE3h
EWRPTH
EC3h
EHT3
EA3h
MACON4
E83h
MAADR4
EE2h
EWRPTL
EC2h
EHT2
EA2h
MACON3
E82h
MAADR3
EE1h
—(1)
EC1h
EHT1
EA1h
—(1)
E81h
MAADR6
EE0h
—(1)
EC0h
EHT0
EA0h
MACON1
E80h
MAADR5
Note 1:
2:
—
(2)
Reserved register location; do not modify.
Unimplemented registers are read as ‘0’.
DS39762E-page 84
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
TABLE 5-5:
File Name
TOSU
REGISTER FILE SUMMARY (PIC18F97J60 FAMILY)
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
—
—
—
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
Top-of-Stack Register Upper Byte (TOS<20:16>)
Values on Details on
POR, BOR
Page:
---0 0000
63, 75
TOSH
Top-of-Stack Register High Byte (TOS<15:8>)
0000 0000
63, 75
TOSL
Top-of-Stack Register Low Byte (TOS<7:0>)
0000 0000
63, 75
STKPTR
STKFUL(1)
STKUNF(1)
—
00-0 0000
63, 76
PCLATU
—
—
bit 21(2)
---0 0000
63, 75
63, 75
SP4
SP3
SP2
SP1
SP0
Holding Register for PC<20:16>
PCLATH
Holding Register for PC<15:8>
0000 0000
PCL
PC Low Byte (PC<7:0>)
0000 0000
63, 75
--00 0000
63, 102
TBLPTRU
—
—
bit 21
Program Memory Table Pointer Upper Byte (TBLPTR<20:16>)
TBLPTRH
Program Memory Table Pointer High Byte (TBLPTR<15:8>)
0000 0000
63, 102
TBLPTRL
Program Memory Table Pointer Low Byte (TBLPTR<7:0>)
0000 0000
63, 102
TABLAT
Program Memory Table Latch
0000 0000
63, 102
PRODH
Product Register High Byte
xxxx xxxx
63, 121
PRODL
Product Register Low Byte
INTCON
RBIF
xxxx xxxx
63, 121
0000 000x
63, 125
GIE/GIEH
PEIE/GIEL
TMR0IE
INT0IE
RBIE
TMR0IF
INT0IF
INTCON2
RBPU
INTEDG0
INTEDG1
INTEDG2
INTEDG3
TMR0IP
INT3IP
RBIP
1111 1111
63, 126
INTCON3
INT2IP
INT1IP
INT3IE
INT2IE
INT1IE
INT3IF
INT2IF
INT1IF
1100 0000
63, 127
63, 93
INDF0
Uses contents of FSR0 to address data memory – value of FSR0 not changed (not a physical register)
N/A
POSTINC0
Uses contents of FSR0 to address data memory – value of FSR0 post-incremented (not a physical register)
N/A
63, 94
POSTDEC0
Uses contents of FSR0 to address data memory – value of FSR0 post-decremented (not a physical register)
N/A
63, 94
PREINC0
Uses contents of FSR0 to address data memory – value of FSR0 pre-incremented (not a physical register)
N/A
63, 94
PLUSW0
Uses contents of FSR0 to address data memory – value of FSR0 pre-incremented (not a physical register) –
value of FSR0 offset by W
N/A
63, 94
FSR0H
---- xxxx
63, 93
FSR0L
Indirect Data Memory Address Pointer 0 Low Byte
xxxx xxxx
63, 94
WREG
Working Register
xxxx xxxx
63
INDF1
Uses contents of FSR1 to address data memory – value of FSR1 not changed (not a physical register)
N/A
63, 93
POSTINC1
Uses contents of FSR1 to address data memory – value of FSR1 post-incremented (not a physical register)
N/A
63, 94
POSTDEC1
Uses contents of FSR1 to address data memory – value of FSR1 post-decremented (not a physical register)
N/A
63, 94
PREINC1
Uses contents of FSR1 to address data memory – value of FSR1 pre-incremented (not a physical register)
N/A
63, 94
PLUSW1
Uses contents of FSR1 to address data memory – value of FSR1 pre-incremented (not a physical register) –
value of FSR1 offset by W
N/A
63, 94
---- xxxx
63, 93
xxxx xxxx
63, 93
---- 0000
63, 93
63, 93
FSR1H
FSR1L
BSR
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
Indirect Data Memory Address Pointer 0 High Byte
Indirect Data Memory Address Pointer 1 High Byte
Indirect Data Memory Address Pointer 1 Low Byte
—
—
—
—
Bank Select Register
INDF2
Uses contents of FSR2 to address data memory – value of FSR2 not changed (not a physical register)
N/A
POSTINC2
Uses contents of FSR2 to address data memory – value of FSR2 post-incremented (not a physical register)
N/A
63, 94
POSTDEC2
Uses contents of FSR2 to address data memory – value of FSR2 post-decremented (not a physical register)
N/A
63, 94
PREINC2
Uses contents of FSR2 to address data memory – value of FSR2 pre-incremented (not a physical register)
N/A
63, 94
PLUSW2
Uses contents of FSR2 to address data memory – value of FSR2 pre-incremented (not a physical register) –
value of FSR2 offset by W
N/A
63, 94
---- xxxx
63, 93
xxxx xxxx
63, 93
FSR2H
FSR2L
—
—
—
—
Indirect Data Memory Address Pointer 2 Low Byte
Indirect Data Memory Address Pointer 2 High Byte
Legend: x = unknown, u = unchanged, - = unimplemented, read as ‘0’, q = value depends on condition, r = reserved bit, do not modify. Shaded cells
are unimplemented, read as ‘0’.
Note 1: Bit 7 and bit 6 are cleared by user software or by a POR.
2: Bit 21 of the PC is only available in Serial Programming modes.
3: Reset value is ‘0’ when Two-Speed Start-up is enabled and ‘1’ if disabled.
4: Alternate names and definitions for these bits when the MSSP module is operating in I2C™ Slave mode.
5: These bits and/or registers are only available in 100-pin devices; otherwise, they are unimplemented and read as ‘0’. Reset values shown
apply only to 100-pin devices.
6: These bits and/or registers are only available in 80-pin and 100-pin devices; in 64-pin devices, they are unimplemented and read as ‘0’. Reset
values are shown for 100-pin devices.
7: In Microcontroller mode, the bits in this register are unwritable and read as ‘0’.
8: PLLEN is only available when either ECPLL or HSPLL Oscillator mode is selected; otherwise, read as ‘0’.
9: Implemented in 100-pin devices in Microcontroller mode only.
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS39762E-page 85
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
TABLE 5-5:
File Name
STATUS
REGISTER FILE SUMMARY (PIC18F97J60 FAMILY) (CONTINUED)
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
—
—
—
N
OV
Z
DC
C
TMR0H
Timer0 Register High Byte
TMR0L
Timer0 Register Low Byte
T0CON
TMR0ON
T08BIT
T0CS
T0SE
PSA
OSCCON
IDLEN
—
—
—
ECON1
TXRST
RXRST
DMAST
CSUMEN
—
—
—
—
—
IPEN
—
CM
RI
TO
WDTCON
RCON
Values on Details on
POR, BOR
Page:
---x xxxx
64, 91
0000 0000
64, 167
xxxx xxxx
64, 167
1111 1111
64, 167
T0PS2
T0PS1
T0PS0
OSTS(3)
—
SCS1
SCS0
0--- q-00
64, 47
TXRTS
RXEN
—
—
0000 00--
64, 217
—
—
SWDTEN
--- ---0
64, 357
PD
POR
BOR
0-q1 1100 64, 58, 137
TMR1H
Timer1 Register High Byte
xxxx xxxx
64, 171
TMR1L
Timer1 Register Low Byte
xxxx xxxx
64, 171
T1CON
RD16
T1RUN
TMR2
Timer2 Register
PR2
Timer2 Period Register
T2CON
—
T2OUTPS3
T1CKPS1
T2OUTPS2
T1CKPS0
T2OUTPS1
T1OSCEN
T2OUTPS0
T1SYNC
TMR2ON
TMR1CS
T2CKPS1
TMR1ON
T2CKPS0
SSP1BUF
MSSP1 Receive Buffer/Transmit Register
SSP1ADD
MSSP1 Address Register (I2C™ Slave mode), MSSP1 Baud Rate Reload Register (I2C Master mode)
0000 0000
64, 171
0000 0000
64, 177
1111 1111
64, 177
-000 0000
64, 177
xxxx xxxx
64, 269
0000 0000
64, 269
SSP1STAT
SMP
CKE
D/A
P
S
R/W
UA
BF
0000 0000
64, 260,
270
SSP1CON1
WCOL
SSPOV
SSPEN
CKP
SSPM3
SSPM2
SSPM1
SSPM0
0000 0000
64, 261,
271
0000 0000
64, 272
SSP1CON2
GCEN
ACKSTAT
ACKDT
ACKEN
RCEN
PEN
RSEN
SEN
GCEN
ACKSTAT
ADMSK5(4)
ADMSK4(4)
ADMSK3(4)
ADMSK2(4)
ADMSK1(4)
SEN
ADRESH
A/D Result Register High Byte
xxxx xxxx
64, 337
ADRESL
A/D Result Register Low Byte
xxxx xxxx
64, 337
ADCON0
ADCAL
—
CHS3
CHS2
CHS1
CHS0
GO/DONE
ADON
0-00 0000
64, 329
ADCON1
—
—
VCFG1
VCFG0
PCFG3
PCFG2
PCFG1
PCFG0
--00 0000
64, 330
ADFM
—
ACQT2
ACQT1
ACQT0
ADCS2
ADCS1
ADCS0
ADCON2
CCPR1H
Capture/Compare/PWM Register 1 High Byte
CCPR1L
Capture/Compare/PWM Register 1 Low Byte
CCP1CON
P1M1
P1M0
DC1B1
DC1B0
CCP1M3
CCP1M2
CCP1M1
CCP1M0
0-00 0000
64, 331
xxxx xxxx
64, 189
xxxx xxxx
64, 189
0000 0000
64, 193
CCPR2H
Capture/Compare/PWM Register 2 High Byte
xxxx xxxx
64, 189
CCPR2L
Capture/Compare/PWM Register 2 Low Byte
xxxx xxxx
64, 189
CCP2CON
P2M1
P2M0
DC2B1
DC2B0
CCPR3H
Capture/Compare/PWM Register 3 High Byte
CCPR3L
Capture/Compare/PWM Register 3 Low Byte
CCP3CON
ECCP1AS
CVRCON
CMCON
P3M1
P3M0
ECCP1ASE ECCP1AS2
CCP2M3
CCP2M2
CCP2M1
CCP2M0
DC3B1
DC3B0
CCP3M3
CCP3M2
CCP3M1
CCP3M0
0000 0000
64, 193
xxxx xxxx
64, 189
xxxx xxxx
64, 189
0000 0000
64, 193
ECCP1AS1
ECCP1AS0
PSS1AC1
PSS1AC0
PSS1BD1
PSS1BD0
0000 0000
64, 205
CVREN
CVROE
CVRR
CVRSS
CVR3
CVR2
CVR1
CVR0
0000 0000
64, 345
C2OUT
C1OUT
C2INV
C1INV
CIS
CM2
CM1
CM0
0000 0111
64, 339
TMR3H
Timer3 Register High Byte
xxxx xxxx
64, 179
TMR3L
Timer3 Register Low Byte
xxxx xxxx
64, 179
Legend: x = unknown, u = unchanged, - = unimplemented, read as ‘0’, q = value depends on condition, r = reserved bit, do not modify. Shaded cells
are unimplemented, read as ‘0’.
Note 1: Bit 7 and bit 6 are cleared by user software or by a POR.
2: Bit 21 of the PC is only available in Serial Programming modes.
3: Reset value is ‘0’ when Two-Speed Start-up is enabled and ‘1’ if disabled.
4: Alternate names and definitions for these bits when the MSSP module is operating in I2C™ Slave mode.
5: These bits and/or registers are only available in 100-pin devices; otherwise, they are unimplemented and read as ‘0’. Reset values shown
apply only to 100-pin devices.
6: These bits and/or registers are only available in 80-pin and 100-pin devices; in 64-pin devices, they are unimplemented and read as ‘0’. Reset
values are shown for 100-pin devices.
7: In Microcontroller mode, the bits in this register are unwritable and read as ‘0’.
8: PLLEN is only available when either ECPLL or HSPLL Oscillator mode is selected; otherwise, read as ‘0’.
9: Implemented in 100-pin devices in Microcontroller mode only.
DS39762E-page 86
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
TABLE 5-5:
File Name
T3CON
PSPCON(5)
SPBRG1
REGISTER FILE SUMMARY (PIC18F97J60 FAMILY) (CONTINUED)
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
RD16
T3CCP2
IBF
OBF
Values on Details on
POR, BOR
Page:
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
T3CKPS1
T3CKPS0
T3CCP1
T3SYNC
TMR3CS
TMR3ON
0000 0000
IBOV
PSPMODE
—
—
—
—
0000 ----
65, 164
0000 0000
65, 310
EUSART1 Baud Rate Generator Register Low Byte
65, 179
RCREG1
EUSART1 Receive Register
0000 0000
65, 317
TXREG1
EUSART1 Transmit Register
xxxx xxxx
65, 319
TXSTA1
CSRC
TX9
TXEN
SYNC
SENDB
BRGH
TRMT
TX9D
0000 0010
65, 310
RCSTA1
SPEN
RX9
SREN
CREN
ADDEN
FERR
OERR
RX9D
0000 000x
65, 310
---- ----
65, 100
EECON2
EECON1
Program Memory Control Register (not a physical register)
—
—
—
FREE
WRERR
WREN
WR
—
---0 x00-
65, 101
IPR3
SSP2IP(5)
BCL2IP(5)
RC2IP(6)
TX2IP(6)
TMR4IP
CCP5IP
CCP4IP
CCP3IP
1111 1111
65, 136
PIR3
SSP2IF(5)
BCL2IF(5)
RC2IF(6)
TX2IF(6)
TMR4IF
CCP5IF
CCP4IF
CCP3IF
0000 0000
65, 130
PIE3
SSP2IE(5)
(5)
(6)
TX2IE(6)
TMR4IE
CCP5IE
CCP4IE
CCP3IE
0000 0000
65, 133
IPR2
OSCFIP
CMIP
ETHIP
r
BCL1IP
—
TMR3IP
CCP2IP
1111 1-11
65, 135
PIR2
OSCFIF
CMIF
ETHIF
r
BCL1IF
—
TMR3IF
CCP2IF
0000 0-00
65, 129
PIE2
OSCFIE
CMIE
ETHIE
r
BCL1IE
—
TMR3IE
CCP2IE
0000 0-00
65, 132
IPR1
PSPIP(9)
ADIP
RC1IP
TX1IP
SSP1IP
CCP1IP
TMR2IP
TMR1IP
1111 1111
65, 134
PIR1
PSPIF(9)
ADIF
RC1IF
TX1IF
SSP1IF
CCP1IF
TMR2IF
TMR1IF
0000 0000
65, 128
PIE1
BCL2IE
RC2IE
PSPIE(9)
ADIE
RC1IE
TX1IE
SSP1IE
CCP1IE
TMR2IE
TMR1IE
0000 0000
65, 131
MEMCON(5,7)
EBDIS
—
WAIT1
WAIT0
—
—
WM1
WM0
0-00 --00
65, 110
OSCTUNE
PPST1
PLLEN(8)
PPST0
PPRE
—
—
—
—
0000 ----
65, 45
TRISJ(6)
TRISJ7(5)
TRISJ6(5)
TRISJ5(6)
TRISJ4(6)
TRISJ3(5)
TRISJ2(5)
TRISJ1(5)
TRISJ0(5)
1111 1111
65, 162
TRISH(6)
TRISH7(6)
TRISH6(6)
TRISH5(6)
TRISH4(6)
TRISH3(6)
TRISH2(6)
TRISH1(6)
TRISH0(6)
1111 1111
65, 160
TRISG
TRISG7(5)
TRISG6(5)
TRISG5(5)
TRISG4
TRISG3(6)
TRISG2(6)
TRISG1(6)
TRISG0(6)
1111 1111
65, 158
TRISF
TRISF7
TRISF6
TRISF5
TRISF4
TRISF3
TRISF2
TRISF1
TRISF0(5)
1111 1111
65, 155
TRISE
TRISE7(6)
TRISE6(6)
TRISE5
TRISE4
TRISE3
TRISE2
TRISE1
TRISE0
1111 1111
65, 153
TRISD
TRISD7(5)
TRISD6(5)
TRISD5(5)
TRISD4(5)
TRISD3(5)
TRISD2
TRISD1
TRISD0
1111 1111
65, 150
TRISC
TRISC7
TRISC6
TRISC5
TRISC4
TRISC3
TRISC2
TRISC1
TRISC0
1111 1111
65, 147
TRISB
TRISB7
TRISB6
TRISB5
TRISB4
TRISB3
TRISB2
TRISB1
TRISB0
1111 1111
65, 144
TRISA
—
—
TRISA5
TRISA4
TRISA3
TRISA2
TRISA1
TRISA0
--11 1111
65, 141
LATJ(6)
LATJ7(5)
LATJ6(5)
LATJ5(6)
LATJ4(6)
LATJ3(5)
LATJ2(5)
LATJ1(5)
LATJ0(5)
xxxx xxxx
65, 162
LATH(6)
LATH7(6)
LATH6(6)
LATH5(6)
LATH4(6)
LATH3(6)
LATH2(6)
LATH1(6)
LATH0(6)
xxxx xxxx
65, 160
LATG
LATG7(5)
LATG6(5)
LATG5(5)
LATG4
LATG3(6)
LATG2(6)
LATG1(6)
LATG0(6)
xxxx xxxx
66, 158
LATF
LATF7
LATF6
LATF5
LATF4
LATF3
LATF2
LATF1
LATF0(5)
xxxx xxxx
66, 155
LATE
LATE7(6)
LATE6(6)
LATE5
LATE4
LATE3
LATE2
LATE1
LATE0
xxxx xxxx
66, 153
LATD
LATD7(5)
LATD6(5)
LATD5(5)
LATD4(5)
LATD3(5)
LATD2
LATD1
LATD0
xxxx xxxx
66, 150
LATC
LATC7
LATC6
LATC5
LATC4
LATC3
LATC2
LATC1
LATC0
xxxx xxxx
66, 147
LATB
LATB7
LATB6
LATB5
LATB4
LATB3
LATB2
LATB1
LATB0
xxxx xxxx
66, 144
LATA
RDPU
REPU
LATA5
LATA4
LATA3
LATA2
LATA1
LATA0
00xx xxxx
66, 141
PORTJ(6)
RJ7(5)
RJ6(5)
RJ5(6)
RJ4(6)
RJ3(5)
RJ2(5)
RJ1(5)
RJ0(5)
xxxx xxxx
66, 162
PORTH(6)
RH7(6)
RH6(6)
RH5(6)
RH4(6)
RH3(6)
RH2(6)
RH1(6)
RH0(6)
0000 xxxx
66, 160
PORTG
RG7(5)
RG6(5)
RG5(5)
RG4
RG3(6)
RG2(6)
RG1(6)
RG0(6)
111x xxxx
66, 158
Legend: x = unknown, u = unchanged, - = unimplemented, read as ‘0’, q = value depends on condition, r = reserved bit, do not modify. Shaded cells
are unimplemented, read as ‘0’.
Note 1: Bit 7 and bit 6 are cleared by user software or by a POR.
2: Bit 21 of the PC is only available in Serial Programming modes.
3: Reset value is ‘0’ when Two-Speed Start-up is enabled and ‘1’ if disabled.
4: Alternate names and definitions for these bits when the MSSP module is operating in I2C™ Slave mode.
5: These bits and/or registers are only available in 100-pin devices; otherwise, they are unimplemented and read as ‘0’. Reset values shown
apply only to 100-pin devices.
6: These bits and/or registers are only available in 80-pin and 100-pin devices; in 64-pin devices, they are unimplemented and read as ‘0’. Reset
values are shown for 100-pin devices.
7: In Microcontroller mode, the bits in this register are unwritable and read as ‘0’.
8: PLLEN is only available when either ECPLL or HSPLL Oscillator mode is selected; otherwise, read as ‘0’.
9: Implemented in 100-pin devices in Microcontroller mode only.
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS39762E-page 87
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
TABLE 5-5:
File Name
REGISTER FILE SUMMARY (PIC18F97J60 FAMILY) (CONTINUED)
Values on Details on
POR, BOR
Page:
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
PORTF
RF7
RF6
RF5
RF4
RF3
RF2
RF1
RF0(5)
0000 0000
66, 155
PORTE
RE7(6)
RE6
RE5
RE4
RE3
RE2
RE1
RE0
xxxx xxxx
66, 153
PORTD
RD7(5)
RD6(5)
RD5(5)
RD4(5)
RD3(5)
RD2
RD1
RD0
xxxx xxxx
66, 150
PORTC
RC7
RC6
RC5
RC4
RC3
RC2
RC1
RC0
xxxx xxxx
66, 147
PORTB
RB7
RB6
RB5
RB4
RB3
RB2
RB1
RB0
xxxx xxxx
66, 144
PORTA
RJPU(6)
—
RA5
RA4
RA3
RA2
RA1
RA0
0-0x 0000
66, 141
0000 0000
66, 310
SPBRGH1
BAUDCON1
SPBRGH2
BAUDCON2
ERDPTH
ERDPTL
ECCP1DEL
(6)
EUSART1 Baud Rate Generator Register High Byte
ABDOVF
RCIDL
RXDTP
TXCKP
BRG16
—
WUE
ABDEN
EUSART2 Baud Rate Generator Register High Byte
ABDOVF
RCIDL
RXDTP
—
—
—
TXCKP
BRG16
—
WUE
ABDEN
Buffer Read Pointer High Byte
Buffer Read Pointer Low Byte
P1RSEN
P1DC6
P1DC5
P1DC4
P1DC3
P1DC2
P1DC1
P1DC0
0100 0-00
66, 308
0000 0000
66, 310
0100 0-00
66, 308
---0 0101
66, 213
1111 1010
66, 213
0000 0000
66, 204
TMR4
Timer4 Register
0000 0000
66, 183
PR4
Timer4 Period Register
1111 1111
66, 183
T4CON
—
T4OUTPS3
T4OUTPS2
T4OUTPS1
CCPR4H
Capture/Compare/PWM Register 4 High Byte
CCPR4L
Capture/Compare/PWM Register 4 Low Byte
CCP4CON
—
—
DC4B1
DC4B0
CCPR5H
Capture/Compare/PWM Register 5 High Byte
CCPR5L
Capture/Compare/PWM Register 5 Low Byte
CCP5CON
SPBRG2
—
—
DC5B1
DC5B0
T4OUTPS0
CCP4M3
CCP5M3
TMR4ON
CCP4M2
CCP5M2
T4CKPS1
CCP4M1
CCP5M1
T4CKPS0
CCP4M0
CCP5M0
EUSART2 Baud Rate Generator Register Low Byte
-000 0000
66, 183
xxxx xxxx
66, 189
xxxx xxxx
66, 189
--00 0000
67, 185
xxxx xxxx
67, 189
xxxx xxxx
67, 189
--00 0000
67, 185
0000 0000
67, 310
RCREG2
EUSART2 Receive Register
0000 0000
67, 317
TXREG2
EUSART2 Transmit Register
0000 0000
67, 319
TXSTA2
CSRC
TX9
TXEN
SYNC
SENDB
BRGH
TRMT
TX9D
0000 0010
67, 306
RCSTA2
SPEN
RX9
SREN
CREN
ADDEN
FERR
OERR
RX9D
0000 000x
67, 307
ECCP3AS1
ECCP3AS0
PSS3AC1
PSS3AC0
PSS3BD1
PSS3BD0
0000 0000
67, 205
P3DC5
P3DC4
P3DC3
P3DC2
P3DC1
P3DC0
0000 0000
67, 204
ECCP2AS1
ECCP2AS0
PSS2AC1
PSS2AC0
PSS2BD1
PSS2BD0
0000 0000
67, 205
P2DC5
P2DC4
P2DC3
P2DC2
P2DC1
P2DC0
0000 0000
67, 204
ECCP3AS
ECCP3DEL
ECCP2AS
ECCP2DEL
ECCP3ASE ECCP3AS2
P3RSEN
P3DC6
ECCP2ASE ECCP2AS2
P2RSEN
P2DC6
SSP2BUF
MSSP2 Receive Buffer/Transmit Register
xxxx xxxx
67, 269
SSP2ADD
MSSP2 Address Register (I2C™ Slave mode), MSSP2 Baud Rate Reload Register (I2C Master mode)
0000 0000
67, 269
SSP2STAT
SMP
CKE
D/A
P
S
R/W
UA
BF
0000 0000
67, 260
SSP2CON1
WCOL
SSPOV
SSPEN
CKP
SSPM3
SSPM2
SSPM1
SSPM0
0000 0000
67, 261,
271
0000 0000
67, 272
xxxx xxxx
67, 213
SSP2CON2
EDATA
EIR
ECON2
GCEN
ACKSTAT
ACKDT
ACKEN
RCEN
PEN
RSEN
SEN
GCEN
ACKSTAT
ADMSK5(4)
ADMSK4(4)
ADMSK3(4)
ADMSK2(4)
ADMSK1(4)
SEN
Ethernet Transmit/Receive Buffer Register (EDATA<7:0>)
—
PKTIF
DMAIF
LINKIF
TXIF
—
TXERIF
RXERIF
-000 0-00
67, 231
AUTOINC
PKTDEC
ETHEN
—
—
—
—
—
100- ----
67, 218
Legend: x = unknown, u = unchanged, - = unimplemented, read as ‘0’, q = value depends on condition, r = reserved bit, do not modify. Shaded cells
are unimplemented, read as ‘0’.
Note 1: Bit 7 and bit 6 are cleared by user software or by a POR.
2: Bit 21 of the PC is only available in Serial Programming modes.
3: Reset value is ‘0’ when Two-Speed Start-up is enabled and ‘1’ if disabled.
4: Alternate names and definitions for these bits when the MSSP module is operating in I2C™ Slave mode.
5: These bits and/or registers are only available in 100-pin devices; otherwise, they are unimplemented and read as ‘0’. Reset values shown
apply only to 100-pin devices.
6: These bits and/or registers are only available in 80-pin and 100-pin devices; in 64-pin devices, they are unimplemented and read as ‘0’. Reset
values are shown for 100-pin devices.
7: In Microcontroller mode, the bits in this register are unwritable and read as ‘0’.
8: PLLEN is only available when either ECPLL or HSPLL Oscillator mode is selected; otherwise, read as ‘0’.
9: Implemented in 100-pin devices in Microcontroller mode only.
DS39762E-page 88
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
TABLE 5-5:
File Name
REGISTER FILE SUMMARY (PIC18F97J60 FAMILY) (CONTINUED)
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
ESTAT
—
BUFER
—
EIE
—
PKTIE
DMAIE
EDMACSH
DMA Checksum Register High Byte
EDMACSL
DMA Checksum Register Low Byte
EDMADSTH
EDMADSTL
EDMANDH
EDMANDL
EDMASTH
EDMASTL
ERXWRPTH
ERXWRPTL
ERXRDPTH
ERXRDPTL
ERXNDH
ERXNDL
ERXSTH
ERXSTL
ETXNDH
ETXNDL
ETXSTH
ETXSTL
EWRPTH
—
—
—
—
—
—
Bit 1
Bit 0
r
—
RXBUSY
TXABRT
PHYRDY
-0-0 -000
LINKIE
TXIE
—
TXERIE
RXERIE
-000 0-00
67, 230
0000 0000
67, 255
0000 0000
67, 255
DMA Destination Register High Byte
DMA End Register High Byte
—
—
DMA Start Register High Byte
DMA Start Register Low Byte
—
—
—
Receive Buffer Write Pointer High Byte
Receive Buffer Write Pointer Low Byte
—
—
—
Receive Buffer Read Pointer High Byte
Receive Buffer Read Pointer Low Byte
—
—
—
Receive End Register High Byte
Receive End Register Low Byte
—
—
—
Receive Start Register High Byte
Receive Start Register Low Byte
—
—
—
Transmit End Register High Byte
Transmit End Register Low Byte
—
—
—
Transmit Start Register High Byte
Transmit Start Register Low Byte
—
—
—
Buffer Write Pointer Low Byte
EPKTCNT
Ethernet Packet Count Register
EPMOH
Bit 2
DMA End Register Low Byte
—
UCEN
ANDOR
CRCEN
—
—
—
Values on Details on
POR, BOR
Page:
Bit 3
DMA Destination Register Low Byte
EWRPTL
ERXFCON
Bit 4
Buffer Write Pointer High Byte
PMEN
MPEN
HTEN
Pattern Match Offset Register High Byte
MCEN
BCEN
67, 218
---0 0000
67, 255
0000 0000
67, 255
---0 0000
67, 255
0000 0000
67, 255
---0 0000
67, 255
0000 0000
67, 255
---0 0000
67, 215
0000 0000
67, 215
---0 0101
67, 215
1111 1010
67, 215
---1 1111
67, 215
1111 1111
67, 215
---0 0101
67, 215
1111 1010
67, 215
---0 0000
68, 216
0000 0000
68, 216
---0 0000
68, 216
0000 0000
68, 216
---0 0000
68, 213
0000 0000
68, 213
0000 0000
68, 242
1010 0001
68, 250
---0 0000
68, 253
0000 0000
68, 253
EPMOL
Pattern Match Offset Register Low Byte
EPMCSH
Pattern Match Checksum Register High Byte
0000 0000
68, 253
EPMCSL
Pattern Match Checksum Register Low Byte
0000 0000
68, 253
EPMM7
Pattern Match Mask Register Byte 7
0000 0000
68, 253
EPMM6
Pattern Match Mask Register Byte 6
0000 0000
68, 253
EPMM5
Pattern Match Mask Register Byte 5
0000 0000
68, 253
EPMM4
Pattern Match Mask Register Byte 4
0000 0000
68, 253
EPMM3
Pattern Match Mask Register Byte 3
0000 0000
68, 253
EPMM2
Pattern Match Mask Register Byte 2
0000 0000
68, 253
EPMM1
Pattern Match Mask Register Byte 1
0000 0000
68, 253
EPMM0
Pattern Match Mask Register Byte 0
0000 0000
68, 253
Legend: x = unknown, u = unchanged, - = unimplemented, read as ‘0’, q = value depends on condition, r = reserved bit, do not modify. Shaded cells
are unimplemented, read as ‘0’.
Note 1: Bit 7 and bit 6 are cleared by user software or by a POR.
2: Bit 21 of the PC is only available in Serial Programming modes.
3: Reset value is ‘0’ when Two-Speed Start-up is enabled and ‘1’ if disabled.
4: Alternate names and definitions for these bits when the MSSP module is operating in I2C™ Slave mode.
5: These bits and/or registers are only available in 100-pin devices; otherwise, they are unimplemented and read as ‘0’. Reset values shown
apply only to 100-pin devices.
6: These bits and/or registers are only available in 80-pin and 100-pin devices; in 64-pin devices, they are unimplemented and read as ‘0’. Reset
values are shown for 100-pin devices.
7: In Microcontroller mode, the bits in this register are unwritable and read as ‘0’.
8: PLLEN is only available when either ECPLL or HSPLL Oscillator mode is selected; otherwise, read as ‘0’.
9: Implemented in 100-pin devices in Microcontroller mode only.
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS39762E-page 89
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
TABLE 5-5:
File Name
REGISTER FILE SUMMARY (PIC18F97J60 FAMILY) (CONTINUED)
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
Values on Details on
POR, BOR
Page:
EHT7
Hash Table Register Byte 7
0000 0000
68, 249
EHT6
Hash Table Register Byte 6
0000 0000
68, 249
EHT5
Hash Table Register Byte 5
0000 0000
68, 249
EHT4
Hash Table Register Byte 4
0000 0000
68, 249
EHT3
Hash Table Register Byte 3
0000 0000
68, 249
EHT2
Hash Table Register Byte 2
0000 0000
68, 249
EHT1
Hash Table Register Byte 1
0000 0000
68, 249
EHT0
Hash Table Register Byte 0
0000 0000
68, 249
MIRDH
MII Read Data Register High Byte
0000 0000
68, 222
MIRDL
MII Read Data Register Low Byte
0000 0000
68, 222
MIWRH
MII Write Data Register High Byte
0000 0000
68, 222
MIWRL
MII Write Data Register Low Byte
0000 0000
68, 222
---0 0000
68, 222
MIREGADR
—
—
—
MICMD
—
—
—
MII Address Register
—
—
—
MIISCAN
MIIRD
---- --00
68, 221
MAMXFLH
Maximum Frame Length Register High Byte
0000 0110
68, 235
MAMXFLL
Maximum Frame Length Register Low Byte
0000 0000
68, 235
MAIPGH
—
MAC Non Back-to-Back Inter-Packet Gap Register High Byte
-000 0000
69, 235
MAIPGL
—
MAC Non Back-to-Back Inter-Packet Gap Register Low Byte
-000 0000
69, 235
MABBIPG
—
BBIPG6
BBIPG5
BBIPG4
BBIPG3
BBIPG2
BBIPG1
BBIPG0
-000 0000
69, 236
MACON4
—
DEFER
r
r
—
—
r
r
-000 --00
69, 221
MACON3
PADCFG2
PADCFG1
PADCFG0
TXCRCEN
PHDREN
HFRMEN
FRMLNEN
FULDPX
0000 0000
69, 220
—
—
—
r
TXPAUS
RXPAUS
PASSALL
MARXEN
MACON1
EPAUSH
Pause Timer Value Register High Byte
EPAUSL
Pause Timer Value Register Low Byte
---0 0000
69, 219
0001 0000
69, 248
0000 0000
69, 248
EFLOCON
—
—
—
—
—
r
FCEN1
FCEN0
---- -000
69, 248
MISTAT
—
—
—
—
r
NVALID
SCAN
BUSY
---- 0000
69, 222
0000 0000
69, 235
MAADR2
MAC Address Register Byte 2 (MAADR<39:32>), OUI Byte 2
MAADR1
MAC Address Register Byte 1 (MAADR<47:40>), OUI Byte 1
0000 0000
69, 235
MAADR4
MAC Address Register Byte 4 (MAADR<23:16>)
0000 0000
69, 235
MAADR3
MAC Address Register Byte 3 (MAADR<31:24>), OUI Byte 3
0000 0000
69, 235
MAADR6
MAC Address Register Byte 6 (MAADR<7:0>)
0000 0000
69, 235
MAADR5
MAC Address Register Byte 5 (MAADR<15:8>)
0000 0000
69, 235
Legend: x = unknown, u = unchanged, - = unimplemented, read as ‘0’, q = value depends on condition, r = reserved bit, do not modify. Shaded cells
are unimplemented, read as ‘0’.
Note 1: Bit 7 and bit 6 are cleared by user software or by a POR.
2: Bit 21 of the PC is only available in Serial Programming modes.
3: Reset value is ‘0’ when Two-Speed Start-up is enabled and ‘1’ if disabled.
4: Alternate names and definitions for these bits when the MSSP module is operating in I2C™ Slave mode.
5: These bits and/or registers are only available in 100-pin devices; otherwise, they are unimplemented and read as ‘0’. Reset values shown
apply only to 100-pin devices.
6: These bits and/or registers are only available in 80-pin and 100-pin devices; in 64-pin devices, they are unimplemented and read as ‘0’. Reset
values are shown for 100-pin devices.
7: In Microcontroller mode, the bits in this register are unwritable and read as ‘0’.
8: PLLEN is only available when either ECPLL or HSPLL Oscillator mode is selected; otherwise, read as ‘0’.
9: Implemented in 100-pin devices in Microcontroller mode only.
DS39762E-page 90
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
5.3.6
STATUS REGISTER
The STATUS register, shown in Register 5-3, contains
the arithmetic status of the ALU. The STATUS register
can be the operand for any instruction, as with any
other register. If the STATUS register is the destination
for an instruction that affects the Z, DC, C, OV or N bits,
then the write to these five bits is disabled.
These bits are set or cleared according to the device
logic. Therefore, the result of an instruction with the
STATUS register as destination may be different than
intended. For example, CLRF STATUS will set the Z bit
but leave the other bits unchanged. The STATUS
REGISTER 5-3:
register then reads back as ‘000u u1uu’. It is recommended, therefore, that only BCF, BSF, SWAPF, MOVFF
and MOVWF instructions are used to alter the STATUS
register because these instructions do not affect the Z,
C, DC, OV or N bits in the STATUS register.
For other instructions not affecting any Status bits, see
the instruction set summaries in Table 25-2 and
Table 25-3.
Note:
The C and DC bits operate as a Borrow
and Digit Borrow bit respectively, in
subtraction.
STATUS REGISTER
U-0
U-0
U-0
R/W-x
R/W-x
R/W-x
R/W-x
R/W-x
—
—
—
N
OV
Z
DC(1)
C(2)
bit 7
bit 0
Legend:
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
-n = Value at POR
‘1’ = Bit is set
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
x = Bit is unknown
bit 7-5
Unimplemented: Read as ‘0’
bit 4
N: Negative bit
This bit is used for signed arithmetic (2’s complement). It indicates whether the result was negative
(ALU MSb = 1).
1 = Result was negative
0 = Result was positive
bit 3
OV: Overflow bit
This bit is used for signed arithmetic (2’s complement). It indicates an overflow of the 7-bit magnitude
which causes the sign bit (bit 7 of the result) to change state.
1 = Overflow occurred for signed arithmetic (in this arithmetic operation)
0 = No overflow occurred
bit 2
Z: Zero bit
1 = The result of an arithmetic or logic operation is zero
0 = The result of an arithmetic or logic operation is non-zero
bit 1
DC: Digit Carry/Borrow bit(1)
For ADDWF, ADDLW, SUBLW and SUBWF instructions:
1 = A carry-out from the 4th low-order bit of the result occurred
0 = No carry-out from the 4th low-order bit of the result
bit 0
C: Carry/Borrow bit(2)
For ADDWF, ADDLW, SUBLW and SUBWF instructions:
1 = A carry-out from the Most Significant bit of the result occurred
0 = No carry-out from the Most Significant bit of the result occurred
Note 1:
2:
For Borrow, the polarity is reversed. A subtraction is executed by adding the 2’s complement of the second
operand. For rotate (RRF, RLF) instructions, this bit is loaded with either bit 4 or bit 3 of the source register.
For Borrow, the polarity is reversed. A subtraction is executed by adding the 2’s complement of the second
operand. For rotate (RRF, RLF) instructions, this bit is loaded with either the high or low-order bit of the
source register.
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS39762E-page 91
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
5.4
Note:
Data Addressing Modes
The execution of some instructions in the
core PIC18 instruction set are changed
when the PIC18 extended instruction set is
enabled. See Section 5.6 “Data Memory
and the Extended Instruction Set” for
more information.
While the program memory can be addressed in only
one way – through the program counter – information
in the data memory space can be addressed in several
ways. For most instructions, the addressing mode is
fixed. Other instructions may use up to three modes,
depending on which operands are used and whether or
not the extended instruction set is enabled.
The addressing modes are:
• Inherent
• Literal
• Direct
• Indirect
An additional addressing mode, Indexed Literal Offset,
is available when the extended instruction set is
enabled (XINST Configuration bit = 1). Its operation is
discussed in greater detail in Section 5.6.1 “Indexed
Addressing with Literal Offset”.
5.4.1
INHERENT AND LITERAL
ADDRESSING
Many PIC18 control instructions do not need any
argument at all. They either perform an operation that
globally affects the device, or they operate implicitly on
one register. This addressing mode is known as Inherent
Addressing. Examples include SLEEP, RESET and DAW.
Other instructions work in a similar way, but require an
additional explicit argument in the opcode. This is
known as Literal Addressing mode because they
require some literal value as an argument. Examples
include ADDLW and MOVLW, which respectively, add or
move a literal value to the W register. Other examples
include CALL and GOTO, which include a 20-bit
program memory address.
5.4.2
The Access RAM bit, ‘a’, determines how the address
is interpreted. When ‘a’ is ‘1’, the contents of the BSR
(Section 5.3.1 “Bank Select Register”) are used with
the address to determine the complete 12-bit address
of the register. When ‘a’ is ‘0’, the address is interpreted
as being a register in the Access Bank. Addressing that
uses the Access RAM is sometimes also known as
Direct Forced Addressing mode.
A few instructions, such as MOVFF, include the entire
12-bit address (either source or destination) in their
opcodes. In these cases, the BSR is ignored entirely.
The destination of the operation’s results is determined
by the destination bit, ‘d’. When ‘d’ is ‘1’, the results are
stored back in the source register, overwriting its original contents. When ‘d’ is ‘0’, the results are stored in
the W register. Instructions without the ‘d’ argument
have a destination that is implicit in the instruction.
Their destination is either the target register being
operated on or the W register.
5.4.3
Indirect Addressing mode allows the user to access a
location in data memory without giving a fixed address
in the instruction. This is done by using File Select
Registers (FSRs) as pointers to the locations to be read
or written to. Since the FSRs are themselves located in
RAM as Special Function Registers, they can also be
directly manipulated under program control. This
makes FSRs very useful in implementing data
structures, such as tables and arrays in data memory.
The registers for Indirect Addressing are also
implemented with Indirect File Operands (INDFs) that
permit automatic manipulation of the pointer value with
auto-incrementing, auto-decrementing or offsetting
with another value. This allows for efficient code using
loops, such as the example of clearing an entire RAM
bank in Example 5-5. It also enables users to perform
indexed addressing and other Stack Pointer operations
for program memory in data memory.
EXAMPLE 5-5:
DIRECT ADDRESSING
Direct Addressing mode specifies all or part of the
source and/or destination address of the operation
within the opcode itself. The options are specified by
the arguments accompanying the instruction.
In the core PIC18 instruction set, bit-oriented and
byte-oriented instructions use some version of Direct
Addressing by default. All of these instructions include
some 8-bit literal address as their Least Significant
Byte. This address specifies either a register address in
one of the banks of data RAM (Section 5.3.3 “General
Purpose Register File”) or a location in the Access
Bank (Section 5.3.2 “Access Bank”) as the data
source for the instruction.
DS39762E-page 92
INDIRECT ADDRESSING
NEXT
LFSR
CLRF
HOW TO CLEAR RAM
(BANK 1) USING INDIRECT
ADDRESSING
FSR0, 100h
POSTINC0
BTFSS FSR0H, 1
BRA
CONTINUE
NEXT
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
Clear INDF
register then
inc pointer
All done with
Bank1?
NO, clear next
YES, continue
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
5.4.3.1
FSR Registers and the
INDF Operand
SFR space but are not physically implemented. Reading
or writing to a particular INDF register actually accesses
its corresponding FSR register pair. A read from INDF1,
for example, reads the data at the address indicated by
FSR1H:FSR1L. Instructions that use the INDF registers
as operands actually use the contents of their
corresponding FSR as a pointer to the instruction’s
target. The INDF operand is just a convenient way of
using the pointer.
At the core of Indirect Addressing are three sets of
registers: FSR0, FSR1 and FSR2. Each represents a
pair of 8-bit registers: FSRnH and FSRnL. The four
upper bits of the FSRnH register are not used, so each
FSR pair holds a 12-bit value. This represents a value
that can address the entire range of the data memory
in a linear fashion. The FSR register pairs, then, serve
as pointers to data memory locations.
Because Indirect Addressing uses a full 12-bit address,
data RAM banking is not necessary. Thus, the current
contents of the BSR and Access RAM bit have no effect
on determining the target address.
Indirect Addressing is accomplished with a set of Indirect
File Operands: INDF0 through INDF2. These can be
thought of as “virtual” registers; they are mapped in the
FIGURE 5-9:
INDIRECT ADDRESSING
000h
Using an instruction with one of the
Indirect Addressing registers as the
operand....
Bank 0
ADDWF, INDF1, 1
100h
Bank 1
200h
...uses the 12-bit address stored in
the FSR pair associated with that
register....
300h
FSR1H:FSR1L
7
0
x x x x 1 1 1 1
7
Bank 2
0
1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0
Bank 3
through
Bank 13
...to determine the data memory
location to be used in that operation.
In this case, the FSR1 pair contains
FCCh. This means the contents of
location FCCh will be added to that
of the W register and stored back in
FCCh.
E00h
Bank 14
F00h
FFFh
Bank 15
Data Memory
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS39762E-page 93
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
5.4.3.2
FSR Registers and POSTINC,
POSTDEC, PREINC and PLUSW
In addition to the INDF operand, each FSR register pair
also has four additional indirect operands. Like INDF,
these are “virtual” registers that cannot be indirectly
read or written to. Accessing these registers actually
accesses the associated FSR register pair, but also
performs a specific action on its stored value. They are:
• POSTDEC: accesses the FSR value, then
automatically decrements it by ‘1’ afterwards
• POSTINC: accesses the FSR value, then
automatically increments it by ‘1’ afterwards
• PREINC: increments the FSR value by ‘1’, then
uses it in the operation
• PLUSW: adds the signed value of the W register
(range of -128 to 127) to that of the FSR and uses
the new value in the operation
In this context, accessing an INDF register uses the
value in the FSR registers without changing them.
Similarly, accessing a PLUSW register gives the FSR
value offset by the value in the W register; neither value
is actually changed in the operation. Accessing the
other virtual registers changes the value of the FSR
registers.
Operations on the FSRs with POSTDEC, POSTINC
and PREINC affect the entire register pair; that is, rollovers of the FSRnL register from FFh to 00h carry over
to the FSRnH register. On the other hand, results of
these operations do not change the value of any flags
in the STATUS register (e.g., Z, N, OV, etc.).
The PLUSW register can be used to implement a form
of Indexed Addressing in the data memory space. By
manipulating the value in the W register, users can
reach addresses that are fixed offsets from pointer
addresses. In some applications, this can be used to
implement some powerful program control structure,
such as software stacks, inside of data memory.
5.4.3.3
Operations by FSRs on FSRs
Indirect Addressing operations that target other FSRs, or
virtual registers, represent special cases. For example,
using an FSR to point to one of the virtual registers will
not result in successful operation. As a specific case,
assume that the FSR0H:FSR0L pair contains FE7h, the
address of INDF1. Attempts to read the value of the
INDF1, using INDF0 as an operand, will return 00h.
Attempts to write to INDF1, using INDF0 as the operand,
will result in a NOP.
DS39762E-page 94
On the other hand, using the virtual registers to write to
an FSR pair may not occur as planned. In these cases,
the value will be written to the FSR pair but without any
incrementing or decrementing. Thus, writing to INDF2
or POSTDEC2 will write the same value to the
FSR2H:FSR2L pair.
Since the FSRs are physical registers mapped in the
SFR space, they can be manipulated through all direct
operations. Users should proceed cautiously when
working on these registers, particularly if their code
uses Indirect Addressing.
Similarly, operations by Indirect Addressing are generally permitted on all other SFRs. Users should exercise
the appropriate caution that they do not inadvertently
change settings that might affect the operation of the
device.
5.5
Program Memory and the
Extended Instruction Set
The operation of program memory is unaffected by the
use of the extended instruction set.
Enabling the extended instruction set adds five
additional two-word commands to the existing PIC18
instruction set: ADDFSR, CALLW, MOVSF, MOVSS and
SUBFSR. These instructions are executed as described
in Section 5.2.4 “Two-Word Instructions”.
5.6
Data Memory and the Extended
Instruction Set
Enabling the PIC18 extended instruction set (XINST
Configuration bit = 1) significantly changes certain
aspects of data memory and its addressing. Specifically,
the use of the Access Bank for many of the core PIC18
instructions is different. This is due to the introduction of
a new addressing mode for the data memory space.
This mode also alters the behavior of Indirect
Addressing using FSR2 and its associated operands.
What does not change is just as important. The size of
the data memory space is unchanged, as well as its
linear addressing. The SFR map remains the same.
Core PIC18 instructions can still operate in both Direct
and Indirect Addressing mode; inherent and literal
instructions do not change at all. Indirect Addressing
with FSR0 and FSR1 also remains unchanged.
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
5.6.1
INDEXED ADDRESSING WITH
LITERAL OFFSET
Enabling the PIC18 extended instruction set changes
the behavior of Indirect Addressing using the FSR2
register pair and its associated file operands. Under the
proper conditions, instructions that use the Access
Bank – that is, most bit-oriented and byte-oriented
instructions – can invoke a form of Indexed Addressing
using an offset specified in the instruction. This special
addressing mode is known as Indexed Addressing with
Literal Offset, or Indexed Literal Offset mode.
When using the extended instruction set, this
addressing mode requires the following:
• The use of the Access Bank is forced (‘a’ = 0);
and
• The file address argument is less than or equal to
5Fh.
Under these conditions, the file address of the
instruction is not interpreted as the lower byte of an
address (used with the BSR in Direct Addressing) or as
an 8-bit address in the Access Bank. Instead, the value
is interpreted as an offset value to an Address Pointer
specified by FSR2. The offset and the contents of
FSR2 are added to obtain the target address of the
operation.
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
5.6.2
INSTRUCTIONS AFFECTED BY
INDEXED LITERAL OFFSET MODE
Any of the core PIC18 instructions that can use Direct
Addressing are potentially affected by the Indexed Literal
Offset Addressing mode. This includes all byte-oriented
and bit-oriented instructions, or almost half of the
standard PIC18 instruction set. Instructions that only use
Inherent or Literal Addressing modes are unaffected.
Additionally, byte-oriented and bit-oriented instructions
are not affected if they use the Access Bank (Access
RAM bit is ‘1’) or include a file address of 60h or above.
Instructions meeting these criteria will continue to
execute as before. A comparison of the different possible
addressing modes when the extended instruction set is
enabled is shown in Figure 5-10.
Those who desire to use byte-oriented or bit-oriented
instructions in the Indexed Literal Offset mode should
note the changes to assembler syntax for this mode.
This is described in more detail in Section 25.2.1
“Extended Instruction Syntax”.
DS39762E-page 95
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
FIGURE 5-10:
COMPARING ADDRESSING OPTIONS FOR BIT-ORIENTED AND
BYTE-ORIENTED INSTRUCTIONS (EXTENDED INSTRUCTION SET ENABLED)
EXAMPLE INSTRUCTION: ADDWF, f, d, a (Opcode: 0010 01da ffff ffff)
When a = 0 and f ≥ 60h:
The instruction executes in
Direct Forced mode. ‘f’ is
interpreted as a location in the
Access RAM between 060h
and FFFh. This is the same as
locations F60h to FFFh
(Bank 15) of data memory.
Locations below 060h are not
available in this addressing
mode.
000h
060h
Bank 0
100h
00h
Bank 1
through
Bank 14
F00h
60h
Valid Range
for ‘f’
Access RAM
FFh
Bank 15
F40h
SFRs
FFFh
When a = 0 and f ≤ 5Fh:
The instruction executes in
Indexed Literal Offset mode. ‘f’
is interpreted as an offset to the
address value in FSR2. The
two are added together to
obtain the address of the target
register for the instruction. The
address can be anywhere in
the data memory space.
Note that in this mode, the
correct syntax is now:
ADDWF [k], d
where ‘k’ is the same as ‘f’.
When a = 1 (all values of f):
The instruction executes in
Direct mode (also known as
Direct Long mode). ‘f’ is
interpreted as a location in
one of the 16 banks of the data
memory space. The bank is
designated by the Bank Select
Register (BSR). The address
can be in any implemented
bank in the data memory
space.
Data Memory
000h
Bank 0
060h
100h
001001da ffffffff
Bank 1
through
Bank 14
FSR2H
FSR2L
F00h
Bank 15
F40h
SFRs
FFFh
Data Memory
BSR
00000000
000h
Bank 0
060h
100h
Bank 1
through
Bank 14
001001da ffffffff
F00h
Bank 15
F40h
SFRs
FFFh
DS39762E-page 96
Data Memory
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
5.6.3
MAPPING THE ACCESS BANK IN
INDEXED LITERAL OFFSET MODE
The use of Indexed Literal Offset Addressing mode
effectively changes how the lower part of Access RAM
(00h to 5Fh) is mapped. Rather than containing just the
contents of the bottom part of Bank 0, this mode maps
the contents from Bank 0 and a user-defined “window”
that can be located anywhere in the data memory
space. The value of FSR2 establishes the lower
boundary of the addresses mapped into the window,
while the upper boundary is defined by FSR2 plus 95
(5Fh). Addresses in the Access RAM above 5Fh are
mapped as previously described (see Section 5.3.2
“Access Bank”). An example of Access Bank
remapping in this addressing mode is shown in
Figure 5-11.
FIGURE 5-11:
Remapping of the Access Bank applies only to operations using the Indexed Literal Offset mode. Operations
that use the BSR (Access RAM bit is ‘1’) will continue
to use Direct Addressing as before. Any indirect or
indexed operation that explicitly uses any of the indirect
file operands (including FSR2) will continue to operate
as standard Indirect Addressing. Any instruction that
uses the Access Bank, but includes a register address
of greater than 05Fh, will use Direct Addressing and
the normal Access Bank map.
5.6.4
BSR IN INDEXED LITERAL
OFFSET MODE
Although the Access Bank is remapped when the
extended instruction set is enabled, the operation of the
BSR remains unchanged. Direct Addressing, using the
BSR to select the data memory bank, operates in the
same manner as previously described.
REMAPPING THE ACCESS BANK WITH INDEXED LITERAL
OFFSET ADDRESSING
Example Situation:
ADDWF f, d, a
FSR2H:FSR2L = 120h
000h
05Fh
Locations in the region
from the FSR2 Pointer
(120h) to the pointer plus
05Fh (17Fh) are mapped
to the bottom of the
Access RAM (000h-05Fh).
100h
120h
17Fh
Bank 0
200h
Window
Bank 1
00h
Bank 1 “Window”
5Fh
60h
Special Function Registers
at F60h through FFFh are
mapped to 60h through
FFh, as usual.
Bank 0 addresses below
5Fh are not available in
this mode. They can still
be addressed by using the
BSR.
Not Accessible
Bank 2
through
Bank 14
SFRs
FFh
Access Bank
F00h
Bank 15
F60h
FFFh
SFRs
Data Memory
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS39762E-page 97
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
NOTES:
DS39762E-page 98
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
6.0
FLASH PROGRAM MEMORY
6.1
Table Reads and Table Writes
The Flash program memory is readable, writable and
erasable during normal operation over the entire VDD
range.
In order to read and write program memory, there are
two operations that allow the processor to move bytes
between the program memory space and the data RAM:
A read from program memory is executed on one byte
at a time. A write to program memory is executed on
blocks of 64 bytes at a time. Program memory is
erased in blocks of 1024 bytes at a time. A Bulk Erase
operation may not be issued from user code.
• Table Read (TBLRD)
• Table Write (TBLWT)
Writing or erasing program memory will cease
instruction fetches until the operation is complete. The
program memory cannot be accessed during the write
or erase, therefore, code cannot execute. An internal
programming timer terminates program memory writes
and erases.
A value written to program memory does not need to be
a valid instruction. Executing a program memory
location that forms an invalid instruction results in a
NOP.
The program memory space is 16 bits wide, while the
data RAM space is 8 bits wide. Table reads and table
writes move data between these two memory spaces
through an 8-bit register (TABLAT).
Table read operations retrieve data from program
memory and place it into the data RAM space.
Figure 6-1 shows the operation of a table read with
program memory and data RAM.
Table write operations store data from the data memory
space into holding registers in program memory. The
procedure to write the contents of the holding registers
into program memory is detailed in Section 6.5 “Writing
to Flash Program Memory”. Figure 6-2 shows the
operation of a table write with program memory and data
RAM.
Table operations work with byte entities. A table block
containing data, rather than program instructions, is not
required to be word-aligned. Therefore, a table block can
start and end at any byte address. If a table write is being
used to write executable code into program memory,
program instructions will need to be word-aligned.
FIGURE 6-1:
TABLE READ OPERATION
Instruction: TBLRD*
Program Memory
Table Pointer(1)
TBLPTRU
TBLPTRH
TBLPTRL
Table Latch (8-bit)
TABLAT
Program Memory
(TBLPTR)
Note 1:
Table Pointer register points to a byte in program memory.
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS39762E-page 99
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
FIGURE 6-2:
TABLE WRITE OPERATION
Instruction: TBLWT*
Program Memory
Holding Registers
Table Pointer(1)
TBLPTRU
TBLPTRH
Table Latch (8-bit)
TBLPTRL
TABLAT
Program Memory
(TBLPTR)
Note 1:
6.2
Table Pointer actually points to one of 64 holding registers, the address of which is determined by
TBLPTRL<5:0>. The process for physically writing data to the program memory array is discussed in
Section 6.5 “Writing to Flash Program Memory”.
Control Registers
Several control registers are used in conjunction with
the TBLRD and TBLWT instructions. These include the:
•
•
•
•
EECON1 register
EECON2 register
TABLAT register
TBLPTR registers
6.2.1
EECON1 AND EECON2 REGISTERS
The EECON1 register (Register 6-1) is the control
register for memory accesses. The EECON2 register is
not a physical register; it is used exclusively in the
memory write and erase sequences. Reading
EECON2 will read all ‘0’s.
The WREN bit, when set, will allow a write operation.
On power-up, the WREN bit is clear. The WRERR bit is
set in hardware when the WR bit is set, and cleared
when the internal programming timer expires and the
write operation is complete.
Note:
During normal operation, the WRERR is
read as ‘1’. This can indicate that a write
operation was prematurely terminated by
a Reset, or a write operation was
attempted improperly.
The WR control bit initiates write operations. The bit
cannot be cleared, only set, in software; it is cleared in
hardware at the completion of the write operation.
The FREE bit, when set, will allow a program memory
erase operation. When FREE is set, the erase
operation is initiated on the next WR command. When
FREE is clear, only writes are enabled.
DS39762E-page 100
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
REGISTER 6-1:
EECON1: EEPROM CONTROL REGISTER 1
U-0
U-0
U-0
R/W-0
R/W-x
R/W-0
R/S-0
U-0
—
—
—
FREE
WRERR
WREN
WR
—
bit 7
bit 0
Legend:
S = Settable bit
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
-n = Value at POR
‘1’ = Bit is set
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
x = Bit is unknown
bit 7-5
Unimplemented: Read as ‘0’
bit 4
FREE: Flash Row Erase Enable bit
1 = Erase the program memory row addressed by TBLPTR on the next WR command (cleared by
completion of erase operation)
0 = Perform write-only
bit 3
WRERR: Flash Program Error Flag bit
1 = A write operation is prematurely terminated (any Reset during self-timed programming in normal
operation, or an improper write attempt)
0 = The write operation completed
bit 2
WREN: Flash Program Write Enable bit
1 = Allows write cycles to Flash program memory
0 = Inhibits write cycles to Flash program memory
bit 1
WR: Write Control bit
1 = Initiates a program memory erase cycle or write cycle.
(The operation is self-timed and the bit is cleared by hardware once write is complete.
The WR bit can only be set (not cleared) in software.)
0 = Write cycle complete
bit 0
Unimplemented: Read as ‘0’
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS39762E-page 101
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
6.2.2
TABLE LATCH REGISTER (TABLAT)
6.2.4
The Table Latch (TABLAT) is an 8-bit register mapped
into the SFR space. The Table Latch register is used to
hold 8-bit data during data transfers between program
memory and data RAM.
6.2.3
TBLPTR is used in reads, writes and erases of the
Flash program memory.
When a TBLRD is executed, all 22 bits of the TBLPTR
determine which byte is read from program memory
into TABLAT.
TABLE POINTER REGISTER
(TBLPTR)
When a TBLWT is executed, the six LSbs of the Table
Pointer register (TBLPTR<5:0>) determine which of the
64 program memory holding registers is written to.
When the timed write to program memory begins (via
the WR bit), the 15 MSbs of the TBLPTR
(TBLPTR<20:6>) determine which program memory
block of 64 bytes is written to. For more detail, see
Section 6.5 “Writing to Flash Program Memory”.
The Table Pointer (TBLPTR) register addresses a byte
within the program memory. The TBLPTR is comprised
of three SFR registers: Table Pointer Upper Byte, Table
Pointer High Byte and Table Pointer Low Byte
(TBLPTRU:TBLPTRH:TBLPTRL). These three registers join to form a 22-bit wide pointer. The low-order
21 bits allow the device to address up to 2 Mbytes of
program memory space. The 22nd bit allows access to
the Device ID and Configuration bits.
When an erase of program memory is executed, the
11 MSbs
of
the
Table
Pointer
register
(TBLPTR<20:10>) point to the 1024-byte block that will
be erased. The Least Significant bits (TBLPTR<9:0>)
are ignored.
The Table Pointer register, TBLPTR, is used by the
TBLRD and TBLWT instructions. These instructions can
update the TBLPTR in one of four ways based on the
table operation. These operations are shown in
Table 6-1. The table operations on the TBLPTR only
affect the low-order 21 bits.
TABLE 6-1:
TABLE POINTER BOUNDARIES
Figure 6-3 describes the relevant boundaries of
TBLPTR based on Flash program memory operations.
TABLE POINTER OPERATIONS WITH TBLRD AND TBLWT INSTRUCTIONS
Example
Operation on Table Pointer
TBLRD*
TBLWT*
TBLPTR is not modified
TBLRD*+
TBLWT*+
TBLPTR is incremented after the read/write
TBLRD*TBLWT*-
TBLPTR is decremented after the read/write
TBLRD+*
TBLWT+*
TBLPTR is incremented before the read/write
FIGURE 6-3:
21
TABLE POINTER BOUNDARIES BASED ON OPERATION
TBLPTRU
16
15
TBLPTRH
8
7
TBLPTRL
0
Table Erase
TBLPTR<20:10>
Table Write
TBLPTR<20:6>
Table Read – TBLPTR<21:0>
DS39762E-page 102
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
6.3
Reading the Flash Program
Memory
TBLPTR points to a byte address in program space.
Executing TBLRD places the byte pointed to into
TABLAT. In addition, TBLPTR can be modified
automatically for the next table read operation.
The TBLRD instruction is used to retrieve data from
program memory and places it into data RAM. Table
reads from program memory are performed one byte at
a time.
FIGURE 6-4:
The internal program memory is typically organized by
words. The Least Significant bit of the address selects
between the high and low bytes of the word. Figure 6-4
shows the interface between the internal program
memory and the TABLAT.
READS FROM FLASH PROGRAM MEMORY
Program Memory
(Even Byte Address)
(Odd Byte Address)
TBLPTR = xxxxx0
TBLPTR = xxxxx1
Instruction Register
(IR)
EXAMPLE 6-1:
FETCH
TBLRD
TABLAT
Read Register
READING A FLASH PROGRAM MEMORY WORD
MOVLW
MOVWF
MOVLW
MOVWF
MOVLW
MOVWF
CODE_ADDR_UPPER
TBLPTRU
CODE_ADDR_HIGH
TBLPTRH
CODE_ADDR_LOW
TBLPTRL
; Load TBLPTR with the base
; address of the word
READ_WORD
TBLRD*+
MOVF
MOVWF
TBLRD*+
MOVFW
MOVF
TABLAT, W
WORD_EVEN
TABLAT, W
WORD_ODD
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
; read into TABLAT and increment
; get data
; read into TABLAT and increment
; get data
DS39762E-page 103
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
6.4
Erasing Flash Program Memory
The minimum erase block is 1024 bytes. Only through
the use of an external programmer, or through ICSP
control, can larger blocks of program memory be Bulk
Erased. Word Erase in the Flash array is not supported.
When initiating an erase sequence from the microcontroller itself, a block of 1024 bytes of program
memory is erased. The Most Significant 11 bits of the
TBLPTR<20:10> point to the block being erased.
TBLPTR<9:0> are ignored.
The EECON1 register commands the erase operation.
The WREN bit must be set to enable write operations.
The FREE bit is set to select an erase operation.
For protection, the write initiate sequence for EECON2
must be used.
A long write is necessary for erasing the internal
Flash. Instruction execution is halted while in a long
write cycle. The long write will be terminated by the
internal programming timer. An on-chip timer controls
the erase time. The write/erase voltages are
generated by an on-chip charge pump, rated to
operate over most of the voltage range of the device.
See parameter D132B (VPEW) for specific limits.
EXAMPLE 6-2:
6.4.1
FLASH PROGRAM MEMORY
ERASE SEQUENCE
The sequence of events for erasing a block of internal
program memory location is:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
Load Table Pointer register with address of row
being erased.
Set the EECON1 register for the erase operation:
• set WREN bit to enable writes;
• set FREE bit to enable the erase.
Disable interrupts.
Write 55h to EECON2.
Write 0AAh to EECON2.
Set the WR bit. This will begin the Row Erase
cycle.
The CPU will stall for duration of the erase.
Re-enable interrupts.
ERASING A FLASH PROGRAM MEMORY ROW
MOVLW
MOVWF
MOVLW
MOVWF
MOVLW
MOVWF
CODE_ADDR_UPPER
TBLPTRU
CODE_ADDR_HIGH
TBLPTRH
CODE_ADDR_LOW
TBLPTRL
; load TBLPTR with the base
; address of the memory block
BSF
BSF
BCF
MOVLW
MOVWF
MOVLW
MOVWF
BSF
BSF
EECON1,
EECON1,
INTCON,
55h
EECON2
0AAh
EECON2
EECON1,
INTCON,
; enable write to memory
; enable Row Erase operation
; disable interrupts
ERASE_ROW
Required
Sequence
DS39762E-page 104
WREN
FREE
GIE
; write 55h
WR
GIE
; write 0AAh
; start erase (CPU stall)
; re-enable interrupts
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
6.5
Writing to Flash Program Memory
An on-chip timer controls the write time. The
write/erase voltages are generated by an on-chip
charge pump, rated to operate over most of the
voltage range of the device. See parameter D132B
(VPEW) for specific limits.
The minimum programming block is 32 words or
64 bytes. Word or byte programming is not supported.
Table writes are used internally to load the holding
registers needed to program the Flash memory. There
are 64 holding registers used by the table writes for
programming.
Note 1: Unlike previous PIC MCU devices,
members of the PIC18F97J60 family do
not reset the holding registers after a
write occurs. The holding registers must
be cleared or overwritten before a
programming sequence.
Since the Table Latch (TABLAT) is only a single byte, the
TBLWT instruction may need to be executed 64 times for
each programming operation. All of the table write
operations will essentially be short writes because only
the holding registers are written. At the end of updating
the 64 holding registers, the EECON1 register must be
written to in order to start the programming operation
with a long write.
2: To maintain the endurance of the program
memory cells, each Flash byte should not
be programmed more than one time
between erase operations. Before
attempting to modify the contents of the
target cell a second time, a Row Erase of
the target row, or a Bulk Erase of the
entire memory, must be performed.
The long write is necessary for programming the
internal Flash. Instruction execution is halted while in a
long write cycle. The long write will be terminated by
the internal programming timer.
FIGURE 6-5:
TABLE WRITES TO FLASH PROGRAM MEMORY
TABLAT
Write Register
8
8
TBLPTR = xxxxx0
8
TBLPTR = xxxxx1
Holding Register
TBLPTR = xxxx3F
TBLPTR = xxxxx2
Holding Register
8
Holding Register
Holding Register
Program Memory
6.5.1
FLASH PROGRAM MEMORY WRITE
SEQUENCE
The sequence of events for programming an internal
program memory location should be:
1.
2.
3.
4.
If the section of program memory to be written to
has been programmed previously, then the
memory will need to be erased before the write
occurs (see Section 6.4.1 “Flash Program
Memory Erase Sequence”).
Write the 64 bytes into the holding registers with
auto-increment.
Set the WREN bit to enable byte writes.
Disable interrupts.
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
Write 55h to EECON2.
Write AAh to EECON2.
Set the WR bit. This will begin the write cycle.
The CPU will stall for duration of the write.
Re-enable interrupts.
Verify the memory (table read).
An example of the required code is shown in
Example 6-3.
Note:
Before setting the WR bit, the Table
Pointer address needs to be within the
intended address range of the 64 bytes in
the holding register.
DS39762E-page 105
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
EXAMPLE 6-3:
WRITING TO FLASH PROGRAM MEMORY
MOVLW
MOVWF
MOVLW
MOVWF
MOVLW
MOVWF
CODE_ADDR_UPPER
TBLPTRU
CODE_ADDR_HIGH
TBLPTRH
CODE_ADDR_LOW
TBLPTRL
; Load TBLPTR with the base
; address of the memory block
BSF
BSF
BCF
MOVLW
MOVWF
MOVLW
MOVWF
BSF
BSF
MOVLW
MOVWF
EECON1, WREN
EECON1, FREE
INTCON, GIE
55h
EECON2
0AAh
EECON2
EECON1, WR
INTCON, GIE
D'16'
WRITE_COUNTER
; enable write to memory
; enable Row Erase operation
; disable interrupts
MOVLW
MOVWF
MOVLW
MOVWF
MOVLW
MOVWF
D'64'
COUNTER
BUFFER_ADDR_HIGH
FSR0H
BUFFER_ADDR_LOW
FSR0L
ERASE_BLOCK
; write 55h
; write 0AAh
; start erase (CPU stall)
; re-enable interrupts
; Need to write 16 blocks of 64 to write
; one erase block of 1024
RESTART_BUFFER
; point to buffer
FILL_BUFFER
...
; read the new data from I2C, SPI,
; PSP, USART, etc.
WRITE_BUFFER
MOVLW
MOVWF
D’64
COUNTER
; number of bytes in holding register
WRITE_BYTE_TO_HREGS
MOVFF
POSTINC0, WREG
MOVWF
TABLAT
TBLWT+*
DECFSZ
BRA
COUNTER
WRITE_BYTE_TO_HREGS
BSF
BCF
MOVLW
MOVWF
MOVLW
MOVWF
BSF
BSF
BCF
EECON1,
INTCON,
55h
EECON2
0AAh
EECON2
EECON1,
INTCON,
EECON1,
DECFSZ
BRA
WRITE_COUNTER
RESTART_BUFFER
;
;
;
;
;
get low byte of buffer data
present data to table latch
write data, perform a short write
to internal TBLWT holding register.
loop until buffers are full
PROGRAM_MEMORY
Required
Sequence
DS39762E-page 106
WREN
GIE
; enable write to memory
; disable interrupts
; write 55h
WR
GIE
WREN
;
;
;
;
write 0AAh
start program (CPU stall)
re-enable interrupts
disable write to memory
; done with one write cycle
; if not done replacing the erase block
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
6.5.2
WRITE VERIFY
6.5.4
Depending on the application, good programming
practice may dictate that the value written to the
memory should be verified against the original value.
This should be used in applications where excessive
writes can stress bits near the specification limit.
6.5.3
UNEXPECTED TERMINATION OF
WRITE OPERATION
If a write is terminated by an unplanned event, such as
loss of power or an unexpected Reset, the memory
location just programmed should be verified and reprogrammed if needed. If the write operation is interrupted
by a MCLR Reset, or a WDT Time-out Reset during
normal operation, the user can check the WRERR bit
and rewrite the location(s) as needed.
TABLE 6-2:
PROTECTION AGAINST
SPURIOUS WRITES
To protect against spurious writes to Flash program
memory, the write initiate sequence must also be
followed. See Section 24.0 “Special Features of the
CPU” for more details.
6.6
Flash Program Operation During
Code Protection
See Section 24.6 “Program Verification and Code
Protection” for details on code protection of Flash
program memory.
REGISTERS ASSOCIATED WITH PROGRAM FLASH MEMORY
Name
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
TBLPTRU
—
—
bit 21
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
Program Memory Table Pointer Upper Byte (TBLPTR<20:16>)
Reset
Values
on Page:
63
TBPLTRH Program Memory Table Pointer High Byte (TBLPTR<15:8>)
63
TBLPTRL Program Memory Table Pointer Low Byte (TBLPTR<7:0>)
63
TABLAT
Program Memory Table Latch
INTCON
GIE/GIEH PEIE/GIEL TMR0IE
EECON2
EEPROM Control Register 2 (not a physical register)
EECON1
—
—
—
63
INT0IE
FREE
RBIE
WRERR
TMR0IF
INT0IF
RBIF
WREN
WR
—
63
65
65
Legend: — = unimplemented, read as ‘0’. Shaded cells are not used during Flash/EEPROM access.
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS39762E-page 107
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
NOTES:
DS39762E-page 108
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
7.0
EXTERNAL MEMORY BUS
Note:
The external memory bus is not
implemented on 64-pin and 80-pin
devices.
The External Memory Bus (EMB) allows the device to
access external memory devices (such as Flash,
EPROM, SRAM, etc.) as program or data memory. It
supports both 8 and 16-Bit Data Width modes, and
three address widths of up to 20 bits.
TABLE 7-1:
Name
The bus is implemented with 28 pins, multiplexed
across four I/O ports. Three ports (PORTD, PORTE
and PORTH) are multiplexed with the address/data bus
for a total of 20 available lines, while PORTJ is
multiplexed with the bus control signals.
A list of the pins and their functions is provided in
Table 7-1.
PIC18F96J60/96J65/97J60 EXTERNAL MEMORY BUS – I/O PORT FUNCTIONS
Port
Bit
External Memory Bus Function
RD0/AD0
PORTD
0
Address bit 0 or Data bit 0
RD1/AD1
PORTD
1
Address bit 1 or Data bit 1
RD2/AD2
PORTD
2
Address bit 2 or Data bit 2
RD3/AD3
PORTD
3
Address bit 3 or Data bit 3
RD4/AD4
PORTD
4
Address bit 4 or Data bit 4
RD5/AD5
PORTD
5
Address bit 5 or Data bit 5
RD6/AD6
PORTD
6
Address bit 6 or Data bit 6
RD7/AD7
PORTD
7
Address bit 7 or Data bit 7
RE0/AD8
PORTE
0
Address bit 8 or Data bit 8
RE1/AD9
PORTE
1
Address bit 9 or Data bit 9
RE2/AD10
PORTE
2
Address bit 10 or Data bit 10
RE3/AD11
PORTE
3
Address bit 11 or Data bit 11
RE4/AD12
PORTE
4
Address bit 12 or Data bit 12
RE5/AD13
PORTE
5
Address bit 13 or Data bit 13
RE6/AD14
PORTE
6
Address bit 14 or Data bit 14
RE7/AD15
PORTE
7
Address bit 15 or Data bit 15
RH0/A16
PORTH
0
Address bit 16
RH1/A17
PORTH
1
Address bit 17
RH2/A18
PORTH
2
Address bit 18
RH3/A19
PORTH
3
Address bit 19
RJ0/ALE
PORTJ
0
Address Latch Enable (ALE) Control bit
RJ1/OE
PORTJ
1
Output Enable (OE) Control bit
RJ2/WRL
PORTJ
2
Write Low (WRL) Control bit
RJ3/WRH
PORTJ
3
Write High (WRH) Control bit
RJ4/BA0
PORTJ
4
Byte Address (BA0) bit 0
RJ5/CE
PORTJ
5
Chip Enable (CE) Control bit
RJ6/LB
PORTJ
6
Lower Byte Enable (LB) Control bit
RJ7/UB
PORTJ
7
Upper Byte Enable (UB) Control bit
Note:
For the sake of clarity, only I/O port and external bus assignments are shown here. One or more additional
multiplexed features may be available on some pins.
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS39762E-page 109
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
7.1
External Memory Bus Control
The operation of the interface is controlled by the
MEMCON register (Register 7-1). This register is
available in all program memory operating modes
except Microcontroller mode. In this mode, the register
is disabled and cannot be written to.
The EBDIS bit (MEMCON<7>) controls the operation
of the bus and related port functions. Clearing EBDIS
enables the interface and disables the I/O functions of
the ports, as well as any other functions multiplexed to
those pins. Setting the bit enables the I/O ports and
other functions, but allows the interface to override
everything else on the pins when an external memory
operation is required. By default, the external bus is
always enabled and disables all other I/Os.
REGISTER 7-1:
The operation of the EBDIS bit is also influenced by the
program memory mode being used. This is discussed
in more detail in Section 7.5 “Program Memory
Modes and the External Memory Bus”.
The WAIT bits allow for the addition of wait states to
external memory operations. The use of these bits is
discussed in Section 7.3 “Wait States”.
The WM bits select the particular operating mode used
when the bus is operating in 16-Bit Data Width mode.
These operating modes are discussed in more detail in
Section 7.6 “16-Bit Data Width Modes”. The WM bits
have no effect when an 8-Bit Data Width mode is
selected.
MEMCON: EXTERNAL MEMORY BUS CONTROL REGISTER
R/W-0
U-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
U-0
U-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
EBDIS
—
WAIT1
WAIT0
—
—
WM1
WM0
bit 7
bit 0
Legend:
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
-n = Value at POR
‘1’ = Bit is set
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
x = Bit is unknown
bit 7
EBDIS: External Bus Disable bit
1 = External bus enabled when microcontroller accesses external memory; otherwise, all external bus
drivers are mapped as I/O ports
0 = External bus always enabled, I/O ports are disabled
bit 6
Unimplemented: Read as ‘0’
bit 5-4
WAIT1:WAIT0: Table Reads and Writes Bus Cycle Wait Count bits
11 = Table reads and writes will wait 0 TCY
10 = Table reads and writes will wait 1 TCY
01 = Table reads and writes will wait 2 TCY
00 = Table reads and writes will wait 3 TCY
bit 3-2
Unimplemented: Read as ‘0’
bit 1-0
WM1:WM0: TBLWT Operation with 16-Bit Data Bus Width Select bits
1x = Word Write mode: WRH active when TABLAT is written to and TBLPTR contains an odd
address. When TBLPTR contains an even address, writing to TABLAT loads a holding latch with
the value written.
01 = Byte Select mode: TABLAT data copied on both MSB and LSB; WRH and (UB or LB)
will activate
00 = Byte Write mode: TABLAT data copied on both MSB and LSB; WRH or WRL will activate
DS39762E-page 110
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
7.2
Address and Data Width
7.2.1
The PIC18F97J60 family of devices can be independently configured for different address and data widths
on the same memory bus. Both address and data
widths are set by Configuration bits in the CONFIG3L
register. As Configuration bits, this means that these
options can only be configured by programming the
device and are not controllable in software.
The BW bit selects an 8-bit or 16-bit data bus width.
Setting this bit (default) selects a data width of 16 bits.
The EMB1:EMB0 bits determine both the program
memory operating mode and the address bus width. The
available options are 20-bit, 16-bit and 12-bit, as well as
the default Microcontroller mode (external bus disabled).
Selecting a 16-bit or 12-bit width makes a corresponding
number of high-order lines available for I/O functions.
These pins are no longer affected by the setting of the
EBDIS bit. For example, selecting a 16-Bit Addressing
mode (EMB1:EMB0 = 01) disables A19:A16 and allows
the PORTH<3:0> bits to function without interruptions
from the bus. Using the smaller address widths allows
users to tailor the memory bus to the size of the external
memory space for a particular design while freeing up
pins for dedicated I/O operation.
Because the EMB bits have the effect of disabling pins for
memory bus operations, it is important to always select
an address width at least equal to the data width. If a
12-bit address width is used with a 16-bit data width, the
upper four bits of data will not be available on the bus.
All combinations of address and data widths require
multiplexing of address and data information on the
same lines. The address and data multiplexing, as well
as I/O ports made available by the use of smaller
address widths, are summarized in Table 7-2.
TABLE 7-2:
Data Width
By default, the address presented on the external bus
is the value of the PC. In practical terms, this means
that addresses in the external memory device below
the top of on-chip memory are unavailable to the microcontroller. To access these physical locations, the glue
logic between the microcontroller and the external
memory must somehow translate addresses.
To simplify the interface, the external bus offers an
extension of Extended Microcontroller mode that
automatically performs address shifting. This feature is
controlled by the EASHFT Configuration bit. Setting
this bit offsets addresses on the bus by the size of the
microcontroller’s on-chip program memory and sets
the bottom address at 0000h. This allows the device to
use the entire range of physical addresses of the
external memory.
7.2.2
This addressing mode is available in both 8-Bit Data
Width and certain 16-Bit Data Width modes. Additional
details are provided in Section 7.6.3 “16-Bit Byte
Select Mode” and Section 7.7 “8-Bit Data Width
Mode”.
ADDRESS AND DATA LINES FOR DIFFERENT ADDRESS AND DATA WIDTHS
Address Width
Multiplexed Data and
Address Lines (and
corresponding ports)
16-bit
AD7:AD0
(PORTD<7:0>)
20-bit
16-bit
16-bit
21-BIT ADDRESSING
As an extension of 20-bit address width operation, the
external memory bus can also fully address a 2-Mbyte
memory space. This is done by using the Bus Address
(BA0) bit 0 control line as the Least Significant bit of the
address. The UB and LB control signals may also be
used with certain memory devices to select the upper
and lower bytes within a 16-bit wide data word.
12-bit
8-bit
ADDRESS SHIFTING ON THE
EXTERNAL BUS
20-bit
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
AD15:AD0
(PORTD<7:0>,
PORTE<7:0>)
Address Only Lines
(and corresponding
ports)
Ports Available
for I/O
AD11:AD8
(PORTE<3:0>)
PORTE<7:4>,
All of PORTH
AD15:AD8
(PORTE<7:0>)
All of PORTH
A19:A16, AD15:AD8
(PORTH<3:0>,
PORTE<7:0>)
—
—
All of PORTH
A19:A16
(PORTH<3:0>)
—
DS39762E-page 111
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
7.3
Wait States
While it may be assumed that external memory devices
will operate at the microcontroller clock rate, this is
often not the case. In fact, many devices require longer
times to write or retrieve data than the time allowed by
the execution of table read or table write operations.
To compensate for this, the external memory bus can
be configured to add a fixed delay to each table operation using the bus. Wait states are enabled by setting
the WAIT Configuration bit. When enabled, the amount
of delay is set by the WAIT1:WAIT0 bits
(MEMCON<5:4>). The delay is based on multiples of
microcontroller instruction cycle time and are added
following the instruction cycle when the table operation
is executed. The range is from no delay to 3 TCY
(default value).
7.4
Port Pin Weak Pull-ups
With the exception of the upper address lines,
A19:A16, the pins associated with the external memory
bus are equipped with weak pull-ups. The pull-ups are
controlled by bits located at LATA<7:6> and
PORTA<7>. They are named RDPU, REPU and RJPU
and control pull-ups on PORTD, PORTE and PORTJ,
respectively. Setting one of these bits enables the
corresponding pull-ups for that port. All pull-ups are
disabled by default on all device Resets.
In Extended Microcontroller mode, the port pull-ups
can be useful in preserving the memory state on the
external bus while the bus is temporarily disabled
(EBDIS = 1).
7.5
Program Memory Modes and the
External Memory Bus
The PIC18F97J60 family of devices is capable of
operating in one of two program memory modes, using
combinations of on-chip and external program memory.
The functions of the multiplexed port pins depend on
the program memory mode selected, as well as the
setting of the EBDIS bit.
If the device fetches or accesses external memory
while EBDIS = 1, the pins will switch to the external
bus. If the EBDIS bit is set by a program executing from
external memory, the action of setting the bit will be
delayed until the program branches into the internal
memory. At that time, the pins will change from external
bus to I/O ports.
If the device is executing out of internal memory when
EBDIS = 0, the memory bus address/data and control
pins will not be active. They will go to a state where the
active address/data pins are tri-state; the CE, OE,
WRH, WRL, UB and LB signals are ‘1’ and ALE and
BA0 are ‘0’. Note that only those pins associated with
the current address width are forced to tri-state; the
other pins continue to function as I/O. In the case of
16-bit address width, for example, only AD<15:0>
(PORTD and PORTE) are affected; A19:A16
(PORTH<3:0>) continue to function as I/O.
In all external memory modes, the bus takes priority
over any other peripherals that may share pins with it.
This includes the Parallel Slave Port and serial communication modules which would otherwise take
priority over the I/O port.
7.6
16-Bit Data Width Modes
In 16-Bit Data Width mode, the external memory
interface can be connected to external memories in
three different configurations:
• 16-Bit Byte Write
• 16-Bit Word Write
• 16-Bit Byte Select
The configuration to be used is determined by the
WM1:WM0 bits
in the MEMCON register
(MEMCON<1:0>). These three different configurations
allow the designer maximum flexibility in using both
8-bit and 16-bit devices with 16-bit data.
In Microcontroller Mode, the bus is not active and the
pins have their port functions only. Writes to the
MEMCOM register are not permitted. The Reset value
of EBDIS (‘0’) is ignored and the EMB pins behave as
I/O ports.
For all 16-Bit Data Width modes, the Address Latch
Enable (ALE) pin indicates that the address bits,
AD<15:0>, are available on the external memory interface bus. Following the address latch, the Output
Enable signal (OE) will enable both bytes of program
memory at once to form a 16-bit instruction word. The
Chip Enable signal (CE) is active at any time that the
microcontroller accesses external memory, whether
reading or writing. It is inactive (asserted high)
whenever the device is in Sleep mode.
In Extended Microcontroller Mode, the external
program memory bus shares I/O port functions on the
pins. When the device is fetching, or doing table
read/table write operations on the external program
memory space, the pins will have the external bus
function.
In Byte Select mode, JEDEC standard Flash memories
will require BA0 for the byte address line and one I/O
line to select between Byte and Word mode. The other
16-Bit Data Width modes do not need BA0. JEDEC
standard, static RAM memories will use the UB or LB
signals for byte selection.
If the device is fetching and accessing internal program
memory locations only, the EBDIS control bit will
change the pins from external memory to I/O port
functions. When EBDIS = 0, the pins function as the
external bus. When EBDIS = 1, the pins function as I/O
ports.
DS39762E-page 112
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
7.6.1
16-BIT BYTE WRITE MODE
During a TBLWT instruction cycle, the TABLAT data is
presented on the upper and lower bytes of the
AD15:AD0 bus. The appropriate WRH or WRL control
line is strobed on the LSb of the TBLPTR.
Figure 7-1 shows an example of 16-Bit Byte Write
mode for PIC18F97J60 family devices. This mode is
used for two separate 8-bit memories connected for
16-bit operation. This generally includes basic EPROM
and Flash devices. It allows table writes to byte-wide
external memories.
FIGURE 7-1:
16-BIT BYTE WRITE MODE EXAMPLE
D<7:0>
PIC18F97J60
AD<7:0>
(MSB)
373
A<19:0>
D<15:8>
(LSB)
A<x:0>
A<x:0>
D<7:0>
D<7:0>
CE
AD<15:8>
373
OE
D<7:0>
CE
WR
(2)
OE
WR(2)
ALE
A<19:16>(1)
CE
OE
WRH
WRL
Address Bus
Data Bus
Control Lines
Note 1:
2:
Upper order address lines are used only for 20-bit address widths.
This signal only applies to table writes. See Section 6.1 “Table Reads and Table Writes”.
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS39762E-page 113
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
7.6.2
16-BIT WORD WRITE MODE
Figure 7-2 shows an example of 16-Bit Word Write
mode for PIC18F97J60 family devices. This mode is
used for word-wide memories which include some of
the EPROM and Flash type memories. This mode
allows opcode fetches and table reads from all forms of
16-bit memory, and table writes to any type of
word-wide external memories. This method makes a
distinction between TBLWT cycles to even or odd
addresses.
During a TBLWT cycle to an even address
(TBLPTR<0> = 0), the TABLAT data is transferred to a
holding latch and the external address data bus is
tri-stated for the data portion of the bus cycle. No write
signals are activated.
FIGURE 7-2:
During a TBLWT cycle to an odd address
(TBLPTR<0> = 1), the TABLAT data is presented on
the upper byte of the AD15:AD0 bus. The contents of
the holding latch are presented on the lower byte of the
AD15:AD0 bus.
The WRH signal is strobed for each write cycle; the
WRL pin is unused. The signal on the BA0 pin indicates
the LSb of the TBLPTR but it is left unconnected.
Instead, the UB and LB signals are active to select both
bytes. The obvious limitation to this method is that the
table write must be done in pairs on a specific word
boundary to correctly write a word location.
16-BIT WORD WRITE MODE EXAMPLE
PIC18F97J60
AD<7:0>
373
A<20:1>
D<15:0>
A<x:0>
JEDEC Word
EPROM Memory
D<15:0>
CE
AD<15:8>
OE
WR(2)
373
ALE
A<19:16>(1)
CE
OE
WRH
Address Bus
Data Bus
Control Lines
Note 1:
2:
Upper order address lines are used only for 20-bit address widths.
This signal only applies to table writes. See Section 6.1 “Table Reads and Table Writes”.
DS39762E-page 114
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
7.6.3
16-BIT BYTE SELECT MODE
Figure 7-3 shows an example of 16-Bit Byte Select
mode. This mode allows table write operations to
word-wide external memories with byte selection
capability. This generally includes both word-wide
Flash and SRAM devices.
During a TBLWT cycle, the TABLAT data is presented
on the upper and lower byte of the AD15:AD0 bus. The
WRH signal is strobed for each write cycle; the WRL
pin is not used. The BA0 or UB/LB signals are used to
select the byte to be written based on the Least
Significant bit of the TBLPTR register.
FIGURE 7-3:
Flash and SRAM devices use different control signal
combinations to implement Byte Select mode. JEDEC
standard Flash memories require that a controller I/O
port pin be connected to the memory’s BYTE/WORD
pin to provide the select signal. They also use the BA0
signal from the controller as a byte address. JEDEC
standard, static RAM memories, on the other hand, use
the UB or LB signals to select the byte.
16-BIT BYTE SELECT MODE EXAMPLE
PIC18F97J60
AD<7:0>
373
A<20:1>
A<x:1>
JEDEC Word
FLASH Memory
D<15:0>
AD<15:8>
138(3)
373
CE
A0
BYTE/WORD
ALE
D<15:0>
OE WR(1)
A<19:16>(2)
OE
WRH
A<20:1>
A<x:1>
BA0
JEDEC Word
SRAM Memory
I/O
LB
UB
CE
D<15:0>
CE
LB
UB
D<15:0>
OE WR(1)
Address Bus
Data Bus
Control Lines
Note 1:
This signal only applies to table writes. See Section 6.1 “Table Reads and Table Writes”.
2:
Upper order address lines are used only for 20-bit address width.
3:
Demultiplexing is only required when multiple memory devices are accessed.
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS39762E-page 115
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
7.6.4
16-BIT MODE TIMING
The presentation of control signals on the external
memory bus is different for the various operating
modes. Typical signal timing diagrams are shown in
Figure 7-4 and Figure 7-5.
FIGURE 7-4:
EXTERNAL MEMORY BUS TIMING FOR TBLRD (EXTENDED
MICROCONTROLLER MODE)
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
Q1
Q2
A<19:16>
Q3
Q4
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
0Ch
CF33h
AD<15:0>
9256h
CE
ALE
OE
Memory
Cycle
Opcode Fetch
TBLRD*
from 000100h
Opcode Fetch
MOVLW 55h
from 000102h
TBLRD 92h
from 199E67h
Opcode Fetch
ADDLW 55h
from 000104h
Instruction
Execution
INST(PC – 2)
TBLRD Cycle 1
TBLRD Cycle 2
MOVLW
FIGURE 7-5:
EXTERNAL MEMORY BUS TIMING FOR SLEEP (EXTENDED
MICROCONTROLLER MODE)
Q1
Q2
A<19:16>
AD<15:0>
Q3
Q4
Q1
Q2
00h
3AAAh
Q3
Q4
Q1
00h
0003h
3AABh
0E55h
CE
ALE
OE
Memory
Cycle
Opcode Fetch
SLEEP
from 007554h
Opcode Fetch
MOVLW 55h
from 007556h
Instruction
Execution
INST(PC – 2)
SLEEP
DS39762E-page 116
Sleep Mode, Bus Inactive
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
7.7
8-Bit Data Width Mode
will enable one byte of program memory for a portion of
the instruction cycle, then BA0 will change and the
second byte will be enabled to form the 16-bit instruction word. The Least Significant bit of the address, BA0,
must be connected to the memory devices in this
mode. The Chip Enable signal (CE) is active at any
time that the microcontroller accesses external
memory, whether reading or writing. It is inactive
(asserted high) whenever the device is in Sleep mode.
In 8-Bit Data Width mode, the external memory bus
operates only in Multiplexed mode; that is, data shares
the eight Least Significant bits of the address bus.
Figure 7-6 shows an example of 8-Bit Multiplexed mode
for 100-pin devices. This mode is used for a single 8-bit
memory connected for 16-bit operation. The instructions
will be fetched as two 8-bit bytes on a shared
data/address bus. The two bytes are sequentially
fetched within one instruction cycle (TCY). Therefore, the
designer must choose external memory devices according to timing calculations based on 1/2 TCY (2 times the
instruction rate). For proper memory speed selection,
glue logic propagation delay times must be considered,
along with setup and hold times.
This process generally includes basic EPROM and
Flash devices. It allows table writes to byte-wide
external memories.
During a TBLWT instruction cycle, the TABLAT data is
presented on the upper and lower bytes of the
AD15:AD0 bus. The appropriate level of the BA0
control line is strobed on the LSb of the TBLPTR.
The Address Latch Enable (ALE) pin indicates that the
address bits, AD<15:0>, are available on the external
memory interface bus. The Output Enable signal (OE)
FIGURE 7-6:
8-BIT MULTIPLEXED MODE EXAMPLE
D<7:0>
PIC18F97J60
AD<7:0>
ALE
373
A<19:0>
A<x:1>
A0
D<15:8>
D<7:0>
AD<15:8>(1)
CE
A<19:16>(1)
OE
WR(2)
BA0
CE
OE
WRL
Address Bus
Data Bus
Control Lines
Note 1:
2:
Upper order address bits are used only for 20-bit address width. The upper AD byte is used for all
address widths except 8-bit.
This signal only applies to table writes. See Section 6.1 “Table Reads and Table Writes”.
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS39762E-page 117
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
7.7.1
8-BIT MODE TIMING
The presentation of control signals on the external
memory bus is different for the various operating
modes. Typical signal timing diagrams are shown in
Figure 7-7 and Figure 7-8.
FIGURE 7-7:
EXTERNAL MEMORY BUS TIMING FOR TBLRD (EXTENDED
MICROCONTROLLER MODE)
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
0Ch
A<19:16>
CFh
AD<15:8>
AD<7:0>
33h
92h
CE
ALE
OE
Memory
Cycle
Opcode Fetch
TBLRD*
from 000100h
Opcode Fetch
MOVLW 55h
from 000102h
TBLRD 92h
from 199E67h
Opcode Fetch
ADDLW 55h
from 000104h
Instruction
Execution
INST(PC – 2)
TBLRD Cycle 1
TBLRD Cycle 2
MOVLW
FIGURE 7-8:
EXTERNAL MEMORY BUS TIMING FOR SLEEP (EXTENDED
MICROCONTROLLER MODE)
Q1
Q2
A<19:16>
Q4
Q1
Q2
3Ah
AAh
00h
Q3
Q4
Q1
00h
00h
AD<15:8>
AD<7:0>
Q3
3Ah
03h
ABh
0Eh
55h
BA0
CE
ALE
OE
Memory
Cycle
Opcode Fetch
SLEEP
from 007554h
Opcode Fetch
MOVLW 55h
from 007556h
Instruction
Execution
INST(PC – 2)
SLEEP
DS39762E-page 118
Sleep Mode, Bus Inactive
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
7.8
Operation in Power-Managed
Modes
In alternate power-managed Run modes, the external
bus continues to operate normally. If a clock source with
a lower speed is selected, bus operations will run at that
speed. In these cases, excessive access times for the
external memory may result if wait states have been
enabled and added to external memory operations. If
operations in a lower power Run mode are anticipated,
user applications should provide memory access time
adjustments at the lower clock speeds.
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
In Sleep and Idle modes, the microcontroller core does
not need to access data; bus operations are
suspended. The state of the external bus is frozen, with
the address/data pins and most of the control pins
holding at the same state they were in when the mode
was invoked. The only potential changes are the CE,
LB and UB pins, which are held at logic high.
DS39762E-page 119
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
NOTES:
DS39762E-page 120
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
8.0
8 x 8 HARDWARE MULTIPLIER
8.1
Introduction
EXAMPLE 8-1:
MOVF
MULWF
All PIC18 devices include an 8 x 8 hardware multiplier
as part of the ALU. The multiplier performs an unsigned
operation and yields a 16-bit result that is stored in the
product register pair, PRODH:PRODL. The multiplier’s
operation does not affect any flags in the STATUS
register.
ARG1, W
ARG2
EXAMPLE 8-2:
Making multiplication a hardware operation allows it to
be completed in a single instruction cycle. This has the
advantages of higher computational throughput and
reduced code size for multiplication algorithms and
allows the PIC18 devices to be used in many applications previously reserved for digital signal processors.
A comparison of various hardware and software
multiply operations, along with the savings in memory
and execution time, is shown in Table 8-1.
8.2
8 x 8 UNSIGNED
MULTIPLY ROUTINE
8 x 8 SIGNED MULTIPLY
ROUTINE
MOVF
MULWF
ARG1, W
ARG2
BTFSC
SUBWF
ARG2, SB
PRODH, F
MOVF
BTFSC
SUBWF
ARG2, W
ARG1, SB
PRODH, F
Operation
;
; ARG1 * ARG2 ->
; PRODH:PRODL
;
;
;
;
;
ARG1 * ARG2 ->
PRODH:PRODL
Test Sign Bit
PRODH = PRODH
- ARG1
; Test Sign Bit
; PRODH = PRODH
;
- ARG2
Example 8-1 shows the instruction sequence for an 8 x 8
unsigned multiplication. Only one instruction is required
when one of the arguments is already loaded in the
WREG register.
Example 8-2 shows the sequence to do an 8 x 8 signed
multiplication. To account for the sign bits of the arguments, each argument’s Most Significant bit (MSb) is
tested and the appropriate subtractions are done.
TABLE 8-1:
PERFORMANCE COMPARISON FOR VARIOUS MULTIPLY OPERATIONS
Routine
8 x 8 unsigned
8 x 8 signed
16 x 16 unsigned
16 x 16 signed
Multiply Method
Program
Memory
(Words)
Cycles
(Max)
@ 40 MHz
@ 10 MHz
@ 4 MHz
Without hardware multiply
13
69
6.9 μs
27.6 μs
69 μs
Time
Hardware multiply
1
1
100 ns
400 ns
1 μs
Without hardware multiply
33
91
9.1 μs
36.4 μs
91 μs
Hardware multiply
6
6
600 ns
2.4 μs
6 μs
Without hardware multiply
21
242
24.2 μs
96.8 μs
242 μs
Hardware multiply
28
28
2.8 μs
11.2 μs
28 μs
Without hardware multiply
52
254
25.4 μs
102.6 μs
254 μs
Hardware multiply
35
40
4.0 μs
16.0 μs
40 μs
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS39762E-page 121
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
Example 8-3 shows the sequence to do a 16 x 16
unsigned multiplication. Equation 8-1 shows the
algorithm that is used. The 32-bit result is stored in four
registers (RES3:RES0).
EQUATION 8-1:
RES3:RES0
=
=
EXAMPLE 8-3:
16 x 16 UNSIGNED
MULTIPLICATION
ALGORITHM
ARG1H:ARG1L • ARG2H:ARG2L
(ARG1H • ARG2H • 216) +
(ARG1H • ARG2L • 28) +
(ARG1L • ARG2H • 28) +
(ARG1L • ARG2L)
EQUATION 8-2:
RES3:RES0 = ARG1H:ARG1L • ARG2H:ARG2L
= (ARG1H • ARG2H • 216) +
(ARG1H • ARG2L • 28) +
(ARG1L • ARG2H • 28) +
(ARG1L • ARG2L) +
(-1 • ARG2H<7> • ARG1H:ARG1L • 216) +
(-1 • ARG1H<7> • ARG2H:ARG2L • 216)
EXAMPLE 8-4:
16 x 16 UNSIGNED
MULTIPLY ROUTINE
MOVF
MULWF
ARG1L, W
ARG2L
MOVFF
MOVFF
PRODH, RES1
PRODL, RES0
MOVF
MULWF
ARG1H, W
ARG2H
MOVFF
MOVFF
PRODH, RES3
PRODL, RES2
MOVF
MULWF
ARG1L, W
ARG2H
MOVF
ADDWF
MOVF
ADDWFC
CLRF
ADDWFC
PRODL, W
RES1, F
PRODH, W
RES2, F
WREG
RES3, F
MOVF
MULWF
ARG1H, W
ARG2L
MOVF
ADDWF
MOVF
ADDWFC
CLRF
ADDWFC
PRODL, W
RES1, F
PRODH, W
RES2, F
WREG
RES3, F
; ARG1L * ARG2L->
; PRODH:PRODL
;
;
ARG1L * ARG2H->
PRODH:PRODL
Add cross
products
ARG1H * ARG2L->
PRODH:PRODL
Add cross
products
Example 8-4 shows the sequence to do a 16 x 16
signed multiply. Equation 8-2 shows the algorithm
used. The 32-bit result is stored in four registers
(RES3:RES0). To account for the sign bits of the
arguments, the MSb for each argument pair is tested
and the appropriate subtractions are done.
DS39762E-page 122
ARG1L, W
ARG2L
MOVFF
MOVFF
PRODH, RES1
PRODL, RES0
MOVF
MULWF
ARG1H, W
ARG2H
MOVFF
MOVFF
PRODH, RES3
PRODL, RES2
MOVF
MULWF
ARG1L, W
ARG2H
MOVF
ADDWF
MOVF
ADDWFC
CLRF
ADDWFC
PRODL, W
RES1, F
PRODH, W
RES2, F
WREG
RES3, F
MOVF
MULWF
ARG1H, W
ARG2L
MOVF
ADDWF
MOVF
ADDWFC
CLRF
ADDWFC
PRODL, W
RES1, F
PRODH, W
RES2, F
WREG
RES3, F
BTFSS
BRA
MOVF
SUBWF
MOVF
SUBWFB
ARG2H, 7
SIGN_ARG1
ARG1L, W
RES2
ARG1H, W
RES3
; ARG2H:ARG2L neg?
; no, check ARG1
;
;
;
ARG1H, 7
CONT_CODE
ARG2L, W
RES2
ARG2H, W
RES3
; ARG1H:ARG1L neg?
; no, done
;
;
;
; ARG1L * ARG2L ->
; PRODH:PRODL
;
;
; ARG1H * ARG2H ->
; PRODH:PRODL
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
ARG1L * ARG2H ->
PRODH:PRODL
Add cross
products
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
MOVF
MULWF
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
16 x 16 SIGNED
MULTIPLY ROUTINE
;
;
; ARG1H * ARG2H->
; PRODH:PRODL
;
;
16 x 16 SIGNED
MULTIPLICATION
ALGORITHM
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
ARG1H * ARG2L ->
PRODH:PRODL
Add cross
products
;
;
SIGN_ARG1
BTFSS
BRA
MOVF
SUBWF
MOVF
SUBWFB
;
CONT_CODE
:
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
9.0
INTERRUPTS
Members of the PIC18F97J60 family of devices have
multiple interrupt sources and an interrupt priority feature
that allows most interrupt sources to be assigned a
high-priority level or a low-priority level. The high-priority
interrupt vector is at 0008h and the low-priority interrupt
vector is at 0018h. High-priority interrupt events will
interrupt any low-priority interrupts that may be in
progress.
There are thirteen registers which are used to control
interrupt operation. These registers are:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
RCON
INTCON
INTCON2
INTCON3
PIR1, PIR2, PIR3
PIE1, PIE2, PIE3
IPR1, IPR2, IPR3
It is recommended that the Microchip header files
supplied with MPLAB® IDE be used for the symbolic bit
names in these registers. This allows the
assembler/compiler to automatically take care of the
placement of these bits within the specified register.
In general, interrupt sources have three bits to control
their operation. They are:
• Flag bit to indicate that an interrupt event
occurred
• Enable bit that allows program execution to
branch to the interrupt vector address when the
flag bit is set
• Priority bit to select high priority or low priority
The interrupt priority feature is enabled by setting the
IPEN bit (RCON<7>). When interrupt priority is
enabled, there are two bits which enable interrupts
globally. Setting the GIEH bit (INTCON<7>) enables all
interrupts that have the priority bit set (high priority).
Setting the GIEL bit (INTCON<6>) enables all
interrupts that have the priority bit cleared (low priority).
When the interrupt flag, enable bit and appropriate
global interrupt enable bit are set, the interrupt will
vector immediately to address 0008h or 0018h,
depending on the priority bit setting. Individual
interrupts can be disabled through their corresponding
enable bits.
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
When the IPEN bit is cleared (default state), the
interrupt priority feature is disabled and interrupts are
compatible with PIC® mid-range devices. In
Compatibility mode, the interrupt priority bits for each
source have no effect. INTCON<6> is the PEIE bit
which enables/disables all peripheral interrupt sources.
INTCON<7> is the GIE bit which enables/disables all
interrupt sources. All interrupts branch to address
0008h in Compatibility mode.
When an interrupt is responded to, the global interrupt
enable bit is cleared to disable further interrupts. If the
IPEN bit is cleared, this is the GIE bit. If interrupt priority
levels are used, this will be either the GIEH or GIEL bit.
High-priority interrupt sources can interrupt a
low-priority interrupt. Low-priority interrupts are not
processed while high-priority interrupts are in progress.
The return address is pushed onto the stack and the
PC is loaded with the interrupt vector address (0008h
or 0018h). Once in the Interrupt Service Routine, the
source(s) of the interrupt can be determined by polling
the interrupt flag bits. The interrupt flag bits must be
cleared in software before re-enabling interrupts to
avoid recursive interrupts.
The “return from interrupt” instruction, RETFIE, exits
the interrupt routine and sets the GIE bit (GIEH or GIEL
if priority levels are used) which re-enables interrupts.
For external interrupt events, such as the INTx pins or
the PORTB input change interrupt, the interrupt latency
will be three to four instruction cycles. The exact
latency is the same for one or two-cycle instructions.
Individual interrupt flag bits are set regardless of the
status of their corresponding enable bit or the GIE bit.
Note:
Do not use the MOVFF instruction to modify
any of the interrupt control registers while
any interrupt is enabled. Doing so may
cause erratic microcontroller behavior.
DS39762E-page 123
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
FIGURE 9-1:
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY INTERRUPT LOGIC
PIR1<7:0>
PIE1<7:0>
IPR1<7:0>
PIR2<7:5,3,1:0>
PIE2<7:5,3,1:0>
IPR2<7:5,3,1:0>
Wake-up if in
Idle or Sleep modes
TMR0IF
TMR0IE
TMR0IP
RBIF
RBIE
RBIP
INT0IF
INT0IE
INT1IF
INT1IE
INT1IP
INT2IF
INT2IE
INT2IP
INT3IF
INT3IE
INT3IP
Interrupt to CPU
Vector to Location
0008h
GIE/GIEH
IPEN
IPEN
PEIE/GIEL
PIR3<7:0>
PIE3<7:0>
IPR3<7:0>
IPEN
High-Priority Interrupt Generation
Low-Priority Interrupt Generation
PIR1<7:0>
PIE1<7:0>
IPR1<7:0>
PIR2<7:5,3,1:0>
PIE2<7:5,3,1:0>
IPR2<7:5,3,1:0>
PIR3<7:0>
PIE3<7:0>
IPR3<7:0>
TMR0IF
TMR0IE
TMR0IP
RBIF
RBIE
RBIP
INT1IF
INT1IE
INT1IP
INT2IF
INT2IE
INT2IP
INT3IF
INT3IE
INT3IP
DS39762E-page 124
Interrupt to CPU
Vector to Location
0018h
IPEN
GIE/GIEH
PEIE/GIEL
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
9.1
INTCON Registers
Note:
The INTCON registers are readable and writable
registers which contain various enable, priority and flag
bits.
REGISTER 9-1:
Interrupt flag bits are set when an interrupt
condition occurs regardless of the state of
its corresponding enable bit or the global
interrupt enable bit. User software should
ensure the appropriate interrupt flag bits
are clear prior to enabling an interrupt.
This feature allows for software polling.
INTCON: INTERRUPT CONTROL REGISTER
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-x
GIE/GIEH
PEIE/GIEL
TMR0IE
INT0IE
RBIE
TMR0IF
INT0IF
RBIF(1)
bit 7
bit 0
Legend:
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
-n = Value at POR
‘1’ = Bit is set
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
x = Bit is unknown
bit 7
GIE/GIEH: Global Interrupt Enable bit
When IPEN = 0:
1 = Enables all unmasked interrupts
0 = Disables all interrupts
When IPEN = 1:
1 = Enables all high-priority interrupts
0 = Disables all interrupts
bit 6
PEIE/GIEL: Peripheral Interrupt Enable bit
When IPEN = 0:
1 = Enables all unmasked peripheral interrupts
0 = Disables all peripheral interrupts
When IPEN = 1:
1 = Enables all low-priority peripheral interrupts
0 = Disables all low-priority peripheral interrupts
bit 5
TMR0IE: TMR0 Overflow Interrupt Enable bit
1 = Enables the TMR0 overflow interrupt
0 = Disables the TMR0 overflow interrupt
bit 4
INT0IE: INT0 External Interrupt Enable bit
1 = Enables the INT0 external interrupt
0 = Disables the INT0 external interrupt
bit 3
RBIE: RB Port Change Interrupt Enable bit
1 = Enables the RB port change interrupt
0 = Disables the RB port change interrupt
bit 2
TMR0IF: TMR0 Overflow Interrupt Flag bit
1 = TMR0 register has overflowed (must be cleared in software)
0 = TMR0 register did not overflow
bit 1
INT0IF: INT0 External Interrupt Flag bit
1 = The INT0 external interrupt occurred (must be cleared in software)
0 = The INT0 external interrupt did not occur
bit 0
RBIF: RB Port Change Interrupt Flag bit(1)
1 = At least one of the RB7:RB4 pins changed state (must be cleared in software)
0 = None of the RB7:RB4 pins have changed state
Note 1:
A mismatch condition will continue to set this bit. Reading PORTB will end the mismatch condition and
allow the bit to be cleared.
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS39762E-page 125
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
REGISTER 9-2:
INTCON2: INTERRUPT CONTROL REGISTER 2
R/W-1
R/W-1
R/W-1
R/W-1
R/W-1
R/W-1
R/W-1
R/W-1
RBPU
INTEDG0
INTEDG1
INTEDG2
INTEDG3
TMR0IP
INT3IP
RBIP
bit 7
bit 0
Legend:
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
-n = Value at POR
‘1’ = Bit is set
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
bit 7
RBPU: PORTB Pull-up Enable bit
1 = All PORTB pull-ups are disabled
0 = PORTB pull-ups are enabled by individual port latch values
bit 6
INTEDG0: External Interrupt 0 Edge Select bit
1 = Interrupt on rising edge
0 = Interrupt on falling edge
bit 5
INTEDG1: External Interrupt 1 Edge Select bit
1 = Interrupt on rising edge
0 = Interrupt on falling edge
bit 4
INTEDG2: External Interrupt 2 Edge Select bit
1 = Interrupt on rising edge
0 = Interrupt on falling edge
bit 3
INTEDG3: External Interrupt 3 Edge Select bit
1 = Interrupt on rising edge
0 = Interrupt on falling edge
bit 2
TMR0IP: TMR0 Overflow Interrupt Priority bit
1 = High priority
0 = Low priority
bit 1
INT3IP: INT3 External Interrupt Priority bit
1 = High priority
0 = Low priority
bit 0
RBIP: RB Port Change Interrupt Priority bit
1 = High priority
0 = Low priority
Note:
x = Bit is unknown
Interrupt flag bits are set when an interrupt condition occurs regardless of the state of its corresponding
enable bit or the global interrupt enable bit. User software should ensure the appropriate interrupt flag bits
are clear prior to enabling an interrupt. This feature allows for software polling.
DS39762E-page 126
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
REGISTER 9-3:
INTCON3: INTERRUPT CONTROL REGISTER 3
R/W-1
R/W-1
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
INT2IP
INT1IP
INT3IE
INT2IE
INT1IE
INT3IF
INT2IF
INT1IF
bit 7
bit 0
Legend:
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
-n = Value at POR
‘1’ = Bit is set
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
bit 7
INT2IP: INT2 External Interrupt Priority bit
1 = High priority
0 = Low priority
bit 6
INT1IP: INT1 External Interrupt Priority bit
1 = High priority
0 = Low priority
bit 5
INT3IE: INT3 External Interrupt Enable bit
1 = Enables the INT3 external interrupt
0 = Disables the INT3 external interrupt
bit 4
INT2IE: INT2 External Interrupt Enable bit
1 = Enables the INT2 external interrupt
0 = Disables the INT2 external interrupt
bit 3
INT1IE: INT1 External Interrupt Enable bit
1 = Enables the INT1 external interrupt
0 = Disables the INT1 external interrupt
bit 2
INT3IF: INT3 External Interrupt Flag bit
1 = The INT3 external interrupt occurred (must be cleared in software)
0 = The INT3 external interrupt did not occur
bit 1
INT2IF: INT2 External Interrupt Flag bit
1 = The INT2 external interrupt occurred (must be cleared in software)
0 = The INT2 external interrupt did not occur
bit 0
INT1IF: INT1 External Interrupt Flag bit
1 = The INT1 external interrupt occurred (must be cleared in software)
0 = The INT1 external interrupt did not occur
Note:
x = Bit is unknown
Interrupt flag bits are set when an interrupt condition occurs regardless of the state of its corresponding
enable bit or the global interrupt enable bit. User software should ensure the appropriate interrupt flag bits
are clear prior to enabling an interrupt. This feature allows for software polling.
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS39762E-page 127
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
9.2
PIR Registers
The PIR registers contain the individual flag bits for the
peripheral interrupts. Due to the number of peripheral
interrupt sources, there are three Peripheral Interrupt
Request (Flag) registers (PIR1, PIR2, PIR3).
REGISTER 9-4:
Note 1: Interrupt flag bits are set when an interrupt
condition occurs regardless of the state of
its corresponding enable bit or the Global
Interrupt Enable bit, GIE (INTCON<7>).
2: User software should ensure the
appropriate interrupt flag bits are cleared
prior to enabling an interrupt and after
servicing that interrupt.
PIR1: PERIPHERAL INTERRUPT REQUEST (FLAG) REGISTER 1
R/W-0
R/W-0
R-0
R-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
PSPIF(1)
ADIF
RC1IF
TX1IF
SSP1IF
CCP1IF
TMR2IF
TMR1IF
bit 7
bit 0
Legend:
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
-n = Value at POR
‘1’ = Bit is set
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
x = Bit is unknown
bit 7
PSPIF: Parallel Slave Port Read/Write Interrupt Flag bit(1)
1 = A read or a write operation has taken place (must be cleared in software)
0 = No read or write has occurred
bit 6
ADIF: A/D Converter Interrupt Flag bit
1 = An A/D conversion completed (must be cleared in software)
0 = The A/D conversion is not complete
bit 5
RC1IF: EUSART1 Receive Interrupt Flag bit
1 = The EUSART1 receive buffer, RCREG1, is full (cleared when RCREG1 is read)
0 = The EUSART1 receive buffer is empty
bit 4
TX1IF: EUSART1 Transmit Interrupt Flag bit
1 = The EUSART1 transmit buffer, TXREG1, is empty (cleared when TXREG1 is written)
0 = The EUSART1 transmit buffer is full
bit 3
SSP1IF: MSSP1 Interrupt Flag bit
1 = The transmission/reception is complete (must be cleared in software)
0 = Waiting to transmit/receive
bit 2
CCP1IF: ECCP1 Interrupt Flag bit
Capture mode:
1 = A TMR1 register capture occurred (must be cleared in software)
0 = No TMR1 register capture occurred
Compare mode:
1 = A TMR1 register compare match occurred (must be cleared in software)
0 = No TMR1 register compare match occurred
PWM mode:
Unused in this mode.
bit 1
TMR2IF: TMR2 to PR2 Match Interrupt Flag bit
1 = TMR2 to PR2 match occurred (must be cleared in software)
0 = No TMR2 to PR2 match occurred
bit 0
TMR1IF: TMR1 Overflow Interrupt Flag bit
1 = TMR1 register overflowed (must be cleared in software)
0 = TMR1 register did not overflow
Note 1:
Implemented in 100-pin devices in Microcontroller mode only.
DS39762E-page 128
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
REGISTER 9-5:
PIR2: PERIPHERAL INTERRUPT REQUEST (FLAG) REGISTER 2
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
U-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
OSCFIF
CMIF
ETHIF
r
BCL1IF
—
TMR3IF
CCP2IF
bit 7
bit 0
Legend:
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
-n = Value at POR
‘1’ = Bit is set
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
x = Bit is unknown
bit 7
OSCFIF: Oscillator Fail Interrupt Flag bit
1 = System oscillator failed, clock input has changed to INTRC (must be cleared in software)
0 = System clock operating
bit 6
CMIF: Comparator Interrupt Flag bit
1 = Comparator input has changed (must be cleared in software)
0 = Comparator input has not changed
bit 5
ETHIF: Ethernet Module Interrupt Flag bit
1 = An Ethernet module interrupt event has occurred; query EIR register to resolve source
0 = No Ethernet interrupt event has occurred
bit 4
Reserved: Maintain as ‘0’
bit 3
BCL1IF: Bus Collision Interrupt Flag bit (MSSP1 module)
1 = A bus collision occurred (must be cleared in software)
0 = No bus collision occurred
bit 2
Unimplemented: Read as ‘0’
bit 1
TMR3IF: TMR3 Overflow Interrupt Flag bit
1 = TMR3 register overflowed (must be cleared in software)
0 = TMR3 register did not overflow
bit 0
CCP2IF: ECCP2 Interrupt Flag bit
Capture mode:
1 = A TMR1/TMR3 register capture occurred (must be cleared in software)
0 = No TMR1/TMR3 register capture occurred
Compare mode:
1 = A TMR1/TMR3 register compare match occurred (must be cleared in software)
0 = No TMR1/TMR3 register compare match occurred
PWM mode:
Unused in this mode.
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS39762E-page 129
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
REGISTER 9-6:
PIR3: PERIPHERAL INTERRUPT REQUEST (FLAG) REGISTER 3
R/W-0
SSP2IF
(1)
R/W-0
R-0
R-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
BCL2IF(1)
RC2IF(2)
TX2IF(2)
TMR4IF
CCP5IF
CCP4IF
CCP3IF
bit 7
bit 0
Legend:
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
-n = Value at POR
‘1’ = Bit is set
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
x = Bit is unknown
bit 7
SSP2IF: MSSP2 Interrupt Flag bit(1)
1 = The transmission/reception is complete (must be cleared in software)
0 = Waiting to transmit/receive
bit 6
BCL2IF: Bus Collision Interrupt Flag bit (MSSP2 module)(1)
1 = A bus collision occurred (must be cleared in software)
0 = No bus collision occurred
bit 5
RC2IF: EUSART2 Receive Interrupt Flag bit(2)
1 = The EUSART2 receive buffer, RCREG2, is full (cleared when RCREG2 is read)
0 = The EUSART2 receive buffer is empty
bit 4
TX2IF: EUSART2 Transmit Interrupt Flag bit(2)
1 = The EUSART2 transmit buffer, TXREG2, is empty (cleared when TXREG2 is written)
0 = The EUSART2 transmit buffer is full
bit 3
TMR4IF: TMR4 to PR4 Match Interrupt Flag bit
1 = TMR4 to PR4 match occurred (must be cleared in software)
0 = No TMR4 to PR4 match occurred
bit 2
CCP5IF: CCP5 Interrupt Flag bit
Capture mode:
1 = A TMR1/TMR3 register capture occurred (must be cleared in software)
0 = No TMR1/TMR3 register capture occurred
Compare mode:
1 = A TMR1/TMR3 register compare match occurred (must be cleared in software)
0 = No TMR1/TMR3 register compare match occurred
PWM mode:
Unused in this mode.
bit 1
CCP4IF: CCP4 Interrupt Flag bit
Capture mode:
1 = A TMR1/TMR3 register capture occurred (must be cleared in software)
0 = No TMR1/TMR3 register capture occurred
Compare mode:
1 = A TMR1/TMR3 register compare match occurred (must be cleared in software)
0 = No TMR1/TMR3 register compare match occurred
PWM mode:
Unused in this mode.
bit 0
CCP3IF: ECCP3 Interrupt Flag bit
Capture mode:
1 = A TMR1/TMR3 register capture occurred (must be cleared in software)
0 = No TMR1/TMR3 register capture occurred
Compare mode:
1 = A TMR1/TMR3 register compare match occurred (must be cleared in software)
0 = No TMR1/TMR3 register compare match occurred
PWM mode:
Unused in this mode.
Note 1:
2:
Implemented in 100-pin devices only.
Implemented in 80-pin and 100-pin devices only.
DS39762E-page 130
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
9.3
PIE Registers
The PIE registers contain the individual enable bits for
the peripheral interrupts. Due to the number of
peripheral interrupt sources, there are three Peripheral
Interrupt Enable registers (PIE1, PIE2, PIE3). When
IPEN = 0, the PEIE bit must be set to enable any of
these peripheral interrupts.
REGISTER 9-7:
PIE1: PERIPHERAL INTERRUPT ENABLE REGISTER 1
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
PSPIE(1)
ADIE
RC1IE
TX1IE
SSP1IE
CCP1IE
TMR2IE
TMR1IE
bit 7
bit 0
Legend:
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
-n = Value at POR
‘1’ = Bit is set
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
bit 7
PSPIE: Parallel Slave Port Read/Write Interrupt Enable bit(1)
1 = Enabled
0 = Disabled
bit 6
ADIE: A/D Converter Interrupt Enable bit
1 = Enabled
0 = Disabled
bit 5
RC1IE: EUSART1 Receive Interrupt Enable bit
1 = Enabled
0 = Disabled
bit 4
TX1IE: EUSART1 Transmit Interrupt Enable bit
1 = Enabled
0 = Disabled
bit 3
SSP1IE: MSSP1 Interrupt Enable bit
1 = Enabled
0 = Disabled
bit 2
CCP1IE: ECCP1 Interrupt Enable bit
1 = Enabled
0 = Disabled
bit 1
TMR2IE: TMR2 to PR2 Match Interrupt Enable bit
1 = Enabled
0 = Disabled
bit 0
TMR1IE: TMR1 Overflow Interrupt Enable bit
1 = Enabled
0 = Disabled
Note 1:
x = Bit is unknown
Implemented in 100-pin devices in Microcontroller mode only.
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS39762E-page 131
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
REGISTER 9-8:
PIE2: PERIPHERAL INTERRUPT ENABLE REGISTER 2
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
U-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
OSCFIE
CMIE
ETHIE
r
BCL1IE
—
TMR3IE
CCP2IE
bit 7
bit 0
Legend:
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
-n = Value at POR
‘1’ = Bit is set
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
bit 7
OSCFIE: Oscillator Fail Interrupt Enable bit
1 = Enabled
0 = Disabled
bit 6
CMIE: Comparator Interrupt Enable bit
1 = Enabled
0 = Disabled
bit 5
ETHIE: Ethernet Module Interrupt Enable bit
1 = Enabled
0 = Disabled
bit 4
Reserved: Maintain as ‘0’
bit 3
BCL1IE: Bus Collision Interrupt Enable bit (MSSP1 module)
1 = Enabled
0 = Disabled
bit 2
Unimplemented: Read as ‘0’
bit 1
TMR3IE: TMR3 Overflow Interrupt Enable bit
1 = Enabled
0 = Disabled
bit 0
CCP2IE: ECCP2 Interrupt Enable bit
1 = Enabled
0 = Disabled
DS39762E-page 132
x = Bit is unknown
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
REGISTER 9-9:
PIE3: PERIPHERAL INTERRUPT ENABLE REGISTER 3
R/W-0
R/W-0
R-0
R-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
SSP2IE(1)
BCL2IE(1)
RC2IE(2)
TX2IE(2)
TMR4IE
CCP5IE
CCP4IE
CCP3IE
bit 7
bit 0
Legend:
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
-n = Value at POR
‘1’ = Bit is set
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
bit 7
SSP2IE: MSSP2 Interrupt Enable bit(1)
1 = Enabled
0 = Disabled
bit 6
BCL2IE: Bus Collision Interrupt Enable bit (MSSP2 module)(1)
1 = Enabled
0 = Disabled
bit 5
RC2IE: EUSART2 Receive Interrupt Enable bit(2)
1 = Enabled
0 = Disabled
bit 4
TX2IE: EUSART2 Transmit Interrupt Enable bit(2)
1 = Enabled
0 = Disabled
bit 3
TMR4IE: TMR4 to PR4 Match Interrupt Enable bit
1 = Enabled
0 = Disabled
bit 2
CCP5IE: CCP5 Interrupt Enable bit
1 = Enabled
0 = Disabled
bit 1
CCP4IE: CCP4 Interrupt Enable bit
1 = Enabled
0 = Disabled
bit 0
CCP3IE: ECCP3 Interrupt Enable bit
1 = Enabled
0 = Disabled
Note 1:
2:
x = Bit is unknown
Implemented in 100-pin devices only.
Implemented in 80-pin and 100-pin devices only.
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS39762E-page 133
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
9.4
IPR Registers
The IPR registers contain the individual priority bits for
the peripheral interrupts. Due to the number of
peripheral interrupt sources, there are three Peripheral
Interrupt Priority registers (IPR1, IPR2, IPR3). Using
the priority bits requires that the Interrupt Priority
Enable (IPEN) bit be set.
REGISTER 9-10:
IPR1: PERIPHERAL INTERRUPT PRIORITY REGISTER 1
R/W-1
R/W-1
R/W-1
R/W-1
R/W-1
R/W-1
R/W-1
R/W-1
PSPIP(1)
ADIP
RC1IP
TX1IP
SSP1IP
CCP1IP
TMR2IP
TMR1IP
bit 7
bit 0
Legend:
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
-n = Value at POR
‘1’ = Bit is set
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
bit 7
PSPIP: Parallel Slave Port Read/Write Interrupt Priority bit(1)
1 = High priority
0 = Low priority
bit 6
ADIP: A/D Converter Interrupt Priority bit
1 = High priority
0 = Low priority
bit 5
RC1IP: EUSART1 Receive Interrupt Priority bit
1 = High priority
0 = Low priority
bit 4
TX1IP: EUSART1 Transmit Interrupt Priority bit
x = Bit is unknown
1 = High priority
0 = Low priority
bit 3
SSP1IP: MSSP1 Interrupt Priority bit
1 = High priority
0 = Low priority
bit 2
CCP1IP: ECCP1 Interrupt Priority bit
1 = High priority
0 = Low priority
bit 1
TMR2IP: TMR2 to PR2 Match Interrupt Priority bit
1 = High priority
0 = Low priority
bit 0
TMR1IP: TMR1 Overflow Interrupt Priority bit
1 = High priority
0 = Low priority
Note 1:
Implemented in 100-pin devices in Microcontroller mode only.
DS39762E-page 134
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
REGISTER 9-11:
IPR2: PERIPHERAL INTERRUPT PRIORITY REGISTER 2
R/W-1
R/W-1
R/W-1
R/W-1
R/W-1
U-0
R/W-1
R/W-1
OSCFIP
CMIP
ETHIP
r
BCL1IP
—
TMR3IP
CCP2IP
bit 7
bit 0
Legend:
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
-n = Value at POR
‘1’ = Bit is set
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
bit 7
OSCFIP: Oscillator Fail Interrupt Priority bit
1 = High priority
0 = Low priority
bit 6
CMIP: Comparator Interrupt Priority bit
1 = High priority
0 = Low priority
bit 5
ETHIP: Ethernet Module Interrupt Priority bit
1 = High priority
0 = Low priority
bit 4
Reserved: Maintain as ‘1’
bit 3
BCL1IP: Bus Collision Interrupt Priority bit (MSSP1 module)
1 = High priority
0 = Low priority
bit 2
Unimplemented: Read as ‘0’
bit 1
TMR3IP: TMR3 Overflow Interrupt Priority bit
1 = High priority
0 = Low priority
bit 0
CCP2IP: ECCP2 Interrupt Priority bit
1 = High priority
0 = Low priority
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
x = Bit is unknown
DS39762E-page 135
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
REGISTER 9-12:
IPR3: PERIPHERAL INTERRUPT PRIORITY REGISTER 3
R/W-1
R/W-1
R/W-1
R/W-1
R/W-1
R/W-1
R/W-1
R/W-1
SSP2IP(1)
BCL2IP(1)
RC2IP(2)
TX2IP(2)
TMR4IP
CCP5IP
CCP4IP
CCP3IP
bit 7
bit 0
Legend:
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
-n = Value at POR
‘1’ = Bit is set
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
bit 7
SSP2IP: MSSP2 Interrupt Priority bit(1)
1 = High priority
0 = Low priority
bit 6
BCL2IP: Bus Collision Interrupt Priority bit (MSSP2 module)(1)
1 = High priority
0 = Low priority
bit 5
RC2IP: EUSART2 Receive Interrupt Priority bit(2)
1 = High priority
0 = Low priority
bit 4
TX2IP: EUSART2 Transmit Interrupt Priority bit(2)
x = Bit is unknown
1 = High priority
0 = Low priority
bit 3
TMR4IE: TMR4 to PR4 Interrupt Priority bit
1 = High priority
0 = Low priority
bit 2
CCP5IP: CCP5 Interrupt Priority bit
1 = High priority
0 = Low priority
bit 1
CCP4IP: CCP4 Interrupt Priority bit
1 = High priority
0 = Low priority
bit 0
CCP3IP: ECCP3 Interrupt Priority bit
1 = High priority
0 = Low priority
Note 1:
2:
Implemented in 100-pin devices only.
Implemented in 80-pin and 100-pin devices only.
DS39762E-page 136
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
9.5
RCON Register
The RCON register contains bits used to determine the
cause of the last Reset or wake-up from Idle or Sleep
modes. RCON also contains the bit that enables
interrupt priorities (IPEN).
REGISTER 9-13:
RCON: RESET CONTROL REGISTER
R/W-0
U-0
R/W-1
R/W-1
R-1
R-1
R/W-0
R/W-0
IPEN
—
CM
RI
TO
PD
POR
BOR
bit 7
bit 0
Legend:
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
-n = Value at POR
‘1’ = Bit is set
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
bit 7
IPEN: Interrupt Priority Enable bit
1 = Enable priority levels on interrupts
0 = Disable priority levels on interrupts (PIC16CXXX Compatibility mode)
bit 6
Unimplemented: Read as ‘0’
bit 5
CM: Configuration Mismatch Flag bit
For details of bit operation, see Register 4-1.
bit 4
RI: RESET Instruction Flag bit
For details of bit operation, see Register 4-1.
bit 3
TO: Watchdog Timer Time-out Flag bit
For details of bit operation, see Register 4-1.
bit 2
PD: Power-Down Detection Flag bit
For details of bit operation, see Register 4-1.
bit 1
POR: Power-on Reset Status bit(2)
For details of bit operation, see Register 4-1.
bit 0
BOR: Brown-out Reset Status bit
For details of bit operation, see Register 4-1.
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
x = Bit is unknown
DS39762E-page 137
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
9.6
INTx Pin Interrupts
9.7
TMR0 Interrupt
External interrupts on the RB0/INT0/FLT0, RB1/INT1,
RB2/INT2 and RB3/INT3 pins are edge-triggered. If the
corresponding INTEDGx bit in the INTCON2 register is
set (= 1), the interrupt is triggered by a rising edge; if
the bit is clear, the trigger is on the falling edge. When
a valid edge appears on the RBx/INTx pin, the
corresponding flag bit, INTxIF, is set. This interrupt can
be disabled by clearing the corresponding enable bit,
INTxIE. Flag bit, INTxIF, must be cleared in software in
the Interrupt Service Routine before re-enabling the
interrupt.
In 8-bit mode (which is the default), an overflow in the
TMR0 register (FFh → 00h) will set flag bit, TMR0IF. In
16-bit mode, an overflow in the TMR0H:TMR0L register
pair (FFFFh → 0000h) will set TMR0IF. The interrupt
can be enabled/disabled by setting/clearing enable bit,
TMR0IE (INTCON<5>). Interrupt priority for Timer0 is
determined by the value contained in the interrupt
priority bit, TMR0IP (INTCON2<2>). See Section 11.0
“Timer0 Module” for further details on the Timer0
module.
All external interrupts (INT0, INT1, INT2 and INT3) can
wake-up the processor from the power-managed
modes if bit INTxIE was set prior to going into the
power-managed modes. If the Global Interrupt Enable
bit, GIE, is set, the processor will branch to the interrupt
vector following wake-up.
9.8
Interrupt priority for INT1, INT2 and INT3 is determined
by the value contained in the Interrupt Priority bits,
INT1IP (INTCON3<6>), INT2IP (INTCON3<7>) and
INT3IP (INTCON2<1>). There is no priority bit
associated with INT0. It is always a high-priority
interrupt source.
EXAMPLE 9-1:
An input change on PORTB<7:4> sets flag bit, RBIF
(INTCON<0>). The interrupt can be enabled/disabled
by setting/clearing enable bit, RBIE (INTCON<3>).
Interrupt priority for PORTB interrupt-on-change is
determined by the value contained in the interrupt
priority bit, RBIP (INTCON2<0>).
9.9
Context Saving During Interrupts
During interrupts, the return PC address is saved on
the stack. Additionally, the WREG, STATUS and BSR
registers are saved on the fast return stack. If a fast
return from interrupt is not used (see Section 5.3
“Data Memory Organization”), the user may need to
save the WREG, STATUS and BSR registers on entry
to the Interrupt Service Routine. Depending on the
user’s application, other registers may also need to be
saved. Example 9-1 saves and restores the WREG,
STATUS and BSR registers during an Interrupt Service
Routine.
SAVING STATUS, WREG AND BSR REGISTERS IN RAM
MOVWF
W_TEMP
MOVFF
STATUS, STATUS_TEMP
MOVFF
BSR, BSR_TEMP
;
; USER ISR CODE
;
MOVFF
BSR_TEMP, BSR
MOVF
W_TEMP, W
MOVFF
STATUS_TEMP, STATUS
DS39762E-page 138
PORTB Interrupt-on-Change
; W_TEMP is in virtual bank
; STATUS_TEMP located anywhere
; BSR_TMEP located anywhere
; Restore BSR
; Restore WREG
; Restore STATUS
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
10.0
I/O PORTS
10.1
I/O Port Pin Capabilities
Depending on the device selected and features
enabled, there are up to nine ports available. Some
pins of the I/O ports are multiplexed with an alternate
function from the peripheral features on the device. In
general, when a peripheral is enabled, that pin may not
be used as a general purpose I/O pin.
When developing an application, the capabilities of the
port pins must be considered. Outputs on some pins
have higher output drive strength than others. Similarly,
some pins can tolerate higher than VDD input levels.
Each port has three registers for its operation. These
registers are:
The output pin drive strengths vary for groups of pins
intended to meet the needs for a variety of applications.
PORTB and PORTC are designed to drive higher
loads, such as LEDs. The external memory interface
ports (PORTD, PORTE and PORTJ) are designed to
drive medium loads. All other ports are designed for
small loads, typically indication only. Table 10-1 summarizes the output capabilities. Refer to Section 27.0
“Electrical Characteristics” for more details.
• TRIS register (Data Direction register)
• PORT register (reads the levels on the pins of the
device)
• LAT register (Output Latch register)
The Output Latch (LAT register) is useful for
read-modify-write operations on the value that the I/O
pins are driving.
A simplified model of a generic I/O port, without the
interfaces to other peripherals, is shown in Figure 10-1.
FIGURE 10-1:
GENERIC I/O PORT
OPERATION
10.1.1
PIN OUTPUT DRIVE
TABLE 10-1:
Port
OUTPUT DRIVE LEVELS
Drive
PORTA(1)
Description
Minimum Intended for indication.
(2)
PORTF
PORTG(2)
PORTH(3)
PORTD(2)
RD LAT
Data
Bus
WR LAT
or PORT
Sufficient drive levels for
external memory interfacing,
as well as indication.
High
Suitable for direct LED drive
levels.
PORTE
D
Q
PORTJ(3)
I/O pin
CK
D
PORTB
PORTC
Data Latch
WR TRIS
Medium
Note 1:
Q
2:
CK
TRIS Latch
Input
Buffer
3:
The exceptions are RA0:RA1, which are
capable of directly driving LEDs.
Partially implemented on 64-pin and
80-pin devices; fully implemented on
100-pin devices.
Unimplemented on 64-pin devices.
RD TRIS
Q
D
ENEN
RD PORT
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS39762E-page 139
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
10.1.2
INPUT PINS AND VOLTAGE
CONSIDERATIONS
The voltage tolerance of pins used as device inputs is
dependent on the pin’s input function. Pins that are used
as digital only inputs are able to handle DC voltages up
to 5.5V, a level typical for digital logic circuits. In contrast,
pins that also have analog input functions of any kind
can only tolerate voltages up to VDD. Voltage excursions
beyond VDD on these pins are always to be avoided.
Table 10-2 summarizes the input capabilities. Refer to
Section 27.0 “Electrical Characteristics” for more
details.
TABLE 10-2:
INPUT VOLTAGE LEVELS
Port or Pin
Tolerated
Input
PORTA<5,3:0>
VDD
Only VDD input levels
tolerated.
5.5V
Tolerates input levels
above VDD, useful for
most standard logic.
PORTF<6:1>(1)
Description
PORTH<7:4>(2)
PORTA<4>
PORTB<7:0>
PORTC<7:0>
PORTD<7:0>(1)
PORTE<7:0>
PORTF<7>
PORTG<7:0>(1)
PORTH<3:0>(2)
PORTJ<7:0>(2)
Note 1:
2:
10.2
Partially implemented on 64-pin and
80-pin devices; fully implemented on
100-pin devices.
Unavailable on 64-pin devices.
PORTA, TRISA and
LATA Registers
PORTA is a 6-bit wide, bidirectional port; it is fully
implemented on all devices. The corresponding Data
Direction register is TRISA. Setting a TRISA bit (= 1)
will make the corresponding PORTA pin an input (i.e.,
put the corresponding output driver in a
high-impedance mode). Clearing a TRISA bit (= 0) will
make the corresponding PORTA pin an output (i.e., put
the contents of the output latch on the selected pin).
The RA4 pin is multiplexed with the Timer0 module
clock input to become the RA4/T0CKI pin. The other
PORTA pins are multiplexed with the analog VREF+ and
VREF- inputs. The operation of pins RA5:RA0 as A/D
converter inputs is selected by clearing or setting the
PCFG3:PCFG0 control bits in the ADCON1 register.
Note:
RA5 and RA3:RA0 are configured as
analog inputs on any Reset and are read
as ‘0’. RA4 is configured as a digital input.
The RA4/T0CKI pin is a Schmitt Trigger input. All other
PORTA pins have TTL input levels and full CMOS
output drivers.
The TRISA register controls the direction of the PORTA
pins, even when they are being used as analog inputs.
The user must ensure the bits in the TRISA register are
maintained set when using them as analog inputs.
The RA0 and RA1 pins can also be configured as the
outputs for the two Ethernet LED indicators. When
configured, these two pins are the only pins on PORTA
that are capable of high output drive levels.
Although the port is only six bits wide, PORTA<7> is
implemented as RJPU, the weak pull-up control bit for
PORTJ. In a similar fashion, the LATA<7:6> bits are
implemented, not as latch bits, but the pull-up control
bits, RDPU and REPU, for PORTD and PORTE.
Setting these bits enables the pull-ups for the corresponding port. Because their port pins are not used, the
TRISA<7:6> bits are not implemented.
EXAMPLE 10-1:
CLRF
CLRF
MOVLW
MOVWF
MOVWF
MOVWF
MOVLW
MOVWF
PORTA
;
;
;
LATA
;
;
;
07h
;
ADCON1 ;
07h
;
CMCON
;
0CFh
;
;
;
TRISA
;
;
INITIALIZING PORTA
Initialize PORTA by
clearing output
data latches
Alternate method
to clear output
data latches
Configure A/D
for digital inputs
Configure comparators
for digital input
Value used to
initialize data
direction
Set RA<3:0> as inputs
RA<5:4> as outputs
Reading the PORTA register reads the status of the
pins, whereas writing to it, will write to the port latch.
The Output Latch register (LATA) is also memory
mapped. Read-modify-write operations on the LATA
register read and write the latched output value for
PORTA.
DS39762E-page 140
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
TABLE 10-3:
PORTA FUNCTIONS
Pin Name
Function
RA0/LEDA/AN0
RA0
RA1/LEDB/AN1
RA2/AN2/VREF-
RA3/AN3/VREF+
RA4/T0CKI
RA5/AN4
TRIS
Setting
I/O
0
O
DIG
LATA<0> data output; not affected by analog input.
I
TTL
PORTA<0> data input; disabled when analog input enabled.
LEDA
0
O
DIG
Ethernet LEDA output; takes priority over digital data.
AN0
1
I
ANA
A/D input channel 0. Default input configuration on POR; does not
affect digital output.
RA1
0
O
DIG
LATA<1> data output; not affected by analog input.
1
I
TTL
PORTA<1> data input; disabled when analog input enabled.
LEDB
0
O
DIG
Ethernet LEDB output; takes priority over digital data.
AN1
1
I
ANA
A/D input channel 1. Default input configuration on POR; does not
affect digital output.
RA2
0
O
DIG
LATA<2> data output; not affected by analog input. Disabled when
CVREF output enabled.
1
I
TTL
PORTA<2> data input. Disabled when analog functions enabled;
disabled when CVREF output enabled.
AN2
1
I
ANA
A/D input channel 2 and comparator C2+ input. Default input
configuration on POR; not affected by analog output.
VREF-
1
I
ANA
A/D and comparator low reference voltage input.
RA3
0
O
DIG
LATA<3> data output; not affected by analog input.
1
I
TTL
PORTA<3> data input; disabled when analog input enabled.
AN3
1
I
ANA
A/D input channel 3. Default input configuration on POR.
VREF+
1
I
ANA
A/D high reference voltage input.
RA4
0
O
DIG
LATA<4> data output.
1
I
ST
PORTA<4> data input; default configuration on POR.
Timer0 clock input.
T0CKI
x
I
ST
RA5
0
O
DIG
LATA<5> data output; not affected by analog input.
1
I
TTL
PORTA<5> data input; disabled when analog input enabled.
1
I
ANA
A/D input channel 4. Default configuration on POR.
O = Output, I = Input, ANA = Analog Signal, DIG = Digital Output, ST = Schmitt Buffer Input, TTL = TTL Buffer Input,
x = Don’t care (TRIS bit does not affect port direction or is overridden for this option).
TABLE 10-4:
Name
Description
1
AN4
Legend:
I/O
Type
SUMMARY OF REGISTERS ASSOCIATED WITH PORTA
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
Reset
Values on
Page:
RJPU(1)
—
RA5
RA4
RA3
RA2
RA1
RA0
66
LATA
RDPU
REPU
LATA5
LATA4
LATA3
LATA2
LATA1
LATA0
66
TRISA
—
—
TRISA5
TRISA4
TRISA3
TRISA2
TRISA1
TRISA0
65
ADCON1
—
—
VCFG1
VCFG0
PCFG3
PCFG2
PCFG1
PCFG0
64
PORTA
Legend: — = unimplemented, read as ‘0’. Shaded cells are not used by PORTA.
Note 1: Implemented in 80-pin and 100-pin devices only.
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS39762E-page 141
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
10.3
PORTB, TRISB and
LATB Registers
PORTB is an 8-bit wide, bidirectional port; it is fully
implemented on all devices. The corresponding Data
Direction register is TRISB. Setting a TRISB bit (= 1)
will make the corresponding PORTB pin an input (i.e.,
put the corresponding output driver in a
high-impedance mode). Clearing a TRISB bit (= 0) will
make the corresponding PORTB pin an output (i.e., put
the contents of the output latch on the selected pin). All
pins on PORTB are digital only and tolerate voltages up
to 5.5V.
The Output Latch register (LATB) is also memory
mapped. Read-modify-write operations on the LATB
register read and write the latched output value for
PORTB.
EXAMPLE 10-2:
CLRF
PORTB
CLRF
LATB
MOVLW
0CFh
MOVWF
TRISB
INITIALIZING PORTB
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
Initialize PORTB by
clearing output
data latches
Alternate method
to clear output
data latches
Value used to
initialize data
direction
Set RB<3:0> as inputs
RB<5:4> as outputs
RB<7:6> as inputs
Each of the PORTB pins has a weak internal pull-up. A
single control bit can turn on all of the pull-ups. This is
performed by clearing bit, RBPU (INTCON2<7>). The
weak pull-up is automatically turned off when the port
pin is configured as an output. The pull-ups are
disabled on all Resets.
DS39762E-page 142
Four of the PORTB pins (RB7:RB4) have an
interrupt-on-change feature. Only pins configured as
inputs can cause this interrupt to occur (i.e., any
RB7:RB4 pin configured as an output is excluded from
the interrupt-on-change comparison). The input pins (of
RB7:RB4) are compared with the old value latched on
the last read of PORTB. The “mismatch” outputs of
RB7:RB4 are ORed together to generate the RB Port
Change Interrupt with Flag bit, RBIF (INTCON<0>).
This interrupt can wake the device from
power-managed modes. The user, in the Interrupt
Service Routine, can clear the interrupt in the following
manner:
a)
b)
Any read or write of PORTB (except with the
MOVFF (ANY), PORTB instruction). This will
end the mismatch condition.
Clear flag bit, RBIF.
A mismatch condition will continue to set flag bit, RBIF.
Reading PORTB will end the mismatch condition and
allow flag bit, RBIF, to be cleared.
The interrupt-on-change feature is recommended for
wake-up on key depression operation and operations
where PORTB is only used for the interrupt-on-change
feature. Polling of PORTB is not recommended while
using the interrupt-on-change feature.
For 100-pin devices operating in Extended Microcontroller mode, RB3 can be configured as the
alternate peripheral pin for the ECCP2 module and
Enhanced PWM output 2A by clearing the CCP2MX
Configuration bit. If the devices are in Microcontroller
mode, the alternate assignment for ECCP2 is RE7. As
with other ECCP2 configurations, the user must ensure
that the TRISB<3> bit is set appropriately for the
intended operation.
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
TABLE 10-5:
PORTB FUNCTIONS
Pin Name
Function
TRIS
Setting
I/O
I/O
Type
RB0/INT0/FLT0
RB0
0
O
DIG
LATB<0> data output.
1
I
TTL
PORTB<0> data input; weak pull-up when RBPU bit is cleared.
1
I
ST
External interrupt 0 input.
INT0
RB1/INT1
RB2/INT2
RB3/INT3/
ECCP2/P2A
RB4/KBI0
RB5/KBI1
RB6/KBI2/PGC
RB7/KBI3/PGD
Legend:
Note 1:
2:
Description
FLT0
1
I
ST
Enhanced PWM Fault input (ECCP1 module); enabled in software.
RB1
0
O
DIG
LATB<1> data output.
1
I
TTL
PORTB<1> data input; weak pull-up when RBPU bit is cleared.
INT1
1
I
ST
External interrupt 1 input.
RB2
0
O
DIG
LATB<2> data output.
1
I
TTL
PORTB<2> data input; weak pull-up when RBPU bit is cleared.
INT2
1
I
ST
External interrupt 2 input.
RB3
0
O
DIG
LATB<3> data output.
1
I
TTL
PORTB<3> data input; weak pull-up when RBPU bit is cleared.
INT3
1
I
ST
External interrupt 3 input.
ECCP2(1)
0
O
DIG
ECCP2 compare output and PWM output; takes priority over port data.
1
I
ST
ECCP2 capture input.
P2A(1)
0
O
DIG
ECCP2 Enhanced PWM output, channel A. May be configured for tri-state
during Enhanced PWM shutdown events. Takes priority over port data.
RB4
0
O
DIG
LATB<4> data output.
1
I
TTL
PORTB<4> data input; weak pull-up when RBPU bit is cleared.
KBI0
1
I
TTL
Interrupt-on-pin change.
RB5
0
O
DIG
LATB<5> data output.
PORTB<5> data input; weak pull-up when RBPU bit is cleared.
1
I
TTL
KBI1
1
I
TTL
Interrupt-on-pin change.
RB6
0
O
DIG
LATB<6> data output.
1
I
TTL
PORTB<6> data input; weak pull-up when RBPU bit is cleared.
KBI2
1
I
TTL
Interrupt-on-pin change.
PGC
x
I
ST
Serial execution (ICSP™) clock input for ICSP and ICD operation.(2)
RB7
0
O
DIG
LATB<7> data output.
1
I
TTL
PORTB<7> data input; weak pull-up when RBPU bit is cleared.
KBI3
1
I
TTL
Interrupt-on-pin change.
PGD
x
O
DIG
Serial execution data output for ICSP and ICD operation.(2)
x
I
ST
Serial execution data input for ICSP and ICD operation.(2)
O = Output, I = Input, DIG = Digital Output, ST = Schmitt Buffer Input, TTL = TTL Buffer Input,
x = Don’t care (TRIS bit does not affect port direction or is overridden for this option).
Alternate assignment for ECCP2/P2A when the CCP2MX Configuration bit is cleared (100-pin devices in Extended
Microcontroller mode). Default assignment is RC1.
All other pin functions are disabled when ICSP or ICD is enabled.
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS39762E-page 143
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
TABLE 10-6:
Name
PORTB
SUMMARY OF REGISTERS ASSOCIATED WITH PORTB
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
Reset
Values
on Page:
RB7
RB6
RB5
RB4
RB3
RB2
RB1
RB0
66
LATB
LATB7
LATB6
LATB5
LATB4
LATB3
LATB2
LATB1
LATB0
66
TRISB
TRISB7
TRISB6
TRISB5
TRISB4
TRISB3
TRISB2
TRISB1
TRISB0
65
TMR0IE
INT0IE
RBIE
TMR0IF
INT0IF
RBIF
63
INTEDG0 INTEDG1 INTEDG2 INTEDG3 TMR0IP
INT3IP
RBIP
63
INT2IF
INT1IF
63
INTCON
GIE/GIEH PEIE/GIEL
INTCON2
RBPU
INTCON3
INT2IP
INT1IP
INT3IE
INT2IE
INT1IE
INT3IF
Legend: Shaded cells are not used by PORTB.
DS39762E-page 144
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
10.4
PORTC, TRISC and
LATC Registers
PORTC is an 8-bit wide, bidirectional port; it is fully
implemented on all devices. The corresponding Data
Direction register is TRISC. Setting a TRISC bit (= 1)
will make the corresponding PORTC pin an input (i.e.,
put the corresponding output driver in a
high-impedance mode). Clearing a TRISC bit (= 0) will
make the corresponding PORTC pin an output (i.e., put
the contents of the output latch on the selected pin).
Only PORTC pins, RC2 through RC7, are digital only
pins and can tolerate input voltages up to 5.5V.
The Output Latch register (LATC) is also memory
mapped. Read-modify-write operations on the LATC
register read and write the latched output value for
PORTC.
PORTC is multiplexed with several peripheral functions
(Table 10-7). The pins have Schmitt Trigger input
buffers. RC1 is normally configured by Configuration
bit, CCP2MX, as the default peripheral pin for the
ECCP2 module and Enhanced PWM output P2A
(default state, CCP2MX = 1).
Note:
These pins are configured as digital inputs
on any device Reset.
The contents of the TRISC register are affected by
peripheral overrides. Reading TRISC always returns
the current contents, even though a peripheral device
may be overriding one or more of the pins.
EXAMPLE 10-3:
CLRF
PORTC
CLRF
LATC
MOVLW
0CFh
MOVWF
TRISC
INITIALIZING PORTC
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
Initialize PORTC by
clearing output
data latches
Alternate method
to clear output
data latches
Value used to
initialize data
direction
Set RC<3:0> as inputs
RC<5:4> as outputs
RC<7:6> as inputs
When enabling peripheral functions, care should be
taken in defining TRIS bits for each PORTC pin. Some
peripherals override the TRIS bit to make a pin an output,
while other peripherals override the TRIS bit to make a
pin an input. The user should refer to the corresponding
peripheral section for the correct TRIS bit settings.
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS39762E-page 145
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
TABLE 10-7:
Pin Name
RC0/T1OSO/
T13CKI
RC1/T1OSI/
ECCP2/P2A
PORTC FUNCTIONS
Function
TRIS
Setting
I/O
I/O
Type
RC0
0
O
DIG
1
I
ST
T1OSO
x
O
ANA
T13CKI
1
I
ST
Timer1/Timer3 counter input.
RC1
0
O
DIG
LATC<1> data output.
1
I
ST
T1OSI
x
I
ANA
Timer1 oscillator input; enabled when Timer1 oscillator enabled. Disables
digital I/O.
ECCP2(1)
0
O
DIG
ECCP2 compare output and PWM output; takes priority over port data.
1
I
ST
ECCP2 capture input.
0
O
DIG
ECCP2 Enhanced PWM output, channel A. May be configured for tri-state
during Enhanced PWM shutdown events. Takes priority over port data.
0
O
DIG
LATC<2> data output.
P2A
RC2/ECCP1/
P1A
RC3/SCK1/
SCL1
(1)
RC2
I
ST
PORTC<2> data input.
O
DIG
ECCP1 compare output and PWM output; takes priority over port data.
1
I
ST
ECCP1 capture input.
P1A
0
O
DIG
ECCP1 Enhanced PWM output, channel A. May be configured for tri-state
during Enhanced PWM shutdown events. Takes priority over port data.
RC3
0
O
DIG
LATC<3> data output.
1
I
ST
PORTC<3> data input.
0
O
DIG
SPI clock output (MSSP1 module); takes priority over port data.
1
I
ST
SPI clock input (MSSP1 module).
0
O
DIG
I2C™ clock output (MSSP1 module); takes priority over port data.
1
I
ST
I2C clock input (MSSP1 module); input type depends on module setting.
0
O
DIG
LATC<4> data output.
1
I
ST
PORTC<4> data input.
Legend:
Note 1:
SDI1
1
I
ST
SPI data input (MSSP1 module).
SDA1
1
O
DIG
I2C data output (MSSP1 module); takes priority over port data.
1
I
ST
I2C data input (MSSP1 module); input type depends on module setting.
0
O
DIG
LATC<5> data output.
1
I
ST
PORTC<5> data input.
SDO1
0
O
DIG
SPI data output (MSSP1 module); takes priority over port data.
RC6
0
O
DIG
LATC<6> data output.
1
I
ST
PORTC<6> data input.
TX1
1
O
DIG
Synchronous serial data output (EUSART1 module); takes priority over port data.
CK1
1
O
DIG
Synchronous serial data input (EUSART1 module). User must configure as
an input.
RC5
RC7/RX1/DT1
PORTC<1> data input.
0
RC4
RC6/TX1/CK1
PORTC<0> data input.
Timer1 oscillator output; enabled when Timer1 oscillator enabled. Disables
digital I/O.
1
SCL1
RC5/SDO1
LATC<0> data output.
ECCP1
SCK1
RC4/SDI1/
SDA1
Description
1
I
ST
Synchronous serial clock input (EUSART1 module).
RC7
0
O
DIG
LATC<7> data output.
1
I
ST
PORTC<7> data input.
RX1
1
I
ST
Asynchronous serial receive data input (EUSART1 module).
DT1
1
O
DIG
Synchronous serial data output (EUSART1 module); takes priority over
port data.
1
I
ST
Synchronous serial data input (EUSART1 module). User must configure as
an input.
O = Output, I = Input, ANA = Analog Signal, DIG = Digital Output, ST = Schmitt Buffer Input,
x = Don’t care (TRIS bit does not affect port direction or is overridden for this option).
Default assignment for ECCP2/P2A when CCP2MX Configuration bit is set.
DS39762E-page 146
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
TABLE 10-8:
Name
PORTC
SUMMARY OF REGISTERS ASSOCIATED WITH PORTC
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
Reset
Values
on Page:
RC7
RC6
RC5
RC4
RC3
RC2
RC1
RC0
66
LATC
LATC7
LATC6
LATC5
LATC4
LATC3
LATC2
LATC1
LATC0
66
TRISC
TRISC7
TRISC6
TRISC5
TRISC4
TRISC3
TRISC2
TRISC1
TRISC0
65
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS39762E-page 147
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
10.5
PORTD, TRISD and
LATD Registers
PORTD is implemented as a bidirectional port in two
ways:
• 64-pin and 80-pin devices: 3 bits (RD<2:0>)
• 100-pin devices: 8 bits (RD<7:0>)
The corresponding Data Direction register is TRISD.
Setting a TRISD bit (= 1) will make the corresponding
PORTD pin an input (i.e., put the corresponding output
driver in a high-impedance mode). Clearing a TRISD
bit (= 0) will make the corresponding PORTD pin an
output (i.e., put the contents of the output latch on the
selected pin). All pins on PORTD are digital only and
tolerate voltages up to 5.5V.
The Output Latch register (LATD) is also memory
mapped. Read-modify-write operations on the LATD
register read and write the latched output value for
PORTD.
All pins on PORTD are implemented with Schmitt
Trigger input buffers. Each pin is individually
configurable as an input or output.
Note:
These pins are configured as digital inputs
on any device Reset.
On 100-pin devices, PORTD is multiplexed with the
system bus as part of the external memory interface.
I/O port and other functions are only available when the
interface is disabled by setting the EBDIS bit
(MEMCON<7>). When the interface is enabled,
PORTD is the low-order byte of the multiplexed
address/data bus (AD7:AD0). The TRISD bits are also
overridden.
DS39762E-page 148
Each of the PORTD pins has a weak internal pull-up. A
single control bit can turn on all of the pull-ups. This is
performed by setting the RDPU bit (LATA<7>). The
weak pull-up is automatically turned off when the port
pin is configured as an output. The pull-ups are
disabled on all device Resets.
On 100-pin devices, PORTD can also be configured to
function as an 8-bit wide, parallel microprocessor port
by setting the PSPMODE control bit (PSPCON<4>). In
this mode, parallel port data takes priority over other
digital I/O (but not the external memory interface).
When the parallel port is active, the input buffers are
TTL. For more information, refer to Section 10.11
“Parallel Slave Port”.
EXAMPLE 10-4:
CLRF
PORTD
CLRF
LATD
MOVLW
0CFh
MOVWF
TRISD
INITIALIZING PORTD
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
Initialize PORTD by
clearing output
data latches
Alternate method
to clear output
data latches
Value used to
initialize data
direction
Set RD<3:0> as inputs
RD<5:4> as outputs
RD<7:6> as inputs
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
TABLE 10-9:
PORTD FUNCTIONS
Pin Name
Function
TRIS
Setting
I/O
I/O
Type
RD0/AD0/PSP0
(RD0/P1B)
RD0
0
O
DIG
LATD<0> data output.
1
I
ST
PORTD<0> data input; weak pull-up when RDPU bit is set.
x
O
DIG
External memory interface, address/data bit 0 output.(2)
x
I
TTL
External memory interface, data bit 0 input.(2)
x
O
DIG
PSP read output data (LATD<0>); takes priority over port data.
x
I
TTL
PSP write data input.
P1B(3)
0
O
DIG
ECCP1 Enhanced PWM output, channel B; takes priority over port and
PSP data. May be configured for tri-state during Enhanced PWM
shutdown events.
RD1
0
O
DIG
LATD<1> data output.
1
I
ST
PORTD<1> data input; weak pull-up when RDPU bit is set.
x
O
DIG
External memory interface, address/data bit 1 output.(2)
x
I
TTL
External memory interface, data bit 1 input.(2)
x
O
DIG
PSP read output data (LATD<1>); takes priority over port data.
x
I
TTL
PSP write data input.
0
O
DIG
ECCP3 compare and PWM output; takes priority over port data.
AD0(1)
PSP0(1)
RD1/AD1/PSP1
(RD1/ECCP3/
P3A)
AD1(1)
PSP1
(1)
ECCP3(3)
RD2/AD2/PSP2
(RD2/CCP4/
P3D)
1
I
ST
ECCP3 capture input.
P3A(3)
0
O
DIG
ECCP3 Enhanced PWM output, channel A; takes priority over port and
PSP data. May be configured for tri-state during Enhanced PWM
shutdown events.
RD2
0
O
DIG
LATD<2> data output.
1
I
ST
PORTD<2> data input; weak pull-up when RDPU bit is set.
x
O
DIG
External memory interface, address/data bit 2 output.(2)
x
I
TTL
External memory interface, data bit 2 input.(2)
x
O
DIG
PSP read output data (LATD<2>); takes priority over port data.
x
I
TTL
PSP write data input.
0
O
DIG
CCP4 compare output and PWM output; takes priority over port data.
1
I
ST
CCP4 capture input.
P3D(3)
0
O
DIG
ECCP3 Enhanced PWM output, channel D; takes priority over port
and PSP data. May be configured for tri-state during Enhanced PWM
shutdown events.
RD3(1)
0
O
DIG
LATD<3> data output.
AD2(1)
PSP2(1)
CCP4(3)
RD3/AD3/
PSP3(1)
AD3(1)
PSP3(1)
RD4/AD4/
PSP4/SDO2(1)
RD4(1)
AD4(1)
PSP4
(1)
SDO2(1)
Legend:
Note 1:
2:
3:
Description
1
I
ST
PORTD<3> data input; weak pull-up when RDPU bit is set.
x
O
DIG
External memory interface, address/data bit 3 output.(2)
x
I
TTL
External memory interface, data bit 3 input.(2)
x
O
DIG
PSP read output data (LATD<3>); takes priority over port data.
x
I
TTL
PSP write data input.
0
O
DIG
LATD<4> data output.
1
I
ST
PORTD<4> data input; weak pull-up when RDPU bit is set.
x
O
DIG
External memory interface, address/data bit 4 output.(2)
x
I
TTL
External memory interface, data bit 4 input.(2)
x
O
DIG
PSP read output data (LATD<4>); takes priority over port data.
x
I
TTL
PSP write data input.
0
O
DIG
SPI data output (MSSP2 module); takes priority over port data.
O = Output, I = Input, DIG = Digital Output, ST = Schmitt Buffer Input, TTL = TTL Buffer Input,
x = Don’t care (TRIS bit does not affect port direction or is overridden for this option).
These features or port pins are implemented only on 100-pin devices.
External memory interface I/O takes priority over all other digital and PSP I/O.
These features are implemented on this pin only on 64-pin devices; for all other devices, they are multiplexed with
RE6/RH7 (P1B), RG0 (ECCP3/P3A) or RG3 (CCP4/P3D).
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS39762E-page 149
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
TABLE 10-9:
Pin Name
RD5/AD5/
PSP5/SDI2/
SDA2(1)
PORTD FUNCTIONS (CONTINUED)
Function
TRIS
Setting
I/O
I/O
Type
RD5(1)
0
O
DIG
LATD<5> data output.
AD5(1)
PSP5(1)
RD6/AD6/
PSP6/SCK2/
SCL2(1)
ST
PORTD<5> data input; weak pull-up when RDPU bit is set.
O
DIG
External memory interface, address/data bit 5 output.(2)
x
I
TTL
External memory interface, data bit 5 input.(2)
x
O
DIG
PSP read output data (LATD<5>); takes priority over port data.
I
TTL
PSP write data input.
1
I
ST
SPI data input (MSSP2 module).
SDA2(1)
1
O
DIG
I2C™ data output (MSSP2 module); takes priority over port data.
1
I
ST
I2C data input (MSSP2 module); input type depends on module
setting.
0
O
DIG
LATD<6> data output.
1
I
ST
PORTD<6> data input; weak pull-up when RDPU bit is set.
x
O
DIG-3
x
I
TTL
x
O
DIG
PSP read output data (LATD<6>); takes priority over port data.
x
I
TTL
PSP write data input.
0
O
DIG
SPI clock output (MSSP2 module); takes priority over port data.
1
I
ST
SPI clock input (MSSP2 module).
0
O
DIG
I2C clock output (MSSP2 module); takes priority over port data.
1
I
ST
I2C clock input (MSSP2 module); input type depends on module
setting.
0
O
DIG
LATD<7> data output.
1
I
ST
PORTD<7> data input; weak pull-up when RDPU bit is set.
x
O
DIG
External memory interface, address/data bit 7 output.(2)
x
I
TTL
External memory interface, data bit 7 input.(2)
x
O
DIG
PSP read output data (LATD<7>); takes priority over port data.
x
I
TTL
PSP write data input.
x
I
TTL
Slave select input for MSSP2 module.
RD6(1)
AD6(1)
(1)
SCL2(1)
RD7(1)
AD7(1)
PSP7
(1)
SS2(1)
Note 1:
2:
3:
I
x
x
SCK2(1)
Legend:
1
SDI2(1)
PSP6
RD7/AD7/
PSP7/SS2(1)
Description
External memory interface, address/data bit 6 output.(2)
External memory interface, data bit 6 input.(2)
O = Output, I = Input, DIG = Digital Output, ST = Schmitt Buffer Input, TTL = TTL Buffer Input,
x = Don’t care (TRIS bit does not affect port direction or is overridden for this option).
These features or port pins are implemented only on 100-pin devices.
External memory interface I/O takes priority over all other digital and PSP I/O.
These features are implemented on this pin only on 64-pin devices; for all other devices, they are multiplexed with
RE6/RH7 (P1B), RG0 (ECCP3/P3A) or RG3 (CCP4/P3D).
TABLE 10-10: SUMMARY OF REGISTERS ASSOCIATED WITH PORTD
Name
PORTD
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
RD7(1)
RD6(1)
RD5(1)
RD4(1)
RD3(1)
RD2
LATD5(1)
LATD4(1)
LATD3(1)
LATD2
Bit 0
Reset
Values
on Page:
RD1
RD0
66
LATD1
LATD0
66
Bit 1
LATD
LATD7
LATD6(1)
TRISD
TRISD7(1)
TRISD6(1)
TRISD5(1)
TRISD4(1)
TRISD3(1)
TRISD2
TRISD1
TRISD0
65
RDPU
REPU
LATA5
LATA4
LATA3
LATA2
LATA1
LATA0
66
LATA
(1)
Bit 2
Legend: Shaded cells are not used by PORTD.
Note 1: Unimplemented on 64-pin and 80-pin devices; read as ‘0’.
DS39762E-page 150
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
10.6
PORTE, TRISE and
LATE Registers
PORTE is implemented as a bidirectional port in two
different ways:
• 64-pin devices: 6 bits wide (RE<5:0>)
• 80-pin and 100-pin devices: 8 bits wide (RE<7:0>)
The corresponding Data Direction register is TRISE.
Setting a TRISE bit (= 1) will make the corresponding
PORTE pin an input (i.e., put the corresponding output
driver in a high-impedance mode). Clearing a TRISE bit
(= 0) will make the corresponding PORTE pin an output
(i.e., put the contents of the output latch on the selected
pin). All pins on PORTE are digital only and tolerate
voltages up to 5.5V.
The Output Latch register (LATE) is also memory
mapped. Read-modify-write operations on the LATE
register read and write the latched output value for
PORTE.
All pins on PORTE are implemented with Schmitt
Trigger input buffers. Each pin is individually
configurable as an input or output.
Note:
These pins are configured as digital inputs
on any device Reset.
On 100-pin devices, PORTE is multiplexed with the
system bus as part of the external memory interface.
I/O port and other functions are only available when the
interface is disabled by setting the EBDIS bit
(MEMCON<7>). When the interface is enabled,
PORTE is the high-order byte of the multiplexed
address/data bus (AD15:AD8). The TRISE bits are also
overridden.
Each of the PORTE pins has a weak internal pull-up. A
single control bit can turn on all of the pull-ups. This is
performed by setting bit REPU (LATA<6>). The weak
pull-up is automatically turned off when the port pin is
configured as an output. The pull-ups are disabled on
all device Resets.
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PORTE is also multiplexed with Enhanced PWM
outputs B and C for ECCP1 and ECCP3 and outputs B,
C and D for ECCP2. For 80-pin and 100-pin devices,
their default assignments are on PORTE<6:0>. For
64-pin devices, their default assignments are on
PORTE<5:0> and PORTD<0>. On 80-pin and 100-pin
devices, the multiplexing for the outputs of ECCP1 and
ECCP3 is controlled by the ECCPMX Configuration bit.
Clearing this bit reassigns the P1B/P1C and P3B/P3C
outputs to PORTH.
For 80-pin and 100-pin devices operating in Microcontroller mode, pin RE7 can be configured as the
alternate peripheral pin for the ECCP2 module and
Enhanced PWM output 2A. This is done by clearing the
CCP2MX Configuration bit.
When the Parallel Slave Port is active on PORTD, three
of the PORTE pins (RE0, RE1 and RE2) are configured
as digital control inputs for the port. The control
functions are summarized in Table 10-11. The reconfiguration occurs automatically when the PSPMODE
control bit (PSPCON<4>) is set. Users must still make
certain the corresponding TRISE bits are set to
configure these pins as digital inputs.
EXAMPLE 10-5:
CLRF
PORTE
CLRF
LATE
MOVLW
03h
MOVWF
TRISE
INITIALIZING PORTE
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
Initialize PORTE by
clearing output
data latches
Alternate method
to clear output
data latches
Value used to
initialize data
direction
Set RE<1:0> as inputs
RE<7:2> as outputs
DS39762E-page 151
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
TABLE 10-11:
Pin Name
PORTE FUNCTIONS
Function
TRIS
Setting
I/O
I/O
Type
RE0
0
O
DIG
LATE<0> data output.
1
I
ST
PORTE<0> data input; weak pull-up when REPU bit is set.
x
O
DIG
External memory interface, address/data bit 8 output.(2)
x
I
TTL
External memory interface, data bit 8 input.(2)
RE0/AD8/RD/
P2D
AD8(1)
RD
RE1/AD9/WR/
P2C
(6)
1
I
TTL
Parallel Slave Port read enable control input.
P2D
0
O
DIG
ECCP2 Enhanced PWM output, channel D; takes priority over port
and PSP data. May be configured for tri-state during Enhanced PWM
shutdown events.
RE1
0
O
DIG
LATE<1> data output.
1
I
ST
PORTE<1> data input; weak pull-up when REPU bit is set.
x
O
DIG
External memory interface, address/data bit 9 output.(2)
x
I
TTL
External memory interface, data bit 9 input.(2)
AD9(1)
WR(6)
1
I
TTL
Parallel Slave Port write enable control input.
P2C
0
O
DIG
ECCP2 Enhanced PWM output, channel C; takes priority over port
and PSP data. May be configured for tri-state during Enhanced PWM
shutdown events.
RE2
0
O
DIG
LATE<2> data output.
1
I
ST
PORTE<2> data input; weak pull-up when REPU bit is set.
x
O
DIG
External memory interface, address/data bit 10 output.(2)
x
I
TTL
External memory interface, data bit 10 input.(2)
RE2/AD10/CS/
P2B
AD10(1)
CS
(6)
1
I
TTL
Parallel Slave Port chip select control input.
P2B
0
O
DIG
ECCP2 Enhanced PWM output, channel B; takes priority over port and
PSP data. May be configured for tri-state during Enhanced PWM
shutdown events.
RE3
0
O
DIG
LATE<3> data output.
1
I
ST
PORTE<3> data input; weak pull-up when REPU bit is set.
AD11(1)
x
O
DIG
External memory interface, address/data bit 11 output.(2)
x
I
TTL
External memory interface, data bit 11 input.(2)
P3C(3)
0
O
DIG
ECCP3 Enhanced PWM output, channel C; takes priority over port
and PSP data. May be configured for tri-state during Enhanced PWM
shutdown events.
RE4
0
O
DIG
LATE<4> data output.
1
I
ST
PORTE<4> data input; weak pull-up when REPU bit is set.
x
O
DIG
External memory interface, address/data bit 12 output.(2)
x
I
TTL
External memory interface, data bit 12 input.(2)
0
O
DIG
ECCP3 Enhanced PWM output, channel B; takes priority over port and
PSP data. May be configured for tri-state during Enhanced PWM
shutdown events.
RE3/AD11/
P3C
RE4/AD12/
P3B
AD12(1)
(3)
P3B
Legend:
Note 1:
2:
3:
4:
5:
6:
Description
O = Output, I = Input, DIG = Digital Output, ST = Schmitt Buffer Input, TTL = TTL Buffer Input,
x = Don’t care (TRIS bit does not affect port direction or is overridden for this option).
EMB functions implemented on 100-pin devices only.
External memory interface I/O takes priority over all other digital and PSP I/O.
Default assignments for P1B/P1C and P3B/P3C when ECCPMX Configuration bit is set (80-pin and 100-pin devices).
Unimplemented on 64-pin devices.
Alternate assignment for ECCP2/P2A when CCP2MX Configuration bit is cleared (80-pin and 100-pin devices in
Microcontroller mode).
Unimplemented on 64-pin and 80-pin devices.
DS39762E-page 152
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
TABLE 10-11:
Pin Name
RE5/AD13/
P1C
PORTE FUNCTIONS (CONTINUED)
Function
TRIS
Setting
I/O
I/O
Type
RE5
0
O
DIG
LATE<5> data output.
1
I
ST
PORTE<5> data input; weak pull-up when REPU bit is set.
x
O
DIG
External memory interface, address/data bit 13 output.(2)
x
I
TTL
External memory interface, data bit 13 input.(2)
P1C(3)
0
O
DIG
ECCP1 Enhanced PWM output, channel C; takes priority over port
and PSP data. May be configured for tri-state during Enhanced PWM
shutdown events.
RE6
0
O
DIG
LATE<6> data output.
1
I
ST
PORTE<6> data input; weak pull-up when REPU bit is set.
x
O
DIG
External memory interface, address/data bit 14 output.(2)
x
I
TTL
External memory interface, data bit 14 input.(2)
0
O
DIG
ECCP1 Enhanced PWM output, channel B; takes priority over port and
PSP data. May be configured for tri-state during Enhanced PWM
shutdown events.
0
O
DIG
LATE<7> data output.
1
I
ST
PORTE<7> data input; weak pull-up when REPU bit is set.
x
O
DIG
External memory interface, address/data bit 15 output.(2)
x
I
TTL
External memory interface, data bit 15 input.(2)
0
O
DIG
ECCP2 compare output and PWM output; takes priority over
port data.
AD13(1)
RE6/AD14/
P1B(4)
AD14(1)
(3)
P1B
RE7/AD15/
ECCP2/P2A(4)
RE7
AD15(1)
ECCP2
(5)
P2A(5)
Legend:
Note 1:
2:
3:
4:
5:
6:
Description
1
I
ST
ECCP2 capture input.
0
O
DIG
ECCP2 Enhanced PWM output, channel A; takes priority over port and
PSP data. May be configured for tri-state during Enhanced PWM
shutdown events.
O = Output, I = Input, DIG = Digital Output, ST = Schmitt Buffer Input, TTL = TTL Buffer Input,
x = Don’t care (TRIS bit does not affect port direction or is overridden for this option).
EMB functions implemented on 100-pin devices only.
External memory interface I/O takes priority over all other digital and PSP I/O.
Default assignments for P1B/P1C and P3B/P3C when ECCPMX Configuration bit is set (80-pin and 100-pin devices).
Unimplemented on 64-pin devices.
Alternate assignment for ECCP2/P2A when CCP2MX Configuration bit is cleared (80-pin and 100-pin devices in
Microcontroller mode).
Unimplemented on 64-pin and 80-pin devices.
TABLE 10-12: SUMMARY OF REGISTERS ASSOCIATED WITH PORTE
Name
PORTE
Bit 7
Bit 6
RE7(1)
RE6(1)
RE5
RE4
RE3
RE2
LATE6(1)
LATE5
LATE4
LATE3
LATE2
(1)
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 0
Reset
Values
on Page:
RE1
RE0
66
LATE1
LATE0
66
Bit 1
LATE
LATE7
TRISE
TRISE7(1)
TRISE6(1)
TRISE5
TRISE4
TRISE3
TRISE2
TRISE1
TRISE0
65
LATA
RDPU
REPU
LATA5
LATA4
LATA3
LATA2
LATA1
LATA0
66
Legend: — = unimplemented, read as ‘0’. Shaded cells are not used by PORTE.
Note 1: Unimplemented on 64-pin devices; read as ‘0’.
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS39762E-page 153
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
10.7
PORTF, LATF and TRISF Registers
PORTF is implemented as a bidirectional port in two
different ways:
Note 1: On device Resets, pins RF6:RF1 are
configured as analog inputs and are read
as ‘0’.
2: To configure PORTF as digital I/O, turn off
comparators and set ADCON1 value.
• 64-pin and 80-pin devices: 7 bits wide (RF<7:1>)
• 100-pin devices: 8 bits wide (RF<7:0>)
The corresponding Data Direction register is TRISF.
Setting a TRISF bit (= 1) will make the corresponding
PORTF pin an input (i.e., put the corresponding output
driver in a high-impedance mode). Clearing a TRISF bit
(= 0) will make the corresponding PORTF pin an output
(i.e., put the contents of the output latch on the selected
pin). Only pin 7 of PORTF has no analog input; it is the
only pin that can tolerate voltages up to 5.5V.
The Output Latch register (LATF) is also memory
mapped. Read-modify-write operations on the LATF
register read and write the latched output value for
PORTF.
All pins on PORTF are implemented with Schmitt
Trigger input buffers. Each pin is individually
configurable as an input or output.
PORTF is multiplexed with several analog peripheral
functions, including the A/D converter and comparator
inputs, as well as the comparator outputs. Pins RF1
through RF6 may be used as comparator inputs or
outputs by setting the appropriate bits in the CMCON
register. To use RF6:RF1 as digital inputs, it is also
necessary to turn off the comparators.
DS39762E-page 154
EXAMPLE 10-6:
CLRF
CLRF
MOVLW
MOVWF
MOVLW
MOVWF
MOVLW
MOVWF
PORTF
;
;
;
LATF
;
;
;
07h
;
CMCON
;
0Fh
;
ADCON1 ;
0CEh
;
;
;
TRISF
;
;
;
INITIALIZING PORTF
Initialize PORTF by
clearing output
data latches
Alternate method
to clear output
data latches
Turn off comparators
Set PORTF as digital I/O
Value used to
initialize data
direction
Set RF3:RF1 as inputs
RF5:RF4 as outputs
RF7:RF6 as inputs
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
TABLE 10-13: PORTF FUNCTIONS
Pin Name
Function
TRIS
Setting
I/O
I/O
Type
RF0/AN5(1)
RF0(1)
0
O
DIG
LATF<0> data output; not affected by analog input.
1
I
ST
PORTF<0> data input; disabled when analog input enabled.
RF1/AN6/
C2OUT
RF2/AN7/
C1OUT
RF3/AN8
RF4/AN9
RF5/AN10/
CVREF
RF6/AN11
RF7/SS1
Legend:
Note 1:
Description
AN5(1)
1
I
ANA
A/D input channel 5. Default configuration on POR.
RF1
0
O
DIG
LATF<1> data output; not affected by analog input.
1
I
ST
AN6
1
I
ANA
A/D input channel 6. Default configuration on POR.
PORTF<1> data input; disabled when analog input enabled.
C2OUT
0
O
DIG
Comparator 2 output; takes priority over port data.
RF2
0
O
DIG
LATF<2> data output; not affected by analog input.
1
I
ST
AN7
1
I
ANA
PORTF<2> data input; disabled when analog input enabled.
C1OUT
0
O
TTL
Comparator 1 output; takes priority over port data.
RF3
0
O
DIG
LATF<3> data output; not affected by analog input.
A/D input channel 7. Default configuration on POR.
1
I
ST
AN8
1
I
ANA
PORTF<3> data input; disabled when analog input enabled.
RF4
0
O
DIG
LATF<4> data output; not affected by analog input.
1
I
ST
PORTF<4> data input; disabled when analog input enabled.
AN9
1
I
ANA
A/D input channel 9 and comparator C2- input. Default input configuration on
POR; does not affect digital output.
RF5
0
O
DIG
LATF<5> data output; not affected by analog input. Disabled when CVREF
output enabled.
1
I
ST
PORTF<5> data input; disabled when analog input enabled. Disabled when
CVREF output enabled.
AN10
1
I
ANA
A/D input channel 10 and comparator C1+ input. Default input configuration on POR.
CVREF
x
O
ANA
Comparator voltage reference output. Enabling this feature disables digital I/O.
RF6
0
O
DIG
LATF<6> data output; not affected by analog input.
1
I
ST
PORTF<6> data input; disabled when analog input enabled.
AN11
1
I
ANA
A/D input channel 11 and comparator C1- input. Default input configuration on
POR; does not affect digital output.
RF7
0
O
DIG
LATF<7> data output.
1
I
ST
PORTF<7> data input.
SS1
1
I
TTL
Slave select input for MSSP1 module.
A/D input channel 8 and comparator C2+ input. Default input configuration on
POR; not affected by analog output.
O = Output, I = Input, ANA = Analog Signal, DIG = Digital Output, ST = Schmitt Buffer Input, TTL = TTL Buffer Input,
x = Don’t care (TRIS bit does not affect port direction or is overridden for this option).
Implemented on 100-pin devices only.
TABLE 10-14: SUMMARY OF REGISTERS ASSOCIATED WITH PORTF
Name
PORTF
LATF
TRISF
ADCON1
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
Reset
Values
on Page:
RF7
RF6
RF5
RF4
RF3
RF2
RF1
RF0(1)
66
LATF7
LATF6
LATF5
LATF4
LATF3
LATF2
LATF1
LATF0(1)
66
TRISF7
TRISF6
TRISF5
TRISF4
TRISF3
TRISF2
TRISF1
—
—
VCFG1
VCFG0
PCFG3
PCFG2
PCFG1
TRISF0
(1)
65
PCFG0
64
CMCON
C2OUT
C1OUT
C2INV
C1INV
CIS
CM2
CM1
CM0
64
CVRCON
CVREN
CVROE
CVRR
CVRSS
CVR3
CVR2
CVR1
CVR0
64
Legend: — = unimplemented, read as ‘0’. Shaded cells are not used by PORTF.
Note 1: Implemented on 100-pin devices only.
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS39762E-page 155
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
10.8
PORTG, TRISG and
LATG Registers
Depending on the particular device, PORTG is
implemented as a bidirectional port in one of three
ways:
• 64-pin devices: 1 bit wide (RG<4>)
• 80-pin devices: 5 bits wide (RG<4:0>)
• 100-pin devices: 8 bits wide (RG<7:0>)
The corresponding Data Direction register is TRISG.
Setting a TRISG bit (= 1) will make the corresponding
PORTG pin an input (i.e., put the corresponding output
driver in a high-impedance mode). Clearing a TRISG
bit (= 0) will make the corresponding PORTG pin an
output (i.e., put the contents of the output latch on the
selected pin). All pins on PORTG are digital only and
tolerate voltages up to 5.5V.
The Output Latch register (LATG) is also memory
mapped. Read-modify-write operations on the LATG
register read and write the latched output value for
PORTG.
PORTG is multiplexed with EUSART2 functions on
80-pin and 100-pin devices (Table 10-15). PORTG pins
have Schmitt Trigger input buffers.
DS39762E-page 156
When enabling peripheral functions, care should be
taken in defining TRIS bits for each PORTG pin. Some
peripherals override the TRIS bit to make a pin an
output, while other peripherals override the TRIS bit to
make a pin an input. The user should refer to the
corresponding peripheral section for the correct TRIS
bit settings. The pin override value is not loaded into
the TRIS register. This allows read-modify-write of the
TRIS register without concern due to peripheral
overrides.
EXAMPLE 10-7:
CLRF
PORTG
CLRF
LATG
MOVLW
04h
MOVWF
TRISG
INITIALIZING PORTG
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
Initialize PORTG by
clearing output
data latches
Alternate method
to clear output
data latches
Value used to
initialize data
direction
Set RG1:RG0 as outputs
RG2 as input
RG4:RG3 as inputs
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
TABLE 10-15: PORTG FUNCTIONS
Pin Name
RG0/ECCP3/
P3A(1)
Function
TRIS
Setting
I/O
I/O
Type
RG0(1)
0
O
DIG
1
I
ST
PORTG<0> data input.
0
O
DIG
ECCP3 compare and PWM output; takes priority over port data.
ECCP3(1)
RG2/RX2/
DT2(1)
1
I
ST
ECCP3 capture input.
0
O
DIG
ECCP3 Enhanced PWM output, channel A; takes priority over port and
PSP data. May be configured for tri-state during Enhanced PWM
shutdown events.
RG1(1)
0
O
DIG
LATG<1> data output.
1
I
ST
PORTG<1> data input.
TX2(1)
1
O
DIG
Synchronous serial data output (EUSART2 module); takes priority over
port data.
CK2(1)
1
O
DIG
Synchronous serial data input (EUSART2 module). User must configure
as an input.
RG2(1)
LATG<2> data output.
1
I
ST
PORTG<2> data input.
I
ST
Asynchronous serial receive data input (EUSART2 module).
O
DIG
Synchronous serial data output (EUSART2 module); takes priority over
port data.
1
I
ST
Synchronous serial data input (EUSART2 module). User must configure
as an input.
0
O
DIG
LATG<3> data output.
RG3(1)
1
I
ST
PORTG<3> data input.
0
O
DIG
CCP4 compare output and PWM output; takes priority over port data.
1
I
ST
CCP4 capture input.
P3D(1)
0
O
DIG
ECCP3 Enhanced PWM output, channel D; takes priority over port and
PSP data. May be configured for tri-state during Enhanced PWM
shutdown events.
RG4
0
O
DIG
LATG<4> data output.
1
I
ST
PORTG<4> data input.
0
O
DIG
CCP5 compare output and PWM output; takes priority over port data.
1
I
ST
CCP5 capture input.
P1D
0
O
DIG
ECCP1 Enhanced PWM output, channel D; takes priority over port and
PSP data. May be configured for tri-state during Enhanced PWM
shutdown events.
RG5(2)
0
O
DIG
LATG<0> data output.
1
I
ST
PORTG<0> data input.
0
O
DIG
LATG<0> data output.
RG6(2)
RG7(2)
RG7(2)
Note 1:
2:
Synchronous serial clock input (EUSART2 module).
DIG
1
RG6(2)
Legend:
ST
O
1
CCP5
RG5(2)
I
0
DT2(1)
CCP4(1)
RG4/CCP5/
P1D
1
(1)
RX2
RG3/CCP4/
P3D(1)
LATG<0> data output.
(1)
P3A
RG1/TX2/
CK2(1)
Description
1
I
ST
PORTG<0> data input.
0
O
DIG
LATG<0> data output.
1
I
ST
PORTG<0> data input.
O = Output, I = Input, DIG = Digital Output, ST = Schmitt Buffer Input,
x = Don’t care (TRIS bit does not affect port direction or is overridden for this option).
Implemented on 80-pin and 100-pin devices only.
Implemented on 100-pin devices only.
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS39762E-page 157
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
TABLE 10-16: SUMMARY OF REGISTERS ASSOCIATED WITH PORTG
Name
PORTG
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
Reset
Values on
Page:
RG7(1)
RG6(1)
RG5(1)
RG4
RG3(2)
RG2(2)
RG1(2)
RG0(2)
66
LATG6(1)
LATG5(1)
LATG4
LATG3(2)
LATG2(2)
LATG1(2)
LATG0(2)
66
(1)
LATG
LATG7
TRISG
TRISG7(1)
Note 1:
2:
(1)
TRISG6
(1)
TRISG5
TRISG4
TRISG3
(2)
(2)
TRISG2
TRISG1
(2)
TRISG0
(2)
65
Implemented on 100-pin devices only.
Implemented on 80-pin and 100-pin devices only.
DS39762E-page 158
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
10.9
Note:
PORTH, LATH and
TRISH Registers
PORTH is available only on 80-pin and
100-pin devices.
PORTH is an 8-bit wide, bidirectional I/O port; it is fully
implemented on 80-pin and 100-pin devices. The
corresponding Data Direction register is TRISH. Setting a TRISH bit (= 1) will make the corresponding
PORTH pin an input (i.e., put the corresponding output
driver in a high-impedance mode). Clearing a TRISH
bit (= 0) will make the corresponding PORTH pin an
output (i.e., put the contents of the output latch on the
selected pin). PORTH<3:0> pins are digital only and
tolerate voltages up to 5.5V.
The Output Latch register (LATH) is also memory
mapped. Read-modify-write operations on the LATH
register read and write the latched output value for
PORTH.
All pins on PORTH are implemented with Schmitt
Trigger input buffers. Each pin is individually
configurable as an input or output.
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
When the external memory interface is enabled, four of
the PORTH pins function as the high-order address
lines for the interface. The address output from the
interface takes priority over other digital I/O. The
corresponding TRISH bits are also overridden.
PORTH pins, RH4 through RH7, are multiplexed with
analog converter inputs. The operation of these pins as
analog inputs is selected by clearing or setting the
PCFG3:PCFG0 control bits in the ADCON1 register.
PORTH can also be configured as the alternate
Enhanced PWM output channels B and C for the
ECCP1 and ECCP3 modules. This is done by clearing
the ECCPMX Configuration bit.
EXAMPLE 10-8:
CLRF
PORTH
CLRF
LATH
MOVLW
MOVWF
MOVLW
0Fh
ADCON1
0CFh
MOVWF
TRISH
INITIALIZING PORTH
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
Initialize PORTH by
clearing output
data latches
Alternate method
to clear output
data latches
Configure PORTH as
digital I/O
Value used to
initialize data
direction
Set RH3:RH0 as inputs
RH5:RH4 as outputs
RH7:RH6 as inputs
DS39762E-page 159
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
TABLE 10-17: PORTH FUNCTIONS
Pin Name
RH0/A16
RH1/A17
RH2/A18
RH3/A19
RH4/AN12/P3C
Function
TRIS
Setting
I/O
I/O
Type
RH0
0
O
DIG
1
I
ST
PORTH<0> data input.
A16(1)
x
O
DIG
External memory interface, address line 16. Takes priority over port data.
RH1
0
O
DIG
LATH<1> data output.
1
I
ST
PORTH<1> data input.
x
O
DIG
External memory interface, address line 17. Takes priority over port data.
RH2
0
O
DIG
LATH<2> data output.
1
I
ST
PORTH<2> data input.
A18(1)
x
O
DIG
External memory interface, address line 18. Takes priority over port data.
RH3
0
O
DIG
LATH<3> data output.
1
I
ST
PORTH<3> data input.
A19(1)
x
O
DIG
External memory interface, address line 19. Takes priority over port data.
RH4
0
O
DIG
LATH<4> data output.
1
I
ST
PORTH<4> data input.
I
ANA
A/D input channel 12. Default input configuration on POR; does not affect
digital output.
P3C(2)
0
O
DIG
ECCP3 Enhanced PWM output, channel C; takes priority over port and PSP
data. May be configured for tri-state during Enhanced PWM shutdown events.
RH5
0
O
DIG
LATH<5> data output.
1
I
ST
PORTH<5> data input.
I
ANA
A/D input channel 13. Default input configuration on POR; does not affect
digital output.
AN13
RH6/AN14/P1C
P3B(2)
0
O
DIG
ECCP3 Enhanced PWM output, channel B; takes priority over port and PSP
data. May be configured for tri-state during Enhanced PWM shutdown events.
RH6
0
O
DIG
LATH<6> data output.
1
I
ST
PORTH<6> data input.
I
ANA
A/D input channel 14. Default input configuration on POR; does not affect
digital output.
AN14
RH7/AN15/P1B
P1C(2)
0
O
DIG
ECCP1 Enhanced PWM output, channel C; takes priority over port and PSP
data. May be configured for tri-state during Enhanced PWM shutdown events.
RH7
0
O
DIG
LATH<7> data output.
1
I
ST
PORTH<7> data input.
I
ANA
A/D input channel 15. Default input configuration on POR; does not affect
digital output.
O
DIG
ECCP1 Enhanced PWM output, channel B; takes priority over port and PSP
data. May be configured for tri-state during Enhanced PWM shutdown events.
AN15
P1B(2)
Legend:
Note 1:
2:
LATH<0> data output.
A17(1)
AN12
RH5/AN13/P3B
Description
0
O = Output, I = Input, ANA = Analog Signal, DIG = Digital Output, ST = Schmitt Buffer Input,
x = Don’t care (TRIS bit does not affect port direction or is overridden for this option).
Unimplemented on 80-pin devices.
Alternate assignments for P1B/P1C and P3B/P3C when ECCPMX Configuration bit is cleared (80-pin and 100-pin
devices only). Default assignments are PORTE<6:3>.
TABLE 10-18: SUMMARY OF REGISTERS ASSOCIATED WITH PORTH
Name
PORTH
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
Reset
Values
on Page:
RH7
RH6
RH5
RH4
RH3
RH2
RH1
RH0
66
LATH
LATH7
LATH6
LATH5
LATH4
LATH3
LATH2
LATH1
LATH0
65
TRISH
TRISH7
TRISH6
TRISH5
TRISH4
TRISH3
TRISH2
TRISH1
TRISH0
65
DS39762E-page 160
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
10.10 PORTJ, TRISJ and
LATJ Registers
Note:
PORTJ is available only on 80-pin and
100-pin devices.
PORTJ is implemented as a bidirectional port in two
different ways:
• 80-pin devices: 2 bits wide (RJ<5:4>)
• 100-pin devices: 8 bits wide (RJ<7:0>)
The corresponding Data Direction register is TRISJ.
Setting a TRISJ bit (= 1) will make the corresponding
PORTJ pin an input (i.e., put the corresponding output
driver in a high-impedance mode). Clearing a TRISJ bit
(= 0) will make the corresponding PORTJ pin an output
(i.e., put the contents of the output latch on the selected
pin). All pins on PORTJ are digital only and tolerate
voltages up to 5.5V.
The Output Latch register (LATJ) is also memory
mapped. Read-modify-write operations on the LATJ
register read and write the latched output value for
PORTJ.
All pins on PORTJ are implemented with Schmitt
Trigger input buffers. Each pin is individually
configurable as an input or output.
Note:
When the external memory interface is enabled, all of
the PORTJ pins function as control outputs for the
interface. This occurs automatically when the interface
is enabled by clearing the EBDIS control bit
(MEMCON<7>). The TRISJ bits are also overridden.
Each of the PORTJ pins has a weak internal pull-up. A
single control bit can turn on all the pull-ups. This is
performed by setting bit, RJPU (PORTA<7>). The
weak pull-up is automatically turned off when the port
pin is configured as an output. The pull-ups are
disabled on all device Resets.
EXAMPLE 10-9:
CLRF
PORTJ
CLRF
LATJ
MOVLW
0CFh
MOVWF
TRISJ
INITIALIZING PORTJ
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
Initialize PORTG by
clearing output
data latches
Alternate method
to clear output
data latches
Value used to
initialize data
direction
Set RJ3:RJ0 as inputs
RJ5:RJ4 as output
RJ7:RJ6 as inputs
These pins are configured as digital inputs
on any device Reset.
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS39762E-page 161
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
TABLE 10-19: PORTJ FUNCTIONS
Pin Name
RJ0/ALE(1)
RJ1/OE(1)
RJ2/WRL(1)
RJ3/WRH(1)
Function
TRIS
Setting
I/O
I/O
Type
RJ0(1)
0
O
DIG
LATJ<0> data output.
1
I
ST
PORTJ<0> data input; weak pull-up when RJPU bit is set.
ALE(1)
x
O
DIG
External memory interface address latch enable control output; takes
priority over digital I/O.
RJ1(1)
0
O
DIG
LATJ<1> data output.
1
I
ST
PORTJ<1> data input; weak pull-up when RJPU bit is set.
OE(1)
x
O
DIG
External memory interface output enable control output; takes priority
over digital I/O.
RJ2(1)
0
O
DIG
LATJ<2> data output.
1
I
ST
PORTJ<2> data input; weak pull-up when RJPU bit is set.
WRL(1)
x
O
DIG
External memory bus write low byte control; takes priority over
digital I/O.
RJ3(1)
0
O
DIG
LATJ<3> data output.
1
I
ST
PORTJ<3> data input; weak pull-up when RJPU bit is set.
WRH(1)
x
O
DIG
External memory interface write high byte control output; takes priority
over digital I/O.
RJ4
0
O
DIG
LATJ<4> data output.
RJ4/BA0
1
I
ST
PORTJ<4> data input; weak pull-up when RJPU bit is set.
BA0(2)
x
O
DIG
External memory interface byte address 0 control output; takes priority
over digital I/O.
RJ5
0
O
DIG
LATJ<5> data output.
1
I
ST
PORTJ<5> data input; weak pull-up when RJPU bit is set.
CE(2)
x
O
DIG
External memory interface chip enable control output; takes priority
over digital I/O.
RJ6(1)
0
O
DIG
LATJ<6> data output.
1
I
ST
PORTJ<6> data input; weak pull-up when RJPU bit is set.
LB(1)
x
O
DIG
External memory interface lower byte enable control output; takes
priority over digital I/O.
RJ7(1)
0
O
DIG
LATJ<7> data output.
RJ5/CE
RJ6/LB(1)
RJ7/UB(1)
UB(1)
Legend:
Note 1:
2:
Description
1
I
ST
PORTJ<7> data input; weak pull-up when RJPU bit is set.
x
O
DIG
External memory interface upper byte enable control output; takes
priority over digital I/O.
O = Output, I = Input, DIG = Digital Output, ST = Schmitt Buffer Input,
x = Don’t care (TRIS bit does not affect port direction or is overridden for this option).
Implemented on 100-pin devices only.
EMB functions are implemented on 100-pin devices only.
TABLE 10-20: SUMMARY OF REGISTERS ASSOCIATED WITH PORTJ
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
Reset
Values
on Page:
RJ7(1)
RJ6(1)
RJ5
RJ4
RJ3(1)
RJ2(1)
RJ1(1)
RJ0(1)
66
LATJ
LATJ7(1)
LATJ6(1)
LATJ5
LATJ4
LATJ3(1)
LATJ2(1)
LATJ1(1)
LATJ0(1)
65
TRISJ
TRISJ7(1) TRISJ6(1)
TRISJ5
TRISJ4
TRISJ3(1) TRISJ2(1) TRISJ1(1) TRISJ0(1)
65
RA5
RA4
Name
PORTJ
PORTA
RJPU
—
RA3
RA2
RA1
RA0
66
Legend: — = unimplemented, read as ‘0’. Shaded cells are not used by PORTJ.
Note 1: Implemented on 100-pin devices only.
DS39762E-page 162
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
10.11 Parallel Slave Port
Note:
PORTD AND PORTE
BLOCK DIAGRAM
(PARALLEL SLAVE PORT)
The Parallel Slave Port is only implemented
in 100-pin devices.
PORTD can also function as an 8-bit wide, Parallel
Slave Port, or microprocessor port, when control bit,
PSPMODE (PSPCON<4>), is set. It is asynchronously
readable and writable by the external world through the
RD control input pin, RE0/AD8/RD/P2D and WR
control input pin, RE1/AD9//WR/P2C.
Note:
FIGURE 10-2:
Data Bus
D
WR LATD
or PORTD
A write to the PSP occurs when both the CS and WR
lines are first detected low and ends when either are
detected high. The PSPIF and IBF flag bits are both set
when the write ends.
A read from the PSP occurs when both the CS and RD
lines are first detected low. The data in PORTD is read
out and the OBF bit is set. If the user writes new data
to PORTD to set OBF, the data is immediately read out;
however, the OBF bit is not set.
When either the CS or RD lines is detected high, the
PORTD pins return to the input state and the PSPIF bit
is set. User applications should wait for PSPIF to be set
before servicing the PSP. When this happens, the IBF
and OBF bits can be polled and the appropriate action
taken.
RDx
pin
CK
Data Latch
Q
The Parallel Slave Port is available only in
Microcontroller mode.
The PSP can directly interface to an 8-bit microprocessor data bus. The external microprocessor can
read or write the PORTD latch as an 8-bit latch. Setting
bit, PSPMODE, enables port pin RE0/AD8/RD/P2D to
be the RD input, RE1/AD9//WR/P2C to be the WR
input and RE2/AD10//CS/P2B to be the CS (Chip
Select) input. For this functionality, the corresponding
data direction bits of the TRISE register (TRISE<2:0>)
must be configured as inputs (set).
Q
RD PORTD
TTL
D
ENEN
TRIS Latch
RD LATD
One bit of PORTD
Set Interrupt Flag
PSPIF (PIR1<7>)
Read
TTL
RD
Chip Select
TTL
CS
Write
TTL
WR
The timing for the control signals in Write and Read
modes is shown in Figure 10-3 and Figure 10-4,
respectively.
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS39762E-page 163
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
REGISTER 10-1:
PSPCON: PARALLEL SLAVE PORT CONTROL REGISTER
R-0
R-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
U-0
U-0
U-0
U-0
IBF
OBF
IBOV
PSPMODE
—
—
—
—
bit 7
bit 0
Legend:
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
-n = Value at POR
‘1’ = Bit is set
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
x = Bit is unknown
bit 7
IBF: Input Buffer Full Status bit
1 = A word has been received and is waiting to be read by the CPU
0 = No word has been received
bit 6
OBF: Output Buffer Full Status bit
1 = The output buffer still holds a previously written word
0 = The output buffer has been read
bit 5
IBOV: Input Buffer Overflow Detect bit
1 = A write occurred when a previously input word has not been read (must be cleared in software)
0 = No overflow occurred
bit 4
PSPMODE: Parallel Slave Port Mode Select bit
1 = Parallel Slave Port mode
0 = General Purpose I/O mode
bit 3-0
Unimplemented: Read as ‘0’
FIGURE 10-3:
PARALLEL SLAVE PORT WRITE WAVEFORMS
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
CS
WR
RD
PORTD<7:0>
IBF
OBF
PSPIF
DS39762E-page 164
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
FIGURE 10-4:
PARALLEL SLAVE PORT READ WAVEFORMS
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
CS
WR
RD
PORTD<7:0>
IBF
OBF
PSPIF
TABLE 10-21: REGISTERS ASSOCIATED WITH PARALLEL SLAVE PORT
Name
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
Reset
Values
on Page:
PORTD
RD7
RD6
RD5
RD4
RD3
RD2
RD1
RD0
66
LATD
LATD7
LATD6
LATD5
LATD4
LATD3
LATD2
LATD1
LATD0
66
TRISD
TRISD7
TRISD6
TRISD5
TRISD4
TRISD3
TRISD2
TRISD1
TRISD0
65
PORTE
RE7
RE6
RE5
RE4
RE3
RE2
RE1
RE0
66
LATE
LATE7
LATE6
LATE5
LATE4
LATE3
LATE2
LATE1
LATE0
66
TRISE
TRISE7
TRISE6
TRISE5
TRISE4
TRISE3
TRISE2
TRISE1
TRISE0
65
IBF
OBF
IBOV
PSPMODE
—
—
—
—
65
PSPCON
TMR0IE
INT0IE
RBIE
TMR0IF
INT0IF
RBIF
63
PIR1
PSPIF
ADIF
RC1IF
TX1IF
SSP1IF
CCP1IF
TMR2IF
TMR1IF
65
PIE1
PSPIE
ADIE
RC1IE
TX1IE
SSP1IE
CCP1IE
TMR2IE
TMR1IE
65
IPR1
PSPIP
ADIP
RC1IP
TX1IP
SSP1IP
CCP1IP
TMR2IP
TMR1IP
65
INTCON
GIE/GIEH PEIE/GIEL
Legend: — = unimplemented, read as ‘0’. Shaded cells are not used by the Parallel Slave Port.
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS39762E-page 165
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
NOTES:
DS39762E-page 166
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
11.0
TIMER0 MODULE
The T0CON register (Register 11-1) controls all
aspects of the module’s operation, including the
prescale selection. It is both readable and writable.
The Timer0 module incorporates the following features:
• Software selectable operation as a timer or
counter in both 8-bit or 16-bit modes
• Readable and writable registers
• Dedicated, 8-bit, software programmable
prescaler
• Selectable clock source (internal or external)
• Edge select for external clock
• Interrupt on overflow
REGISTER 11-1:
A simplified block diagram of the Timer0 module in 8-bit
mode is shown in Figure 11-1. Figure 11-2 shows a
simplified block diagram of the Timer0 module in 16-bit
mode.
T0CON: TIMER0 CONTROL REGISTER
R/W-1
R/W-1
R/W-1
R/W-1
R/W-1
R/W-1
R/W-1
R/W-1
TMR0ON
T08BIT
T0CS
T0SE
PSA
T0PS2
T0PS1
T0PS0
bit 7
bit 0
Legend:
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
-n = Value at POR
‘1’ = Bit is set
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
x = Bit is unknown
bit 7
TMR0ON: Timer0 On/Off Control bit
1 = Enables Timer0
0 = Stops Timer0
bit 6
T08BIT: Timer0 8-Bit/16-Bit Control bit
1 = Timer0 is configured as an 8-bit timer/counter
0 = Timer0 is configured as a 16-bit timer/counter
bit 5
T0CS: Timer0 Clock Source Select bit
1 = Transition on T0CKI pin
0 = Internal instruction cycle clock (CLKO)
bit 4
T0SE: Timer0 Source Edge Select bit
1 = Increment on high-to-low transition on T0CKI pin
0 = Increment on low-to-high transition on T0CKI pin
bit 3
PSA: Timer0 Prescaler Assignment bit
1 = TImer0 prescaler is NOT assigned. Timer0 clock input bypasses prescaler.
0 = Timer0 prescaler is assigned. Timer0 clock input comes from prescaler output.
bit 2-0
T0PS2:T0PS0: Timer0 Prescaler Select bits
111 = 1:256 Prescale value
110 = 1:128 Prescale value
101 = 1:64 Prescale value
100 = 1:32 Prescale value
011 = 1:16 Prescale value
010 = 1:8 Prescale value
001 = 1:4 Prescale value
000 = 1:2 Prescale value
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS39762E-page 167
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
11.1
Timer0 Operation
Timer0 can operate as either a timer or a counter; the
mode is selected with the T0CS bit (T0CON<5>). In
Timer mode (T0CS = 0), the module increments on
every clock by default unless a different prescaler value
is selected (see Section 11.3 “Prescaler”). If the
TMR0 register is written to, the increment is inhibited
for the following two instruction cycles. The user can
work around this by writing an adjusted value to the
TMR0 register.
The Counter mode is selected by setting the T0CS bit
(= 1). In this mode, Timer0 increments either on every
rising or falling edge of pin RA4/T0CKI. The incrementing edge is determined by the Timer0 Source Edge
Select bit, T0SE (T0CON<4>); clearing this bit selects
the rising edge. Restrictions on the external clock input
are discussed below.
An external clock source can be used to drive Timer0;
however, it must meet certain requirements to ensure
that the external clock can be synchronized with the
FIGURE 11-1:
internal phase clock (TOSC). There is a delay between
synchronization and the onset of incrementing the
timer/counter.
11.2
Timer0 Reads and Writes in
16-Bit Mode
TMR0H is not the actual high byte of Timer0 in 16-bit
mode. It is actually a buffered version of the real high
byte of Timer0 which is not directly readable nor writable (refer to Figure 11-2). TMR0H is updated with the
contents of the high byte of Timer0 during a read of
TMR0L. This provides the ability to read all 16 bits of
Timer0 without having to verify that the read of the high
and low byte were valid, due to a rollover between
successive reads of the high and low byte.
Similarly, a write to the high byte of Timer0 must also
take place through the TMR0H Buffer register. The high
byte is updated with the contents of TMR0H when a
write occurs to TMR0L. This allows all 16 bits of Timer0
to be updated at once.
TIMER0 BLOCK DIAGRAM (8-BIT MODE)
FOSC/4
0
1
1
T0CKI pin
T0SE
T0CS
Programmable
Prescaler
0
Sync with
Internal
Clocks
(2 TCY Delay)
8
3
T0PS2:T0PS0
8
PSA
Note:
Set
TMR0IF
on Overflow
TMR0L
Internal Data Bus
Upon Reset, Timer0 is enabled in 8-bit mode with clock input from T0CKI max. prescale.
FIGURE 11-2:
TIMER0 BLOCK DIAGRAM (16-BIT MODE)
FOSC/4
0
1
1
T0CKI pin
T0SE
T0CS
Programmable
Prescaler
0
Sync with
Internal
Clocks
TMR0
High Byte
TMR0L
8
Set
TMR0IF
on Overflow
(2 TCY Delay)
3
Read TMR0L
T0PS2:T0PS0
Write TMR0L
PSA
8
8
TMR0H
8
8
Internal Data Bus
Note:
Upon Reset, Timer0 is enabled in 8-bit mode with clock input from T0CKI max. prescale.
DS39762E-page 168
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
11.3
Prescaler
11.3.1
An 8-bit counter is available as a prescaler for the Timer0
module. The prescaler is not directly readable or writable.
Its value is set by the PSA and T0PS2:T0PS0 bits
(T0CON<3:0>) which determine the prescaler
assignment and prescale ratio.
Clearing the PSA bit assigns the prescaler to the
Timer0 module. When it is assigned, prescale values
from 1:2 through 1:256 in power-of-2 increments are
selectable.
When assigned to the Timer0 module, all instructions
writing to the TMR0 register (e.g., CLRF TMR0, MOVWF
TMR0, BSF TMR0, etc.) clear the prescaler count.
Note:
Writing to TMR0 when the prescaler is
assigned to Timer0 will clear the prescaler
count but will not change the prescaler
assignment.
TABLE 11-1:
Name
The prescaler assignment is fully under software
control and can be changed “on-the-fly” during program
execution.
11.4
Timer0 Interrupt
The TMR0 interrupt is generated when the TMR0
register overflows from FFh to 00h in 8-bit mode, or
from FFFFh to 0000h in 16-bit mode. This overflow sets
the TMR0IF flag bit. The interrupt can be masked by
clearing the TMR0IE bit (INTCON<5>). Before
re-enabling the interrupt, the TMR0IF bit must be
cleared in software by the Interrupt Service Routine.
Since Timer0 is shut down in Sleep mode, the TMR0
interrupt cannot awaken the processor from Sleep.
REGISTERS ASSOCIATED WITH TIMER0
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
TMR0L
Timer0 Register Low Byte
TMR0H
Timer0 Register High Byte
INTCON
GIE/GIEH PEIE/GIEL TMR0IE
INTCON2
SWITCHING PRESCALER
ASSIGNMENT
RBPU
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
Reset
Values
on Page:
64
64
INT0IE
RBIE
INTEDG0 INTEDG1 INTEDG2 INTEDG3
TMR0IF
INT0IF
RBIF
63
TMR0IP
INT3IP
RBIP
63
T0CON
TMR0ON
T08BIT
T0CS
T0SE
PSA
T0PS2
T0PS1
T0PS0
64
TRISA
—
—
TRISA5
TRISA4
TRISA3
TRISA2
TRISA1
TRISA0
65
Legend: — = unimplemented, read as ‘0’. Shaded cells are not used by Timer0.
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS39762E-page 169
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
NOTES:
DS39762E-page 170
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
12.0
TIMER1 MODULE
The Timer1 timer/counter module incorporates these
features:
• Software selectable operation as a 16-bit timer or
counter
• Readable and writable 8-bit registers (TMR1H
and TMR1L)
• Selectable clock source (internal or external) with
device clock or Timer1 oscillator internal options
• Interrupt on overflow
• Reset on ECCP Special Event Trigger
• Device clock status flag (T1RUN)
REGISTER 12-1:
R/W-0
The module incorporates its own low-power oscillator
to provide an additional clocking option. The Timer1
oscillator can also be used as a low-power clock source
for the microcontroller in power-managed operation.
Timer1 can also be used to provide Real-Time Clock
(RTC) functionality to applications with only a minimal
addition of external components and code overhead.
Timer1 is controlled through the T1CON Control
register (Register 12-1). It also contains the Timer1
Oscillator Enable bit (T1OSCEN). Timer1 can be
enabled or disabled by setting or clearing control bit,
TMR1ON (T1CON<0>).
T1CON: TIMER1 CONTROL REGISTER
R-0
RD16
A simplified block diagram of the Timer1 module is
shown in Figure 12-1. A block diagram of the module’s
operation in Read/Write mode is shown in Figure 12-2.
T1RUN
R/W-0
T1CKPS1
R/W-0
T1CKPS0
R/W-0
T1OSCEN
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
T1SYNC
TMR1CS
TMR1ON
bit 7
bit 0
Legend:
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
-n = Value at POR
‘1’ = Bit is set
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
x = Bit is unknown
bit 7
RD16: 16-Bit Read/Write Mode Enable bit
1 = Enables register read/write of Timer1 in one 16-bit operation
0 = Enables register read/write of Timer1 in two 8-bit operations
bit 6
T1RUN: Timer1 System Clock Status bit
1 = Device clock is derived from Timer1 oscillator
0 = Device clock is derived from another source
bit 5-4
T1CKPS1:T1CKPS0: Timer1 Input Clock Prescale Select bits
11 = 1:8 Prescale value
10 = 1:4 Prescale value
01 = 1:2 Prescale value
00 = 1:1 Prescale value
bit 3
T1OSCEN: Timer1 Oscillator Enable bit
1 = Timer1 oscillator is enabled
0 = Timer1 oscillator is shut off
The oscillator inverter and feedback resistor are turned off to eliminate power drain.
bit 2
T1SYNC: Timer1 External Clock Input Synchronization Select bit
When TMR1CS = 1:
1 = Do not synchronize external clock input
0 = Synchronize external clock input
When TMR1CS = 0:
This bit is ignored. Timer1 uses the internal clock when TMR1CS = 0.
bit 1
TMR1CS: Timer1 Clock Source Select bit
1 = External clock from RC0/T1OSO/T13CKI pin (on the rising edge)
0 = Internal clock (FOSC/4)
bit 0
TMR1ON: Timer1 On bit
1 = Enables Timer1
0 = Stops Timer1
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS39762E-page 171
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
12.1
Timer1 Operation
cycle (FOSC/4). When the bit is set, Timer1 increments
on every rising edge of the Timer1 external clock input
or the Timer1 oscillator, if enabled.
Timer1 can operate in one of these modes:
• Timer
• Synchronous Counter
• Asynchronous Counter
When Timer1 is enabled, the RC1/T1OSI and
RC0/T1OSO/T13CKI pins become inputs. This means
the values of TRISC<1:0> are ignored and the pins are
read as ‘0’.
The operating mode is determined by the clock select
bit, TMR1CS (T1CON<1>). When TMR1CS is cleared
(= 0), Timer1 increments on every internal instruction
FIGURE 12-1:
TIMER1 BLOCK DIAGRAM
Timer1 Oscillator
Timer1 Clock Input
1
On/Off
T1OSO/T13CKI
1
FOSC/4
Internal
Clock
T1OSI
T1OSCEN(1)
Synchronize
Prescaler
1, 2, 4, 8
0
Detect
0
2
Sleep Input
TMR1CS
Timer1
On/Off
T1CKPS1:T1CKPS0
T1SYNC
TMR1ON
Clear TMR1
(ECCPx Special Event Trigger)
Set
TMR1IF
on Overflow
TMR1
High Byte
TMR1L
Note 1: When enable bit, T1OSCEN, is cleared, the inverter and feedback resistor are turned off to eliminate power drain.
FIGURE 12-2:
TIMER1 BLOCK DIAGRAM (16-BIT READ/WRITE MODE)
Timer1 Oscillator
Timer1 Clock Input
1
T1OSO/T13CKI
T1OSI
1
FOSC/4
Internal
Clock
Synchronize
Detect
Prescaler
1, 2, 4, 8
0
0
2
Sleep Input
TMR1CS
T1OSCEN(1)
T1CKPS1:T1CKPS0
T1SYNC
TMR1ON
Clear TMR1
(ECCPx Special Event Trigger)
Timer1
On/Off
TMR1
High Byte
TMR1L
8
Set
TMR1IF
on Overflow
Read TMR1L
Write TMR1L
8
8
TMR1H
8
8
Internal Data Bus
Note 1: When enable bit, T1OSCEN, is cleared, the inverter and feedback resistor are turned off to eliminate power drain.
DS39762E-page 172
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
12.2
Timer1 16-Bit Read/Write Mode
Timer1 can be configured for 16-bit reads and writes
(see Figure 12-2). When the RD16 control bit
(T1CON<7>) is set, the address for TMR1H is mapped
to a buffer register for the high byte of Timer1. A read
from TMR1L will load the contents of the high byte of
Timer1 into the Timer1 High Byte Buffer register. This
provides the user with the ability to accurately read all
16 bits of Timer1 without having to determine whether
a read of the high byte, followed by a read of the low
byte, has become invalid due to a rollover between
reads.
TABLE 12-1:
Oscillator
Type
Freq.
C1
C2
LP
32 kHz
27 pF(1)
27 pF(1)
Note 1: Microchip suggests these values as a
starting point in validating the oscillator
circuit.
2: Higher capacitance increases the stability
of the oscillator but also increases the
start-up time.
A write to the high byte of Timer1 must also take place
through the TMR1H Buffer register. The Timer1 high
byte is updated with the contents of TMR1H when a
write occurs to TMR1L. This allows a user to write all
16 bits to both the high and low bytes of Timer1 at once.
The high byte of Timer1 is not directly readable or
writable in this mode. All reads and writes must take
place through the Timer1 High Byte Buffer register.
Writes to TMR1H do not clear the Timer1 prescaler.
The prescaler is only cleared on writes to TMR1L.
12.3
Timer1 Oscillator
An on-chip crystal oscillator circuit is incorporated
between pins T1OSI (input) and T1OSO (amplifier
output). It is enabled by setting the Timer1 Oscillator
Enable bit, T1OSCEN (T1CON<3>). The oscillator is a
low-power circuit rated for 32 kHz crystals. It will
continue to run during all power-managed modes. The
circuit for a typical LP oscillator is shown in Figure 12-3.
Table 12-1 shows the capacitor selection for the Timer1
oscillator.
The user must provide a software time delay to ensure
proper start-up of the Timer1 oscillator.
FIGURE 12-3:
EXTERNAL
COMPONENTS FOR THE
TIMER1 OSCILLATOR
C1
27 pF
PIC18F97J60
T1OSI
XTAL
32.768 kHz
T1OSO
C2
27 pF
Note:
See the Notes with Table 12-1 for additional
information about capacitor selection.
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
CAPACITOR SELECTION FOR
THE TIMER OSCILLATOR(2,3,4)
3: Since each resonator/crystal has its own
characteristics, the user should consult
the resonator/crystal manufacturer for
appropriate
values
of
external
components.
4: Capacitor values are for design guidance
only.
12.3.1
USING TIMER1 AS A
CLOCK SOURCE
The Timer1 oscillator is also available as a clock source
in power-managed modes. By setting the Clock Select
bits, SCS1:SCS0 (OSCCON<1:0>), to ‘01’, the device
switches to SEC_RUN mode; both the CPU and
peripherals are clocked from the Timer1 oscillator. If the
IDLEN bit (OSCCON<7>) is cleared and a SLEEP
instruction is executed, the device enters SEC_IDLE
mode. Additional details are available in Section 3.0
“Power-Managed Modes”.
Whenever the Timer1 oscillator is providing the clock
source, the Timer1 system clock status flag, T1RUN
(T1CON<6>), is set. This can be used to determine the
controller’s current clocking mode. It can also indicate
the clock source being currently used by the Fail-Safe
Clock Monitor. If the Clock Monitor is enabled and the
Timer1 oscillator fails while providing the clock, polling
the T1RUN bit will indicate whether the clock is being
provided by the Timer1 oscillator or another source.
12.3.2
TIMER1 OSCILLATOR LAYOUT
CONSIDERATIONS
The Timer1 oscillator circuit draws very little power
during operation. Due to the low-power nature of the
oscillator, it may also be sensitive to rapidly changing
signals in close proximity.
The oscillator circuit, shown in Figure 12-3, should be
located as close as possible to the microcontroller.
There should be no circuits passing within the oscillator
circuit boundaries other than VSS or VDD.
DS39762E-page 173
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
If a high-speed circuit must be located near the oscillator (such as the ECCP1 pin in Output Compare or PWM
mode, or the primary oscillator using the OSC2 pin), a
grounded guard ring around the oscillator circuit, as
shown in Figure 12-4, may be helpful when used on a
single-sided PCB or in addition to a ground plane.
FIGURE 12-4:
OSCILLATOR CIRCUIT
WITH GROUNDED
GUARD RING
VDD
VSS
OSC1
OSC2
RC0
RC1
RC2
Note: Not drawn to scale.
12.4
Timer1 Interrupt
The TMR1 register pair (TMR1H:TMR1L) increments
from 0000h to FFFFh and rolls over to 0000h. The
Timer1 interrupt, if enabled, is generated on overflow
which is latched in interrupt flag bit, TMR1IF
(PIR1<0>). This interrupt can be enabled or disabled
by setting or clearing the Timer1 Interrupt Enable bit,
TMR1IE (PIE1<0>).
12.5
Resetting Timer1 Using the
ECCPx Special Event Trigger
If ECCP1 or ECCP2 is configured to use Timer1 and to
generate a Special Event Trigger in Compare mode
(CCPxM3:CCPxM0 = 1011), this signal will reset
Timer3. The trigger from ECCP2 will also start an A/D
conversion if the A/D module is enabled (see
Section 17.2.1 “Special Event Trigger” for more
information).
The module must be configured as either a timer or a
synchronous counter to take advantage of this feature.
When used this way, the CCPRxH:CCPRxL register
pair effectively becomes a Period register for Timer1.
If Timer1 is running in Asynchronous Counter mode,
this Reset operation may not work.
In the event that a write to Timer1 coincides with a
Special Event Trigger, the write operation will take
precedence.
DS39762E-page 174
Note:
12.6
The Special Event Triggers from the
ECCPx module will not set the TMR1IF
interrupt flag bit (PIR1<0>).
Using Timer1 as a Real-Time Clock
Adding an external LP oscillator to Timer1 (such as the
one described in Section 12.3 “Timer1 Oscillator”)
gives users the option to include RTC functionality to
their applications. This is accomplished with an
inexpensive watch crystal to provide an accurate time
base and several lines of application code to calculate
the time. When operating in Sleep mode and using a
battery or supercapacitor as a power source, it can
completely eliminate the need for a separate RTC
device and battery backup.
The application code routine, RTCisr, shown in
Example 12-1, demonstrates a simple method to
increment a counter at one-second intervals using an
Interrupt Service Routine. Incrementing the TMR1
register pair to overflow triggers the interrupt and calls
the routine which increments the seconds counter by
one. Additional counters for minutes and hours are
incremented as the previous counter overflows.
Since the register pair is 16 bits wide, counting up to
overflow the register directly from a 32.768 kHz clock
would take 2 seconds. To force the overflow at the
required one-second intervals, it is necessary to preload it. The simplest method is to set the MSb of
TMR1H with a BSF instruction. Note that the TMR1L
register is never preloaded or altered; doing so may
introduce cumulative error over many cycles.
For this method to be accurate, Timer1 must operate in
Asynchronous mode and the Timer1 overflow interrupt
must be enabled (PIE1<0> = 1), as shown in the
routine, RTCinit. The Timer1 oscillator must also be
enabled and running at all times.
12.7
Considerations in Asynchronous
Counter Mode
Following a Timer1 interrupt and an update to the
TMR1 registers, the Timer1 module uses a falling edge
on its clock source to trigger the next register update on
the rising edge. If the update is completed after the
clock input has fallen, the next rising edge will not be
counted.
If the application can reliably update TMR1 before the
timer input goes low, no additional action is needed.
Otherwise, an adjusted update can be performed
following a later Timer1 increment. This can be done by
monitoring TMR1L within the interrupt routine until it
increments, and then updating the TMR1H:TMR1L register pair while the clock is low, or one-half of the period
of the clock source. Assuming that Timer1 is being
used as a Real-Time Clock, the clock source is a
32.768 kHz crystal oscillator. In this case, one-half
period of the clock is 15.25 μs.
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
The Real-Time Clock application code in Example 12-1
shows a typical ISR for Timer1, as well as the optional
code required if the update cannot be done reliably
within the required interval.
EXAMPLE 12-1:
IMPLEMENTING A REAL-TIME CLOCK USING A TIMER1 INTERRUPT SERVICE
RTCinit
MOVLW
MOVWF
CLRF
MOVLW
MOVWF
CLRF
CLRF
MOVLW
MOVWF
BSF
RETURN
80h
TMR1H
TMR1L
b’00001111’
T1CON
secs
mins
.12
hours
PIE1, TMR1IE
; Preload TMR1 register pair
; for 1 second overflow
; Configure for external clock,
; Asynchronous operation, external oscillator
; Initialize timekeeping registers
;
; Enable Timer1 interrupt
RTCisr
TABLE 12-2:
Name
INTCON
BTFSC
BRA
BTFSS
BRA
TMR1L,0
$-2
TMR1L,0
$-2
BSF
BCF
INCF
MOVLW
CPFSGT
RETURN
CLRF
INCF
MOVLW
CPFSGT
RETURN
CLRF
INCF
MOVLW
CPFSGT
RETURN
CLRF
RETURN
TMR1H, 7
PIR1, TMR1IF
secs, F
.59
secs
secs
mins, F
.59
mins
mins
hours, F
.23
hours
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
Insert the next 4 lines of code when TMR1
can not be reliably updated before clock pulse goes low
wait for TMR1L to become clear
(may already be clear)
wait for TMR1L to become set
TMR1 has just incremented
If TMR1 update can be completed before clock pulse goes low
Start ISR here
Preload for 1 sec overflow
Clear interrupt flag
Increment seconds
60 seconds elapsed?
;
;
;
;
No, done
Clear seconds
Increment minutes
60 minutes elapsed?
;
;
;
;
No, done
clear minutes
Increment hours
24 hours elapsed?
; No, done
; Reset hours
; Done
hours
REGISTERS ASSOCIATED WITH TIMER1 AS A TIMER/COUNTER
Bit 7
Bit 6
GIE/GIEH PEIE/GIEL
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
Reset
Values
on Page:
TMR0IE
INT0IE
RBIE
TMR0IF
INT0IF
RBIF
63
PIR1
PSPIF
ADIF
RC1IF
TX1IF
SSP1IF
CCP1IF
TMR2IF
TMR1IF
65
PIE1
PSPIE
ADIE
RC1IE
TX1IE
SSP1IE
CCP1IE
TMR2IE
TMR1IE
65
IPR1
PSPIP
ADIP
RC1IP
TX1IP
SSP1IP
CCP1IP
TMR2IP
TMR1IP
65
TMR1L
Timer1 Register Low Byte
64
TMR1H
Timer1 Register High Byte
64
T1CON
RD16
T1RUN
T1CKPS1 T1CKPS0 T1OSCEN T1SYNC
TMR1CS
TMR1ON
64
Legend: Shaded cells are not used by the Timer1 module.
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS39762E-page 175
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
NOTES:
DS39762E-page 176
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
13.0
TIMER2 MODULE
13.1
The Timer2 timer module incorporates the following
features:
• 8-Bit Timer and Period registers (TMR2 and PR2,
respectively)
• Readable and writable (both registers)
• Software programmable prescaler (1:1, 1:4 and
1:16)
• Software programmable postscaler (1:1 through
1:16)
• Interrupt on TMR2 to PR2 match
• Optional use as the shift clock for the
MSSPx modules
The module is controlled through the T2CON register
(Register 13-1) which enables or disables the timer and
configures the prescaler and postscaler. Timer2 can be
shut off by clearing control bit, TMR2ON (T2CON<2>),
to minimize power consumption.
A simplified block diagram of the module is shown in
Figure 13-1.
Timer2 Operation
In normal operation, TMR2 is incremented from 00h on
each clock (FOSC/4). A 4-bit counter/prescaler on the
clock input gives direct input, divide-by-4 and
divide-by-16 prescale options. These options are
selected
by
the
prescaler
control
bits,
T2CKPS1:T2CKPS0 (T2CON<1:0>). The value of
TMR2 is compared to that of the Period register, PR2, on
each clock cycle. When the two values match, the comparator generates a match signal as the timer output.
This signal also resets the value of TMR2 to 00h on the
next cycle and drives the output counter/postscaler (see
Section 13.2 “Timer2 Interrupt”).
The TMR2 and PR2 registers are both directly readable
and writable. The TMR2 register is cleared on any
device Reset, while the PR2 register initializes at FFh.
Both the prescaler and postscaler counters are cleared
on the following events:
• a write to the TMR2 register
• a write to the T2CON register
• any device Reset (Power-on Reset, MCLR Reset,
Watchdog Timer Reset or Brown-out Reset)
TMR2 is not cleared when T2CON is written.
REGISTER 13-1:
T2CON: TIMER2 CONTROL REGISTER
U-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
—
T2OUTPS3
T2OUTPS2
T2OUTPS1
T2OUTPS0
TMR2ON
T2CKPS1
T2CKPS0
bit 7
bit 0
Legend:
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
-n = Value at POR
‘1’ = Bit is set
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
bit 7
Unimplemented: Read as ‘0’
bit 6-3
T2OUTPS3:T2OUTPS0: Timer2 Output Postscale Select bits
0000 = 1:1 Postscale
0001 = 1:2 Postscale
•
•
•
1111 = 1:16 Postscale
bit 2
TMR2ON: Timer2 On bit
1 = Timer2 is on
0 = Timer2 is off
bit 1-0
T2CKPS1:T2CKPS0: Timer2 Clock Prescale Select bits
00 = Prescaler is 1
01 = Prescaler is 4
1x = Prescaler is 16
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
x = Bit is unknown
DS39762E-page 177
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
13.2
Timer2 Interrupt
13.3
Timer2 can also generate an optional device interrupt.
The Timer2 output signal (TMR2 to PR2 match) provides the input for the 4-bit output counter/postscaler.
This counter generates the TMR2 match interrupt flag
which is latched in TMR2IF (PIR1<1>). The interrupt is
enabled by setting the TMR2 Match Interrupt Enable
bit, TMR2IE (PIE1<1>).
Timer2 Output
The unscaled output of TMR2 is available primarily to
the CCP modules, where it is used as a time base for
operations in PWM mode.
Timer2 can be optionally used as the shift clock source
for the MSSPx modules operating in SPI mode.
Additional information is provided in Section 19.0
“Master Synchronous Serial Port (MSSP) Module”.
A range of 16 postscale options (from 1:1 through 1:16
inclusive) can be selected with the postscaler control
bits, T2OUTPS3:T2OUTPS0 (T2CON<6:3>).
FIGURE 13-1:
TIMER2 BLOCK DIAGRAM
4
T2OUTPS3:T2OUTPS0
TMR2 Output
(to PWM or MSSPx)
TMR2/PR2
Match
Reset
1:1, 1:4, 1:16
Prescaler
TMR2
Comparator
8
Name
PR2
8
8
Internal Data Bus
TABLE 13-1:
Set TMR2IF
2
T2CKPS1:T2CKPS0
FOSC/4
1:1 to 1:16
Postscaler
REGISTERS ASSOCIATED WITH TIMER2 AS A TIMER/COUNTER
Bit 7
Bit 6
INTCON GIE/GIEH PEIE/GIEL
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
Reset
Values
on Page:
63
TMR0IE
INT0IE
RBIE
TMR0IF
INT0IF
RBIF
PIR1
PSPIF
ADIF
RC1IF
TX1IF
SSP1IF
CCP1IF
TMR2IF
TMR1IF
65
PIE1
PSPIE
ADIE
RC1IE
TX1IE
SSP1IE
CCP1IE
TMR2IE
TMR1IE
65
IPR1
PSPIP
ADIP
RC1IP
TX1IP
SSP1IP
CCP1IP
TMR2IP
TMR1IP
65
TMR2
T2CON
PR2
Timer2 Register
—
T2OUTPS3 T2OUTPS2 T2OUTPS1 T2OUTPS0 TMR2ON
64
T2CKPS1 T2CKPS0
Timer2 Period Register
64
64
Legend: — = unimplemented, read as ‘0’. Shaded cells are not used by the Timer2 module.
DS39762E-page 178
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
14.0
TIMER3 MODULE
The Timer3 timer/counter module incorporates these
features:
• Software selectable operation as a 16-bit timer or
counter
• Readable and writable 8-bit registers (TMR3H
and TMR3L)
• Selectable clock source (internal or external) with
device clock or Timer1 oscillator internal options
• Interrupt on overflow
• Module Reset on CCPx/ECCPx Special Event
Trigger
REGISTER 14-1:
A simplified block diagram of the Timer3 module is
shown in Figure 14-1. A block diagram of the module’s
operation in Read/Write mode is shown in Figure 14-2.
The Timer3 module is controlled through the T3CON
register (Register 14-1). It also selects the clock source
options for the CCPx and ECCPx modules; see
Section 16.1.1 “CCPx/ECCPx Modules and Timer
Resources” for more information.
T3CON: TIMER3 CONTROL REGISTER
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
RD16
T3CCP2
T3CKPS1
T3CKPS0
T3CCP1
T3SYNC
TMR3CS
TMR3ON
bit 7
bit 0
Legend:
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
-n = Value at POR
‘1’ = Bit is set
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
x = Bit is unknown
bit 7
RD16: 16-Bit Read/Write Mode Enable bit
1 = Enables register read/write of Timer3 in one 16-bit operation
0 = Enables register read/write of Timer3 in two 8-bit operations
bit 6,3
T3CCP2:T3CCP1: Timer3 and Timer1 to CCPx/ECCPx Enable bits
11 = Timer3 and Timer4 are the clock sources for all CCPx/ECCPx modules
10 = Timer3 and Timer4 are the clock sources for ECCP3, CCP4 and CCP5;
Timer1 and Timer2 are the clock sources for ECCP1 and ECCP2
01 = Timer3 and Timer4 are the clock sources for ECCP2, ECCP3, CCP4 and CCP5;
Timer1 and Timer2 are the clock sources for ECCP1
00 = Timer1 and Timer2 are the clock sources for all CCPx/ECCPx modules
bit 5-4
T3CKPS1:T3CKPS0: Timer3 Input Clock Prescale Select bits
11 = 1:8 Prescale value
10 = 1:4 Prescale value
01 = 1:2 Prescale value
00 = 1:1 Prescale value
bit 2
T3SYNC: Timer3 External Clock Input Synchronization Select bit
(not usable if the device clock comes from Timer1/Timer3)
When TMR3CS = 1:
1 = Do not synchronize external clock input
0 = Synchronize external clock input
When TMR3CS = 0:
This bit is ignored. Timer3 uses the internal clock when TMR3CS = 0.
bit 1
TMR3CS: Timer3 Clock Source Select bit
1 = External clock input from Timer1 oscillator or T13CKI (on the rising edge after the first falling edge)
0 = Internal clock (FOSC/4)
bit 0
TMR3ON: Timer3 On bit
1 = Enables Timer3
0 = Stops Timer3
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS39762E-page 179
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
14.1
Timer3 Operation
The operating mode is determined by the clock select
bit, TMR3CS (T3CON<1>). When TMR3CS is cleared
(= 0), Timer3 increments on every internal instruction
cycle (FOSC/4). When the bit is set, Timer3 increments
on every rising edge of the Timer1 external clock input
or the Timer1 oscillator, if enabled.
Timer3 can operate in one of three modes:
• Timer
• Synchronous Counter
• Asynchronous Counter
FIGURE 14-1:
As
with
Timer1,
the
RC1/T1OSI
and
RC0/T1OSO/T13CKI pins become inputs when the
Timer1 oscillator is enabled. This means the values of
TRISC<1:0> are ignored and the pins are read as ‘0’.
TIMER3 BLOCK DIAGRAM
Timer1 Oscillator
Timer1 Clock Input
T1OSO/T13CKI
1
1
FOSC/4
Internal
Clock
T1OSI
T1OSCEN
(1)
Synchronize
Detect
Prescaler
1, 2, 4, 8
0
0
2
Sleep Input
TMR3CS
Timer3
On/Off
T3CKPS1:T3CKPS0
T3SYNC
TMR3ON
Clear TMR3
ECCPx Special Event Trigger
ECCPx Select from T3CON<6,3>
Set
TMR3IF
on Overflow
TMR3
High Byte
TMR3L
Note 1: When enable bit, T1OSCEN, is cleared, the inverter and feedback resistor are turned off to eliminate power drain.
FIGURE 14-2:
TIMER3 BLOCK DIAGRAM (16-BIT READ/WRITE MODE)
Timer1 Oscillator
Timer1 Clock Input
1
1
T1OSO/T13CKI
FOSC/4
Internal
Clock
T1OSI
Synchronize
Detect
Prescaler
1, 2, 4, 8
0
2
Sleep Input
(1)
TMR3CS
T1OSCEN
T3CKPS1:T3CKPS0
T3SYNC
TMR3ON
ECCPx Special Event Trigger
ECCPx Select from T3CON<6,3>
0
Clear TMR3
Timer3
On/Off
Set
TMR3IF
on Overflow
TMR3
High Byte
TMR3L
8
Read TMR1L
Write TMR1L
8
8
TMR3H
8
8
Internal Data Bus
Note 1: When enable bit, T1OSCEN, is cleared, the inverter and feedback resistor are turned off to eliminate power drain.
DS39762E-page 180
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
14.2
Timer3 16-Bit Read/Write Mode
14.4
Timer3 Interrupt
Timer3 can be configured for 16-bit reads and writes
(see Figure 14-2). When the RD16 control bit
(T3CON<7>) is set, the address for TMR3H is mapped
to a buffer register for the high byte of Timer3. A read
from TMR3L will load the contents of the high byte of
Timer3 into the Timer3 High Byte Buffer register. This
provides the user with the ability to accurately read all
16 bits of Timer1 without having to determine whether
a read of the high byte, followed by a read of the low
byte, has become invalid due to a rollover between
reads.
The TMR3 register pair (TMR3H:TMR3L) increments
from 0000h to FFFFh and overflows to 0000h. The
Timer3 interrupt, if enabled, is generated on overflow
and is latched in interrupt flag bit, TMR3IF (PIR2<1>).
This interrupt can be enabled or disabled by setting or
clearing the Timer3 Interrupt Enable bit, TMR3IE
(PIE2<1>).
A write to the high byte of Timer3 must also take place
through the TMR3H Buffer register. The Timer3 high
byte is updated with the contents of TMR3H when a
write occurs to TMR3L. This allows a user to write all
16 bits to both the high and low bytes of Timer3 at once.
If ECCP1 or ECCP2 is configured to use Timer3 and to
generate a Special Event Trigger in Compare mode
(CCPxM3:CCPxM0 = 1011), this signal will reset
Timer3. The trigger from ECCP2 will also start an A/D
conversion if the A/D module is enabled (see
Section 17.2.1 “Special Event Trigger” for more
information).
The high byte of Timer3 is not directly readable or
writable in this mode. All reads and writes must take
place through the Timer3 High Byte Buffer register.
14.5
Resetting Timer3 Using the
ECCPx Special Event Trigger
Writes to TMR3H do not clear the Timer3 prescaler.
The prescaler is only cleared on writes to TMR3L.
The module must be configured as either a timer or
synchronous counter to take advantage of this feature.
When used this way, the CCPRxH:CCPRxL register
pair effectively becomes a Period register for Timer3.
14.3
If Timer3 is running in Asynchronous Counter mode,
the Reset operation may not work.
Using the Timer1 Oscillator as the
Timer3 Clock Source
The Timer1 internal oscillator may be used as the clock
source for Timer3. The Timer1 oscillator is enabled by
setting the T1OSCEN (T1CON<3>) bit. To use it as the
Timer3 clock source, the TMR3CS bit must also be set.
As previously noted, this also configures Timer3 to
increment on every rising edge of the oscillator source.
In the event that a write to Timer3 coincides with a
Special Event Trigger from an ECCPx module, the
write will take precedence.
Note:
The Special Event Triggers from the
ECCPx module will not set the TMR3IF
interrupt flag bit (PIR2<1>).
The Timer1 oscillator is described in Section 12.0
“Timer1 Module”.
TABLE 14-1:
Name
INTCON
REGISTERS ASSOCIATED WITH TIMER3 AS A TIMER/COUNTER
Bit 7
Bit 6
GIE/GIEH PEIE/GIEL
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
Reset
Values
on Page:
TMR0IE
INT0IE
RBIE
TMR0IF
INT0IF
RBIF
63
PIR2
OSCFIF
CMIF
ETHIF
r
BCL1IF
—
TMR3IF
CCP2IF
65
PIE2
OSCFIE
CMIE
ETHIE
r
BCL1IE
—
TMR3IE
CCP2IE
65
IPR2
OSCFIP
CMIP
ETHIP
r
BCL1IP
—
TMR3IP
CCP2IP
65
TMR3L
Timer3 Register Low Byte
64
TMR3H
Timer3 Register High Byte
64
T1CON
RD16
T1RUN
T1CKPS1 T1CKPS0 T1OSCEN T1SYNC
TMR1CS
TMR1ON
64
T3CON
RD16
T3CCP2
T3CKPS1 T3CKPS0
TMR3CS
TMR3ON
65
T3CCP1
T3SYNC
Legend: — = unimplemented, read as ‘0’, r = reserved. Shaded cells are not used by the Timer3 module.
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS39762E-page 181
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
NOTES:
DS39762E-page 182
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
15.0
TIMER4 MODULE
15.1
The Timer4 module has the following features:
•
•
•
•
•
•
8-Bit Timer register (TMR4)
8-Bit Period register (PR4)
Readable and writable (both registers)
Software programmable prescaler (1:1, 1:4, 1:16)
Software programmable postscaler (1:1 to 1:16)
Interrupt on TMR4 match of PR4
Timer4 has a control register shown in Register 15-1.
Timer4 can be shut off by clearing control bit, TMR4ON
(T4CON<2>), to minimize power consumption. The
prescaler and postscaler selection of Timer4 are also
controlled by this register. Figure 15-1 is a simplified
block diagram of the Timer4 module.
Timer4 Operation
Timer4 can be used as the PWM time base for the
PWM mode of the CCP module. The TMR4 register is
readable and writable and is cleared on any device
Reset. The input clock (FOSC/4) has a prescale option
of 1:1, 1:4 or 1:16, selected by control bits
T4CKPS1:T4CKPS0 (T4CON<1:0>). The match output of TMR4 goes through a 4-bit postscaler (which
gives a 1:1 to 1:16 scaling inclusive) to generate a
TMR4 interrupt, latched in flag bit, TMR4IF (PIR3<3>).
The prescaler and postscaler counters are cleared
when any of the following occurs:
• a write to the TMR4 register
• a write to the T4CON register
• any device Reset (Power-on Reset, MCLR Reset,
Watchdog Timer Reset or Brown-out Reset)
TMR4 is not cleared when T4CON is written.
REGISTER 15-1:
T4CON: TIMER4 CONTROL REGISTER
U-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
—
T4OUTPS3
T4OUTPS2
T4OUTPS1
T4OUTPS0
TMR4ON
T4CKPS1
T4CKPS0
bit 7
bit 0
Legend:
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
-n = Value at POR
‘1’ = Bit is set
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
bit 7
Unimplemented: Read as ‘0’
bit 6-3
T4OUTPS3:T4OUTPS0: Timer4 Output Postscale Select bits
0000 = 1:1 Postscale
0001 = 1:2 Postscale
•
•
•
1111 = 1:16 Postscale
bit 2
TMR4ON: Timer4 On bit
1 = Timer4 is on
0 = Timer4 is off
bit 1-0
T4CKPS1:T4CKPS0: Timer4 Clock Prescale Select bits
00 = Prescaler is 1
01 = Prescaler is 4
1x = Prescaler is 16
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
x = Bit is unknown
DS39762E-page 183
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
15.2
Timer4 Interrupt
15.3
The Timer4 module has an 8-Bit Period register, PR4,
which is both readable and writable. Timer4 increments
from 00h until it matches PR4 and then resets to 00h on
the next increment cycle. The PR4 register is initialized
to FFh upon Reset.
FIGURE 15-1:
Output of TMR4
The output of TMR4 (before the postscaler) is used
only as a PWM time base for the CCPx/ECCPx modules. It is not used as a baud rate clock for the MSSPx
modules as is the Timer2 output.
TIMER4 BLOCK DIAGRAM
4
T4OUTPS3:T4OUTPS0
1:1 to 1:16
Postscaler
Set TMR4IF
2
T4CKPS1:T4CKPS0
TMR4 Output
(to PWM)
1:1, 1:4, 1:16
Prescaler
FOSC/4
TMR4/PR4
Match
Reset
TMR4
Comparator
8
PR4
8
8
Internal Data Bus
TABLE 15-1:
Name
REGISTERS ASSOCIATED WITH TIMER4 AS A TIMER/COUNTER
Bit 7
Bit 6
INTCON GIE/GIEH PEIE/GIEL
IPR3
SSP2IP
BCL2IP
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
Reset
Values
on Page:
TMR0IE
INT0IE
RBIE
TMR0IF
INT0IF
RBIF
63
RC2IP
TX2IP
TMR4IP
CCP5IP
CCP4IP
CCP3IP
65
PIR3
SSP2IF
BCL2IF
RC2IF
TX2IF
TMR4IF
CCP5IF
CCP4IF
CCP3IF
65
PIE3
SSP2IE
BCL2IE
RC2IE
TX2IE
TMR4IE
CCP5IE
CCP4IE
CCP3IE
65
TMR4
T4CON
PR4
Timer4 Register
—
66
T4OUTPS3 T4OUTPS2 T4OUTPS1 T4OUTPS0 TMR4ON T4CKPS1 T4CKPS0
Timer4 Period Register
66
66
Legend: — = unimplemented, read as ‘0’. Shaded cells are not used by the Timer4 module.
DS39762E-page 184
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
16.0
CAPTURE/COMPARE/PWM
(CCP) MODULES
register. For the sake of clarity, all CCPx module operation in the following sections is described with respect
to CCP4, but is equally applicable to CCP5.
Members of the PIC18F97J60 family of devices all have
a total of five CCP (Capture/Compare/PWM) modules.
Two of these (CCP4 and CCP5) implement standard
Capture, Compare and Pulse-Width Modulation (PWM)
modes and are discussed in this section. The other three
modules (ECCP1, ECCP2, ECCP3) implement
standard Capture and Compare modes, as well as
Enhanced PWM modes. These are discussed in
Section 17.0 “Enhanced Capture/Compare/PWM
(ECCP) Modules”.
Each CCPx/ECCPx module contains a 16-bit register
which can operate as a 16-Bit Capture register, a 16-Bit
Compare register or a PWM Master/Slave Duty Cycle
REGISTER 16-1:
Capture and Compare operations described in this
chapter apply to all standard and Enhanced CCPx
modules. The operations of PWM mode, described in
Section 16.4 “PWM Mode”, apply to CCP4 and CCP5
only.
Note: Throughout this section and Section 17.0
“Enhanced Capture/Compare/PWM (ECCP)
Modules”, references to register and bit
names that may be associated with a specific
CCP module are referred to generically by the
use of ‘x’ or ‘y’ in place of the specific module
number. Thus, “CCPxCON” might refer to the
control register for ECCP1, ECCP2, ECCP3,
CCP4 or CCP5.
CCPxCON: CCPx CONTROL REGISTER (CCP4 AND CCP5)
U-0
U-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
—
—
DCxB1
DCxB0
CCPxM3
CCPxM2
CCPxM1
CCPxM0
bit 7
bit 0
Legend:
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
-n = Value at POR
‘1’ = Bit is set
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
x = Bit is unknown
bit 7-6
Unimplemented: Read as ‘0’
bit 5-4
DCxB1:DCxB0: CCPx Module PWM Duty Cycle bit 1 and bit 0
Capture mode:
Unused.
Compare mode:
Unused.
PWM mode:
These bits are the two Least Significant bits (bit 1 and bit 0) of the 10-bit PWM duty cycle. The eight
Most Significant bits (DCxB9:DCxB2) of the duty cycle are found in CCPRxL.
bit 3-0
CCPxM3:CCPxM0: CCPx Module Mode Select bits
0000 = Capture/Compare/PWM disabled (resets CCPx module)
0001 = Reserved
0010 = Compare mode; toggle output on match (CCPxIF bit is set)
0011 = Reserved
0100 = Capture mode; every falling edge
0101 = Capture mode; every rising edge
0110 = Capture mode; every 4th rising edge
0111 = Capture mode; every 16th rising edge
1000 = Compare mode; initialize CCPx pin low; on compare match, force CCPx pin high
(CCPxIF bit is set)
1001 = Compare mode; initialize CCPx pin high; on compare match, force CCPx pin low
(CCPxIF bit is set)
1010 = Compare mode; generate software interrupt on compare match (CCPxIF bit is set,
CCPx pin reflects I/O state)
1011 = Reserved
11xx = PWM mode
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS39762E-page 185
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
16.1
CCPx Module Configuration
Each Capture/Compare/PWM module is associated
with a control register (generically, CCPxCON) and a
data register (CCPRx). The data register, in turn, is
comprised of two 8-bit registers: CCPRxL (low byte)
and CCPRxH (high byte). All registers are both
readable and writable.
16.1.1
16.1.2
CCPx/ECCPx MODULES AND
TIMER RESOURCES
The CCPx/ECCPx modules utilize Timers 1, 2, 3 or 4,
depending on the mode selected. Timer1 and Timer3
are available to modules in Capture or Compare
modes, while Timer2 and Timer4 are available for
modules in PWM mode.
TABLE 16-1:
CCPx/ECCPx MODE – TIMER
RESOURCE
CCPx/ECCPx Mode
Timer Resource
Capture
Compare
PWM
Timer1 or Timer3
Timer1 or Timer3
Timer2 or Timer4
FIGURE 16-1:
The assignment of a particular timer to a module is
determined by the timer to CCPx enable bits in the
T3CON register (Register 14-1, page 179). Depending
on the configuration selected, up to four timers may be
active at once, with modules in the same configuration
(Capture/Compare or PWM) sharing timer resources.
The possible configurations are shown in Figure 16-1.
ECCP2 PIN ASSIGNMENT
The pin assignment for ECCP2 (Capture input,
Compare and PWM output) can change based on
device configuration. The CCP2MX Configuration bit
determines which pin ECCP2 is multiplexed to. By
default, it is assigned to RC1 (CCP2MX = 1). If the
Configuration bit is cleared, ECCP2 is multiplexed with
RE7 on 80-pin and 100-pin devices in Microcontroller
mode and RB3 on 100-pin devices in Extended
Microcontroller mode.
Changing the pin assignment of ECCP2 does not automatically change any requirements for configuring the
port pin. Users must always verify that the appropriate
TRIS register is configured correctly for ECCP2
operation regardless of where it is located.
CCPx/ECCPx AND TIMER INTERCONNECT CONFIGURATIONS
T3CCP<2:1> = 00
T3CCP<2:1> = 01
T3CCP<2:1> = 10
T3CCP<2:1> = 11
TMR1
TMR1
TMR1
TMR1
TMR3
TMR3
ECCP1
ECCP1
TMR3
ECCP1
TMR3
ECCP1
ECCP2
ECCP2
ECCP3
ECCP3
ECCP3
ECCP3
CCP4
CCP4
CCP4
CCP4
CCP5
CCP5
CCP5
CCP5
TMR2
TMR4
Timer1 is used for all Capture
and Compare operations for
all CCPx modules. Timer2 is
used for PWM operations for
all CCPx modules. Modules
may share either timer
resource as a common time
base.
Timer3 and Timer4 are not
available.
DS39762E-page 186
TMR2
TMR4
Timer1 and Timer2 are used
for Capture and Compare or
PWM operations for ECCP1
only (depending on selected
mode).
All other modules use either
Timer3 or Timer4. Modules
may share either timer
resource as a common time
base
if
they
are
in
Capture/Compare or PWM
modes.
ECCP2
TMR2
ECCP2
TMR4
Timer1 and Timer2 are used
for Capture and Compare or
PWM operations for ECCP1
and ECCP2 only (depending
on the mode selected for each
module). Both modules may
use a timer as a common time
base if they are both in
Capture/Compare or PWM
modes.
TMR2
TMR4
Timer3 is used for all Capture
and Compare operations for
all CCPx modules. Timer4 is
used for PWM operations for
all CCPx modules. Modules
may share either timer
resource as a common time
base.
Timer1 and Timer2 are not
available.
The other modules use either
Timer3 or Timer4. Modules
may share either timer
resource as a common time
base
if
they
are
in
Capture/Compare or PWM
modes.
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
16.2
Capture Mode
16.2.3
When the Capture mode is changed, a false capture
interrupt may be generated. The user should keep the
CCPxIE interrupt enable bit clear to avoid false
interrupts. The interrupt flag bit, CCPxIF, should also be
cleared following any such change in operating mode.
In Capture mode, the CCPRxH:CCPRxL register pair
captures the 16-bit value of the TMR1 or TMR3
registers when an event occurs on the corresponding
CCPx pin. An event is defined as one of the following:
•
•
•
•
every falling edge
every rising edge
every 4th rising edge
every 16th rising edge
16.2.4
Switching from one capture prescaler to another may
generate an interrupt. Also, the prescaler counter will
not be cleared; therefore, the first capture may be from
a non-zero prescaler. Example 16-1 shows the
recommended method for switching between capture
prescalers. This example also clears the prescaler
counter and will not generate the “false” interrupt.
CCPx PIN CONFIGURATION
In Capture mode, the appropriate CCPx pin should be
configured as an input by setting the corresponding
TRIS direction bit.
Note:
16.2.2
If RG4/CCP5/P1D is configured as an
output, a write to the port can cause a
capture condition.
EXAMPLE 16-1:
TIMER1/TIMER3 MODE SELECTION
CLRF
MOVLW
The timers that are to be used with the capture feature
(Timer1 and/or Timer3) must be running in Timer mode or
Synchronized Counter mode. In Asynchronous Counter
mode, the capture operation will not work. The timer to be
used with each CCPx module is selected in the T3CON
register (see Section 16.1.1 “CCPx/ECCPx Modules
and Timer Resources”).
FIGURE 16-2:
CCPx PRESCALER
There are four prescaler settings in Capture mode.
They are specified as part of the operating mode
selected by the mode select bits (CCPxM3:CCPxM0).
Whenever the CCPx module is turned off or Capture
mode is disabled, the prescaler counter is cleared. This
means that any Reset will clear the prescaler counter.
The event is selected by the mode select bits,
CCPxM3:CCPxM0 (CCPxCON<3:0>). When a capture
is made, the interrupt request flag bit, CCPxIF, is set; it
must be cleared in software. If another capture occurs
before the value in register CCPRx is read, the old
captured value is overwritten by the new captured value.
16.2.1
SOFTWARE INTERRUPT
MOVWF
CHANGING BETWEEN
CAPTURE PRESCALERS
(CCP5 SHOWN)
CCP5CON
; Turn CCP module off
NEW_CAPT_PS ; Load WREG with the
; new prescaler mode
; value and CCP ON
CCP5CON
; Load CCP5CON with
; this value
CAPTURE MODE OPERATION BLOCK DIAGRAM
TMR3H
Set CCP4IF
T3CCP2
CCP4 Pin
Prescaler
÷ 1, 4, 16
and
Edge Detect
CCP4CON<3:0>
Q1:Q4
CCP5CON<3:0>
4
4
Set CCP5IF
CCPR4L
TMR1
Enable
TMR1H
TMR1L
TMR3H
TMR3L
4
T3CCP1
T3CCP2
CCP5 Pin
Prescaler
÷ 1, 4, 16
TMR3
Enable
CCPR4H
T3CCP2
TMR3L
and
Edge Detect
TMR3
Enable
CCPR5H
CCPR5L
TMR1
Enable
T3CCP2
T3CCP1
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
TMR1H
TMR1L
DS39762E-page 187
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
16.3
Compare Mode
Note:
In Compare mode, the 16-bit CCPRx register value is
constantly compared against either the TMR1 or TMR3
register pair value. When a match occurs, the CCPx
pin:
•
•
•
•
can be driven high
can be driven low
can be toggled (high-to-low or low-to-high)
remains unchanged (that is, reflects the state of
the I/O latch)
16.3.2
CCPx PIN CONFIGURATION
The user must configure the CCPx pin as an output by
clearing the appropriate TRIS bit.
FIGURE 16-3:
TIMER1/TIMER3 MODE SELECTION
Timer1 and/or Timer3 must be running in Timer mode
or Synchronized Counter mode if the CCPx module is
using the compare feature. In Asynchronous Counter
mode, the compare operation may not work.
The action on the pin is based on the value of the mode
select bits (CCPxM3:CCPxM0). At the same time, the
interrupt flag bit, CCPxIF, is set.
16.3.1
Clearing the CCP5CON register will force
the RG4 compare output latch (depending on device configuration) to the default
low level. This is not the PORTB or
PORTC I/O data latch.
16.3.3
SOFTWARE INTERRUPT MODE
When the Generate Software Interrupt mode is chosen
(CCPxM3:CCPxM0 = 1010), the corresponding CCPx
pin is not affected. Only a CCPx interrupt is generated,
if enabled and the CCPxIE bit is set.
COMPARE MODE OPERATION BLOCK DIAGRAM
CCPR4H
Set CCP4IF
CCPR4L
CCP4 pin
Comparator
Output
Logic
Compare
Match
S
Q
R
TRIS
Output Enable
4
CCP4CON<3:0>
0
TMR1H
TMR1L
1
TMR3H
TMR3L
T3CCP1
0
1
T3CCP2
Set CCP5IF
Comparator
CCPR5H
CCPR5L
Compare
Match
CCP5 pin
Output
Logic
4
S
Q
R
TRIS
Output Enable
CCP5CON<3:0>
DS39762E-page 188
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
TABLE 16-2:
Name
INTCON
REGISTERS ASSOCIATED WITH CAPTURE, COMPARE, TIMER1 AND TIMER3
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
GIE/GIEH PEIE/GIEL TMR0IE
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
Reset
Values
on Page:
INT0IE
RBIE
TMR0IF
INT0IF
RBIF
63
RCON
IPEN
—
CM
RI
TO
PD
POR
BOR
64
PIR1
PSPIF
ADIF
RC1IF
TX1IF
SSP1IF
CCP1IF
TMR2IF
TMR1IF
65
PIE1
PSPIE
ADIE
RC1IE
TX1IE
SSP1IE
CCP1IE
TMR2IE
TMR1IE
65
IPR1
PSPIP
ADIP
RC1IP
TX1IP
SSP1IP
CCP1IP
TMR2IP
TMR1IP
65
PIR2
OSCFIF
CMIF
ETHIF
r
BCL1IF
—
TMR3IF
CCP2IF
65
PIE2
OSCFIE
CMIE
ETHIE
r
BCL1IE
—
TMR3IE
CCP2IE
65
IPR2
OSCFIP
CMIP
ETHIP
r
BCL1IP
—
TMR3IP
CCP2IP
65
PIR3
SSP2IF
BCL2IF
RC2IF
TX2IF
TMR4IF
CCP5IF
CCP4IF
CCP3IF
65
PIE3
SSP2IE
BCL2IE
RC2IE
TX2IE
TMR4IE
CCP5IE
CCP4IE
CCP3IE
65
IPR3
SSP2IP
BCL2IP
RC2IP
TX2IP
TMR4IP
CCP5IP
CCP4IP
CCP3IP
65
TRISG4
TRISG3(1)
TRISG2
TRISG1
TRISG0
TRISG
TRISG7
TRISG6
TRISG5
65
TMR1L
Timer1 Register Low Byte
64
TMR1H
Timer1 Register High Byte
64
T1CON
RD16
T1RUN
T1CKPS1 T1CKPS0 T1OSCEN T1SYNC
TMR3H
Timer3 Register High Byte
TMR3L
Timer3 Register Low Byte
T3CON
RD16
TMR1CS TMR1ON
64
64
64
T3CCP2 T3CKPS1 T3CKPS0
T3CCP1
T3SYNC
TMR3CS TMR3ON
65
CCPR4L
Capture/Compare/PWM Register 4 Low Byte
66
CCPR4H
Capture/Compare/PWM Register 4 High Byte
66
CCPR5L
Capture/Compare/PWM Register 5 Low Byte
67
CCPR5H
Capture/Compare/PWM Register 5 High Byte
67
CCP4CON
—
—
DC4B1
DC4B0
CCP4M3
CCP4M2
CCP4M1
CCP4M0
67
CCP5CON
—
—
DC5B1
DC5B0
CCP5M3
CCP5M2
CCP5M1
CCP5M0
67
Legend: — = unimplemented, read as ‘0’, r = reserved. Shaded cells are not used by Capture/Compare, Timer1 or
Timer3.
Note 1: This bit is only available in 80-pin and 100-pin devices; otherwise, it is unimplemented and reads as ‘0’.
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS39762E-page 189
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
16.4
PWM Mode
16.4.1
In Pulse-Width Modulation (PWM) mode, the CCPx pin
produces up to a 10-bit resolution PWM output. Since
the CCP4 and CCP5 pins are multiplexed with a
PORTG data latch, the appropriate TRISG bit must be
cleared to make the CCP4 or CCP5 pin an output.
Note:
Clearing the CCP4CON or CCP5CON
register will force the RG3 or RG4 output
latch (depending on device configuration)
to the default low level. This is not the
PORTG I/O data latch.
Figure 16-4 shows a simplified block diagram of the
CCPx module in PWM mode.
For a step-by-step procedure on how to set up a CCPx
module for PWM operation, see Section 16.4.3
“Setup for PWM Operation”.
FIGURE 16-4:
SIMPLIFIED PWM BLOCK
DIAGRAM
The PWM period is specified by writing to the PR2
(PR4) register. The PWM period can be calculated
using Equation 16-1:
EQUATION 16-1:
PWM Period = [(PR2) + 1] • 4 • TOSC •
(TMR2 Prescale Value)
PWM frequency is defined as 1/[PWM period].
When TMR2 (TMR4) is equal to PR2 (PR4), the
following three events occur on the next increment
cycle:
• TMR2 (TMR4) is cleared
• The CCPx pin is set (exception: if PWM duty
cycle = 0%, the CCPx pin will not be set)
• The PWM duty cycle is latched from CCPRxL into
CCPRxH
Note:
Duty Cycle Register
9
0
CCPxCON<5:4>
CCPRxL
Latch
Duty Cycle
(1)
CCPRxH
S
Comparator
R
Reset
CCPx
pin
TMRx
TMRx = PRx
Match
16.4.2
Q
2 LSbs Latched
From Q clocks
Comparator
PRx
TRIS
Output Enable
Set CCPx pin
Note 1:
The two LSbs of the Duty Cycle register are held by a
2-bit latch that is part of the module’s hardware. It is
physically separate from the CCPRx registers.
A PWM output (Figure 16-5) has a time base (period)
and a time that the output stays high (duty cycle).
The frequency of the PWM is the inverse of the
period (1/period).
FIGURE 16-5:
PWM OUTPUT
PWM PERIOD
The Timer2 and Timer4 postscalers (see
Section 13.0 “Timer2 Module” and
Section 15.0 “Timer4 Module”) are not
used in the determination of the PWM
frequency. The postscaler could be used
to have a servo update rate at a different
frequency than the PWM output.
PWM DUTY CYCLE
The PWM duty cycle is specified by writing to the
CCPRxL register and to the CCPxCON<5:4> bits. Up
to 10-bit resolution is available. The CCPRxL contains
the eight MSbs and the CCPxCON<5:4> contains the
two LSbs. This 10-bit value is represented by
CCPRxL:CCPxCON<5:4>. Equation 16-2 is used to
calculate the PWM duty cycle in time.
EQUATION 16-2:
PWM Duty Cycle = (CCPRXL:CCPXCON<5:4>) •
TOSC • (TMRx Prescale Value)
CCPRxL and CCPxCON<5:4> can be written to at any
time, but the duty cycle value is not latched into
CCPRxH until after a match between PR2 (PR4) and
TMR2 (TMR4) occurs (i.e., the period is complete). In
PWM mode, CCPRxH is a read-only register.
Period
Duty Cycle
TMR2 (TMR4) = PR2 (PR4)
TMR2 (TMR4) = Duty Cycle
TMR2 (TMR4) = PR2 (TMR4)
DS39762E-page 190
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
The CCPRxH register and a 2-bit internal latch are
used to double-buffer the PWM duty cycle. This
double-buffering is essential for glitchless PWM
operation.
When the CCPRxH and 2-bit latch match TMR2
(TMR4), concatenated with an internal 2-bit Q clock or
2 bits of the TMR2 (TMR4) prescaler, the CCPx pin is
cleared.
The maximum PWM resolution (bits) for a given PWM
frequency is given by Equation 16-3:
16.4.3
The following steps should be taken when configuring
the CCPx module for PWM operation:
1.
2.
3.
4.
EQUATION 16-3:
(
FOSC
log FPWM
PWM Resolution (max) =
log(2)
Note:
)
SETUP FOR PWM OPERATION
5.
Set the PWM period by writing to the PR2 (PR4)
register.
Set the PWM duty cycle by writing to the
CCPRxL register and CCPxCON<5:4> bits.
Make the CCPx pin an output by clearing the
appropriate TRIS bit.
Set the TMR2 (TMR4) prescale value, then
enable Timer2 (Timer4) by writing to T2CON
(T4CON).
Configure the CCPx module for PWM operation.
bits
If the PWM duty cycle value is longer than
the PWM period, the CCPx pin will not be
cleared.
TABLE 16-3:
EXAMPLE PWM FREQUENCIES AND RESOLUTIONS AT 40 MHz
PWM Frequency
Timer Prescaler (1, 4, 16)
PR2 Value
Maximum Resolution (bits)
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
2.44 kHz
9.77 kHz
39.06 kHz
156.25 kHz
312.50 kHz
416.67 kHz
16
4
1
1
1
1
FFh
FFh
FFh
3Fh
1Fh
17h
10
10
10
8
7
6.58
DS39762E-page 191
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
TABLE 16-4:
Name
INTCON
REGISTERS ASSOCIATED WITH PWM, TIMER2 AND TIMER4
Bit 7
Bit 6
GIE/GIEH PEIE/GIEL
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
Reset
Values
on Page:
TMR0IE
INT0IE
RBIE
TMR0IF
INT0IF
RBIF
63
IPEN
—
CM
RI
TO
PD
POR
BOR
64
PIR1
PSPIF
ADIF
RC1IF
TX1IF
SSP1IF
CCP1IF
TMR2IF
TMR1IF
65
PIE1
PSPIE
ADIE
RC1IE
TX1IE
SSP1IE
CCP1IE
TMR2IE
TMR1IE
65
IPR1
PSPIP
ADIP
RC1IP
TX1IP
SSP1IP
CCP1IP
TMR2IP
TMR1IP
65
RCON
PIR3
SSP2IF
BCL2IF
RC2IF
TX2IF
TMR4IF
CCP5IF
CCP4IF
CCP3IF
65
PIE3
SSP2IE
BCL2IE
RC2IE
TX2IE
TMR4IE
CCP5IE
CCP4IE
CCP3IE
65
IPR3
SSP2IP
BCL2IP
RC2IP
TX2IP
TMR4IP
CCP5IP
CCP4IP
CCP3IP
65
TRISG
TRISG7
TRISG6
TRISG5
TRISG4
TRISG3(1)
TRISG2
TRISG1
TRISG0
65
TMR2
Timer2 Register
64
PR2
Timer2 Period Register
64
T2CON
—
T2OUTPS3 T2OUTPS2 T2OUTPS1 T2OUTPS0 TMR2ON T2CKPS1 T2CKPS0
TMR4
Timer4 Register
PR4
Timer4 Period Register
T4CON
—
64
66
66
T4OUTPS3 T4OUTPS2 T4OUTPS1 T4OUTPS0 TMR4ON T4CKPS1 T4CKPS0
66
CCPR4L
Capture/Compare/PWM Register 4 Low Byte
66
CCPR4H
Capture/Compare/PWM Register 4 High Byte
66
CCPR5L
Capture/Compare/PWM Register 5 Low Byte
67
CCPR5H
Capture/Compare/PWM Register 5 High Byte
67
CCP4CON
—
—
DC4B1
DC4B0
CCP4M3
CCP4M2 CCP4M1 CCP4M0
67
CCP5CON
—
—
DC5B1
DC5B0
CCP5M3
CCP5M2 CCP5M1 CCP5M0
67
Legend: — = unimplemented, read as ‘0’. Shaded cells are not used by PWM, Timer2 or Timer4.
Note 1: This bit is only available in 80-pin and 100-pin devices; otherwise, it is unimplemented and reads as ‘0’.
DS39762E-page 192
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
17.0
ENHANCED CAPTURE/
COMPARE/PWM (ECCP)
MODULES
The control register for the Enhanced CCPx module is
shown in Register 17-1. It differs from the CCP4CON/
CCP5CON registers in that the two Most Significant
bits are implemented to control PWM functionality.
In the PIC18F97J60 family of devices, three of the CCP
modules are implemented as standard CCP modules
with Enhanced PWM capabilities. These include the
provision for 2 or 4 output channels, user-selectable
polarity, dead-band control and automatic shutdown
and restart. The Enhanced features are discussed in
detail in Section 17.4 “Enhanced PWM Mode”.
Capture, Compare and single-output PWM functions of
the ECCPx modules are the same as described for the
standard CCPx modules.
REGISTER 17-1:
In addition to the expanded range of modes available
through the Enhanced CCPxCON register, the ECCPx
modules each have two additional registers associated
with Enhanced PWM operation and auto-shutdown
features. They are:
• ECCPxDEL (Dead-Band Delay)
• ECCPxAS (Auto-Shutdown Configuration)
CCPxCON: ENHANCED CCPx CONTROL REGISTER (ECCP1/ECCP2/ECCP3)
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
PxM1
PxM0
DCxB1
DCxB0
CCPxM3
CCPxM2
CCPxM1
CCPxM0
bit 7
bit 0
Legend:
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
-n = Value at POR
‘1’ = Bit is set
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
x = Bit is unknown
bit 7-6
PxM1:PxM0: Enhanced PWM Output Configuration bits
If CCPxM3:CCPxM2 = 00, 01, 10:
xx = PxA assigned as Capture/Compare input/output; PxB, PxC, PxD assigned as port pins
If CCPxM3:CCPxM2 = 11:
00 = Single output: PxA modulated; PxB, PxC, PxD assigned as port pins
01 = Full-bridge output forward: P1D modulated; P1A active; P1B, P1C inactive
10 = Half-bridge output: P1A, P1B modulated with dead-band control; P1C, P1D assigned as port pins
11 = Full-bridge output reverse: P1B modulated; P1C active; P1A, P1D inactive
bit 5-4
DCxB1:DCxB0: ECCPx Module PWM Duty Cycle bit 1 and bit 0
Capture mode:
Unused.
Compare mode:
Unused.
PWM mode:
These bits are the 2 LSbs of the 10-bit PWM duty cycle. The 8 MSbs of the duty cycle are found in CCPRxL.
bit 3-0
CCPxM3:CCPxM0: ECCPx Module Mode Select bits
0000 = Capture/Compare/PWM disabled (resets ECCPx module)
0001 = Reserved
0010 = Compare mode; toggle output on match
0011 = Capture mode
0100 = Capture mode; every falling edge
0101 = Capture mode; every rising edge
0110 = Capture mode; every 4th rising edge
0111 = Capture mode; every 16th rising edge
1000 = Compare mode; initialize ECCPx pin low; set output on compare match (set CCPxIF)
1001 = Compare mode; initialize ECCPx pin high; clear output on compare match (set CCPxIF)
1010 = Compare mode; generate software interrupt only, ECCPx pin reverts to I/O state)
1011 = Compare mode; trigger special event (ECCPx resets TMR1 or TMR3, sets CCPxIF bit,
ECCPx trigger also starts A/D conversion if A/D module is enabled)(1)
1100 = PWM mode; PxA, PxC active-high; PxB, PxD active-high
1101 = PWM mode; PxA, PxC active-high; PxB, PxD active-low
1110 = PWM mode; PxA, PxC active-low; PxB, PxD active-high
1111 = PWM mode; PxA, PxC active-low; PxB, PxD active-low
Note 1:
Implemented only for ECCP1 and ECCP2; same as ‘1010’ for ECCP3.
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS39762E-page 193
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
17.1
ECCPx Outputs and Configuration
Each of the Enhanced CCPx modules may have up to
four PWM outputs, depending on the selected
operating mode. These outputs, designated PxA
through PxD, are multiplexed with various I/O pins.
Some ECCPx pin assignments are constant, while
others change based on device configuration. For
those pins that do change, the controlling bits are:
• CCP2MX Configuration bit (80-pin and100-pin
devices only)
• ECCPMX Configuration bit (80-pin and100-pin
devices only)
• Program memory operating mode set by the EMB
Configuration bits (100-pin devices only)
The pin assignments for the Enhanced CCPx modules
are summarized in Table 17-1, Table 17-2 and
Table 17-3. To configure the I/O pins as PWM outputs,
the proper PWM mode must be selected by setting the
PxMx and CCPxMx bits (CCPxCON<7:6> and <3:0>,
respectively). The appropriate TRIS direction bits for
the corresponding port pins must also be set as
outputs.
17.1.1
ECCP1/ECCP3 OUTPUTS AND
PROGRAM MEMORY MODE
In 100-pin devices, the use of Extended Microcontroller
mode has an indirect effect on the ECCP1 and ECCP3
pins in Enhanced PWM modes. By default, PWM
outputs, P1B/P1C and P3B/P3C, are multiplexed to
PORTE pins, along with the high-order byte of the
external memory bus. When the bus is active in
Extended Microcontroller mode, it overrides the
Enhanced CCPx outputs and makes them unavailable.
Because of this, ECCP1 and ECCP3 can only be used
in compatible (single output) PWM modes when the
device is in Extended Microcontroller mode and default
pin configuration.
An exception to this configuration is when a 12-bit
address width is selected for the external bus
(EMB1:EMB0 Configuration bits = 10). In this case, the
upper pins of PORTE continue to operate as digital I/O,
even when the external bus is active. P1B/P1C and
P3B/P3C remain available for use as Enhanced PWM
outputs.
17.1.2
ECCP2 OUTPUTS AND PROGRAM
MEMORY MODES
For 100-pin devices, the program memory mode of the
device (Section 5.1.3 “PIC18F9XJ60/9XJ65 Program
Memory Modes”) also impacts pin multiplexing for the
module.
The ECCP2 input/output (ECCP2/P2A) can be multiplexed to one of three pins. The default assignment
(CCP2MX Configuration bit is set) for all devices is
RC1. Clearing CCP2MX reassigns ECCP2/P2A to RE7
in 80-pin and 100-pin devices.
An additional option exists for 100-pin devices. When
these devices are operating in Microcontroller mode,
the multiplexing options described above still apply. In
Extended Microcontroller mode, clearing CCP2MX
reassigns ECCP2/P2A to RB3.
17.1.3
USE OF CCP4 AND CCP5 WITH
ECCP1 AND ECCP3
Only the ECCP2 module has four dedicated output pins
that are available for use. Assuming that the I/O ports
or other multiplexed functions on those pins are not
needed, they may be used without interfering with any
other CCPx module.
ECCP1 and ECCP3, on the other hand, only have
three dedicated output pins: ECCPx/PxA, PxB and
PxC. Whenever these modules are configured for
Quad PWM mode, the pin normally used for CCP4 or
CCP5 becomes the PxD output pin for ECCP3 and
ECCP1, respectively. The CCP4 and CCP5 modules
remain functional but their outputs are overridden.
17.1.4
ECCPx MODULES AND TIMER
RESOURCES
Like the standard CCPx modules, the ECCPx modules
can utilize Timers 1, 2, 3 or 4, depending on the mode
selected. Timer1 and Timer3 are available for modules
in Capture or Compare modes, while Timer2 and
Timer4 are available for modules in PWM mode.
Additional details on timer resources are provided in
Section 16.1.1 “CCPx/ECCPx Modules and Timer
Resources”.
If an application requires the use of additional PWM
outputs during Extended Microcontroller mode, the
P1B/P1C and P3B/P3C outputs can be reassigned to
the upper bits of PORTH. This is done by clearing the
ECCPMX Configuration bit.
DS39762E-page 194
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
TABLE 17-1:
ECCP Mode
PIN CONFIGURATIONS FOR ECCP1
CCP1CON
Configuration
RC2
RD0 or
RE6(1)
RE5
RG4
RH7(2)
RH6(2)
64-Pin Devices; 80-Pin Devices, ECCPMX = 1;
100-Pin Devices, ECCPMX = 1, Microcontroller mode or
Extended Microcontroller mode with 12-Bit Address Width:
Compatible CCP
00xx 11xx
ECCP1
RD0/RE6
RE5
RG4/CCP5
RH7/AN15
RH6/AN14
Dual PWM
10xx 11xx
P1A
P1B
RE5
RG4/CCP5
RH7/AN15
RH6/AN14
Quad PWM
x1xx 11xx
P1A
P1B
P1C
P1D
RH7/AN15
RH6/AN14
80-Pin Devices, ECCPMX = 0;
100-Pin Devices, ECCPMX = 0, All Program Memory modes:
Compatible CCP
00xx 11xx
ECCP1
RD0/RE6
RE5/AD13
RG4/CCP5
RH7/AN15
RH6/AN14
Dual PWM
10xx 11xx
P1A
RD0/RE6
RE5/AD13
RG4/CCP5
P1B
RH6/AN14
Quad PWM(3)
x1xx 11xx
P1A
RD0/RE6
RE5/AD13
P1D
P1B
P1C
100-Pin Devices, ECCPMX = 1, Extended Microcontroller mode with 16-Bit or 20-Bit Address Width:
Compatible CCP
Legend:
Note 1:
2:
3:
00xx 11xx
ECCP1
RD0/RE6
RE5/AD13
RG4/CCP5
RH7/AN15
RH6/AN14
x = Don’t care. Shaded cells indicate pin assignments not used by ECCP1 in a given mode.
P1B is multiplexed with RD0 on 64-pin devices, and RE6 on 80-pin and 100-pin devices.
These pin options are not available on 64-pin devices.
With ECCP1 in Quad PWM mode, the CCP5 pin’s output is overridden by P1D; otherwise, CCP5 is fully
operational.
TABLE 17-2:
PIN CONFIGURATIONS FOR ECCP2
ECCP Mode
CCP2CON
Configuration
Compatible CCP
00xx 11xx
RB3/INT3
ECCP2
RE7
RE2
Dual PWM
10xx 11xx
RB3/INT3
P2A
RE7
Quad PWM
x1xx 11xx
RB3/INT3
P2A
RE7
Compatible CCP
00xx 11xx
RB3/INT3
RC1/T1OS1
ECCP2
Dual PWM
10xx 11xx
RB3/INT3
RC1/T1OS1
P2A
Quad PWM
x1xx 11xx
RB3/INT3
RC1/T1OS1
P2A
Compatible CCP
00xx 11xx
ECCP2
RC1/T1OS1
RE7/AD15
Dual PWM
10xx 11xx
P2A
RC1/T1OS1
Quad PWM
x1xx 11xx
P2A
RC1/T1OS1
RB3
RC1
RE7
RE2
RE1
RE0
RE1
RE0
P2B
RE1
RE0
P2B
P2C
P2D
RE2
RE1
RE0
P2B
RE1
RE0
P2B
P2C
P2D
RE2/CS
RE1/WR
RE0/RD
RE7/AD15
P2B
RE1/WR
RE0/RD
RE7/AD15
P2B
P2C
P2D
All Devices, CCP2MX = 1, All Program Memory modes:
80-Pin and 100-Pin Devices, CCP2MX = 0, Microcontroller mode:
100-Pin Devices, CCP2MX = 0, Extended Microcontroller mode:
Legend: x = Don’t care. Shaded cells indicate pin assignments not used by ECCP2 in a given mode.
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS39762E-page 195
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
TABLE 17-3:
ECCP Mode
PIN CONFIGURATIONS FOR ECCP3
CCP3CON
Configuration
RD1 or
RG0(1)
RE4
RD2 or
RG3(1)
RE3
RH5(2)
RH4(2)
64-Pin Devices; 80-Pin Devices, ECCPMX = 1;
100-Pin Devices, ECCPMX = 1, Microcontroller mode:
Compatible CCP
00xx 11xx
ECCP3
RE4
RE3
RD2/RG3
RH5/AN13
RH4/AN12
Dual PWM
10xx 11xx
P3A
P3B
RE3
RD2/RG3
RH5/AN13
RH4/AN12
Quad PWM
x1xx 11xx
P3A
P3B
P3C
P3D
RH5/AN13
RH4/AN12
80-Pin Devices, ECCPMX = 0;
100-Pin Devices, ECCPMX = 0, All Program Memory modes:
Compatible CCP
00xx 11xx
ECCP3
RE6/AD14
RE5/AD13
RD2/RG3
RH5/AN13
RH4/AN12
Dual PWM
10xx 11xx
P3A
RE6/AD14
RE5/AD13
RD2/RG3
P3B
RH4/AN12
Quad PWM(3)
x1xx 11xx
P3A
RE6/AD14
RE5/AD13
P3D
P3B
P3C
100-Pin Devices, ECCPMX = 1, Extended Microcontroller with 12-Bit Address Width:
Compatible CCP
00xx 11xx
ECCP3
RE4/AD12
RE3/AD11
RD2/RG3
RH5/AN13
RH4/AN12
Dual PWM
10xx 11xx
P3A
P3B
RE3/AD11
RD2/RG3
RH5/AN13
RH4/AN12
100-Pin Devices, ECCPMX = 1, Extended Microcontroller mode with 16-Bit or 20-Bit Address Width:
Compatible CCP
Legend:
Note 1:
2:
3:
17.2
00xx 11xx
ECCP3
RE6/AD14
Capture and Compare Modes
Except for the operation of the Special Event Trigger
discussed below, the Capture and Compare modes of
the ECCPx modules are identical in operation to that of
CCP4. These are discussed in detail in Section 16.2
“Capture Mode” and Section 16.3 “Compare
Mode”.
17.2.1
RE5/AD13
RD2/RG3
RH5/AN13
RH4/AN12
x = Don’t care. Shaded cells indicate pin assignments not used by ECCP3 in a given mode.
ECCP3/P3A and CCP4/P3D are multiplexed with RD1 and RD2 on 64-pin devices, and RG0 and RG3 on
80-pin and 100-pin devices.
These pin options are not available on 64-pin devices.
With ECCP3 in Quad PWM mode, the CCP4 pin’s output is overridden by P3D; otherwise, CCP4 is fully
operational.
Special Event Triggers are not implemented for
ECCP3, CCP4 or CCP5. Selecting the Special Event
Trigger mode for these modules has the same effect as
selecting the Compare with Software Interrupt mode
(CCPxM3:CCPxM0 = 1010).
Note:
The Special Event Trigger from ECCP2
will not set the Timer1 or Timer3 interrupt
flag bits.
SPECIAL EVENT TRIGGER
ECCP1 and ECCP2 incorporate an internal hardware
trigger that is generated in Compare mode on a match
between the CCPRx register pair and the selected
timer. This can be used in turn to initiate an action. This
mode is selected by setting CCPxCON<3:0> to ‘1011’.
The Special Event Trigger output of either ECCP1 or
ECCP2 resets the TMR1 or TMR3 register pair,
depending on which timer resource is currently
selected. This allows the CCPRx register to effectively
be a 16-Bit Programmable Period register for Timer1 or
Timer3. In addition, the ECCP2 Special Event Trigger
will also start an A/D conversion if the A/D module is
enabled.
DS39762E-page 196
17.3
Standard PWM Mode
When configured in Single Output mode, the ECCPx
modules function identically to the standard CCPx
modules in PWM mode, as described in Section 16.4
“PWM Mode”. This is also sometimes referred to as
“Compatible CCP” mode, as in Tables 17-1
through 17-3.
Note:
When setting up single output PWM
operations, users are free to use either of
the processes described in Section 16.4.3
“Setup for PWM Operation” or
Section 17.4.9 “Setup for PWM Operation”. The latter is more generic but will
work for either single or multi-output PWM.
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
17.4
Enhanced PWM Mode
The Enhanced PWM mode provides additional PWM
output options for a broader range of control applications. The module is a backward compatible version of
the standard CCPx modules and offers up to four outputs, designated PxA through PxD. Users are also able
to select the polarity of the signal (either active-high or
active-low). The module’s output mode and polarity
are configured by setting the PxM1:PxM0 and
CCPxM3CCPxM0 bits of the CCPxCON register
(CCPxCON<7:6> and <3:0>, respectively).
For the sake of clarity, Enhanced PWM mode operation
is described generically throughout this section with
respect to ECCP1 and TMR2 modules. Control register
names are presented in terms of ECCP1. All three
Enhanced modules, as well as the two timer resources,
can be used interchangeably and function identically.
TMR2 or TMR4 can be selected for PWM operation by
selecting the proper bits in T3CON.
Figure 17-1 shows a simplified block diagram of PWM
operation. All control registers are double-buffered and
are loaded at the beginning of a new PWM cycle (the
period boundary when Timer2 resets) in order to prevent glitches on any of the outputs. The exception is the
ECCP1 Dead-Band Delay register, ECCP1DEL, which
is loaded at either the duty cycle boundary or the
boundary period (whichever comes first). Because of
the buffering, the module waits until the assigned timer
resets instead of starting immediately. This means that
FIGURE 17-1:
Enhanced PWM waveforms do not exactly match the
standard PWM waveforms, but are instead, offset by
one full instruction cycle (4 TOSC).
As before, the user must manually configure the
appropriate TRIS bits for output.
17.4.1
PWM PERIOD
The PWM period is specified by writing to the PR2
register. The PWM period can be calculated using the
following equation:
EQUATION 17-1:
PWM Period = [(PR2) + 1] • 4 • TOSC •
(TMR2 Prescale Value)
PWM frequency is defined as 1/[PWM period]. When
TMR2 is equal to PR2, the following three events occur
on the next increment cycle:
• TMR2 is cleared
• The ECCP1 pin is set (if PWM duty cycle = 0%,
the ECCP1 pin will not be set)
• The PWM duty cycle is copied from CCPR1L into
CCPR1H
Note:
The Timer2 postscaler (see Section 13.0
“Timer2 Module”) is not used in the
determination of the PWM frequency. The
postscaler could be used to have a servo
update rate at a different frequency than
the PWM output.
SIMPLIFIED BLOCK DIAGRAM OF THE ENHANCED PWM MODULE
Duty Cycle Registers
CCP1CON<5:4>
CCP1M<3:0>
4
P1M1<1:0>
2
CCPR1L
ECCP1/P1A
ECCP1/P1A
TRISx<x>
CCPR1H (Slave)
P1B
R
Comparator
TMR2
Q
Output
Controller
P1C
(Note 1)
P1C
TRISx<x>
S
P1D
Comparator
PR2
P1B
TRISx<x>
Clear Timer,
set ECCP1 pin and
latch D.C.
P1D
TRISx<x>
ECCP1DEL
Note: The 8-bit timer TMR2 register is concatenated with the 2-bit internal Q clock, or 2 bits of the prescaler, to create the 10-bit
time base.
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS39762E-page 197
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
17.4.2
PWM DUTY CYCLE
Note:
The PWM duty cycle is specified by writing to the
CCPR1L register and to the CCP1CON<5:4> bits. Up
to 10-bit resolution is available. The CCPR1L contains
the eight MSbs and the CCP1CON<5:4> bits contain
the two LSbs. This 10-bit value is represented by
CCPR1L:CCP1CON<5:4>. The PWM duty cycle is
calculated by the equation:
17.4.3
PWM Duty Cycle = (CCPR1L:CCP1CON<5:4>) •
TOSC • (TMR2 Prescale Value)
CCPR1L and CCP1CON<5:4> can be written to at any
time but the duty cycle value is not copied into
CCPR1H until a match between PR2 and TMR2 occurs
(i.e., the period is complete). In PWM mode, CCPR1H
is a read-only register.
The CCPR1H register and a 2-bit internal latch are
used to double-buffer the PWM duty cycle. This
double-buffering is essential for glitchless PWM operation. When the CCPR1H and 2-bit latch match TMR2,
concatenated with an internal 2-bit Q clock or two bits
of the TMR2 prescaler, the ECCP1 pin is cleared. The
maximum PWM resolution (bits) for a given PWM
frequency is given by the following equation:
PWM OUTPUT CONFIGURATIONS
The P1M1:P1M0 bits in the CCP1CON register allow
one of four configurations:
•
•
•
•
EQUATION 17-2:
If the PWM duty cycle value is longer than
the PWM period, the ECCP1 pin will not
be cleared.
Single Output
Half-Bridge Output
Full-Bridge Output, Forward mode
Full-Bridge Output, Reverse mode
The Single Output mode is the standard PWM mode
discussed in Section 17.4 “Enhanced PWM Mode”.
The Half-Bridge and Full-Bridge Output modes are
covered in detail in the sections that follow.
The general relationship of the outputs in all
configurations is summarized in Figure 17-2.
EQUATION 17-3:
(
log FOSC
FPWM
PWM Resolution (max) =
log(2)
TABLE 17-4:
) bits
EXAMPLE PWM FREQUENCIES AND RESOLUTIONS AT 40 MHz
PWM Frequency
Timer Prescaler (1, 4, 16)
PR2 Value
Maximum Resolution (bits)
DS39762E-page 198
2.44 kHz
9.77 kHz
39.06 kHz
156.25 kHz
312.50 kHz
416.67 kHz
16
4
1
1
1
1
FFh
FFh
FFh
3Fh
1Fh
17h
10
10
10
8
7
6.58
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
FIGURE 17-2:
PWM OUTPUT RELATIONSHIPS (ACTIVE-HIGH STATE)
CCP1CON<7:6>
SIGNAL
0
PR2 + 1
Duty
Cycle
Period
00 (Single Output)
P1A Modulated
Delay(1)
Delay(1)
P1A Modulated
10
(Half-Bridge)
P1B Modulated
P1A Active
01
(Full-Bridge,
Forward)
P1B Inactive
P1C Inactive
P1D Modulated
P1A Inactive
11
(Full-Bridge,
Reverse)
P1B Modulated
P1C Active
P1D Inactive
FIGURE 17-3:
PWM OUTPUT RELATIONSHIPS (ACTIVE-LOW STATE)
CCP1CON<7:6>
SIGNAL
0
Duty
Cycle
PR2 + 1
Period
00
(Single Output)
P1A Modulated
P1A Modulated
10
(Half-Bridge)
P1B Modulated
Delay(1)
Delay(1)
P1A Active
01
(Full-Bridge,
Forward)
P1B Inactive
P1C Inactive
P1D Modulated
P1A Inactive
11
(Full-Bridge,
Reverse)
P1B Modulated
P1C Active
P1D Inactive
Relationships:
• Period = 4 * TOSC * (PR2 + 1) * (TMR2 Prescale Value)
• Duty Cycle = TOSC * (CCPR1L<7:0>:CCP1CON<5:4>) * (TMR2 Prescale Value)
• Delay = 4 * TOSC * (ECCP1DEL<6:0>)
Note 1: Dead-band delay is programmed using the ECCP1DEL register (Section 17.4.6 “Programmable
Dead-Band Delay”).
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS39762E-page 199
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
17.4.4
HALF-BRIDGE MODE
FIGURE 17-4:
In the Half-Bridge Output mode, two pins are used as
outputs to drive push-pull loads. The PWM output
signal is output on the P1A pin, while the complementary PWM output signal is output on the P1B pin
(Figure 17-4). This mode can be used for half-bridge
applications, as shown in Figure 17-5, or for full-bridge
applications, where four power switches are being
modulated with two PWM signals.
HALF-BRIDGE PWM
OUTPUT
Period
Period
Duty Cycle
P1A(2)
td
td
P1B(2)
In Half-Bridge Output mode, the programmable
dead-band delay can be used to prevent shoot-through
current in half-bridge power devices. The value of bits,
P1DC6:P1DC0, sets the number of instruction cycles
before the output is driven active. If the value is greater
than the duty cycle, the corresponding output remains
inactive during the entire cycle. See Section 17.4.6
“Programmable Dead-Band Delay” for more details
on dead-band delay operations.
(1)
(1)
(1)
td = Dead Band Delay
Note 1: At this time, the TMR2 register is equal to the
PR2 register.
2: Output signals are shown as active-high.
Since the P1A and P1B outputs are multiplexed with
the PORTC<2> and PORTE<6> data latches, the
TRISC<2> and TRISE<6> bits must be cleared to
configure P1A and P1B as outputs.
FIGURE 17-5:
EXAMPLES OF HALF-BRIDGE OUTPUT MODE APPLICATIONS
V+
Standard Half-Bridge Circuit (“Push-Pull”)
PIC18F97J60
FET
Driver
+
V
-
P1A
Load
FET
Driver
+
V
-
P1B
V-
Half-Bridge Output Driving a Full-Bridge Circuit
V+
PIC18F97J60
FET
Driver
FET
Driver
P1A
FET
Driver
Load
FET
Driver
P1B
V-
DS39762E-page 200
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
17.4.5
FULL-BRIDGE MODE
In Full-Bridge Output mode, four pins are used as
outputs; however, only two outputs are active at a time.
In the Forward mode, pin P1A is continuously active
and pin P1D is modulated. In the Reverse mode, pin
P1C is continuously active and pin P1B is modulated.
These are illustrated in Figure 17-6.
FIGURE 17-6:
P1A, P1B, P1C and P1D outputs are multiplexed with
the data latches of the port pins listed in Table 17-1 and
Table 17-3. The corresponding TRIS bits must be
cleared to make the P1A, P1B, P1C and P1D pins
outputs.
FULL-BRIDGE PWM OUTPUT
Forward Mode
Period
P1A(2)
Duty Cycle
P1B(2)
P1C(2)
P1D(2)
(1)
(1)
Reverse Mode
Period
Duty Cycle
P1A(2)
P1B(2)
P1C(2)
P1D(2)
(1)
(1)
Note 1: At this time, the TMR2 register is equal to the PR2 register.
Note 2: Output signal is shown as active-high.
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS39762E-page 201
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
FIGURE 17-7:
EXAMPLE OF FULL-BRIDGE APPLICATION
V+
PIC18F97J60
FET
Driver
QC
QA
FET
Driver
P1A
Load
P1B
FET
Driver
P1C
FET
Driver
QD
QB
VP1D
17.4.5.1
Direction Change in Full-Bridge Mode
In the Full-Bridge Output mode, the P1M1 bit in the
CCP1CON register allows users to control the forward/
reverse direction. When the application firmware
changes this direction control bit, the module will
assume the new direction on the next PWM cycle.
Just before the end of the current PWM period, the
modulated outputs (P1B and P1D) are placed in their
inactive state, while the unmodulated outputs (P1A and
P1C) are switched to drive in the opposite direction.
This occurs in a time interval of (4 TOSC * (Timer2
Prescale Value) before the next PWM period begins.
The Timer2 prescaler will be either 1, 4 or 16, depending on the value of the T2CKPS bits (T2CON<1:0>).
During the interval from the switch of the unmodulated
outputs to the beginning of the next period, the
modulated outputs (P1B and P1D) remain inactive.
This relationship is shown in Figure 17-8.
Note that in Full-Bridge Output mode, the ECCP1 module does not provide any dead-band delay. In general,
since only one output is modulated at all times,
dead-band delay is not required. However, there is a
situation where a dead-band delay might be required.
This situation occurs when both of the following
conditions are true:
DS39762E-page 202
1.
2.
The direction of the PWM output changes when
the duty cycle of the output is at or near 100%.
The turn-off time of the power switch, including
the power device and driver circuit, is greater
than the turn-on time.
Figure 17-9 shows an example where the PWM direction changes from forward to reverse at a near 100%
duty cycle. At time t1, the outputs, P1A and P1D,
become inactive, while output, P1C, becomes active. In
this example, since the turn-off time of the power
devices is longer than the turn-on time, a shoot-through
current may flow through power devices, QC and QD
(see Figure 17-7), for the duration of ‘t’. The same
phenomenon will occur to power devices, QA and QB,
for PWM direction change from reverse to forward.
If changing PWM direction at high duty cycle is required
for an application, one of the following requirements
must be met:
1.
2.
Reduce PWM for a PWM period before
changing directions.
Use switch drivers that can drive the switches off
faster than they can drive them on.
Other options to prevent shoot-through current may
exist.
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
FIGURE 17-8:
PWM DIRECTION CHANGE
Period(1)
SIGNAL
Period
P1A (Active-High)
P1B (Active-High)
DC
P1C (Active-High)
(Note 2)
P1D (Active-High)
DC
Note 1: The direction bit in the ECCP1 Control register (CCP1CON<7>) is written at any time during the PWM cycle.
2: When changing directions, the P1A and P1C signals switch before the end of the current PWM cycle at intervals
of 4 TOSC, 16 TOSC or 64 TOSC, depending on the Timer2 prescaler value. The modulated P1B and P1D signals
are inactive at this time.
FIGURE 17-9:
PWM DIRECTION CHANGE AT NEAR 100% DUTY CYCLE
Forward Period
t1
Reverse Period
P1A(1)
P1B(1)
DC
P1C(1)
P1D(1)
DC
tON(2)
External Switch C(1)
tOFF(3)
External Switch D(1)
Potential
Shoot-Through
Current(1)
t = tOFF – tON(2,3)
Note 1: All signals are shown as active-high.
2: tON is the turn-on delay of power switch QC and its driver.
3: tOFF is the turn-off delay of power switch QD and its driver.
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS39762E-page 203
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
17.4.6
PROGRAMMABLE DEAD-BAND
DELAY
In half-bridge applications, where all power switches
are modulated at the PWM frequency at all times, the
power switches normally require more time to turn off
than to turn on. If both the upper and lower power
switches are switched at the same time (one turned on
and the other turned off), both switches may be on for
a short period of time until one switch completely turns
off. During this brief interval, a very high current
(shoot-through current) may flow through both power
switches, shorting the bridge supply. To avoid this
potentially destructive shoot-through current from flowing during switching, turning on either of the power
switches is normally delayed to allow the other switch
to completely turn off.
In the Half-Bridge Output mode, a digitally programmable dead-band delay is available to avoid
shoot-through current from destroying the bridge
power switches. The delay occurs at the signal
transition from the non-active state to the active state.
See Figure 17-4 for illustration. The lower seven bits of
the ECCP1DEL register (Register 17-2) set the delay
period in terms of microcontroller instruction cycles
(TCY or 4 TOSC).
17.4.7
ENHANCED PWM
AUTO-SHUTDOWN
When the ECCP1 is programmed for any of the
Enhanced PWM modes, the active output pins may be
configured for auto-shutdown. Auto-shutdown immediately places the Enhanced PWM output pins into a
defined shutdown state when a shutdown event
occurs.
REGISTER 17-2:
A shutdown event can be caused by either of the two
comparator modules or the FLT0 pin (or any combination of these three sources). The comparators may be
used to monitor a voltage input proportional to a current
being monitored in the bridge circuit. If the voltage
exceeds a threshold, the comparator switches state and
triggers a shutdown. Alternatively, a low-level digital
signal on the FLT0 pin can also trigger a shutdown. The
auto-shutdown feature can be disabled by not selecting
any auto-shutdown sources. The auto-shutdown
sources to be used are selected using the
ECCP1AS2:ECCP1AS0 bits (ECCP1AS<6:4>).
When a shutdown occurs, the output pins are
asynchronously placed in their shutdown states,
specified
by
the
PSS1AC1:PSS1AC0
and
PSS1BD1:PSS1BD0 bits (ECCP1AS<3:0>). Each pin
pair (P1A/P1C and P1B/P1D) may be set to drive high,
drive low or be tri-stated (not driving). The ECCP1ASE
bit (ECCP1AS<7>) is also set to hold the Enhanced
PWM outputs in their shutdown states.
The ECCP1ASE bit is set by hardware when a shutdown
event occurs. If automatic restarts are not enabled, the
ECCP1ASE bit is cleared by firmware when the cause of
the shutdown clears. If automatic restarts are enabled,
the ECC1PASE bit is automatically cleared when the
cause of the auto-shutdown has cleared.
If the ECCP1ASE bit is set when a PWM period begins,
the PWM outputs remain in their shutdown state for that
entire PWM period. When the ECCP1ASE bit is cleared,
the PWM outputs will return to normal operation at the
beginning of the next PWM period.
Note:
Writing to the ECCP1ASE bit is disabled
while a shutdown condition is active.
ECCP1DEL: ECCP1 DEAD-BAND DELAY REGISTER
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
P1RSEN
P1DC6
P1DC5
P1DC4
P1DC3
P1DC2
P1DC1
P1DC0
bit 7
bit 0
Legend:
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
-n = Value at POR
‘1’ = Bit is set
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
x = Bit is unknown
bit 7
P1RSEN: PWM Restart Enable bit
1 = Upon auto-shutdown, the ECCP1ASE bit clears automatically once the shutdown event goes
away; the PWM restarts automatically
0 = Upon auto-shutdown, ECCP1ASE must be cleared in software to restart the PWM
bit 6-0
P1DC6:P1DC0: PWM Delay Count bits
Delay time, in number of FOSC/4 (4 * TOSC) cycles, between the scheduled time and actual time for a
PWM signal to transition to active.
DS39762E-page 204
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
REGISTER 17-3:
ECCP1AS: ECCP1 AUTO-SHUTDOWN CONFIGURATION REGISTER
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
ECCP1ASE
ECCP1AS2
ECCP1AS1
ECCP1AS0
PSS1AC1
PSS1AC0
PSS1BD1
PSS1BD0
bit 7
bit 0
Legend:
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
-n = Value at POR
‘1’ = Bit is set
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
x = Bit is unknown
bit 7
ECCP1ASE: ECCP1 Auto-Shutdown Event Status bit
0 = ECCP1 outputs are operating
1 = A shutdown event has occurred; ECCP1 outputs are in shutdown state
bit 6-4
ECCP1AS2:ECCP1AS0: ECCP1 Auto-Shutdown Source Select bits
000 = Auto-shutdown is disabled
001 = Comparator 1 output
010 = Comparator 2 output
011 = Either Comparator 1 or 2
100 = FLT0
101 = FLT0 or Comparator 1
110 = FLT0 or Comparator 2
111 = FLT0 or Comparator 1 or Comparator 2
bit 3-2
PSS1AC1:PSS1AC0: Pins A and C Shutdown State Control bits
00 = Drive Pins A and C to ‘0’
01 = Drive Pins A and C to ‘1’
1x = Pins A and C tri-state
bit 1-0
PSS1BD1:PSS1BD0: Pins B and D Shutdown State Control bits
00 = Drive Pins B and D to ‘0’
01 = Drive Pins B and D to ‘1’
1x = Pins B and D tri-state
17.4.7.1
Auto-Shutdown and Automatic
Restart
The auto-shutdown feature can be configured to allow
automatic restarts of the module following a shutdown
event. This is enabled by setting the P1RSEN bit of the
ECCP1DEL register (ECCP1DEL<7>).
In Shutdown mode with P1RSEN = 1 (Figure 17-10),
the ECCP1ASE bit will remain set for as long as the
cause of the shutdown continues. When the shutdown
condition clears, the ECCP1ASE bit is cleared. If
P1RSEN = 0 (Figure 17-11), once a shutdown condition occurs, the ECCP1ASE bit will remain set until it is
cleared by firmware. Once ECCP1ASE is cleared, the
Enhanced PWM will resume at the beginning of the
next PWM period.
Note:
Writing to the ECCP1ASE bit is disabled
while a shutdown condition is active.
Independent of the P1RSEN bit setting, if the
auto-shutdown source is one of the comparators, the
shutdown condition is a level. The ECCP1ASE bit
cannot be cleared as long as the cause of the shutdown
persists.
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
The Auto-Shutdown mode can be forced by writing a ‘1’
to the ECCP1ASE bit.
17.4.8
START-UP CONSIDERATIONS
When the ECCP1 module is used in the PWM mode,
the application hardware must use the proper external
pull-up and/or pull-down resistors on the PWM output
pins. When the microcontroller is released from Reset,
all of the I/O pins are in the high-impedance state. The
external circuits must keep the power switch devices in
the OFF state until the microcontroller drives the I/O
pins with the proper signal levels, or activates the PWM
output(s).
The CCP1M1:CCP1M0 bits (CCP1CON<1:0>) allow
the user to choose whether the PWM output signals are
active-high or active-low for each pair of PWM output
pins (P1A/P1C and P1B/P1D). The PWM output
polarities must be selected before the PWM pins are
configured as outputs. Changing the polarity configuration while the PWM pins are configured as outputs is
not recommended since it may result in damage to the
application circuits.
DS39762E-page 205
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
The P1A, P1B, P1C and P1D output latches may not be
in the proper states when the PWM module is initialized.
Enabling the PWM pins for output at the same time as
the ECCP1 module may cause damage to the application circuit. The ECCP1 module must be enabled in the
FIGURE 17-10:
proper output mode and complete a full PWM cycle
before configuring the PWM pins as outputs. The completion of a full PWM cycle is indicated by the TMR2IF
bit being set as the second PWM period begins.
PWM AUTO-SHUTDOWN (P1RSEN = 1, AUTO-RESTART ENABLED)
PWM Period
Shutdown Event
ECCP1ASE bit
PWM Activity
Normal PWM
Start of
PWM Period
FIGURE 17-11:
Shutdown
Shutdown
Event Occurs Event Clears
PWM
Resumes
PWM AUTO-SHUTDOWN (P1RSEN = 0, AUTO-RESTART DISABLED)
PWM Period
Shutdown Event
ECCP1ASE bit
PWM Activity
Normal PWM
Start of
PWM Period
DS39762E-page 206
ECCP1ASE
Cleared by
Shutdown
Shutdown Firmware PWM
Event Occurs Event Clears
Resumes
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
17.4.9
SETUP FOR PWM OPERATION
The following steps should be taken when configuring
the ECCP1 module for PWM operation:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Configure the PWM pins P1A and P1B (and
P1C and P1D, if used) as inputs by setting the
corresponding TRIS bits.
Set the PWM period by loading the PR2 (PR4)
register.
Configure the ECCP1 module for the desired
PWM mode and configuration by loading the
CCP1CON register with the appropriate values:
• Select one of the available output
configurations and direction with the
P1M1:P1M0 bits.
• Select the polarities of the PWM output
signals with the CCP1M3:CCP1M0 bits.
Set the PWM duty cycle by loading the CCPR1L
register and the CCP1CON<5:4> bits.
For auto-shutdown:
• Disable auto-shutdown; ECCP1ASE = 0
• Configure auto-shutdown source
• Wait for Run condition
For Half-Bridge Output mode, set the
dead-band delay by loading ECCP1DEL<6:0>
with the appropriate value.
If auto-shutdown operation is required, load the
ECCP1AS register:
• Select the auto-shutdown sources using the
ECCP1AS2:ECCP1AS0 bits.
• Select the shutdown states of the PWM
output pins using PSS1AC1:PSS1AC0 and
PSS1BD1:PSS1BD0 bits.
• Set the ECCP1ASE bit (ECCP1AS<7>).
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
8.
If auto-restart operation is required, set the
P1RSEN bit (ECCP1DEL<7>).
9. Configure and start TMR2 (TMR4):
• Clear the TMRx interrupt flag bit by clearing
the TMRxIF bit (PIR1<1> for Timer2 or
PIR3<3> for Timer4).
• Set the TMRx prescale value by loading the
TxCKPS bits (T2CON<1:0> for Timer2 or
T4CON<1:0> for Timer4).
• Enable Timer2 (or Timer4) by setting the
TMRxON bit (T2CON<2> for Timer2 or
T4CON<2> for Timer4).
10. Enable PWM outputs after a new PWM cycle
has started:
• Wait until TMR2 (TMR4) overflows (TMRxIF
bit is set).
• Enable the ECCP1/P1A, P1B, P1C and/or
P1D pin outputs by clearing the respective
TRIS bits.
• Clear the ECCP1ASE bit (ECCP1AS<7>).
17.4.10
EFFECTS OF A RESET
Both Power-on Reset and subsequent Resets will force
all ports to Input mode and the CCPx/ECCPx registers
to their Reset states.
This forces the Enhanced CCPx modules to reset to a
state compatible with the standard CCPx modules.
DS39762E-page 207
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
TABLE 17-5:
Name
INTCON
REGISTERS ASSOCIATED WITH ECCPx MODULES AND TIMER1 TO TIMER4
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
Reset
Values
on Page:
GIE/GIEH
PEIE/GIEL
TMR0IE
INT0IE
RBIE
TMR0IF
INT0IF
RBIF
63
64
RCON
IPEN
—
CM
RI
TO
PD
POR
BOR
PIR1
PSPIF
ADIF
RC1IF
TX1IF
SSP1IF
CCP1IF
TMR2IF
TMR1IF
65
PIE1
PSPIE
ADIE
RC1IE
TX1IE
SSP1IE
CCP1IE
TMR2IE
TMR1IE
65
IPR1
PSPIP
ADIP
RC1IP
TX1IP
SSP1IP
CCP1IP
TMR2IP
TMR1IP
65
PIR2
OSCFIF
CMIF
ETHIF
r
BCL1IF
—
TMR3IF
CCP2IF
65
PIE2
OSCFIE
CMIE
ETHIE
r
BCL1IE
—
TMR3IE
CCP2IE
65
IPR2
OSCFIP
CMIP
ETHIP
r
BCL1IP
—
TMR3IP
CCP2IP
65
PIR3
SSP2IF
BCL2IF
RC2IF
TX2IF
TMR4IF
CCP5IF
CCP4IF
CCP3IF
65
PIE3
SSP2IE
BCL2IE
RC2IE
TX2IE
TMR4IE
CCP5IE
CCP4IE
CCP3IE
65
IPR3
SSP2IP
BCL2IP
RC2IP
TX2IP
TMR4IP
CCP5IP
CCP4IP
CCP3IP
65
TRISB
TRISB7
TRISB6
TRISB5
TRISB4
TRISB3
TRISB2
TRISB1
TRISB0
65
TRISC
TRISC7
TRISC6
TRISC5
TRISC4
TRISC3
TRISC2
TRISC1
TRISC0
65
65
TRISD(1)
TRISD7
TRISD6
TRISD5
TRISD4
TRISD3
TRISD2
TRISD1
TRISD0
TRISE
TRISE7(2)
TRISE6(2)
TRISE5
TRISE4
TRISE3
TRISE2
TRISE1
TRISE0
65
TRISG
TRISG7
TRISG6
TRISG5
TRISG4
TRISG3(2)
TRISG2
TRISG1
TRISG0(2)
65
TRISH(2)
TRISH7
TRISH6
TRISH5
TRISH4
TRISH3
TRISH2
TRISH1
TRISH0
65
TMR1L
Timer1 Register Low Byte
TMR1H
Timer1 Register High Byte
T1CON
T1RUN
64
T1OSCEN
T1SYNC
TMR1CS
TMR1ON
64
T2OUTPS3 T2OUTPS2 T2OUTPS1 T2OUTPS0
TMR2ON
T2CKPS1
T2CKPS0
64
RD16
TMR2
64
T1CKPS1
T1CKPS0
Timer2 Register
—
T2CON
64
PR2
Timer2 Period Register
64
TMR3L
Timer3 Register Low Byte
64
TMR3H
Timer3 Register High Byte
RD16
T3CON
TMR4
T3CCP2
64
T3CKPS1
T3CKPS0
T3CCP1
T3SYNC
TMR3CS
TMR3ON
Timer4 Register
—
T4CON
65
66
T4OUTPS3 T4OUTPS2 T4OUTPS1 T4OUTPS0
TMR4ON
T4CKPS1
T4CKPS0
66
PR4
Timer4 Period Register
66
CCPRxL(3)
Capture/Compare/PWM Register x Low Byte
64
CCPRxH(3)
Capture/Compare/PWM Register x High Byte
64
CCPxCON(3)
ECCPxAS(3)
ECCPxDEL(3)
Legend:
Note 1:
2:
3:
PxM1
PxM0
DCxB1
DCxB0
ECCPXASE ECCPXAS2 ECCPXAS1 ECCPXAS0
PxRSEN
PxDC6
PxDC5
PxDC4
CCPxM3
CCPxM2
CCPxM1
CCPxM0
64
PSSXAC1
PSSXAC0
PSSXBD1
PSSXBD0
64, 67
PxDC3
PxDC2
PxDC1
PxDC0
67
— = unimplemented, read as ‘0’, r = reserved. Shaded cells are not used during ECCPx operation.
Applicable to 64-pin devices only.
Registers and/or specific bits are unimplemented on 64-pin devices.
Generic term for all of the identical registers of this name for all Enhanced CCPx modules, where ‘x’ identifies the individual
module (ECCP1, ECCP2 or ECCP3). Bit assignments and Reset values for all registers of the same generic name are
identical.
DS39762E-page 208
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
18.0
ETHERNET MODULE
All members of the PIC18F97J60 family of devices
feature an embedded Ethernet controller module. This
is a complete connectivity solution, including full implementations of both Media Access Control (MAC) and
Physical Layer transceiver (PHY) modules. Two pulse
transformers and a few passive components are all that
are required to connect the microcontroller directly to
an Ethernet network.
The Ethernet module meets all of the IEEE 802.3
specifications for 10-BaseT connectivity to a
twisted-pair network. It incorporates a number of
packet filtering schemes to limit incoming packets. It
also provides an internal DMA module for fast data
throughput and hardware assisted IP checksum calculations. Provisions are also made for two LED outputs
to indicate link and network activity.
The Ethernet module consists of five major functional
blocks:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
A simple block diagram of the module is shown in
Figure 18-1.
FIGURE 18-1:
The PHY transceiver module that encodes and
decodes the analog data that is present on the
twisted-pair interface and sends or receives it
over the network.
The MAC module that implements IEEE 802.3
compliant MAC logic and provides Media
Independent Interface Management (MIIM) to
control the PHY.
An independent, 8-Kbyte RAM buffer for storing
packets that have been received and packets
that are to be transmitted.
An arbiter to control access to the RAM buffer
when requests are made from the microcontroller
core, DMA, transmit and receive blocks.
The register interface that functions as an interpreter of commands and internal status signals
between the module and the microcontroller’s
SFRs.
ETHERNET MODULE BLOCK DIAGRAM
RX
MAC
RXBM
8-Kbyte
Ethernet RAM
Buffer
Arbiter
ch0
PHY
RXF (Filter)
MII
Interface
ch1
ch0
ch2
TX
TPOUT+
TPOUT-
DMA and
IP Checksum
TPIN+
TX
ch1
RX
TXBM
Ethernet
Buffer
Addresses
Flow Control
Ethernet
Data
MIIM
Interface
TPIN-
RBIAS
Host Interface
Ethernet
Buffer Pointers
EDATA
Ethernet
Control
MIRD/MIWR
PHY Register Data
PHY Register Addresses
MIREGADR
Microcontroller SFRs
8
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
LEDA/LEDB Control
Microcontroller Data Bus
DS39762E-page 209
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
18.1
18.1.1
Physical Interfaces and External
Connections
SIGNAL AND POWER INTERFACES
PIC18F97J60 family devices all provide a dedicated
4-pin signal interface for the Ethernet module. No other
microcontroller or peripheral functions are multiplexed
with these pins, so potential device configuration
conflicts do not need to be considered. The pins are:
•
•
•
•
TPIN+: Differential plus twisted-pair input
TPIN-: Differential minus twisted-pair input
TPOUT+: Differential plus twisted-pair output
TPOUT-: Differential minus twisted-pair output
No provisions are made for providing or receiving
digital Ethernet data from an external Ethernet PHY.
In addition to the signal connections, the Ethernet module has its own independent voltage source and ground
connections for the PHY module. Separate connections
are provided for the receiver (VDDRX and VSSRX), the
transmitter (VDDTX and VSSTX) and the transmitter’s
internal PLL (VDDPLL and VSSPLL). Although the voltage
requirements are the same as VDD and VSS for the
microcontroller, the pins are not internally connected.
For the Ethernet module to operate properly, supply
voltage and ground must be connected to these pins. All
of the microcontroller’s power and ground supply pins
should be externally connected to the same power
source or ground node, with no inductors or other filter
components between the microcontroller and Ethernet
module’s VDD pins.
Besides the independent voltage connections, the PHY
module has a separate bias current input pin, RBIAS. A
bias current, derived from an external resistor, must be
applied to RBIAS for proper transceiver operation.
18.1.2
LED CONFIGURATION
The PHY module provides separate outputs to drive the
standard Ethernet indicators, LEDA and LEDB. The LED
outputs are multiplexed with PORTA pins RA0 and RA1.
Their use as LED outputs is enabled by setting the Configuration bit, ETHLED (Register 24-6, CONFIG3H<2>).
When configured as LED outputs, RA0/LEDA and
RA1/LEDB have sufficient drive capacity (up to 25 mA)
to directly power the LEDs. The pins must always be
configured to supply (source) current to the LEDs. Users
must also configure the pins as outputs by clearing
TRISA<1:0>.
DS39762E-page 210
The LEDs can be individually configured to
automatically display link status, RX/TX activity, etc. A
configurable stretch capability prolongs the LED blink
duration for short events, such as a single packet
transmit, allowing human perception. The options are
controlled by the PHLCON register (Register 18-13).
Typical values for blink stretch are listed in Table 18-1.
TABLE 18-1:
LED BLINK STRETCH
LENGTH
Stretch Length
Typical Stretch (ms)
TNSTRCH (normal)
40
TMSTRCH (medium)
70
TLSTRCH (long)
140
18.1.3
OSCILLATOR REQUIREMENTS
The Ethernet module is designed to operate at 25 MHz.
This is provided by the primary microcontroller clock,
either with a 25 MHz crystal connected to the OSC1
and OSC2 pins or an external clock source connected
to the OSC1 pin. No provision is made to clock the
module from a different source.
To maintain the required clock frequency, the microcontroller can operate only from the primary oscillator
source (PRI_RUN or PRI_IDLE modes) while the
Ethernet module is enabled. Using any other
power-managed mode will require that the Ethernet
module be disabled.
18.1.3.1
Start-up Timer
The Ethernet module contains a start-up timer,
independent of the microcontroller’s OST, to ensure
that the PHY module’s PLL has stabilized before
operation. Clearing the module enable bit, ETHEN
(ECON2<5>), clears the PHYRDY status bit
(ESTAT<0>). Setting the ETHEN bit causes this
start-up timer to start counting. When the timer expires,
after 1 ms, the PHYRDY bit will be automatically set.
After enabling the module by setting the ETHEN bit, the
application software should always poll PHYRDY to
determine when normal Ethernet operation can begin.
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
18.1.4
MAGNETICS, TERMINATION AND
OTHER EXTERNAL COMPONENTS
To complete the Ethernet interface, the Ethernet
module requires several standard components to be
installed externally. These components should be
connected as shown in Figure 18-2.
The internal analog circuitry in the PHY module requires
that an external resistor (2.26 kΩ) be attached from
RBIAS to ground. The resistor influences the TPOUT+/signal amplitude. It should be placed as close as possible
to the chip with no immediately adjacent signal traces to
prevent noise capacitively coupling into the pin and
affecting the transmit behavior. It is recommended that
the resistor be a surface mount type.
On the TPIN+/TPIN- and TPOUT+/TPOUT- pins,
1:1 center-tapped pulse transformers rated for Ethernet
operations (10/100 or 10/100/1000) are required. When
the Ethernet module is enabled, current is continually
sunk through both TPOUT pins. When the PHY is
actively transmitting, a differential voltage is created on
the Ethernet cable by varying the relative current sunk
by TPOUT+ compared to TPOUT-.
A common-mode choke on the PHY side of the interface
(i.e., between the microcontrollers’s TPOUT pins and
the Ethernet transformer) is not recommend. If a com-
FIGURE 18-2:
mon-mode choke is used to reduce EMI emissions, it
should be placed between the Ethernet transformer and
pins 1 and 2 of the RJ-45 connector. Many Ethernet
transformer modules include common-mode chokes
inside the same device package. The transformers
should have at least the isolation rating specified in
Table 27-28 to protect against static voltages and meet
IEEE 802.3 isolation requirements (see Section 27.5
“Ethernet Specifications and Requirements” for
specific transformer requirements). Both transmit and
receive interfaces additionally require two resistors and
a capacitor to properly terminate the transmission line,
minimizing signal reflections.
All power supply pins must be externally connected to
the same power source. Similarly, all ground references must be externally connected to the same
ground node. Each VDD and VSS pin pair should have
a 0.1 μF ceramic bypass capacitor placed as close to
the pins as possible.
Since relatively high currents are necessary to operate
the twisted-pair interface, all wires should be kept as
short as possible. Reasonable wire widths should be
used on power wires to reduce resistive loss. If the
differential data lines cannot be kept short, they should
be routed in such a way as to have a 100Ω characteristic
impedance.
EXTERNAL COMPONENTS REQUIRED FOR ETHERNET OPERATION
1
PIC18FXXJ6X
3.3V
RJ-45
CMC(3)
TPOUT+
49.9Ω, 1%
(4)
C1
OSC1
49.9Ω, 1%
25 MHz
1
Ferrite
Bead(1,2)
2
0.1 μF(2)
3
1:1 CT
TPOUT-
CMC(3)
TPIN+
C2
4
49.9Ω, 1%
(4)
OSC2
49.9Ω, 1%
5
0.1 μF
1:1 CT
TPIN-
6
2.26 kΩ, 1%
75Ω(2)
RBIAS
75Ω(2)
LEDB
75Ω(2)
LEDA
75Ω(2)
7
8
1 nF, 2 kV(3)
Note
1:
Ferrite Bead should be rated for at least 80 mA.
2:
These components are installed for EMI reduction purposes. Power Over Ethernet applications may require their removal.
3:
Recommended insertion point for Common-Mode Chokes (CMCs) if required for EMI reduction.
4:
See Section 2.3 “Crystal Oscillator/Ceramic Resonators (HS Modes)” for recommended values.
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS39762E-page 211
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
18.2
Ethernet Buffer and Register
Spaces
The Ethernet module uses three independent memory
spaces for its operations:
• An Ethernet RAM buffer which stores packet data
as it is received and being prepared for
transmission.
• A set of 8-bit Special Function Registers (SFRs),
used to control the module and pass data back
and forth between the module and microcontroller
core.
• A separate set of 16-bit PHY registers used
specifically for PHY control and status reporting.
FIGURE 18-3:
The Ethernet buffer and PHY control registers are
contained entirely within the Ethernet module and cannot be accessed directly by the microcontroller. Data is
transferred between the Ethernet and microcontroller
by using buffer and pointer registers mapped in the
microcontroller’s SFR space. The relationships
between the SFRs and the Ethernet module’s memory
spaces are shown in Figure 18-3.
RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN MICROCONTROLLER AND ETHERNET MEMORY
SPACES
Microcontroller SFRs
Ethernet Module
Ethernet Buffer
EDATA
ERDPT(H:L)
EWRPT(H:L)
ETXST(H:L)
ETXND(H:L)
ERXST(H:L)
ERXND(H:L)
ERXRDPT(H:L)
ERXWRPT(H:L)
1FFFh
Buffer Address
PHY Registers
PHY Register Data (In/Out)
MIRD(H:L)
MIWR(H:L)
MIREGADR
Note:
0000h
Ethernet Data
00h
1Fh
PHY Register Address
Microcontroller SFRs are not shown in the order of their placement in the data memory space. Memory areas are
not shown to scale.
DS39762E-page 212
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
18.2.1
ETHERNET BUFFER AND BUFFER
POINTER REGISTERS
The Ethernet buffer contains the transmit and receive
memory used by the Ethernet controller. The entire
buffer is 8 Kbytes, divided into separate receive and
transmit buffer spaces. The sizes and locations of
transmit and receive memory are fully definable using
the pointers in the Ethernet SFR space. The organization of the memory space and the relationships of the
pointers are shown in Figure 18-4.
The buffer is always accessible through the EDATA and
Ethernet Pointer SFRs, regardless of whether or not the
Ethernet module is enabled. This makes the buffer
potentially useful for applications requiring large amounts
of RAM and that do not require Ethernet communication.
In these instances, disabling the Ethernet module
reduces overall power usage but does not prevent buffer
access.
18.2.1.1
Reading and Writing to the Buffer
The Ethernet buffer contents are accessed through the
EDATA register, which acts as a window from the
microcontroller data bus into the buffer. The location of
that window is determined by either the ERDPT or
EWRPT Pointers, depending on the operation being
performed. For example, writing to EDATA causes a
write to the Ethernet buffer at the address currently
indicated by EWRPT register pair. Similarly, moving the
contents of EDATA to another register actually moves
the buffer contents at the address indicated by the
ERDPT Pointer.
When the AUTOINC bit (ECON2<7>) is set, the associated Read or Write Pointer increments by one
address following each read or write operation. This
eliminates the need to constantly update a pointer after
each read or write, simplifying multiple sequential
operations. By default, the AUTOINC bit is set.
By design, the Ethernet memory buffer is unable to
support a set of operations where EDATA is used as
both an operand and a data destination. Failure to
observe these restrictions will result in a corrupted read
or write. Also, due to the read-modify-write architecture
of the processor core, single-cycle instructions which
write to the EDATA register will have a side effect of
automatically incrementing the ERDPT registers when
AUTOINC is set. Using double-cycle MOVFF, MOVSF
and MOVSS instructions to write to EDATA will not affect
the Read Pointer. See the following note for examples.
Note:
Any single instruction that performs both a
read and write to the EDATA SFR register
will result in a corrupted operation.
Unsupported examples:
INCF
XORWF
MOVFF
MOVFF
EDATA,
EDATA,
EDATA,
INDF0,
F
F
EDATA
EDATA; (FSR0 = F61h)
Instructions that only perform one read or
one write are permitted.
Supported examples:
INCF
MOVF
MOVFF
EDATA, W
EDATA, W
INDF0, EDATA; (FSR0 != F61h)
Single-cycle, write-only instructions, while
valid, will have a side effect of also incrementing the ERDPT registers when
AUTOINC is enabled.
Examples incrementing both ERDPT and
EWRPT:
CLRF
SETF
MOVWF
EDATA
EDATA
EDATA
While sequentially reading from the receive buffer, a
wrapping condition will occur at the end of the receive
buffer. A read of EDATA from the address programmed
into the ERXND Pointers will cause the ERDPT
registers to be incremented to the value contained in
the ERXST Pointers. Writing to the buffer, on the other
hand, does not result in automatic wrapping.
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS39762E-page 213
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
FIGURE 18-4:
ETHERNET BUFFER ORGANIZATION
Transmit Buffer Start
(ETXSTH:ETXSTL)
Buffer Write Pointer
(EWRPTH:EWRPTL)
Transmit Buffer End
(ETXNDH:ETXNDL)
Receive Buffer Start
(ERXSTH:ERXSTL)
0000h
Write Buffer Data
(data AAh moved to EDATA)
AAh
Transmit
Buffer
Receive
Buffer
(Circular FIFO)
Buffer Read Pointer
(ERDPTH:ERDPTL)
Receive Buffer End
(ERXNDH:ERXNDL)
DS39762E-page 214
Read Buffer Data
(data 55h moved out of EDATA)
55h
1FFFh
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
18.2.1.2
Receive Buffer
The receive buffer constitutes a circular FIFO buffer
managed by hardware. The register pairs,
ERXSTH:ERXSTL and ERXNDH:ERXNDL, serve as
pointers to define the buffer’s size and location within
the memory. The byte pointed to by the ERXST pair
and the byte pointed to by the ERXND pair are both
included in the FIFO buffer.
As bytes of data are received from the Ethernet
interface, they are written into the receive buffer
sequentially. However, after the memory pointed to by
the ERXND Pointers is written to, the hardware will
automatically write the next byte of received data to the
memory pointed to by the ERXST pair. As a result, the
receive hardware will never write outside the
boundaries of the FIFO.
The user may program the ERXST and ERXND
Pointers while the receive logic is disabled. The pointers must not be modified while the receive logic is
enabled (ERXEN (ECON1<2>) is set).
The buffer hardware uses an Internal Pointer (not
mapped to any user-accessible registers) to determine
where unvalidated incoming data is to be written. When
a packet has been completely received and validated,
FIGURE 18-5:
the read-only ERXWRPTH:ERXWRPTL registers are
updated with the Internal Pointer’s value. Thus, the
ERXWRPT registers define the general area in the
receive buffer where data is currently being written. This
makes it useful for determining how much free space is
available within the FIFO.
The ERXRDPT registers define a location within the
FIFO where the receive hardware is forbidden to write to.
In normal operation, the receive hardware will write data
up to, but not including, the memory pointed to by the
ERXRDPT registers. If the FIFO fills up with data and
new data continues to arrive, the hardware will not overwrite the previously received data. Instead, the incoming
data will be thrown away and the old data will be
preserved. In order to continuously receive new data, the
application must periodically advance this pointer whenever it finishes processing some, or all, of the old
received data.
An example of how the Receive Buffer Pointers and
packet data are related in the circular buffer scheme is
shown in Figure 18-5. Note that while four packets are
shown in this example, the actual number of packets
may be greater or lesser.
CIRCULAR FIFO BUFFER AND THE RELATIONSHIPS OF THE POINTERS
ERXST
ERXRDPT:
Sets boundary that Internal
Write Pointer cannot advance
beyond. Prevents Internal
Write Pointer from moving
into Packet 1’s data space.
ERDPT:
Data being read
out to application.
ERXND
PB
Packet 1
(being processed
by application)
Internal Write Hardware Pointer
points to the buffer
location being written
(packet data is still
being received).
Unused Buffer
(may contain old data)
PB
Packet 4
(currently being
received)
Packet 2
ERXWRPT:
Shows the end of
the last complete
received packet.
Packet 3
PB
PB
Direction of reading and writing data
(lower to higher buffer addresses)
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PB: Packet Boundary, as defined by
the Next Packet Pointers that precede
each packet.
DS39762E-page 215
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
18.2.1.3
Transmit Buffer
Any space within the 8-Kbyte memory which is not
programmed as part of the receive FIFO buffer is considered to be the transmit buffer. The responsibility of
managing where packets are located in the transmit
buffer belongs to the application. Whenever the application decides to transmit a packet, the ETXST and ETXND
Pointers are programmed with addresses specifying
where, within the transmit buffer, the particular packet to
transmit is located. The hardware does not check that the
start and end addresses do not overlap with the receive
buffer. To prevent buffer corruption, the firmware must not
transmit a packet while the ETXST and ETXND Pointers
are overlapping the receive buffer, or while the ETXND
Pointers are too close to the receive buffer. See
Section 18.5.2 “Transmitting Packets” for more
information.
18.2.1.4
Buffer Arbiter and Access Arbitration
The Ethernet buffer is clocked at one-half of the microcontroller clock rate. Varying amounts of memory
access bandwidth are available depending on the clock
speed. The total bandwidth available, in bytes per second, is equal to twice the instruction rate (2 * FCY, or
FOSC/2). For example, at a system clock speed of
41.667 MHz, the total available memory bandwidth that
is available is 20.834 Mbyte/s. At an Ethernet signaling
rate of 10 Mbit/s, the Ethernet RX engine requires
1.25 Mbyte/s of buffer memory bandwidth to operate
without causing an overrun. If Full-Duplex mode is
used, an additional 1.25 Mbyte/s is required to allow for
simultaneous RX and TX activity.
Because of the finite available memory bandwidth, a
three-channel arbiter is used to allocate bandwidth
between the RX engine, the TX and DMA engines, and
the microcontroller’s CPU (i.e., the application access-
TABLE 18-2:
ing EDATA). The arbiter gives the EDATA register
accesses first priority, while all remaining bandwidth is
shared between the RX and TX/DMA blocks.
With arbitration, bandwidth limitations require that
some care be taken in balancing the needs of the module’s hardware with that of the application. Accessing
the EDATA register too often may result in the RX or TX
blocks causing a buffer overrun or underrun, respectively. If such a memory access failure occurs, the
BUFER bit (ESTAT<6>) and either the TXERIF or
RXERIF interrupt flag becomes set, and a TX or RX
interrupt occurs (if enabled). In either case, the current
packet will be lost or aborted.
To eliminate the risk of lost packets, run the microcontroller core at higher speeds. Following the arbitration
restrictions shown in Table 18-2 will prevent memory
access failures from occurring. Also, avoid using segments of application code which perform back-to-back
accesses of the EDATA register. Instead, insert one or
more instructions (including NOP instructions) between
each read or write to EDATA.
18.2.1.5
DMA Access to the Buffer
The integrated DMA controller must read from the
buffer when calculating a checksum, and it must read
and write to the buffer when copying memory. The DMA
follows the same wrapping rules as previously
described for the receive buffer. While it sequentially
reads, it will be subject to a wrapping condition at the
end of the receive buffer. All writes it does will not be
subject to any wrapping conditions. See Section 18.9
“Direct Memory Access Controller” for more
information.
BUFFER ARBITRATION RESTRICTIONS VS. CLOCK SPEED
FOSC
(MHz)
FCY
(MHz)
Available Bandwidth (Mbyte/s)
Total
After RX
After TX
Application Restrictions
to Prevent Underrun/Overrun
41.667
10.42
20.83
19.58
18.33
Access EDATA no more than once every 2 TCY
31.250
7.81
15.63
14.38
13.13
Access EDATA no more than once every 2 TCY
25.000
6.25
12.50
11.25
10.00
Access EDATA no more than once every 2 TCY
20.833
5.21
10.42
9.17
7.92
Access EDATA no more than once every 2 TCY
13.889
3.47
6.94
5.69
4.44
Access EDATA no more than once every 2 TCY
12.500
3.13
6.25
5.00
3.75
Access EDATA no more than once every 2 TCY
8.333
2.08
4.17
2.92
1.67
Access EDATA no more than once every 3 TCY
6.250
1.56
3.13
1.88
0.63
Access EDATA no more than once every 5 TCY
4.167
1.04
2.08
0.83
<0
Do not use DMA, do not use full duplex,
access EDATA no more than once every 3 TCY
2.778
0.69
1.39
0.14
<0
Do not use DMA, do not use full duplex,
access EDATA no more than once every 10 TCY
DS39762E-page 216
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
18.2.2
SFRs AND THE ETHERNET
MODULE
Like other peripherals, direct control of the Ethernet
module is accomplished through a set of SFRs.
Because of their large number, the majority of these
registers are located in the bottom half of Bank 14 of
the microcontroller’s data memory space.
Five key SFRs for the Ethernet module are located in
the microcontroller’s regular SFR area in Bank 15,
where fast access is possible. They are:
•
•
•
•
ECON1
EDATA
EIR
The Ethernet Buffer Read Pointer pair (ERDPTH
and ERDPTL)
ECON1 is described along with other Ethernet control
registers in the following section. EDATA and
ERDPTH:ERDPTL are the Ethernet Data Buffer
registers and its pointers during read operations (see
Section 18.2.1 “Ethernet Buffer and Buffer Pointer
Registers”). EIR is part of the Ethernet interrupt
structure and is described in Section 18.3 “Ethernet
Interrupts”.
REGISTER 18-1:
Many of the Ethernet SFRs in Bank 14 serve as pointer
registers to indicate addresses within the dedicated
Ethernet buffer for storage and retrieval of packet data.
Others store information for packet pattern masks or
checksum operations. Several are used for controlling
overall module operations, as well as specific MAC and
PHY functions.
18.2.3
ETHERNET CONTROL REGISTERS
The ECON1 register (Register 18-1) is used to control
the main functions of the module. Receive enable, transmit request and DMA control bits are all located here.
The ECON2 register (Register 18-2) is used to control
other top level functions of the module. The ESTAT
register (Register 18-3) is used to report the high-level
status of the module and Ethernet communications.
The Ethernet SFRs with the ‘E’ prefix are always
accessible, regardless of whether or not the module is
enabled.
ECON1: ETHERNET CONTROL REGISTER 1
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
U-0
U-0
TXRST
RXRST
DMAST
CSUMEN
TXRTS
RXEN
—
—
bit 7
bit 0
Legend:
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
-n = Value at POR
‘1’ = Bit is set
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
x = Bit is unknown
bit 7
TXRST: Transmit Logic Reset bit
1 = Transmit logic is held in Reset
0 = Normal operation
bit 6
RXRST: Receive Logic Reset bit
1 = Receive logic is held in Reset
0 = Normal operation
bit 5
DMAST: DMA Start and Busy Status bit
1 = DMA copy or checksum operation is in progress (set by software, cleared by hardware or software)
0 = DMA hardware is Idle
bit 4
CSUMEN: DMA Checksum Enable bit
1 = DMA hardware calculates checksums
0 = DMA hardware copies buffer memory
bit 3
TXRTS: Transmit Request to Send bit
1 = The transmit logic is attempting to transmit a packet (set by software, cleared by hardware or software)
0 = The transmit logic is Idle
bit 2
RXEN: Receive Enable bit
1 = Packets which pass the current filter configuration will be written into the receive buffer
0 = All packets received will be discarded by hardware
bit 1-0
Unimplemented: Read as ‘0’
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS39762E-page 217
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
REGISTER 18-2:
ECON2: ETHERNET CONTROL REGISTER 2
R/W-1
R/W-0(1)
R/W-0
U-0
U-0
U-0
U-0
U-0
AUTOINC
PKTDEC
ETHEN
—
—
—
—
—
bit 7
bit 0
Legend:
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
-n = Value at POR
‘1’ = Bit is set
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
x = Bit is unknown
bit 7
AUTOINC: Automatic Buffer Pointer Increment Enable bit
1 = Automatically increment ERDPT or EWRPT registers on reading from or writing to EDATA
0 = Do not automatically change ERDPT and EWRPT registers after EDATA is accessed
bit 6
PKTDEC: Packet Decrement bit
1 = Decrement the EPKTCNT register by one
0 = Leave EPKTCNT unchanged
bit 5
ETHEN: Ethernet Module Enable bit
1 = Ethernet module enabled
0 = Ethernet module disabled
bit 4-0
Unimplemented: Read as ‘0’
Note 1:
This bit is automatically cleared once it is set.
REGISTER 18-3:
ESTAT: ETHERNET STATUS REGISTER
U-0
R/C-0
U-0
R/C-0
U-0
R-0
R/C-0
R-0
—
BUFER
—
r
—
RXBUSY
TXABRT
PHYRDY
bit 7
bit 0
Legend:
R = Readable bit
C = Clearable bit
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
-n = Value at POR
‘1’ = Bit is set
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
x = Bit is unknown
bit 7
Unimplemented: Read as ‘0’
bit 6
BUFER: Ethernet Buffer Error Status bit
1 = An Ethernet read or write has generated a buffer error (overrun or underrun)
0 = No buffer error has occurred
bit 5
Unimplemented: Read as ‘0’
bit 4
Reserved: Write as ‘0’
bit 3
Unimplemented: Read as ‘0’
bit 2
RXBUSY: Receive Busy bit
1 = Receive logic is receiving a data packet
0 = Receive logic is idle
bit 1
TXABRT: Transmit Abort Error bit
1 = The transmit request was aborted
0 = No transmit abort error
bit 0
PHYRDY: Ethernet PHY Clock Ready bit
1 = Ethernet PHY start-up timer has expired; PHY is ready
0 = Ethernet PHY start-up timer is still counting; PHY is not ready
DS39762E-page 218
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
18.2.4
MAC AND MII REGISTERS
Note 1: Do not access the MAC and MII SFRs
unless the Ethernet module is enabled
(ETHEN = 1).
These SFRs are used to control the operations of the
MAC and, through the MIIM, the PHY. The MAC and
MII registers occupy data addresses E80h-E85h,
E8Ah, and EA0h through EB9h.
Although MAC and MII registers appear in the general
memory map of the microcontroller, these registers are
embedded inside the MAC module. Host interface logic
translates the microcontroller data/address bus data to
be able to access these registers. The host interface
logic imposes restrictions on how firmware is able to
access the MAC and MII SFRs. See the following
notes.
REGISTER 18-4:
2: Back-to-back accesses of MAC or MII
registers are not supported. Between any
instruction which addresses a MAC or MII
register, at least one NOP or other
instruction must be executed.
The three MACON registers control specific MAC operations and packet configuration operations. They are
shown in Register 18-4 through Register 18-6.
The MII registers are used to control the MIIM interface
and serve as the communication channel with the PHY
registers. They are shown in Register 18-7 and
Register 18-8.
MACON1: MAC CONTROL REGISTER 1
U-0
U-0
U-0
R-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
—
—
—
r
TXPAUS
RXPAUS
PASSALL
MARXEN
bit 7
bit 0
Legend:
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
-n = Value at POR
‘1’ = Bit is set
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
x = Bit is unknown
bit 7-5
Unimplemented: Read as ‘0’
bit 4
Reserved: Do not use
bit 3
TXPAUS: Pause Control Frame Transmission Enable bit
1 = Allow the MAC to transmit pause control frames (needed for flow control in full duplex)
0 = Disallow pause frame transmissions
bit 2
RXPAUS: Pause Control Frame Reception Enable bit
1 = Inhibit transmissions when pause control frames are received (normal operation)
0 = Ignore pause control frames which are received
bit 1
PASSALL: Pass All Received Frames Enable bit
1 = Control frames received by the MAC will be written into the receive buffer if not filtered out
0 = Control frames will be discarded after being processed by the MAC (normal operation)
bit 0
MARXEN: MAC Receive Enable bit
1 = Enable packets to be received by the MAC
0 = Disable packet reception
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS39762E-page 219
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
REGISTER 18-5:
MACON3: MAC CONTROL REGISTER 3
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
PADCFG2
PADCFG1
PADCFG0
TXCRCEN
PHDREN
HFRMEN
FRMLNEN
FULDPX
bit 7
bit 0
Legend:
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
-n = Value at POR
‘1’ = Bit is set
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
x = Bit is unknown
bit 7-5
PADCFG2:PADCFG0: Automatic Pad and CRC Configuration bits
111 = All short frames are zero-padded to 64 bytes and a valid CRC will then be appended
110 = No automatic padding of short frames
101 = MAC automatically detects VLAN protocol frames which have a 8100h type field and automatically pad to 64 bytes. If the frame is not a VLAN frame, it is padded to 60 bytes. After padding,
a valid CRC is appended.
100 = No automatic padding of short frames
011 = All short frames are zero-padded to 64 bytes and a valid CRC is appended
010 = No automatic padding of short frames
001 = All short frames are zero-padded to 60 bytes and a valid CRC is appended
000 = No automatic padding of short frames
bit 4
TXCRCEN: Transmit CRC Enable bit
1 = MAC appends a valid CRC to all frames transmitted regardless of the PADCFG<2:0> bits.
TXCRCEN must be set if the PADCFG bits specify that a valid CRC is appended.
0 = MAC does not append a CRC. The last 4 bytes are checked and if it is an invalid CRC, it is
reported in the transmit status vector.
bit 3
PHDREN: Proprietary Header Enable bit
1 = Frames presented to the MAC contain a 4-byte proprietary header which is not used when
calculating the CRC
0 = No proprietary header is present. The CRC covers all data (normal operation).
bit 2
HFRMEN: Huge Frame Enable bit
1 = Jumbo frames and frames of any illegal size are allowed to be transmitted and received
0 = Frames bigger than MAMXFL are truncated when transmitted or received
bit 1
FRMLNEN: Frame Length Checking Enable bit
1 = The type/length field of transmitted and received frames is checked. If it represents a length, the
frame size is compared and mismatches are reported in the transmit/receive status vector.
0 = Frame lengths are not compared with the type/length field
bit 0
FULDPX: MAC Full-Duplex Enable bit
1 = MAC operates in Full-Duplex mode, application must also set PDPXMD (PHCON1<8>)
0 = MAC operates in Half-Duplex mode, application must also clear PDPXMD
DS39762E-page 220
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
REGISTER 18-6:
MACON4: MAC CONTROL REGISTER 4
U-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
U-0
U-0
R-0
R-0
—
DEFER
r
r
—
—
r
r
bit 7
bit 0
Legend:
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
-n = Value at POR
‘1’ = Bit is set
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
x = Bit is unknown
bit 7
Unimplemented: Read as ‘0’
bit 6
DEFER: Defer Transmission Enable bit (applies to half duplex only)
1 = When the medium is occupied, the MAC waits indefinitely for it to become free when attempting to
transmit (use this setting for IEE 802.3 compliance)
0 = When the medium is occupied, the MAC aborts the transmission after the excessive deferral limit
is reached
bit 5-4
Reserved: Maintain as ‘0’
bit 3-2
Unimplemented: Read as ‘0’
bit 1-0
Reserved: Maintain as ‘0’
REGISTER 18-7:
MICMD: MII COMMAND REGISTER
U-0
U-0
U-0
U-0
U-0
U-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
—
—
—
—
—
—
MIISCAN
MIIRD
bit 7
bit 0
Legend:
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
-n = Value at POR
‘1’ = Bit is set
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
x = Bit is unknown
bit 7-2
Unimplemented: Read as ‘0’
bit 1
MIISCAN: MII Scan Enable bit
1 = PHY register at MIREGADR is continuously read and the data is placed in the MIRD registers
0 = No MII Management scan operation is in progress
bit 0
MIIRD: MII Read Enable bit
1 = PHY register at MIREGADR is read once and the data is placed in the MIRD registers
0 = No MII Management read operation is in progress
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS39762E-page 221
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REGISTER 18-8:
MISTAT: MII STATUS REGISTER
U-0
U-0
U-0
U-0
R-0
R-0
R-0
R-0
—
—
—
—
r
NVALID
SCAN
BUSY
bit 7
bit 0
Legend:
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
-n = Value at POR
‘1’ = Bit is set
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
x = Bit is unknown
bit 7-4
Unimplemented: Read as ‘0’
bit 3
Reserved: Do not use
bit 2
NVALID: MII Management Read Data Not Valid bit
1 = The contents of the MIRD registers are not valid yet
0 = The MII Management read cycle has completed and the MIRD registers have been updated
bit 1
SCAN: MII Management Scan Operation bit
1 = MII Management scan operation is in progress
0 = No MII Management scan operation is in progress
bit 0
BUSY: MII Management Busy bit
1 = A PHY register is currently being read or written to. For internal synchronization, the hardware will
delay setting this bit for two TCY following a firmware command which sets the MIISCAN or MIIRD
bits, or writes to the MIWRH register.
0 = The MII Management interface is Idle
18.2.5
PHY REGISTERS
The PHY registers provide configuration and control of
the PHY module, as well as status information about its
operation. All PHY registers are 16 bits in width.
PHY registers are accessed with a 5-bit address, for a
total of 32 possible registers; of these, only 7 addresses
are implemented. The implemented registers are listed
in Table 18-3. The main PHY Control registers are
described in Register 18-9 through Register 18-13. The
other PHY Control and Status registers are described
later in this chapter.
Unimplemented registers must never be written to;
reading these locations will return indeterminate data.
Within implemented registers, all reserved bit locations
that are listed as writable must always be written with
the value provided in the register description. When
read, these reserved bits can be ignored.
Thy PHY registers are only accessible through the MII
Management interface. They must not be read or
written to until the PHY start-up timer has expired and
the PHYRDY bit (ESTAT<0>) is set.
18.2.5.1
PHSTAT Registers
The PHSTAT1 and PHSTAT2 registers contain
read-only bits that show the current status of the PHY
module’s operations, particularly the conditions of the
communications link to the rest of the network.
DS39762E-page 222
The PHSTAT1 register (Register 18-10) contains the
LLSTAT bit; it clears and latches low if the physical
layer link has gone down since the last read of the
register. The application can periodically poll LLSTAT
to determine exactly when the link fails. It may be
particularly useful if the link change interrupt is not
used.
The PHSTAT2 register (Register 18-12) contains
status bits which report if the PHY module is linked to
the network and whether or not it is transmitting or
receiving.
18.2.5.2
Accessing PHY Registers
As already mentioned, the PHY registers exist in a
different memory space and are not directly accessible
by the microcontroller. Instead, they are addressed
through a special set of MII registers in the Ethernet
SFR bank that implement a Media Independent
Interface Management (MIIM).
Access is similar to that of the Ethernet buffer, but uses
separate read and write buffers (MIRDH:MIRDL and
MIWRH:MIWRL) and a 5-bit address register
(MIREGADR). In addition, the MICMD and MISTAT
registers are used to control read and write operations.
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
To read from a PHY register:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Write the address of the PHY register to be read
into the MIREGADR register.
Set the MIIRD bit (MICMD<0>). The read
operation begins and the BUSY bit (MISTAT<0>)
is set after two TCY.
Wait 10.24 μs, then poll the BUSY bit to be
certain that the operation is complete. When the
MAC has obtained the register contents, the
BUSY bit will clear itself. While BUSY is set, the
user application should not start any MIISCAN
operations or write to the MIWRH register.
Clear the MIIRD bit.
Read the entire 16 bits of the PHY register from
the MIRDL and MIRDH registers.
To write to a PHY register:
1.
2.
3.
Write the address of the PHY register to be
written into the MIREGADR register.
Write the lower 8 bits of data to write into the
MIWRL register.
Write the upper 8 bits of data to write into the
MIWRH register. Writing to this register automatically begins the MII transaction, so it must
be written to after MIWRL. The BUSY bit is set
automatically after two TCY.
The PHY register is written after the MII operation
completes, which takes 10.24 μs. When the write
operation has completed, the BUSY bit will clear itself.
The application should not start any MII scan or read
operations while busy.
When a PHY register is written to, the entire 16 bits is
written at once; selective bit and/or byte writes are not
implemented. If it is necessary to reprogram only select
bits in the register, the controller must first read the
PHY register, modify the resulting data and then write
the data back to the PHY register.
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
The MAC can also be configured to perform automatic
back-to-back read operations on a PHY register. To
perform this scan operation:
1.
2.
Write the address of the PHY register to be
scanned into the MIREGADR register.
Set the MIISCAN bit (MICMD<1>). The scan
operation begins and the BUSY bit is set after
two TCY.
After MIISCAN is set, the NVALID (MISTAT<2>), SCAN
and BUSY bits are also set. The first read operation will
complete after 10.24 μs. Subsequent reads will be
done and the MIRDL and MIRDH registers will be continuously updated automatically at the same interval
until the operation is cancelled. The NVALID bit may be
polled to determine when the first read operation is
complete.
There is no status information which can be used to
determine when the MIRD registers are updated. Since
only one MII register can be read at a time, it must not
be assumed that the values of MIRDL and MIRDH
were read from the PHY at exactly the same time
during a scan operation.
MIISCAN should remain set as long as the scan
operation is desired. The BUSY and SCAN bits are
automatically cleared after MIISCAN is set to ‘0’ and
the last read sequence is completed. MIREGADR
should not be updated while MIISCAN is set.
Starting new PHY operations, such as a read operation
or writing to the MIWRH register, must not be done
while a scan is underway. The operation can be
cancelled by clearing the MIISCAN bit and then polling
the BUSY bit. New operations may be started after the
BUSY bit is cleared.
DS39762E-page 223
Addr
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY PHY REGISTER SUMMARY
Name
Bit 15
Bit 14
Bit 13
Bit 12
Bit 11
Bit 10
Bit 9
Bit 8
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
Reset Values
00h
PHCON1
r
r
—
—
r
r
—
PDPXMD
r
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
00-- 00-0 0--- ----
01h
PHSTAT1
—
—
—
r
r
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
LLSTAT
r
—
---1 1--- ---- -00-
10h
PHCON2
—
FRCLNK
r
r
r
r
r
HDLDIS
r
r
r
RXAPDIS
r
r
r
r
-000 0000 0000 0000
11h
PHSTAT2
—
—
LSTAT
r
—
—
—
r
—
—
—
—
—
--00 00x- --0- ----
TXSTAT RXSTAT COLSTAT
12h
PHIE
r
r
r
r
r
r
r
r
r
r
r
PLNKIE
r
r
PGEIE
r
xxxx xxxx xx00 xx00
13h
PHIR
r
r
r
r
r
r
r
r
r
r
r
PLNKIF
r
PGIF
r
r
xxxx xxxx xx00 00x0
14h
PHLCON
r
r
r
r
LFRQ1
LFRQ0
STRCH
r
0011 0100 0010 001x
LACFG3 LACFG2 LACFG1 LACFG0 LBCFG3 LBCFG2 LBCFG1 LBCFG0
Legend: x = unknown, u = unchanged, - = unimplemented, read as ‘0’, r = reserved, do not modify. Shaded cells are unimplemented, read as ‘0’.
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
DS39762E-page 224
TABLE 18-3:
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
REGISTER 18-9:
PHCON1: PHY CONTROL REGISTER 1
R/W-0
R/W-0
U-0
U-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
U-0
R/W-0
r
r
—
—
r
r
—
PDPXMD
bit 15
bit 8
R/W-0
U-0
U-0
U-0
U-0
U-0
U-0
U-0
r
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
bit 7
bit 0
Legend:
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
-n = Value at POR
‘1’ = Bit is set
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
x = Bit is unknown
bit 15-14
Reserved: Write as ‘0’
bit 13-12
Unimplemented: Read as ‘0’
bit 11-10
Reserved: Write as ‘0’
bit 9
Unimplemented: Read as ‘0’
bit 8
PDPXMD: PHY Duplex Mode bit
1 = PHY operates in Full-Duplex mode, application must also set FULDPX (MACON3<0>)
0 = PHY operates in Half-Duplex mode, application must also clear FULDPX
bit 7
Reserved: Maintain as ‘0’
bit 6-0
Unimplemented: Read as ‘0’
REGISTER 18-10: PHSTAT1: PHYSICAL LAYER STATUS REGISTER 1
U-0
U-0
U-0
R-1
R-1
U-0
U-0
U-0
—
—
—
r
r
—
—
—
bit 15
bit 8
U-0
U-0
U-0
U-0
U-0
R/LL-0
R/LH-0
U-0
—
—
—
—
—
LLSTAT
r
—
bit 7
bit 0
Legend:
‘1’ = Bit is set
R = Read-only bit
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
-n = Value at POR
R/L = Read-only latch bit
LL = Bit latches low
LH = Bit latches high
bit 15-13
Unimplemented: Read as ‘0’
bit 12-11
Reserved: Read as ‘1’
bit 10-3
Unimplemented: Read as ‘0’
bit 2
LLSTAT: PHY Latching Link Status bit
1 = Link is up and has been up continously since PHSTAT1 was last read
0 = Link is down or was down for a period since PHSTAT1 was last read
bit 1
Reserved: Ignore on read
bit 0
Unimplemented: Read as ‘0’
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS39762E-page 225
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REGISTER 18-11: PHCON2: PHY CONTROL REGISTER 2
U-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
—
FRCLNK
r
r
r
r
r
HDLDIS
bit 15
bit 8
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
r
r
r
RXAPDIS
r
r
r
r
bit 7
bit 0
Legend:
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
-n = Value at POR
‘1’ = Bit is set
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
x = Bit is unknown
bit 15
Unimplemented: Read as ‘0’
bit 14
FRCLNK: PHY Force Linkup bit
1 = Force linkup even when no link partner is detected (transmission is always allowed)
0 = Normal operation (PHY blocks transmission attempts unless a link partner is attached)
bit 13-9
Reserved: Write as ‘0’
bit 8
HDLDIS: PHY Half-Duplex Loopback Disable bit
1 = Normal PHY operation
0 = Reserved
bit 7-5
Reserved: Write as ‘0’
bit 4
RXAPDIS: RX+/RX- Operating mode bit
1 = Normal operation
0 = Reserved
bit 3-0
Reserved: Write as ‘0’
Note:
Improper Ethernet operation may result if HDLDIS or RXAPDIS is cleared, which is the Reset default.
Always initialize these bits set before using the Ethernet module.
DS39762E-page 226
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
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REGISTER 18-12: PHSTAT2: PHYSICAL LAYER STATUS REGISTER 2
U-0
U-0
R-0
R-0
R-0
R-0
R-x
U-0
—
—
TXSTAT
RXSTAT
COLSTAT
LSTAT
r
—
bit 15
bit 8
U-0
U-0
R-0
U-0
U-0
U-0
U-0
U-0
—
—
r
—
—
—
—
—
bit 7
bit 0
Legend:
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
-n = Value at POR
‘1’ = Bit is set
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
x = Bit is unknown
bit 15-14
Unimplemented: Read as ‘0’
bit 13
TXSTAT: PHY Transmit Status bit
1 = PHY is transmitting data
0 = PHY is not transmitting data
bit 12
RXSTAT: PHY Receive Status bit
1 = PHY is receiving data
0 = PHY is not receiving data
bit 11
COLSTAT: PHY Collision Status bit
1 = A collision is occuring (PHY is both transmitting and receiving while in Half-Duplex mode)
0 = A collision is not occuring
bit 10
LSTAT: PHY Collision Status bit
1 = Link is up
0 = Link is down
bit 9
Reserved: Ignore on read
bit 8-6
Unimplemented: Read as ‘0’
bit 5
Reserved: Ignore on read
bit 4-0
Unimplemented: Read as ‘0’
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS39762E-page 227
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REGISTER 18-13: PHLCON: PHY MODULE LED CONTROL REGISTER
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-1
R/W-1
R/W-0
R/W-1
R/W-0
R/W-0
r
r
r
r
LACFG3
LACFG2
LACFG1
LACFG0
bit 15
bit 8
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-1
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-1
R/W-x
LBCFG3
LBCFG2
LBCFG1
LBCFG0
LFRQ1
LFRQ0
STRCH
r
bit 7
bit 0
Legend:
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
-n = Value at POR
‘1’ = Bit is set
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
x = Bit is unknown
bit 15-14
Reserved: Write as ‘0’
bit 13-12
Reserved: Write as ‘1’
bit 11-8
LACFG3:LACFG0: LEDA Configuration bits
0000 = Reserved
0001 = Display transmit activity (stretchable)
0010 = Display receive activity (stretchable)
0011 = Display collision activity (stretchable)
0100 = Display link status
0101 = Display duplex status
0110 = Reserved
0111 = Display transmit and receive activity (stretchable)
1000 = On
1001 = Off
1010 = Blink fast
1011 = Blink slow
1100 = Display link status and receive activity (always stretched)
1101 = Display link status and transmit/receive activity (always stretched)
111x = Reserved
bit 7-4
LBCFG3:LBCFG0: LEDB Configuration bits
0000 = Reserved
0001 = Display transmit activity (stretchable)
0010 = Display receive activity (stretchable)
0011 = Display collision activity (stretchable)
0100 = Display link status
0101 = Display duplex status
0110 = Reserved
0111 = Display transmit and receive activity (stretchable)
1000 = On
1001 = Off
1010 = Blink fast
1011 = Blink slow
1100 = Display link status and receive activity (always stretched)
1101 = Display link status and transmit/receive activity (always stretched)
111x = Reserved
bit 3-2
LFRQ1:LFRQ0: LED Pulse Stretch Time Configuration bits (see Table 18-1)
11 = Reserved
10 = Stretch LED events by TLSTRCH
01 = Stretch LED events by TMSTRCH
00 = Stretch LED events by TNSTRCH
bit 1
STRCH: LED Pulse Stretching Enable bit
1 = Stretchable LED events will cause lengthened LED pulses based on LFRQ1:LFRQ0 configuration
0 = Stretchable LED events will only be displayed while they are occurring
bit 0
Reserved: Write as ‘0’
DS39762E-page 228
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
18.3
Ethernet Interrupts
Note:
The Ethernet module can generate multiple interrupt
conditions. To accommodate all of these sources, the
module has its own interrupt logic structure, similar to
that of the microcontroller. Separate sets of registers
are used to enable and flag different interrupt
conditions.
The EIE register contains the individual interrupt
enable bits for each source, while the EIR register contains the corresponding interrupt flag bits. When an
interrupt occurs, the interrupt flag is set. If the interrupt
is enabled in the EIE register, and the corresponding
ETHIE global interrupt enable bit is set, the microcontroller’s master Ethernet Interrupt Flag (ETHIF) is
set, as appropriate (see Figure 18-6).
FIGURE 18-6:
18.3.1
Except for the LINKIF interrupt flag,
interrupt flag bits are set when an interrupt
condition occurs, regardless of the state of
its corresponding enable bit or the associated global enable bit. User software
should ensure the appropriate interrupt
flag bits are clear prior to enabling an
interrupt. This feature allows for software
polling.
CONTROL INTERRUPT (ETHIE)
The four registers associated with the control interrupts
are shown in Register 18-14 through Register 18-17.
ETHERNET MODULE INTERRUPT LOGIC
PKTIF
PKTIE
DMAIF
PLNKIF
PLNKIE
PGIF
PGEIE
DMAIE
LINKIF
LINKIE
Set ETHIF
TXIF
TXIE
TXERIF
ETHIE
TXERIE
RXERIF
RXERIE
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS39762E-page 229
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REGISTER 18-14: EIE: ETHERNET INTERRUPT ENABLE REGISTER
U-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
U-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
—
PKTIE
DMAIE
LINKIE
TXIE
—
TXERIE
RXERIE
bit 7
bit 0
Legend:
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
-n = Value at POR
‘1’ = Bit is set
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
bit 7
Unimplemented: Read as ‘0’
bit 6
PKTIE: Receive Packet Pending Interrupt Enable bit
1 = Enable receive packet pending interrupt
0 = Disable receive packet pending interrupt
bit 5
DMAIE: DMA Interrupt Enable bit
1 = Enable DMA interrupt
0 = Disable DMA interrupt
bit 4
LINKIE: Link Status Change Interrupt Enable bit
1 = Enable link change interrupt from the PHY
0 = Disable link change interrupt
bit 3
TXIE: Transmit Enable bit
1 = Enable transmit interrupt
0 = Disable transmit interrupt
bit 2
Unimplemented: Read as ‘0’
bit 1
TXERIE: Transmit Error Interrupt Enable bit
1 = Enable transmit error interrupt
0 = Disable transmit error interrupt
bit 0
RXERIE: Receive Error Interrupt Enable bit
1 = Enable receive error interrupt
0 = Disable receive error interrupt
DS39762E-page 230
x = Bit is unknown
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
REGISTER 18-15: EIR: ETHERNET INTERRUPT REQUEST (FLAG) REGISTER
U-0
R-0
R/C-0
R-0
R/C-0
U-0
R/C-0
R/C-0
—
PKTIF
DMAIF
LINKIF
TXIF
—
TXERIF
RXERIF
bit 7
bit 0
Legend:
R = Readable bit
C = Clearable bit
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
-n = Value at POR
‘1’ = Bit is set
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
x = Bit is unknown
bit 7
Unimplemented: Read as ‘0’
bit 6
PKTIF: Receive Packet Pending Interrupt Flag bit
1 = Receive buffer contains one or more unprocessed packets; cleared only when EPKTCNT is
decremented to 0 by setting PKTDEC (ECON2<6>)
0 = Receive buffer is empty
bit 5
DMAIF: DMA Interrupt Flag bit
1 = DMA copy or checksum calculation has completed
0 = No DMA interrupt is pending
bit 4
LINKIF: Link Change Interrupt Flag bit
1 = PHY reports that the link status has changed; read PHIR register to clear
0 = Link status has not changed
bit 3
TXIF: Transmit Interrupt Flag bit
1 = Transmit request has ended
0 = No transmit interrupt is pending
bit 2
Unimplemented: Read as ‘0’
bit 1
TXERIF: Transmit Error Interrupt Flag bit
1 = A transmit error has occurred
0 = No transmit error has occurred
bit 0
RXERIF: Receive Error Interrupt Flag bit
1 = A packet was aborted because there is insufficient buffer space, or a buffer overrun has occurred
0 = No receive error interrupt is pending
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS39762E-page 231
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REGISTER 18-16: PHIE: PHY INTERRUPT ENABLE REGISTER
R-0
R-0
R-0
R-0
R-0
R-0
R-0
R-0
r
r
r
r
r
r
r
r
bit 15
bit 8
R-0
R-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R-0
R-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
r
r
r
PLNKIE
r
r
PGEIE
r
bit 7
bit 0
Legend:
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
-n = Value at POR
‘1’ = Bit is set
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
bit 15-6
Reserved: Write as ‘0’, ignore on read
bit 5
Reserved: Maintain as ‘0’
bit 4
PLNKIE: PHY Link Change Interrupt Enable bit
1 = PHY link change interrupt is enabled
0 = PHY link change interrupt is disabled
bit 3-2
Reserved: Write as ‘0’, ignore on read
bit 1
PGEIE: PHY Global Interrupt Enable bit
1 = PHY interrupts are enabled
0 = PHY interrupts are disabled
bit 0
Reserved: Maintain as ‘0’
x = Bit is unknown
REGISTER 18-17: PHIR: PHY INTERRUPT REQUEST (FLAG) REGISTER
R-x
R-x
R-x
R-x
R-x
R-x
R-x
R-x
r
r
r
r
r
r
r
r
bit 15
bit 8
R-x
R-x
R-0
R/SC-0
R-0
R/SC-0
R-x
R-0
r
r
r
PLNKIF
r
PGIF
r
r
bit 7
bit 0
Legend:
R = Readable bit
SC = Self-clearing bit
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
-n = Value at POR
‘1’ = Bit is set
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
x = Bit is unknown
bit 15-6
Reserved: Ignore on read
bit 5
Reserved: Read as ‘0’
bit 4
PLNKIF: PHY Link Change Interrupt Flag bit
1 = PHY link status has changed since PHIR was last read; resets to ‘0’ when read
0 = PHY link status has not changed since PHIR was last read
bit 3
Reserved: Read as ‘0’
bit 2
PGIF: PHY Global Interrupt Flag bit
1 = One or more enabled PHY interrupts have occurred since PHIR was last read; resets to ‘0’ when read
0 = No PHY interrupts have occurred
bit 1
Reserved: Ignore on read
bit 0
Reserved: Read as ‘0’
DS39762E-page 232
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18.3.1.1
Receive Error Interrupt (RXERIF)
4.
The receive error interrupt is used to indicate that a
packet being received was aborted due to an error
condition. Three errors are possible:
1.
2.
3.
No buffer space is available to store the
incoming packet (buffer overflow);
Receiving another packet would cause the
EPKTCNT counter to overflow, because it
already contains the value 255; or
The Ethernet RX hardware was not allocated
enough memory bandwidth to write the
incoming data to the buffer.
When a packet is being received and the receive error
occurs, the packet being received will be aborted (permanently lost) and the RXERIF bit will be set to ‘1’.
Once set, RXERIF can only be cleared by firmware or
by a Reset condition. If the receive error interrupt and
Ethernet interrupt are enabled (both RXERIE and
ETHIE are set), an Ethernet interrupt is generated. If
the receive error interrupt is not enabled (either
RXERIE or ETHIE are cleared), the application may
poll RXERIF and take appropriate action.
Normally, upon the first two receive error conditions
(buffer overflow or potential EPKTCNT overflow), the
application would process any packets pending from
the receive buffer and then make additional room for
future packets by advancing the ERXRDPT registers
(low byte first) and decrementing the EPKTCNT register. See Section 18.5.3.3 “Freeing Receive Buffer
Space” for more information on processing packets.
Once processed, the application should clear the
RXERIF bit.
The third condition (insufficient RX memory bandwidth)
can be identified by checking if the BUFER bit
(ESTAT<6>) has been set. Memory access errors that
set BUFER are generally transient in nature, and do not
require run-time resolution. Adjustments to the application and its allocation of buffer memory bandwidth may
be necessary if BUFER errors are frequent or
persistent.
18.3.1.2
Transmit Error Interrupt (TXERIF)
The transmit error interrupt is used to indicate that a
transmit abort has occurred. An abort can occur
because of any of the following conditions:
1.
2.
3.
More than 15 collisions occurred while attempting
to transmit a given packet.
A late collision (collision after 64 bytes of a
packet had been transmitted) has occurred.
The transmission was unable to gain an opportunity to transmit the packet because the
medium was constantly occupied for too long.
The deferral limit was reached and the DEFER
bit (MACON4<6>) was clear.
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
5.
An attempt to transmit a packet larger than the
maximum frame length defined by the MAMXFL
registers was made without setting the
HFRMEN bit (MACON3<2>) or per-packet
POVERRIDE and PHUGEEN bits.
The Ethernet buffer did not have enough memory bandwidth to maintain the required 10 Mbit/s
transfer rate (buffer underrun).
Upon any of these conditions, the TXERIF flag is set to
‘1’. Once set, it can only be cleared by firmware or by a
Reset condition. If the transmit error interrupt is
enabled (TXERIE and ETHIE are both set), an Ethernet
interrupt is generated. If the transmit error interrupt is
not enabled (either TXERIE or ETHIE is cleared), the
application may poll TXERIF and take appropriate
action. Once the interrupt is processed, the flag bit
should be cleared.
After a transmit abort, the TXRTS bit (ECON1<3>) will
be cleared, the TXABRT bit (ESTAT<1>) becomes set
and the transmit status vector will be written at the
ETXND registers + 1. The MAC will not automatically
attempt to retransmit the packet. The application may
wish to read the transmit status vector and BUFER bit
to determine the cause of the abort. After determining
the problem and solution, the application should clear
the BUFER (if set) and TXABRT bits so that future
aborts can be detected accurately.
In Full-Duplex mode, conditions 4 and 5 are the only
ones that should cause this interrupt. Condition 5 can
be further distinguished as it also sets the BUFER bit.
Collisions and other problems related to sharing the
network are not possible on full-duplex networks. The
conditions which cause the transmit error interrupt
meet the requirements of the transmit interrupt. As a
result, when this interrupt occurs, TXIF will also be
simultaneously set.
18.3.1.3
Transmit Interrupt (TXIF)
The transmit interrupt is used to indicate that the
requested packet transmission has ended (the TXRTS
bit has transitioned from ‘1’ to ‘0’). Upon transmission
completion, abort, or transmission cancellation by the
application, the TXIF flag will be set to ‘1’. If the
application did not clear the TXRTS bit, and the
TXABRT bit is not set, the packet was successfully
transmitted. Once TXIF is set, it can only be cleared in
software or by a Reset condition. If the transmit
interrupt is enabled (TXIE and ETHIE are both set), an
interrupt is generated. If the transmit interrupt is not
enabled (either TXIE or ETHIE is cleared), the
application may poll the TXIF bit and take appropriate
action.
DS39762E-page 233
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18.3.1.4
Link Change Interrupt (LINKIF)
The LINKIF indicates that the link status has changed.
The actual current link status can be obtained from the
LLSTAT (PHSTAT1<2>) or LSTAT (PHSTAT2<10>) bits
(see Register 18-10 and Register 18-12). Unlike other
interrupt sources, the link status change interrupt is
created in the integrated PHY module; additional steps
must be taken to enable it.
By Reset default, LINKIF is never set for any reason. To
receive it, both the PLNKIE and PGEIE bits must be
set. When the interrupt is enabled, the LINKIF bit will
shadow the contents of the PGIF bit. The PHY only
supports one interrupt, so the PGIF bit will always be
the same as the PLNKIF bit (when both PHY enable
bits are set).
Once LINKIF is set, it can only be cleared in software
or by a Reset. If the link change interrupt is enabled
(LINKIE, PLNKIE, PGEIE and ETHIE are all set), an
interrupt is generated. If the link change interrupt is not
enabled (LINKIE, PLNKIE, PGEIE or ETHIE are
cleared), the user application may poll the PLNKIF flag
and take appropriate action.
The LINKIF bit is read-only. Because reading PHY
registers requires a non-negligible period of time, the
application may instead set PLNKIE and PGEIE, then
poll the LINKIF flag bit. Performing an MII read on the
PHIR register will clear the LINKIF, PGIF and PLNKIF
bits automatically and allow for future link status change
interrupts. See Section 18.2.5 “PHY Registers” for
information on accessing the PHY registers.
18.3.1.5
The PKTIF bit can only be cleared indirectly in software,
by decrementing the EPKTCNT register to ‘0’, or by a
Reset condition. See Section 18.5.3 “Receiving Packets” for more information about clearing the EPKTCNT
register. When the last data packet in the receive buffer
is processed, EPKTCNT becomes zero and the PKTIF
bit is automatically cleared.
18.3.2
Receive Packet Pending Interrupt
(PKTIF)
The receive packet pending interrupt is used to indicate
the presence of one or more data packets in the receive
buffer and to provide a notification means for the arrival
of new packets. When the receive buffer has at least
one packet in it, the PKTIF flag bit is set. In other words,
this interrupt flag will be set any time the Ethernet
Packet Count register (EPKTCNT) is non-zero.
DS39762E-page 234
ETHERNET INTERRUPTS AND
WAKE-ON-LAN
The Ethernet interrupt structure implements a version
of Wake-on-LAN, also called Remote Wake-up, using a
Magic Packet data packet. This allows the application
to conserve power in Idle mode, and then return to
full-power operation only when a specific wake-up
packet is received.
For Remote Wake-up to work, the Ethernet module
must remain enabled at all times. It also necessary to
configure the receive filters to select for Magic Packets.
For more information on filter configuration, see
Section 18.8 “Receive Filters”.
To configure the microcontroller for Remote Wake-up:
1.
DMA Interrupt (DMAIF)
The DMA interrupt indicates that the DMA module has
completed its memory copy or checksum calculation
(the DMAST bit has transitioned from ‘1’ to ‘0’). Additionally, this interrupt will be caused if the application
cancels a DMA operation by manually clearing the
DMAST bit. Once set, DMAIF can only be cleared by
the firmware or by a Reset condition. If the DMA interrupt is enabled, an Ethernet interrupt is generated. If
the DMA interrupt is not enabled, the user application
may poll the DMAIF flag status and take appropriate
action. Once processed, the flag bit should be cleared.
18.3.1.6
When the receive packet pending interrupt is enabled
(both PKTIE and ETHIE are set), an Ethernet interrupt
is generated whenever a new packet is successfully
received and written into the receive buffer. If the
receive packet pending interrupt is not enabled (either
PKTIE or ETHIE is cleared), the user application may
poll the PKTIF bit and take appropriate action.
2.
3.
4.
With the Ethernet module enabled and in normal
operating configuration, enable the CRC
post-filter
and
Magic
Packets
filter
(ERXFCON<5,3> = 1).
Finish processing any pending packets in the
Ethernet buffer.
Enable Ethernet interrupts at the microcontroller level (PIE2<5> = 1), and the receive
packet pending interrupt at the module level
(EIE<6> = 1).
Place the microcontroller in PRI_IDLE mode
(with the primary clock source selected and
OSCCON<7> = 1, execute the SLEEP
instruction).
In this configuration, the receipt of a Magic Packet data
packet will cause a receive packet pending interrupt;
this in turn will cause the microcontroller to wake-up
from the interrupt.
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
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18.4
Module Initialization
Before the Ethernet module can be used to transmit
and receive packets, certain device settings must be
initialized. Depending on the application, some configuration options may need to be changed. Normally,
these tasks may be accomplished once after Reset and
do not need to be changed thereafter.
Before any other configuration actions are taken, it is
recommended that the module be enabled by setting
the ETHEN bit (ECON2<5>). This reduces the Idle time
that might otherwise result while waiting for the
PHYRDY flag to become set.
18.4.1
RECEIVE BUFFER
Before receiving any packets, the receive buffer must
be initialized by setting the ERXST and ERXND Pointers. All memory between and including the ERXST and
ERXND addresses will be dedicated to the receive
hardware. The ERXST Pointers must be programmed
with an even address while the ERXND Pointers must
be programmed with an odd address.
18.4.4
If the initialization procedure is being executed immediately after enabling the module (setting the ETHEN bit
to ‘1’), the PHYRDY bit should be polled to make certain that enough time (1 ms) has elapsed before
proceeding to modify the PHY registers. For more
information on the PHY start-up timer, see
Section 18.1.3.1 “Start-up Timer”.
18.4.5
18.4.2
1.
2.
18.4.3
3.
4.
5.
TRANSMISSION BUFFER
All memory which is not used by the receive buffer is
considered to be transmission buffer. Data which is to
be transmitted should be written into any unused
space. After a packet is transmitted, however, the hardware will write a 7-byte status vector into memory after
the last byte in the packet. Therefore, the application
should leave at least 7 bytes between each packet and
the beginning of the receive buffer.
RECEIVE FILTERS
MAC INITIALIZATION SETTINGS
Several of the MAC registers require configuration during
initialization. This only needs to be done once during
initialization; the order of programming is unimportant.
Applications expecting large amounts of data and
frequent packet delivery may wish to allocate most of
the memory as the receive buffer. Applications that
may need to save older packets, or have several
packets ready for transmission, should allocate less
memory.
When programming the ERXST or ERXND Pointers, the
ERXWRPT Pointer registers will automatically be
updated with the value in the ERXST registers. The
address in the ERXWRPT registers will be used as the
starting location when the receive hardware begins writing received data. When the ERXST and ERXND Pointers are initialized, the ERXRDPT registers should
additionally be programmed with the value of the
ERXND registers. To program the ERXRDPT registers,
write to ERXRDPTL first, followed by ERXRDPTH. See
Section 18.5.3.3 “Freeing Receive Buffer Space” for
more information.
WAITING FOR THE PHY START-UP
TIMER
6.
7.
8.
Set the MARXEN bit (MACON1<0>) to enable
the MAC to receive frames. If using full duplex,
most applications should also set TXPAUS and
RXPAUS to allow IEEE defined flow control to
function.
Configure the PADCFG<2:0>, TXCRCEN and
FULDPX bits in the MACON3 register. Most
applications should enable automatic padding to
at least 60 bytes and always append a valid
CRC. For convenience, many applications may
wish to set the FRMLNEN bit as well to enable
frame length status reporting. The FULDPX bit
should be set if the application will be connected
to a full-duplex configured remote node;
otherwise leave it clear.
Configure the bits in MACON4. For maintaining
compliance with IEEE 802.3, be certain to set
the DEFER bit (MACON4<6>).
Program the MAMXFL registers with the maximum frame length to be permitted to be received
or transmitted. Normal network nodes are
designed to handle packets that are 1518 bytes
or less; larger packets are not supported by
IEEE 802.3.
Configure the MAC Back-to-Back Inter-Packet
Gap register, MABBIPG, with 15h (when
Full-Duplex mode is used) or 12h (when
Half-Duplex mode is used). Refer to
Register 18-18 for a more detailed description of
configuring the inter-packet gap.
Configure the MAC Non Back-to-Back
Inter-Packet Gap Low Byte register, MAIPGL,
with 12h.
If half duplex is used, configure the MAC Non
Back-to-Back Inter-Packet Gap High Byte
register, MAIPGH, with 0Ch.
Program the local MAC address into the
MAADR1:MAADR6 registers.
The appropriate receive filters should be enabled or
disabled by writing to the ERXFCON register. See
Section 18.8 “Receive Filters” for information on how
to configure it.
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REGISTER 18-18: MABBIPG: MAC BACK-TO-BACK INTER-PACKET GAP REGISTER
U-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
—
BBIPG6
BBIPG5
BBIPG4
BBIPG3
BBIPG2
BBIPG1
BBIPG0
bit 7
bit 0
Legend:
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
-n = Value at POR
‘1’ = Bit is set
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
x = Bit is unknown
bit 7
Unimplemented: Read as ‘0’
bit 6-0
BBIPG6:BBIPG0: Back-to-Back Inter-Packet Gap Delay Time bits
When FULDPX (MACON3<0>) = 1:
Nibble time offset delay between the end of one transmission and the beginning of the next in a
back-to-back sequence. The register value should be programmed to the desired period in nibble
times minus 3. The recommended setting is 15h which represents the minimum IEEE specified
Inter-Packet Gap (IPG) of 9.6 μs.
When FULDPX (MACON3<0>) = 0:
Nibble time offset delay between the end of one transmission and the beginning of the next in a
back-to-back sequence. The register value should be programmed to the desired period in nibble
times minus 6. The recommended setting is 12h which represents the minimum IEEE specified
Inter-Packet Gap (IPG) of 9.6 μs.
18.4.6
PHY INITIALIZATION SETTINGS
Depending on the application, bits in three of the PHY
module’s registers may also require configuration.
The PDPXMD bit (PHCON1<8>) controls the PHY
half/full-duplex configuration. The application must
program the bit properly, along with the FULDPX bit
(MACON3<0>).
The HDLDIS bit (PHCON2<8>) disables automatic
loopback of data. For proper operation, always set both
HDLDIS and RXAPDIS (PHCON2<4>).
The PHY register, PHLCON (Register 18-13), controls
the outputs of LEDA and LEDB. If an application
requires a LED configuration other than the default,
alter this register to match the new requirements. The
settings for LED operation are discussed in
Section 18.1.2 “LED Configuration”.
18.4.7
There may be circumstances during which the Ethernet
module is not needed for prolonged periods. For example, in situations where the application only needs to
transmit or receive Ethernet packets on the occurrence
of a particular event. In these cases, the module can be
selectively powered down.
To selectively disable the module:
1.
2.
3.
4.
DS39762E-page 236
DISABLING THE ETHERNET
MODULE
Turn off packet reception by clearing the RXEN
bit.
Wait for any in-progress packets to finish being
received by polling the RXBUSY bit
(ESTAT<2>). This bit should be clear before
proceeding.
Wait for any current transmissions to end by
confirming that the TXRTS bit (ECON1<3>) is
clear.
Clear the ETHEN bit. This removes power and
clock sources from the module, and makes the
PHY registers inaccessible. The PHYRDY bit is
also cleared automatically.
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
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18.5
Transmitting and Receiving Data
The Ethernet protocol (IEEE Standard 802.3) provides
an extremely detailed description of the 10 Mbps,
frame-based serial communications system. Before
discussing the actual use of the Ethernet module, a
brief review of the structure of a typical Ethernet data
frame may be appropriate. It is assumed that users
already have some familiarity with IEEE 802.3. Those
requiring more information should refer to the official
standard, or other Ethernet reference texts, for a more
comprehensive explanation.
18.5.1
PACKET FORMAT
Normal IEEE 802.3 compliant Ethernet frames are
between 64 and 1518 bytes long. They are made up of
five or six different fields: a destination MAC address, a
source MAC address, a type/length field, data payload,
an optional padding field and a Cyclic Redundancy
Check (CRC). Additionally, when transmitted on the
FIGURE 18-7:
Ethernet medium, a 7-byte preamble field and
Start-of-Frame delimiter byte are appended to the
beginning of the Ethernet packet. Thus, traffic seen on
the twisted-pair cabling will appear as shown in
Figure 18-7.
18.5.1.1
Preamble/Start-of-Frame Delimiter
When transmitting and receiving data with the Ethernet
module, the preamble and Start-of-Frame delimiter
bytes are automatically generated, or stripped from the
packets, when they are transmitted or received. It can
also automatically generate CRC fields and padding as
needed on transmission, and verify CRC data on
reception. The user application does not need to create
or process these fields, or manually verify CRC data.
However, the padding and CRC fields are written into
the receive buffer when packets arrive, so they may be
evaluated by the user application as needed.
ETHERNET PACKET FORMAT
Number
of Bytes
Field
Comments
7
Preamble
Filtered out by the Module
1
SFD
Start-of-Frame Delimiter
(filtered out by the module)
6
DA
Destination Address,
such as Multicast, Broadcast or Unicast
6
SA
Source Address
2
Type/Length
Used in the
Calculation
of the FCS
Type of Packet or the Length of the Packet
Data
Packet Payload
(with optional padding)
46-1500
Padding
4
Note 1:
FCS(1)
Frame Check Sequence – CRC
The FCS is transmitted starting with bit 31 and ending with bit 0.
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18.5.1.2
Destination Address
The destination address field is a 6-byte field filled with
the MAC address of the device that the packet is
directed to. If the Least Significant bit in the first byte of
the MAC address is set, the address is a Multicast
destination. For example, 01-00-00-00-F0-00 and
33-45-67-89-AB-CD are Multicast addresses, while
00-00-00-00-F0-00 and 32-45-67-89-AB-CD are not.
Packets with Multicast destination addresses are
designed to arrive and be important to a selected group
of Ethernet nodes. If the destination address field is the
reserved Multicast address, FF-FF-FF-FF-FF-FF, the
packet is a Broadcast packet and it will be directed to
everyone sharing the network. If the Least Significant
bit in the first byte of the MAC address is clear, the
address is a Unicast address and will be designed for
usage by only the addressed node.
The Ethernet module incorporates receive filters which
can be used to discard or accept packets with
Multicast, Broadcast and/or Unicast destination
addresses. When transmitting packets, the application
is responsible for writing the desired destination
address into the transmit buffer.
18.5.1.3
Source Address
The source address field is a 6-byte field filled with the
MAC address of the node which created the Ethernet
packet. Users of the Ethernet module must generate a
unique MAC address for each and every
microcontroller used.
MAC addresses consist of two portions. The first three
bytes are known as the Organizationally Unique Identifier (OUI). OUIs are distributed by the IEEE. The last
three bytes are address bytes at the discretion of the
company that purchased the OUI.
When transmitting packets, the assigned source MAC
address must be written into the transmit buffer by the
application. The module will not automatically transmit
the contents of the MAADR registers which are used
for the Unicast receive filter.
18.5.1.4
Type/Length
The type/length field is a 2-byte field which defines
which protocol the following packet data belongs to.
Alternately, if the field is filled with the contents of
05DCh (1500) or any smaller number, the field is
considered a length field, and it specifies the amount of
non-padding data which follows in the data field. Users
implementing proprietary networks may choose to treat
this field as a length field, while applications
implementing protocols such as the Internet Protocol
(IP), or Address Resolution Protocol (ARP), should
program this field with the appropriate type defined by
the protocol’s specification when transmitting packets.
DS39762E-page 238
18.5.1.5
Data
The data field is a variable length field anywhere from 0
to 1500 bytes. Larger data packets will violate Ethernet
standards and will be dropped by most Ethernet nodes.
The Ethernet module, however, is capable of transmitting and receiving larger packets when the Huge Frame
Enable bit, HFRMEN, is set (MACON3<2> = 1).
18.5.1.6
Padding
The padding field is a variable length field added to
meet IEEE 802.3 specification requirements when
small data payloads are used. The destination, source,
type, data and padding of an Ethernet packet must be
no smaller than 60 bytes. Adding the required 4-byte
CRC field, packets must be no smaller than 64 bytes. If
the data field is less than 46 bytes long, a padding field
is required.
When transmitting packets, the Ethernet module
automatically
generates
zero-padding
if
the
PADCFG2:PADCFG0 bits (MACON3<7:5>) are configured for this. Otherwise, the user application will need to
add any padding to the packet before transmitting it. The
module will not prevent the transmission of undersized
packets should the application command such an action.
When receiving packets, the module automatically
rejects packets which are less than 18 bytes. All packets, 18 bytes and larger, will be subject to the standard
receive filtering criteria and may be accepted as normal
traffic. Since the module only rejects packets smaller
than 18 bytes, it is important that the firmware check
the length of every received packet and reject packets
which are smaller than 64 bytes to meet IEEE 802.3
specification requirements.
18.5.1.7
CRC
The CRC field is a 4-byte field which contains an industry
standard, 32-bit CRC, calculated with the data from the
destination, source, type, data and padding fields. It provides a way of detecting corrupted Ethernet frames, as
well as junk data fragments resulting from packet
collisions or another host’s aborted transmissions.
When receiving packets, the Ethernet module will check
the CRC of each incoming packet. If the CRCEN bit is
set, packets with invalid CRCs will automatically be discarded. If CRCEN is clear and the packet meets all other
receive filtering criteria, the packet will be written into the
receive buffer and the application will be able to determine if the CRC was valid by reading the receive status
vector (see Section 18.5.3 “Receiving Packets”).
When transmitting packets, the module automatically
generates a valid CRC and transmits it if the
PADCFG2:PADCFG0 bits are configured for this. Otherwise, the user application must generate the CRC and
place it in the transmit buffer. Given the complexity of
calculating a CRC, it is highly recommended to allow the
module to automatically calculate and include the CRC.
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
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18.5.2
TRANSMITTING PACKETS
The Ethernet module’s MAC will automatically
generate the preamble and Start-of-Frame (SOF)
delimiter fields when transmitting. Additionally, the
MAC can generate any padding (if needed) and the
CRC if configured to do so. The application must
generate and write all other frame fields into the buffer
memory for transmission.
FIGURE 18-8:
—
In addition, the Ethernet module requires a single
per-packet control byte to precede the packet for transmission. The control byte is organized as shown in
Figure 18-8. Before transmitting packets, the MAC
registers, which alter the transmission characteristics,
should be initialized as documented in Section 18.4
“Module Initialization”.
FORMAT FOR PER-PACKET CONTROL BYTES
—
—
—
PHUGEEN
PPADN
bit 7
PCRCEN
POVERRIDE
bit 0
bit 7-4
Unimplemented: Read as ‘0’
bit 3
PHUGEEN: Per-Packet Huge Frame Enable bit
When POVERRIDE = 1:
1 = The packet will be transmitted in whole
0 = The MAC will transmit up to the number of bytes specified by the MAMXFL registers. If the packet
is larger than the bytes specified, it will be aborted after the MAMXFL registers specification is
reached.
When POVERRIDE = 0:
This bit is ignored.
bit 2
PPADN: Per-Packet Padding Enable bit
When POVERRIDE = 1:
1 = The packet will be zero-padded to 60 bytes if it is less than 60 bytes
0 = The packet will be transmitted without adding any padding bytes
When POVERRIDE = 0:
This bit is ignored.
bit 1
PCRCEN: Per-Packet CRC Enable bit
When POVERRIDE = 1:
1 = A valid CRC will be calculated and attached to the frame
0 = No CRC will be appended. The last 4 bytes of the frame will be checked for validity as a CRC.
When POVERRIDE = 0:
This bit is ignored.
bit 0
POVERRIDE: Per-Packet Override bit
1 = The values of PCRCEN, PPADN and PHUGEEN will override the configuration defined by
MACON3
0 = The values in MACON3 will be used to determine how the packet will be transmitted
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS39762E-page 239
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An example of how the entire assembled transmit
packet looks in memory is shown in Figure 18-9. To
construct and transmit a packet in this fashion:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Set the ETXST Pointers to an appropriate
unused location in the buffer. This will be the
location of the per-packet control byte. In the
example, it would be 0120h. It is recommended
that an even address be used for the ETXST
Pointers.
Using EDATA and the EWRPT registers,
sequentially write the packet data to the Ethernet buffer. In order, write the data for the
per-packet control byte, the destination address,
the source MAC address, the type/length and
the data payload.
Set the ETXND Pointers to point to the last byte
in the data payload. In the example, it would be
programmed to 0156h.
Clear the TXIF flag bit (EIR<3>), and set the
TXIE (EIE<3>) and ETHIE bits to enable an
interrupt when done (if desired).
Start the transmission process by setting the
TXRTS bit (ECON1<3>).
If a DMA operation was in progress while the TXRTS bit
was set, the module will wait until the DMA operation is
complete before attempting to transmit the packet. This
possible delay is required because the DMA and
FIGURE 18-9:
While the transmission is in progress, the ETXST and
ETXND Pointers should not be modified. If it is
necessary to cancel the transmission, clear the TXRTS
bit.
When the packet is finished transmitting, or was
aborted due to an error/cancellation, several things
occur:
• The TXRTS bit is cleared.
• A 7-byte transmit status vector is written to the
buffer at the location pointed to by the ETXND
Pointers + 1.
• The TXIF flag is set
• An interrupt will be generated (if enabled)
• The ETXST and ETXND Pointers will not be
modified.
To check if the packet was successfully transmitted,
read the TXABRT bit. If it has been set, poll the BUFER
bit in addition to the various fields in the transmit status
vector to determine the cause. The transmit status
vector is organized as shown in Table 18-4. Multi-byte
fields are written in little-endian format.
SAMPLE TRANSMIT PACKET LAYOUT
Buffer Pointers
Address
Memory
ETXST = 0120h
0120h
0Eh
0121h
data[1]
data[2]
0122h
ETXND = 0156h
0156h
0157h
0158h
0159h
015Ah
015Bh
015Ch
015Dh
015Eh
DS39762E-page 240
transmission engine share the same memory arbiter
channel. Similarly, if the DMAST bit is set after TXRTS
is already set, the DMA will wait until the TXRTS bit
becomes clear before doing anything.
Description
Control
Data Packet
Destination Address,
Source Address,
Type/Length and Data
Status Vector
Status Vector
Written by the Hardware
data[m]
tsv[7:0]
tsv[15:8]
tsv[23:16]
tsv[31:24]
tsv[39:32]
tsv[47:40]
tsv[55:48]
PHUGEEN, PPADN,
PCRCEN and POVERRIDE
Start of the Next Packet
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
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TABLE 18-4:
Bit
55-52
TRANSMIT STATUS VECTORS
Field
Description
Zero
0
51
Transmit VLAN Tagged Frame
Frame’s length/type field contained 8100h which is the VLAN protocol
identifier.
50
Backpressure Applied
Reserved, do not use.
49
Transmit Pause Control Frame
The frame transmitted was a control frame with a valid pause opcode.
48
Transmit Control Frame
The frame transmitted was a control frame.
Total Bytes Transmitted on Wire
Total bytes transmitted on the wire for the current packet, including all
bytes from collided attempts.
31
Transmit Underrun
The transmission was aborted due to insufficient buffer memory
bandwidth to sustain the 10 Mbit/s transmit rate.
30
Transmit Giant
Byte count for frame was greater than the MAMXFL registers.
29
Transmit Late Collision
Collision occurred after 64 bytes had already been transmitted.
28
Transmit Excessive Collision
Packet was aborted after the number of collisions exceeded 15, the
retransmission maximum.
27
Transmit Excessive Defer
Packet was deferred in excess of 24,287 bit times (2.4287 ms), due to a
continuously-occupied medium.
26
Transmit Packet Defer
Packet was deferred for at least one attempt but less than an excessive
defer.
25
Transmit Broadcast
Packet’s destination address was a Broadcast address.
24
Transmit Multicast
Packet’s destination address was a Multicast address.
23
Transmit Done
Transmission of the packet was completed successfully.
22
Transmit Length Out of Range
Indicates that frame type/length field was larger than 1500 bytes (type
field).
21
Transmit Length Check Error
Indicates that frame length field value in the packet does not match the
actual data byte length and is not a type field. The FRMLNEN bit
(MACON3<1>) must be set to get this error.
20
Transmit CRC Error
The attached CRC in the packet did not match the internally generated
CRC.
19-16
Transmit Collision Count
Number of collisions the current packet incurred during transmission
attempts. It applies to successfully transmitted packets and as such, will
not show the possible maximum count of 16 collisions.
15-0
Transmit Byte Count
Total bytes in frame not counting collided bytes.
47-32
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DS39762E-page 241
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18.5.3
RECEIVING PACKETS
Assuming that the receive buffer has been initialized,
the MAC has been properly configured and the receive
filters have been configured, the application should
perform these steps to receive Ethernet packets:
1.
2.
3.
Set the PKTIE and ETHIE bits to generate an
Ethernet interrupt whenever a packet is received
(if desired).
Clear the RXERIF flag and set both RXERIE
and ETHIE to generate an interrupt whenever a
packet is dropped due to insufficient buffer
space or memory access bandwidth (if desired).
Enable reception by setting the RXEN bit
(ECON1<2>).
After setting RXEN, the Duplex mode and the Receive
Buffer Start and End Pointers should not be modified.
Additionally, to prevent unexpected packets from arriving, it is recommended that RXEN be cleared before
altering the receive filter configuration (ERXFCON) and
MAC address.
After reception is enabled, packets which are not
filtered out will be written into the circular receive buffer.
Any packet which does not meet the necessary filter
FIGURE 18-10:
criteria will be discarded and the application will not
have any means of identifying that a packet was thrown
away. When a packet is accepted and completely
written into the buffer:
•
•
•
•
the EPKTCNT register is incremented,
the PKTIF bit is set,
an interrupt is generated (if enabled), and
the Hardware Write Pointers, ERXWRPT, are
automatically advanced.
18.5.3.1
Receive Packet Layout
Figure 18-10 shows the layout of a received packet.
The packets are preceded by a 6-byte header which
contains a Next Packet Pointer in addition to a receive
status vector which contains receive statistics,
including the packet’s size. The receive status vectors
are shown in Table 18-5.
If the last byte in the packet ends on an odd value
address, the hardware will automatically add a padding
byte when advancing the Hardware Write Pointer. As
such, all packets will start on an even boundary.
SAMPLE RECEIVE PACKET LAYOUT
Address
Memory
Description
Packet N – 1
End of the Previous Packet
101Fh
1020h
1021h
1022h
1023h
1024h
1025h
1026h
1027h
5Eh
10h
rsv[7:0]
rsv[15:8]
rsv[23:16]
rsv[30:24]
data[1]
data[2]
Low Byte
High Byte
status[7:0]
status[15:8]
status[23:16]
status[31:24]
Next Packet Pointer
Receive Status Vector
Packet N
1059h
105Ah
105Bh
105Ch
105Dh
105Eh
Packet N + 1
DS39762E-page 242
data[m-3]
data[m-2]
data[m-1]
data[m]
crc[31:24]
crc[23:16]
crc[15:8]
crc[7:0]
Packet Data: Destination Address,
Source Address, Type/Length, Data,
Padding, CRC
Byte Skipped to Ensure
Even Buffer Address
Start of the Next Packet
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
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TABLE 18-5:
RECEIVE STATUS VECTORS
Bit
Field
Description
31
Zero
‘0’
30
Receive VLAN Type Detected
Current frame was recognized as a VLAN tagged frame.
29
Receive Unknown Opcode
Current frame was recognized as a control frame but it contained an
unknown opcode.
28
Receive Pause Control Frame
Current frame was recognized as a control frame containing a valid pause
frame opcode and a valid destination address.
27
Receive Control Frame
Current frame was recognized as a control frame for having a valid
type/length designating it as a control frame.
26
Dribble Nibble
Indicates that after the end of this packet, an additional 1 to 7 bits were
received. The extra bits were thrown away.
25
Receive Broadcast Packet
Indicates packet received had a valid Broadcast address.
24
Receive Multicast Packet
Indicates packet received had a valid Multicast address.
23
Received OK
Indicates that the packet had a valid CRC and no symbol errors.
22
Length Out of Range
Indicates that frame type/length field was larger than 1500 bytes
(type field).
21
Length Check Error
Indicates that frame length field value in the packet does not match the
actual data byte length.
20
CRC Error
Indicates that the frame CRC field value does not match the CRC
calculated by the MAC.
19
Reserved
18
Carrier Event Previously Seen
17
Reserved
16
Long Event/Drop Event
Indicates a packet over 50,000 bit times occurred or that a packet was
dropped since the last receive.
Received Byte Count
Indicates length of the received frame. This includes the destination
address, source address, type/length, data, padding and CRC fields. This
field is stored in little-endian format.
15-0
18.5.3.2
Indicates that at some time since the last receive, a carrier event was
detected. The carrier event is not associated with this packet. A carrier
event is activity on the receive channel that does not result in a packet
receive attempt being made.
Reading Received Packets
To process the packet, an application will normally start
reading from the beginning of the Next Packet Pointer.
The application will save the Next Packet Pointer, any
necessary bytes from the receive status vector, and
then proceed to read the actual packet contents. If the
AUTOINC bit is set, it will be able to sequentially read
the entire packet without ever modifying the ERDPT
registers. The Read Pointer would automatically wrap
at the end of the circular receive buffer to the beginning.
EQUATION 18-1:
In the event that the application needed to randomly
access the packet, it would be necessary to manually
calculate the proper ERDPT registers, taking care to
not exceed the end of the receive buffer, if the packet
spans the ERXND to ERXST buffer boundary. In other
words, given the packet start address and a desired
offset, the application should follow the logic shown in
Equation 18-1.
RANDOM ACCESS ADDRESS CALCULATION
If Packet Start Address + Offset > ERXND, then
ERDPT = Packet Start Address + Offset – (ERXND – ERXST + 1)
else
ERDPT = Packet Start Address + Offset
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DS39762E-page 243
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18.5.3.3
Freeing Receive Buffer Space
After the user application has processed a packet (or
part of the packet) and needs to free the occupied
buffer space used by the processed data, it must
advance the Receive Buffer Read Pointer pair,
ERXRDPT. The module always writes up to, but not
over, the memory pointed to by the ERXRDPT registers. If an attempt to overwrite the Receive Buffer Read
Pointer location occurs, the packet in progress is
aborted, the RXERIF flag is set and an interrupt is
generated (if enabled). In this manner, the hardware
will never overwrite unprocessed packets. Normally,
the ERXRDPT pair is advanced close to a value
pointed to by the Next Packet Pointer which precedes
the receive status vector for the current packet.
Because only one pointer is available to control buffer
area ownership, the application must process packets in
the order they are received. If a packet is to be saved
and processed later, the application should copy the
packet to an unused location in memory. This can be
done efficiently using the integrated DMA controller (see
Section 18.9 “Direct Memory Access Controller”).
18.5.3.4
At any time the application needs to know how much
receive buffer space is remaining, it should read the
Hardware Write Pointers (ERXWRPT registers) and
compare it with the ERXRDPT registers. Combined
with the known size of the receive buffer, the free space
can be derived.
Note:
The Receive Buffer Read Pointer Low Byte
(ERXRDPTL register) is internally buffered to prevent
the pointer from moving when only one byte is updated.
To move the ERXRDPT pair, the application must write
to ERXRDPTL first. The write will update the internal
buffer but will not affect the register. When the application writes to ERXRDPTH, the internally buffered low
byte will be loaded into the ERXRDPTL register at the
same time. The ERXRDPT bytes can be read in any
order. When they are read, the actual value of the
registers will be returned. As a result, the buffered low
byte is not readable.
In addition to advancing the Receive Buffer Read
Pointer, after each packet is fully processed, the application must set the PKTDEC bit (ECON2<6>). This
causes the EPKTCNT register to decrement by 1. After
decrementing, if EPKTCNT is ‘0’, the PKTIF flag bit is
automatically cleared. Otherwise, it remains set, indicating that additional packets are in the receive buffer
and are waiting to be processed. Attempting to decrement EPKTCNT below 0 does not cause an underflow
to 255, but may cause an unintentional interrupt; the
application should avoid decrementing EPKTCNT in
this situation.
Additionally, if the EPKTCNT register ever maximizes
at 255, all new packets which are received will be
aborted, even if buffer space is available. To indicate
the error, the RXERIF is set and an interrupt is
generated (if enabled). To prevent this condition, the
user application must properly decrement the counter
whenever a packet is processed.
EQUATION 18-2:
Receive Buffer Free Space
The ERXWRPT registers only update
when a packet has been successfully
received. If the application reads it just
before another packet is to be successfully
completed, the value returned could be
stale and off by the maximum frame length
permitted (MAMXFLH:MAMXFLL) plus 8.
Furthermore, as the application reads one
byte of the ERXWRPT registers, a new
packet may arrive and update the 13-bit
pointer before the application has an
opportunity to read the other byte of the
ERXWRPT registers.
When reading the ERXWRPT registers with the receive
hardware enabled, special care must be taken to ensure
the low and high bytes are read as a matching set.
To be assured that a matching set is obtained:
1.
2.
3.
4.
Read the EPKTCNT register and save its
contents.
Read ERXWRPTL and ERXWRPTH.
Read the EPKTCNT register again.
Compare the two packet counts. If they are not
the same, go back to step 2.
With the Hardware Write Pointers obtained, the free
space can be calculated as shown in Equation 18-2.
The hardware prohibits moving the Write Pointer to the
same value occupied by the ERXRDPT registers, so at
least one byte will always go unused in the buffer. The
Equation 18-2 calculation reflects the lost byte.
RECEIVE BUFFER FREE SPACE CALCULATION
If ERXWRPT > ERXRDPT, then
Free Space = (ERXND – ERXST) – (ERXWRPT – ERXRDPT)
else
if ERXWRPT = ERXRDPT, then
Free Space = (ERXND – ERXST)
else
Free Space = ERXRDPT – ERXWRPT – 1
DS39762E-page 244
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TABLE 18-6:
Register
Name
SUMMARY OF REGISTERS ASSOCIATED WITH PACKET TRANSMISSION
Reset
Values on
Page:
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
EIE
—
PKTIE
DMAIE
LINKIE
TXIE
—
TXERIE
RXERIE
67
EIR
—
PKTIF
DMAIF
LINKIF
TXIF
—
TXERIF
RXERIF
67
67
ESTAT
—
BUFER
—
r
—
RXBUSY
TXABRT
PHYRDY
ECON1
TXRST
RXRST
DMAST
CSUMEN
TXRTS
RXEN
—
—
ETXSTL
Transmit Start Register Low Byte (ETXST<7:0>)
—
ETXSTH
ETXNDL
—
—
Transmit Start Register High Byte (ETXST<12:8>)
68
Transmit End Register Low Byte (ETXND<7:0>)
ETXNDH
MACON1
MACON3
—
—
—
—
—
—
68
Transmit End Register High Byte (ETXND<12:8>)
r
PADCFG2 PADCFG1 PADCFG0 TXCRCEN
68
TXPAUS
RXPAUS
PASSALL
MARXEN
69
PHDREN
HFRMEN
FRMLNEN
FULDPX
69
69
MACON4
—
DEFER
r
r
—
—
r
r
MABBIPG
—
BBIPG6
BBIPG5
BBIPG4
BBIPG3
BBIPG2
BBIPG1
BBIPG0
MAIPGL
—
MAC Non Back-to-Back Inter-Packet Gap Register Low Byte (MAIPGL<6:0>)
—
MAC Non Back-to-Back Inter-Packet Gap Register High Byte (MAIPGH<6:0>)
MAIPGH
64
68
69
69
69
MAMXFLL
Maximum Frame Length Register Low Byte (MAMXFL<7:0>)
68
MAMXFLH
Maximum Frame Length Register High Byte (MAMXFL<15:8>)
68
Legend:
— = unimplemented, r = reserved bit. Shaded cells are not used.
TABLE 18-7:
SUMMARY OF REGISTERS ASSOCIATED WITH PACKET RECEPTION
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
Reset
Values on
Page:
EIE
—
PKTIE
DMAIE
LINKIE
TXIE
—
TXERIE
RXERIE
67
EIR
—
PKTIF
DMAIF
LINKIF
TXIF
—
TXERIF
RXERIF
67
Register
Name
ESTAT
—
BUFER
—
r
—
RXBUSY
TXABRT
PHYRDY
67
ECON2
AUTOINC
PKTDEC
ETHEN
—
—
—
—
—
67
ECON1
TXRST
RXRST
DMAST
CSUMEN
TXRTS
RXEN
—
—
64
ERXSTL
Receive Start Register Low Byte (ERXST<7:0>)
—
ERXSTH
ERXNDL
—
—
68
Receive Start Register High Byte (ERXST<12:8>)
68
Receive End Register Low Byte (ERXND<7:0>)
—
ERXNDH
—
—
68
Receive End Register High Byte (ERXND<12:8>)
68
ERXRDPTL Receive Buffer Read Pointer Low Byte (ERXRDPT<7:0>)
ERXRDPTH
ERXFCON
EPKTCNT
MACON1
—
—
—
UCEN
ANDOR
CRCEN
67
Receive Buffer Read Pointer High Byte (ERXRDPT<12:8>)
PMEN
MPEN
HTEN
MCEN
BCEN
Ethernet Packet Count Register
—
—
—
67
68
68
r
TXPAUS
RXPAUS
PASSALL
MARXEN
69
PHDREN
HFRMEN FRMLNEN
FULDPX
69
MACON3
PADCFG2 PADCFG1 PADCFG0 TXCRCEN
MAMXFLL
Maximum Frame Length Register Low Byte (MAMXFL<7:0>)
68
Maximum Frame Length Register High Byte (MAMXFL<15:8>)
68
MAMXFLH
Legend:
— = unimplemented, r = reserved bit. Shaded cells are not used.
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS39762E-page 245
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18.6
Duplex Mode Configuration and
Negotiation
The Ethernet module does not support Automatic
Duplex mode negotiation. If it is connected to an automatic duplex negotiation enabled network switch or
Ethernet controller, the module will be detected as a
half-duplex device. To communicate in full duplex, the
module and the remote node (switch, router or Ethernet
controller) must be manually configured for full-duplex
operation.
18.6.1
HALF-DUPLEX OPERATION
The Ethernet module operates in Half-Duplex mode
when the FULDPX (MACON3<0>) and PDPXMD
(PHCON1<8>) bits are cleared (= 0). If only one of
these two bits is set, the module will be in an indeterminate state and not function correctly. Since switching
between Full and Half-Duplex modes may result in this
indeterminate state, it is recommended that the application not transmit any packets (maintain the TXRTS
bit clear), and disable packet reception (maintain the
RXEN bit clear) during this period.
In Half-Duplex mode, only one Ethernet controller may
be transmitting on the physical medium at any time. If
the application requests a packet to be transmitted by
setting the TXRTS bit while another Ethernet controller
is already transmitting, the Ethernet module will delay,
waiting for the remote transmitter to stop. When it
stops, the module will attempt to transmit its packet.
Should another Ethernet controller start transmitting at
approximately the same time, the data on the wire will
become corrupt and a collision will occur.
The hardware will handle this condition in one of two
ways. If the collision occurs before 64 bytes have been
transmitted, the following events occur:
1.
2.
3.
4.
If the number of retransmission attempts reaches 15 and
another collision occurs, the packet is aborted and the
TXRTS bit is cleared. The application will then be
responsible for taking appropriate action. The application will be able to determine that the packet was aborted
instead of being successfully transmitted by reading the
TXABRT flag. For more information, see Section 18.5.2
“Transmitting Packets”.
If the collision occurs after 64 bytes have already been
transmitted, the packet is immediately aborted without
any retransmission attempts. Ordinarily, in IEEE 802.3
compliant networks which are properly configured, this
late collision will not occur. User intervention may be
required to correct the issue. This problem may occur
as a result of a full-duplex node attempting to transmit
on the half-duplex medium. Alternately, the module
may be attempting to operate in Half-Duplex mode
while it may be connected to a full-duplex network.
Excessively long cabling and network size may also be
a possible cause of late collisions.
18.6.2
FULL-DUPLEX OPERATION
The Ethernet module operates in Full-Duplex mode
when the FULDPX (MACON3<0>) and PDPXMD
(PHCON1<8>) bits are both set (= 1). If only one of
these two bits is clear, the module will be in an indeterminate state and not function correctly. Again, since
switching between Full and Half-Duplex modes may
result in this indeterminate state, it is recommended
that the application not transmit any packets and
should disable packet reception during this period.
In Full-Duplex mode, packets will be transmitted while
simultaneously packets may be received. Given this, it
is impossible to cause any collisions when transmitting
packets.
the TXRTS bit remains set;
the transmit error interrupt does not occur;
a random exponential backoff delay elapses, as
defined by the IEEE 802.3 specification;
a new attempt to transmit the packet from the
beginning occurs. The application does not
need to intervene.
DS39762E-page 246
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18.7
Flow Control
The Ethernet module implements hardware flow control for both Full and Half-Duplex modes. The operation
of this feature differs depending on which mode is
being used.
18.7.1
HALF-DUPLEX MODE
In Half-Duplex mode, setting the FCEN0 bit
(EFLOCON<0>) causes flow control to be enabled.
When FCEN0 is set, a continuous preamble pattern of
alternating ‘1’s and ‘0’s (55h) will automatically be
transmitted on the Ethernet medium. Any connected
nodes will see the transmission and either not transmit
anything, waiting for the transmission to end, or will
attempt to transmit and immediately cause a collision.
Because a collision will always occur, no nodes on the
network will be able to communicate with each other
and no new packets will arrive.
When the application causes the module to transmit a
packet by setting the TXRTS bit, the preamble pattern
will stop being transmitted. An inter-packet delay will
pass as configured by register MABBIPG, and then the
module will attempt to transmit its packet. After the
inter-packet delay, other nodes may begin to transmit.
Because all traffic was jammed previously, several
nodes may begin transmitting and a series of collisions
may occur. When the module successfully finishes
transmitting its packet or aborts it, the transmission of
the preamble pattern will automatically restart. When
the application wishes to no longer jam the network, it
should clear the FCEN0 bit. The preamble transmission will cease and normal network operation will
resume.
used to initialize an internal timer. The timer will automatically decrement every 512 bit times, or 51.2 μs.
While the timer is counting down, reception of packets
is still enabled. If new pause frames arrive, the timer will
be re-initialized with the new pause timer value. When
the timer reaches zero, or was sent a frame with a zero
pause timer value, the MAC that received the pause
frame will resume transmitting any pending packets. To
prevent a pause frame from stopping all traffic on the
entire network, Ethernet switches and routers do not
propagate pause control frames in Full-Duplex mode.
The pause operation only applies to the direct recipient.
A sample network is shown in Figure 18-11. If
Computer A were to be transmitting too much data to
the microcontroller-based application in Full-Duplex
mode, the Ethernet module could transmit a pause
control frame to stop the data which is being sent to it.
The Ethernet Switch would take the pause frame and
stop sending data to the application. If Computer A
continues to send data, the Ethernet Switch will buffer
the data so it can be transmitted later when its pause
timer expires. If the Ethernet Switch begins to run out
of buffer space, it will likely transmit a pause control
frame of its own to Computer A.
If, for some reason the Ethernet Switch does not generate a pause control frame of its own, or one of the
nodes does not properly handle the pause frame it
receives, then packets will inevitably be dropped. In
any event, any communication between Computer A
and Computer B will always be completely unaffected.
FIGURE 18-11:
SAMPLE FULL-DUPLEX
NETWORK
Given the detrimental network effects that are possible
and lack of effectiveness, it is not recommend that
half-duplex flow control be used unless the application
will be in a closed network environment with proper
testing.
18.7.2
FULL-DUPLEX MODE
In Full-Duplex mode (MACON3<0> = 1), hardware flow
control is implemented by means of transmitting pause
control frames, as defined by the IEEE 802.3 specification. Pause control frames are 64-byte frames consisting
of the reserved Multicast destination address of
01-80-C2-00-00-01, the source address of the sender, a
special pause opcode, a 2-byte pause timer value and
padding/CRC.
Normally, when a pause control frame is received by a
MAC, the MAC will finish the packet it is transmitting
and then stop transmitting any new frames. The pause
timer value will be extracted from the control frame and
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS39762E-page 247
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
To enable flow control in Full-Duplex mode, set the
TXPAUS and RXPAUS bits in the MACON1 register.
Then, at any time that the receiver buffer is running out
of space, set the Flow Control Enable bits,
FCEN1:FCEN0 (EFLOCON<1:0>). The module will
automatically finish transmitting anything that was in
progress and then send a valid pause frame loaded
with the selected pause timer value. Depending on the
mode selected, the application may need to eventually
clear Flow Control mode by again writing to the FCEN
bits.
When the RXPAUS bit is set and a valid pause frame
arrives with a non-zero pause timer value, the module
will automatically inhibit transmissions. If the TXRTS bit
becomes set to send a packet, the hardware will simply
wait until the pause timer expires before attempting to
send the packet and subsequently, clearing the TXRTS
bit. Normally, this is transparent to the microcontroller,
and it will never know that a pause frame had been
received. Should it be desirable to know when the MAC
is paused or not, the user should set the PASSALL bit
(MACON1<1>), then manually interpret the pause
control frames which may arrive.
REGISTER 18-19: EFLOCON: ETHERNET FLOW CONTROL REGISTER
U-0
U-0
U-0
U-0
U-0
R-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
—
—
—
—
—
r
FCEN1
FCEN0
bit 7
bit 0
Legend:
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
-n = Value at POR
‘1’ = Bit is set
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
x = Bit is unknown
bit 7-3
Unimplemented: Read as ‘0’
bit 2
Reserved: Do not use
bit 1-0
FCEN1:FCEN0: Flow Control Enable bits
When FULDPX (MACON3<0>) = 1:
11 = Send one pause frame with a ‘0’ timer value and then turn flow control off
10 = Send pause frames periodically
01 = Send one pause frame then turn flow control off
00 = Flow control off
When FULDPX (MACON3<0>) = 0:
x1 = Flow control on
x0 = Flow control off
TABLE 18-8:
Register
Name
SUMMARY OF REGISTERS USED WITH FLOW CONTROL
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
Reset
Values on
Page:
—
—
64
TXRST
RXRST
DMAST
CSUMEN
TXRTS
RXEN
MACON1
—
—
—
r
TXPAUS
RXPAUS
MABBIPG
—
BBIPG6
BBIPG5
BBIPG4
BBIPG3
BBIPG2
BBIPG1
BBIPG0
69
EFLOCON
—
—
—
—
—
r
FCEN1
FCEN0
69
ECON1
PASSALL MARXEN
69
EPAUSL
Pause Timer Value Register Low Byte (EPAUS<7:0>)
69
EPAUSH
Pause Timer Value Register High Byte (EPAUS<15:8>)
69
Legend: — = unimplemented, r = reserved bit. Shaded cells are not used.
DS39762E-page 248
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
18.8
Receive Filters
18.8.4
HASH TABLE FILTER
To minimize microcontroller processing overhead, the
Ethernet module incorporates a range of different
receive filters which can automatically reject packets
which are not needed. Six different types of packet
filters are implemented:
The Hash Table receive filter is typically used to receive
traffic sent to a specific Multicast group address.
Because it checks the specific destination address of
packets, it is capable of filtering out more unwanted
packets than the Multicast filter.
•
•
•
•
•
•
The filter performs a 32-bit CRC over the six destination address bytes in the packet, using the polynomial
4C11DB7h. From the resulting 32-bit binary number, a
6-bit value is derived from bits 28:23. This value in turn
points to location in a table formed by the Ethernet
Hash Table registers, ETH0 through ETH7. If the bit in
that location is set, the packet meets the Hash Table filter criteria and is accepted. The specific pointer values
for each bit location in the table are shown in
Table 18-9.
Unicast
Multicast
Broadcast
Pattern Match
Magic Packet™
Hash Table
The individual filters are all configured by the ERXFCON
register (Register 18-20). More than one filter can be
active at any given time. Additionally, the filters can be
configured by the ANDOR bit to either logically AND or
logically OR the tests of several filters. In other words,
the filters may be set so that only packets accepted by
all active filters are accepted, or a packet accepted by
any one filter is accepted. The flowcharts in Figure 18-12
and Figure 18-13 show the effect that each of the filters
will have, depending on the setting of ANDOR.
The device can enter Promiscuous mode and receive
all legal packets by setting the ERXFCON register to
20h (enabling only the CRC filter for valid packets). The
proper setting of the register will depend on the
application requirements.
18.8.1
UNICAST FILTER
The Unicast receive filter checks the destination
address of all incoming packets. If the destination
address exactly matches the contents of the MAADR
registers, the packet meets the Unicast filter criteria.
18.8.2
MULTICAST FILTER
The Multicast receive filter checks the destination
address of all incoming packets. If the Least Significant
bit of the first byte of the destination address is set, the
packet meets the Multicast filter criteria.
18.8.3
BROADCAST FILTER
The Broadcast receive filter checks the destination
address of all incoming packets. If the destination
address is FF-FF-FF-FF-FF-FF, the packet meets the
Broadcast filter criteria.
An example of the Hash Table operation is shown in
Example 18-1. In this case, the destination address
01-00-00-00-01-2C produces a Table Pointer value of
34h, which points to bit 4 of ETH6. If this bit is ‘1’, the
packet will be accepted.
By extension, clearing every bit in the Hash Table registers means that the filter criteria will never be met.
Similarly, if every bit in the Hash Table is set, the filter
criteria will always be met.
TABLE 18-9:
Register
EHT0
EHT1
EHT2
EHT3
EHT4
EHT5
EHT6
EHT7
BIT ASSIGNMENTS IN HASH
TABLE REGISTERS
Bit Number in Hash Table
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
07
0F
17
1F
27
2F
37
3F
06
0E
16
1E
26
2E
36
3E
05
0D
15
1D
25
2D
35
3D
04
0C
14
1C
24
2C
34
3C
03
0B
13
1B
23
2B
33
3B
02
0A
12
1A
22
2A
32
3A
01
09
11
19
21
29
31
39
00
08
10
18
20
28
30
38
EXAMPLE 18-1:
DERIVING A HASH TABLE
LOCATION
Packet Destination Address:
01-00-00-00-01-2C (hex)
Result of CRC-32 with 4C11DB7h:
1101 1010 0000 1011 0100 0101 0111 0101
(binary)
Pointerderivedfrombits 28:23ofCRCresult:
110100 (binary), or 34 (hex)
Corresponding Hash Table Location:
ETH6<4>
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS39762E-page 249
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
REGISTER 18-20: ERXFCON: ETHERNET RECEIVE FILTER CONTROL REGISTER
R/W-1
R/W-0
R/W-1
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-1
UCEN
ANDOR
CRCEN
PMEN
MPEN
HTEN
MCEN
BCEN
bit 7
bit 0
Legend:
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
-n = Value at POR
‘1’ = Bit is set
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
x = Bit is unknown
bit 7
UCEN: Unicast Filter Enable bit
When ANDOR = 1:
1 = Packets not having a destination address matching the local MAC address will be discarded
0 = Filter disabled
When ANDOR = 0:
1 = Packets with a destination address matching the local MAC address will be accepted
0 = Filter disabled
bit 6
ANDOR: AND/OR Filter Select bit
1 = AND: Packets will be rejected unless all enabled filters accept the packet
0 = OR: Packets will be accepted unless all enabled filters reject the packet
bit 5
CRCEN: Post-Filter CRC Check Enable bit
1 = All packets with an invalid CRC will be discarded
0 = The CRC validity will be ignored
bit 4
PMEN: Pattern Match Filter Enable bit
When ANDOR = 1:
1 = Packets must meet the Pattern Match criteria or they will be discarded
0 = Filter disabled
When ANDOR = 0:
1 = Packets which meet the Pattern Match criteria will be accepted
0 = Filter disabled
bit 3
MPEN: Magic Packet Filter Enable bit
When ANDOR = 1:
1 = Packets must be Magic Packets for the local MAC address or they will be discarded
0 = Filter disabled
When ANDOR = 0:
1 = Magic Packets for the local MAC address will be accepted
0 = Filter disabled
bit 2
HTEN: Hash Table Filter Enable bit
When ANDOR = 1:
1 = Packets must meet the Hash Table criteria or they will be discarded
0 = Filter disabled
When ANDOR = 0:
1 = Packets which meet the Hash Table criteria will be accepted
0 = Filter disabled
bit 1
MCEN: Multicast Filter Enable bit
When ANDOR = 1:
1 = The LSb of the first byte of the packet’s destination address must be set, or they will be discarded
0 = Filter disabled
When ANDOR = 0:
1 = Packets which have the LSb of the first byte in the destination address set, will be accepted
0 = Filter disabled
bit 0
BCEN: Broadcast Filter Enable bit
When ANDOR = 1:
1 = Packets must have a destination address of FF-FF-FF-FF-FF-FF or they will be discarded
0 = Filter disabled
When ANDOR = 0:
1 = Packets which have a destination address of FF-FF-FF-FF-FF-FF will be accepted
0 = Filter disabled
DS39762E-page 250
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
FIGURE 18-12:
RECEIVE FILTERING USING OR LOGIC
Packet Detected on Wire,
ANDOR = 0 (OR)
UCEN, PMEN,
MPEN, HTEN,
MCEN and BCEN
all clear?
Yes
No
UCEN set?
Yes
No
PMEN set?
Unicast
packet?
Yes
No
Pattern
matches?
No
Yes
No
Yes
CRCEN set?
Yes
CRCEN valid?
Yes
Accept Packet
No
No
Reject Packet
MPEN set?
Yes
No
HTEN set?
Yes
Hash table
bit set?
Yes
No
Yes
Multicast
destination?
Yes
No
No
BCEN set?
Yes
No
No
MCEN set?
Magic Packet™
for us?
Yes
No
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
Broadcast
destination?
Yes
No
DS39762E-page 251
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
FIGURE 18-13:
RECEIVE FILTERING USING AND LOGIC
Packet Detected on Wire,
ANDOR = 1 (AND)
UCEN set?
Yes
No
Unicast
packet?
No
Yes
PMEN set?
Yes
No
Pattern
Matches?
No
Yes
MPEN set?
Yes
Magic Packet™
for us?
No
No
Yes
HTEN set?
Yes
No
Hash Table
bit set?
No
Yes
MCEN set?
Yes
Multicast
destination?
No
No
Yes
BCEN set?
Yes
Broadcast
destination?
No
No
Yes
No
CRCEN set?
Yes
CRC valid?
No
Yes
Accept Packet
DS39762E-page 252
Reject Packet
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
18.8.5
PATTERN MATCH FILTER
The Pattern Match Checksum registers should be
programmed to the checksum which is expected for the
selected bytes. The checksum is calculated in the
same manner that the DMA module calculates
checksums (see Section 18.9.2 “Checksum Calculations”). Data bytes which have corresponding mask
bits programmed to ‘0’ are completely removed for
purposes of calculating the checksum, as opposed to
treating the data bytes as zero.
The Pattern Match filter selects up to 64 bytes from the
incoming packet and calculates an IP checksum of the
bytes. The checksum is then compared to the EPMCS
registers. The packet meets the Pattern Match filter criteria if the calculated checksum matches the EPMCS
registers. The Pattern Match filter may be useful for
filtering packets which have expected data inside them.
To use the Pattern Match filter, the application must
program the Pattern Match offset (EPMOH:EPMOL),
all of the Pattern Match mask bytes (EPMM0:EPMM7)
and the Pattern Match Checksum register pair
(EPMCSH:EPMCSL). The Pattern Match offset should
be loaded with the offset from the beginning of the destination address field to the 64-byte window which will
be used for the checksum computation. Within the
64-byte window, each individual byte can be selectively
included or excluded from the checksum computation
by setting or clearing the respective bit in the Pattern
Match mask. If a packet is received which would cause
the 64 byte window to extend past the end of the CRC,
the filter criteria will immediately not be met, even if the
corresponding mask bits are all ‘0’.
Note:
As an example, if the application wished to filter all
packets having a particular source MAC address of
00-04-A3-FF-FF-FF, it could program the Pattern
Match offset to 0000h and then set bits 6 and 7 of
EPMM0 and bits 0, 1, 2 and 3 of EPMM1 (assuming all
other mask bits are ‘0’). The proper checksum to program into the EPMCS registers would be 5BFCh. As an
alternative configuration, it could program the offset to
0006h and set bits 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 of EPMM0. The
checksum would still be 5BFCh. However, the second
case would be less desirable as packets less than
70 bytes long could never meet the Pattern Match criteria, even if they would generate the proper checksum
given the mask configuration.
Another example of a Pattern Match filter is illustrated
in Figure 18-14.
In all cases, the value of the Pattern Match
offset must be even for proper operation.
Programming the EMPO register pair with
an odd value will cause unpredictable
results.
FIGURE 18-14:
SAMPLE PATTERN MATCH FORMAT
Input Configuration:
EMPOH:EPMOL = 0006h
EPMM7:EPMM0 = 0000000000001F0Ah
EPMCSH:EPMCSL = 563Fh
DA
Field
SA
Type/Length
Data
FCS
Received
Data
11 22 33 44 55 66 77 88 99 AA BB CC 00 5A
09 0A 0B 0C 0D . . . 40 . . . FE 45 23 01
Byte #
0 1 2 3 4 5
14 15 16 17 18 . . . 70 . . .
6 7 8 9 10 11
12 13
Bytes Used for
Checksum Computation
64-Byte Window Used
for Pattern Match
Values Used for Checksum Computation = {88h, AAh, 09h, 0Ah, 0Bh, 0Ch, 0Dh, 00h}
(00h padding byte added by hardware)
Note:
Received data is shown in hexadecimal. Byte numbers are shown in decimal format.
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS39762E-page 253
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
18.8.6
MAGIC PACKET FILTER
The Magic Packet pattern consists of a sync pattern of
six FFh bytes, followed by 16 repeats of the destination
address (Figure 18-15). The Magic Packet filter checks
the destination address and data fields of all incoming
packets. If the destination address matches the
MAADR registers and the data field holds a valid Magic
Packet pattern someplace within it, then the packet will
meet the Magic Packet filter criteria.
FIGURE 18-15:
SAMPLE MAGIC PACKET™ FORMAT
Received
Data
00 11 22 33 44 55
77 88 99 AA BB CC
00 FE
09 0A 0B 0C 0D 0E
FF FF FF FF FF 00
Field
Comments
DA
SA
Type/Length
Destination MAC Address
Source MAC Address
Header
Optional Application Data
or Protocol Header
Sync Pattern
FF FF FF FF FF FF
00 11 22 33 44 55
00 11 22 33 44 55
00 11 22 33 44 55
00 11 22 33 44 55
00 11 22 33 44 55
00 11 22 33 44 55
00 11 22 33 44 55
00 11 22 33 44 55
00 11 22 33 44 55
Magic
Packet
Pattern
16 Repeats of the
Destination MAC Address
Footer
Optional Application Data or Protocol Footer
00 11 22 33 44 55
00 11 22 33 44 55
00 11 22 33 44 55
00 11 22 33 44 55
00 11 22 33 44 55
00 11 22 33 44 55
00 11 22 33 44 55
19 1A 1B 1C 1D 1E
EF 54 32 10
DS39762E-page 254
FCS
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
18.9
Direct Memory Access Controller
The Ethernet module incorporates a dual purpose DMA
controller, which can be used to copy data between locations within the 8-Kbyte memory buffer. It can also be
used to calculate a 16-bit checksum which is compatible
with various industry standard communication protocols,
including TCP, UDP, IP, ICMP, etc.
The DMA is controlled using three pointers and several
status/control bits:
• EDMASTH:EDMASTL: Source Start Address
• EDMANDH:EDMANDL: Source End Address
• EDMADSTH:EDMADSTL: Destination Start
Address
• DMAST and CSUMEN (ECON1<5,4>): DMA
Start/Busy and Checksum Enable bits
• DMAIE and DMAIF (EIE<5> and EIR<5>): DMA
Interrupt Enable and Flag bits
The Source and End Pointers define what data will be
copied or checksumed. The Destination Pointer, used
only when copying data, defines where copied data will
be placed. All three pointers are with respect to the
8-Kbyte Ethernet memory and cannot be used to
access memory in the PIC® microcontroller data
memory space.
When a DMA operation begins, the EDMAST register
pair is copied into an Internal Source Pointer. The DMA
will execute on one byte at a time and then increment the
Internal Source Pointer. However, if a byte is processed
and the Internal Source Pointer is equal to the Receive
Buffer End Pointer pair, ERXND, the Source Pointer will
not be incremented. Instead, the Internal Source Pointer
will be loaded with the Receive Buffer Start Pointer pair,
ERXST. In this way, the DMA will follow the circular FIFO
structure of the receive buffer and received packets can
be processed using one operation. The DMA operation
will end when the Internal Source Pointer matches the
EDMAND Pointers.
While any DMA operation is in progress, the DMA Pointers and the CSUMEN bit (ECON1<4>) should not be
modified. The DMA operation can be canceled at any
time by clearing the DMAST bit (ECON1<5>). No registers will change; however, some memory bytes may
already have been copied if a DMA copy was in progress.
Some operational requirements must always be kept in
mind when using the DMA. Failure to observe these
requirements may result in loss of Ethernet buffer data,
or even complete failure of Ethernet operation:
• If the EDMAND Pointers cannot be reached
because of the receive buffer wrapping behavior,
the DMA operation will never end.
• By design, the DMA module cannot be used to
copy or calculate a checksum over only one byte
(EDMAST = EDMAND). An attempt to do so may
overwrite all memory in the buffer and never end.
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
• After termination of a DMA operation (DMAST is
cleared by hardware or firmware), the application
must not set DMAST again within 4 instruction
cycles.
• To ensure reliable operation, avoid having the
application access EDATA during a DMA copy
operation. EDATA may be safely accessed during
DMA checksum operations.
18.9.1
COPYING MEMORY
To copy memory within the buffer:
1. Program the EDMAST, EDMAND, and
EDMADST register pairs with the appropriate
start, end and destination addresses. The
EDMAST registers should point to the first byte to
copy from, the EDMAND registers should point to
the last byte to copy and the EDMADST registers
should point to the first byte in the destination
range. The destination range will always be linear,
never wrapping at any values except from 8191 to
0 (the 8-Kbyte memory boundary). Extreme care
should be taken when calculating the End Pointer
to prevent a never ending DMA operation which
would overwrite the entire 8-Kbyte buffer.
2. If desired, set the DMAIE (EIE<5>) and ETHIE
(PIE2<5>) bits, and clear the DMAIF (EIR<5>)
flag bit to enable an interrupt at the end of the
copy process.
3. Clear the CSUMEN (ECON1<4>) bit.
4. Start the DMA copy by setting the DMAST
(ECON1<5>) bit.
If a transmit operation is in progress (TXRTS bit is set)
while the DMAST bit is set, the module will wait until the
transmit operation is complete before attempting to do
the DMA copy. This possible delay is required because
the DMA and transmission engine are unable to access
the buffer at the same time.
When the copy is complete, the DMA hardware will
clear the DMAST bit, set the DMAIF bit and generate
an interrupt (if enabled). The pointers and the
EDMACS registers will not be modified.
After the DMA module has been initialized and has
begun its copy, one instruction cycle (TCY) will be
required for each byte copied. However, if the Ethernet
receive hardware accumulates one byte of data, the
DMA will stall that cycle, yielding to the higher priority
operation. If a maximum size, 1518-byte packet was
copied while no other memory bandwidth was being
used, the DMA module would require slightly more than
145.7 μs to complete at a core frequency of 41.667
MHz. The time required to copy a minimum size packet
of 64 bytes would be approximately 6.2 μs (at
41.667 MHz) plus register configuration time.
DS39762E-page 255
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18.9.2
CHECKSUM CALCULATIONS
When the checksum is finished being calculated, the
hardware will clear the DMAST bit, set the DMAIF bit
and an interrupt will be generated if enabled. The DMA
Pointers will not be modified, and no memory will be
written to. The EDMACSH and EDMACSL registers will
contain the calculated checksum. The application may
write this value into a packet, compare this value with
zero (to validate a received block of data containing a
checksum field in it), or compare it with some other
checksum, such as a pseudo header checksum used in
various protocols (TCP, UDP, etc.).
The checksum calculation logic treats the source data
as a series of 16-bit big-endian integers. If the source
range contains an odd number of bytes, a padding byte
of 00h is effectively added to the end of the series for
purposes of calculating the checksum.
The calculated checksum is the 16-bit, one’s
complement of the one’s complement sum of all 16-bit
integers. For example, if the bytes included in the
checksum were {89h, ABh, CDh}, the checksum would
begin by computing 89ABh + CD00h. A carry out of the
16th bit would occur in the example, so in 16-bit one’s
complement arithmetic, it would be added back to the
first bit. The resulting value of 56ACh would finally be
complemented to achieve a checksum of A953h.
When operating the DMA in Checksum mode, it takes
one instruction cycle (TCY) for every byte included in
the checksum. As a result, if a checksum over
1446 bytes was performed, the DMA module would
require slightly more than 138.8 μs to complete the
operation at 41.667 MHz.
To calculate a checksum:
1.
Set the EDMAST and EDMAND register pairs to
point to the first and last bytes of buffer data to
be included in the checksum. Care should be
taken when programming these pointers to
prevent a never-ending checksum calculation
due to receive buffer wrapping.
To generate an optional interrupt when the
checksum calculation is done, set the DMAIE
(EIE<5>) and ETHIE (PIE2<5>) bits and clear
the DMAIF (EIR<5>) bit.
Start the calculation by setting the CSUMEN
(ECON1<4>) and DMAST (ECON1<5>) bits.
2.
3.
At the same frequency, a small 20-byte header field
would take approximately 1.9 μs plus DMA setup time
to calculate a sum. These estimated times assume that
the Ethernet receive hardware does not need memory
access bandwidth and the CPU does not issue any
reads or writes to the EDATA register while the DMA is
computing.
Like the DMA Copy mode, the checksum operation will
not start until the TXRTS bit (ECON1<3>) is clear. This
may considerably increase the checksum calculation
time if the application transmits a large packet and
immediately attempts to validate a checksum on a
received packet.
TABLE 18-10: SUMMARY OF REGISTERS ASSOCIATED WITH THE DMA CONTROLLER
Register
Name
Reset
Values on
Page
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
EIE
—
PKTIE
DMAIE
LINKIE
TXIE
—
TXERIE
RXERIE
67
EIR
—
PKTIF
DMAIF
LINKIF
TXIF
—
TXERIF
RXERIF
67
TXRST
RXRST
DMAST
CSUMEN
TXRTS
RXEN
—
—
64
ECON1
ERXNDL
Receive End Register Low Byte (ERXND<7:0>)
—
ERXNDH
EDMASTL
67
Receive End Register High Byte (ERXND<12:8>)
—
—
—
—
—
—
DMA Start Register High Byte (EDMAST<12:8>)
—
—
—
67
67
DMA End Register High Byte (EDMAND<12:8>)
DMA Destination Register Low Byte (EDMADST<7:0>)
EDMADSTH
67
67
DMA End Register Low Byte (EDMAND<7:0>)
EDMANDH
EDMADSTL
—
DMA Start Register Low Byte (EDMAST<7:0>)
EDMASTH
EDMANDL
—
67
67
DMA Destination Register High Byte (EDMADST<12:8>)
67
EDMACSL
DMA Checksum Register Low Byte (EDMACS<7:0>)
67
EDMACSH
DMA Checksum Register High Byte (EDMACS<15:8>)
67
Legend: — = unimplemented. Shaded cells are not used.
DS39762E-page 256
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
18.10 Module Resets
18.10.2
The Ethernet module provides selective module
Resets:
The Transmit Only Reset is performed by writing a ‘1’
to the TXRST bit (ECON1<7>). This resets the transmit
logic only. Other register and control blocks, such as
buffer management and host interface, are not affected
by a Transmit Only Reset event. To return to normal
operation, the TXRST bit must be cleared in software.
After clearing TXRST, firmware must not write to any
Ethernet module SFRs for at least 1.6 μs. After the
delay, normal operation can resume.
• Transmit Only Reset
• Receive Only Reset
18.10.1
MICROCONTROLLER RESETS
Following any standard Reset event, the Ethernet
module returns to a known state. The contents of the
Ethernet buffer memory are unknown. All SFR and
PHY registers are loaded with their specified Reset values, depending on the type of Reset event. However,
the PHY registers must not be accessed until the PHY
start-up timer has expired and the PHYRDY bit
(ESTAT<0>) becomes set, or at least 1 ms has passed
since the ETHEN bit was set. For more details, see
Section 18.1.3.1 “Start-up Timer”.
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
18.10.3
TRANSMIT ONLY RESET
RECEIVE ONLY RESET
The Receive Only Reset is performed by writing a ‘1’ to
the RXRST bit (ECON1<6>). This action resets receive
logic only. Other register and control blocks, such as the
buffer management and host interface blocks, are not
affected by a Receive Only Reset event. To return to
normal operation, the RXRST bit is cleared in software.
After clearing RXRST, firmware must not write to any
Ethernet module SFRs for at least 1.6 μs. After the
delay, normal operation can resume.
DS39762E-page 257
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
NOTES:
DS39762E-page 258
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
19.0
19.1
MASTER SYNCHRONOUS
SERIAL PORT (MSSP)
MODULE
Master SSP (MSSP) Module
Overview
The Master Synchronous Serial Port (MSSP) module is
a serial interface, useful for communicating with other
peripheral or microcontroller devices. These peripheral
devices may be serial EEPROMs, shift registers,
display drivers, A/D converters, etc. The MSSP module
can operate in one of two modes:
• Serial Peripheral Interface (SPI)
• Inter-Integrated Circuit (I2C™)
- Full Master mode
- Slave mode (with general address call)
2
The I C interface supports the following modes in
hardware:
• Master mode
• Multi-Master mode
• Slave mode
19.3
SPI Mode
The SPI mode allows 8 bits of data to be synchronously
transmitted and received simultaneously. All four
modes of SPI are supported. To accomplish
communication, typically three pins are used:
• Serial Data Out (SDOx) – RC5/SDO1 (or
RD4/SDO2 for 100-pin devices)
• Serial Data In (SDIx) – RC4/SDI1/SDA1 (or
RD5/SDI2/SDA2 for 100-pin devices)
• Serial Clock (SCKx) – RC3/SCK1/SCL1 (or
RD6/SCK2/SCL2 for 100-pin devices)
Additionally, a fourth pin may be used when in a Slave
mode of operation:
• Slave Select (SSx) – RF7/SS1 (or RD7/SS2 for
100-pin devices)
Figure 19-1 shows the block diagram of the MSSP
module when operating in SPI mode.
FIGURE 19-1:
Internal
Data Bus
The 64-pin and 80-pin devices of the PIC18F97J60
family have one MSSP module, designated as MSSP1.
The 100-pin devices have two MSSP modules, designated as MSSP1 and MSSP2. Each module operates
independently of the other.
Note:
19.2
Throughout this section, generic references to an MSSP module in any of its
operating modes may be interpreted as
being equally applicable to MSSP1 or
MSSP2. Register names and module I/O
signals use the generic designator ‘x’ to
indicate the use of a numeral to distinguish
a particular module when required.
Control bit names are not individuated.
Read
SDIx
SSPxSR reg
SDOx
SSx
In devices with more than one MSSP
module, it is very important to pay close
attention to the SSPxCON register names.
SSP1CON1 and SSP1CON2 control
different operational aspects of the same
module,
while
SSP1CON1
and
SSP2CON1 control the same features for
two different modules.
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
Shift
Clock
bit 0
SSx Control
Enable
Edge
Select
Each MSSP module has three associated control
registers. These include a status register (SSPxSTAT)
and two control registers (SSPxCON1 and SSPxCON2).
The use of these registers and their individual configuration bits differ significantly depending on whether the
MSSP module is operating in SPI or I2C mode.
Note:
Write
SSPxBUF reg
Control Registers
Additional details are provided under the individual
sections.
MSSP BLOCK DIAGRAM
(SPI MODE)
2
Clock Select
SSPM3:SSPM0
SCKx
SMP:CKE 4
2
Edge
Select
(TMR22Output)
Prescaler TOSC
4, 16, 64
Data to TXx/RXx in SSPxSR
TRIS bit
DS39762E-page 259
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
19.3.1
REGISTERS
SSPxSR is the shift register used for shifting data in or
out. SSPxBUF is the buffer register to which data
bytes are written to or read from.
Each MSSP module has four registers for SPI mode
operation. These are:
In receive operations, SSPxSR and SSPxBUF
together create a double-buffered receiver. When
SSPxSR receives a complete byte, it is transferred to
SSPxBUF and the SSPxIF interrupt is set.
• MSSPx Control Register 1 (SSPxCON1)
• MSSPx Status Register (SSPxSTAT)
• Serial Receive/Transmit Buffer Register
(SSPxBUF)
• MSSPx Shift Register (SSPxSR) – Not directly
accessible
During transmission, the SSPxBUF is not
double-buffered. A write to SSPxBUF will write to both
SSPxBUF and SSPxSR.
SSPxCON1 and SSPxSTAT are the control and status
registers in SPI mode operation. The SSPxCON1
register is readable and writable. The lower 6 bits of
the SSPxSTAT are read-only. The upper two bits of the
SSPxSTAT are read/write.
REGISTER 19-1:
R/W-0
SMP
SSPxSTAT: MSSPx STATUS REGISTER (SPI MODE)
R/W-0
R-0
R-0
R-0
R-0
R-0
R-0
(1)
D/A
P
S
R/W
UA
BF
CKE
bit 7
bit 0
Legend:
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
-n = Value at POR
‘1’ = Bit is set
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
x = Bit is unknown
bit 7
SMP: Sample bit
SPI Master mode:
1 = Input data sampled at end of data output time
0 = Input data sampled at middle of data output time
SPI Slave mode:
SMP must be cleared when SPI is used in Slave mode.
bit 6
CKE: SPI Clock Select bit(1)
1 = Transmit occurs on transition from active to Idle clock state
0 = Transmit occurs on transition from Idle to active clock state
bit 5
D/A: Data/Address bit
Used in I2C mode only.
bit 4
P: Stop bit
Used in I2C mode only. This bit is cleared when the MSSP module is disabled, SSPEN is cleared.
bit 3
S: Start bit
Used in I2C mode only.
bit 2
R/W: Read/Write Information bit
Used in I2C mode only.
bit 1
UA: Update Address bit
Used in I2C mode only
bit 0
BF: Buffer Full Status bit (Receive mode only)
1 = Receive complete, SSPxBUF is full
0 = Receive not complete, SSPxBUF is empty
Note 1:
Polarity of clock state is set by the CKP bit (SSPxCON1<4>).
DS39762E-page 260
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
REGISTER 19-2:
R/W-0
SSPxCON1: MSSPx CONTROL REGISTER 1 (SPI MODE)
R/W-0
WCOL
SSPOV
(1)
R/W-0
(2)
SSPEN
R/W-0
CKP
R/W-0
SSPM3
(3)
R/W-0
SSPM2
(3)
R/W-0
SSPM1
(3)
R/W-0
SSPM0(3)
bit 7
bit 0
Legend:
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
-n = Value at POR
‘1’ = Bit is set
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
x = Bit is unknown
bit 7
WCOL: Write Collision Detect bit (Transmit mode only)
1 = The SSPxBUF register is written while it is still transmitting the previous word (must be cleared in
software)
0 = No collision
bit 6
SSPOV: Receive Overflow Indicator bit(1)
SPI Slave mode:
1 = A new byte is received while the SSPxBUF register is still holding the previous data. In case of
overflow, the data in SSPxSR is lost. Overflow can only occur in Slave mode. The user must read
the SSPxBUF, even if only transmitting data, to avoid setting overflow (must be cleared in
software).
0 = No overflow
bit 5
SSPEN: Master Synchronous Serial Port Enable bit(2)
1 = Enables serial port and configures SCKx, SDOx, SDIx and SSx as serial port pins
0 = Disables serial port and configures these pins as I/O port pins
bit 4
CKP: Clock Polarity Select bit
1 = Idle state for clock is a high level
0 = Idle state for clock is a low level
bit 3-0
SSPM3:SSPM0: Master Synchronous Serial Port Mode Select bits(3)
0101 = SPI Slave mode, clock = SCKx pin, SSx pin control disabled, SSx can be used as I/O pin
0100 = SPI Slave mode, clock = SCKx pin, SSx pin control enabled
0011 = SPI Master mode, clock = TMR2 output/2
0010 = SPI Master mode, clock = FOSC/64
0001 = SPI Master mode, clock = FOSC/16
0000 = SPI Master mode, clock = FOSC/4
Note 1:
2:
3:
In Master mode, the overflow bit is not set since each new reception (and transmission) is initiated by
writing to the SSPxBUF register.
When this bit is enabled, these pins must be properly configured as input or output.
Bit combinations not specifically listed here are either reserved or implemented in I2C™ mode only.
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS39762E-page 261
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
19.3.2
OPERATION
When initializing the SPI, several options need to be
specified. This is done by programming the appropriate
control bits (SSPxCON1<5:0> and SSPxSTAT<7:6>).
These control bits allow the following to be specified:
•
•
•
•
Master mode (SCKx is the clock output)
Slave mode (SCKx is the clock input)
Clock Polarity (Idle state of SCKx)
Data Input Sample Phase (middle or end of data
output time)
• Clock Edge (output data on rising/falling edge of
SCKx)
• Clock Rate (Master mode only)
• Slave Select mode (Slave mode only)
Each MSSP module consists of a transmit/receive shift
register (SSPxSR) and a buffer register (SSPxBUF).
The SSPxSR shifts the data in and out of the device,
MSb first. The SSPxBUF holds the data that was
written to the SSPxSR until the received data is ready.
Once the 8 bits of data have been received, that byte is
moved to the SSPxBUF register. Then, the Buffer Full
detect bit, BF (SSPxSTAT<0>), and the interrupt flag
bit, SSPxIF, are set. This double-buffering of the
received data (SSPxBUF) allows the next byte to start
reception before reading the data that was just
EXAMPLE 19-1:
LOOP
received. Any write to the SSPxBUF register during
transmission/reception of data will be ignored and the
Write Collision detect bit, WCOL (SSPxCON1<7>), will
be set. User software must clear the WCOL bit so that
it can be determined if the following write(s) to the
SSPxBUF register completed successfully.
When the application software is expecting to receive
valid data, the SSPxBUF should be read before the next
byte of data to transfer is written to the SSPxBUF. The
Buffer Full bit, BF (SSPxSTAT<0>), indicates when
SSPxBUF has been loaded with the received data
(transmission is complete). When the SSPxBUF is read,
the BF bit is cleared. This data may be irrelevant if the
SPI is only a transmitter. Generally, the MSSP interrupt
is used to determine when the transmission/reception
has completed. The SSPxBUF must be read and/or
written. If the interrupt method is not going to be used,
then software polling can be done to ensure that a write
collision does not occur. Example 19-1 shows the
loading of the SSP1BUF (SSP1SR) for data
transmission.
The SSPxSR is not directly readable or writable and
can only be accessed by addressing the SSPxBUF
register. Additionally, the SSPxSTAT register indicates
the various status conditions.
LOADING THE SSP1BUF (SSP1SR) REGISTER
BTFSS
BRA
MOVF
SSP1STAT, BF
LOOP
SSP1BUF, W
MOVWF
RXDATA
;Save in user RAM, if data is meaningful
MOVF
MOVWF
TXDATA, W
SSP1BUF
;W reg = contents of TXDATA
;New data to xmit
DS39762E-page 262
;Has data been received (transmit complete)?
;No
;WREG reg = contents of SSP1BUF
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
19.3.3
ENABLING SPI I/O
To enable the serial port, MSSP Enable bit, SSPEN
(SSPxCON1<5>), must be set. To reset or reconfigure
SPI mode, clear the SSPEN bit, reinitialize the
SSPxCON registers and then set the SSPEN bit. This
configures the SDIx, SDOx, SCKx and SSx pins as
serial port pins. For the pins to behave as the serial port
function, some must have their data direction bits (in
the TRIS register) appropriately programmed as
follows:
• SDIx is automatically controlled by the SPI module
• SDOx must have TRISC<5> (or TRISD<4>) bit
cleared
• SCKx (Master mode) must have TRISC<3> (or
TRISD<6>) bit cleared
• SCKx (Slave mode) must have TRISC<3> (or
TRISD<6>) bit set
• SSx must have TRISF<7> (or TRISD<7>) bit set
FIGURE 19-2:
Any serial port function that is not desired may be
overridden by programming the corresponding data
direction (TRIS) register to the opposite value.
19.3.4
TYPICAL CONNECTION
Figure 19-2 shows a typical connection between two
microcontrollers. The master controller (Processor 1)
initiates the data transfer by sending the SCKx signal.
Data is shifted out of both shift registers on their
programmed clock edge and latched on the opposite
edge of the clock. Both processors should be
programmed to the same Clock Polarity (CKP), then
both controllers would send and receive data at the
same time. Whether the data is meaningful (or dummy
data) depends on the application software. This leads
to three scenarios for data transmission:
• Master sends data – Slave sends dummy data
• Master sends data – Slave sends data
• Master sends dummy data – Slave sends data
SPI MASTER/SLAVE CONNECTION
SPI Master SSPM3:SSPM0 = 00xxb
SPI Slave SSPM3:SSPM0 = 010xb
SDOx
SDIx
Serial Input Buffer
(SSPxBUF)
SDIx
Shift Register
(SSPxSR)
MSb
Serial Input Buffer
(SSPxBUF)
LSb
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
Shift Register
(SSPxSR)
MSb
SCKx
PROCESSOR 1
SDOx
Serial Clock
LSb
SCKx
PROCESSOR 2
DS39762E-page 263
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
19.3.5
MASTER MODE
The master can initiate the data transfer at any time
because it controls the SCKx. The master determines
when the slave (Processor 2, Figure 19-2) will
broadcast data by the software protocol.
In Master mode, the data is transmitted/received as
soon as the SSPxBUF register is written to. If the SPI
is only going to receive, the SDOx output could be
disabled (programmed as an input). The SSPxSR
register will continue to shift in the signal present on the
SDIx pin at the programmed clock rate. As each byte is
received, it will be loaded into the SSPxBUF register as
if a normal received byte (interrupts and status bits
appropriately set). This could be useful in receiver
applications as a “Line Activity Monitor” mode.
FIGURE 19-3:
The clock polarity is selected by appropriately
programming the CKP bit (SSPxCON1<4>). This then,
would give waveforms for SPI communication as
shown in Figure 19-3, Figure 19-5 and Figure 19-6,
where the MSB is transmitted first. In Master mode, the
SPI clock rate (bit rate) is user-programmable to be one
of the following:
•
•
•
•
FOSC/4 (or TCY)
FOSC/16 (or 4 • TCY)
FOSC/64 (or 16 • TCY)
Timer2 output/2
This allows a maximum data rate (at 40 MHz) of
10.00 Mbps.
Figure 19-3 shows the waveforms for Master mode.
When the CKE bit is set, the SDOx data is valid before
there is a clock edge on SCKx. The change of the input
sample is shown based on the state of the SMP bit. The
time when the SSPxBUF is loaded with the received
data is shown.
SPI MODE WAVEFORM (MASTER MODE)
Write to
SSPxBUF
SCKx
(CKP = 0
CKE = 0)
SCKx
(CKP = 1
CKE = 0)
4 Clock
Modes
SCKx
(CKP = 0
CKE = 1)
SCKx
(CKP = 1
CKE = 1)
SDOx
(CKE = 0)
bit 7
bit 6
bit 5
bit 4
bit 3
bit 2
bit 1
bit 0
SDOx
(CKE = 1)
bit 7
bit 6
bit 5
bit 4
bit 3
bit 2
bit 1
bit 0
SDIx
(SMP = 0)
bit 0
bit 7
Input
Sample
(SMP = 0)
SDIx
(SMP = 1)
bit 7
bit 0
Input
Sample
(SMP = 1)
SSPxIF
SSPxSR to
SSPxBUF
DS39762E-page 264
Next Q4 Cycle
after Q2↓
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
19.3.6
SLAVE MODE
In Slave mode, the data is transmitted and received as
the external clock pulses appear on SCKx. When the
last bit is latched, the SSPxIF interrupt flag bit is set.
Before enabling the module in SPI Slave mode, the
clock line must match the proper Idle state. The clock
line can be observed by reading the SCKx pin. The Idle
state is determined by the CKP bit (SSPxCON1<4>).
While in Slave mode, the external clock is supplied by
the external clock source on the SCKx pin. This
external clock must meet the minimum high and low
times as specified in the electrical specifications.
While in Sleep mode, the slave can transmit/receive
data. When a byte is received, the device will wake-up
from Sleep.
19.3.7
SLAVE SELECT
SYNCHRONIZATION
The SSx pin allows a Synchronous Slave mode. The
SPI must be in Slave mode with SSx pin control
enabled (SSPxCON1<3:0> = 04h). When the SSx pin
is low, transmission and reception are enabled and the
FIGURE 19-4:
SDOx pin is driven. When the SSx pin goes high, the
SDOx pin is no longer driven, even if in the middle of a
transmitted byte, and becomes a floating output.
External pull-up/pull-down resistors may be desirable
depending on the application.
Note 1: When the SPI is in Slave mode with SSx pin
control enabled (SSPxCON1<3:0> = 0100),
the SPI module will reset if the SSx pin is set
to VDD.
2: If the SPI is used in Slave mode with CKE
set, then the SSx pin control must be
enabled.
When the SPI module resets, the bit counter is forced
to ‘0’. This can be done by either forcing the SSx pin to
a high level or clearing the SSPEN bit.
To emulate two-wire communication, the SDOx pin can
be connected to the SDIx pin. When the SPI needs to
operate as a receiver, the SDOx pin can be configured
as an input. This disables transmissions from the
SDOx. The SDIx can always be left as an input (SDIx
function) since it cannot create a bus conflict.
SLAVE SYNCHRONIZATION WAVEFORM
SSx
SCKx
(CKP = 0
CKE = 0)
SCKx
(CKP = 1
CKE = 0)
Write to
SSPxBUF
SDOx
SDIx
(SMP = 0)
bit 7
bit 6
bit 7
bit 0
bit 0
bit 7
bit 7
Input
Sample
(SMP = 0)
SSPxIF
Interrupt
Flag
SSPxSR to
SSPxBUF
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
Next Q4 Cycle
after Q2↓
DS39762E-page 265
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
FIGURE 19-5:
SPI MODE WAVEFORM (SLAVE MODE WITH CKE = 0)
SSx
Optional
SCKx
(CKP = 0
CKE = 0)
SCKx
(CKP = 1
CKE = 0)
Write to
SSPxBUF
SDOx
SDIx
(SMP = 0)
bit 7
bit 6
bit 5
bit 4
bit 3
bit 2
bit 1
bit 0
bit 0
bit 7
Input
Sample
(SMP = 0)
SSPxIF
Interrupt
Flag
Next Q4 Cycle
after Q2↓
SSPxSR to
SSPxBUF
FIGURE 19-6:
SPI MODE WAVEFORM (SLAVE MODE WITH CKE = 1)
SSx
Not Optional
SCKx
(CKP = 0
CKE = 1)
SCKx
(CKP = 1
CKE = 1)
Write to
SSPxBUF
SDOx
SDIx
(SMP = 0)
bit 7
bit 7
bit 6
bit 5
bit 4
bit 3
bit 2
bit 1
bit 0
bit 0
Input
Sample
(SMP = 0)
SSPxIF
Interrupt
Flag
SSPxSR to
SSPxBUF
DS39762E-page 266
Next Q4 Cycle
after Q2↓
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
19.3.8
OPERATION IN POWER-MANAGED
MODES
In SPI Master mode, module clocks may be operating
at a different speed than when in full-power mode. In
the case of Sleep mode, all clocks are halted.
In Idle modes, a clock is provided to the peripherals.
That clock should be from the primary clock source, the
secondary clock (Timer1 oscillator at 32.768 kHz) or
the INTRC source. See Section 2.7 “Clock Sources
and Oscillator Switching” for additional information.
19.3.10
Table 19-1 shows the compatibility between the
standard SPI modes and the states of the CKP and
CKE control bits.
TABLE 19-1:
If the Sleep mode is selected, all module clocks are
halted and the transmission/reception will remain in
that state until the devices wakes. After the device
returns to Run mode, the module will resume
transmitting and receiving data.
In SPI Slave mode, the SPI Transmit/Receive Shift
register operates asynchronously to the device. This
allows the device to be placed in any power-managed
mode and data to be shifted into the SPI
Transmit/Receive Shift register. When all 8 bits have
been received, the MSSP interrupt flag bit will be set,
and if enabled, will wake the device.
19.3.9
SPI BUS MODES
Control Bits State
Standard SPI Mode
Terminology
CKP
CKE
0, 0
0
1
0, 1
0
0
1, 0
1
1
1, 1
1
0
In most cases, the speed that the master clocks SPI
data is not important; however, this should be
evaluated for each system.
If MSSP interrupts are enabled, they can wake the
controller from Sleep mode, or one of the Idle modes,
when the master completes sending data. If an exit
from Sleep or Idle mode is not desired, MSSP
interrupts should be disabled.
BUS MODE COMPATIBILITY
There is also an SMP bit which controls when the data
is sampled.
19.3.11
SPI CLOCK SPEED AND MODULE
INTERACTIONS
Because MSSP1 and MSSP2 are independent
modules, they can operate simultaneously at different
data rates. Setting the SSPM3:SSPM0 bits of the
SSPxCON1 register determines the rate for the
corresponding module.
An exception is when both modules use Timer2 as a
time base in Master mode. In this instance, any
changes to the Timer2 operation will affect both MSSP
modules equally. If different bit rates are required for
each module, the user should select one of the other
three time base options for one of the modules.
EFFECTS OF A RESET
A Reset disables the MSSP module and terminates the
current transfer.
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS39762E-page 267
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
TABLE 19-2:
Name
INTCON
REGISTERS ASSOCIATED WITH SPI OPERATION
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
GIE/GIEH PEIE/GIEL TMR0IE
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
Reset
Values
on Page:
INT0IE
RBIE
TMR0IF
INT0IF
RBIF
63
PIR1
PSPIF
ADIF
RC1IF
TX1IF
SSP1IF
CCP1IF
TMR2IF
TMR1IF
65
PIE1
PSPIE
ADIE
RC1IE
TX1IE
SSP1IE
CCP1IE
TMR2IE
TMR1IE
65
IPR1
PSPIP
ADIP
RC1IP
TX1IP
SSP1IP
CCP1IP
TMR2IP
TMR1IP
65
PIR3
SSP2IF(1)
BCL2IF
RC2IF
TX2IF
TMR4IF
CCP5IF
CCP4IF
CCP3IF
65
PIE3
SSP2IE(1)
BCL2IE
RC2IE
TX2IE
TMR4IE
CCP5IE
CCP4IE
CCP3IE
65
IPR3
SSP2IP(1)
BCL2IP
RC2IP
TX2IP
TMR4IP
CCP5IP
CCP4IP
CCP3IP
65
TRISC
TRISC7
TRISC6
TRISC5
TRISC4
TRISC3
TRISC2
TRISC1
TRISC0
65
TRISD
TRISD7(1)
TRISD3
TRISD2
TRISD1
TRISD0
65
TRISF3
TRISF2
TRISF1
TRISF0
65
TRISF
SSP1BUF
TRISF7
(1)
TRISD6
TRISF6
TRISD5
(1)
TRISF5
TRISD4
(1)
TRISF4
MSSP1 Receive Buffer/Transmit Register
64
SSP1CON1
WCOL
SSPOV
SSPEN
CKP
SSPM3
SSPM2
SSPM1
SSPM0
64
SSP1STAT
SMP
CKE
D/A
P
S
R/W
UA
BF
64
SSP2BUF
MSSP2 Receive Buffer/Transmit Register
67
SSP2CON1
WCOL
SSPOV
SSPEN
CKP
SSPM3
SSPM2
SSPM1
SSPM0
67
SSP2STAT
SMP
CKE
D/A
P
S
R/W
UA
BF
67
Legend: Shaded cells are not used by the MSSP module in SPI mode.
Note 1: These bits are only available in 100-pin devices; otherwise, they are unimplemented and read as ‘0’.
DS39762E-page 268
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
19.4
I2C Mode
19.4.1
The MSSP module in I 2C mode fully implements all
master and slave functions (including general call
support) and provides interrupts on Start and Stop bits
in hardware to determine a free bus (multi-master
function). The MSSP module implements the standard
mode specifications, as well as 7-bit and 10-bit
addressing.
Two pins are used for data transfer:
• Serial clock (SCLx) – RC3/SCK1/SCL1
(or RD6/SCK2/SCL2 for 100-pin devices)
• Serial data (SDAx) – RC4/SDI1/SDA1
(or RD5/SDI2/SDA2 for 100-pin devices)
The user must configure these pins as inputs by setting
the TRISC<4:3> or TRISD<5:4> bits.
FIGURE 19-7:
MSSP BLOCK DIAGRAM
(I2C™ MODE)
Internal
Data Bus
Read
Write
SSPxBUF reg
SCLx
SDAx
SSPxSR reg
LSb
Match Detect
Addr Match
SSPxADD reg
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
•
•
•
•
MSSPx Control Register 1 (SSPxCON1)
MSSPx Control Register 2 (SSPxCON2)
MSSPx Status Register (SSPxSTAT)
MSSPx Receive Buffer/Transmit Register
(SSPxBUF)
• MSSPx Shift Register (SSPxSR) – Not directly
accessible
• MSSPx Address Register (SSPxADD)
SSPxCON1, SSPxCON2 and SSPxSTAT are the
control and status registers in I2C mode operation. The
SSPxCON1 and SSPxCON2 registers are readable
and writable. The lower 6 bits of the SSPxSTAT are
read-only. The upper two bits of the SSPxSTAT are
read/write.
Many of the bits in SSPxCON2 assume different
functions, depending on whether the module is operating in Master or Slave mode. SSPxCON2<5:1> also
assume different names in Slave mode. The different
aspects of SSPxCON2 are shown in Register 19-5 (for
Master mode) and Register 19-6 (Slave mode).
SSPxADD register holds the slave device address when
the MSSP is configured in I2C Slave mode. When the
MSSP is configured in Master mode, the lower seven
bits of SSPxADD act as the Baud Rate Generator reload
value.
In receive operations, SSPxSR and SSPxBUF together
create a double-buffered receiver. When SSPxSR
receives a complete byte, it is transferred to SSPxBUF
and the SSPxIF interrupt is set.
Address Mask
Start and
Stop bit Detect
The MSSP module has six registers for I2C operation.
These are:
SSPxSR is the shift register used for shifting data in or
out. SSPxBUF is the buffer register to which data bytes
are written to or read from.
Shift
Clock
MSb
REGISTERS
Set, Reset
S, P bits
(SSPxSTAT reg)
During transmission, the SSPxBUF is not
double-buffered. A write to SSPxBUF will write to both
SSPxBUF and SSPxSR.
DS39762E-page 269
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
REGISTER 19-3:
R/W-0
SSPxSTAT: MSSPx STATUS REGISTER (I2C™ MODE)
R/W-0
SMP
CKE
R-0
R-0
R-0
D/A
(1)
(1)
P
S
R-0
R/W
(2,3)
R-0
R-0
UA
BF
bit 7
bit 0
Legend:
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
-n = Value at POR
‘1’ = Bit is set
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
x = Bit is unknown
bit 7
SMP: Slew Rate Control bit
In Master or Slave mode:
1 = Slew rate control disabled for Standard Speed mode (100 kHz and 1 MHz)
0 = Slew rate control enabled for High-Speed mode (400 kHz)
bit 6
CKE: SMBus Select bit
In Master or Slave mode:
1 = Enable SMBus specific inputs
0 = Disable SMBus specific inputs
bit 5
D/A: Data/Address bit
In Master mode:
Reserved.
In Slave mode:
1 = Indicates that the last byte received or transmitted was data
0 = Indicates that the last byte received or transmitted was address
bit 4
P: Stop bit(1)
1 = Indicates that a Stop bit has been detected last
0 = Stop bit was not detected last
bit 3
S: Start bit(1)
1 = Indicates that a Start bit has been detected last
0 = Start bit was not detected last
bit 2
R/W: Read/Write Information bit (I2C mode only)(2,3)
In Slave mode:
1 = Read
0 = Write
In Master mode:
1 = Transmit is in progress
0 = Transmit is not in progress
bit 1
UA: Update Address bit (10-Bit Slave mode only)
1 = Indicates that the user needs to update the address in the SSPxADD register
0 = Address does not need to be updated
bit 0
BF: Buffer Full Status bit
In Transmit mode:
1 = SSPxBUF is full
0 = SSPxBUF is empty
In Receive mode:
1 = SSPxBUF is full (does not include the ACK and Stop bits)
0 = SSPxBUF is empty (does not include the ACK and Stop bits)
Note 1:
2:
3:
This bit is cleared on Reset and when SSPEN is cleared.
This bit holds the R/W bit information following the last address match. This bit is only valid from the
address match to the next Start bit, Stop bit or not ACK bit.
ORing this bit with SEN, RSEN, PEN, RCEN or ACKEN will indicate if the MSSP is in Active mode.
DS39762E-page 270
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
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REGISTER 19-4:
SSPxCON1: MSSPx CONTROL REGISTER 1 (I2C™ MODE)
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
WCOL
SSPOV
SSPEN
CKP
SSPM3
SSPM2
SSPM1
SSPM0
bit 7
bit 0
Legend:
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
-n = Value at POR
‘1’ = Bit is set
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
x = Bit is unknown
bit 7
WCOL: Write Collision Detect bit
In Master Transmit mode:
1 = A write to the SSPxBUF register was attempted while the I2C conditions were not valid for a
transmission to be started (must be cleared in software)
0 = No collision
In Slave Transmit mode:
1 = The SSPxBUF register is written while it is still transmitting the previous word (must be cleared in
software)
0 = No collision
In Receive mode (Master or Slave modes):
This is a “don’t care” bit.
bit 6
SSPOV: Receive Overflow Indicator bit
In Receive mode:
1 = A byte is received while the SSPxBUF register is still holding the previous byte (must be cleared
in software)
0 = No overflow
In Transmit mode:
This is a “don’t care” bit in Transmit mode.
bit 5
SSPEN: Master Synchronous Serial Port Enable bit
1 = Enables the serial port and configures the SDAx and SCLx pins as the serial port pins(1)
0 = Disables serial port and configures these pins as I/O port pins(1)
bit 4
CKP: SCKx Release Control bit
In Slave mode:
1 = Releases clock
0 = Holds clock low (clock stretch), used to ensure data setup time
In Master mode:
Unused in this mode.
bit 3-0
SSPM3:SSPM0: Master Synchronous Serial Port Mode Select bits
1111 = I2C Slave mode, 10-bit addressing with Start and Stop bit interrupts enabled(2)
1110 = I2C Slave mode, 7-bit addressing with Start and Stop bit interrupts enabled(2)
1011 = I2C Firmware Controlled Master mode (slave Idle)(2)
1000 = I2C Master mode, clock = FOSC/(4 * (SSPADD + 1))(2)
0111 = I2C Slave mode, 10-bit addressing(2)
0110 = I2C Slave mode, 7-bit addressing(2)
Note 1:
2:
When enabled, the SDAx and SCLx pins must be configured as inputs.
Bit combinations not specifically listed here are either reserved or implemented in SPI mode only.
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS39762E-page 271
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
REGISTER 19-5:
SSPxCON2: MSSPx CONTROL REGISTER 2 (I2C™ MASTER MODE)
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
GCEN
ACKSTAT
ACKDT(1)
ACKEN(2)
RCEN(2)
PEN(2)
RSEN(2)
SEN(2)
bit 7
bit 0
Legend:
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
-n = Value at POR
‘1’ = Bit is set
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
x = Bit is unknown
bit 7
GCEN: General Call Enable bit (Slave mode only)
Unused in Master mode.
bit 6
ACKSTAT: Acknowledge Status bit (Master Transmit mode only)
1 = Acknowledge was not received from slave
0 = Acknowledge was received from slave
bit 5
ACKDT: Acknowledge Data bit (Master Receive mode only)(1)
1 = Not Acknowledge
0 = Acknowledge
bit 4
ACKEN: Acknowledge Sequence Enable bit(2)
1 = Initiate Acknowledge sequence on SDAx and SCLx pins and transmit ACKDT data bit.
Automatically cleared by hardware.
0 = Acknowledge sequence Idle
bit 3
RCEN: Receive Enable bit (Master Receive mode only)(2)
1 = Enables Receive mode for I2C
0 = Receive Idle
bit 2
PEN: Stop Condition Enable bit(2)
1 = Initiate Stop condition on SDAx and SCLx pins. Automatically cleared by hardware.
0 = Stop condition Idle
bit 1
RSEN: Repeated Start Condition Enable bit(2)
1 = Initiate Repeated Start condition on SDAx and SCLx pins. Automatically cleared by hardware.
0 = Repeated Start condition Idle
bit 0
SEN: Start Condition Enable/Stretch Enable bit(2)
1 = Initiate Start condition on SDAx and SCLx pins. Automatically cleared by hardware.
0 = Start condition Idle
Note 1:
2:
Value that will be transmitted when the user initiates an Acknowledge sequence at the end of a receive.
If the I2C module is active, these bits may not be set (no spooling) and the SSPxBUF may not be written
(or writes to the SSPxBUF are disabled).
DS39762E-page 272
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
REGISTER 19-6:
SSPxCON2: MSSPx CONTROL REGISTER 2 (I2C™ SLAVE MODE)
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
GCEN
ACKSTAT
ADMSK5
ADMSK4
ADMSK3
ADMSK2
ADMSK1
SEN(1)
bit 7
bit 0
Legend:
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
-n = Value at POR
‘1’ = Bit is set
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
x = Bit is unknown
bit 7
GCEN: General Call Enable bit (Slave mode only)
1 = Enable interrupt when a general call address (0000h) is received in the SSPxSR
0 = General call address disabled
bit 6
ACKSTAT: Acknowledge Status bit
Unused in Slave mode.
bit 5-2
ADMSK5:ADMSK2: Slave Address Mask Select bits
1 = Masking of corresponding bits of SSPxADD enabled
0 = Masking of corresponding bits of SSPxADD disabled
bit 1
ADMSK1: Slave Address Least Significant Mask Select bit
In 7-Bit Addressing mode:
1 = Masking of SSPxADD<1> is only enabled
0 = Masking of SSPxADD<1> is only disabled
In 10-Bit Addressing mode:
1 = Masking of SSPxADD<1:0> enabled
0 = Masking of SSPxADD<1:0> disabled
bit 0
SEN: Stretch Enable bit(1)
1 = Clock stretching is enabled for both slave transmit and slave receive (stretch enabled)
0 = Clock stretching is disabled
Note 1:
If the I2C module is active, this bit may not be set (no spooling) and the SSPxBUF may not be written (or
writes to the SSPxBUF are disabled).
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS39762E-page 273
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19.4.2
OPERATION
The MSSP module functions are enabled by setting the
MSSP Enable bit, SSPEN (SSPxCON1<5>).
The SSPxCON1 register allows control of the I 2C operation. Four mode selection bits (SSPxCON1<3:0>)
allow one of the following I 2C modes to be selected:
2
• I C Master mode,
clock = (FOSC/4) x (SSPxADD + 1)
• I 2C Slave mode (7-bit addressing)
• I 2C Slave mode (10-bit addressing)
• I 2C Slave mode (7-bit addressing) with Start and
Stop bit interrupts enabled
• I 2C Slave mode (10-bit addressing) with Start and
Stop bit interrupts enabled
• I 2C Firmware Controlled Master mode,
slave is Idle
Selection of any I 2C mode, with the SSPEN bit set,
forces the SCLx and SDAx pins to be open-drain,
provided these pins are programmed to inputs by
setting the appropriate TRISC or TRISD bits. To ensure
proper operation of the module, pull-up resistors must
be provided externally to the SCLx and SDAx pins.
19.4.3
SLAVE MODE
In Slave mode, the SCLx and SDAx pins must be
configured as inputs (TRISC<4:3> or TRISD<5:4> are
set). The MSSP module will override the input state
with the output data when required (slave-transmitter).
The I 2C Slave mode hardware will always generate an
interrupt on an exact address match. In addition,
address masking will also allow the hardware to generate an interrupt for more than one address (up to 31 in
7-bit addressing, and up to 63 in 10-bit addressing).
Through the mode select bits, the user can also choose
to interrupt on Start and Stop bits.
The SCLx clock input must have a minimum high and
low for proper operation. The high and low times of the
I2C specification, as well as the requirement of the
MSSP module, are shown in timing parameter 100 and
parameter 101.
19.4.3.1
Once the MSSP module has been enabled, it waits for
a Start condition to occur. Following the Start condition,
the 8 bits are shifted into the SSPxSR register. All
incoming bits are sampled with the rising edge of the
clock (SCLx) line. The value of register SSPxSR<7:1>
is compared to the value of the SSPxADD register. The
address is compared on the falling edge of the eighth
clock (SCLx) pulse. If the addresses match and the BF
and SSPOV bits are clear, the following events occur:
1.
2.
3.
4.
1.
2.
3.
Any combination of the following conditions will cause
the MSSP module not to give this ACK pulse:
5.
• The Buffer Full bit, BF (SSPxSTAT<0>), was set
before the transfer was received.
• The MSSP Overflow bit, SSPOV (SSPxCON1<6>),
was set before the transfer was received.
6.
DS39762E-page 274
The SSPxSR register value is loaded into the
SSPxBUF register.
The Buffer Full bit, BF, is set.
An ACK pulse is generated.
The MSSP Interrupt Flag bit, SSPxIF, is set (and
the interrupt is generated, if enabled) on the
falling edge of the ninth SCLx pulse.
In 10-Bit Addressing mode, two address bytes need to
be received by the slave. The five Most Significant bits
(MSbs) of the first address byte specify if this is a 10-bit
address. Bit R/W (SSPxSTAT<2>) must specify a write
so the slave device will receive the second address
byte. For a 10-bit address, the first byte would equal
‘11110 A9 A8 0’, where ‘A9’ and ‘A8’ are the two
MSbs of the address. The sequence of events for 10-bit
addressing is as follows, with steps 7 through 9 for the
slave-transmitter:
When an address is matched, or the data transfer after
an address match is received, the hardware automatically will generate the Acknowledge (ACK) pulse
and load the SSPxBUF register with the received value
currently in the SSPxSR register.
In this case, the SSPxSR register value is not loaded
into the SSPxBUF, but bit SSPxIF is set. The BF bit is
cleared by reading the SSPxBUF register, while bit
SSPOV is cleared through software.
Addressing
4.
7.
8.
9.
Receive first (high) byte of address (bits SSPxIF,
BF and UA are set).
Update the SSPxADD register with second (low)
byte of address (clears bit UA and releases the
SCLx line).
Read the SSPxBUF register (clears bit BF) and
clear flag bit, SSPxIF.
Receive second (low) byte of address (bits
SSPxIF, BF and UA are set).
Update the SSPxADD register with the first
(high) byte of address. If match releases SCLx
line, this will clear bit UA.
Read the SSPxBUF register (clears bit BF) and
clear flag bit, SSPxIF.
Receive Repeated Start condition.
Receive first (high) byte of address (bits SSPxIF
and BF are set).
Read the SSPxBUF register (clears bit BF) and
clear flag bit SSPxIF.
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
19.4.3.2
Address Masking
Masking an address bit causes that bit to become a
“don’t care”. When one address bit is masked, two
addresses will be Acknowledged and cause an
interrupt. It is possible to mask more than one address
bit at a time, which makes it possible to Acknowledge
up to 31 addresses in 7-bit mode, and up to
63 addresses in 10-bit mode (see Example 19-2).
The I2C Slave behaves the same way whether address
masking is used or not. However, when address
masking is used, the I2C slave can Acknowledge
multiple addresses and cause interrupts. When this
occurs, it is necessary to determine which address
caused the interrupt by checking SSPxBUF.
In 7-Bit Addressing mode, address mask bits,
ADMSK<5:1> (SSPxCON2<5:1>), mask the corresponding address bits in the SSPxADD register. For any
ADMSK bits that are set (ADMSK<n> = 1), the corresponding address bit is ignored (SSPxADD<n> = x). For
the module to issue an address Acknowledge, it is
sufficient to match only on addresses that do not have an
active address mask.
EXAMPLE 19-2:
In 10-Bit Addressing mode, bits ADMSK<5:2> mask
the corresponding address bits in the SSPxADD register. In addition, ADMSK1 simultaneously masks the two
LSbs of the address (SSPxADD<1:0>). For any
ADMSK bits that are active (ADMSK<n> = 1), the corresponding address bit is ignored (SSPxADD<n> = x).
Also note, that although in 10-Bit Addressing mode, the
upper address bits reuse part of the SSPxADD register
bits. The address mask bits do not interact with those
bits; they only affect the lower address bits.
Note 1: ADMSK1 masks the two Least Significant
bits of the address.
2: The two Most Significant bits of the
address are not affected by address
masking.
ADDRESS MASKING EXAMPLES
7-Bit Addressing:
SSPxADD<7:1> = A0h (1010000) (SSPxADD<0> is assumed to be ‘0’)
ADMSK<5:1>
= 00111
Addresses Acknowledged: A0h, A2h, A4h, A6h, A8h, AAh, ACh, AEh
10-Bit Addressing:
SSPxADD<7:0> = A0h (10100000) (the two MSb of the address are ignored in this example since they are
not affected by masking)
ADMSK<5:1>
= 00111
Addresses Acknowledged: A0h, A1h, A2h, A3h, A4h, A5h, A6h, A7h, A8h, A9h, AAh, ABh, ACh, ADh, AEh, AFh
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS39762E-page 275
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
19.4.3.3
Reception
When the R/W bit of the address byte is clear and an
address match occurs, the R/W bit of the SSPxSTAT
register is cleared. The received address is loaded into
the SSPxBUF register and the SDAx line is held low
(ACK).
When the address byte overflow condition exists, then
the no Acknowledge (ACK) pulse is given. An overflow
condition is defined as either bit BF (SSPxSTAT<0>) is
set, or bit SSPOV (SSPxCON1<6>) is set.
An MSSP interrupt is generated for each data transfer
byte. The interrupt flag bit, SSPxIF, must be cleared in
software. The SSPxSTAT register is used to determine
the status of the byte.
If SEN is enabled (SSPxCON2<0> = 1), SCKx/SCLx
(RC3 or RD6) will be held low (clock stretch) following
each data transfer. The clock must be released by
setting bit, CKP (SSPxCON1<4>). See Section 19.4.4
“Clock Stretching” for more details.
19.4.3.4
Transmission
When the R/W bit of the incoming address byte is set and
an address match occurs, the R/W bit of the SSPxSTAT
register is set. The received address is loaded into the
SSPxBUF register. The ACK pulse will be sent on the
ninth bit and pin RC3 or RD6 is held low, regardless of
SEN (see Section 19.4.4 “Clock Stretching” for more
details). By stretching the clock, the master will be unable
to assert another clock pulse until the slave is done
preparing the transmit data. The transmit data must be
loaded into the SSPxBUF register which also loads the
SSPxSR register. Then, pin RC3 or RD6 should be
enabled by setting bit, CKP (SSPxCON1<4>). The eight
data bits are shifted out on the falling edge of the SCLx
input. This ensures that the SDAx signal is valid during
the SCLx high time (Figure 19-10).
The ACK pulse from the master-receiver is latched on
the rising edge of the ninth SCLx input pulse. If the SDAx
line is high (not ACK), then the data transfer is complete.
In this case, when the ACK is latched by the slave, the
slave logic is reset (resets SSPxSTAT register) and the
slave monitors for another occurrence of the Start bit. If
the SDAx line was low (ACK), the next transmit data
must be loaded into the SSPxBUF register. Again, pin
RC3 or RD6 must be enabled by setting bit CKP.
An MSSP interrupt is generated for each data transfer
byte. The SSPxIF bit must be cleared in software and
the SSPxSTAT register is used to determine the status
of the byte. The SSPxIF bit is set on the falling edge of
the ninth clock pulse.
DS39762E-page 276
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
2
CKP
3
4
A4
5
A3
Receiving Address
A5
6
A2
(CKP does not reset to ‘0’ when SEN = 0)
SSPOV (SSPxCON1<6>)
BF (SSPxSTAT<0>)
SSPxIF (PIR1<3> or PIR3<7>)
1
SCLx
S
SDAx
A6
7
A1
8
9
ACK
R/W = 0
1
D7
3
4
D4
5
D3
Receiving Data
D5
Cleared in software
SSPxBUF is read
2
D6
6
D2
7
D1
8
D0
9
ACK
1
D7
2
D6
3
4
D4
5
D3
Receiving Data
D5
6
D2
7
D1
8
D0
Bus master
terminates
transfer
P
SSPOV is set
because SSPxBUF is
still full. ACK is not sent.
9
ACK
FIGURE 19-8:
A7
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
I2C™ SLAVE MODE TIMING WITH SEN = 0 (RECEPTION, 7-BIT ADDRESS)
DS39762E-page 277
DS39762E-page 278
2
A6
Note
CKP
3
4
X
5
A3
Receiving Address
A5
6
X
1
3
4
D4
5
D3
Receiving Data
D5
Cleared in software
SSPxBUF is read
2
D6
6
D2
7
D1
8
D0
In this example, an address equal to A7.A6.A5.X.A3.X.X will be Acknowledged and cause an interrupt.
9
D7
x = Don’t care (i.e., address bit can be either a ‘1’ or a ‘0’).
8
ACK
R/W = 0
2:
7
X
1:
(CKP does not reset to ‘0’ when SEN = 0)
SSPOV (SSPxCON1<6>)
BF (SSPxSTAT<0>)
SSPxIF (PIR1<3> or PIR3<7>)
1
SCLx
S
A7
9
ACK
1
D7
2
D6
3
4
D4
5
D3
Receiving Data
D5
6
D2
7
D1
8
D0
Bus master
terminates
transfer
P
SSPOV is set
because SSPxBUF is
still full. ACK is not sent.
9
ACK
FIGURE 19-9:
SDAx
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
I2C™ SLAVE MODE TIMING WITH SEN = 0 AND ADMSK<5:1> = 01011
(RECEPTION, 7-BIT ADDRESS)
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
2
Data in
sampled
1
A6
CKP
BF (SSPxSTAT<0>)
3
4
A4
5
A3
6
A2
Receiving Address
A5
SSPxIF (PIR1<3> or PIR3<7>)
S
A7
7
A1
8
R/W = 0
9
ACK
4
5
D3
6
D2
Transmitting Data
D4
Cleared in software
3
D5
SSPxBUF is written in software
2
D6
CKP is set in software
SCLx held low
while CPU
responds to SSPxIF
1
D7
7
D1
9
From SSPxIF ISR
8
D0
ACK
1
D7
4
D4
5
D3
Cleared in software
3
D5
6
D2
CKP is set in software
SSPxBUF is written in software
2
D6
7
8
D0
9
ACK
From SSPxIF ISR
D1
Transmitting Data
P
FIGURE 19-10:
SCLx
SDAx
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2
1
3
1
5
0
7
A8
UA is set indicating that
the SSPxADD needs to be
updated
8
9
(CKP does not reset to ‘0’ when SEN = 0)
UA (SSPxSTAT<1>)
SSPOV (SSPxCON1<6>)
6
A9
SSPxBUF is written with
contents of SSPxSR
Cleared in software
BF (SSPxSTAT<0>)
CKP
1
4
SSPxIF (PIR1<3> or PIR3<7>)
1
SCLx
S
1
ACK
R/W = 0
A7
2
4
A4
5
A3
6
A2
8
9
A0 ACK
UA is set indicating that
SSPxADD needs to be
updated
Cleared by hardware
when SSPxADD is updated
with low byte of address
7
A1
Cleared in software
3
A5
Dummy read of SSPxBUF
to clear BF flag
1
A6
Receive Second Byte of Address
1
D7
4
5
6
7
D1
Cleared in software
3
D3 D2
Cleared by hardware when
SSPxADD is updated with high
byte of address
2
D6 D5 D4
Receive Data Byte
Clock is held low until
update of SSPxADD has
taken place
8
9
1
2
4
5
D3
6
D2
Cleared in software
3
D0 ACK D7 D6 D5 D4
Receive Data Byte
7
8
D1 D0
9
P
Bus master
terminates
transfer
SSPOV is set
because SSPxBUF is
still full. ACK is not sent.
ACK
FIGURE 19-11:
SDAx
Receive First Byte of Address
Clock is held low until
update of SSPxADD has
taken place
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2
1
3
1
Note
5
0
7
A8
8
UA is set indicating that
the SSPxADD needs to be
updated
SSPxBUF is written with
contents of SSPxSR
6
A9
9
2
X
4
5
A3
6
A2
Cleared in software
3
A5
7
X
4
5
6
Cleared in software
3
7
8
9
1
2
4
5
6
D3 D2
Cleared in software
3
D5 D4
Receive Data Byte
D1 D0 ACK D7 D6
Cleared by hardware when
SSPxADD is updated with high
byte of address
2
D3 D2
Note that the Most Significant bits of the address are not affected by the bit masking.
1
D6 D5 D4
3:
9
D7
x = Don’t care (i.e., address bit can be either a ‘1’ or a ‘0’).
8
X
Receive Data Byte
In this example, an address equal to A9.A8.A7.A6.A5.X.A3.A2.X.X will be Acknowledged and cause an interrupt.
UA is set indicating that
SSPxADD needs to be
updated
Cleared by hardware
when SSPxADD is updated
with low byte of address
Dummy read of SSPxBUF
to clear BF flag
1
A6
ACK
1:
A7
Receive Second Byte of Address
2:
(CKP does not reset to ‘0’ when SEN = 0)
UA (SSPxSTAT<1>)
SSPOV (SSPxCON1<6>)
BF (SSPxSTAT<0>)
CKP
4
1
Cleared in software
SSPxIF (PIR1<3> or PIR3<7>)
1
SCLx
S
1
ACK
R/W = 0
Clock is held low until
update of SSPxADD has
taken place
7
8
D1 D0
9
P
Bus master
terminates
transfer
SSPOV is set
because SSPxBUF is
still full. ACK is not sent.
ACK
FIGURE 19-12:
SDAx
Receive First Byte of Address
Clock is held low until
update of SSPxADD has
taken place
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DS39762E-page 282
2
1
3
1
4
1
CKP (SSPxCON1<4>)
UA (SSPxSTAT<1>)
BF (SSPxSTAT<0>)
5
0
6
7
A9 A8
8
UA is set indicating that
the SSPxADD needs to be
updated
SSPxBUF is written with
contents of SSPxSR
SSPxIF (PIR1<3> or PIR3<7>)
1
SCLx
S
1
9
ACK
R/W = 0
1
3
4
5
Cleared in software
2
7
UA is set indicating that
SSPxADD needs to be
updated
Cleared by hardware when
SSPxADD is updated with low
byte of address
6
8
A6 A5 A4 A3 A2 A1 A0
Receive Second Byte of Address
Dummy read of SSPxBUF
to clear BF flag
A7
9
ACK
2
3
1
4
1
Cleared in software
1
1
5
0
6
8
9
ACK
R/W = 1
1
2
4
5
6
Cleared in software
3
CKP is set in software
9
P
Completion of
data transmission
clears BF flag
8
ACK
CKP is automatically cleared in hardware, holding SCLx low
7
D7 D6 D5 D4 D3 D2 D1 D0
Transmitting Data Byte
Clock is held low until
CKP is set to ‘1’
Write of SSPxBUF
BF flag is clear
initiates transmit
at the end of the
third address sequence
7
A9 A8
Cleared by hardware when
SSPxADD is updated with high
byte of address.
Dummy read of SSPxBUF
to clear BF flag
Sr
1
Receive First Byte of Address
Clock is held low until
update of SSPxADD has
taken place
FIGURE 19-13:
SDAx
Receive First Byte of Address
Clock is held low until
update of SSPxADD has
taken place
Bus master
terminates
transfer
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19.4.4
CLOCK STRETCHING
Both 7-Bit and 10-Bit Slave modes implement
automatic clock stretching during a transmit sequence.
The SEN bit (SSPxCON2<0>) allows clock stretching
to be enabled during receives. Setting SEN will cause
the SCLx pin to be held low at the end of each data
receive sequence.
19.4.4.1
Clock Stretching for 7-Bit Slave
Receive Mode (SEN = 1)
In 7-Bit Slave Receive mode, on the falling edge of the
ninth clock at the end of the ACK sequence, if the BF
bit is set, the CKP bit in the SSPxCON1 register is
automatically cleared, forcing the SCLx output to be
held low. The CKP being cleared to ‘0’ will assert the
SCLx line low. The CKP bit must be set in the user’s
ISR before reception is allowed to continue. By holding
the SCLx line low, the user has time to service the ISR
and read the contents of the SSPxBUF before the
master device can initiate another receive sequence.
This will prevent buffer overruns from occurring (see
Figure 19-15).
Note 1: If the user reads the contents of the
SSPxBUF before the falling edge of the
ninth clock, thus clearing the BF bit, the
CKP bit will not be cleared and clock
stretching will not occur.
2: The CKP bit can be set in software regardless of the state of the BF bit. The user
should be careful to clear the BF bit in the
ISR before the next receive sequence in
order to prevent an overflow condition.
19.4.4.2
Clock Stretching for 10-Bit Slave
Receive Mode (SEN = 1)
19.4.4.3
Clock Stretching for 7-Bit Slave
Transmit Mode
The 7-Bit Slave Transmit mode implements clock
stretching by clearing the CKP bit after the falling edge
of the ninth clock, if the BF bit is clear. This occurs
regardless of the state of the SEN bit.
The user’s ISR must set the CKP bit before
transmission is allowed to continue. By holding the
SCLx line low, the user has time to service the ISR
and load the contents of the SSPxBUF before the
master device can initiate another transmit sequence
(see Figure 19-10).
Note 1: If the user loads the contents of
SSPxBUF, setting the BF bit before the
falling edge of the ninth clock, the CKP bit
will not be cleared and clock stretching
will not occur.
2: The CKP bit can be set in software
regardless of the state of the BF bit.
19.4.4.4
Clock Stretching for 10-Bit Slave
Transmit Mode
In 10-Bit Slave Transmit mode, clock stretching is
controlled during the first two address sequences by
the state of the UA bit, just as it is in 10-Bit Slave
Receive mode. The first two addresses are followed
by a third address sequence which contains the
high-order bits of the 10-bit address and the R/W bit
set to ‘1’. After the third address sequence is
performed, the UA bit is not set, the module is now
configured in Transmit mode and clock stretching is
controlled by the BF flag as in 7-Bit Slave Transmit
mode (see Figure 19-13).
In 10-Bit Slave Receive mode during the address
sequence, clock stretching automatically takes place
but CKP is not cleared. During this time, if the UA bit is
set after the ninth clock, clock stretching is initiated.
The UA bit is set after receiving the upper byte of the
10-bit address and following the receive of the second
byte of the 10-bit address with the R/W bit cleared to
‘0’. The release of the clock line occurs upon updating
SSPxADD. Clock stretching will occur on each data
receive sequence as described in 7-bit mode.
Note:
If the user polls the UA bit and clears it by
updating the SSPxADD register before the
falling edge of the ninth clock occurs and if
the user hasn’t cleared the BF bit by reading the SSPxBUF register before that time,
then the CKP bit will still NOT be asserted
low. Clock stretching on the basis of the
state of the BF bit only occurs during a
data sequence, not an address sequence.
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DS39762E-page 283
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19.4.4.5
Clock Synchronization and
the CKP bit
When the CKP bit is cleared, the SCLx output is forced
to ‘0’. However, clearing the CKP bit will not assert the
SCLx output low until the SCLx output is already sampled low. Therefore, the CKP bit will not assert the
SCLx line until an external I2C master device has
FIGURE 19-14:
already asserted the SCLx line. The SCLx output will
remain low until the CKP bit is set and all other
devices on the I2C bus have deasserted SCLx. This
ensures that a write to the CKP bit will not violate the
minimum high time requirement for SCLx (see
Figure 19-14).
CLOCK SYNCHRONIZATION TIMING
Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4
SDAx
DX – 1
DX
SCLx
CKP
Master device
asserts clock
Master device
deasserts clock
WR
SSPxCON1
DS39762E-page 284
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
2
A6
CKP
SSPOV (SSPxCON1<6>)
BF (SSPxSTAT<0>)
SSPxIF (PIR1<3> or PIR3<7>)
1
SCLx
S
A7
3
4
A4
5
A3
6
A2
Receiving Address
A5
7
A1
8
9
ACK
R/W = 0
3
4
D4
5
D3
Receiving Data
D5
Cleared in software
2
D6
If BF is cleared
prior to the falling
edge of the 9th clock,
CKP will not be reset
to ‘0’ and no clock
stretching will occur
SSPxBUF is read
1
D7
6
D2
7
D1
9
ACK
1
D7
BF is set after falling
edge of the 9th clock,
CKP is reset to ‘0’ and
clock stretching occurs
8
D0
3
4
D4
5
D3
Receiving Data
D5
CKP
written
to ‘1’ in
software
2
D6
Clock is held low until
CKP is set to ‘1’
6
D2
7
D1
8
D0
Bus master
terminates
transfer
P
SSPOV is set
because SSPxBUF is
still full. ACK is not sent.
9
ACK
Clock is not held low
because ACK = 1
FIGURE 19-15:
SDAx
Clock is not held low
because buffer full bit is
clear prior to falling edge
of 9th clock
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2
1
3
1
UA (SSPxSTAT<1>)
SSPOV (SSPxCON1<6>)
BF (SSPxSTAT<0>)
CKP
4
1
5
0
6
7
A9 A8
8
UA is set indicating that
the SSPxADD needs to be
updated
SSPxBUF is written with
contents of SSPxSR
Cleared in software
SSPxIF (PIR1<3> or PIR3<7>)
1
SCLx
S
1
9
ACK
R/W = 0
A7
2
4
A4
5
A3
6
A2
Cleared in software
3
A5
7
A1
8
A0
Note: An update of the SSPxADD
register before the falling
edge of the ninth clock will
have no effect on UA and
UA will remain set.
UA is set indicating that
SSPxADD needs to be
updated
Cleared by hardware when
SSPxADD is updated with low
byte of address after falling edge
of ninth clock
Dummy read of SSPxBUF
to clear BF flag
1
A6
Receive Second Byte of Address
9
ACK
2
4
5
6
Cleared in software
3
D3 D2
7
8
1
4
5
6
D2
Cleared in software
3
CKP written to ‘1’
in software
2
D3
Receive Data Byte
D7 D6 D5 D4
Note: An update of the SSPxADD register before the
falling edge of the ninth clock will have no effect
on UA and UA will remain set.
9
ACK
Clock is held low until
CKP is set to ‘1’
D1 D0
Cleared by hardware when
SSPxADD is updated with high
byte of address after falling edge
of ninth clock
Dummy read of SSPxBUF
to clear BF flag
1
D7 D6 D5 D4
Receive Data Byte
Clock is held low until
update of SSPxADD has
taken place
7
8
9
ACK
Bus master
terminates
transfer
P
SSPOV is set
because SSPxBUF is
still full. ACK is not sent.
D1 D0
Clock is not held low
because ACK = 1
FIGURE 19-16:
SDAx
Receive First Byte of Address
Clock is held low until
update of SSPxADD has
taken place
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19.4.5
GENERAL CALL ADDRESS
SUPPORT
If the general call address matches, the SSPxSR is
transferred to the SSPxBUF, the BF flag bit is set
(eighth bit) and on the falling edge of the ninth bit (ACK
bit), the SSPxIF interrupt flag bit is set.
The addressing procedure for the I2C bus is such that
the first byte after the Start condition usually
determines which device will be the slave addressed by
the master. The exception is the general call address,
which can address all devices. When this address is
used, all devices should, in theory, respond with an
Acknowledge.
When the interrupt is serviced, the source for the
interrupt can be checked by reading the contents of the
SSPxBUF. The value can be used to determine if the
address was device specific or a general call address.
In 10-Bit Addressing mode, the SSPxADD is required
to be updated for the second half of the address to
match and the UA bit is set (SSPxSTAT<1>). If the general call address is sampled when the GCEN bit is set,
while the slave is configured in 10-Bit Addressing
mode, then the second half of the address is not necessary, the UA bit will not be set and the slave will begin
receiving data after the Acknowledge (Figure 19-17).
The general call address is one of eight addresses
reserved for specific purposes by the I2C protocol. It
consists of all ‘0’s with R/W = 0.
The general call address is recognized when the
General Call Enable bit, GCEN, is enabled
(SSPxCON2<7> set). Following a Start bit detect, 8 bits
are shifted into the SSPxSR and the address is
compared against the SSPxADD. It is also compared to
the general call address and fixed in hardware.
FIGURE 19-17:
SLAVE MODE GENERAL CALL ADDRESS SEQUENCE
(7 OR 10-BIT ADDRESSING MODE)
Address is compared to General Call Address
after ACK, set interrupt
SCLx
S
1
2
3
4
5
Receiving Data
R/W = 0
General Call Address
SDAx
ACK D7
6
7
8
9
1
ACK
D6
D5
D4
D3
D2
D1
D0
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
SSPxIF
BF (SSPxSTAT<0>)
Cleared in software
SSPxBUF is read
SSPOV (SSPxCON1<6>)
‘0’
GCEN (SSPxCON2<7>)
‘1’
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MASTER MODE
Note:
Master mode is enabled by setting and clearing the
appropriate SSPM bits in SSPxCON1 and by setting
the SSPEN bit. In Master mode, the SCLx and SDAx
lines are manipulated by the MSSP hardware.
Master mode of operation is supported by interrupt
generation on the detection of the Start and Stop conditions. The Stop (P) and Start (S) bits are cleared from
a Reset or when the MSSP module is disabled. Control
of the I 2C bus may be taken when the P bit is set, or the
bus is Idle, with both the S and P bits clear.
The following events will cause the MSSP Interrupt
Flag bit, SSPxIF, to be set (and MSSP interrupt, if
enabled):
In Firmware Controlled Master mode, user code
conducts all I 2C bus operations based on Start and
Stop bit conditions.
•
•
•
•
•
Once Master mode is enabled, the user has six
options.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Assert a Start condition on SDAx and SCLx.
Assert a Repeated Start condition on SDAx and
SCLx.
Write to the SSPxBUF register initiating
transmission of data/address.
Configure the I2C port to receive data.
Generate an Acknowledge condition at the end
of a received byte of data.
Generate a Stop condition on SDAx and SCLx.
FIGURE 19-18:
The MSSP module, when configured in
I2C Master mode, does not allow queueing
of events. For instance, the user is not
allowed to initiate a Start condition and
immediately write the SSPxBUF register to
initiate transmission before the Start condition is complete. In this case, the
SSPxBUF will not be written to and the
WCOL bit will be set, indicating that a write
to the SSPxBUF did not occur.
Start Condition
Stop Condition
Data Transfer Byte Transmitted/Received
Acknowledge Transmit
Repeated Start
MSSP BLOCK DIAGRAM (I2C™ MASTER MODE)
Internal
Data Bus
Read
SSPM3:SSPM0
SSPxADD<6:0>
Write
SSPxBUF
SDAx
Baud
Rate
Generator
Shift
Clock
SDAx In
SCLx In
Bus Collision
DS39762E-page 288
LSb
Start bit, Stop bit,
Acknowledge
Generate
Start bit Detect
Stop bit Detect
Write Collision Detect
Clock Arbitration
State Counter for
End of XMIT/RCV
Clock Cntl
SCLx
Receive Enable
SSPxSR
MSb
Clock Arbitrate/WCOL Detect
(hold off clock source)
19.4.6
Set/Reset S, P, WCOL (SSPxSTAT, SSPxCON1)
Set SSPxIF, BCLxIF
Reset ACKSTAT, PEN (SSPxCON2)
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19.4.6.1
I2C Master Mode Operation
The master device generates all of the serial clock
pulses and the Start and Stop conditions. A transfer is
ended with a Stop condition or with a Repeated Start
condition. Since the Repeated Start condition is also
the beginning of the next serial transfer, the I2C bus will
not be released.
In Master Transmitter mode, serial data is output
through SDAx, while SCLx outputs the serial clock. The
first byte transmitted contains the slave address of the
receiving device (7 bits) and the Read/Write (R/W) bit.
In this case, the R/W bit will be logic ‘0’. Serial data is
transmitted 8 bits at a time. After each byte is transmitted, an Acknowledge bit is received. Start and Stop
conditions are output to indicate the beginning and the
end of a serial transfer.
In Master Receive mode, the first byte transmitted
contains the slave address of the transmitting device
(7 bits) and the R/W bit. In this case, the R/W bit will be
logic ‘1’. Thus, the first byte transmitted is a 7-bit slave
address followed by a ‘1’ to indicate the receive bit.
Serial data is received via SDAx, while SCLx outputs
the serial clock. Serial data is received 8 bits at a time.
After each byte is received, an Acknowledge bit is
transmitted. Start and Stop conditions indicate the
beginning and end of transmission.
The Baud Rate Generator used for the SPI mode
operation is used to set the SCLx clock frequency for
either 100 kHz, 400 kHz or 1 MHz I2C operation. See
Section 19.4.7 “Baud Rate” for more detail.
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
A typical transmit sequence would go as follows:
1.
The user generates a Start condition by setting
the Start Enable bit, SEN (SSPxCON2<0>).
2. SSPxIF is set. The MSSP module will wait the
required start time before any other operation
takes place.
3. The user loads the SSPxBUF with the slave
address to transmit.
4. Address is shifted out on the SDAx pin until all
8 bits are transmitted.
5. The MSSP module shifts in the ACK bit from the
slave device and writes its value into the
SSPxCON2 register (SSPxCON2<6>).
6. The MSSP module generates an interrupt at the
end of the ninth clock cycle by setting the
SSPxIF bit.
7. The user loads the SSPxBUF with eight bits of
data.
8. Data is shifted out on the SDAx pin until all 8 bits
are transmitted.
9. The MSSP module shifts in the ACK bit from the
slave device and writes its value into the
SSPxCON2 register (SSPxCON2<6>).
10. The MSSP module generates an interrupt at the
end of the ninth clock cycle by setting the
SSPxIF bit.
11. The user generates a Stop condition by setting
the Stop Enable bit, PEN (SSPxCON2<2>).
12. Interrupt is generated once the Stop condition is
complete.
DS39762E-page 289
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19.4.7
BAUD RATE
19.4.7.1
2
In I C Master mode, the Baud Rate Generator (BRG)
reload value is placed in the lower 7 bits of the
SSPxADD register (Figure 19-19). When a write
occurs to SSPxBUF, the Baud Rate Generator will
automatically begin counting. The BRG counts down to
0 and stops until another reload has taken place. The
BRG count is decremented twice per instruction cycle
(TCY) on the Q2 and Q4 clocks. In I2C Master mode, the
BRG is reloaded automatically.
Baud Rate and Module
Interdependence
Because MSSP1 and MSSP2 are independent, they
can operate simultaneously in I2C Master mode at
different baud rates. This is done by using different
BRG reload values for each module.
Because this mode derives its basic clock source from
the system clock, any changes to the clock will affect
both modules in the same proportion. It may be
possible to change one or both baud rates back to a
previous value by changing the BRG reload value.
Once the given operation is complete (i.e., transmission of the last data bit is followed by ACK), the internal
clock will automatically stop counting and the SCLx pin
will remain in its last state.
Table 19-3 demonstrates clock rates based on
instruction cycles and the BRG value loaded into
SSPxADD.
FIGURE 19-19:
BAUD RATE GENERATOR BLOCK DIAGRAM
SSPM3:SSPM0
SSPM3:SSPM0
SCLx
SSPxADD<6:0>
Reload
Reload
Control
CLKO
TABLE 19-3:
Note 1:
BRG Down Counter
FOSC/4
I2C™ CLOCK RATE w/BRG
FOSC
BRG Value
FSCL
(2 Rollovers of BRG)
41.667 MHz
19h
400 kHz(1)
41.667 MHz
67h
100 kHz
31.25 MHz
13h
400 kHz(1)
31.25 MHz
4Dh
100 kHz
20.833 MHz
09h
400 kHz(1)
20.833 MHz
33h
100 kHz
The I2C™ interface does not conform to the 400 kHz I2C specification (which applies to rates greater than
100 kHz) in all details, but may be used with care where higher rates are required by the application.
DS39762E-page 290
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19.4.7.2
Clock Arbitration
Clock arbitration occurs when the master, during any
receive, transmit or Repeated Start/Stop condition,
deasserts the SCLx pin (SCLx allowed to float high).
When the SCLx pin is allowed to float high, the Baud
Rate Generator (BRG) is suspended from counting
until the SCLx pin is actually sampled high. When the
FIGURE 19-20:
SDAx
SCLx pin is sampled high, the Baud Rate Generator is
reloaded with the contents of SSPxADD<6:0> and
begins counting. This ensures that the SCLx high time
will always be at least one BRG rollover count in the
event that the clock is held low by an external device
(Figure 19-20).
BAUD RATE GENERATOR TIMING WITH CLOCK ARBITRATION
DX – 1
DX
SCLx deasserted but slave holds
SCLx low (clock arbitration)
SCLx allowed to transition high
SCLx
BRG decrements on
Q2 and Q4 cycles
BRG
Value
03h
BRG
Reload
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
02h
01h
00h (hold off)
03h
02h
SCLx is sampled high, reload takes
place and BRG starts its count
DS39762E-page 291
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
19.4.8
I2C MASTER MODE START
CONDITION TIMING
Note:
To initiate a Start condition, the user sets the Start
Enable bit, SEN (SSPxCON2<0>). If the SDAx and
SCLx pins are sampled high, the Baud Rate Generator
is reloaded with the contents of SSPxADD<6:0> and
starts its count. If SCLx and SDAx are both sampled
high when the Baud Rate Generator times out (TBRG),
the SDAx pin is driven low. The action of the SDAx
being driven low while SCLx is high is the Start condition and causes the S bit (SSPxSTAT<3>) to be set.
Following this, the Baud Rate Generator is reloaded
with the contents of SSPxADD<6:0> and resumes its
count. When the Baud Rate Generator times out
(TBRG), the SEN bit (SSPxCON2<0>) will be automatically cleared by hardware. The Baud Rate
Generator is suspended, leaving the SDAx line held
low and the Start condition is complete.
FIGURE 19-21:
19.4.8.1
If, at the beginning of the Start condition,
the SDAx and SCLx pins are already sampled low, or if during the Start condition, the
SCLx line is sampled low before the SDAx
line is driven low, a bus collision occurs.
The Bus Collision Interrupt Flag, BCLxIF,
is set, the Start condition is aborted and
the I2C module is reset into its Idle state.
WCOL Status Flag
If the user writes the SSPxBUF when a Start sequence
is in progress, the WCOL is set and the contents of the
buffer are unchanged (the write doesn’t occur).
Note:
Because queueing of events is not
allowed, writing to the lower 5 bits of
SSPxCON2 is disabled until the Start
condition is complete.
FIRST START BIT TIMING
Set S bit (SSPxSTAT<3>)
Write to SEN bit occurs here
SDAx = 1,
SCLx = 1
TBRG
At completion of Start bit,
hardware clears SEN bit
and sets SSPxIF bit
TBRG
Write to SSPxBUF occurs here
1st bit
SDAx
2nd bit
TBRG
SCLx
TBRG
S
DS39762E-page 292
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
19.4.9
I2C MASTER MODE REPEATED
START CONDITION TIMING
Note 1: If RSEN is programmed while any other
event is in progress, it will not take effect.
A Repeated Start condition occurs when the RSEN bit
(SSPxCON2<1>) is programmed high and the I2C logic
module is in the Idle state. When the RSEN bit is set,
the SCLx pin is asserted low. When the SCLx pin is
sampled low, the Baud Rate Generator is loaded with
the contents of SSPxADD<6:0> and begins counting.
The SDAx pin is released (brought high) for one Baud
Rate Generator count (TBRG). When the Baud Rate
Generator times out, if SDAx is sampled high, the SCLx
pin will be deasserted (brought high). When SCLx is
sampled high, the Baud Rate Generator is reloaded
with the contents of SSPxADD<6:0> and begins counting. SDAx and SCLx must be sampled high for one
TBRG. This action is then followed by assertion of the
SDAx pin (SDAx = 0) for one TBRG while SCLx is high.
Following this, the RSEN bit (SSPxCON2<1>) will be
automatically cleared and the Baud Rate Generator will
not be reloaded, leaving the SDAx pin held low. As
soon as a Start condition is detected on the SDAx and
SCLx pins, the S bit (SSPxSTAT<3>) will be set. The
SSPxIF bit will not be set until the Baud Rate Generator
has timed out.
2: A bus collision during the Repeated Start
condition occurs if:
• SDAx is sampled low when SCLx
goes from low-to-high.
• SCLx goes low before SDAx is
asserted low. This may indicate that
another master is attempting to
transmit a data ‘1’.
Immediately following the SSPxIF bit getting set, the user
may write the SSPxBUF with the 7-bit address in 7-bit
mode or the default first address in 10-bit mode. After the
first eight bits are transmitted and an ACK is received, the
user may then transmit an additional eight bits of address
(10-bit mode) or eight bits of data (7-bit mode).
19.4.9.1
If the user writes the SSPxBUF when a Repeated Start
sequence is in progress, the WCOL is set and the
contents of the buffer are unchanged (the write doesn’t
occur).
Note:
FIGURE 19-22:
WCOL Status Flag
Because queueing of events is not
allowed, writing of the lower 5 bits of
SSPxCON2 is disabled until the Repeated
Start condition is complete.
REPEATED START CONDITION WAVEFORM
S bit set by hardware
SDAx = 1,
SCLx = 1
Write to SSPxCON2 occurs here: SDAx = 1,
SCLx (no change)
TBRG
TBRG
At completion of Start bit,
hardware clears RSEN bit
and sets SSPxIF
TBRG
1st bit
SDAx
RSEN bit set by hardware
on falling edge of ninth clock,
end of Xmit
Write to SSPxBUF occurs here
TBRG
SCLx
TBRG
Sr = Repeated Start
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS39762E-page 293
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
19.4.10
I2C MASTER MODE
TRANSMISSION
Transmission of a data byte, a 7-bit address or the
other half of a 10-bit address is accomplished by simply
writing a value to the SSPxBUF register. This action will
set the Buffer Full flag bit, BF, and allow the Baud Rate
Generator to begin counting and start the next transmission. Each bit of address/data will be shifted out
onto the SDAx pin after the falling edge of SCLx is
asserted (see data hold time specification
parameter 106). SCLx is held low for one Baud Rate
Generator rollover count (TBRG). Data should be valid
before SCLx is released high (see data setup time
specification parameter 107). When the SCLx pin is
released high, it is held that way for TBRG. The data on
the SDAx pin must remain stable for that duration and
some hold time after the next falling edge of SCLx.
After the eighth bit is shifted out (the falling edge of the
eighth clock), the BF flag is cleared and the master
releases SDAx. This allows the slave device being
addressed to respond with an ACK bit during the ninth
bit time if an address match occurred, or if data was
received properly. The status of ACK is written into the
ACKDT bit on the falling edge of the ninth clock. If the
master receives an Acknowledge, the Acknowledge
Status bit, ACKSTAT, is cleared; if not, the bit is set.
After the ninth clock, the SSPxIF bit is set and the
master clock (Baud Rate Generator) is suspended until
the next data byte is loaded into the SSPxBUF, leaving
SCLx low and SDAx unchanged (Figure 19-23).
After the write to the SSPxBUF, each bit of the address
will be shifted out on the falling edge of SCLx until all
seven address bits and the R/W bit are completed. On
the falling edge of the eighth clock, the master will
deassert the SDAx pin, allowing the slave to respond
with an Acknowledge. On the falling edge of the ninth
clock, the master will sample the SDAx pin to see if the
address was recognized by a slave. The status of the
ACK bit is loaded into the ACKSTAT status bit
(SSPxCON2<6>). Following the falling edge of the
ninth clock transmission of the address, the SSPxIF is
set, the BF flag is cleared and the Baud Rate Generator
is turned off until another write to the SSPxBUF takes
place, holding SCLx low and allowing SDAx to float.
19.4.10.1
BF Status Flag
In Transmit mode, the BF bit (SSPxSTAT<0>) is set
when the CPU writes to SSPxBUF, and is cleared when
all 8 bits are shifted out.
19.4.10.2
WCOL Status Flag
The user should verify that the WCOL is clear after
each write to SSPxBUF to ensure the transfer is
correct. In all cases, WCOL must be cleared in
software.
19.4.10.3
ACKSTAT Status Flag
In Transmit mode, the ACKSTAT bit (SSPxCON2<6>)
is cleared when the slave has sent an Acknowledge
(ACK = 0) and is set when the slave does not Acknowledge (ACK = 1). A slave sends an Acknowledge when
it has recognized its address (including a general call),
or when the slave has properly received its data.
19.4.11
I2C MASTER MODE RECEPTION
Master mode reception is enabled by programming the
Receive Enable bit, RCEN (SSPxCON2<3>).
Note:
The MSSP module must be in an Idle state
before the RCEN bit is set or the RCEN bit
will be disregarded.
The Baud Rate Generator begins counting and on each
rollover. The state of the SCLx pin changes
(high-to-low/low-to-high) and data is shifted into the
SSPxSR. After the falling edge of the eighth clock, the
receive enable flag is automatically cleared, the contents of the SSPxSR are loaded into the SSPxBUF, the
BF flag bit is set, the SSPxIF flag bit is set and the Baud
Rate Generator is suspended from counting, holding
SCLx low. The MSSP is now in Idle state awaiting the
next command. When the buffer is read by the CPU,
the BF flag bit is automatically cleared. The user can
then send an Acknowledge bit at the end of reception
by setting the Acknowledge Sequence Enable bit,
ACKEN (SSPxCON2<4>).
19.4.11.1
BF Status Flag
In receive operation, the BF bit is set when an address
or data byte is loaded into SSPxBUF from SSPxSR. It
is cleared when the SSPxBUF register is read.
19.4.11.2
SSPOV Status Flag
In receive operation, the SSPOV bit is set when 8 bits
are received into the SSPxSR and the BF flag bit is
already set from a previous reception.
19.4.11.3
WCOL Status Flag
If the user writes the SSPxBUF when a receive is
already in progress (i.e., SSPxSR is still shifting in a
data byte), the WCOL bit is set and the contents of the
buffer are unchanged (the write doesn’t occur).
If the user writes to the SSPxBUF when a transmit is
already in progress (i.e., SSPxSR is still shifting out a
data byte), the WCOL is set and the contents of the
buffer are unchanged (the write doesn’t occur) after
2 TCY after the SSPxBUF write. If SSPxBUF is rewritten
within 2 TCY, the WCOL bit is set and SSPxBUF is
updated. This may result in a corrupted transfer.
DS39762E-page 294
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
S
R/W
PEN
SEN
BF (SSPxSTAT<0>)
SSPxIF
SCLx
SDAx
A6
A5
A4
A3
A2
A1
3
4
5
Cleared in software
2
6
7
8
9
After Start condition, SEN cleared by hardware
SSPxBUF written
1
D7
1
SCLx held low
while CPU
responds to SSPxIF
ACK = 0
R/W = 0
SSPxBUF written with 7-bit address and R/W
start transmit
A7
Transmit Address to Slave
3
D5
4
D4
5
D3
6
D2
7
D1
8
D0
SSPxBUF is written in software
Cleared in software service routine
from MSSP interrupt
2
D6
Transmitting Data or Second Half
of 10-bit Address
P
ACKSTAT in
SSPxCON2 = 1
Cleared in software
9
ACK
From slave, clear ACKSTAT bit (SSPxCON2<6>)
FIGURE 19-23:
SEN = 0
Write SSPxCON2<0> (SEN = 1),
Start condition begins
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
I 2C™ MASTER MODE WAVEFORM (TRANSMISSION, 7 OR 10-BIT ADDRESS)
DS39762E-page 295
DS39762E-page 296
S
ACKEN
SSPOV
BF
(SSPxSTAT<0>)
SDAx = 0, SCLx = 1
while CPU
responds to SSPxIF
SSPxIF
SCLx
SDAx
1
A7
2
4
5
Cleared in software
3
6
A6 A5 A4 A3 A2
Transmit Address to Slave
7
A1
8
9
R/W = 1
ACK
2
3
5
6
7
8
D0
9
ACK
2
3
4
5
6
7
Cleared in software
Set SSPxIF interrupt
at end of Acknowledge
sequence
Data shifted in on falling edge of CLK
1
D7 D6 D5 D4 D3 D2 D1
Cleared in
software
Set SSPxIF at end
of receive
9
ACK is not sent
ACK
P
Set SSPxIF interrupt
at end of Acknowledge sequence
Bus master
terminates
transfer
Set P bit
(SSPxSTAT<4>)
and SSPxIF
PEN bit = 1
written here
SSPOV is set because
SSPxBUF is still full
8
D0
RCEN cleared
automatically
Set ACKEN, start Acknowledge sequence
SDAx = ACKDT = 1
Receiving Data from Slave
RCEN = 1, start
next receive
ACK from Master,
SDAx = ACKDT = 0
Last bit is shifted into SSPxSR and
contents are unloaded into SSPxBUF
Cleared in software
Set SSPxIF interrupt
at end of receive
4
Cleared in software
1
D7 D6 D5 D4 D3 D2 D1
Receiving Data from Slave
RCEN cleared
automatically
Master configured as a receiver
by programming SSPxCON2<3> (RCEN = 1)
FIGURE 19-24:
SEN = 0
Write to SSPxBUF occurs here,
ACK from Slave
start XMIT
Write to SSPxCON2<0> (SEN = 1),
begin Start condition
Write to SSPxCON2<4>
to start Acknowledge sequence
SDAx = ACKDT (SSPxCON2<5>) = 0
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I 2C™ MASTER MODE WAVEFORM (RECEPTION, 7-BIT ADDRESS)
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
19.4.12
ACKNOWLEDGE SEQUENCE
TIMING
19.4.13
A Stop bit is asserted on the SDAx pin at the end of a
receive/transmit by setting the Stop Sequence Enable
bit, PEN (SSPxCON2<2>). At the end of a
receive/transmit, the SCLx line is held low after the falling edge of the ninth clock. When the PEN bit is set, the
master will assert the SDAx line low. When the SDAx
line is sampled low, the Baud Rate Generator is
reloaded and counts down to ‘0’. When the Baud Rate
Generator times out, the SCLx pin will be brought high
and one TBRG (Baud Rate Generator rollover count)
later, the SDAx pin will be deasserted. When the SDAx
pin is sampled high while SCLx is high, the P bit
(SSPxSTAT<4>) is set. A TBRG later, the PEN bit is
cleared and the SSPxIF bit is set (Figure 19-26).
An Acknowledge sequence is enabled by setting the
Acknowledge Sequence Enable bit, ACKEN
(SSPxCON2<4>). When this bit is set, the SCLx pin is
pulled low and the contents of the Acknowledge data bit
are presented on the SDAx pin. If the user wishes to
generate an Acknowledge, then the ACKDT bit should
be cleared. If not, the user should set the ACKDT bit
before starting an Acknowledge sequence. The Baud
Rate Generator then counts for one rollover period
(TBRG) and the SCLx pin is deasserted (pulled high).
When the SCLx pin is sampled high (clock arbitration),
the Baud Rate Generator counts for TBRG. The SCLx pin
is then pulled low. Following this, the ACKEN bit is automatically cleared, the Baud Rate Generator is turned off
and the MSSP module then goes into Idle mode
(Figure 19-25).
19.4.12.1
19.4.13.1
WCOL Status Flag
If the user writes the SSPxBUF when a Stop sequence
is in progress, then the WCOL bit is set and the
contents of the buffer are unchanged (the write doesn’t
occur).
WCOL Status Flag
If the user writes the SSPxBUF when an Acknowledge
sequence is in progress, then WCOL is set and the
contents of the buffer are unchanged (the write doesn’t
occur).
FIGURE 19-25:
STOP CONDITION TIMING
ACKNOWLEDGE SEQUENCE WAVEFORM
Acknowledge sequence starts here,
write to SSPxCON2
ACKEN = 1, ACKDT = 0
SDAx
ACKEN automatically cleared
TBRG
ACK
D0
SCLx
TBRG
8
9
SSPxIF
Cleared in
software
SSPxIF set at
the end of receive
Cleared in
software
SSPxIF set at the end
of Acknowledge sequence
Note: TBRG = one Baud Rate Generator period.
FIGURE 19-26:
STOP CONDITION RECEIVE OR TRANSMIT MODE
SCLx = 1 for TBRG, followed by SDAx = 1 for TBRG
after SDAx sampled high. P bit (SSPxSTAT<4>) is set.
Write to SSPxCON2,
set PEN
Falling edge of
9th clock
SCLx
SDAx
PEN bit (SSPxCON2<2>) is cleared by
hardware and the SSPxIF bit is set
TBRG
ACK
P
TBRG
TBRG
TBRG
SCLx brought high after TBRG
SDAx asserted low before rising edge of clock
to setup Stop condition
Note: TBRG = one Baud Rate Generator period.
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS39762E-page 297
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
19.4.14
SLEEP OPERATION
19.4.17
2
While in Sleep mode, the I C module can receive
addresses or data and when an address match or
complete byte transfer occurs, wake the processor
from Sleep (if the MSSP interrupt is enabled).
19.4.15
EFFECTS OF A RESET
A Reset disables the MSSP module and terminates the
current transfer.
19.4.16
MULTI-MASTER MODE
In Multi-Master mode, the interrupt generation on the
detection of the Start and Stop conditions allows the
determination of when the bus is free. The Stop (P) and
Start (S) bits are cleared from a Reset or when the
MSSP module is disabled. Control of the I 2C bus may
be taken when the P bit (SSPxSTAT<4>) is set, or the
bus is Idle, with both the S and P bits clear. When the
bus is busy, enabling the MSSP interrupt will generate
the interrupt when the Stop condition occurs.
In multi-master operation, the SDAx line must be
monitored for arbitration to see if the signal level is the
expected output level. This check is performed in
hardware with the result placed in the BCLxIF bit.
The states where arbitration can be lost are:
•
•
•
•
•
Address Transfer
Data Transfer
A Start Condition
A Repeated Start Condition
An Acknowledge Condition
MULTI -MASTER COMMUNICATION,
BUS COLLISION AND BUS
ARBITRATION
Multi-Master mode support is achieved by bus arbitration. When the master outputs address/data bits onto
the SDAx pin, arbitration takes place when the master
outputs a ‘1’ on SDAx, by letting SDAx float high and
another master asserts a ‘0’. When the SCLx pin floats
high, data should be stable. If the expected data on
SDAx is a ‘1’ and the data sampled on the SDAx
pin = 0, then a bus collision has taken place. The
master will set the Bus Collision Interrupt Flag, BCLxIF
and reset the I2C port to its Idle state (Figure 19-27).
If a transmit was in progress when the bus collision
occurred, the transmission is halted, the BF flag is
cleared, the SDAx and SCLx lines are deasserted and
the SSPxBUF can be written to. When the user services
the bus collision Interrupt Service Routine and if the I2C
bus is free, the user can resume communication by
asserting a Start condition.
If a Start, Repeated Start, Stop or Acknowledge condition
was in progress when the bus collision occurred, the
condition is aborted, the SDAx and SCLx lines are
deasserted and the respective control bits in the
SSPxCON2 register are cleared. When the user services
the bus collision Interrupt Service Routine and if the I2C
bus is free, the user can resume communication by
asserting a Start condition.
The master will continue to monitor the SDAx and SCLx
pins. If a Stop condition occurs, the SSPxIF bit will be set.
A write to the SSPxBUF will start the transmission of
data at the first data bit regardless of where the
transmitter left off when the bus collision occurred.
In Multi-Master mode, the interrupt generation on the
detection of Start and Stop conditions allows the determination of when the bus is free. Control of the I2C bus
can be taken when the P bit is set in the SSPxSTAT
register, or the bus is Idle and the S and P bits are
cleared.
FIGURE 19-27:
BUS COLLISION TIMING FOR TRANSMIT AND ACKNOWLEDGE
Data changes
while SCLx = 0
SDAx line pulled low
by another source
SDAx released
by master
Sample SDAx. While SCLx is high,
data doesn’t match what is driven
by the master.
Bus collision has occurred.
SDAx
SCLx
Set bus collision
interrupt (BCLxIF)
BCLxIF
DS39762E-page 298
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
19.4.17.1
Bus Collision During a Start
Condition
During a Start condition, a bus collision occurs if:
a)
b)
SDAx or SCLx are sampled low at the beginning
of the Start condition (Figure 19-28).
SCLx is sampled low before SDAx is asserted
low (Figure 19-29).
During a Start condition, both the SDAx and the SCLx
pins are monitored.
If the SDAx pin is sampled low during this count, the
BRG is reset and the SDAx line is asserted early
(Figure 19-30). If, however, a ‘1’ is sampled on the
SDAx pin, the SDAx pin is asserted low at the end of
the BRG count. The Baud Rate Generator is then
reloaded and counts down to 0. If the SCLx pin is
sampled as ‘0’ during this time, a bus collision does not
occur. At the end of the BRG count, the SCLx pin is
asserted low.
Note:
If the SDAx pin is already low, or the SCLx pin is
already low, then all of the following occur:
• the Start condition is aborted;
• the BCLxIF flag is set; and
• the MSSP module is reset to its Idle state
(Figure 19-28).
The Start condition begins with the SDAx and SCLx
pins deasserted. When the SDAx pin is sampled high,
the Baud Rate Generator is loaded from
SSPxADD<6:0> and counts down to 0. If the SCLx pin
is sampled low while SDAx is high, a bus collision
occurs, because it is assumed that another master is
attempting to drive a data ‘1’ during the Start condition.
FIGURE 19-28:
The reason that bus collision is not a factor
during a Start condition is that no two bus
masters can assert a Start condition at the
exact same time. Therefore, one master
will always assert SDAx before the other.
This condition does not cause a bus collision because the two masters must be
allowed to arbitrate the first address
following the Start condition. If the address
is the same, arbitration must be allowed to
continue into the data portion, Repeated
Start or Stop conditions.
BUS COLLISION DURING START CONDITION (SDAx ONLY)
SDAx goes low before the SEN bit is set.
Set BCLxIF,
S bit and SSPxIF set because
SDAx = 0, SCLx = 1.
SDAx
SCLx
Set SEN, enable Start
condition if SDAx = 1, SCLx = 1
SEN cleared automatically because of bus collision.
MSSP module reset into Idle state.
SEN
BCLxIF
SDAx sampled low before
Start condition. Set BCLxIF.
S bit and SSPxIF set because
SDAx = 0, SCLx = 1.
SSPxIF and BCLxIF are
cleared in software
S
SSPxIF
SSPxIF and BCLxIF are
cleared in software
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS39762E-page 299
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
FIGURE 19-29:
BUS COLLISION DURING START CONDITION (SCLx = 0)
SDAx = 0, SCLx = 1
TBRG
TBRG
SDAx
Set SEN, enable Start
sequence if SDAx = 1, SCLx = 1
SCLx
SCLx = 0 before SDAx = 0,
bus collision occurs. Set BCLxIF.
SEN
SCLx = 0 before BRG time-out,
bus collision occurs. Set BCLxIF.
BCLxIF
Interrupt cleared
in software
S
‘0’
‘0’
SSPxIF
‘0’
‘0’
FIGURE 19-30:
BRG RESET DUE TO SDAx ARBITRATION DURING START CONDITION
SDAx = 0, SCLx = 1
Set S
Less than TBRG
SDAx
SCLx
Set SSPxIF
TBRG
SDAx pulled low by other master.
Reset BRG and assert SDAx.
S
SCLx pulled low after BRG
time-out
SEN
Set SEN, enable Start
sequence if SDAx = 1, SCLx = 1
‘0’
BCLxIF
S
SSPxIF
SDAx = 0, SCLx = 1,
set SSPxIF
DS39762E-page 300
Interrupts cleared
in software
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
19.4.17.2
Bus Collision During a Repeated
Start Condition
reloaded and begins counting. If SDAx goes from
high-to-low before the BRG times out, no bus collision
occurs because no two masters can assert SDAx at
exactly the same time.
During a Repeated Start condition, a bus collision
occurs if:
a)
b)
If SCLx goes from high-to-low before the BRG times
out and SDAx has not already been asserted, a bus
collision occurs. In this case, another master is
attempting to transmit a data ‘1’ during the Repeated
Start condition (see Figure 19-32).
A low level is sampled on SDAx when SCLx
goes from low level to high level.
SCLx goes low before SDAx is asserted low,
indicating that another master is attempting to
transmit a data ‘1’.
If, at the end of the BRG time-out, both SCLx and SDAx
are still high, the SDAx pin is driven low and the BRG
is reloaded and begins counting. At the end of the
count, regardless of the status of the SCLx pin, the
SCLx pin is driven low and the Repeated Start
condition is complete.
When the user deasserts SDAx and the pin is allowed
to float high, the BRG is loaded with SSPxADD<6:0>
and counts down to 0. The SCLx pin is then deasserted
and when sampled high, the SDAx pin is sampled.
If SDAx is low, a bus collision has occurred (i.e., another
master is attempting to transmit a data ‘0’, see
Figure 19-31). If SDAx is sampled high, the BRG is
FIGURE 19-31:
BUS COLLISION DURING A REPEATED START CONDITION (CASE 1)
SDAx
SCLx
Sample SDAx when SCLx goes high.
If SDAx = 0, set BCLxIF and release SDAx and SCLx.
RSEN
BCLxIF
Cleared in software
S
‘0’
SSPxIF
‘0’
FIGURE 19-32:
BUS COLLISION DURING REPEATED START CONDITION (CASE 2)
TBRG
TBRG
SDAx
SCLx
BCLxIF
SCLx goes low before SDAx,
set BCLxIF. Release SDAx and SCLx.
Interrupt cleared
in software
RSEN
S
‘0’
SSPxIF
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS39762E-page 301
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
19.4.17.3
Bus Collision During a Stop
Condition
The Stop condition begins with SDAx asserted low.
When SDAx is sampled low, the SCLx pin is allowed to
float. When the pin is sampled high (clock arbitration),
the Baud Rate Generator is loaded with
SSPxADD<6:0> and counts down to 0. After the BRG
times out, SDAx is sampled. If SDAx is sampled low, a
bus collision has occurred. This is due to another
master attempting to drive a data ‘0’ (Figure 19-33). If
the SCLx pin is sampled low before SDAx is allowed to
float high, a bus collision occurs. This is another case
of another master attempting to drive a data ‘0’
(Figure 19-34).
Bus collision occurs during a Stop condition if:
a)
b)
After the SDAx pin has been deasserted and
allowed to float high, SDAx is sampled low after
the BRG has timed out.
After the SCLx pin is deasserted, SCLx is
sampled low before SDAx goes high.
FIGURE 19-33:
BUS COLLISION DURING A STOP CONDITION (CASE 1)
TBRG
TBRG
SDAx sampled
low after TBRG,
set BCLxIF
TBRG
SDAx
SDAx asserted low
SCLx
PEN
BCLxIF
P
‘0’
SSPxIF
‘0’
FIGURE 19-34:
BUS COLLISION DURING A STOP CONDITION (CASE 2)
TBRG
TBRG
TBRG
SDAx
Assert SDAx
SCLx
SCLx goes low before SDAx goes high,
set BCLxIF
PEN
BCLxIF
P
‘0’
SSPxIF
‘0’
DS39762E-page 302
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
TABLE 19-4:
Name
REGISTERS ASSOCIATED WITH I2C™ OPERATION
Bit 7
INTCON
Bit 6
GIE/GIEH PEIE/GIEL
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
Reset
Values
on Page:
TMR0IE
INT0IE
RBIE
TMR0IF
INT0IF
RBIF
63
PIR1
PSPIF
ADIF
RC1IF
TX1IF
SSP1IF
CCP1IF
TMR2IF
TMR1IF
65
PIE1
PSPIE
ADIE
RC1IE
TX1IE
SSP1IE
CCP1IE
TMR2IE
TMR1IE
65
65
IPR1
PSPIP
ADIP
RC1IP
TX1IP
SSP1IP
CCP1IP
TMR2IP
TMR1IP
PIR2
OSCFIF
CMIF
ETHIF
r
BCL1IF
—
TMR3IF
CCP2IF
65
PIE2
OSCFIE
CMIE
ETHIE
r
BCL1IE
—
TMR3IE
CCP2IE
65
IPR2
OSCFIP
CMIP
ETHIP
r
BCL1IP
—
TMR3IP
CCP2IP
65
PIR3
SSP2IF(1)
BCL2IF(1)
RC2IF
TX2IF
TMR4IF
CCP5IF
CCP4IF
CCP3IF
65
PIE3
SSP2IE(1)
BCL2IE
(1)
RC2IE
TX2IE
TMR4IE
CCP5IE
CCP4IE
CCP3IE
65
IPR3
SSP2IP(1)
BCL2IP(1)
RC2IP
TX2IP
TMR4IP
CCP5IP
CCP4IP
CCP3IP
65
TRISC
TRISC7
TRISC6
TRISC5
TRISC4
TRISC3
TRISC2
TRISC1
TRISC0
65
TRISD
TRISD7
TRISD6(1)
TRISD5(1)
TRISD4
TRISD3
TRISD2
TRISD1
TRISD0
65
SSP1BUF
MSSP1 Receive Buffer/Transmit Register
64
SSP1ADD
MSSP1 Address Register (I2C™ Slave mode), MSSP1 Baud Rate Reload Register (I2C Master mode)
67
SSP1CON1
WCOL
SSPOV
SSPEN
CKP
SSPM3
SSPM2
SSPM1
SSPM0
64
SSP1CON2
GCEN
ACKSTAT
ACKDT
ACKEN
RCEN
PEN
RSEN
SEN
64
GCEN
ACKSTAT ADMSK5(2) ADMSK4(2) ADMSK3(2) ADMSK2(2) ADMSK1(2)
SSP1STAT
SMP
CKE
P
D/A
S
R/W
UA
SEN
BF
SSP2BUF
MSSP2 Receive Buffer/Transmit Register
SSP2ADD
MSSP2 Address Register (I2C Slave mode), MSSP2 Baud Rate Reload Register (I2C Master mode)
64
64
67
SSP2CON1
WCOL
SSPOV
SSPEN
CKP
SSPM3
SSPM2
SSPM1
SSPM0
67
SSP2CON2
GCEN
ACKSTAT
ACKDT
ACKEN
RCEN
PEN
RSEN
SEN
67
GCEN
ACKSTAT ADMSK5(2) ADMSK4(2) ADMSK3(2) ADMSK2(2) ADMSK1(2)
SSP2STAT
Legend:
Note 1:
2:
SMP
CKE
D/A
P
S
R/W
UA
SEN
BF
67
— = unimplemented, read as ‘0’, r = reserved. Shaded cells are not used by the MSSP module in I2C™ mode.
These bits are only available in 100-pin devices; otherwise, they are unimplemented and read as ‘0’.
Alternate bit definitions in I2C™ Slave mode.
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS39762E-page 303
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
NOTES:
DS39762E-page 304
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
20.0
ENHANCED UNIVERSAL
SYNCHRONOUS
ASYNCHRONOUS RECEIVER
TRANSMITTER (EUSART)
The Enhanced Universal Synchronous Asynchronous
Receiver Transmitter (EUSART) module is one of two
serial I/O modules. (Generically, the EUSART is also
known as a Serial Communications Interface or SCI.)
The EUSART can be configured as a full-duplex
asynchronous system that can communicate with
peripheral devices, such as CRT terminals and
personal computers. It can also be configured as a
half-duplex synchronous system that can communicate
with peripheral devices, such as A/D or D/A integrated
circuits, serial EEPROMs, etc.
The Enhanced USART module implements additional
features, including automatic baud rate detection and
calibration, automatic wake-up on Sync Break reception
and 12-bit Break character transmit. These features
make it ideally suited for use in Local Interconnect
Network bus (LIN bus) systems.
The 64-pin devices of the PIC18F97J60 family are
equipped with one EUSART module, referred to as
EUSART1. The 80-pin and 100-pin devices each have
two independent EUSART modules, referred to as
EUSART1 and EUSART2. They can be configured in
the following modes:
• Asynchronous (full-duplex) with:
- Auto-Wake-up on Character Reception
- Auto-Baud Calibration
- 12-Bit Break Character Transmission
• Synchronous – Master (half-duplex) with
Selectable Clock Polarity
• Synchronous – Slave (half-duplex) with
Selectable Clock Polarity
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
The pins of EUSART1 and EUSART2 are multiplexed
with the functions of PORTC (RC6/TX1/CK1 and
RC7/RX1/DT1) and PORTG (RG1/TX2/CK2 and
RG2/RX2/DT2), respectively. In order to configure
these pins as an EUSART:
• For EUSART1:
- bit SPEN (RCSTA1<7>) must be set (= 1)
- bit TRISC<7> must be set (= 1)
- bit TRISC<6> must be cleared (= 0) for
Asynchronous and Synchronous Master
modes
- bit TRISC<6> must be set (= 1) for
Synchronous Slave mode
• For EUSART2:
- bit SPEN (RCSTA2<7>) must be set (= 1)
- bit TRISG<2> must be set (= 1)
- bit TRISG<1> must be cleared (= 0) for
Asynchronous and Synchronous Master
modes
- bit TRISG<1> must be set (= 1) for
Synchronous Slave mode
Note:
The EUSARTx control will automatically
reconfigure the pin from input to output as
needed.
The operation of each Enhanced USART module is
controlled through three registers:
• Transmit Status and Control (TXSTAx)
• Receive Status and Control (RCSTAx)
• Baud Rate Control (BAUDCONx)
These are detailed on the following pages in
Register 20-1, Register 20-2 and Register 20-3,
respectively.
Note:
Throughout this section, references to
register and bit names that may be associated with a specific EUSART module are
referred to generically by the use of ‘x’ in
place of the specific module number.
Thus, “RCSTAx” might refer to the
Receive Status register for either
EUSART1 or EUSART2.
DS39762E-page 305
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
REGISTER 20-1:
R/W-0
CSRC
TXSTAx: TRANSMIT STATUS AND CONTROL REGISTER x
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R-1
R/W-0
TX9
TXEN(1)
SYNC
SENDB
BRGH
TRMT
TX9D
bit 7
bit 0
Legend:
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
-n = Value at POR
‘1’ = Bit is set
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
x = Bit is unknown
bit 7
CSRC: Clock Source Select bit
Asynchronous mode:
Don’t care.
Synchronous mode:
1 = Master mode (clock generated internally from BRG)
0 = Slave mode (clock from external source)
bit 6
TX9: 9-Bit Transmit Enable bit
1 = Selects 9-bit transmission
0 = Selects 8-bit transmission
bit 5
TXEN: Transmit Enable bit(1)
1 = Transmit enabled
0 = Transmit disabled
bit 4
SYNC: EUSARTx Mode Select bit
1 = Synchronous mode
0 = Asynchronous mode
bit 3
SENDB: Send Break Character bit
Asynchronous mode:
1 = Send Sync Break on next transmission (cleared by hardware upon completion)
0 = Sync Break transmission completed
Synchronous mode:
Don’t care.
bit 2
BRGH: High Baud Rate Select bit
Asynchronous mode:
1 = High speed
0 = Low speed
Synchronous mode:
Unused in this mode.
bit 1
TRMT: Transmit Shift Register Status bit
1 = TSR empty
0 = TSR full
bit 0
TX9D: 9th bit of Transmit Data
Can be address/data bit or a parity bit.
Note 1:
SREN/CREN overrides TXEN in Sync mode.
DS39762E-page 306
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
REGISTER 20-2:
RCSTAx: RECEIVE STATUS AND CONTROL REGISTER x
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R-0
R-0
R-x
SPEN
RX9
SREN
CREN
ADDEN
FERR
OERR
RX9D
bit 7
bit 0
Legend:
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
-n = Value at POR
‘1’ = Bit is set
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
x = Bit is unknown
bit 7
SPEN: Serial Port Enable bit
1 = Serial port enabled (configures RXx/DTx and TXx/CKx pins as serial port pins)
0 = Serial port disabled (held in Reset)
bit 6
RX9: 9-Bit Receive Enable bit
1 = Selects 9-bit reception
0 = Selects 8-bit reception
bit 5
SREN: Single Receive Enable bit
Asynchronous mode:
Don’t care.
Synchronous mode – Master:
1 = Enables single receive
0 = Disables single receive
This bit is cleared after reception is complete.
Synchronous mode – Slave:
Don’t care.
bit 4
CREN: Continuous Receive Enable bit
Asynchronous mode:
1 = Enables receiver
0 = Disables receiver
Synchronous mode:
1 = Enables continuous receive until enable bit, CREN, is cleared (CREN overrides SREN)
0 = Disables continuous receive
bit 3
ADDEN: Address Detect Enable bit
9-Bit Asynchronous mode (RX9 = 1):
1 = Enables address detection, enables interrupt and loads the receive buffer when RSR<8> is set
0 = Disables address detection, all bytes are received and ninth bit can be used as parity bit
9-Bit Asynchronous mode (RX9 = 0):
Don’t care.
bit 2
FERR: Framing Error bit
1 = Framing error (can be updated by reading RCREGx register and receiving next valid byte)
0 = No framing error
bit 1
OERR: Overrun Error bit
1 = Overrun error (can be cleared by clearing bit, CREN)
0 = No overrun error
bit 0
RX9D: 9th bit of Received Data
This can be an address/data bit or a parity bit and must be calculated by user firmware.
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS39762E-page 307
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
REGISTER 20-3:
BAUDCONx: BAUD RATE CONTROL REGISTER x
R/W-0
R-1
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
U-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
ABDOVF
RCIDL
RXDTP
TXCKP
BRG16
—
WUE
ABDEN
bit 7
bit 0
Legend:
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
-n = Value at POR
‘1’ = Bit is set
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
x = Bit is unknown
bit 7
ABDOVF: Auto-Baud Acquisition Rollover Status bit
1 = A BRG rollover has occurred during Auto-Baud Rate Detect mode (must be cleared in software)
0 = No BRG rollover has occurred
bit 6
RCIDL: Receive Operation Idle Status bit
1 = Receive operation is Idle
0 = Receive operation is active
bit 5
RXDTP: Received Data Polarity Select bit
Asynchronous mode:
1 = Receive data (RXx) is inverted. Idle state is a low level.
0 = No inversion of receive data (RXx). Idle state is a high level.
Synchronous modes:
1 = Data (DTx) is inverted. Idle state is a low level.
0 = No inversion of data (DTx). Idle state is a high level.
bit 4
TXCKP: Clock and Data Polarity Select bit
Asynchronous mode:
1 = Transmit data (TXx) is inverted. Idle state is a low level.
0 = No inversion of transmit data (TXx). Idle state is a high level.
Synchronous modes:
1 = Idle state for clock (CKx) is a high level.
0 = Idle state for clock (CKx) is a low level.
bit 3
BRG16: 16-Bit Baud Rate Register Enable bit
1 = 16-bit Baud Rate Generator – SPBRGHx and SPBRGx
0 = 8-bit Baud Rate Generator – SPBRGx only, SPBRGHx value ignored (Compatible mode)
bit 2
Unimplemented: Read as ‘0’
bit 1
WUE: Wake-up Enable bit
Asynchronous mode:
1 = EUSARTx will continue to sample the RXx pin – interrupt generated on falling edge; bit cleared in
hardware on following rising edge
0 = RXx pin not monitored or rising edge detected
Synchronous mode:
Unused in this mode.
bit 0
ABDEN: Auto-Baud Detect Enable bit
Asynchronous mode:
1 = Enable baud rate measurement on the next character. Requires reception of a Sync field (55h);
cleared in hardware upon completion.
0 = Baud rate measurement disabled or completed
Synchronous mode:
Unused in this mode.
DS39762E-page 308
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
20.1
Baud Rate Generator (BRG)
The BRG is a dedicated 8-bit or 16-bit generator that
supports both the Asynchronous and Synchronous
modes of the EUSARTx. By default, the BRG operates
in 8-bit mode; setting the BRG16 bit (BAUDCONx<3>)
selects 16-bit mode.
The SPBRGHx:SPBRGx register pair controls the period
of a free-running timer. In Asynchronous mode, bits
BRGH (TXSTAx<2>) and BRG16 (BAUDCONx<3>) also
control the baud rate. In Synchronous mode, BRGH is
ignored. Table 20-1 shows the formula for computation of
the baud rate for different EUSARTx modes which only
apply in Master mode (internally generated clock).
Given the desired baud rate and FOSC, the nearest
integer value for the SPBRGHx:SPBRGx registers can
be calculated using the formulas in Table 20-1. From this,
the error in baud rate can be determined. An example
calculation is shown in Example 20-1. Typical baud rates
and error values for the various Asynchronous modes
are shown in Table 20-2. It may be advantageous to use
TABLE 20-1:
the high baud rate (BRGH = 1), or the 16-bit BRG to
reduce the baud rate error, or achieve a slow baud rate
for a fast oscillator frequency.
Writing a new value to the SPBRGHx:SPBRGx registers causes the BRG timer to be reset (or cleared). This
ensures that the BRG does not wait for a timer overflow
before outputting the new baud rate.
20.1.1
OPERATION IN POWER-MANAGED
MODES
The device clock is used to generate the desired baud
rate. When one of the power-managed modes is
entered, the new clock source may be operating at a
different frequency. This may require an adjustment to
the value in the SPBRGx register pair.
20.1.2
SAMPLING
The data on the RXx pin (either RC7/RX1/DT1 or
RG2/RX2/DT2) is sampled three times by a majority
detect circuit to determine if a high or a low level is
present at the RXx pin.
BAUD RATE FORMULAS
Configuration Bits
BRG/EUSARTx Mode
Baud Rate Formula
8-bit/Asynchronous
FOSC/[64 (n + 1)]
SYNC
BRG16
BRGH
0
0
0
0
0
1
8-bit/Asynchronous
0
1
0
16-bit/Asynchronous
0
1
1
16-bit/Asynchronous
1
0
x
8-bit/Synchronous
1
1
x
16-bit/Synchronous
FOSC/[16 (n + 1)]
FOSC/[4 (n + 1)]
Legend: x = Don’t care, n = value of SPBRGHx:SPBRGx register pair
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS39762E-page 309
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
EXAMPLE 20-1:
CALCULATING BAUD RATE ERROR
For a device with FOSC of 16 MHz, desired baud rate of 9600, Asynchronous mode, 8-bit BRG:
Desired Baud Rate
= FOSC/(64 ([SPBRGHx:SPBRGx] + 1))
Solving for SPBRGHx:SPBRGx:
X
= ((FOSC/Desired Baud Rate)/64) – 1
= ((16000000/9600)/64) – 1
= [25.042] = 25
Calculated Baud Rate = 16000000/(64 (25 + 1))
= 9615
Error
= (Calculated Baud Rate – Desired Baud Rate)/Desired Baud Rate
= (9615 – 9600)/9600 = 0.16%
TABLE 20-2:
REGISTERS ASSOCIATED WITH BAUD RATE GENERATOR
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
Reset Values
on Page:
TXSTAx
CSRC
TX9
TXEN
SYNC
SENDB
BRGH
TRMT
TX9D
65
RCSTAx
SPEN
Name
BAUDCONx ABDOVF
RX9
SREN
CREN
ADDEN
FERR
OERR
RX9D
65
RCIDL
RXDTP
TXCKP
BRG16
—
WUE
ABDEN
66
SPBRGHx
EUSARTx Baud Rate Generator Register High Byte
66
SPBRGx
EUSARTx Baud Rate Generator Register Low Byte
66
Legend: — = unimplemented, read as ‘0’. Shaded cells are not used by the BRG.
DS39762E-page 310
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
TABLE 20-3:
BAUD RATES FOR ASYNCHRONOUS MODES
SYNC = 0, BRG16 = 0, BRGH = 0
BAUD
RATE
(K)
FOSC = 41.667 MHz
Actual
Rate (K)
%
Error
FOSC = 31.25 MHz
SPBRG
Actual
Value
Rate (K)
(decimal)
%
Error
FOSC = 25.000 MHz
SPBRG
Actual
Value
Rate (K)
(decimal)
%
Error
FOSC = 20.833 MHz
SPBRG
Actual
Value
Rate (K)
(decimal)
%
Error
SPBRG
Value
(decimal)
0.3
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
1.2
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
1.271
5.96
255
135
2.4
2.543
5.96
255
2.405
0.22
202
2.396
-0.15
162
2.393
-0.27
9.6
9.574
-0.27
67
9.574
-0.27
50
9.527
-0.76
40
9.574
-0.27
33
19.2
19.148
-0.27
33
19.531
1.73
24
19.531
1.73
19
19.147
-0.27
16
57.6
59.186
2.75
10
61.035
5.96
7
55.804
-3.12
6
54.253
-5.81
5
115.2
108.508
-5.81
5
122.070
5.96
3
130.208
13.03
2
108.505
-5.81
2
SYNC = 0, BRG16 = 0, BRGH = 0
BAUD
RATE
(K)
FOSC = 13.889 MHz
Actual
Rate (K)
%
Error
FOSC = 6.250 MHz
SPBRG
Actual
Value
Rate (K)
(decimal)
%
Error
FOSC = 4.167 MHz
SPBRG
Actual
Value
Rate (K)
(decimal)
%
Error
SPBRG
Value
(decimal)
0.3
—
—
—
—
—
—
0.300
0.01
216
1.2
1.198
-0.08
180
1.206
0.47
80
1.206
0.48
53
2.4
2.411
0.47
89
2.382
-0.76
40
2.411
0.48
26
9.6
9.435
-1.71
22
9.766
1.73
9
9.301
-3.11
6
19.2
19.279
2.75
10
19.531
1.73
4
21.703
13.04
2
57.6
54.254
-5.81
3
48.828
-15.23
1
65.109
13.04
0
115.2
108.508
-5.81
1
97.656
-15.23
0
65.109
-43.48
0
SYNC = 0, BRG16 = 0, BRGH = 1
BAUD
RATE
(K)
0.3
1.2
FOSC = 41.667 MHz
Actual
Rate (K)
%
Error
—
—
—
—
FOSC = 31.25 MHz
SPBRG
Actual
Value
Rate (K)
(decimal)
—
—
—
—
%
Error
—
—
FOSC = 25.000 MHz
SPBRG
Actual
Value
Rate (K)
(decimal)
—
—
—
—
%
Error
—
—
FOSC = 20.833 MHz
SPBRG
Actual
Value
Rate (K)
(decimal)
—
—
—
—
%
Error
SPBRG
Value
(decimal)
—
—
—
—
2.4
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
9.6
10.172
5.96
255
9.621
0.22
202
9.586
-0.15
162
9.573
-0.27
135
19.2
19.148
-0.27
135
19.148
-0.27
101
19.290
0.47
80
19.147
-0.27
67
57.6
57.871
0.47
44
57.445
-0.27
33
57.870
0.47
26
56.611
-1.72
22
115.2
113.226
-1.71
22
114.890
-0.27
16
111.607
-3.12
13
118.369
2.75
10
SYNC = 0, BRG16 = 0, BRGH = 1
BAUD
RATE
(K)
0.3
1.2
FOSC = 13.889 MHz
Actual
Rate (K)
%
Error
—
—
—
—
FOSC = 6.250 MHz
SPBRG
Actual
Value
Rate (K)
(decimal)
—
—
—
—
%
Error
FOSC = 4.167 MHz
SPBRG
Actual
Value
Rate (K)
(decimal)
%
Error
SPBRG
Value
(decimal)
—
—
—
—
—
1.200
—
0.01
—
216
108
2.4
—
—
—
2.396
-0.15
162
2.389
-0.44
9.6
9.645
0.47
89
9.527
-0.76
40
9.645
0.48
26
19.2
19.290
0.47
44
19.531
1.73
19
18.603
-3.11
13
57.6
57.871
0.47
14
55.804
-3.12
6
52.088
-9.57
4
115.2
108.508
-5.81
7
130.208.
13.03
2
130.219
13.04
1
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS39762E-page 311
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
TABLE 20-3:
BAUD RATES FOR ASYNCHRONOUS MODES (CONTINUED)
SYNC = 0, BRG16 = 1, BRGH = 0
BAUD
RATE
(K)
FOSC = 41.667 MHz
FOSC = 31.25 MHz
SPBRG
Actual
Value
Rate (K)
(decimal)
FOSC = 25.000 MHz
SPBRG
Actual
Value
Rate (K)
(decimal)
FOSC = 20.833 MHz
SPBRG
Actual
Value
Rate (K)
(decimal)
%
Error
SPBRG
Value
(decimal)
0.300
0.00
4339
1.200
0.00
1084
650
2.398
-0.09
542
-0.15
162
9.574
-0.27
135
0.47
80
19.148
-0.27
67
Actual
Rate (K)
%
Error
0.3
0.300
0.00
8680
0.300
0.00
6509
0.300
0.01
5207
1.2
1.200
0.01
2169
1.200
-0.02
1627
1.200
0.01
1301
2.4
2.400
0.01
1084
2.399
-0.02
813
2.400
0.01
9.6
9.609
0.10
270
9.621
0.22
202
9.586
19.2
19.148
-0.27
135
19.148
-0.27
101
19.290
%
Error
%
Error
57.6
57.871
0.47
44
57.444
-0.27
33
57.870
0.47
26
56.611
-1.72
22
115.2
113.226
-1.71
22
114.890
-0.27
16
111.607
-3.12
13
118.369
2.75
10
SYNC = 0, BRG16 = 1, BRGH = 0
BAUD
RATE
(K)
FOSC = 13.889 MHz
FOSC = 6.250 MHz
SPBRG
Actual
Value
Rate (K)
(decimal)
FOSC = 4.167 MHz
SPBRG
Actual
Value
Rate (K)
(decimal)
SPBRG
Value
(decimal)
Actual
Rate (K)
%
Error
0.3
0.300
-0.02
2893
0.300
0.01
1301
0.300
0.01
867
1.2
1.201
0.05
722
1.198
-0.15
325
1.200
0.01
216
2.4
2.398
-0.08
361
2.396
-0.15
162
2.389
-0.44
108
9.6
9.645
0.47
89
9.527
-0.76
40
9.646
0.48
26
19.2
19.290
0.47
44
19.531
1.73
19
18.603
-3.11
13
57.6
57.871
0.47
14
55.804
-3.12
6
52.088
-9.57
4
115.2
108.508
-5.81
7
130.208
13.03
2
130.218
13.04
1
%
Error
%
Error
SYNC = 0, BRG16 = 1, BRGH = 1 or SYNC = 1, BRG16 = 1
BAUD
RATE
(K)
FOSC = 41.667 MHz
FOSC = 31.25 MHz
SPBRG
Actual
Value
Rate (K)
(decimal)
FOSC = 25.000 MHz
SPBRG
Actual
Value
Rate (K)
(decimal)
FOSC = 20.833 MHz
SPBRG
Actual
Value
Rate (K)
(decimal)
Actual
Rate (K)
%
Error
0.3
0.300
0.00
34722
0.300
0.00
26041
0.300
0.00
20832
1.2
1.200
0.00
8680
1.200
0.01
6509
1.200
0.01
5207
%
Error
%
Error
%
Error
SPBRG
Value
(decimal)
0.300
0.00
17360
1.200
0.00
4339
2169
2.4
2.400
0.01
4339
2.400
0.01
3254
2.400
0.01
2603
2.400
0.00
9.6
9.601
0.01
1084
9.598
-0.02
813
9.601
0.01
650
9.592
-0.09
542
19.2
19.184
-0.08
542
19.195
-0.02
406
19.172
-0.15
325
19.219
0.10
270
57.6
57.551
-0.08
180
57.445
-0.27
135
57.339
-0.45
108
57.869
0.47
89
115.2
115.742
0.47
89
114.890
-0.27
67
115.741
0.47
53
115.739
0.47
44
SYNC = 0, BRG16 = 1, BRGH = 1 or SYNC = 1, BRG16 = 1
BAUD
RATE
(K)
FOSC = 13.889 MHz
Actual
Rate (K)
%
Error
FOSC = 6.250 MHz
SPBRG
Actual
Value
Rate (K)
(decimal)
%
Error
FOSC = 4.167 MHz
SPBRG
Actual
Value
Rate (K)
(decimal)
%
Error
SPBRG
Value
(decimal)
0.3
0.300
0.00
11573
0.300
0.01
5207
0.300
-0.01
3472
1.2
1.200
-0.02
2893
1.200
0.01
1301
1.200
0.01
867
2.4
2.400
-0.02
1446
2.400
0.01
650
2.400
0.01
433
9.6
9.592
-0.08
361
9.586
-0.15
162
9.557
-0.44
108
19.2
19.184
-0.08
180
19.290
0.47
80
19.292
0.48
53
57.6
57.870
0.47
59
57.870
0.47
26
57.875
0.48
17
115.2
115.742
0.47
29
111.607
-3.12
13
115.750
0.48
8
DS39762E-page 312
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
20.1.3
AUTO-BAUD RATE DETECT
The Enhanced USARTx module supports the
automatic detection and calibration of baud rate. This
feature is active only in Asynchronous mode and while
the WUE bit is clear.
The automatic baud rate measurement sequence
(Figure 20-1) begins whenever a Start bit is received
and the ABDEN bit is set. The calculation is
self-averaging.
While the ABD sequence takes place, the EUSARTx
state machine is held in Idle. The RCxIF interrupt is set
once the fifth rising edge on RXx is detected. The value
in the RCREGx needs to be read to clear the RCxIF
interrupt. The contents of RCREGx should be
discarded.
Note 1: If the WUE bit is set with the ABDEN bit,
Auto-Baud Rate Detection will occur on
the byte following the Break character.
2: It is up to the user to determine that the
incoming character baud rate is within the
range of the selected BRG clock source.
Some combinations of oscillator frequency
and EUSARTx baud rates are not possible
due to bit error rates. Overall system timing and communication baud rates must
be taken into consideration when using the
Auto-Baud Rate Detection feature.
In the Auto-Baud Rate Detect (ABD) mode, the clock to
the BRG is reversed. Rather than the BRG clocking the
incoming RXx signal, the RXx signal is timing the BRG.
In ABD mode, the internal Baud Rate Generator is
used as a counter to time the bit period of the incoming
serial byte stream.
Once the ABDEN bit is set, the state machine will clear
the BRG and look for a Start bit. The Auto-Baud Rate
Detect must receive a byte with the value 55h (ASCII
“U”, which is also the LIN bus Sync character) in order to
calculate the proper bit rate. The measurement is taken
over both a low and high bit time in order to minimize any
effects caused by asymmetry of the incoming signal.
After a Start bit, the SPBRGx begins counting up, using
the preselected clock source on the first rising edge of
RXx. After eight bits on the RXx pin or the fifth rising
edge, an accumulated value totalling the proper BRG
period is left in the SPBRGHx:SPBRGx register pair.
Once the 5th edge is seen (this should correspond to the
Stop bit), the ABDEN bit is automatically cleared.
If a rollover of the BRG occurs (an overflow from FFFFh
to 0000h), the event is trapped by the ABDOVF status
bit (BAUDCONx<7>). It is set in hardware by BRG rollovers and can be set or cleared by the user in software.
ABD mode remains active after rollover events and the
ABDEN bit remains set (Figure 20-2).
While calibrating the baud rate period, the BRG registers
are clocked at 1/8th the preconfigured clock rate. Note
that the BRG clock will be configured by the BRG16 and
BRGH bits. Independent of the BRG16 bit setting, both
the SPBRGx and SPBRGHx will be used as a 16-bit
counter. This allows the user to verify that no carry
occurred for 8-bit modes by checking for 00h in the
SPBRGHx register. Refer to Table 20-4 for counter clock
rates to the BRG.
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
TABLE 20-4:
BRG COUNTER
CLOCK RATES
BRG16
BRGH
BRG Counter Clock
0
0
FOSC/512
0
1
FOSC/128
1
0
FOSC/128
1
1
FOSC/32
Note:
During the ABD sequence, SPBRGx and
SPBRGHx are both used as a 16-bit counter,
independent of the BRG16 setting.
20.1.3.1
ABD and EUSARTx Transmission
Since the BRG clock is reversed during ABD acquisition,
the EUSARTx transmitter cannot be used during ABD.
This means that whenever the ABDEN bit is set,
TXREGx cannot be written to. Users should also ensure
that ABDEN does not become set during a transmit
sequence. Failing to do this may result in unpredictable
EUSARTx operation.
DS39762E-page 313
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
FIGURE 20-1:
BRG Value
AUTOMATIC BAUD RATE CALCULATION
XXXXh
0000h
001Ch
Start
RXx pin
Edge #1
Bit 1
Bit 0
Edge #2
Bit 3
Bit 2
Edge #3
Bit 5
Bit 4
Edge #4
Bit 7
Bit 6
Edge #5
Stop Bit
BRG Clock
Auto-Cleared
Set by User
ABDEN bit
RCxIF bit
(Interrupt)
Read
RCREGx
SPBRGx
XXXXh
1Ch
SPBRGHx
XXXXh
00h
Note: The ABD sequence requires the EUSARTx module to be configured in Asynchronous mode and WUE = 0.
FIGURE 20-2:
BRG OVERFLOW SEQUENCE
BRG Clock
ABDEN bit
RXx pin
Start
Bit 0
ABDOVF bit
FFFFh
BRG Value
DS39762E-page 314
XXXXh
0000h
0000h
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
20.2
EUSARTx Asynchronous Mode
The Asynchronous mode of operation is selected by
clearing the SYNC bit (TXSTAx<4>). In this mode, the
EUSARTx uses standard Non-Return-to-Zero (NRZ)
format (one Start bit, eight or nine data bits and one
Stop bit). The most common data format is 8 bits. An
on-chip, dedicated 8-bit/16-bit Baud Rate Generator
can be used to derive standard baud rate frequencies
from the oscillator.
The EUSARTx transmits and receives the LSb first.
The EUSARTx module’s transmitter and receiver are
functionally independent but use the same data format
and baud rate. The Baud Rate Generator produces a
clock, either x16 or x64 of the bit shift rate, depending
on the BRGH and BRG16 bits (TXSTAx<2> and
BAUDCONx<3>). Parity is not supported by the
hardware but can be implemented in software and
stored as the 9th data bit.
The
TXCKP
(BAUDCONx<4>)
and
RXDTP
(BAUDCONx<5>) bits allow the TXx and RXx signals
to be inverted (polarity reversed). Devices that buffer
signals between TTL and RS-232 levels also invert the
signal. Setting the TXCKP and RXDTP bits allows for
the use of circuits that provide buffering without
inverting the signal.
When operating in Asynchronous mode, the EUSARTx
module consists of the following important elements:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Baud Rate Generator
Sampling Circuit
Asynchronous Transmitter
Asynchronous Receiver
Auto-Wake-up on Sync Break Character
12-Bit Break Character Transmit
Auto-Baud Rate Detection
20.2.1
EUSARTx ASYNCHRONOUS
TRANSMITTER
The EUSARTx transmitter block diagram is shown in
Figure 20-3. The heart of the transmitter is the Transmit
(Serial) Shift Register (TSR). The Shift register obtains
its data from the Read/Write Transmit Buffer register,
TXREGx. The TXREGx register is loaded with data in
software. The TSR register is not loaded until the Stop
bit has been transmitted from the previous load. As
soon as the Stop bit is transmitted, the TSR is loaded
with new data from the TXREGx register (if available).
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
Once the TXREGx register transfers the data to the
TSR register (occurs in one TCY), the TXREGx register
is empty and the TXxIF flag bit is set. This interrupt can
be enabled or disabled by setting or clearing the interrupt enable bit, TXxIE. TXxIF will be set regardless of
the state of TXxIE; it cannot be cleared in software.
TXxIF is also not cleared immediately upon loading
TXREGx, but becomes valid in the second instruction
cycle following the load instruction. Polling TXxIF
immediately following a load of TXREGx will return
invalid results.
While TXxIF indicates the status of the TXREGx register, another bit, TRMT (TXSTAx<1>), shows the status
of the TSR register. TRMT is a read-only bit which is set
when the TSR register is empty. No interrupt logic is
tied to this bit so the user has to poll this bit in order to
determine if the TSR register is empty.
Note 1: The TSR register is not mapped in data
memory, so it is not available to the user.
2: Flag bit, TXxIF, is set when enable bit
TXEN is set.
To set up an Asynchronous Transmission:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
Initialize the SPBRGHx:SPBRGx registers for
the appropriate baud rate. Set or clear the
BRGH and BRG16 bits, as required, to achieve
the desired baud rate.
Enable the asynchronous serial port by clearing
the SYNC bit and setting bit, SPEN.
If the signal from the TXx pin is to be inverted,
set the TXCKP bit.
If interrupts are desired, set enable bit, TXxIE.
If 9-bit transmission is desired, set transmit bit,
TX9. Can be used as address/data bit.
Enable the transmission by setting the TXEN bit
which will also set bit, TXxIF.
If 9-bit transmission is selected, the ninth bit
should be loaded in bit, TX9D.
Load data to the TXREGx register (starts
transmission).
If using interrupts, ensure that the GIE and PEIE
bits in the INTCON register (INTCON<7:6>) are
set.
DS39762E-page 315
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
FIGURE 20-3:
EUSARTx TRANSMIT BLOCK DIAGRAM
Data Bus
TXxIF
TXREGx Register
TXxIE
8
MSb
LSb
(8)
• • •
Pin Buffer
and Control
0
TSR Register
TXx pin
Interrupt
TXEN
Baud Rate CLK
TRMT SPEN TXCKP
BRG16
SPBRGHx
SPBRGx
TX9
Baud Rate Generator
FIGURE 20-4:
TX9D
ASYNCHRONOUS TRANSMISSION, TXCKP = 0 (TXx NOT INVERTED)
Write to TXREGx
BRG Output
(Shift Clock)
Word 1
TXx (pin)
Start bit
bit 0
bit 1
bit 7/8
Stop bit
Word 1
TXxIF bit
(Transmit Buffer
Reg. Empty Flag)
TRMT bit
(Transmit Shift
Reg. Empty Flag)
FIGURE 20-5:
1 TCY
Word 1
Transmit Shift Reg
ASYNCHRONOUS TRANSMISSION (BACK-TO-BACK), TXCKP = 0
(TXx NOT INVERTED)
Write to TXREGx
BRG Output
(Shift Clock)
Word 1
TXx (pin)
TXxIF bit
(Interrupt Reg. Flag)
TRMT bit
(Transmit Shift
Reg. Empty Flag)
Word 2
Start bit
bit 0
1 TCY
bit 1
bit 7/8
Stop bit
Start bit
bit 0
Word 2
Word 1
1 TCY
Word 1
Transmit Shift Reg.
Word 2
Transmit Shift Reg.
Note: This timing diagram shows two consecutive transmissions.
DS39762E-page 316
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
TABLE 20-5:
Name
INTCON
REGISTERS ASSOCIATED WITH ASYNCHRONOUS TRANSMISSION
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
GIE/GIEH PEIE/GIEL TMR0IE
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
Reset
Values
on Page:
INT0IE
RBIE
TMR0IF
INT0IF
RBIF
63
PIR1
PSPIF
ADIF
RC1IF
TX1IF
SSP1IF
CCP1IF
TMR2IF
TMR1IF
65
PIE1
PSPIE
ADIE
RC1IE
TX1IE
SSP1IE
CCP1IE
TMR2IE
TMR1IE
65
IPR1
PSPIP
ADIP
RC1IP
TX1IP
SSP1IP
CCP1IP
TMR2IP
TMR1IP
65
PIR3
SSP2IF
BCL2IF
RC2IF
TX2IF(1)
TMR4IF
CCP5IF
CCP4IF
CCP3IF
65
PIE3
SSP2IE
BCL2IE
RC2IE
TX2IE(1)
TMR4IE
CCP5IE
CCP4IE
CCP3IE
65
IPR3
SSP2IP
BCL2IP
RC2IP
TX2IP(1)
TMR4IP
CCP5IP
CCP4IP
CCP3IP
65
SPEN
RX9
SREN
CREN
ADDEN
FERR
OERR
RX9D
65
RCSTAx
TXREGx
TXSTAx
BAUDCONx
EUSARTx Transmit Register
65
CSRC
TX9
TXEN
SYNC
SENDB
BRGH
TRMT
TX9D
65
ABDOVF
RCIDL
RXDTP
TXCKP
BRG16
—
WUE
ABDEN
66
SPBRGHx
EUSARTx Baud Rate Generator Register High Byte
66
SPBRGx
EUSARTx Baud Rate Generator Register Low Byte
66
Legend: — = unimplemented locations read as ‘0’. Shaded cells are not used for asynchronous transmission.
Note 1: These bits are only available in 80-pin and 100-pin devices; otherwise, they are unimplemented and read
as ‘0’.
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS39762E-page 317
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
20.2.2
EUSARTx ASYNCHRONOUS
RECEIVER
The receiver block diagram is shown in Figure 20-6.
The data is received on the RXx pin and drives the data
recovery block. The data recovery block is actually a
high-speed shifter operating at x16 times the baud rate,
whereas the main receive serial shifter operates at the
bit rate or at FOSC. This mode would typically be used
in RS-232 systems.
The RXDTP bit (BAUDCON<5>) allows the RXx signal
to be inverted (polarity reversed). Devices that buffer
signals from RS-232 to TTL levels also perform an inversion of the signal (when RS-232 = positive, TTL = 0).
Inverting the polarity of the RXx pin data by setting the
RXDTP bit allows for the use of circuits that provide
buffering without inverting the signal.
To set up an Asynchronous Reception:
1.
Initialize the SPBRGHx:SPBRGx registers for
the appropriate baud rate. Set or clear the
BRGH and BRG16 bits, as required, to achieve
the desired baud rate.
2. Enable the asynchronous serial port by clearing
the SYNC bit and setting bit, SPEN.
3. If the signal at the RXx pin is to be inverted, set
the RXDTP bit.
4. If interrupts are desired, set enable bit, RCxIE.
5. If 9-bit reception is desired, set bit, RX9.
6. Enable the reception by setting bit, CREN.
7. Flag bit, RCxIF, will be set when reception is
complete and an interrupt will be generated if
enable bit, RCxIE, was set.
8. Read the RCSTAx register to get the 9th bit (if
enabled) and determine if any error occurred
during reception.
9. Read the 8-bit received data by reading the
RCREGx register.
10. If any error occurred, clear the error by clearing
enable bit, CREN.
11. If using interrupts, ensure that the GIE and PEIE
bits in the INTCON register (INTCON<7:6>) are
set.
DS39762E-page 318
20.2.3
SETTING UP 9-BIT MODE WITH
ADDRESS DETECT
This mode would typically be used in RS-485 systems.
To set up an Asynchronous Reception with Address
Detect Enable:
1.
Initialize the SPBRGHx:SPBRGx registers for
the appropriate baud rate. Set or clear the
BRGH and BRG16 bits, as required, to achieve
the desired baud rate.
2. Enable the asynchronous serial port by clearing
the SYNC bit and setting the SPEN bit.
3. If the signal at the RXx pin is to be inverted, set
the RXDTP bit. If the signal from the TXx pin is
to be inverted, set the TXCKP bit.
4. If interrupts are required, set the RCEN bit and
select the desired priority level with the RCxIP bit.
5. Set the RX9 bit to enable 9-bit reception.
6. Set the ADDEN bit to enable address detect.
7. Enable reception by setting the CREN bit.
8. The RCxIF bit will be set when reception is
complete. The interrupt will be Acknowledged if
the RCxIE and GIE bits are set.
9. Read the RCSTAx register to determine if any
error occurred during reception, as well as read
bit 9 of data (if applicable).
10. Read RCREGx to determine if the device is
being addressed.
11. If any error occurred, clear the CREN bit.
12. If the device has been addressed, clear the
ADDEN bit to allow all received data into the
receive buffer and interrupt the CPU.
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
FIGURE 20-6:
EUSARTx RECEIVE BLOCK DIAGRAM
CREN
FERR
OERR
x64 Baud Rate CLK
BRG16
SPBRGHx
÷ 64
or
÷ 16
or
÷4
SPBRGx
Baud Rate Generator
RSR Register
MSb
Stop
(8)
• • •
7
LSb
1
0
Start
RX9
Pin Buffer
and Control
Data
Recovery
RXx
RX9D
RCREGx Register
FIFO
RXDTP SPEN
8
Interrupt
FIGURE 20-7:
Data Bus
RCxIF
RCxIE
ASYNCHRONOUS RECEPTION, RXDTP = 0 (RXx NOT INVERTED)
Start
bit
RXx (pin)
bit 0
bit 1
Start
bit
bit 7/8 Stop
bit
Rcv Shift Reg
Rcv Buffer Reg
bit 0
Word 1
RCREGx
Read Rcv
Buffer Reg
RCREGx
bit 7/8
Stop
bit
Start
bit
bit 7/8
Stop
bit
Word 2
RCREGx
RCxIF
(Interrupt Flag)
OERR bit
CREN
Note:
This timing diagram shows three words appearing on the RXx input. The RCREGx (Receive Buffer) is read after the third word
causing the OERR (Overrun Error) bit to be set.
TABLE 20-6:
Name
INTCON
REGISTERS ASSOCIATED WITH ASYNCHRONOUS RECEPTION
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
GIE/GIEH PEIE/GIEL TMR0IE
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
Reset Values
on Page:
INT0IE
RBIE
TMR0IF
INT0IF
RBIF
63
PIR1
PSPIF
ADIF
RC1IF
TX1IF
SSP1IF
CCP1IF
TMR2IF
TMR1IF
65
PIE1
PSPIE
ADIE
RC1IE
TX1IE
SSP1IE
CCP1IE
TMR2IE
TMR1IE
65
IPR1
PSPIP
ADIP
RC1IP
TX1IP
SSP1IP
CCP1IP
TMR2IP
TMR1IP
65
PIR3
SSP2IF
BCL2IF
RC2IF(1)
TX2IF
TMR4IF
CCP5IF
CCP4IF
CCP3IF
65
PIE3
SSP2IE
BCL2IE
RC2IE(1)
TX2IE
TMR4IE
CCP5IE
CCP4IE
CCP3IE
65
IPR3
SSP2IP
BCL2IP
RC2IP(1)
TX2IP
TMR4IP
CCP5IP
CCP4IP
CCP3IP
65
SPEN
RX9
SREN
CREN
ADDEN
FERR
OERR
RX9D
65
RCSTAx
RCREGx
TXSTAx
EUSARTx Receive Register
CSRC
BAUDCONx ABDOVF
65
TX9
TXEN
SYNC
SENDB
BRGH
TRMT
TX9D
65
RCIDL
RXDTP
TXCKP
BRG16
—
WUE
ABDEN
66
SPBRGHx
EUSARTx Baud Rate Generator Register High Byte
66
SPBRGx
EUSARTx Baud Rate Generator Register Low Byte
66
Legend: — = unimplemented locations read as ‘0’. Shaded cells are not used for asynchronous reception.
Note 1: These bits are only available in 80-pin and 100-pin devices; otherwise, they are unimplemented and read as ‘0’.
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS39762E-page 319
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
20.2.4
AUTO-WAKE-UP ON SYNC BREAK
CHARACTER
During Sleep mode, all clocks to the EUSARTx are
suspended. Because of this, the Baud Rate Generator
is inactive and a proper byte reception cannot be performed. The auto-wake-up feature allows the controller
to wake-up due to activity on the RXx/DTx line while the
EUSARTx is operating in Asynchronous mode.
The auto-wake-up feature is enabled by setting the
WUE bit (BAUDCONx<1>). Once set, the typical receive
sequence on RXx/DTx is disabled and the EUSARTx
remains in an Idle state, monitoring for a wake-up event
independent of the CPU mode. A wake-up event
consists of a high-to-low transition on the RXx/DTx line.
(This coincides with the start of a Sync Break or a
Wake-up Signal character for the LIN protocol.)
Following a wake-up event, the module generates an
RCxIF interrupt. The interrupt is generated synchronously to the Q clocks in normal operating modes
(Figure 20-8) and asynchronously if the device is in
Sleep mode (Figure 20-9). The interrupt condition is
cleared by reading the RCREGx register.
The WUE bit is automatically cleared once a
low-to-high transition is observed on the RXx line
following the wake-up event. At this point, the
EUSARTx module is in Idle mode and returns to normal
operation. This signals to the user that the Sync Break
event is over.
20.2.4.1
Special Considerations Using
Auto-Wake-up
the transmission must be all ‘0’s. This can be 00h
(8 bytes) for standard RS-232 devices or 000h (12 bits)
for LIN bus.
Oscillator start-up time must also be considered,
especially in applications using oscillators with longer
start-up intervals (i.e., HS or HSPLL mode). The Sync
Break (or Wake-up Signal) character must be of
sufficient length and be followed by a sufficient interval
to allow enough time for the selected oscillator to start
and provide proper initialization of the EUSARTx.
20.2.4.2
Special Considerations Using
the WUE Bit
The timing of WUE and RCxIF events may cause some
confusion when it comes to determining the validity of
received data. As noted, setting the WUE bit places the
EUSARTx in an Idle mode. The wake-up event causes
a receive interrupt by setting the RCxIF bit. The WUE bit
is cleared after this when a rising edge is seen on
RXx/DTx. The interrupt condition is then cleared by
reading the RCREGx register. Ordinarily, the data in
RCREGx will be dummy data and should be discarded.
The fact that the WUE bit has been cleared (or is still
set), and the RCxIF flag is set, should not be used as
an indicator of the integrity of the data in RCREGx.
Users should consider implementing a parallel method
in firmware to verify received data integrity.
To assure that no actual data is lost, check the RCIDL
bit to verify that a receive operation is not in process. If
a receive operation is not occurring, the WUE bit may
then be set just prior to entering the Sleep mode.
Since auto-wake-up functions by sensing rising edge
transitions on RXx/DTx, information with any state
changes before the Stop bit may signal a false
End-of-Character (EOC) and cause data or framing
errors. To work properly, therefore, the initial character in
DS39762E-page 320
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
FIGURE 20-8:
AUTO-WAKE-UP BIT (WUE) TIMINGS DURING NORMAL OPERATION
Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4
OSC1
Bit set by user
WUE bit(1)
Auto-Cleared
RXx/DTx Line
RCxIF
Note 1:
Cleared due to user read of RCREGx
The EUSARTx remains in Idle while the WUE bit is set.
FIGURE 20-9:
AUTO-WAKE-UP BIT (WUE) TIMINGS DURING SLEEP
Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4
Q1
Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4
OSC1
WUE bit(2)
Auto-Cleared
Bit set by user
RXx/DTx Line
Note 1
RCxIF
SLEEP Command Executed
Note 1:
2:
Sleep Ends
Cleared due to user read of RCREGx
If the wake-up event requires long oscillator warm-up time, the auto-clear of the WUE bit can occur before the oscillator is ready. This
sequence should not depend on the presence of Q clocks.
The EUSARTx remains in Idle while the WUE bit is set.
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS39762E-page 321
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
20.2.5
BREAK CHARACTER SEQUENCE
The EUSARTx module has the capability of sending
the special Break character sequences that are
required by the LIN bus standard. The Break character
transmit consists of a Start bit, followed by twelve ‘0’
bits and a Stop bit. The Frame Break character is sent
whenever the SENDB and TXEN bits (TXSTAx<3> and
TXSTAx<5>) are set while the Transmit Shift Register
(TSR) is loaded with data. Note that the value of data
written to TXREGx will be ignored and all ‘0’s will be
transmitted.
The SENDB bit is automatically reset by hardware after
the corresponding Stop bit is sent. This allows the user
to preload the transmit FIFO with the next transmit byte
following the Break character (typically, the Sync
character in the LIN specification).
Note that the data value written to the TXREGx for the
Break character is ignored. The write simply serves the
purpose of initiating the proper sequence.
The TRMT bit indicates when the transmit operation is
active or Idle, just as it does during normal transmission. See Figure 20-10 for the timing of the Break
character sequence.
20.2.5.1
Break and Sync Transmit Sequence
The following sequence will send a message frame
header made up of a Break, followed by an Auto-Baud
Sync byte. This sequence is typical of a LIN bus
master.
FIGURE 20-10:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Configure the EUSARTx for the desired mode.
Set the TXEN and SENDB bits to set up the
Break character.
Load the TXREGx with a dummy character to
initiate transmission (the value is ignored).
Write ‘55h’ to TXREGx to load the Sync
character into the transmit FIFO buffer.
After the Break has been sent, the SENDB bit is
reset by hardware. The Sync character now
transmits in the preconfigured mode.
When the TXREGx becomes empty, as indicated by
the TXxIF, the next data byte can be written to
TXREGx.
20.2.6
RECEIVING A BREAK CHARACTER
The Enhanced USARTx module can receive a Break
character in two ways.
The first method forces configuration of the baud rate
at a frequency of 9/13 the typical speed. This allows for
the Stop bit transition to be at the correct sampling
location (13 bits for Break versus Start bit and 8 data
bits for typical data).
The second method uses the auto-wake-up feature
described in Section 20.2.4 “Auto-Wake-up on Sync
Break Character”. By enabling this feature, the
EUSARTx will sample the next two transitions on
RXx/DTx, cause an RCxIF interrupt and receive the
next data byte followed by another interrupt.
Note that following a Break character, the user will
typically want to enable the Auto-Baud Rate Detect
feature. For both methods, the user can set the ABDEN
bit once the TXxIF interrupt is observed.
SEND BREAK CHARACTER SEQUENCE
Write to TXREGx
Dummy Write
BRG Output
(Shift Clock)
TXx (pin)
Start bit
bit 0
bit 1
bit 11
Stop bit
Break
TXxIF bit
(Transmit Buffer
Reg. Empty Flag)
TRMT bit
(Transmit Shift
Reg. Empty Flag)
SENDB sampled here
Auto-Cleared
SENDB bit
(Transmit Shift
Reg. Empty Flag)
DS39762E-page 322
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
20.3
EUSARTx Synchronous
Master Mode
Once the TXREGx register transfers the data to the
TSR register (occurs in one TCY), the TXREGx is empty
and the TXxIF flag bit is set. The interrupt can be
enabled or disabled by setting or clearing the interrupt
enable bit, TXxIE. TXxIF is set regardless of the state
of enable bit, TXxIE; it cannot be cleared in software. It
will reset only when new data is loaded into the
TXREGx register.
The Synchronous Master mode is entered by setting
the CSRC bit (TXSTAx<7>). In this mode, the data is
transmitted in a half-duplex manner (i.e., transmission
and reception do not occur at the same time). When
transmitting data, the reception is inhibited and vice
versa. Synchronous mode is entered by setting bit,
SYNC (TXSTAx<4>). In addition, enable bit, SPEN
(RCSTAx<7>), is set in order to configure the TXx and
RXx pins to CKx (clock) and DTx (data) lines,
respectively.
While flag bit, TXxIF, indicates the status of the TXREGx
register, another bit, TRMT (TXSTAx<1>), shows the
status of the TSR register. TRMT is a read-only bit which
is set when the TSR is empty. No interrupt logic is tied to
this bit, so the user must poll this bit in order to determine
if the TSR register is empty. The TSR is not mapped in
data memory so it is not available to the user.
Clock polarity (CKx) is selected with the TXCKP bit
(BAUDCON<4>). Setting TXCKP sets the Idle state on
CKx as high, while clearing the bit sets the Idle state as
low. Data polarity (DTx) is selected with the RXDTP bit
(BAUDCONx<5>). Setting RXDTP sets the Idle state
on DTx as high, while clearing the bit sets the Idle state
as low. DTx is sampled when CKx returns to its Idle
state. This option is provided to support Microwire
devices with this module.
20.3.1
To set up a Synchronous Master Transmission:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
EUSARTx SYNCHRONOUS
MASTER TRANSMISSION
The EUSARTx transmitter block diagram is shown in
Figure 20-3. The heart of the transmitter is the Transmit
(Serial) Shift Register (TSR). The Shift register obtains
its data from the Read/Write Transmit Buffer register,
TXREGx. The TXREGx register is loaded with data in
software. The TSR register is not loaded until the last
bit has been transmitted from the previous load. As
soon as the last bit is transmitted, the TSR is loaded
with new data from the TXREGx (if available).
FIGURE 20-11:
7.
8.
Initialize the SPBRGHx:SPBRGx registers for the
appropriate baud rate. Set or clear the BRG16
bit, as required, to achieve the desired baud rate.
Enable the synchronous master serial port by
setting bits, SYNC, SPEN and CSRC.
If interrupts are desired, set enable bit, TXxIE.
If 9-bit transmission is desired, set bit, TX9.
Enable the transmission by setting bit, TXEN.
If 9-bit transmission is selected, the ninth bit
should be loaded in bit, TX9D.
Start transmission by loading data to the
TXREGx register.
If using interrupts, ensure that the GIE and PEIE
bits in the INTCON register (INTCON<7:6>) are
set.
SYNCHRONOUS TRANSMISSION
Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4
RC7/RX1/DT1
bit 0
bit 1
Word 1
RC6/TX1/CK1 pin
(TXCKP = 0)
bit 2
Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4
bit 7
bit 0
bit 1
bit 7
Word 2
RC6/TX1/CK1 pin
(TXCKP = 1)
Write to
TXREG1 Reg
Write Word 1
Write Word 2
TX1IF bit
(Interrupt Flag)
TRMT bit
TXEN bit
Note:
‘1’
‘1’
Sync Master mode, SPBRG1 = 0, continuous transmission of two 8-bit words. This example is equally applicable to EUSART2
(RG1/TX2/CK2 and RG2/RX2/DT2).
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS39762E-page 323
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
FIGURE 20-12:
SYNCHRONOUS TRANSMISSION (THROUGH TXEN)
RC7/RX1/DT1 pin
bit 0
bit 1
bit 2
bit 6
bit 7
RC6/TX1/CK1 pin
Write to
TXREG1 reg
TX1IF bit
TRMT bit
TXEN bit
Note: This example is equally applicable to EUSART2 (RG1/TX2/CK2 and RG2/RX2/DT2).
TABLE 20-7:
Name
INTCON
REGISTERS ASSOCIATED WITH SYNCHRONOUS MASTER TRANSMISSION
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
GIE/GIEH PEIE/GIEL TMR0IE
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
Reset
Values
on Page:
INT0IE
RBIE
TMR0IF
INT0IF
RBIF
63
PIR1
PSPIF
ADIF
RC1IF
TX1IF
SSP1IF
CCP1IF
TMR2IF
TMR1IF
65
PIE1
PSPIE
ADIE
RC1IE
TX1IE
SSP1IE
CCP1IE
TMR2IE
TMR1IE
65
IPR1
PSPIP
ADIP
RC1IP
TX1IP
SSP1IP
CCP1IP
TMR2IP
TMR1IP
65
PIR3
SSP2IF
BCL2IF
RC2IF
TX2IF(1)
TMR4IF
CCP5IF
CCP4IF
CCP3IF
65
PIE3
SSP2IE
BCL2IE
RC2IE
TX2IE(1)
TMR4IE
CCP5IE
CCP4IE
CCP3IE
65
IPR3
SSP2IP
BCL2IP
RC2IP
TX2IP(1)
TMR4IP
CCP5IP
CCP4IP
CCP3IP
65
SPEN
RX9
SREN
CREN
ADDEN
FERR
OERR
RX9D
65
RCSTAx
TXREGx
TXSTAx
EUSARTx Transmit Register
CSRC
BAUDCONx ABDOVF
65
TX9
TXEN
SYNC
SENDB
BRGH
TRMT
TX9D
65
RCIDL
RXDTP
TXCKP
BRG16
—
WUE
ABDEN
66
SPBRGHx
EUSARTx Baud Rate Generator Register High Byte
66
SPBRGx
EUSARTx Baud Rate Generator Register Low Byte
66
Legend: — = unimplemented, read as ‘0’. Shaded cells are not used for synchronous master transmission.
Note 1: These bits are only available in 80-pin and 100-pin devices; otherwise, they are unimplemented and read as ‘0’.
DS39762E-page 324
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
20.3.2
EUSARTx SYNCHRONOUS
MASTER RECEPTION
4.
Once Synchronous mode is selected, reception is
enabled by setting either the Single Receive Enable bit,
SREN (RCSTAx<5>), or the Continuous Receive
Enable bit, CREN (RCSTAx<4>). Data is sampled on
the RXx pin on the falling edge of the clock.
If enable bit, SREN, is set, only a single word is
received. If enable bit, CREN, is set, the reception is
continuous until CREN is cleared. If both bits are set,
then CREN takes precedence.
To set up a Synchronous Master Reception:
1.
2.
3.
Initialize the SPBRGHx:SPBRGx registers for the
appropriate baud rate. Set or clear the BRG16
bit, as required, to achieve the desired baud rate.
Enable the synchronous master serial port by
setting bits, SYNC, SPEN and CSRC.
Ensure bits, CREN and SREN, are clear.
FIGURE 20-13:
If the signal from the CKx pin is to be inverted,
set the TXCKP bit. If the signal from the DTx pin
is to be inverted, set the RXDTP bit.
5. If interrupts are desired, set enable bit, RCxIE.
6. If 9-bit reception is desired, set bit, RX9.
7. If a single reception is required, set bit, SREN.
For continuous reception, set bit, CREN.
8. Interrupt flag bit, RCxIF, will be set when reception is complete and an interrupt will be generated
if the enable bit, RCxIE, was set.
9. Read the RCSTAx register to get the 9th bit (if
enabled) and determine if any error occurred
during reception.
10. Read the 8-bit received data by reading the
RCREGx register.
11. If any error occurred, clear the error by clearing
bit, CREN.
12. If using interrupts, ensure that the GIE and PEIE
bits in the INTCON register (INTCON<7:6>) are
set.
SYNCHRONOUS RECEPTION (MASTER MODE, SREN)
Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4
RC7/RX1/DT1
pin
bit 0
bit 1
bit 2
bit 3
bit 4
bit 5
bit 6
bit 7
RC6/TX1/CK1 pin
(TXCKP = 0)
RC6/TX1/CK1 pin
(TXCKP = 1)
Write to
bit SREN
SREN bit
CREN bit ‘0’
‘0’
RC1IF bit
(Interrupt)
Read
RCREG1
Note:
Timing diagram demonstrates Sync Master mode with bit SREN = 1 and bit BRGH = 0. This example is equally applicable to EUSART2
(RG1/TX2/CK2 and RG2/RX2/DT2).
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS39762E-page 325
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
TABLE 20-8:
Name
REGISTERS ASSOCIATED WITH SYNCHRONOUS MASTER RECEPTION
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
Reset
Values
on Page:
TMR0IE
INT0IE
RBIE
TMR0IF
INT0IF
RBIF
63
PIR1
PSPIF
ADIF
RC1IF
TX1IF
SSP1IF
CCP1IF
TMR2IF
TMR1IF
65
PIE1
PSPIE
ADIE
RC1IE
TX1IE
SSP1IE
CCP1IE
TMR2IE
TMR1IE
65
INTCON
GIE/GIEH PEIE/GIEL
IPR1
PSPIP
ADIP
RC1IP
TX1IP
SSP1IP
CCP1IP
TMR2IP
TMR1IP
65
PIR3
SSP2IF
BCL2IF
RC2IF(1)
TX2IF
TMR4IF
CCP5IF
CCP4IF
CCP3IF
65
PIE3
SSP2IE
BCL2IE
RC2IE(1)
TX2IE
TMR4IE
CCP5IE
CCP4IE
CCP3IE
65
IPR3
SSP2IP
BCL2IP
RC2IP(1)
TX2IP
TMR4IP
CCP5IP
CCP4IP
CCP3IP
65
CREN
ADDEN
FERR
OERR
RX9D
65
RCSTAx
RCREGx
TXSTAx
SPEN
RX9
SREN
EUSARTx Receive Register
CSRC
BAUDCONx ABDOVF
65
TX9
TXEN
SYNC
SENDB
BRGH
TRMT
TX9D
65
RCIDL
RXDTP
TXCKP
BRG16
—
WUE
ABDEN
66
SPBRGHx
EUSARTx Baud Rate Generator Register High Byte
66
SPBRGx
EUSARTx Baud Rate Generator Register Low Byte
66
Legend: — = unimplemented, read as ‘0’. Shaded cells are not used for synchronous master reception.
Note 1: These bits are only available in 80-pin and 100-pin devices; otherwise, they are unimplemented and read as ‘0’.
20.4
EUSARTx Synchronous
Slave Mode
To set up a Synchronous Slave Transmission:
1.
Synchronous Slave mode is entered by clearing bit,
CSRC (TXSTAx<7>). This mode differs from the
Synchronous Master mode in that the shift clock is supplied externally at the CKx pin (instead of being supplied
internally in Master mode). This allows the device to
transfer or receive data while in any low-power mode.
2.
3.
20.4.1
EUSARTx SYNCHRONOUS
SLAVE TRANSMISSION
4.
5.
6.
The operation of the Synchronous Master and Slave
modes is identical, except in the case of Sleep mode.
7.
If two words are written to the TXREGx and then the
SLEEP instruction is executed, the following will occur:
8.
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
The first word will immediately transfer to the
TSR register and transmit.
The second word will remain in the TXREGx
register.
Flag bit, TXxIF, will not be set.
When the first word has been shifted out of TSR,
the TXREGx register will transfer the second word
to the TSR and flag bit, TXxIF, will now be set.
If enable bit, TXxIE, is set, the interrupt will wake
the chip from Sleep. If the global interrupt is
enabled, the program will branch to the interrupt
vector.
DS39762E-page 326
9.
Enable the synchronous slave serial port by
setting bits, SYNC and SPEN, and clearing bit,
CSRC.
Clear bits, CREN and SREN.
If the signal from the CKx pin is to be inverted,
set the TXCKP bit. If the signal from the DTx pin
is to be inverted, set the RXDTP bit.
If interrupts are desired, set enable bit, TXxIE.
If 9-bit transmission is desired, set bit, TX9.
Enable the transmission by setting enable bit,
TXEN.
If 9-bit transmission is selected, the ninth bit
should be loaded in bit TX9D.
Start transmission by loading data to the
TXREGx register.
If using interrupts, ensure that the GIE and PEIE
bits in the INTCON register (INTCON<7:6>) are
set.
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
TABLE 20-9:
Name
REGISTERS ASSOCIATED WITH SYNCHRONOUS SLAVE TRANSMISSION
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
Reset
Values
on Page:
INT0IE
RBIE
TMR0IF
INT0IF
RBIF
63
PIR1
PSPIF
ADIF
RC1IF
TX1IF
SSP1IF
CCP1IF
TMR2IF
TMR1IF
65
PIE1
PSPIE
ADIE
RC1IE
TX1IE
SSP1IE
CCP1IE
TMR2IE
TMR1IE
65
INTCON
GIE/GIEH PEIE/GIEL TMR0IE
Bit 4
IPR1
PSPIP
ADIP
RC1IP
TX1IP
SSP1IP
CCP1IP
TMR2IP
TMR1IP
65
PIR3
SSP2IF
BCL2IF
RC2IF
TX2IF(1)
TMR4IF
CCP5IF
CCP4IF
CCP3IF
65
PIE3
SSP2IE
BCL2IE
RC2IE
TX2IE(1)
TMR4IE
CCP5IE
CCP4IE
CCP3IE
65
IPR3
SSP2IP
BCL2IP
RC2IP
TX2IP(1)
TMR4IP
CCP5IP
CCP4IP
CCP3IP
65
CREN
ADDEN
FERR
OERR
RX9D
65
RCSTAx
TXREGx
TXSTAx
SPEN
RX9
SREN
EUSARTx Transmit Register
CSRC
BAUDCONx ABDOVF
65
TX9
TXEN
SYNC
SENDB
BRGH
TRMT
TX9D
65
RCIDL
RXDTP
TXCKP
BRG16
—
WUE
ABDEN
66
SPBRGHx
EUSARTx Baud Rate Generator Register High Byte
66
SPBRGx
EUSARTx Baud Rate Generator Register Low Byte
66
Legend: — = unimplemented, read as ‘0’. Shaded cells are not used for synchronous slave transmission.
Note 1: These bits are only available in 80-pin and 100-pin devices; otherwise, they are unimplemented and read as ‘0’.
20.4.2
EUSARTx SYNCHRONOUS SLAVE
RECEPTION
The operation of the Synchronous Master and Slave
modes is identical, except in the case of Sleep or any
Idle mode, and bit SREN, which is a “don’t care” in
Slave mode.
If receive is enabled by setting the CREN bit prior to
entering Sleep or any Idle mode, then a word may be
received while in this low-power mode. Once the word
is received, the RSR register will transfer the data to the
RCREGx register. If the RCxIE enable bit is set, the
interrupt generated will wake the chip from the
low-power mode. If the global interrupt is enabled, the
program will branch to the interrupt vector.
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
To set up a Synchronous Slave Reception:
1.
Enable the synchronous master serial port by
setting bits, SYNC and SPEN, and clearing bit,
CSRC.
2. If interrupts are desired, set enable bit, RCxIE.
3. If the signal from the CKx pin is to be inverted,
set the TXCKP bit. If the signal from the DTx pin
is to be inverted, set the RXDTP bit.
4. If 9-bit reception is desired, set bit, RX9.
5. To enable reception, set enable bit, CREN.
6. Flag bit, RCxIF, will be set when reception is
complete. An interrupt will be generated if
enable bit, RCxIE, was set.
7. Read the RCSTAx register to get the 9th bit (if
enabled) and determine if any error occurred
during reception.
8. Read the 8-bit received data by reading the
RCREGx register.
9. If any error occurred, clear the error by clearing
bit, CREN.
10. If using interrupts, ensure that the GIE and PEIE
bits in the INTCON register (INTCON<7:6>) are
set.
DS39762E-page 327
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
TABLE 20-10: REGISTERS ASSOCIATED WITH SYNCHRONOUS SLAVE RECEPTION
Name
INTCON
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
GIE/GIEH PEIE/GIEL TMR0IE
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
Reset
Values
on Page:
INT0IE
RBIE
TMR0IF
INT0IF
RBIF
63
PIR1
PSPIF
ADIF
RC1IF
TX1IF
SSP1IF
CCP1IF
TMR2IF
TMR1IF
65
PIE1
PSPIE
ADIE
RC1IE
TX1IE
SSP1IE
CCP1IE
TMR2IE
TMR1IE
65
IPR1
PSPIP
ADIP
RC1IP
TX1IP
SSP1IP
CCP1IP
TMR2IP
TMR1IP
65
PIR3
SSP2IF
BCL2IF
RC2IF(1)
TX2IF
TMR4IF
CCP5IF
CCP4IF
CCP3IF
65
PIE3
SSP2IE
BCL2IE
RC2IE(1)
TX2IE
TMR4IE
CCP5IE
CCP4IE
CCP3IE
65
IPR3
SSP2IP
BCL2IP
RC2IP(1)
TX2IP
TMR4IP
CCP5IP
CCP4IP
CCP3IP
65
CREN
ADDEN
FERR
OERR
RX9D
65
RCSTAx
RCREGx
TXSTAx
SPEN
RX9
SREN
EUSARTx Receive Register
CSRC
BAUDCONx ABDOVF
65
TX9
TXEN
SYNC
SENDB
BRGH
TRMT
TX9D
65
RCIDL
RXDTP
TXCKP
BRG16
—
WUE
ABDEN
66
SPBRGHx
EUSARTx Baud Rate Generator Register High Byte
66
SPBRGx
EUSARTx Baud Rate Generator Register Low Byte
66
Legend: — = unimplemented, read as ‘0’. Shaded cells are not used for synchronous slave reception.
Note 1: These bits are only available in 80-pin and 100-pin devices; otherwise, they are unimplemented and read as ‘0’.
DS39762E-page 328
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
21.0
10-BIT ANALOG-TO-DIGITAL
CONVERTER (A/D) MODULE
The Analog-to-Digital (A/D) converter module has
11 inputs for the 64-pin devices, 15 inputs for the 80-pin
devices and 16 inputs for the 100-pin devices. This
module allows conversion of an analog input signal to
a corresponding 10-bit digital number.
REGISTER 21-1:
The module has five registers:
•
•
•
•
•
A/D Result Register High Byte (ADRESH)
A/D Result Register Low Byte (ADRESL)
A/D Control Register 0 (ADCON0)
A/D Control Register 1 (ADCON1)
A/D Control Register 2 (ADCON2)
The ADCON0 register, shown in Register 21-1,
controls the operation of the A/D module. The
ADCON1 register, shown in Register 21-2, configures
the functions of the port pins. The ADCON2 register,
shown in Register 21-3, configures the A/D clock
source, programmed acquisition time and justification.
ADCON0: A/D CONTROL REGISTER 0
R/W-0
U-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
ADCAL
—
CHS3
CHS2
CHS1
CHS0
GO/DONE
ADON
bit 7
bit 0
Legend:
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
-n = Value at POR
‘1’ = Bit is set
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
bit 7
ADCAL: A/D Calibration bit
1 = Calibration is performed on next A/D conversion
0 = Normal A/D converter operation (no calibration is performed)
bit 6
Unimplemented: Read as ‘0’
bit 5-2
CHS3:CHS0: Analog Channel Select bits
0000 = Channel 0 (AN0)
0001 = Channel 1 (AN1)
0010 = Channel 2 (AN2)
0011 = Channel 3 (AN3)
0100 = Channel 4 (AN4)
0101 = Channel 5 (AN5)(1,3)
0110 = Channel 6 (AN6)
0111 = Channel 7 (AN7)
1000 = Channel 8 (AN8)
1001 = Channel 9 (AN9)
1010 = Channel 10 (AN10)
1011 = Channel 11 (AN11)
1100 = Channel 12 (AN12)(2,3)
1101 = Channel 13 (AN13)(2,3)
1110 = Channel 14 (AN14)(2,3)
1111 = Channel 15 (AN15)(2,3)
bit 1
GO/DONE: A/D Conversion Status bit
When ADON = 1:
1 = A/D conversion in progress
0 = A/D Idle
bit 0
ADON: A/D On bit
1 = A/D converter module is enabled
0 = A/D converter module is disabled
Note 1:
2:
3:
x = Bit is unknown
This channel is implemented on 100-pin devices only.
These channels are implemented on 80-pin and 100-pin devices only.
Performing a conversion on unimplemented channels will return random values.
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS39762E-page 329
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
REGISTER 21-2:
ADCON1: A/D CONTROL REGISTER 1
U-0
U-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
—
—
VCFG1
VCFG0
PCFG3
PCFG2
PCFG1
PCFG0
bit 7
bit 0
Legend:
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
-n = Value at POR
‘1’ = Bit is set
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
PCFG3:
PCFG0
AN8
AN7
AN6
AN5(2)
AN4
AN3
AN2
AN1(3)
AN0(3)
PCFG3:PCFG0: A/D Port Configuration Control bits:
AN9
bit 3-0
AN10
VCFG0: Voltage Reference Configuration bit (VREF+ source)
1 = VREF+ (AN3)
0 = AVDD
AN11
bit 4
AN12(1)
VCFG1: Voltage Reference Configuration bit (VREF- source)
1 = VREF- (AN2)
0 = AVSS
AN13(1)
bit 5
AN14(1)
Unimplemented: Read as ‘0’
AN15(1)
bit 7-6
0000
0001
0010
0011
0100
0101
0110
0111
1000
1001
1010
1011
1100
1101
1110
1111
A
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
A
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
A
A
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
A
A
A
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
A
A
A
A
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
A
A
A
A
A
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
A
A
A
A
A
A
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
D
D
D
D
D
D
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
D
D
D
D
D
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
D
D
D
D
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
D
D
D
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
D
D
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
D
A = Analog input
Note 1:
2:
3:
x = Bit is unknown
D = Digital I/O
AN12 through AN15 are available in 80-pin and 100-pin devices only.
AN5 is available in 100-pin devices only.
AN0 and AN1 can also operate as Ethernet LED outputs in either Analog or Digital I/O modes.
DS39762E-page 330
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
REGISTER 21-3:
ADCON2: A/D CONTROL REGISTER 2
R/W-0
U-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
ADFM
—
ACQT2
ACQT1
ACQT0
ADCS2
ADCS1
ADCS0
bit 7
bit 0
Legend:
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
-n = Value at POR
‘1’ = Bit is set
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
bit 7
ADFM: A/D Result Format Select bit
1 = Right justified
0 = Left justified
bit 6
Unimplemented: Read as ‘0’
bit 5-3
ACQT2:ACQT0: A/D Acquisition Time Select bits
111 = 20 TAD
110 = 16 TAD
101 = 12 TAD
100 = 8 TAD
011 = 6 TAD
010 = 4 TAD
001 = 2 TAD
000 = 0 TAD(1)
bit 2-0
ADCS2:ADCS0: A/D Conversion Clock Select bits
111 = FRC (clock derived from A/D RC oscillator)(1)
110 = FOSC/64
101 = FOSC/16
100 = FOSC/4
011 = FRC (clock derived from A/D RC oscillator)(1)
010 = FOSC/32
001 = FOSC/8
000 = FOSC/2
Note 1:
x = Bit is unknown
If the A/D FRC clock source is selected, a delay of one TCY (instruction cycle) is added before the A/D
clock starts. This allows the SLEEP instruction to be executed before starting a conversion.
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS39762E-page 331
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
The analog reference voltage is software selectable to
either the device’s positive and negative supply voltage
(AVDD and AVSS), or the voltage level on the
RA3/AN3/VREF+ and RA2/AN2/VREF- pins.
the A/D conversion. When the A/D conversion is complete, the result is loaded into the ADRESH:ADRESL
register pair, the GO/DONE bit (ADCON0<1>) is
cleared and A/D Interrupt Flag bit, ADIF, is set.
The A/D converter has a unique feature of being able
to operate while the device is in Sleep mode. To
operate in Sleep, the A/D conversion clock must be
derived from the A/D converter’s internal RC oscillator.
A device Reset forces all registers to their Reset state.
This forces the A/D module to be turned off and any
conversion in progress is aborted. The value in the
ADRESH:ADRESL register pair is not modified for a
Power-on Reset. These registers will contain unknown
data after a Power-on Reset.
The output of the sample and hold is the input into the
converter, which generates the result via successive
approximation.
The block diagram of the A/D module is shown in
Figure 21-1.
Each port pin associated with the A/D converter can be
configured as an analog input or as a digital I/O. The
ADRESH and ADRESL registers contain the result of
FIGURE 21-1:
A/D BLOCK DIAGRAM
CHS3:CHS0
1111
1110
1101
1100
1011
1010
1001
1000
0111
0110
0101
0100
VAIN
0011
(Input Voltage)
10-Bit
A/D
Converter
0010
0001
VCFG1:VCFG0
0000
VDD
Reference
Voltage
AN15(1)
AN14(1)
AN13(1)
AN12(1)
AN11
AN10
AN9
AN8
AN7
AN6
AN5(2)
AN4
AN3
AN2
AN1
AN0
VREF+
VREFVSS
Note 1:
2:
DS39762E-page 332
Channels AN15 through AN12 are not available on 64-pin devices.
Channel AN5 is implemented on 100-pin devices only.
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
After the A/D module has been configured as desired,
the selected channel must be acquired before the
conversion is started. The analog input channels must
have their corresponding TRIS bits selected as inputs.
To determine acquisition time, see Section 21.1 “A/D
Acquisition Requirements”. After this acquisition
time has elapsed, the A/D conversion can be started.
An acquisition time can be programmed to occur
between setting the GO/DONE bit and the actual start
of the conversion.
2.
3.
4.
5.
The following steps should be followed to do an A/D
conversion:
1.
Configure the A/D module:
• Configure analog pins, voltage reference and
digital I/O (ADCON1)
• Select A/D input channel (ADCON0)
• Select A/D acquisition time (ADCON2)
• Select A/D conversion clock (ADCON2)
• Turn on A/D module (ADCON0)
FIGURE 21-2:
Configure A/D interrupt (if desired):
• Clear ADIF bit
• Set ADIE bit
• Set GIE bit
Wait the required acquisition time (if required).
Start conversion:
• Set GO/DONE bit (ADCON0<1>)
Wait for A/D conversion to complete, by either:
• Polling for the GO/DONE bit to be cleared
OR
6.
7.
• Waiting for the A/D interrupt
Read A/D Result registers (ADRESH:ADRESL);
clear bit, ADIF, if required.
For next conversion, go to step 1 or step 2, as
required. The A/D conversion time per bit is
defined as TAD. A minimum wait of 2 TAD is
required before next acquisition starts.
ANALOG INPUT MODEL
VDD
RS
VAIN
Sampling
Switch
VT = 0.6V
ANx
RIC ≤ 1k
CPIN
5 pF
VT = 0.6V
SS
RSS
ILEAKAGE
±100 nA
CHOLD = 25 pF
VSS
Legend:
CPIN
= Input Capacitance
= Threshold Voltage
VT
ILEAKAGE = Leakage Current at the pin due to
various junctions
= Interconnect Resistance
RIC
= Sampling Switch
SS
= Sample/Hold Capacitance (from DAC)
CHOLD
RSS
= Sampling Switch Resistance
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
VDD
1
2
3
4
Sampling Switch (kΩ)
DS39762E-page 333
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
21.1
A/D Acquisition Requirements
For the A/D converter to meet its specified accuracy,
the charge holding capacitor (CHOLD) must be allowed
to fully charge to the input channel voltage level. The
Analog Input model is shown in Figure 21-2. The
source impedance (RS) and the internal sampling
switch (RSS) impedance directly affect the time
required to charge the capacitor, CHOLD. The sampling
switch (RSS) impedance varies over the device voltage
(VDD). The source impedance affects the offset voltage
at the analog input (due to pin leakage current). The
maximum recommended impedance for analog
sources is 2.5 kΩ. After the analog input channel is
selected (changed), the channel must be sampled for
at least the minimum acquisition time before starting a
conversion.
Note:
CHOLD
Rs
Conversion Error
VDD
Temperature
=
=
≤
=
=
25 pF
2.5 kΩ
1/2 LSb
3V → Rss = 2 kΩ
85°C (system max.)
ACQUISITION TIME
=
Amplifier Settling Time + Holding Capacitor Charging Time + Temperature Coefficient
=
TAMP + TC + TCOFF
EQUATION 21-2:
VHOLD
or
TC
Equation 21-3 shows the calculation of the minimum
required acquisition time, TACQ. This calculation is
based on the following application system
assumptions:
When the conversion is started, the
holding capacitor is disconnected from the
input pin.
EQUATION 21-1:
TACQ
To calculate the minimum acquisition time,
Equation 21-1 may be used. This equation assumes
that 1/2 LSb error is used (1024 steps for the A/D). The
1/2 LSb error is the maximum error allowed for the A/D
to meet its specified resolution.
A/D MINIMUM CHARGING TIME
=
(VREF – (VREF/2048)) • (1 – e(-TC/CHOLD(RIC + RSS + RS)))
=
-(CHOLD)(RIC + RSS + RS) ln(1/2048)
EQUATION 21-3:
CALCULATING THE MINIMUM REQUIRED ACQUISITION TIME
TACQ
=
TAMP + TC + TCOFF
TAMP
=
0.2 μs
TCOFF
=
(Temp – 25°C)(0.02 μs/°C)
(85°C – 25°C)(0.02 μs/°C)
1.2 μs
Temperature coefficient is only required for temperatures > 25°C. Below 25°C, TCOFF = 0 ms.
TC
=
-(CHOLD)(RIC + RSS + RS) ln(1/2048) μs
-(25 pF) (1 kΩ + 2 kΩ + 2.5 kΩ) ln(0.0004883) μs
1.05 μs
TACQ
=
0.2 μs + 1 μs + 1.2 μs
2.4 μs
DS39762E-page 334
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
21.2
Selecting and Configuring
Automatic Acquisition Time
The ADCON2 register allows the user to select an
acquisition time that occurs each time the GO/DONE
bit is set.
When the GO/DONE bit is set, sampling is stopped and
a conversion begins. The user is responsible for ensuring the required acquisition time has passed between
selecting the desired input channel and setting the
GO/DONE bit. This occurs when the ACQT2:ACQT0
bits (ADCON2<5:3>) remain in their Reset state (‘000’)
and is compatible with devices that do not offer
programmable acquisition times.
If desired, the ACQT bits can be set to select a
programmable acquisition time for the A/D module.
When the GO/DONE bit is set, the A/D module continues
to sample the input for the selected acquisition time, then
automatically begins a conversion. Since the acquisition
time is programmed, there may be no need to wait for an
acquisition time between selecting a channel and setting
the GO/DONE bit.
In either case, when the conversion is completed, the
GO/DONE bit is cleared, the ADIF flag is set and the
A/D begins sampling the currently selected channel
again. If an acquisition time is programmed, there is
nothing to indicate if the acquisition time has ended or
if the conversion has begun.
21.3
Selecting the A/D Conversion
Clock
The A/D conversion time per bit is defined as TAD. The
A/D conversion requires 11 TAD per 10-bit conversion.
The source of the A/D conversion clock is software
selectable.
There are seven possible options for TAD:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
2 TOSC
4 TOSC
8 TOSC
16 TOSC
32 TOSC
64 TOSC
Internal RC Oscillator
Table 21-1 shows the resultant TAD times derived from
the device operating frequencies and the A/D clock
source selected.
TABLE 21-1:
TAD vs. DEVICE OPERATING
FREQUENCIES
AD Clock Source (TAD)
Operation
ADCS2:ADCS0
Maximum
Device
Frequency
2 TOSC
000
2.68 MHz
4 TOSC
100
5.71 MHz
8 TOSC
001
11.43 MHz
16 TOSC
101
22.86 MHz
32 TOSC
010
41.67 MHz
64 TOSC
110
41.67 MHz
RC(2)
x11
1.00 MHz(1)
Note 1:
2:
21.4
The RC source has a typical TAD time of
4 ms.
See parameter 130 in Table 27-27 for A/D
RC clock specifications.
Configuring Analog Port Pins
The ADCON1, TRISA, TRISF and TRISH registers
control the operation of the A/D port pins. The port pins
needed as analog inputs must have their corresponding TRIS bits set (input). If the TRIS bit is cleared
(output), the digital output level (VOH or VOL) will be
converted.
The A/D operation is independent of the state of the
CHS3:CHS0 bits and the TRIS bits.
Note 1: When reading the PORT register, all pins
configured as analog input channels will
read as cleared (a low level). Pins configured as digital inputs will convert an
analog input. Analog levels on a digitally
configured input will be accurately
converted.
2: Analog levels on any pin defined as a
digital input may cause the digital input
buffer to consume current out of the
device’s specification limits.
For correct A/D conversions, the A/D conversion clock
(TAD) must be as short as possible but greater than
the minimum TAD. See Section 27.0 “Electrical
Characteristics”, A/D parameter 130 in Table 27-27
for more information.
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS39762E-page 335
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
21.5
A/D Conversions
21.6
Figure 21-3 shows the operation of the A/D converter
after the GO/DONE bit has been set and the
ACQT2:ACQT0 bits are cleared. A conversion is
started after the following instruction to allow entry into
Sleep mode before the conversion begins.
An A/D conversion can be started by the “Special Event
Trigger” of the ECCP2 module. This requires that the
CCP2M3:CCP2M0
bits
(CCP2CON<3:0>)
be
programmed as ‘1011’ and that the A/D module is
enabled (ADON bit is set). When the trigger occurs, the
GO/DONE bit will be set, starting the A/D acquisition
and conversion and the Timer1 (or Timer3) counter will
be reset to zero. Timer1 (or Timer3) is reset to automatically repeat the A/D acquisition period with minimal
software overhead (moving ADRESH/ADRESL to the
desired location). The appropriate analog input
channel must be selected and the minimum acquisition
period is either timed by the user, or an appropriate
TACQ time is selected before the Special Event Trigger
sets the GO/DONE bit (starts a conversion).
Figure 21-4 shows the operation of the A/D converter
after the GO/DONE bit has been set, the ACQT2:ACQT0
bits are set to ‘010’ and a 4 TAD acquisition time has been
selected before the conversion starts.
Clearing the GO/DONE bit during a conversion will
abort the current conversion. The A/D Result register
pair will NOT be updated with the partially completed
A/D
conversion
sample.
This
means
the
ADRESH:ADRESL registers will continue to contain
the value of the last completed conversion (or the last
value written to the ADRESH:ADRESL registers).
If the A/D module is not enabled (ADON is cleared), the
Special Event Trigger will be ignored by the A/D module
but will still reset the Timer1 (or Timer3) counter.
After the A/D conversion is completed or aborted, a
2 TAD wait is required before the next acquisition can be
started. After this wait, acquisition on the selected
channel is automatically started.
Note:
Use of the ECCP2 Trigger
The GO/DONE bit should NOT be set in
the same instruction that turns on the A/D.
FIGURE 21-3:
A/D CONVERSION TAD CYCLES (ACQT2:ACQT0 = 000, TACQ = 0)
TCY – TAD TAD1 TAD2 TAD3 TAD4 TAD5 TAD6 TAD7 TAD8 TAD9 TAD10 TAD11
b4
b1
b0
b6
b7
b2
b9
b8
b3
b5
Conversion starts
Holding capacitor is disconnected from analog input (typically 100 ns)
Set GO/DONE bit
Next Q4: ADRESH/ADRESL is loaded, GO/DONE bit is cleared,
ADIF bit is set, holding capacitor is connected to analog input.
A/D CONVERSION TAD CYCLES (ACQT2:ACQT0 = 010, TACQ = 4 TAD)
FIGURE 21-4:
TACQT Cycles
1
2
3
Automatic
Acquisition
Time
TAD Cycles
4
1
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
b9
b8
b7
b6
b5
b4
b3
b2
b1
b0
Conversion starts
(Holding capacitor is disconnected)
Set GO/DONE bit
(Holding capacitor continues
acquiring input)
DS39762E-page 336
2
Next Q4: ADRESH:ADRESL is loaded, GO/DONE bit is cleared,
ADIF bit is set, holding capacitor is reconnected to analog input.
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
21.7
A/D Converter Calibration
The A/D converter in the PIC18F97J60 family of
devices includes a self-calibration feature which compensates for any offset generated within the module.
The calibration process is automated and is initiated by
setting the ADCAL bit (ADCON0<7>). The next time
the GO/DONE bit is set, the module will perform a
“dummy” conversion (that is, with reading none of the
input channels) and store the resulting value internally
to compensate for offset. Thus, subsequent offsets will
be compensated.
The calibration process assumes that the device is in a
relatively steady-state operating condition. If A/D
calibration is used, it should be performed after each
device Reset, or if there are other major changes in
operating conditions.
21.8
Operation in Power-Managed
Modes
The selection of the automatic acquisition time and A/D
conversion clock is determined in part by the clock
source and frequency while in a power-managed
mode.
TABLE 21-2:
Name
If the A/D is expected to operate while the device is in
a power-managed mode, the ACQT2:ACQT0 and
ADCS2:ADCS0 bits in ADCON2 should be updated in
accordance with the power-managed mode clock that
will be used. After the power-managed mode is entered
(either of the power-managed Run modes), an A/D
acquisition or conversion may be started. Once an
acquisition or conversion is started, the device should
continue to be clocked by the same power-managed
mode clock source until the conversion has been
completed. If desired, the device may be placed into
the corresponding power-managed Idle mode during
the conversion.
If the power-managed mode clock frequency is less
than 1 MHz, the A/D RC clock source should be
selected.
Operation in Sleep mode requires the A/D RC clock to
be selected. If bits, ACQT2:ACQT0, are set to ‘000’
and a conversion is started, the conversion will be
delayed one instruction cycle to allow execution of the
SLEEP instruction and entry to Sleep mode. The IDLEN
and SCS bits in the OSCCON register must have
already been cleared prior to starting the conversion.
SUMMARY OF A/D REGISTERS
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
Reset
Values
on Page:
TMR0IE
INT0IE
RBIE
TMR0IF
INT0IF
RBIF
63
PIR1
PSPIF
ADIF
RC1IF
TX1IF
SSP1IF
CCP1IF
TMR2IF
TMR1IF
65
PIE1
PSPIE
ADIE
RC1IE
TX1IE
SSP1IE
CCP1IE
TMR2IE
TMR1IE
65
IPR1
PSPIP
ADIP
RC1IP
TX1IP
SSP1IP
CCP1IP
TMR2IP
TMR1IP
65
INTCON
GIE/GIEH PEIE/GIEL
PIR2
OSCFIF
CMIF
ETHIF
r
BCL1IF
—
TMR3IF
CCP2IF
65
PIE2
OSCFIE
CMIE
ETHIE
r
BCL1IE
—
TMR3IE
CCP2IE
65
IPR2
OSCFIP
CMIP
ETHIP
r
BCL1IP
—
TMR3IP
CCP2IP
65
ADRESH
A/D Result Register High Byte
64
ADRESL
A/D Result Register Low Byte
64
ADCON0
ADCAL
—
CHS3
CHS3
CHS1
CHS0
GO/DONE
ADON
64
ADCON1
—
—
VCFG1
VCFG0
PCFG3
PCFG2
PCFG1
PCFG0
64
ADCON2
ADFM
—
ACQT2
ACQT1
ACQT0
ADCS2
ADCS1
ADCS0
64
CCP2CON
P2M1
P2M0
DC2B1
DC2B0
CCP2M3
CCP2M2
CCP2M1
CCP2M0
64
PORTA
RJPU
—
RA5
RA4
RA3
RA2
RA1
RA0
66
TRISA
—
—
TRISA5
TRISA4
TRISA3
TRISA2
TRISA1
TRISA0
65
PORTF
RF7
RF6
RF5
RF4
RF3
RF2
RF1
TRISF
TRISF7
TRISF6
TRISF5
TRISF4
TRISF3
TRISF2
TRISF1
RF0
(1)
66
TRISF0(1)
65
PORTH(2)
RH7
RH6
RH5
RH4
RH3
RH2
RH1
RH0
66
TRISH(2)
TRISH7
TRISH6
TRISH5
TRISH4
TRISH3
TRISH2
TRISH1
TRISH0
65
Legend: — = unimplemented, read as ‘0’, r = reserved. Shaded cells are not used for A/D conversion.
Note 1: Implemented in 100-pin devices only.
2: This register is not implemented on 64-pin devices.
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS39762E-page 337
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
NOTES:
DS39762E-page 338
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
22.0
COMPARATOR MODULE
The analog comparator module contains two
comparators that can be configured in a variety of
ways. The inputs can be selected from the analog
inputs multiplexed with pins, RF1 through RF6, as well
as the on-chip voltage reference (see Section 23.0
“Comparator Voltage Reference Module”). The digital outputs (normal or inverted) are available at the pin
level and can also be read through the control register.
REGISTER 22-1:
The CMCON register (Register 22-1) selects the
comparator input and output configuration. Block
diagrams of the various comparator configurations are
shown in Figure 22-1.
CMCON: COMPARATOR CONTROL REGISTER
R-0
R-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-1
R/W-1
R/W-1
C2OUT
C1OUT
C2INV
C1INV
CIS
CM2
CM1
CM0
bit 7
bit 0
Legend:
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
-n = Value at POR
‘1’ = Bit is set
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
x = Bit is unknown
bit 7
C2OUT: Comparator 2 Output bit
When C2INV = 0:
1 = C2 VIN+ > C2 VIN0 = C2 VIN+ < C2 VINWhen C2INV = 1:
1 = C2 VIN+ < C2 VIN0 = C2 VIN+ > C2 VIN-
bit 6
C1OUT: Comparator 1 Output bit
When C1INV = 0:
1 = C1 VIN+ > C1 VIN0 = C1 VIN+ < C1 VINWhen C1INV = 1:
1 = C1 VIN+ < C1 VIN0 = C1 VIN+ > C1 VIN-
bit 5
C2INV: Comparator 2 Output Inversion bit
1 = C2 output inverted
0 = C2 output not inverted
bit 4
C1INV: Comparator 1 Output Inversion bit
1 = C1 output inverted
0 = C1 output not inverted
bit 3
CIS: Comparator Input Switch bit
When CM2:CM0 = 110:
1 = C1 VIN- connects to RF5/AN10/CVREF
C2 VIN- connects to RF3/AN8
0 = C1 VIN- connects to RF6/AN11
C2 VIN- connects to RA4/AN9
bit 2-0
CM2:CM0: Comparator Mode bits
Figure 22-1 shows the Comparator modes and the CM2:CM0 bit settings.
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS39762E-page 339
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
22.1
Comparator Configuration
There are eight modes of operation for the comparators, shown in Figure 22-1. Bits CM2:CM0 of the
CMCON register are used to select these modes. The
TRISF register controls the data direction of the
comparator pins for each mode. If the Comparator
FIGURE 22-1:
A
RF5/AN10/ A
CVREF
RF4/AN9
RF3/AN8
VINVIN+
A
VIN-
A
VIN+
A
C1
Off (Read as ‘0’)
C2
Off (Read as ‘0’)
VIN+
A
VIN-
A
VIN+
RF3/AN8
RF6/AN11
D
VIN-
RF5/AN10/
CVREF
D
VIN+
RF4/AN9
D
VIN-
D
VIN+
RF3/AN8
C1
Off (Read as ‘0’)
C2
Off (Read as ‘0’)
Two Independent Comparators with Outputs
CM2:CM0 = 011
VIN-
RF5/AN10/ A
CVREF
RF4/AN9
Comparator interrupts should be disabled
during a Comparator mode change;
otherwise, a false interrupt may occur.
Comparators Off (POR Default Value)
CM2:CM0 = 111
Two Independent Comparators
CM2:CM0 = 010
RF6/AN11
Note:
COMPARATOR I/O OPERATING MODES
Comparator Outputs Disabled
CM2:CM0 = 000
RF6/AN11
mode is changed, the comparator output level may not
be valid for the specified mode change delay shown in
Section 27.0 “Electrical Characteristics”.
RF6/AN11
A
VIN-
C1
C1OUT
VIN+
RF5/AN10/ A
CVREF
RF2/AN7/C1OUT*
C2
C2OUT
RF4/AN9
A
VIN-
RF3/AN8
A
VIN+
C1
C1OUT
C2
C2OUT
RF1/AN6/C2OUT*
Two Common Reference Comparators
CM2:CM0 = 100
RF6/AN11
A
VIN-
RF5/AN10/ A
CVREF
VIN+
A
VIN-
D
VIN+
RF4/AN9
RF3/AN8
Two Common Reference Comparators with Outputs
CM2:CM0 = 101
RF6/AN11
C1
C1OUT
C2
C2OUT
A
A
RF5/AN10/
CVREF
RF2/AN7/C1OUT*
RF4/AN9
RF3/AN8
VINVIN+
A
VIN-
D
VIN+
C1
C1OUT
C2
C2OUT
RF1/AN6/C2OUT*
One Independent Comparator with Output
CM2:CM0 = 001
A
VIN-
RF5/AN10/ A
CVREF
VIN+
RF6/AN11
C1
C1OUT
RF2/AN7/C1OUT*
RF4/AN9
D
VIN-
RF3/AN8
D
VIN+
C2
Off (Read as ‘0’)
Four Inputs Multiplexed to Two Comparators
CM2:CM0 = 110
RF6/AN11
A
RF5/AN10/
CVREF
A
RF4/AN9
A
RF3/AN8
A
CIS = 0
CIS = 1
VIN-
CIS = 0
CIS = 1
VIN-
VIN+
VIN+
C1
C1OUT
C2
C2OUT
CVREF
From VREF module
A = Analog Input, port reads zeros always
D = Digital Input
CIS (CMCON<3>) is the Comparator Input Switch
* Setting the TRISF<2:1> bits will disable the comparator outputs by configuring the pins as inputs.
DS39762E-page 340
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
22.2
Comparator Operation
22.3.2
A single comparator is shown in Figure 22-2, along with
the relationship between the analog input levels and
the digital output. When the analog input at VIN+ is less
than the analog input VIN-, the output of the comparator
is a digital low level. When the analog input at VIN+ is
greater than the analog input VIN-, the output of the
comparator is a digital high level. The shaded areas of
the output of the comparator in Figure 22-2 represent
the uncertainty due to input offsets and response time.
22.3
Comparator Reference
Depending on the comparator operating mode, either
an external or internal voltage reference may be used.
The analog signal present at VIN- is compared to the
signal at VIN+ and the digital output of the comparator
is adjusted accordingly (Figure 22-2).
FIGURE 22-2:
SINGLE COMPARATOR
VIN+
+
VIN-
–
Output
VINVIN+
Output
22.3.1
INTERNAL REFERENCE SIGNAL
The comparator module also allows the selection of an
internally generated voltage reference from the
comparator voltage reference module. This module is
described in more detail in Section 23.0 “Comparator
Voltage Reference Module”.
The internal reference is only available in the mode
where four inputs are multiplexed to two comparators
(CM2:CM0 = 110). In this mode, the internal voltage
reference is applied to the VIN+ pin of both
comparators.
22.4
Comparator Response Time
Response time is the minimum time, after selecting a
new reference voltage or input source, before the
comparator output has a valid level. If the internal reference is changed, the maximum delay of the internal
voltage reference must be considered when using the
comparator outputs. Otherwise, the maximum delay of
the comparators should be used (see Section 27.0
“Electrical Characteristics”).
22.5
Comparator Outputs
The comparator outputs are read through the CMCON
register. These bits are read-only. The comparator
outputs may also be directly output to the RF1 and RF2
I/O pins. When enabled, multiplexors in the output path
of the RF1 and RF2 pins will switch and the output of
each pin will be the unsynchronized output of the
comparator. The uncertainty of each of the
comparators is related to the input offset voltage and
the response time given in the specifications.
Figure 22-3 shows the comparator output block
diagram.
The TRISF bits will still function as an output enable/
disable for the RF1 and RF2 pins while in this mode.
EXTERNAL REFERENCE SIGNAL
When external voltage references are used, the
comparator module can be configured to have the comparators operate from the same or different reference
sources. However, threshold detector applications may
require the same reference. The reference signal must
be between VSS and VDD and can be applied to either
pin of the comparator(s).
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
The polarity of the comparator outputs can be changed
using the C2INV and C1INV bits (CMCON<5:4>).
Note 1: When reading the PORT register, all pins
configured as analog inputs will read as
‘0’. Pins configured as digital inputs will
convert an analog input according to the
Schmitt Trigger input specification.
2: Analog levels on any pin defined as a
digital input may cause the input buffer to
consume more current than is specified.
DS39762E-page 341
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
+
To CxOUT
pin
-
Port pins
COMPARATOR OUTPUT BLOCK DIAGRAM
MULTIPLEX
FIGURE 22-3:
D
Bus
Data
Q
CxINV
Read CMCON
EN
D
Q
EN
CL
From
Other
Comparator
Reset
22.6
Comparator Interrupts
The comparator interrupt flag is set whenever there is
a change in the output value of either comparator.
Software will need to maintain information about the
status of the output bits, as read from CMCON<7:6>, to
determine the actual change that occurred. The CMIF
bit (PIR2<6>) is the Comparator Interrupt Flag. The
CMIF bit must be reset by clearing it. Since it is also
possible to write a ‘1’ to this register, a simulated
interrupt may be initiated.
Both the CMIE bit (PIE2<6>) and the PEIE bit
(INTCON<6>) must be set to enable the interrupt. In
addition, the GIE bit (INTCON<7>) must also be set. If
any of these bits are clear, the interrupt is not enabled,
though the CMIF bit will still be set if an interrupt
condition occurs.
Note:
If a change in the CMCON register
(C1OUT or C2OUT) should occur when a
read operation is being executed (start of
the Q2 cycle), then the CMIF (PIR2
register) interrupt flag may not get set.
The user, in the Interrupt Service Routine, can clear the
interrupt in the following manner:
a)
b)
Set
CMIF
bit
22.7
Comparator Operation
During Sleep
When a comparator is active and the device is placed
in Sleep mode, the comparator remains active and the
interrupt is functional, if enabled. This interrupt will
wake-up the device from Sleep mode, when enabled.
Each operational comparator will consume additional
current, as shown in the comparator specifications. To
minimize power consumption while in Sleep mode, turn
off the comparators (CM2:CM0 = 111) before entering
Sleep. If the device wakes up from Sleep, the contents
of the CMCON register are not affected.
22.8
Effects of a Reset
A device Reset forces the CMCON register to its Reset
state, causing the comparator modules to be turned off
(CM2:CM0 = 111). However, the input pins (RF3
through RF6) are configured as analog inputs by
default on device Reset. The I/O configuration for these
pins is determined by the setting of the PCFG3:PCFG0
bits (ADCON1<3:0>). Therefore, device current is
minimized when analog inputs are present at Reset
time.
Any read or write of CMCON will end the
mismatch condition.
Clear flag bit, CMIF.
A mismatch condition will continue to set flag bit, CMIF.
Reading CMCON will end the mismatch condition and
allow flag bit, CMIF, to be cleared.
DS39762E-page 342
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
22.9
Analog Input Connection
Considerations
range by more than 0.6V in either direction, one of the
diodes is forward biased and a latch-up condition may
occur. A maximum source impedance of 10 kΩ is
recommended for the analog sources. Any external
component connected to an analog input pin, such as
a capacitor or a Zener diode, should have very little
leakage current.
A simplified circuit for an analog input is shown in
Figure 22-4. Since the analog pins are connected to a
digital output, they have reverse biased diodes to VDD
and VSS. The analog input, therefore, must be between
VSS and VDD. If the input voltage deviates from this
FIGURE 22-4:
COMPARATOR ANALOG INPUT MODEL
VDD
VT = 0.6V
RS < 10k
AIN
CPIN
5 pF
VA
VT = 0.6V
RIC
Comparator
Input
ILEAKAGE
±500 nA
VSS
Legend:
TABLE 22-1:
Name
INTCON
CPIN
VT
ILEAKAGE
RIC
RS
VA
=
=
=
=
=
=
Input Capacitance
Threshold Voltage
Leakage Current at the pin due to various junctions
Interconnect Resistance
Source Impedance
Analog Voltage
REGISTERS ASSOCIATED WITH COMPARATOR MODULE
Bit 7
Bit 6
GIE/GIEH PEIE/GIEL
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
Reset
Values
on Page:
TMR0IE
INT0IE
RBIE
TMR0IF
INT0IF
RBIF
63
PIR2
OSCFIF
CMIF
ETHIF
r
BCL1IF
—
TMR3IF
CCP2IF
65
PIE2
OSCFIE
CMIE
ETHIE
r
BCL1IE
—
TMR3IE
CCP2IE
65
IPR2
OSCFIP
CMIP
ETHIP
r
BCL1IP
—
TMR3IP
CCP2IP
65
CMCON
C2OUT
C1OUT
C2INV
C1INV
CIS
CM2
CM1
CM0
64
CVRCON
CVREN
CVROE
CVRR
CVRSS
CVR3
CVR2
CVR1
CVR0
64
PORTF
RF7
RF6
RF5
RF4
RF3
RF2
RF1
RF0
66
TRISF
TRISF7
TRISF6
TRISF5
TRISF4
TRISF3
TRISF2
TRISF1
TRISF0
65
Legend: — = unimplemented, read as ‘0’, r = reserved. Shaded cells are not used by the comparator module.
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS39762E-page 343
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
NOTES:
DS39762E-page 344
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
23.0
COMPARATOR VOLTAGE
REFERENCE MODULE
The comparator voltage reference is a 16-tap resistor
ladder network that provides a selectable reference
voltage. Although its primary purpose is to provide a
reference for the analog comparators, it may also be
used independently of them.
A block diagram of the module is shown in Figure 23-1.
The resistor ladder is segmented to provide two ranges
of CVREF values and has a power-down function to
conserve power when the reference is not being used.
The module’s supply reference can be provided from
either device VDD/VSS or an external voltage reference.
23.1
Configuring the Comparator
Voltage Reference
The voltage reference module is controlled through the
CVRCON register (Register 23-1). The comparator
voltage reference provides two ranges of output voltage, each with 16 distinct levels. The range to be used
REGISTER 23-1:
is selected by the CVRR bit (CVRCON<5>). The
primary difference between the ranges is the size of the
steps selected by the CVREF selection bits
(CVR3:CVR0), with one range offering finer resolution.
The equations used to calculate the output of the
comparator voltage reference are as follows:
If CVRR = 1:
CVREF = ((CVR3:CVR0)/24) x (CVRSRC)
If CVRR = 0:
CVREF = (CVRSRC/4) + ((CVR3:CVR0)/32) x
(CVRSRC)
The comparator reference supply voltage can come
from either VDD and VSS, or the external VREF+ and
VREF- that are multiplexed with RA2 and RA3. The
voltage source is selected by the CVRSS bit
(CVRCON<4>).
The settling time of the comparator voltage reference
must be considered when changing the CVREF
output (see Table 27-3 in Section 27.0 “Electrical
Characteristics”).
CVRCON: COMPARATOR VOLTAGE REFERENCE CONTROL REGISTER
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
CVREN
CVROE(1)
CVRR
CVRSS
CVR3
CVR2
CVR1
CVR0
bit 7
bit 0
Legend:
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
-n = Value at POR
‘1’ = Bit is set
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
x = Bit is unknown
bit 7
CVREN: Comparator Voltage Reference Enable bit
1 = CVREF circuit powered on
0 = CVREF circuit powered down
bit 6
CVROE: Comparator VREF Output Enable bit(1)
1 = CVREF voltage level is also output on the RF5/AN10/CVREF pin
0 = CVREF voltage is disconnected from the RF5/AN10/CVREF pin
bit 5
CVRR: Comparator VREF Range Selection bit
1 = 0 to 0.667 CVRSRC, with CVRSRC/24 step size (low range)
0 = 0.25 CVRSRC to 0.75 CVRSRC, with CVRSRC/32 step size (high range)
bit 4
CVRSS: Comparator VREF Source Selection bit
1 = Comparator reference source, CVRSRC = (VREF+) – (VREF-)
0 = Comparator reference source, CVRSRC = VDD – VSS
bit 3-0
CVR3:CVR0: Comparator VREF Value Selection bits (0 ≤ (CVR3:CVR0) ≤ 15)
When CVRR = 1:
CVREF = ((CVR3:CVR0)/24) • (CVRSRC)
When CVRR = 0:
CVREF = (CVRSRC/4) + ((CVR3:CVR0)/32) • (CVRSRC)
Note 1:
CVROE overrides the TRISF<5> bit setting.
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS39762E-page 345
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
FIGURE 23-1:
COMPARATOR VOLTAGE REFERENCE BLOCK DIAGRAM
VREF+
VDD
CVRSS = 1
8R
CVRSS = 0
CVR3:CVR0
R
CVREN
R
R
16-to-1 MUX
R
16 Steps
R
CVREF
R
R
CVRR
VREF-
8R
CVRSS = 1
CVRSS = 0
23.2
Comparator Voltage Reference
Accuracy/Error
The full range of voltage reference cannot be realized
due to the construction of the module. The transistors
on the top and bottom of the resistor ladder network
(Figure 23-1) keep CVREF from approaching the reference source rails. The voltage reference is derived
from the reference source; therefore, the CVREF output
changes with fluctuations in that source. The tested
absolute accuracy of the voltage reference can be
found in Section 27.0 “Electrical Characteristics”.
23.3
Operation During Sleep
When the device wakes up from Sleep through an
interrupt, or a Watchdog Timer time-out, the contents of
the CVRCON register are not affected. To minimize
current consumption in Sleep mode, the voltage
reference should be disabled.
DS39762E-page 346
23.4
Effects of a Reset
A device Reset disables the voltage reference by
clearing bit, CVREN (CVRCON<7>). This Reset also
disconnects the reference from the RA2 pin by clearing
bit, CVROE (CVRCON<6>), and selects the highvoltage range by clearing bit, CVRR (CVRCON<5>).
The CVR value select bits are also cleared.
23.5
Connection Considerations
The voltage reference module operates independently
of the comparator module. The output of the reference
generator may be connected to the RF5 pin if the
CVROE bit is set. Enabling the voltage reference output onto RA2 when it is configured as a digital input will
increase current consumption. Connecting RF5 as a
digital output with CVRSS enabled will also increase
current consumption.
The RF5 pin can be used as a simple D/A output with
limited drive capability. Due to the limited current drive
capability, a buffer must be used on the voltage
reference output for external connections to VREF.
Figure 23-2 shows an example buffering technique.
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
FIGURE 23-2:
COMPARATOR VOLTAGE REFERENCE OUTPUT BUFFER EXAMPLE
PIC18FXXJ6X
CVREF
Module
Note 1:
TABLE 23-1:
Name
R(1)
Voltage
Reference
Output
Impedance
+
–
RF5
CVREF Output
R is dependent upon the comparator voltage reference configuration bits, CVRCON<5> and CVRCON<3:0>.
REGISTERS ASSOCIATED WITH COMPARATOR VOLTAGE REFERENCE
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
Reset
Values
on Page:
CVROE
CVRR
CVRSS
CVR3
CVR2
CVR1
CVR0
64
C1OUT
C2INV
C1INV
CIS
CM2
CM1
CM0
64
TRISF6
TRISF5
TRISF4
TRISF3
TRISF2
TRISF1
TRISF0
65
Bit 7
Bit 6
CVRCON
CVREN
CMCON
C2OUT
TRISF
TRISF7
Legend: — = unimplemented, read as ‘0’. Shaded cells are not used with the comparator voltage reference module.
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS39762E-page 347
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
NOTES:
DS39762E-page 348
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
24.0
SPECIAL FEATURES OF THE
CPU
PIC18F97J60 family devices include several features
intended to maximize reliability and minimize cost
through elimination of external components. These are:
• Oscillator Selection
• Resets:
- Power-on Reset (POR)
- Power-up Timer (PWRT)
- Oscillator Start-up Timer (OST)
- Brown-out Reset (BOR)
• Interrupts
• Watchdog Timer (WDT)
• Fail-Safe Clock Monitor
• Two-Speed Start-up
• Code Protection
• In-Circuit Serial Programming
The oscillator can be configured for the application
depending on frequency, power, accuracy and cost. All
of the options are discussed in detail in Section 2.0
“Oscillator Configurations”.
A complete discussion of device Resets and interrupts
is available in previous sections of this data sheet.
In addition to their Power-up and Oscillator Start-up
Timers provided for Resets, the PIC18F97J60 family of
devices has a configurable Watchdog Timer which is
controlled in software.
The inclusion of an internal RC oscillator also provides
the additional benefits of a Fail-Safe Clock Monitor
(FSCM) and Two-Speed Start-up. FSCM provides for
background monitoring of the peripheral clock and
automatic switchover in the event of its failure.
Two-Speed Start-up enables code to be executed
almost immediately on start-up while the primary clock
source completes its start-up delays.
All of these features are enabled and configured by
setting the appropriate Configuration register bits.
24.1
Configuration Bits
24.1.1
CONSIDERATIONS FOR
CONFIGURING THE PIC18F97J60
FAMILY DEVICES
Devices of the PIC18F97J60 family do not use persistent memory registers to store configuration information.
The configuration bytes are implemented as volatile
memory which means that configuration data must be
programmed each time the device is powered up.
Configuration data is stored in the four words at the top
of the on-chip program memory space, known as the
Flash Configuration Words, which are located in the
program memory space as shown in Table 5-1. The
Configuration Words are stored in the same order
shown in Table 24-1, with CONFIG1L at the lowest
address and CONFIG3H at the highest. The data is
automatically loaded in the proper Configuration
registers during device power-up.
When creating applications for these devices, users
should always specifically allocate the location of the
Flash Configuration Word for configuration data. This is
to make certain that program code is not stored in this
address when the code is compiled.
The volatile memory cells used for the Configuration
bits always reset to ‘1’ on Power-on Resets. For all
other types of Reset events, the previously programmed values are maintained and used without
reloading from program memory.
The four Most Significant bits of CONFIG1H,
CONFIG2H and CONFIG3H in program memory
should also be ‘1111’. This makes these Configuration
Words appear to be NOP instructions in the remote
event that their locations are ever executed by
accident. Since Configuration bits are not implemented
in the corresponding locations, writing ‘1’s to these
locations has no effect on device operation.
To prevent inadvertent configuration changes during
code execution, all programmable Configuration bits
are write-once. After a bit is initially programmed during
a power cycle, it cannot be written to again. Changing
a device configuration requires that power to the device
be cycled.
The Configuration bits can be programmed (read as
‘0’) or left unprogrammed (read as ‘1’) to select various
device configurations. These bits are mapped starting
at program memory location 300000h. A complete list
is shown in Table 24-1. A detailed explanation of the
various bit functions is provided in Register 24-1
through Register 24-8.
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS39762E-page 349
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
TABLE 24-1:
CONFIGURATION BITS AND DEVICE IDs
File Name
300000h
CONFIG1L
Default/
Unprogrammed
Value(1)
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
DEBUG
XINST
STVREN
—
—
—
—
WDTEN
110- ---1
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(3)
300001h
CONFIG1H
—
CP0
—
—
---- 01--
300002h
CONFIG2L
IESO
FCMEN
—
—
—
FOSC2
FOSC1
FOSC0
11-- -111
300003h
CONFIG2H
—(2)
—(2)
—(2)
—(2)
WDTPS3
WDTPS2
WDTPS1
WDTPS0
---- 1111
300004h
CONFIG3L
WAIT(4)
BW(4)
EMB1(4)
—
—
—
1111 1---
300005h
CONFIG3H
—(2)
—(2)
—(2)
—(2)
—
3FFFFEh DEVID1
DEV2
DEV1
DEV0
REV4
REV3
REV2
REV1
REV0
xxxx xxxx(6)
3FFFFFh DEVID2
DEV10
DEV9
DEV8
DEV7
DEV6
DEV5
DEV4
DEV3
xxxx xxxx(6)
Legend:
Note 1:
2:
3:
4:
5:
6:
—
—
—
—
EMB0(4) EASHFT(4)
ETHLED ECCPMX(5) CCP2MX(5) ---- -111
x = unknown, u = unchanged, - = unimplemented. Shaded cells are unimplemented, read as ‘0’.
Values reflect the unprogrammed state as received from the factory and following Power-on Resets. In all other Reset
states, the configuration bytes maintain their previously programmed states.
The value of these bits in program memory should always be ‘1’. This ensures that the location is executed as a NOP if it
is accidentally executed.
This bit should always be maintained as ‘0’.
Implemented on 100-pin devices only.
Implemented on 80-pin and 100-pin devices only.
See Register 24-7 and Register 24-8 for DEVID values. These registers are read-only and cannot be programmed by
the user.
DS39762E-page 350
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
REGISTER 24-1:
CONFIG1L: CONFIGURATION REGISTER 1 LOW (BYTE ADDRESS 300000h)
R/WO-1
R/WO-1
R/WO-0
U-0
U-0
U-0
U-0
R/WO-1
DEBUG
XINST
STVREN
—
—
—
—
WDTEN
bit 7
bit 0
Legend:
R = Readable bit
WO = Write-Once bit
-n = Value when device is unprogrammed
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
‘1’ = Bit is set
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
bit 7
DEBUG: Background Debugger Enable bit
1 = Background debugger disabled; RB6 and RB7 configured as general purpose I/O pins
0 = Background debugger enabled; RB6 and RB7 are dedicated to In-Circuit Debug
bit 6
XINST: Extended Instruction Set Enable bit
1 = Instruction set extension and Indexed Addressing mode enabled
0 = Instruction set extension and Indexed Addressing mode disabled (Legacy mode)
bit 5
STVREN: Stack Overflow/Underflow Reset Enable bit
1 = Reset on stack overflow/underflow enabled
0 = Reset on stack overflow/underflow disabled
bit 4-1
Unimplemented: Read as ‘0’
bit 0
WDTEN: Watchdog Timer Enable bit
1 = WDT enabled
0 = WDT disabled (control is placed on SWDTEN bit)
REGISTER 24-2:
CONFIG1H: CONFIGURATION REGISTER 1 HIGH (BYTE ADDRESS 300001h)
U-0
U-0
U-0
U-0
U-0(1)
R/WO-1
U-0
U-0
—(2)
—(2)
—(2)
—(2)
—
CP0
—
—
bit 7
bit 0
Legend:
R = Readable bit
WO = Write-Once bit
-n = Value when device is unprogrammed
bit 7-3
Unimplemented: Read as ‘0’
bit 2
CP0: Code Protection bit
1 = Program memory is not code-protected
0 = Program memory is code-protected
bit 1-0
Unimplemented: Read as ‘0’
Note 1:
2:
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
‘1’ = Bit is set
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
This bit should always be maintained as ‘0’.
The value of these bits in program memory should always be ‘1’. This ensures that the location is
executed as a NOP if it is accidentally executed.
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS39762E-page 351
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
REGISTER 24-3:
CONFIG2L: CONFIGURATION REGISTER 2 LOW (BYTE ADDRESS 300002h)
R/WO-1
R/WO-1
U-0
U-0
U-0
R/WO-1
R/WO-1
R/WO-1
IESO
FCMEN
—
—
—
FOSC2
FOSC1
FOSC0
bit 7
bit 0
Legend:
R = Readable bit
WO = Write-Once bit
-n = Value when device is unprogrammed
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
‘1’ = Bit is set
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
bit 7
IESO: Two-Speed Start-up (Internal/External Oscillator Switchover) Control bit
1 = Two-Speed Start-up enabled
0 = Two-Speed Start-up disabled
bit 6
FCMEN: Fail-Safe Clock Monitor Enable bit
1 = Fail-Safe Clock Monitor enabled
0 = Fail-Safe Clock Monitor disabled
bit 5-3
Unimplemented: Read as ‘0’
bit 2
FOSC2: Default/Reset System Clock Select bit
1 = Clock selected by FOSC1:FOSC0 as system clock is enabled when OSCCON<1:0> = 00
0 = INTRC enabled as system clock when OSCCON<1:0> = 00
bit 1-0
FOSC1:FOSC0: Oscillator Selection bits
11 = EC oscillator, PLL enabled and under software control, CLKO function on OSC2
10 = EC oscillator, CLKO function on OSC2
01 = HS oscillator, PLL enabled and under software control
00 = HS oscillator
DS39762E-page 352
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
REGISTER 24-4:
CONFIG2H: CONFIGURATION REGISTER 2 HIGH (BYTE ADDRESS 300003h)
U-0
U-0
U-0
U-0
R/WO-1
R/WO-1
R/WO-1
R/WO-1
—(1)
—(1)
—(1)
—(1)
WDTPS3
WDTPS2
WDTPS1
WDTPS0
bit 7
bit 0
Legend:
R = Readable bit
WO = Write-Once bit
-n = Value when device is unprogrammed
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
‘1’ = Bit is set
bit 7-4
Unimplemented: Read as ‘0’
bit 3-0
WDTPS3:WDTPS0: Watchdog Timer Postscale Select bits
1111 = 1:32,768
1110 = 1:16,384
1101 = 1:8,192
1100 = 1:4,096
1011 = 1:2,048
1010 = 1:1,024
1001 = 1:512
1000 = 1:256
0111 = 1:128
0110 = 1:64
0101 = 1:32
0100 = 1:16
0011 = 1:8
0010 = 1:4
0001 = 1:2
0000 = 1:1
Note 1:
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
The value of these bits in program memory should always be ‘1’. This ensures that the location is
executed as a NOP if it is accidentally executed.
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS39762E-page 353
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
REGISTER 24-5:
R/WO-1
CONFIG3L: CONFIGURATION REGISTER 3 LOW (BYTE ADDRESS 300004h)
R/WO-1
(1)
BW
WAIT
(1)
R/WO-1
R/WO-1
(1)
(1)
EMB1
EMB0
R/WO-1
EASHFT
(1)
U-0
U-0
U-0
—
—
—
bit 7
bit 0
Legend:
R = Readable bit
WO = Write-Once bit
-n = Value when device is unprogrammed
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
‘1’ = Bit is set
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
bit 7
WAIT: External Bus Wait Enable bit(1)
1 = Wait states for operations on external memory bus disabled
0 = Wait states for operations on external memory bus enabled and selected by MEMCON<5:4>
bit 6
BW: Data Bus Width Select bit(1)
1 = 16-Bit Data Width mode
0 = 8-Bit Data Width mode
bit 5-4
EMB1:EMB0: External Memory Bus Configuration bits(1)
11 = Microcontroller mode, external bus disabled
10 = Extended Microcontroller mode,12-Bit Addressing mode
01 = Extended Microcontroller mode,16-Bit Addressing mode
00 = Extended Microcontroller mode, 20-Bit Addressing mode
bit 3
EASHFT: External Address Bus Shift Enable bit(1)
1 = Address shifting enabled; address on external bus is offset to start at 000000h
0 = Address shifting disabled; address on external bus reflects the PC value
bit 2-0
Unimplemented: Read as ‘0’
Note 1:
Implemented on 100-pin devices only.
DS39762E-page 354
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
REGISTER 24-6:
CONFIG3H: CONFIGURATION REGISTER 3 HIGH (BYTE ADDRESS 300005h)
U-0
U-0
U-0
U-0
(1)
(1)
(1)
(1)
—
—
—
—
U-0
—
R/WO-1
ETHLED
R/WO-1
ECCPMX
(2)
R/WO-1
CCP2MX(2)
bit 7
bit 0
Legend:
R = Readable bit
WO = Write-Once bit
-n = Value when device is unprogrammed
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
‘1’ = Bit is set
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
bit 7-3
Unimplemented: Read as ‘0’
bit 2
ETHLED: Ethernet LED Enable bit
1 = RA0/RA1 are multiplexed with LEDA/LEDB when the Ethernet module is enabled and function as
I/O when the Ethernet is disabled
0 = RA0/RA1 function as I/O regardless of Ethernet module status
bit 1
ECCPMX: ECCP MUX bit(2)
1 = ECCP1 outputs (P1B/P1C) are multiplexed with RE6 and RE5;
ECCP3 outputs (P3B/P3C) are multiplexed with RE4 and RE3
0 = ECCP1 outputs (P1B/P1C) are multiplexed with RH7 and RH6;
ECCP3 outputs (P3B/P3C) are multiplexed with RH5 and RH4
bit 0
CCP2MX: ECCP2 MUX bit(2)
1 = ECCP2/P2A is multiplexed with RC1
0 = ECCP2/P2A is multiplexed with RE7 in Microcontroller mode (80-pin and 100-pin devices)
or with RB3 in Extended Microcontroller mode (100-pin devices only)
Note 1:
2:
The value of these bits in program memory should always be ‘1’. This ensures that the location is
executed as a NOP if it is accidentally executed.
Implemented on 80-pin and 100-pin devices only.
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS39762E-page 355
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
REGISTER 24-7:
DEVID1: DEVICE ID REGISTER 1 FOR PIC18F97J60 FAMILY DEVICES
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
DEV2
DEV1
DEV0
REV4
REV3
REV2
REV1
REV0
bit 7
bit 0
Legend:
R = Read-only bit
P = Programmable bit
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
-n = Value when device is unprogrammed
u = Unchanged from programmed state
bit 7-5
DEV2:DEV0: Device ID bits
See Register 24-8 for a complete listing.
bit 4-0
REV4:REV0: Revision ID bits
These bits are used to indicate the device revision.
REGISTER 24-8:
DEVID2: DEVICE ID REGISTER 2 FOR PIC18F97J60 FAMILY DEVICES
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
DEV10
DEV9
DEV8
DEV7
DEV6
DEV5
DEV4
DEV3
bit 7
bit 0
Legend:
R = Read-only bit
P = Programmable bit
-n = Value when device is unprogrammed
bit 7-0
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
u = Unchanged from programmed state
DEV10:DEV3: Device ID bits:
DS39762E-page 356
DEV10:DEV3
(DEVID2<7:0>)
DEV2:DEV0
(DEVID1<7:5>)
Device
0001 1000
000
PIC18F66J60
0001 1111
000
PIC18F66J65
0001 1111
001
PIC18F67J60
0001 1000
001
PIC18F86J60
0001 1111
010
PIC18F86J65
0001 1111
011
PIC18F87J60
0001 1000
010
PIC18F96J60
0001 1111
100
PIC18F96J65
0001 1111
101
PIC18F97J60
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
24.2
Watchdog Timer (WDT)
Note 1: The CLRWDT and SLEEP instructions
clear the WDT and postscaler counts
when executed.
For PIC18F97J60 family devices, the WDT is driven by
the INTRC oscillator. When the WDT is enabled, the
clock source is also enabled. The nominal WDT period
is 4 ms and has the same stability as the INTRC
oscillator.
The 4 ms period of the WDT is multiplied by a 16-bit
postscaler. Any output of the WDT postscaler is
selected by a multiplexor, controlled by the WDTPS bits
in Configuration Register 2H. Available periods range
from 4 ms to 131.072 seconds (2.18 minutes). The
WDT and postscaler are cleared whenever a SLEEP or
CLRWDT instruction is executed, or a clock failure
(primary or Timer1 oscillator) has occurred.
FIGURE 24-1:
2: When a CLRWDT instruction is executed,
the postscaler count will be cleared.
24.2.1
CONTROL REGISTER
The WDTCON register (Register 24-9) is a readable
and writable register. The SWDTEN bit enables or disables WDT operation. This allows software to override
the WDTEN Configuration bit and enable the WDT only
if it has been disabled by the Configuration bit.
WDT BLOCK DIAGRAM
Enable WDT
SWDTEN
INTRC Control
WDT Counter
Wake-up from
Power-Managed
Modes
÷128
INTRC Oscillator
CLRWDT
All Device Resets
Programmable Postscaler
1:1 to 1:32,768
WDT
Reset
Reset
WDT
4
WDTPS3:WDTPS0
Sleep
REGISTER 24-9:
WDTCON: WATCHDOG TIMER CONTROL REGISTER
U-0
U-0
U-0
U-0
U-0
U-0
U-0
R/W-0
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
SWDTEN(1)
bit 7
bit 0
Legend:
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
-n = Value at POR
‘1’ = Bit is set
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
bit 7-1
Unimplemented: Read as ‘0’
bit 0
SWDTEN: Software Controlled Watchdog Timer Enable bit(1)
1 = Watchdog Timer is on
0 = Watchdog Timer is off
Note 1:
This bit has no effect if the Configuration bit, WDTEN, is enabled.
TABLE 24-2:
Name
RCON
WDTCON
x = Bit is unknown
SUMMARY OF WATCHDOG TIMER REGISTERS
Bit 0
Reset Values
on Page:
POR
BOR
64
—
SWDTEN
64
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
IPEN
—
CM
RI
TO
PD
—
—
—
—
—
—
Legend: — = unimplemented, read as ‘0’. Shaded cells are not used by the Watchdog Timer.
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS39762E-page 357
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
24.3
On-Chip Voltage Regulator
All of the PIC18F97J60 family devices power their core
digital logic at a nominal 2.5V. This may create an issue
for designs that are required to operate at a higher
typical voltage, such as 3.3V. To simplify system
design, all devices in the PIC18F97J60 family incorporate an on-chip regulator that allows the device to
run its core logic from VDD.
The regulator is controlled by the ENVREG pin. Tying
VDD to the pin enables the regulator, which in turn,
provides power to the core from the other VDD pins.
When the regulator is enabled, a low-ESR filter capacitor
must be connected to the VDDCORE/VCAP pin
(Figure 24-2). This helps to maintain the stability of the
regulator. The recommended value for the filter capacitor
is provided in Section 27.3 “DC Characteristics:
PIC18F97J60 Family (Industrial)”.
If ENVREG is tied to VSS, the regulator is disabled. In
this case, separate power for the core logic, at a nominal 2.5V, must be supplied to the device on the
VDDCORE/VCAP pin to run the I/O pins at higher voltage
levels, typically 3.3V. Alternatively, the VDDCORE/VCAP
and VDD pins can be tied together to operate at a lower
nominal voltage. Refer to Figure 24-2 for possible
configurations.
24.3.1
FIGURE 24-2:
Regulator Enabled (ENVREG tied to VDD):
3.3V
PIC18FXXJ6X
VDD
ENVREG
VDDCORE/VCAP
CF
(VDD > VDDCORE)
2.5V(1) 3.3V(1)
PIC18FXXJ6X
VDD
ENVREG
VDDCORE/VCAP
VSS
(VDD = VDDCORE)
2.5V(1)
PIC18FXXJ6X
VDD
The operation of the BOR is described in more detail in
Section 4.4 “Brown-out Reset (BOR)” and
Section 4.4.1 “Detecting BOR”. The Brown-out
Reset voltage levels are specific in Section 27.1 “DC
Characteristics: Supply Voltage”.
24.3.2
POWER-UP REQUIREMENTS
The on-chip regulator is designed to meet the power-up
requirements for the device. If the application does not
use the regulator, then strict power-up conditions must
be adhered to. While powering up, VDDCORE must
never exceed VDD by 0.3 volts.
DS39762E-page 358
VSS
Regulator Disabled (ENVREG tied to ground):
ON-CHIP REGULATOR AND BOR
When the on-chip regulator is enabled, PIC18F97J60
family devices also have a simple brown-out capability.
If the voltage supplied to the regulator is inadequate to
maintain a regulated level, the regulator Reset circuitry
will generate a Brown-out Reset. This event is captured
by the BOR flag bit (RCON<0>).
CONNECTIONS FOR THE
ON-CHIP REGULATOR
ENVREG
VDDCORE/VCAP
VSS
Note 1:
These are typical operating voltages. Refer
to Section 27.1 “DC Characteristics:
Supply Voltage” for the full operating
ranges of VDD and VDDCORE.
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
24.4
Two-Speed Start-up
In all other power-managed modes, Two-Speed
Start-up is not used. The device will be clocked by the
currently selected clock source until the primary clock
source becomes available. The setting of the IESO bit
is ignored.
The Two-Speed Start-up feature helps to minimize the
latency period, from oscillator start-up to code execution, by allowing the microcontroller to use the INTRC
oscillator as a clock source until the primary clock
source is available. It is enabled by setting the IESO
Configuration bit.
24.4.1
Two-Speed Start-up should be enabled only if the
primary oscillator mode is HS or HSPLL
(Crystal-Based) modes. Since the EC and ECPLL
modes do not require an Oscillator Start-up Timer
delay, Two-Speed Start-up should be disabled.
While using the INTRC oscillator in Two-Speed
Start-up, the device still obeys the normal command
sequences for entering power-managed modes,
including serial SLEEP instructions (refer to
Section 3.1.4 “Multiple Sleep Commands”). In practice, this means that user code can change the
SCS1:SCS0 bit settings, or issue SLEEP instructions,
before the OST times out. This would allow an application to briefly wake-up, perform routine “housekeeping”
tasks and return to Sleep before the device starts to
operate from the primary oscillator.
When enabled, Resets and wake-ups from Sleep mode
cause the device to configure itself to run from the
internal oscillator block as the clock source, following
the time-out of the Power-up Timer after a Power-on
Reset is enabled. This allows almost immediate code
execution while the primary oscillator starts and the
OST is running. Once the OST times out, the device
automatically switches to PRI_RUN mode.
FIGURE 24-3:
SPECIAL CONSIDERATIONS FOR
USING TWO-SPEED START-UP
User code can also check if the primary clock source is
currently providing the device clocking by checking the
status of the OSTS bit (OSCCON<3>). If the bit is set,
the primary oscillator is providing the clock. Otherwise,
the internal oscillator block is providing the clock during
wake-up from Reset or Sleep mode.
TIMING TRANSITION FOR TWO-SPEED START-UP (INTRC TO HSPLL)
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3
Q1
INTRC
OSC1
TOST(1)
TPLL(1)
1
PLL Clock
Output
2
n-1 n
Clock
Transition
CPU Clock
Peripheral
Clock
Program
Counter
PC
Wake from Interrupt Event
Note 1:
PC + 2
PC + 4
PC + 6
OSTS bit Set
TOST = 1024 TOSC; TPLL = 2 ms (approx). These intervals are not shown to scale.
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS39762E-page 359
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
24.5
Fail-Safe Clock Monitor
The Fail-Safe Clock Monitor (FSCM) allows the
microcontroller to continue operation in the event of an
external oscillator failure by automatically switching the
device clock to the internal oscillator block. The FSCM
function is enabled by setting the FCMEN
Configuration bit.
When FSCM is enabled, the INTRC oscillator runs at
all times to monitor clocks to peripherals and provide a
backup clock in the event of a clock failure. Clock
monitoring (shown in Figure 24-4) is accomplished by
creating a sample clock signal which is the INTRC output divided by 64. This allows ample time between
FSCM sample clocks for a peripheral clock edge to
occur. The peripheral device clock and the sample
clock are presented as inputs to the Clock Monitor latch
(CM). The CM is set on the falling edge of the device
clock source but cleared on the rising edge of the
sample clock.
FIGURE 24-4:
FSCM BLOCK DIAGRAM
Clock Monitor
Latch (CM)
(edge-triggered)
Peripheral
Clock
INTRC
Source
(32 μs)
÷ 64
S
Q
C
Q
488 Hz
(2.048 ms)
The FSCM will detect failures of the primary or secondary clock sources only. If the internal oscillator block
fails, no failure would be detected, nor would any action
be possible.
24.5.1
Clock failure is tested for on the falling edge of the
sample clock. If a sample clock falling edge occurs
while CM is still set, a clock failure has been detected
(Figure 24-5). This causes the following:
• the FSCM generates an oscillator fail interrupt by
setting bit, OSCFIF (PIR2<7>);
• the device clock source is switched to the internal
oscillator block (OSCCON is not updated to show
the current clock source – this is the fail-safe
condition); and
• the WDT is reset.
FSCM AND THE WATCHDOG TIMER
Both the FSCM and the WDT are clocked by the
INTRC oscillator. Since the WDT operates with a
separate divider and counter, disabling the WDT has
no effect on the operation of the INTRC oscillator when
the FSCM is enabled.
As already noted, the clock source is switched to the
INTRC clock when a clock failure is detected. This may
mean a substantial change in the speed of code execution. If the WDT is enabled with a small prescale value,
a decrease in clock speed allows a WDT time-out to
occur and a subsequent device Reset. For this reason,
Fail-Safe Clock events also reset the WDT and
postscaler, allowing it to start timing from when execution speed was changed and decreasing the likelihood
of an erroneous time-out.
24.5.2
Clock
Failure
Detected
DS39762E-page 360
During switchover, the postscaler frequency from the
internal oscillator block may not be sufficiently stable
for timing sensitive applications. In these cases, it may
be desirable to select another clock configuration and
enter an alternate power-managed mode. This can be
done to attempt a partial recovery or execute a
controlled shutdown. See Section 3.1.4 “Multiple
Sleep Commands” and Section 24.4.1 “Special
Considerations for Using Two-Speed Start-up” for
more details.
EXITING FAIL-SAFE OPERATION
The fail-safe condition is terminated by either a device
Reset or by entering a power-managed mode. On
Reset, the controller starts the primary clock source
specified in Configuration Register 2H (with any
required start-up delays that are required for the oscillator mode, such as OST or PLL timer). The INTRC
oscillator provides the device clock until the primary
clock source becomes ready (similar to a Two-Speed
Start-up). The clock source is then switched to the
primary clock (indicated by the OSTS bit in the
OSCCON register becoming set). The Fail-Safe Clock
Monitor then resumes monitoring the peripheral clock.
The primary clock source may never become ready
during start-up. In this case, operation is clocked by the
INTRC oscillator. The OSCCON register will remain in
its Reset state until a power-managed mode is entered.
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
FIGURE 24-5:
FSCM TIMING DIAGRAM
Sample Clock
Oscillator
Failure
Device
Clock
Output
CM Output
(Q)
Failure
Detected
OSCFIF
CM Test
Note:
24.5.3
CM Test
The device clock is normally at a much higher frequency than the sample clock. The relative frequencies in
this example have been chosen for clarity.
FSCM INTERRUPTS IN
POWER-MANAGED MODES
By entering a power-managed mode, the clock
multiplexor selects the clock source selected by the
OSCCON register. Fail-Safe Monitoring of the
power-managed clock source resumes in the
power-managed mode.
If an oscillator failure occurs during power-managed
operation, the subsequent events depend on whether
or not the oscillator failure interrupt is enabled. If
enabled (OSCFIF = 1), code execution will be clocked
by the INTRC multiplexor. An automatic transition back
to the failed clock source will not occur.
If the interrupt is disabled, subsequent interrupts while
in Idle mode will cause the CPU to begin executing
instructions while being clocked by the INTRC source.
24.5.4
CM Test
POR OR WAKE-UP FROM SLEEP
The FSCM is designed to detect oscillator failure at any
point after the device has exited Power-on Reset
(POR) or low-power Sleep mode. When the primary
device clock is either EC or INTRC, monitoring can
begin immediately following these events.
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
For HS or HSPLL modes, the situation is somewhat
different. Since the oscillator may require a start-up
time considerably longer than the FSCM sample clock
time, a false clock failure may be detected. To prevent
this, the internal oscillator block is automatically configured as the device clock and functions until the primary
clock is stable (the OST and PLL timers have timed
out). This is identical to Two-Speed Start-up mode.
Once the primary clock is stable, the INTRC returns to
its role as the FSCM source.
Note:
The same logic that prevents false oscillator failure interrupts on POR, or wake from
Sleep, will also prevent the detection of
the oscillator’s failure to start at all following these events. This can be avoided by
monitoring the OSTS bit and using a
timing routine to determine if the oscillator
is taking too long to start. Even so, no
oscillator failure interrupt will be flagged.
As noted in Section 24.4.1 “Special Considerations
for Using Two-Speed Start-up”, it is also possible to
select another clock configuration and enter an alternate
power-managed mode while waiting for the primary
clock to become stable. When the new power-managed
mode is selected, the primary clock is disabled.
DS39762E-page 361
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
24.6
Program Verification and
Code Protection
For all devices in the PIC18F97J60 family, the on-chip
program memory space is treated as a single block.
Code protection for this block is controlled by one
Configuration bit, CP0. This bit inhibits external reads
and writes to the program memory space. It has no
direct effect in normal execution mode.
24.6.1
CONFIGURATION REGISTER
PROTECTION
The Configuration registers are protected against
untoward changes or reads in two ways. The primary
protection is the write-once feature of the Configuration
bits which prevents reconfiguration once the bit has
been programmed during a power cycle. To safeguard
against unpredictable events, Configuration bit
changes resulting from individual cell level disruptions
(such as ESD events) will cause a parity error and
trigger a device Reset.
The data for the Configuration registers is derived from
the Flash Configuration Words in program memory.
When the CP0 bit is programmed (cleared), the source
data for device configuration is also protected as a
consequence.
DS39762E-page 362
24.7
In-Circuit Serial Programming
PIC18F97J60 family microcontrollers can be serially
programmed while in the end application circuit. This is
simply done with two lines for clock and data and three
other lines for power, ground and the programming
voltage. This allows customers to manufacture boards
with unprogrammed devices and then program the
microcontroller just before shipping the product. This
also allows the most recent firmware or a custom
firmware to be programmed.
24.8
In-Circuit Debugger
When the DEBUG Configuration bit is programmed to
a ‘0’, the In-Circuit Debugger functionality is enabled.
This function allows simple debugging functions when
used with MPLAB® IDE. When the microcontroller has
this feature enabled, some resources are not available
for general use. Table 24-3 shows which resources are
required by the background debugger.
TABLE 24-3:
DEBUGGER RESOURCES
I/O pins:
RB6, RB7
Stack:
2 levels
Program Memory:
512 bytes
Data Memory:
10 bytes
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
25.0
INSTRUCTION SET SUMMARY
The PIC18F97J60 family of devices incorporates the
standard set of 75 PIC18 core instructions, as well as
an extended set of 8 new instructions for the optimization of code that is recursive or that utilizes a software
stack. The extended set is discussed later in this
section.
25.1
Standard Instruction Set
The standard PIC18 instruction set adds many
enhancements to the previous PIC® MCU instruction
sets, while maintaining an easy migration from these
PIC MCU instruction sets. Most instructions are a
single program memory word (16 bits), but there are
four instructions that require two program memory
locations.
Each single-word instruction is a 16-bit word divided
into an opcode, which specifies the instruction type and
one or more operands, which further specify the
operation of the instruction.
The instruction set is highly orthogonal and is grouped
into four basic categories:
•
•
•
•
Byte-oriented operations
Bit-oriented operations
Literal operations
Control operations
The PIC18 instruction set summary in Table 25-2 lists
byte-oriented, bit-oriented, literal and control
operations. Table 25-1 shows the opcode field
descriptions.
Most byte-oriented instructions have three operands:
1.
2.
3.
The file register (specified by ‘f’)
The destination of the result (specified by ‘d’)
The accessed memory (specified by ‘a’)
The file register designator ‘f’ specifies which file register is to be used by the instruction. The destination
designator ‘d’ specifies where the result of the
operation is to be placed. If ‘d’ is zero, the result is
placed in the WREG register. If ‘d’ is one, the result is
placed in the file register specified in the instruction.
All bit-oriented instructions have three operands:
1.
2.
3.
The file register (specified by ‘f’)
The bit in the file register (specified by ‘b’)
The accessed memory (specified by ‘a’)
The literal instructions may use some of the following
operands:
• A literal value to be loaded into a file register
(specified by ‘k’)
• The desired FSR register to load the literal value
into (specified by ‘f’)
• No operand required
(specified by ‘—’)
The control instructions may use some of the following
operands:
• A program memory address (specified by ‘n’)
• The mode of the CALL or RETURN instructions
(specified by ‘s’)
• The mode of the table read and table write
instructions (specified by ‘m’)
• No operand required
(specified by ‘—’)
All instructions are a single word, except for four
double-word instructions. These instructions were
made double-word to contain the required information
in 32 bits. In the second word, the 4 MSbs are ‘1’s. If
this second word is executed as an instruction (by
itself), it will execute as a NOP.
All single-word instructions are executed in a single
instruction cycle, unless a conditional test is true or the
program counter is changed as a result of the instruction. In these cases, the execution takes two instruction
cycles with the additional instruction cycle(s) executed
as a NOP.
The double-word instructions execute in two instruction
cycles.
One instruction cycle consists of four oscillator periods.
Thus, for an oscillator frequency of 4 MHz, the normal
instruction execution time is 1 μs. If a conditional test is
true, or the program counter is changed as a result of
an instruction, the instruction execution time is 2 μs.
Two-word branch instructions (if true) would take 3 μs.
Figure 25-1 shows the general formats that the instructions can have. All examples use the convention ‘nnh’
to represent a hexadecimal number.
The Instruction Set Summary, shown in Table 25-2,
lists the standard instructions recognized by the
Microchip MPASMTM Assembler.
Section 25.1.1 “Standard Instruction Set” provides
a description of each instruction.
The bit field designator ‘b’ selects the number of the bit
affected by the operation, while the file register designator ‘f’ represents the number of the file in which the
bit is located.
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS39762E-page 363
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
TABLE 25-1:
OPCODE FIELD DESCRIPTIONS
Field
Description
a
RAM access bit:
a = 0: RAM location in Access RAM (BSR register is ignored)
a = 1: RAM bank is specified by BSR register
bbb
Bit address within an 8-bit file register (0 to 7).
BSR
Bank Select Register. Used to select the current RAM bank.
C, DC, Z, OV, N
ALU Status bits: Carry, Digit Carry, Zero, Overflow, Negative.
d
Destination select bit:
d = 0: store result in WREG
d = 1: store result in file register f
dest
Destination: either the WREG register or the specified register file location.
f
8-bit Register file address (00h to FFh), or 2-bit FSR designator (0h to 3h).
fs
12-bit Register file address (000h to FFFh). This is the source address.
fd
12-bit Register file address (000h to FFFh). This is the destination address.
GIE
Global Interrupt Enable bit.
k
Literal field, constant data or label (may be either an 8-bit, 12-bit or a 20-bit value).
label
Label name.
mm
The mode of the TBLPTR register for the table read and table write instructions.
Only used with table read and table write instructions:
*
No Change to register (such as TBLPTR with table reads and writes)
*+
Post-Increment register (such as TBLPTR with table reads and writes)
*-
Post-Decrement register (such as TBLPTR with table reads and writes)
Pre-Increment register (such as TBLPTR with table reads and writes)
+*
n
The relative address (2’s complement number) for relative branch instructions or the direct address for
Call/Branch and Return instructions.
PC
Program Counter.
PCL
Program Counter Low Byte.
PCH
Program Counter High Byte.
PCLATH
Program Counter High Byte Latch.
PCLATU
Program Counter Upper Byte Latch.
PD
Power-Down bit.
PRODH
Product of Multiply High Byte.
PRODL
Product of Multiply Low Byte.
s
Fast Call/Return mode select bit:
s = 0: do not update into/from shadow registers
s = 1: certain registers loaded into/from shadow registers (Fast mode)
TBLPTR
21-bit Table Pointer (points to a program memory location).
TABLAT
8-bit Table Latch.
TO
Time-out bit.
TOS
Top-of-Stack.
u
Unused or Unchanged.
WDT
Watchdog Timer.
WREG
Working register (accumulator).
x
Don’t care (‘0’ or ‘1’). The assembler will generate code with x = 0. It is the recommended form of use for
compatibility with all Microchip software tools.
zs
7-bit offset value for indirect addressing of register files (source).
7-bit offset value for indirect addressing of register files (destination).
zd
{
}
Optional argument.
[text]
Indicates an indexed address.
(text)
The contents of text.
[expr]<n>
Specifies bit n of the register indicated by the pointer expr.
→
Assigned to.
< >
Register bit field.
∈
In the set of.
italics
User-defined term (font is Courier New).
DS39762E-page 364
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
FIGURE 25-1:
GENERAL FORMAT FOR INSTRUCTIONS
Byte-oriented file register operations
15
10
9
OPCODE
Example Instruction
8 7
d
0
a
ADDWF MYREG, W, B
f (FILE #)
d = 0 for result destination to be WREG register
d = 1 for result destination to be file register (f)
a = 0 to force Access Bank
a = 1 for BSR to select bank
f = 8-bit file register address
Byte to Byte move operations (2-word)
15
12 11
0
OPCODE
15
f (Source FILE #)
12 11
MOVFF MYREG1, MYREG2
0
f (Destination FILE #)
1111
f = 12-bit file register address
Bit-oriented file register operations
15
12 11
9 8 7
0
OPCODE b (BIT #) a
f (FILE #)
BSF MYREG, bit, B
b = 3-bit position of bit in file register (f)
a = 0 to force Access Bank
a = 1 for BSR to select bank
f = 8-bit file register address
Literal operations
15
8
7
0
OPCODE
MOVLW 7Fh
k (literal)
k = 8-bit immediate value
Control operations
CALL, GOTO and Branch operations
15
8 7
0
OPCODE
15
GOTO Label
n<7:0> (literal)
12 11
0
n<19:8> (literal)
1111
n = 20-bit immediate value
15
8 7
S
OPCODE
15
0
CALL MYFUNC
n<7:0> (literal)
12 11
0
n<19:8> (literal)
1111
S = Fast bit
15
11 10
OPCODE
15
0
8 7
OPCODE
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
BRA MYFUNC
n<10:0> (literal)
0
n<7:0> (literal)
BC MYFUNC
DS39762E-page 365
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
TABLE 25-2:
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY INSTRUCTION SET
Mnemonic,
Operands
Description
Cycles
16-Bit Instruction Word
MSb
LSb
Status
Affected
Notes
BYTE-ORIENTED OPERATIONS
ADDWF
ADDWFC
ANDWF
CLRF
COMF
CPFSEQ
CPFSGT
CPFSLT
DECF
DECFSZ
DCFSNZ
INCF
INCFSZ
INFSNZ
IORWF
MOVF
MOVFF
f, d, a
f, d, a
f, d, a
f, a
f, d, a
f, a
f, a
f, a
f, d, a
f, d, a
f, d, a
f, d, a
f, d, a
f, d, a
f, d, a
f, d, a
fs, fd
MOVWF
MULWF
NEGF
RLCF
RLNCF
RRCF
RRNCF
SETF
SUBFWB
f, a
f, a
f, a
f, d, a
f, d, a
f, d, a
f, d, a
f, a
f, d, a
f, d, a
SUBWF
SUBWFB f, d, a
Add WREG and f
Add WREG and Carry bit to f
AND WREG with f
Clear f
Complement f
Compare f with WREG, Skip =
Compare f with WREG, Skip >
Compare f with WREG, Skip <
Decrement f
Decrement f, Skip if 0
Decrement f, Skip if Not 0
Increment f
Increment f, Skip if 0
Increment f, Skip if Not 0
Inclusive OR WREG with f
Move f
Move fs (source) to 1st word
fd (destination) 2nd word
Move WREG to f
Multiply WREG with f
Negate f
Rotate Left f through Carry
Rotate Left f (No Carry)
Rotate Right f through Carry
Rotate Right f (No Carry)
Set f
Subtract f from WREG with
Borrow
Subtract WREG from f
Subtract WREG from f with
Borrow
Swap Nibbles in f
Test f, Skip if 0
Exclusive OR WREG with f
1
1
1
1
1
1 (2 or 3)
1 (2 or 3)
1 (2 or 3)
1
1 (2 or 3)
1 (2 or 3)
1
1 (2 or 3)
1 (2 or 3)
1
1
2
C, DC, Z, OV, N
C, DC, Z, OV, N
Z, N
Z
Z, N
None
None
None
C, DC, Z, OV, N
None
None
C, DC, Z, OV, N
None
None
Z, N
Z, N
None
1, 2
1, 2
1,2
2
1, 2
4
4
1, 2
1, 2, 3, 4
1, 2, 3, 4
1, 2
1, 2, 3, 4
4
1, 2
1, 2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
0010
0010
0001
0110
0001
0110
0110
0110
0000
0010
0100
0010
0011
0100
0001
0101
1100
1111
0110
0000
0110
0011
0100
0011
0100
0110
0101
01da
00da
01da
101a
11da
001a
010a
000a
01da
11da
11da
10da
11da
10da
00da
00da
ffff
ffff
111a
001a
110a
01da
01da
00da
00da
100a
01da
ffff
ffff
ffff
ffff
ffff
ffff
ffff
ffff
ffff
ffff
ffff
ffff
ffff
ffff
ffff
ffff
ffff
ffff
ffff
ffff
ffff
ffff
ffff
ffff
ffff
ffff
ffff
ffff
ffff
ffff
ffff
ffff
ffff
ffff
ffff
ffff
ffff
ffff
ffff
ffff
ffff
ffff
ffff
ffff
ffff
ffff
ffff
ffff
ffff
ffff
ffff
ffff
ffff
ffff
1
1
0101
0101
11da
10da
ffff
ffff
ffff C, DC, Z, OV, N 1, 2
ffff C, DC, Z, OV, N
1
1 (2 or 3)
1
0011
0110
0001
10da
011a
10da
ffff
ffff
ffff
ffff None
ffff None
ffff Z, N
None
None
1, 2
C, DC, Z, OV, N
C, Z, N
1, 2
Z, N
C, Z, N
Z, N
None
1, 2
C, DC, Z, OV, N
4
1, 2
SWAPF
TSTFSZ
XORWF
f, d, a
f, a
f, d, a
Note 1:
When a PORT register is modified as a function of itself (e.g., MOVF PORTB, 1, 0), the value used will be that
value present on the pins themselves. For example, if the data latch is ‘1’ for a pin configured as input and is
driven low by an external device, the data will be written back with a ‘0’.
If this instruction is executed on the TMR0 register (and, where applicable, d = 1), the prescaler will be cleared if
assigned.
If Program Counter (PC) is modified or a conditional test is true, the instruction requires two cycles. The second
cycle is executed as a NOP.
Some instructions are two-word instructions. The second word of these instructions will be executed as a NOP
unless the first word of the instruction retrieves the information embedded in these 16 bits. This ensures that all
program memory locations have a valid instruction.
2:
3:
4:
DS39762E-page 366
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
TABLE 25-2:
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY INSTRUCTION SET (CONTINUED)
Mnemonic,
Operands
Description
Cycles
16-Bit Instruction Word
MSb
LSb
Status
Affected
Notes
BIT-ORIENTED OPERATIONS
BCF
BSF
BTFSC
BTFSS
BTG
f, b, a
f, b, a
f, b, a
f, b, a
f, b, a
Bit Clear f
Bit Set f
Bit Test f, Skip if Clear
Bit Test f, Skip if Set
Bit Toggle f
1
1
1 (2 or 3)
1 (2 or 3)
1
1001
1000
1011
1010
0111
bbba
bbba
bbba
bbba
bbba
ffff
ffff
ffff
ffff
ffff
ffff
ffff
ffff
ffff
ffff
None
None
None
None
None
1 (2)
1 (2)
1 (2)
1 (2)
1 (2)
1 (2)
1 (2)
2
1 (2)
2
0010
0110
0011
0111
0101
0001
0100
0nnn
0000
110s
kkkk
0000
0000
1111
kkkk
0000
xxxx
0000
0000
1nnn
0000
0000
nnnn
nnnn
nnnn
nnnn
nnnn
nnnn
nnnn
nnnn
nnnn
kkkk
kkkk
0000
0000
kkkk
kkkk
0000
xxxx
0000
0000
nnnn
1111
0001
nnnn
nnnn
nnnn
nnnn
nnnn
nnnn
nnnn
nnnn
nnnn
kkkk
kkkk
0100
0111
kkkk
kkkk
0000
xxxx
0110
0101
nnnn
1111
000s
None
None
None
None
None
None
None
None
None
None
1
1
1
1
2
1
2
1110
1110
1110
1110
1110
1110
1110
1101
1110
1110
1111
0000
0000
1110
1111
0000
1111
0000
0000
1101
0000
0000
2
2
1
0000
0000
0000
1100
0000
0000
kkkk
0001
0000
1, 2
1, 2
3, 4
3, 4
1, 2
CONTROL OPERATIONS
BC
BN
BNC
BNN
BNOV
BNZ
BOV
BRA
BZ
CALL
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n, s
NOP
NOP
POP
PUSH
RCALL
RESET
RETFIE
—
—
—
—
n
s
Branch if Carry
Branch if Negative
Branch if Not Carry
Branch if Not Negative
Branch if Not Overflow
Branch if Not Zero
Branch if Overflow
Branch Unconditionally
Branch if Zero
Call Subroutine 1st word
2nd word
Clear Watchdog Timer
Decimal Adjust WREG
Go to Address 1st word
2nd word
No Operation
No Operation
Pop Top of Return Stack (TOS)
Push Top of Return Stack (TOS)
Relative Call
Software Device Reset
Return from Interrupt Enable
RETLW
RETURN
SLEEP
k
s
—
Return with Literal in WREG
Return from Subroutine
Go into Standby mode
Note 1:
When a PORT register is modified as a function of itself (e.g., MOVF PORTB, 1, 0), the value used will be that
value present on the pins themselves. For example, if the data latch is ‘1’ for a pin configured as input and is
driven low by an external device, the data will be written back with a ‘0’.
If this instruction is executed on the TMR0 register (and, where applicable, d = 1), the prescaler will be cleared if
assigned.
If Program Counter (PC) is modified or a conditional test is true, the instruction requires two cycles. The second
cycle is executed as a NOP.
Some instructions are two-word instructions. The second word of these instructions will be executed as a NOP
unless the first word of the instruction retrieves the information embedded in these 16 bits. This ensures that all
program memory locations have a valid instruction.
CLRWDT —
DAW
—
GOTO
n
2:
3:
4:
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
1
1
2
TO, PD
C
None
None
None
None
None
None
All
GIE/GIEH,
PEIE/GIEL
kkkk None
001s None
0011 TO, PD
4
DS39762E-page 367
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
TABLE 25-2:
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY INSTRUCTION SET (CONTINUED)
Mnemonic,
Operands
Description
Cycles
16-Bit Instruction Word
MSb
LSb
Status
Affected
Notes
LITERAL OPERATIONS
ADDLW
ANDLW
IORLW
LFSR
k
k
k
f, k
MOVLB
MOVLW
MULLW
RETLW
SUBLW
XORLW
k
k
k
k
k
k
Add Literal and WREG
AND Literal with WREG
Inclusive OR Literal with WREG
Move Literal (12-bit) 2nd word
to FSR(f)
1st word
Move Literal to BSR<3:0>
Move Literal to WREG
Multiply Literal with WREG
Return with Literal in WREG
Subtract WREG from Literal
Exclusive OR Literal with WREG
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
2
1
1
0000
0000
0000
1110
1111
0000
0000
0000
0000
0000
0000
1111
1011
1001
1110
0000
0001
1110
1101
1100
1000
1010
kkkk
kkkk
kkkk
00ff
kkkk
0000
kkkk
kkkk
kkkk
kkkk
kkkk
kkkk
kkkk
kkkk
kkkk
kkkk
kkkk
kkkk
kkkk
kkkk
kkkk
kkkk
C, DC, Z, OV, N
Z, N
Z, N
None
0000
0000
0000
0000
0000
0000
0000
0000
0000
0000
0000
0000
0000
0000
0000
0000
0000
0000
0000
0000
0000
0000
0000
0000
1000
1001
1010
1011
1100
1101
1110
1111
None
None
None
None
None
None
None
None
None
None
None
None
C, DC, Z, OV, N
Z, N
DATA MEMORY ↔ PROGRAM MEMORY OPERATIONS
TBLRD*
TBLRD*+
TBLRD*TBLRD+*
TBLWT*
TBLWT*+
TBLWT*TBLWT+*
Note 1:
2:
3:
4:
Table Read
2
Table Read with Post-Increment
Table Read with Post-Decrement
Table Read with Pre-Increment
Table Write
2
Table Write with Post-Increment
Table Write with Post-Decrement
Table Write with Pre-Increment
When a PORT register is modified as a function of itself (e.g., MOVF PORTB, 1, 0), the value used will be that
value present on the pins themselves. For example, if the data latch is ‘1’ for a pin configured as input and is
driven low by an external device, the data will be written back with a ‘0’.
If this instruction is executed on the TMR0 register (and, where applicable, d = 1), the prescaler will be cleared if
assigned.
If Program Counter (PC) is modified or a conditional test is true, the instruction requires two cycles. The second
cycle is executed as a NOP.
Some instructions are two-word instructions. The second word of these instructions will be executed as a NOP
unless the first word of the instruction retrieves the information embedded in these 16 bits. This ensures that all
program memory locations have a valid instruction.
DS39762E-page 368
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
25.1.1
STANDARD INSTRUCTION SET
ADDLW
ADD Literal to W
ADDWF
ADD W to f
Syntax:
ADDLW
Syntax:
ADDWF
Operands:
0 ≤ f ≤ 255
d ∈ [0,1]
a ∈ [0,1]
Operation:
(W) + (f) → dest
Status Affected:
N, OV, C, DC, Z
k
Operands:
0 ≤ k ≤ 255
Operation:
(W) + k → W
Status Affected:
N, OV, C, DC, Z
Encoding:
0000
1111
kkkk
kkkk
Description:
The contents of W are added to the
8-bit literal ‘k’ and the result is placed in
W.
Words:
1
Cycles:
1
Encoding:
0010
Description:
Q Cycle Activity:
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
Decode
Read
literal ‘k’
Process
Data
Write to
W
Example:
ADDLW
01da
ffff
ffff
Add W to register ‘f’. If ‘d’ is ‘0’, the
result is stored in W. If ‘d’ is ‘1’, the
result is stored back in register ‘f’
(default).
If ‘a’ is ‘0’, the Access Bank is selected.
If ‘a’ is ‘1’, the BSR is used to select the
GPR bank (default).
If ‘a’ is ‘0’ and the extended instruction
set is enabled, this instruction operates
in Indexed Literal Offset Addressing
mode whenever f ≤ 95 (5Fh). See
Section 25.2.3 “Byte-Oriented and
Bit-Oriented Instructions in Indexed
Literal Offset Mode” for details.
15h
Before Instruction
W
= 10h
After Instruction
W =
25h
f {,d {,a}}
Words:
1
Cycles:
1
Q Cycle Activity:
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
Decode
Read
register ‘f’
Process
Data
Write to
destination
Example:
ADDWF
Before Instruction
W
=
REG
=
After Instruction
W
=
REG
=
Note:
REG, 0, 0
17h
0C2h
0D9h
0C2h
All PIC18 instructions may take an optional label argument preceding the instruction mnemonic for use in
symbolic addressing. If a label is used, the instruction format then becomes: {label} instruction argument(s).
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS39762E-page 369
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
ADDWFC
ADD W and Carry bit to f
ANDLW
AND Literal with W
Syntax:
ADDWFC
Syntax:
ANDLW
Operands:
0 ≤ f ≤ 255
d ∈ [0,1]
a ∈ [0,1]
f {,d {,a}}
Operation:
(W) + (f) + (C) → dest
Status Affected:
N,OV, C, DC, Z
Encoding:
0010
Description:
00da
ffff
Add W, the Carry flag and data memory
location ‘f’. If ‘d’ is ‘0’, the result is
placed in W. If ‘d’ is ‘1’, the result is
placed in data memory location ‘f’.
If ‘a’ is ‘0’, the Access Bank is selected.
If ‘a’ is ‘1’, the BSR is used to select the
GPR bank (default).
If ‘a’ is ‘0’ and the extended instruction
set is enabled, this instruction operates
in Indexed Literal Offset Addressing
mode whenever f ≤ 95 (5Fh). See
Section 25.2.3 “Byte-Oriented and
Bit-Oriented Instructions in Indexed
Literal Offset Mode” for details.
Words:
1
Cycles:
1
Operands:
0 ≤ k ≤ 255
Operation:
(W) .AND. k → W
Status Affected:
N, Z
Encoding:
ffff
k
0000
1011
kkkk
kkkk
Description:
The contents of W are ANDed with the
8-bit literal ‘k’. The result is placed in W.
Words:
1
Cycles:
1
Q Cycle Activity:
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
Decode
Read literal
‘k’
Process
Data
Write to
W
Example:
ANDLW
Before Instruction
W
=
After Instruction
W
=
05Fh
A3h
03h
Q Cycle Activity:
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
Decode
Read
register ‘f’
Process
Data
Write to
destination
Example:
ADDWFC
Before Instruction
Carry bit =
REG
=
W
=
After Instruction
Carry bit =
REG
=
W
=
DS39762E-page 370
REG, 0, 1
1
02h
4Dh
0
02h
50h
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
ANDWF
AND W with f
BC
Branch if Carry
Syntax:
ANDWF
Syntax:
BC
Operands:
0 ≤ f ≤ 255
d ∈ [0,1]
a ∈ [0,1]
f {,d {,a}}
Operation:
(W) .AND. (f) → dest
Status Affected:
N, Z
Encoding:
0001
Description:
Operands:
-128 ≤ n ≤ 127
Operation:
if Carry bit is ‘1’,
(PC) + 2 + 2n → PC
Status Affected:
None
Encoding:
01da
ffff
ffff
1110
Description:
The contents of W are ANDed with
register ‘f’. If ‘d’ is ‘0’, the result is stored
in W. If ‘d’ is ‘1’, the result is stored back
in register ‘f’ (default).
Words:
1
Cycles:
1
Q Cycle Activity:
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
Decode
Read
register ‘f’
Process
Data
Write to
destination
Example:
ANDWF
Before Instruction
W
=
REG
=
After Instruction
W
=
REG
=
REG, 0, 0
17h
C2h
02h
C2h
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
0010
nnnn
nnnn
If the Carry bit is ’1’, then the program
will branch.
The 2’s complement number ‘2n’ is
added to the PC. Since the PC will have
incremented to fetch the next
instruction, the new address will be
PC + 2 + 2n. This instruction is then a
two-cycle instruction.
If ‘a’ is ‘0’, the Access Bank is selected.
If ‘a’ is ‘1’, the BSR is used to select the
GPR bank (default).
If ‘a’ is ‘0’ and the extended instruction
set is enabled, this instruction operates
in Indexed Literal Offset Addressing
mode whenever f ≤ 95 (5Fh). See
Section 25.2.3 “Byte-Oriented and
Bit-Oriented Instructions in Indexed
Literal Offset Mode” for details.
n
Words:
1
Cycles:
1(2)
Q Cycle Activity:
If Jump:
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
Decode
Read literal
‘n’
Process
Data
Write to
PC
No
operation
No
operation
No
operation
No
operation
If No Jump:
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
Decode
Read literal
‘n’
Process
Data
No
operation
Example:
HERE
Before Instruction
PC
After Instruction
If Carry
PC
If Carry
PC
BC
5
=
address (HERE)
=
=
=
=
1;
address (HERE + 12)
0;
address (HERE + 2)
DS39762E-page 371
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
BCF
Bit Clear f
BN
Branch if Negative
Syntax:
BCF
Syntax:
BN
Operands:
0 ≤ f ≤ 255
0≤b≤7
a ∈ [0,1]
f, b {,a}
Operation:
0 → f<b>
Status Affected:
None
Encoding:
1001
Description:
Operands:
-128 ≤ n ≤ 127
Operation:
if Negative bit is ‘1’,
(PC) + 2 + 2n → PC
Status Affected:
None
Encoding:
bbba
ffff
ffff
1110
Description:
Bit ‘b’ in register ‘f’ is cleared.
If ‘a’ is ‘0’, the Access Bank is selected.
If ‘a’ is ‘1’, the BSR is used to select the
GPR bank (default).
If ‘a’ is ‘0’ and the extended instruction
set is enabled, this instruction operates
in Indexed Literal Offset Addressing
mode whenever f ≤ 95 (5Fh). See
Section 25.2.3 “Byte-Oriented and
Bit-Oriented Instructions in Indexed
Literal Offset Mode” for details.
Words:
1
Cycles:
1
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
Read
register ‘f’
Process
Data
Write
register ‘f’
Example:
BCF
Before Instruction
FLAG_REG = C7h
After Instruction
FLAG_REG = 47h
DS39762E-page 372
FLAG_REG,
7, 0
0110
nnnn
nnnn
If the Negative bit is ‘1’, then the
program will branch.
The 2’s complement number ‘2n’ is
added to the PC. Since the PC will have
incremented to fetch the next
instruction, the new address will be
PC + 2 + 2n. This instruction is then a
two-cycle instruction.
Words:
1
Cycles:
1(2)
Q Cycle Activity:
If Jump:
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
Decode
Read literal
‘n’
Process
Data
Write to
PC
No
operation
No
operation
No
operation
No
operation
Q Cycle Activity:
Decode
n
If No Jump:
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
Decode
Read literal
‘n’
Process
Data
No
operation
Example:
HERE
Before Instruction
PC
After Instruction
If Negative
PC
If Negative
PC
BN
Jump
=
address (HERE)
=
=
=
=
1;
address (Jump)
0;
address (HERE + 2)
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
BNC
Branch if Not Carry
BNN
Branch if Not Negative
Syntax:
BNC
Syntax:
BNN
n
n
Operands:
-128 ≤ n ≤ 127
Operands:
-128 ≤ n ≤ 127
Operation:
if Carry bit is ‘0’,
(PC) + 2 + 2n → PC
Operation:
if Negative bit is ‘0’,
(PC) + 2 + 2n → PC
Status Affected:
None
Status Affected:
None
Encoding:
1110
Description:
0011
nnnn
nnnn
If the Carry bit is ‘0’, then the program
will branch.
Encoding:
1110
Description:
The 2’s complement number ‘2n’ is
added to the PC. Since the PC will have
incremented to fetch the next
instruction, the new address will be
PC + 2 + 2n. This instruction is then a
two-cycle instruction.
nnnn
nnnn
The 2’s complement number ‘2n’ is
added to the PC. Since the PC will have
incremented to fetch the next
instruction, the new address will be
PC + 2 + 2n. This instruction is then a
two-cycle instruction.
Words:
1
Words:
1
Cycles:
1(2)
Cycles:
1(2)
Q Cycle Activity:
If Jump:
0111
If the Negative bit is ‘0’, then the
program will branch.
Q Cycle Activity:
If Jump:
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
Decode
Read literal
‘n’
Process
Data
Write to
PC
Decode
Read literal
‘n’
Process
Data
Write to
PC
No
operation
No
operation
No
operation
No
operation
No
operation
No
operation
No
operation
No
operation
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
Decode
Read literal
‘n’
Process
Data
No
operation
Decode
Read literal
‘n’
Process
Data
No
operation
If No Jump:
Example:
If No Jump:
HERE
Before Instruction
PC
After Instruction
If Carry
PC
If Carry
PC
BNC
Jump
=
address (HERE)
=
=
=
=
0;
address (Jump)
1;
address (HERE + 2)
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
Example:
HERE
Before Instruction
PC
After Instruction
If Negative
PC
If Negative
PC
BNN
Jump
=
address (HERE)
=
=
=
=
0;
address (Jump)
1;
address (HERE + 2)
DS39762E-page 373
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
BNOV
Branch if Not Overflow
BNZ
Branch if Not Zero
Syntax:
BNOV
Syntax:
BNZ
n
n
Operands:
-128 ≤ n ≤ 127
Operands:
-128 ≤ n ≤ 127
Operation:
if Overflow bit is ‘0’,
(PC) + 2 + 2n → PC
Operation:
if Zero bit is ‘0’,
(PC) + 2 + 2n → PC
Status Affected:
None
Status Affected:
None
Encoding:
1110
Description:
0101
nnnn
nnnn
If the Overflow bit is ‘0’, then the
program will branch.
Encoding:
1110
Description:
The 2’s complement number ‘2n’ is
added to the PC. Since the PC will have
incremented to fetch the next
instruction, the new address will be
PC + 2 + 2n. This instruction is then a
two-cycle instruction.
nnnn
nnnn
The 2’s complement number ‘2n’ is
added to the PC. Since the PC will have
incremented to fetch the next
instruction, the new address will be
PC + 2 + 2n. This instruction is then a
two-cycle instruction.
Words:
1
Words:
1
Cycles:
1(2)
Cycles:
1(2)
Q Cycle Activity:
If Jump:
0001
If the Zero bit is ‘0’, then the program
will branch.
Q Cycle Activity:
If Jump:
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
Decode
Read literal
‘n’
Process
Data
Write to
PC
Decode
Read literal
‘n’
Process
Data
Write to
PC
No
operation
No
operation
No
operation
No
operation
No
operation
No
operation
No
operation
No
operation
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
Decode
Read literal
‘n’
Process
Data
No
operation
Decode
Read literal
‘n’
Process
Data
No
operation
If No Jump:
If No Jump:
Example:
HERE
Before Instruction
PC
After Instruction
If Overflow
PC
If Overflow
PC
DS39762E-page 374
BNOV Jump
=
address (HERE)
=
=
=
=
0;
address (Jump)
1;
address (HERE + 2)
Example:
HERE
Before Instruction
PC
After Instruction
If Zero
PC
If Zero
PC
BNZ
Jump
=
address (HERE)
=
=
=
=
0;
address (Jump)
1;
address (HERE + 2)
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
BRA
Unconditional Branch
BSF
Bit Set f
Syntax:
BRA
Syntax:
BSF
Operands:
-1024 ≤ n ≤ 1023
Operands:
Operation:
(PC) + 2 + 2n → PC
Status Affected:
None
0 ≤ f ≤ 255
0≤b≤7
a ∈ [0,1]
Operation:
1 → f<b>
Status Affected:
None
Encoding:
n
1101
Description:
0nnn
nnnn
nnnn
Add the 2’s complement number ‘2n’ to
the PC. Since the PC will have
incremented to fetch the next
instruction, the new address will be
PC + 2 + 2n. This instruction is a
two-cycle instruction.
Words:
1
Cycles:
2
Encoding:
1000
Description:
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
Read literal
‘n’
Process
Data
Write to
PC
No
operation
No
operation
No
operation
No
operation
Example:
HERE
Before Instruction
PC
After Instruction
PC
BRA
Jump
=
address (HERE)
=
address (Jump)
ffff
ffff
Bit ‘b’ in register ‘f’ is set.
If ‘a’ is ‘0’ and the extended instruction
set is enabled, this instruction operates
in Indexed Literal Offset Addressing
mode whenever f ≤ 95 (5Fh). See
Section 25.2.3 “Byte-Oriented and
Bit-Oriented Instructions in Indexed
Literal Offset Mode” for details.
Words:
1
Cycles:
1
Q Cycle Activity:
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
Decode
Read
register ‘f’
Process
Data
Write
register ‘f’
Example:
BSF
Before Instruction
FLAG_REG
After Instruction
FLAG_REG
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
bbba
If ‘a’ is ‘0’, the Access Bank is selected.
If ‘a’ is ‘1’, the BSR is used to select the
GPR bank (default).
Q Cycle Activity:
Decode
f, b {,a}
FLAG_REG, 7, 1
=
0Ah
=
8Ah
DS39762E-page 375
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
BTFSC
Bit Test File, Skip if Clear
BTFSS
Bit Test File, Skip if Set
Syntax:
BTFSC f, b {,a}
Syntax:
BTFSS f, b {,a}
Operands:
0 ≤ f ≤ 255
0≤b≤7
a ∈ [0,1]
Operands:
0 ≤ f ≤ 255
0≤b<7
a ∈ [0,1]
Operation:
skip if (f<b>) = 0
Operation:
skip if (f<b>) = 1
Status Affected:
None
Status Affected:
None
Encoding:
1011
Description:
bbba
ffff
ffff
If bit ‘b’ in register ‘f’ is ‘0’, then the next
instruction is skipped. If bit ‘b’ is ‘0’, then
the next instruction fetched during the
current instruction execution is discarded
and a NOP is executed instead, making
this a two-cycle instruction.
Encoding:
1010
Description:
bbba
ffff
ffff
If bit ‘b’ in register ‘f’ is ‘1’, then the next
instruction is skipped. If bit ‘b’ is ‘1’, then
the next instruction fetched during the
current instruction execution is discarded
and a NOP is executed instead, making
this a two-cycle instruction.
If ‘a’ is ‘0’, the Access Bank is selected. If
‘a’ is ‘1’, the BSR is used to select the
GPR bank (default).
If ‘a’ is ‘0’, the Access Bank is selected. If
‘a’ is ‘1’, the BSR is used to select the
GPR bank (default).
If ‘a’ is ‘0’ and the extended instruction set
is enabled, this instruction operates in
Indexed Literal Offset Addressing mode
whenever f ≤ 95 (5Fh). See
Section 25.2.3 “Byte-Oriented and
Bit-Oriented Instructions in Indexed
Literal Offset Mode” for details.
If ‘a’ is ‘0’ and the extended instruction
set is enabled, this instruction operates in
Indexed Literal Offset Addressing mode
whenever f ≤ 95 (5Fh). See
Section 25.2.3 “Byte-Oriented and
Bit-Oriented Instructions in Indexed
Literal Offset Mode” for details.
Words:
1
Words:
1
Cycles:
1(2)
Note:
Cycles:
1(2)
Note:
3 cycles if skip and followed
by a 2-word instruction.
Q Cycle Activity:
3 cycles if skip and followed
by a 2-word instruction.
Q Cycle Activity:
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
Decode
Read
register ‘f’
Process
Data
No
operation
Decode
Read
register ‘f’
Process
Data
No
operation
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
No
operation
No
operation
No
operation
No
operation
No
operation
No
operation
No
operation
No
operation
If skip:
If skip:
If skip and followed by 2-word instruction:
If skip and followed by 2-word instruction:
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
No
operation
No
operation
No
operation
No
operation
No
operation
No
operation
No
operation
No
operation
No
operation
No
operation
No
operation
No
operation
No
operation
No
operation
No
operation
No
operation
Example:
HERE
FALSE
TRUE
Before Instruction
PC
After Instruction
If FLAG<1>
PC
If FLAG<1>
PC
DS39762E-page 376
BTFSC
:
:
FLAG, 1, 0
=
address (HERE)
=
=
=
=
0;
address (TRUE)
1;
address (FALSE)
Example:
HERE
FALSE
TRUE
Before Instruction
PC
After Instruction
If FLAG<1>
PC
If FLAG<1>
PC
BTFSS
:
:
FLAG, 1, 0
=
address (HERE)
=
=
=
=
0;
address (FALSE)
1;
address (TRUE)
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
BTG
Bit Toggle f
BOV
Branch if Overflow
Syntax:
BTG f, b {,a}
Syntax:
BOV
Operands:
0 ≤ f ≤ 255
0≤b<7
a ∈ [0,1]
Operands:
-128 ≤ n ≤ 127
Operation:
if Overflow bit is ‘1’,
(PC) + 2 + 2n → PC
Status Affected:
None
Operation:
(f<b>) → f<b>
Status Affected:
None
Encoding:
0111
Description:
Encoding:
bbba
ffff
ffff
1110
Description:
Bit ‘b’ in data memory location ‘f’ is
inverted.
Words:
1
Cycles:
1
Q Cycle Activity:
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
Decode
Read
register ‘f’
Process
Data
Write
register ‘f’
Example:
BTG
PORTC,
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
Words:
1
Cycles:
nnnn
nnnn
1(2)
Q Cycle Activity:
If Jump:
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
Decode
Read literal
‘n’
Process
Data
Write to PC
No
operation
No
operation
No
operation
No
operation
If No Jump:
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
Decode
Read literal
‘n’
Process
Data
No
operation
4, 0
Before Instruction:
PORTC =
0111 0101 [75h]
After Instruction:
PORTC =
0110 0101 [65h]
0100
If the Overflow bit is ‘1’, then the
program will branch.
The 2’s complement number ‘2n’ is
added to the PC. Since the PC will have
incremented to fetch the next
instruction, the new address will be
PC + 2 + 2n. This instruction is then a
two-cycle instruction.
If ‘a’ is ‘0’, the Access Bank is selected.
If ‘a’ is ‘1’, the BSR is used to select the
GPR bank (default).
If ‘a’ is ‘0’ and the extended instruction
set is enabled, this instruction operates
in Indexed Literal Offset Addressing
mode whenever f ≤ 95 (5Fh). See
Section 25.2.3 “Byte-Oriented and
Bit-Oriented Instructions in Indexed
Literal Offset Mode” for details.
n
Example:
HERE
Before Instruction
PC
After Instruction
If Overflow
PC
If Overflow
PC
BOV
Jump
=
address (HERE)
=
=
=
=
1;
address (Jump)
0;
address (HERE + 2)
DS39762E-page 377
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
BZ
Branch if Zero
CALL
Subroutine Call
Syntax:
BZ
Syntax:
CALL k {,s}
n
Operands:
-128 ≤ n ≤ 127
Operands:
Operation:
if Zero bit is ‘1’,
(PC) + 2 + 2n → PC
0 ≤ k ≤ 1048575
s ∈ [0,1]
Operation:
Status Affected:
None
(PC) + 4 → TOS,
k → PC<20:1>;
if s = 1,
(W) → WS,
(STATUS) → STATUSS,
(BSR) → BSRS
Status Affected:
None
Encoding:
1110
Description:
0000
nnnn
nnnn
If the Zero bit is ‘1’, then the program
will branch.
The 2’s complement number ‘2n’ is
added to the PC. Since the PC will have
incremented to fetch the next
instruction, the new address will be
PC + 2 + 2n. This instruction is then a
two-cycle instruction.
Words:
1
Cycles:
1(2)
Encoding:
1st word (k<7:0>)
2nd word(k<19:8>)
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
Read literal
‘n’
Process
Data
Write to
PC
No
operation
No
operation
No
operation
No
operation
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
Decode
Read literal
‘n’
Process
Data
No
operation
If No Jump:
Example:
HERE
Before Instruction
PC
After Instruction
If Zero
PC
If Zero
PC
DS39762E-page 378
BZ
Jump
=
address (HERE)
=
=
=
=
1;
address (Jump)
0;
address (HERE + 2)
k7kkk
kkkk
110s
k19kkk
kkkk0
kkkk8
Description:
Subroutine call of entire 2-Mbyte
memory range. First, return address
(PC+ 4) is pushed onto the return stack.
If ‘s’ = 1, the W, STATUS and BSR
registers are also pushed into their
respective shadow registers, WS,
STATUSS and BSRS. If ‘s’ = 0, no
update occurs (default). Then, the
20-bit value ‘k’ is loaded into PC<20:1>.
CALL is a two-cycle instruction.
Words:
2
Cycles:
2
Q Cycle Activity:
If Jump:
Decode
1110
1111
Q Cycle Activity:
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
Decode
Read literal
‘k’<7:0>,
Push PC to
stack
Read literal
’k’<19:8>,
Write to PC
No
operation
No
operation
No
operation
No
operation
Example:
HERE
Before Instruction
PC
=
After Instruction
PC
=
TOS
=
WS
=
BSRS
=
STATUSS =
CALL
THERE,1
address (HERE)
address (THERE)
address (HERE + 4)
W
BSR
STATUS
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
CLRF
Clear f
Syntax:
CLRF
Operands:
0 ≤ f ≤ 255
a ∈ [0,1]
f {,a}
Operation:
000h → f,
1→Z
Status Affected:
Z
Encoding:
0110
Description:
101a
ffff
ffff
Clears the contents of the specified
register.
CLRWDT
Clear Watchdog Timer
Syntax:
CLRWDT
Operands:
None
Operation:
000h → WDT,
000h → WDT postscaler,
1 → TO,
1 → PD
Status Affected:
TO, PD
Encoding:
0000
Words:
1
Cycles:
1
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
Decode
Read
register ‘f’
Process
Data
Write
register ‘f’
Example:
CLRF
Before Instruction
FLAG_REG
After Instruction
FLAG_REG
FLAG_REG,1
=
5Ah
=
00h
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
0100
Words:
1
Cycles:
1
Q Cycle Activity:
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
Decode
No
operation
Process
Data
No
operation
Example:
Q Cycle Activity:
0000
CLRWDT instruction resets the
Watchdog Timer. It also resets the
postscaler of the WDT. Status bits, TO
and PD, are set.
If ‘a’ is ‘0’, the Access Bank is selected.
If ‘a’ is ‘1’, the BSR is used to select the
GPR bank (default).
If ‘a’ is ‘0’ and the extended instruction
set is enabled, this instruction operates
in Indexed Literal Offset Addressing
mode whenever f ≤ 95 (5Fh). See
Section 25.2.3 “Byte-Oriented and
Bit-Oriented Instructions in Indexed
Literal Offset Mode” for details.
0000
Description:
CLRWDT
Before Instruction
WDT Counter
After Instruction
WDT Counter
WDT Postscaler
TO
PD
=
?
=
=
=
=
00h
0
1
1
DS39762E-page 379
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
COMF
Complement f
CPFSEQ
Compare f with W, Skip if f = W
Syntax:
COMF
Syntax:
CPFSEQ
Operands:
0 ≤ f ≤ 255
a ∈ [0,1]
Operation:
(f) – (W),
skip if (f) = (W)
(unsigned comparison)
Status Affected:
None
f {,d {,a}}
Operands:
0 ≤ f ≤ 255
d ∈ [0,1]
a ∈ [0,1]
Operation:
(f) → dest
Status Affected:
N, Z
Encoding:
0001
Description:
11da
ffff
ffff
The contents of register ‘f’ are
complemented. If ‘d’ is ‘0’, the result is
stored in W. If ‘d’ is ‘1’, the result is
stored back in register ‘f’ (default).
Encoding:
Description:
If ‘a’ is ‘0’ and the extended instruction
set is enabled, this instruction operates
in Indexed Literal Offset Addressing
mode whenever f ≤ 95 (5Fh). See
Section 25.2.3 “Byte-Oriented and
Bit-Oriented Instructions in Indexed
Literal Offset Mode” for details.
1
Cycles:
1
Q Cycle Activity:
Q1
Decode
Q2
Read
register ‘f’
Example:
COMF
Before Instruction
REG
=
After Instruction
REG
=
W
=
13h
13h
ECh
Q3
Process
Data
REG, 0, 0
ffff
ffff
If ‘a’ is ‘0’, the Access Bank is selected.
If ‘a’ is ‘1’, the BSR is used to select the
GPR bank (default).
If ‘a’ is ‘0’ and the extended instruction
set is enabled, this instruction operates
in Indexed Literal Offset Addressing
mode whenever f ≤ 95 (5Fh). See
Section 25.2.3 “Byte-Oriented and
Bit-Oriented Instructions in Indexed
Literal Offset Mode” for details.
Q4
Words:
1
Write to
destination
Cycles:
1(2)
Note: 3 cycles if skip and followed
by a 2-word instruction.
Q Cycle Activity:
Q1
Decode
Q2
Read
register ‘f’
Q3
Process
Data
Q4
No
operation
If skip:
Q1
Q2
Q3
No
No
No
operation
operation
operation
If skip and followed by 2-word instruction:
Q1
Q2
Q3
No
No
No
operation
operation
operation
No
No
No
operation
operation
operation
Example:
HERE
NEQUAL
EQUAL
Before Instruction
PC Address
W
REG
After Instruction
If REG
PC
If REG
PC
DS39762E-page 380
001a
Compares the contents of data memory
location ‘f’ to the contents of W by
performing an unsigned subtraction.
If ‘f’ = W, then the fetched instruction is
discarded and a NOP is executed
instead, making this a two-cycle
instruction.
If ‘a’ is ‘0’, the Access Bank is selected.
If ‘a’ is ‘1’, the BSR is used to select the
GPR bank (default).
Words:
0110
f {,a}
Q4
No
operation
Q4
No
operation
No
operation
CPFSEQ REG, 0
:
:
=
=
=
HERE
?
?
=
=
≠
=
W;
Address (EQUAL)
W;
Address (NEQUAL)
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
CPFSGT
Compare f with W, Skip if f > W
CPFSLT
Compare f with W, Skip if f < W
Syntax:
CPFSGT
Syntax:
CPFSLT
Operands:
0 ≤ f ≤ 255
a ∈ [0,1]
Operands:
0 ≤ f ≤ 255
a ∈ [0,1]
Operation:
(f) – (W),
skip if (f) > (W)
(unsigned comparison)
Operation:
(f) – (W),
skip if (f) < (W)
(unsigned comparison)
Status Affected:
None
Status Affected:
None
Encoding:
Description:
0110
f {,a}
010a
ffff
ffff
Compares the contents of data memory
location ‘f’ to the contents of the W by
performing an unsigned subtraction.
Encoding:
0110
Description:
If the contents of ‘f’ are greater than the
contents of WREG, then the fetched
instruction is discarded and a NOP is
executed instead, making this a
two-cycle instruction.
Words:
1
Cycles:
1(2)
Note:
Q Cycle Activity:
Q1
Decode
3 cycles if skip and followed
by a 2-word instruction.
Q2
Read
register ‘f’
Q3
Process
Data
Q4
No
operation
Example:
HERE
NGREATER
GREATER
Before Instruction
PC
W
After Instruction
If REG
PC
If REG
PC
Q4
No
operation
Q4
No
operation
No
operation
CPFSGT REG, 0
:
:
=
=
Address (HERE)
?
>
=
≤
=
W;
Address (GREATER)
W;
Address (NGREATER)
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
ffff
ffff
Compares the contents of data memory
location ‘f’ to the contents of W by
performing an unsigned subtraction.
If ‘a’ is ‘0’, the Access Bank is selected.
If ‘a’ is ‘1’, the BSR is used to select the
GPR bank (default).
Words:
1
Cycles:
1(2)
Note: 3 cycles if skip and followed
by a 2-word instruction.
Q Cycle Activity:
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
Decode
Read
register ‘f’
Process
Data
No
operation
If skip:
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
No
operation
No
operation
No
operation
No
operation
If skip and followed by 2-word instruction:
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
No
operation
No
operation
No
operation
No
operation
No
operation
No
operation
No
operation
No
operation
If skip:
Q1
Q2
Q3
No
No
No
operation
operation
operation
If skip and followed by 2-word instruction:
Q1
Q2
Q3
No
No
No
operation
operation
operation
No
No
No
operation
operation
operation
000a
If the contents of ‘f’ are less than the
contents of W, then the fetched
instruction is discarded and a NOP is
executed instead, making this a
two-cycle instruction.
If ‘a’ is ‘0’, the Access Bank is selected.
If ‘a’ is ‘1’, the BSR is used to select the
GPR bank (default).
If ‘a’ is ‘0’ and the extended instruction
set is enabled, this instruction operates
in Indexed Literal Offset Addressing
mode whenever f ≤ 95 (5Fh). See
Section 25.2.3 “Byte-Oriented and
Bit-Oriented Instructions in Indexed
Literal Offset Mode” for details.
f {,a}
Example:
HERE
NLESS
LESS
Before Instruction
PC
W
After Instruction
If REG
PC
If REG
PC
CPFSLT REG, 1
:
:
=
=
Address (HERE)
?
<
=
≥
=
W;
Address (LESS)
W;
Address (NLESS)
DS39762E-page 381
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
DAW
Decimal Adjust W Register
DECF
Decrement f
Syntax:
DAW
Syntax:
DECF f {,d {,a}}
Operands:
None
Operands:
Operation:
If [W<3:0> > 9] or [DC = 1], then
(W<3:0>) + 6 → W<3:0>;
else
(W<3:0>) → W<3:0>
0 ≤ f ≤ 255
d ∈ [0,1]
a ∈ [0,1]
Operation:
(f) – 1 → dest
Status Affected:
C, DC, N, OV, Z
Encoding:
If [W<7:4> > 9] or [C = 1], then
(W<7:4>) + 6 → W<7:4>,
C = 1;
else
(W<7:4>) → W<7:4>
Status Affected:
0000
Description:
C
Encoding:
0000
0000
0000
DAW adjusts the eight-bit value in W,
resulting from the earlier addition of two
variables (each in packed BCD format)
and produces a correct packed BCD
result.
Words:
1
Cycles:
1
Q Cycle Activity:
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
Decode
Read
register W
Process
Data
Write
W
Example 1:
DAW
Before Instruction
W
=
C
=
DC
=
After Instruction
W
=
C
=
DC
=
A5h
0
0
05h
1
0
Example 2:
Before Instruction
W
=
C
=
DC
=
After Instruction
W
=
C
=
DC
=
DS39762E-page 382
ffff
ffff
Decrement register ‘f’. If ‘d’ is ‘0’, the
result is stored in W. If ‘d’ is ‘1’, the
result is stored back in register ‘f’
(default).
If ‘a’ is ‘0’, the Access Bank is selected.
If ‘a’ is ‘1’, the BSR is used to select the
GPR bank (default).
0111
Description:
01da
If ‘a’ is ‘0’ and the extended instruction
set is enabled, this instruction operates
in Indexed Literal Offset Addressing
mode whenever f ≤ 95 (5Fh). See
Section 25.2.3 “Byte-Oriented and
Bit-Oriented Instructions in Indexed
Literal Offset Mode” for details.
Words:
1
Cycles:
1
Q Cycle Activity:
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
Decode
Read
register ‘f’
Process
Data
Write to
destination
Example:
DECF
Before Instruction
CNT
=
Z
=
After Instruction
CNT
=
Z
=
CNT,
1, 0
01h
0
00h
1
CEh
0
0
34h
1
0
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
DECFSZ
Decrement f, Skip if 0
DCFSNZ
Decrement f, Skip if Not 0
Syntax:
DECFSZ f {,d {,a}}
Syntax:
DCFSNZ
Operands:
0 ≤ f ≤ 255
d ∈ [0,1]
a ∈ [0,1]
Operands:
0 ≤ f ≤ 255
d ∈ [0,1]
a ∈ [0,1]
Operation:
(f) – 1 → dest,
skip if result = 0
Operation:
(f) – 1 → dest,
skip if result ≠ 0
Status Affected:
None
Status Affected:
None
Encoding:
0010
Description:
11da
ffff
ffff
The contents of register ‘f’ are
decremented. If ‘d’ is ‘0’, the result is
placed in W. If ‘d’ is ‘1’, the result is
placed back in register ‘f’ (default).
Encoding:
0100
Description:
If the result is ‘0’, the next instruction
which is already fetched is discarded
and a NOP is executed instead, making
it a two-cycle instruction.
Cycles:
1(2)
Note: 3 cycles if skip and followed
by a 2-word instruction.
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
Read
register ‘f’
Process
Data
Write to
destination
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
No
operation
No
operation
No
operation
No
operation
Words:
1
Cycles:
1(2)
Note:
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
No
operation
No
operation
No
operation
No
operation
No
operation
No
operation
No
operation
No
operation
DECFSZ
GOTO
CNT, 1, 1
LOOP
Example:
HERE
CONTINUE
Before Instruction
PC
=
After Instruction
CNT
=
If CNT
=
PC =
If CNT
≠
PC =
Address (HERE)
CNT – 1
0;
Address (CONTINUE)
0;
Address (HERE + 2)
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
3 cycles if skip and followed
by a 2-word instruction.
Q Cycle Activity:
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
Decode
Read
register ‘f’
Process
Data
Write to
destination
If skip:
If skip and followed by 2-word instruction:
ffff
If ‘a’ is ‘0’ and the extended instruction
set is enabled, this instruction operates
in Indexed Literal Offset Addressing
mode whenever f ≤ 95 (5Fh). See
Section 25.2.3 “Byte-Oriented and
Bit-Oriented Instructions in Indexed
Literal Offset Mode” for details.
Q Cycle Activity:
Decode
ffff
If ‘a’ is ‘0’, the Access Bank is selected.
If ‘a’ is ‘1’, the BSR is used to select the
GPR bank (default).
If ‘a’ is ‘0’ and the extended instruction
set is enabled, this instruction operates
in Indexed Literal Offset Addressing
mode whenever f ≤ 95 (5Fh). See
Section 25.2.3 “Byte-Oriented and
Bit-Oriented Instructions in Indexed
Literal Offset Mode” for details.
1
11da
The contents of register ‘f’ are
decremented. If ‘d’ is ‘0’, the result is
placed in W. If ‘d’ is ‘1’, the result is
placed back in register ‘f’ (default).
If the result is not ‘0’, the next
instruction which is already fetched is
discarded and a NOP is executed
instead, making it a two-cycle
instruction.
If ‘a’ is ‘0’, the Access Bank is selected.
If ‘a’ is ‘1’, the BSR is used to select the
GPR bank (default).
Words:
f {,d {,a}}
If skip:
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
No
operation
No
operation
No
operation
No
operation
If skip and followed by 2-word instruction:
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
No
operation
No
operation
No
operation
No
operation
No
operation
No
operation
No
operation
No
operation
Example:
HERE
ZERO
NZERO
Before Instruction
TEMP
After Instruction
TEMP
If TEMP
PC
If TEMP
PC
DCFSNZ
:
:
TEMP, 1, 0
=
?
=
=
=
≠
=
TEMP – 1,
0;
Address (ZERO)
0;
Address (NZERO)
DS39762E-page 383
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
GOTO
Unconditional Branch
INCF
Increment f
Syntax:
GOTO k
Syntax:
INCF
Operands:
0 ≤ k ≤ 1048575
Operands:
Operation:
k → PC<20:1>
Status Affected:
None
0 ≤ f ≤ 255
d ∈ [0,1]
a ∈ [0,1]
Operation:
(f) + 1 → dest
Status Affected:
C, DC, N, OV, Z
Encoding:
1st word (k<7:0>)
2nd word(k<19:8>)
1110
1111
1111
k19kkk
k7kkk
kkkk
kkkk0
kkkk8
Description:
GOTO allows an unconditional branch
anywhere within entire 2-Mbyte memory
range. The 20-bit value ‘k’ is loaded into
PC<20:1>. GOTO is always a two-cycle
instruction.
Words:
2
Cycles:
2
Encoding:
0010
Description:
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
Read literal
‘k’<7:0>,
No
operation
Read literal
‘k’<19:8>,
Write to PC
No
operation
No
operation
No
operation
No
operation
Example:
GOTO THERE
After Instruction
PC =
Address (THERE)
ffff
ffff
The contents of register ‘f’ are
incremented. If ‘d’ is ‘0’, the result is
placed in W. If ‘d’ is ‘1’, the result is
placed back in register ‘f’ (default).
If ‘a’ is ‘0’ and the extended instruction
set is enabled, this instruction operates
in Indexed Literal Offset Addressing
mode whenever f ≤ 95 (5Fh). See
Section 25.2.3 “Byte-Oriented and
Bit-Oriented Instructions in Indexed
Literal Offset Mode” for details.
Words:
1
Cycles:
1
Q Cycle Activity:
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
Decode
Read
register ‘f’
Process
Data
Write to
destination
Example:
INCF
Before Instruction
CNT
=
Z
=
C
=
DC
=
After Instruction
CNT
=
Z
=
C
=
DC
=
DS39762E-page 384
10da
If ‘a’ is ‘0’, the Access Bank is selected.
If ‘a’ is ‘1’, the BSR is used to select the
GPR bank (default).
Q Cycle Activity:
Decode
f {,d {,a}}
CNT, 1, 0
FFh
0
?
?
00h
1
1
1
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
INCFSZ
Increment f, Skip if 0
INFSNZ
Syntax:
INCFSZ
Syntax:
INFSNZ
0 ≤ f ≤ 255
d ∈ [0,1]
a ∈ [0,1]
f {,d {,a}}
Increment f, Skip if Not 0
f {,d {,a}}
Operands:
0 ≤ f ≤ 255
d ∈ [0,1]
a ∈ [0,1]
Operands:
Operation:
(f) + 1 → dest,
skip if result = 0
Operation:
(f) + 1 → dest,
skip if result ≠ 0
Status Affected:
None
Status Affected:
None
Encoding:
0011
Description:
11da
ffff
ffff
The contents of register ‘f’ are
incremented. If ‘d’ is ‘0’, the result is
placed in W. If ‘d’ is ‘1’, the result is
placed back in register ‘f’. (default)
Encoding:
0100
Description:
10da
ffff
ffff
The contents of register ‘f’ are
incremented. If ‘d’ is ‘0’, the result is
placed in W. If ‘d’ is ‘1’, the result is
placed back in register ‘f’ (default).
If the result is ‘0’, the next instruction
which is already fetched is discarded
and a NOP is executed instead, making
it a two-cycle instruction.
If the result is not ‘0’, the next
instruction which is already fetched is
discarded and a NOP is executed
instead, making it a two-cycle
instruction.
If ‘a’ is ‘0’, the Access Bank is selected.
If ‘a’ is ‘1’, the BSR is used to select the
GPR bank (default).
If ‘a’ is ‘0’, the Access Bank is selected.
If ‘a’ is ‘1’, the BSR is used to select the
GPR bank (default).
If ‘a’ is ‘0’ and the extended instruction
set is enabled, this instruction operates
in Indexed Literal Offset Addressing
mode whenever f ≤ 95 (5Fh). See
Section 25.2.3 “Byte-Oriented and
Bit-Oriented Instructions in Indexed
Literal Offset Mode” for details.
If ‘a’ is ‘0’ and the extended instruction
set is enabled, this instruction operates
in Indexed Literal Offset Addressing
mode whenever f ≤ 95 (5Fh). See
Section 25.2.3 “Byte-Oriented and
Bit-Oriented Instructions in Indexed
Literal Offset Mode” for details.
Words:
1
Words:
1
Cycles:
1(2)
Note:
Cycles:
1(2)
Note: 3 cycles if skip and followed
by a 2-word instruction.
3 cycles if skip and followed
by a 2-word instruction.
Q Cycle Activity:
Q Cycle Activity:
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
Decode
Read
register ‘f’
Process
Data
Write to
destination
Decode
Read
register ‘f’
Process
Data
Write to
destination
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
No
operation
No
operation
No
operation
No
operation
No
operation
No
operation
No
operation
No
operation
If skip:
If skip:
If skip and followed by 2-word instruction:
If skip and followed by 2-word instruction:
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
No
operation
No
operation
No
operation
No
operation
No
operation
No
operation
No
operation
No
operation
No
operation
No
operation
No
operation
No
operation
No
operation
No
operation
No
operation
No
operation
Example:
HERE
NZERO
ZERO
Before Instruction
PC
=
After Instruction
CNT
=
If CNT
=
PC
=
If CNT
≠
PC
=
INCFSZ
:
:
Address (HERE)
CNT + 1
0;
Address (ZERO)
0;
Address (NZERO)
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
CNT, 1, 0
Example:
HERE
ZERO
NZERO
Before Instruction
PC
=
After Instruction
REG
=
If REG
≠
PC
=
If REG
=
PC
=
INFSNZ
REG, 1, 0
Address (HERE)
REG + 1
0;
Address (NZERO)
0;
Address (ZERO)
DS39762E-page 385
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
IORLW
Inclusive OR Literal with W
IORWF
Inclusive OR W with f
Syntax:
IORLW k
Syntax:
IORWF
Operands:
0 ≤ k ≤ 255
Operands:
Operation:
(W) .OR. k → W
Status Affected:
N, Z
0 ≤ f ≤ 255
d ∈ [0,1]
a ∈ [0,1]
Operation:
(W) .OR. (f) → dest
Status Affected:
N, Z
Encoding:
0000
1001
kkkk
kkkk
Description:
The contents of W are ORed with the
eight-bit literal ‘k’. The result is placed
in W.
Words:
1
Cycles:
1
Encoding:
0001
Description:
Q Cycle Activity:
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
Decode
Read
literal ‘k’
Process
Data
Write to
W
Example:
IORLW
Before Instruction
W
=
After Instruction
W
=
00da
ffff
ffff
Inclusive OR W with register ‘f’. If ‘d’ is
‘0’, the result is placed in W. If ‘d’ is ‘1’,
the result is placed back in register ‘f’
(default).
If ‘a’ is ‘0’, the Access Bank is selected.
If ‘a’ is ‘1’, the BSR is used to select the
GPR bank (default).
If ‘a’ is ‘0’ and the extended instruction
set is enabled, this instruction operates
in Indexed Literal Offset Addressing
mode whenever f ≤ 95 (5Fh). See
Section 25.2.3 “Byte-Oriented and
Bit-Oriented Instructions in Indexed
Literal Offset Mode” for details.
35h
9Ah
BFh
f {,d {,a}}
Words:
1
Cycles:
1
Q Cycle Activity:
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
Decode
Read
register ‘f’
Process
Data
Write to
destination
Example:
IORWF
Before Instruction
RESULT =
W
=
After Instruction
RESULT =
W
=
DS39762E-page 386
RESULT, 0, 1
13h
91h
13h
93h
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
LFSR
Load FSR
MOVF
Move f
Syntax:
LFSR f, k
Syntax:
MOVF
Operands:
0≤f≤2
0 ≤ k ≤ 4095
Operands:
Operation:
k → FSRf
0 ≤ f ≤ 255
d ∈ [0,1]
a ∈ [0,1]
Status Affected:
None
Operation:
f → dest
Status Affected:
N, Z
Encoding:
1110
1111
1110
0000
00ff
k7kkk
k11kkk
kkkk
Description:
The 12-bit literal ‘k’ is loaded into the
file select register pointed to by ‘f’.
Words:
2
Cycles:
2
Encoding:
0101
Description:
Q Cycle Activity:
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
Decode
Read literal
‘k’ MSB
Process
Data
Write
literal ‘k’
MSB to
FSRfH
Decode
Read literal
‘k’ LSB
Process
Data
Write literal
‘k’ to FSRfL
Example:
After Instruction
FSR2H
FSR2L
03h
ABh
00da
ffff
ffff
The contents of register ‘f’ are moved to
a destination dependent upon the
status of ‘d’. If ‘d’ is ‘0’, the result is
placed in W. If ‘d’ is ‘1’, the result is
placed back in register ‘f’ (default).
Location ‘f’ can be anywhere in the
256-byte bank.
If ‘a’ is ‘0’, the Access Bank is selected.
If ‘a’ is ‘1’, the BSR is used to select the
GPR bank (default).
If ‘a’ is ‘0’ and the extended instruction
set is enabled, this instruction operates
in Indexed Literal Offset Addressing
mode whenever f ≤ 95 (5Fh). See
Section 25.2.3 “Byte-Oriented and
Bit-Oriented Instructions in Indexed
Literal Offset Mode” for details.
LFSR 2, 3ABh
=
=
f {,d {,a}}
Words:
1
Cycles:
1
Q Cycle Activity:
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
Decode
Read
register ‘f’
Process
Data
Write
W
Example:
MOVF
Before Instruction
REG
W
After Instruction
REG
W
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
REG, 0, 0
=
=
22h
FFh
=
=
22h
22h
DS39762E-page 387
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
MOVFF
Move f to f
MOVLB
Move Literal to Low Nibble in BSR
Syntax:
MOVFF fs,fd
Syntax:
MOVLW k
Operands:
0 ≤ fs ≤ 4095
0 ≤ fd ≤ 4095
Operands:
0 ≤ k ≤ 255
Operation:
k → BSR
Status Affected:
None
Operation:
(fs) → fd
Status Affected:
None
Encoding:
1st word (source)
2nd word (destin.)
Encoding:
1100
1111
Description:
ffff
ffff
ffff
ffff
ffffs
ffffd
The contents of source register ‘fs’ are
moved to destination register ‘fd’.
Location of source ‘fs’ can be anywhere
in the 4096-byte data space (000h to
FFFh) and location of destination ‘fd’
can also be anywhere from 000h to
FFFh.
Either source or destination can be W
(a useful special situation).
MOVFF is particularly useful for
transferring a data memory location to a
peripheral register (such as the transmit
buffer or an I/O port).
The MOVFF instruction cannot use the
PCL, TOSU, TOSH or TOSL as the
destination register
Words:
2
Cycles:
2
0000
0001
kkkk
kkkk
Description:
The eight-bit literal ‘k’ is loaded into the
Bank Select Register (BSR). The value
of BSR<7:4> always remains ‘0’
regardless of the value of k7:k4.
Words:
1
Cycles:
1
Q Cycle Activity:
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
Decode
Read
literal ‘k’
Process
Data
Write literal
‘k’ to BSR
MOVLB
5
Example:
Before Instruction
BSR Register =
After Instruction
BSR Register =
02h
05h
Q Cycle Activity:
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
Decode
Read
register ‘f’
(src)
Process
Data
No
operation
Decode
No
operation
No
operation
Write
register ‘f’
(dest)
No dummy
read
Example:
MOVFF
Before Instruction
REG1
REG2
After Instruction
REG1
REG2
DS39762E-page 388
REG1, REG2
=
=
33h
11h
=
=
33h
33h
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
MOVLW
Move Literal to W
MOVWF
Move W to f
Syntax:
MOVLW k
Syntax:
MOVWF
Operands:
0 ≤ k ≤ 255
Operands:
Operation:
k→W
0 ≤ f ≤ 255
a ∈ [0,1]
Status Affected:
None
Encoding:
0000
Description:
1110
kkkk
kkkk
The eight-bit literal ‘k’ is loaded into W.
Words:
1
Cycles:
1
Operation:
(W) → f
Status Affected:
None
Encoding:
0110
Description:
Q Cycle Activity:
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
Decode
Read
literal ‘k’
Process
Data
Write to
W
Example:
After Instruction
W
=
MOVLW
f {,a}
111a
ffff
ffff
Move data from W to register ‘f’.
Location ‘f’ can be anywhere in the
256-byte bank.
If ‘a’ is ‘0’, the Access Bank is selected.
If ‘a’ is ‘1’, the BSR is used to select the
GPR bank (default).
If ‘a’ is ‘0’ and the extended instruction
set is enabled, this instruction operates
in Indexed Literal Offset Addressing
mode whenever f ≤ 95 (5Fh). See
Section 25.2.3 “Byte-Oriented and
Bit-Oriented Instructions in Indexed
Literal Offset Mode” for details.
5Ah
5Ah
Words:
1
Cycles:
1
Q Cycle Activity:
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
Decode
Read
register ‘f’
Process
Data
Write
register ‘f’
Example:
MOVWF
Before Instruction
W
=
REG
=
After Instruction
W
=
REG
=
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
REG, 0
4Fh
FFh
4Fh
4Fh
DS39762E-page 389
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
MULLW
Multiply Literal with W
MULWF
Syntax:
MULLW
Syntax:
MULWF
Operands:
0 ≤ k ≤ 255
Operands:
Operation:
(W) x k → PRODH:PRODL
0 ≤ f ≤ 255
a ∈ [0,1]
Status Affected:
None
Operation:
(W) x (f) → PRODH:PRODL
Status Affected:
None
Encoding:
0000
Description:
k
1101
kkkk
kkkk
An unsigned multiplication is carried
out between the contents of W and the
8-bit literal ‘k’. The 16-bit result is
placed in PRODH:PRODL register pair.
PRODH contains the high byte.
Multiply W with f
Encoding:
0000
Description:
W is unchanged.
None of the Status flags are affected.
1
Cycles:
1
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
Read
literal ‘k’
Process
Data
Write
registers
PRODH:
PRODL
MULLW
0C4h
=
=
=
E2h
?
?
=
=
=
E2h
ADh
08h
If ‘a’ is ‘0’ and the extended instruction set
is enabled, this instruction operates in
Indexed Literal Offset Addressing mode
whenever f ≤ 95 (5Fh). See
Section 25.2.3 “Byte-Oriented and
Bit-Oriented Instructions in Indexed
Literal Offset Mode” for details.
Words:
1
Cycles:
1
Q Cycle Activity:
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
Decode
Read
register ‘f’
Process
Data
Write
registers
PRODH:
PRODL
Example:
Before Instruction
W
REG
PRODH
PRODL
After Instruction
W
REG
PRODH
PRODL
DS39762E-page 390
ffff
If ‘a’ is ‘0’, the Access Bank is selected. If
‘a’ is ‘1’, the BSR is used to select the
GPR bank (default).
Decode
Before Instruction
W
PRODH
PRODL
After Instruction
W
PRODH
PRODL
ffff
Note that neither Overflow nor Carry is
possible in this operation. A Zero result is
possible but not detected.
Q Cycle Activity:
Example:
001a
An unsigned multiplication is carried out
between the contents of W and the
register file location ‘f’. The 16-bit result is
stored in the PRODH:PRODL register
pair. PRODH contains the high byte. Both
W and ‘f’ are unchanged.
None of the Status flags are affected.
Note that neither Overflow nor Carry is
possible in this operation. A Zero result
is possible but not detected.
Words:
f {,a}
MULWF
REG, 1
=
=
=
=
C4h
B5h
?
?
=
=
=
=
C4h
B5h
8Ah
94h
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
NEGF
Negate f
Syntax:
NEGF
Operands:
0 ≤ f ≤ 255
a ∈ [0,1]
f {,a}
Operation:
(f) + 1 → f
Status Affected:
N, OV, C, DC, Z
Encoding:
0110
Description:
110a
ffff
If ‘a’ is ‘0’ and the extended instruction
set is enabled, this instruction operates
in Indexed Literal Offset Addressing
mode whenever f ≤ 95 (5Fh). See
Section 25.2.3 “Byte-Oriented and
Bit-Oriented Instructions in Indexed
Literal Offset Mode” for details.
1
1
Syntax:
NOP
Operands:
None
Operation:
No operation
Status Affected:
None
0000
1111
ffff
If ‘a’ is ‘0’, the Access Bank is selected.
If ‘a’ is ‘1’, the BSR is used to select the
GPR bank (default).
Cycles:
No Operation
Encoding:
Location ‘f’ is negated using two’s
complement. The result is placed in the
data memory location ‘f’.
Words:
NOP
0000
xxxx
Description:
No operation.
Words:
1
Cycles:
1
0000
xxxx
0000
xxxx
Q Cycle Activity:
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
Decode
No
operation
No
operation
No
operation
Example:
None.
Q Cycle Activity:
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
Decode
Read
register ‘f’
Process
Data
Write
register ‘f’
Example:
NEGF
Before Instruction
REG
=
After Instruction
REG
=
REG, 1
0011 1010 [3Ah]
1100 0110 [C6h]
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS39762E-page 391
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POP
Pop Top of Return Stack
PUSH
Push Top of Return Stack
Syntax:
POP
Syntax:
PUSH
Operands:
None
Operands:
None
Operation:
(TOS) → bit bucket
Operation:
(PC + 2) → TOS
Status Affected:
None
Status Affected:
None
Encoding:
0000
0000
0000
0110
Encoding:
0000
0000
0000
0101
Description:
The TOS value is pulled off the return
stack and is discarded. The TOS value
then becomes the previous value that
was pushed onto the return stack.
This instruction is provided to enable
the user to properly manage the return
stack to incorporate a software stack.
Description:
The PC + 2 is pushed onto the top of
the return stack. The previous TOS
value is pushed down on the stack.
This instruction allows implementing a
software stack by modifying TOS and
then pushing it onto the return stack.
Words:
1
Words:
1
Cycles:
1
Cycles:
1
Q Cycle Activity:
Q Cycle Activity:
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
Decode
No
operation
POP TOS
value
No
operation
POP
GOTO
NEW
Example:
Q2
Q3
Q4
PUSH
PC + 2 onto
return stack
No
operation
No
operation
Example:
Before Instruction
TOS
Stack (1 level down)
=
=
0031A2h
014332h
After Instruction
TOS
PC
=
=
014332h
NEW
DS39762E-page 392
Q1
Decode
PUSH
Before Instruction
TOS
PC
=
=
345Ah
0124h
After Instruction
PC
TOS
Stack (1 level down)
=
=
=
0126h
0126h
345Ah
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
RCALL
Relative Call
RESET
Reset
Syntax:
RCALL
Syntax:
RESET
n
Operands:
-1024 ≤ n ≤ 1023
Operands:
None
Operation:
(PC) + 2 → TOS,
(PC) + 2 + 2n → PC
Operation:
Reset all registers and flags that are
affected by a MCLR Reset.
Status Affected:
None
Status Affected:
All
Encoding:
1101
Description:
1nnn
nnnn
nnnn
Subroutine call with a jump up to 1K
from the current location. First, return
address (PC + 2) is pushed onto the
stack. Then, add the 2’s complement
number ‘2n’ to the PC. Since the PC will
have incremented to fetch the next
instruction, the new address will be
PC + 2 + 2n. This instruction is a
two-cycle instruction.
Words:
1
Cycles:
2
Encoding:
0000
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
Decode
Read literal
‘n’
Process
Data
Write to PC
No
operation
No
operation
1111
1111
This instruction provides a way to
execute a MCLR Reset in software.
Words:
1
Cycles:
1
Q Cycle Activity:
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
Decode
Start
reset
No
operation
No
operation
Example:
Q Cycle Activity:
0000
Description:
After Instruction
Registers =
Flags*
=
RESET
Reset Value
Reset Value
PUSH PC
to stack
No
operation
Example:
No
operation
HERE
RCALL Jump
Before Instruction
PC =
Address (HERE)
After Instruction
PC =
Address (Jump)
TOS =
Address (HERE + 2)
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS39762E-page 393
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
RETFIE
Return from Interrupt
RETLW
Return Literal to W
Syntax:
RETFIE {s}
Syntax:
RETLW k
Operands:
s ∈ [0,1]
Operands:
0 ≤ k ≤ 255
Operation:
(TOS) → PC,
1 → GIE/GIEH or PEIE/GIEL;
if s = 1,
(WS) → W,
(STATUSS) → STATUS,
(BSRS) → BSR,
PCLATU, PCLATH are unchanged
Operation:
k → W,
(TOS) → PC,
PCLATU, PCLATH are unchanged
Status Affected:
None
Status Affected:
0000
0000
Description:
0000
0001
Words:
1
Cycles:
2
Q Cycle Activity:
kkkk
kkkk
W is loaded with the eight-bit literal ‘k’.
The program counter is loaded from the
top of the stack (the return address).
The high address latch (PCLATH)
remains unchanged.
Words:
1
Cycles:
2
000s
Return from interrupt. Stack is popped
and Top-of-Stack (TOS) is loaded into
the PC. Interrupts are enabled by
setting either the high or low-priority
global interrupt enable bit. If ‘s’ = 1, the
contents of the shadow registers WS,
STATUSS and BSRS are loaded into
their corresponding registers W,
STATUS and BSR. If ‘s’ = 0, no update
of these registers occurs (default).
1100
Description:
GIE/GIEH, PEIE/GIEL.
Encoding:
Q Cycle Activity:
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
Decode
Read
literal ‘k’
Process
Data
POP PC
from stack,
write to W
No
operation
No
operation
No
operation
No
operation
Example:
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
Decode
No
operation
No
operation
POP PC
from stack
Set GIEH or
GIEL
No
operation
Encoding:
No
operation
Example:
RETFIE
After Interrupt
PC
W
BSR
STATUS
GIE/GIEH, PEIE/GIEL
DS39762E-page 394
No
operation
No
operation
1
=
=
=
=
=
TOS
WS
BSRS
STATUSS
1
CALL TABLE ;
;
;
;
:
TABLE
ADDWF PCL ;
RETLW k0
;
RETLW k1
;
:
:
RETLW kn
;
Before Instruction
W
=
After Instruction
W
=
W contains table
offset value
W now has
table value
W = offset
Begin table
End of table
07h
value of kn
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
RETURN
Return from Subroutine
RLCF
Rotate Left f through Carry
Syntax:
RETURN {s}
Syntax:
RLCF
Operands:
s ∈ [0,1]
Operands:
Operation:
(TOS) → PC;
if s = 1,
(WS) → W,
(STATUSS) → STATUS,
(BSRS) → BSR,
PCLATU, PCLATH are unchanged
0 ≤ f ≤ 255
d ∈ [0,1]
a ∈ [0,1]
Operation:
(f<n>) → dest<n + 1>,
(f<7>) → C,
(C) → dest<0>
Status Affected:
C, N, Z
Status Affected:
None
Encoding:
0000
Description:
Encoding:
0000
0001
001s
0011
Description:
Return from subroutine. The stack is
popped and the top of the stack (TOS)
is loaded into the program counter. If
‘s’= 1, the contents of the shadow
registers WS, STATUSS and BSRS are
loaded into their corresponding
registers W, STATUS and BSR. If
‘s’ = 0, no update of these registers
occurs (default).
Words:
1
Cycles:
2
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
No
operation
Process
Data
POP PC
from stack
No
operation
No
operation
No
operation
No
operation
01da
ffff
ffff
The contents of register ‘f’ are rotated
one bit to the left through the Carry flag.
If ‘d’ is ‘0’, the result is placed in W. If ‘d’
is ‘1’, the result is stored back in register
‘f’ (default).
If ‘a’ is ‘0’, the Access Bank is selected.
If ‘a’ is ‘1’, the BSR is used to select the
GPR bank (default).
If ‘a’ is ‘0’ and the extended instruction
set is enabled, this instruction operates
in Indexed Literal Offset Addressing
mode whenever f ≤ 95 (5Fh). See
Section 25.2.3 “Byte-Oriented and
Bit-Oriented Instructions in Indexed
Literal Offset Mode” for details.
Q Cycle Activity:
Decode
f {,d {,a}}
register f
C
Words:
1
Cycles:
1
Q Cycle Activity:
Example:
RETURN
After Instruction:
PC = TOS
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
Decode
Read
register ‘f’
Process
Data
Write to
destination
Example:
Before Instruction
REG
=
C
=
After Instruction
REG
=
W
=
C
=
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
RLCF
REG, 0, 0
1110 0110
0
1110 0110
1100 1100
1
DS39762E-page 395
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
RLNCF
Rotate Left f (no carry)
RRCF
Rotate Right f through Carry
Syntax:
RLNCF
Syntax:
RRCF
Operands:
0 ≤ f ≤ 255
d ∈ [0,1]
a ∈ [0,1]
Operands:
0 ≤ f ≤ 255
d ∈ [0,1]
a ∈ [0,1]
Operation:
(f<n>) → dest<n + 1>,
(f<7>) → dest<0>
Operation:
Status Affected:
N, Z
(f<n>) → dest<n – 1>,
(f<0>) → C,
(C) → dest<7>
Status Affected:
C, N, Z
Encoding:
0100
Description:
f {,d {,a}}
01da
ffff
ffff
The contents of register ‘f’ are rotated
one bit to the left. If ‘d’ is ‘0’, the result
is placed in W. If ‘d’ is ‘1’, the result is
stored back in register ‘f’ (default).
Encoding:
0011
Description:
If ‘a’ is ‘0’, the Access Bank is selected.
If ‘a’ is ‘1’, the BSR is used to select the
GPR bank (default).
1
1
Q1
Decode
Q2
Read
register ‘f’
Example:
Before Instruction
REG
=
After Instruction
REG
=
DS39762E-page 396
RLNCF
Q3
Process
Data
Q4
Write to
destination
Words:
1
Cycles:
register f
1
Q Cycle Activity:
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
Decode
Read
register ‘f’
Process
Data
Write to
destination
REG, 1, 0
1010 1011
0101 0111
ffff
The contents of register ‘f’ are rotated
one bit to the right through the Carry
flag. If ‘d’ is ‘0’, the result is placed in W.
If ‘d’ is ‘1’, the result is placed back in
register ‘f’ (default).
C
Q Cycle Activity:
ffff
If ‘a’ is ‘0’ and the extended instruction
set is enabled, this instruction operates
in Indexed Literal Offset Addressing
mode whenever f ≤ 95 (5Fh). See
Section 25.2.3 “Byte-Oriented and
Bit-Oriented Instructions in Indexed
Literal Offset Mode” for details.
register f
Cycles:
00da
If ‘a’ is ‘0’, the Access Bank is selected.
If ‘a’ is ‘1’, the BSR is used to select the
GPR bank (default).
If ‘a’ is ‘0’ and the extended instruction
set is enabled, this instruction operates
in Indexed Literal Offset Addressing
mode whenever f ≤ 95 (5Fh). See
Section 25.2.3 “Byte-Oriented and
Bit-Oriented Instructions in Indexed
Literal Offset Mode” for details.
Words:
f {,d {,a}}
Example:
RRCF
Before Instruction
REG
=
C
=
After Instruction
REG
=
W
=
C
=
REG, 0, 0
1110 0110
0
1110 0110
0111 0011
0
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
RRNCF
Rotate Right f (no carry)
SETF
Set f
Syntax:
RRNCF
Syntax:
SETF
Operands:
0 ≤ f ≤ 255
d ∈ [0,1]
a ∈ [0,1]
Operands:
0 ≤ f ≤ 255
a ∈ [0,1]
Operation:
(f<n>) → dest<n – 1>,
(f<0>) → dest<7>
Status Affected:
N, Z
Encoding:
0100
Description:
f {,d {,a}}
00da
Operation:
FFh → f
Status Affected:
None
Encoding:
ffff
ffff
0110
Description:
The contents of register ‘f’ are rotated
one bit to the right. If ‘d’ is ‘0’, the result
is placed in W. If ‘d’ is ‘1’, the result is
placed back in register ‘f’ (default).
register f
Words:
1
Cycles:
1
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
Decode
Read
register ‘f’
Process
Data
Write to
destination
Example 1:
RRNCF
Before Instruction
REG
=
After Instruction
REG
=
Example 2:
ffff
Words:
1
Cycles:
1
Q Cycle Activity:
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
Decode
Read
register ‘f’
Process
Data
Write
register ‘f’
SETF
Before Instruction
REG
After Instruction
REG
REG,1
=
5Ah
=
FFh
REG, 1, 0
1101 0111
1110 1011
RRNCF
Before Instruction
W
=
REG
=
After Instruction
W
=
REG
=
ffff
If ‘a’ is ‘0’ and the extended instruction
set is enabled, this instruction operates
in Indexed Literal Offset Addressing
mode whenever f ≤ 95 (5Fh). See
Section 25.2.3 “Byte-Oriented and
Bit-Oriented Instructions in Indexed
Literal Offset Mode” for details.
Example:
Q Cycle Activity:
100a
The contents of the specified register
are set to FFh.
If ‘a’ is ‘0’, the Access Bank is selected.
If ‘a’ is ‘1’, the BSR is used to select the
GPR bank (default).
If ‘a’ is ‘0’, the Access Bank will be
selected, overriding the BSR value. If ‘a’
is ‘1’, then the bank will be selected as
per the BSR value (default).
If ‘a’ is ‘0’ and the extended instruction
set is enabled, this instruction operates
in Indexed Literal Offset Addressing
mode whenever f ≤ 95 (5Fh). See
Section 25.2.3 “Byte-Oriented and
Bit-Oriented Instructions in Indexed
Literal Offset Mode” for details.
f {,a}
REG, 0, 0
?
1101 0111
1110 1011
1101 0111
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS39762E-page 397
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SLEEP
Enter Sleep Mode
SUBFWB
Subtract f from W with Borrow
Syntax:
SLEEP
Syntax:
SUBFWB
Operands:
None
Operands:
Operation:
00h → WDT,
0 → WDT postscaler,
1 → TO,
0 → PD
0 ≤ f ≤ 255
d ∈ [0,1]
a ∈ [0,1]
Operation:
(W) – (f) – (C) → dest
Status Affected:
N, OV, C, DC, Z
Status Affected:
TO, PD
Encoding:
0000
Description:
Encoding:
0000
0000
0011
0101
Description:
The Power-Down status bit (PD) is
cleared. The Time-out status bit (TO)
is set. The Watchdog Timer and its
postscaler are cleared.
The processor is put into Sleep mode
with the oscillator stopped.
Words:
1
Cycles:
1
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
No
operation
Process
Data
Go to
Sleep
Example:
SLEEP
Before Instruction
TO =
?
?
PD =
After Instruction
1†
TO =
PD =
0
† If WDT causes wake-up, this bit is cleared.
DS39762E-page 398
01da
ffff
ffff
Subtract register ‘f’ and Carry flag
(borrow) from W (2’s complement
method). If ‘d’ is ‘0’, the result is stored in
W. If ‘d’ is ‘1’, the result is stored in
register ‘f’ (default).
If ‘a’ is ‘0’, the Access Bank is selected. If
‘a’ is ‘1’, the BSR is used to select the
GPR bank (default).
If ‘a’ is ‘0’ and the extended instruction
set is enabled, this instruction operates in
Indexed Literal Offset Addressing mode
whenever f ≤ 95 (5Fh). See
Section 25.2.3 “Byte-Oriented and
Bit-Oriented Instructions in Indexed
Literal Offset Mode” for details.
Q Cycle Activity:
Decode
f {,d {,a}}
Words:
1
Cycles:
1
Q Cycle Activity:
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
Decode
Read
register ‘f’
Process
Data
Write to
destination
SUBFWB
REG, 1, 0
Example 1:
Before Instruction
REG
=
3
W
=
2
C
=
1
After Instruction
REG
=
FF
W
=
2
C
=
0
Z
=
0
N
=
1 ; result is negative
SUBFWB
REG, 0, 0
Example 2:
Before Instruction
REG
=
2
W
=
5
C
=
1
After Instruction
REG
=
2
W
=
3
C
=
1
Z
=
0
N
=
0 ; result is positive
SUBFWB
REG, 1, 0
Example 3:
Before Instruction
REG
=
1
W
=
2
C
=
0
After Instruction
REG
=
0
W
=
2
C
=
1
Z
=
1 ; result is zero
N
=
0
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
SUBLW
Subtract W from Literal
SUBWF
Subtract W from f
Syntax:
SUBLW k
Syntax:
SUBWF
Operands:
0 ≤ k ≤ 255
Operands:
Operation:
k – (W) → W
Status Affected:
N, OV, C, DC, Z
0 ≤ f ≤ 255
d ∈ [0,1]
a ∈ [0,1]
Operation:
(f) – (W) → dest
Status Affected:
N, OV, C, DC, Z
Encoding:
0000
1000
kkkk
kkkk
Description:
W is subtracted from the eight-bit
literal ‘k’. The result is placed in W.
Words:
1
Cycles:
1
Encoding:
0101
Description:
Q Cycle Activity:
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
Decode
Read
literal ‘k’
Process
Data
Write to
W
Example 1:
Before Instruction
W
=
C
=
After Instruction
W
=
C
=
Z
=
N
=
Example 2:
Before Instruction
W
=
C
=
After Instruction
W
=
C
=
Z
=
N
=
Example 3:
Before Instruction
W
=
C
=
After Instruction
W
=
C
=
Z
=
N
=
SUBLW
SUBLW
; result is positive
02h
?
00h
1
1
0
SUBLW
; result is zero
02h
03h
?
FFh
0
0
1
; (2’s complement)
; result is negative
ffff
Subtract W from register ‘f’ (2’s
complement method). If ‘d’ is ‘0’, the
result is stored in W. If ‘d’ is ‘1’, the result
is stored back in register ‘f’ (default).
Words:
1
Cycles:
1
Q Cycle Activity:
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
Decode
Read
register ‘f’
Process
Data
Write to
destination
SUBWF
REG, 1, 0
Example 1:
Before Instruction
REG
=
W
=
C
=
After Instruction
REG
=
W
=
C
=
Z
=
N
=
Example 2:
Before Instruction
REG
=
W
=
C
=
After Instruction
REG
=
W
=
C
=
Z
=
N
=
Example 3:
Before Instruction
REG
=
W
=
C
=
After Instruction
REG
=
W
=
C
=
Z
=
N
=
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
ffff
If ‘a’ is ‘0’ and the extended instruction
set is enabled, this instruction operates
in Indexed Literal Offset Addressing
mode whenever f ≤ 95 (5Fh). See
Section 25.2.3 “Byte-Oriented and
Bit-Oriented Instructions in Indexed
Literal Offset Mode” for details.
02h
02h
11da
If ‘a’ is ‘0’, the Access Bank is selected.
If ‘a’ is ‘1’, the BSR is used to select the
GPR bank (default).
01h
?
01h
1
0
0
f {,d {,a}}
3
2
?
1
2
1
0
0
; result is positive
SUBWF
REG, 0, 0
2
2
?
2
0
1
1
0
SUBWF
; result is zero
REG, 1, 0
1
2
?
FFh ;(2’s complement)
2
0
; result is negative
0
1
DS39762E-page 399
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
SUBWFB
Subtract W from f with Borrow
SWAPF
Swap f
Syntax:
SUBWFB
Syntax:
SWAPF f {,d {,a}}
Operands:
0 ≤ f ≤ 255
d ∈ [0,1]
a ∈ [0,1]
Operands:
0 ≤ f ≤ 255
d ∈ [0,1]
a ∈ [0,1]
Operation:
(f) – (W) – (C) → dest
Operation:
Status Affected:
N, OV, C, DC, Z
(f<3:0>) → dest<7:4>,
(f<7:4>) → dest<3:0>
Status Affected:
None
Encoding:
0101
Description:
f {,d {,a}}
10da
ffff
ffff
Subtract W and the Carry flag (borrow)
from register ‘f’ (2’s complement
method). If ‘d’ is ‘0’, the result is stored
in W. If ‘d’ is ‘1’, the result is stored back
in register ‘f’ (default).
Encoding:
0011
Description:
If ‘a’ is ‘0’, the Access Bank is selected.
If ‘a’ is ‘1’, the BSR is used to select the
GPR bank (default).
1
Cycles:
1
Q Cycle Activity:
Q1
Decode
Q2
Read
register ‘f’
Example 1:
SUBWFB
Before Instruction
REG
=
W
=
C
=
After Instruction
REG
=
W
=
C
=
Z
=
N
=
Example 2:
Q4
Write to
destination
If ‘a’ is ‘0’ and the extended instruction
set is enabled, this instruction operates
in Indexed Literal Offset Addressing
mode whenever f ≤ 95 (5Fh). See
Section 25.2.3 “Byte-Oriented and
Bit-Oriented Instructions in Indexed
Literal Offset Mode” for details.
Words:
1
Cycles:
1
Q Cycle Activity:
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
Decode
Read
register ‘f’
Process
Data
Write to
destination
REG, 1, 0
19h
0Dh
1
(0001 1001)
(0000 1101)
0Ch
0Dh
1
0
0
(0000 1011)
(0000 1101)
ffff
Example:
SWAPF
Before Instruction
REG
=
After Instruction
REG
=
REG, 1, 0
53h
35h
; result is positive
SUBWFB REG, 0, 0
Before Instruction
REG
=
W
=
C
=
After Instruction
REG
=
W
=
C
=
Z
=
N
=
Example 3:
1Bh
1Ah
0
(0001 1011)
(0001 1010)
1Bh
00h
1
1
0
(0001 1011)
SUBWFB
Before Instruction
REG
=
W
=
C
=
After Instruction
REG
=
W
C
Z
N
Q3
Process
Data
ffff
If ‘a’ is ‘0’, the Access Bank is selected.
If ‘a’ is ‘1’, the BSR is used to select the
GPR bank (default).
If ‘a’ is ‘0’ and the extended instruction
set is enabled, this instruction operates
in Indexed Literal Offset Addressing
mode whenever f ≤ 95 (5Fh). See
Section 25.2.3 “Byte-Oriented and
Bit-Oriented Instructions in Indexed
Literal Offset Mode” for details.
Words:
10da
The upper and lower nibbles of register
‘f’ are exchanged. If ‘d’ is ‘0’, the result
is placed in W. If ‘d’ is ‘1’, the result is
placed in register ‘f’ (default).
=
=
=
=
DS39762E-page 400
; result is zero
REG, 1, 0
03h
0Eh
1
(0000 0011)
(0000 1101)
F5h
(1111 0100)
; [2’s comp]
(0000 1101)
0Eh
0
0
1
; result is negative
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
TBLRD
Table Read
TBLRD
Table Read (Continued)
Syntax:
TBLRD ( *; *+; *-; +*)
Example 1:
TBLRD
Operands:
None
Operation:
if TBLRD*,
(Prog Mem (TBLPTR)) → TABLAT;
TBLPTR – No Change
if TBLRD*+,
(Prog Mem (TBLPTR)) → TABLAT;
(TBLPTR) + 1 → TBLPTR
if TBLRD*-,
(Prog Mem (TBLPTR)) → TABLAT;
(TBLPTR) – 1 → TBLPTR
if TBLRD +*,
(TBLPTR) + 1 → TBLPTR;
(Prog Mem (TBLPTR)) → TABLAT
Before Instruction
TABLAT
TBLPTR
MEMORY(00A356h)
After Instruction
TABLAT
TBLPTR
Example 2:
Status Affected: None
Encoding:
Description:
0000
0000
0000
10nn
nn=0 *
=1 *+
=2 *=3 +*
TBLRD
Before Instruction
TABLAT
TBLPTR
MEMORY(01A357h)
MEMORY(01A358h)
After Instruction
TABLAT
TBLPTR
*+ ;
=
=
=
55h
00A356h
34h
=
=
34h
00A357h
+* ;
=
=
=
=
AAh
01A357h
12h
34h
=
=
34h
01A358h
This instruction is used to read the contents
of Program Memory (P.M.). To address the
program memory, a pointer called Table
Pointer (TBLPTR) is used.
The TBLPTR (a 21-bit pointer) points to
each byte in the program memory. TBLPTR
has a 2-Mbyte address range.
TBLPTR[0] = 0: Least Significant Byte of
Program Memory Word
TBLPTR[0] = 1: Most Significant Byte of
Program Memory Word
The TBLRD instruction can modify the value
of TBLPTR as follows:
• no change
• post-increment
• post-decrement
• pre-increment
Words:
1
Cycles:
2
Q Cycle Activity:
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
Decode
No
operation
No
operation
No
operation
No
operation
No operation
(Read Program
Memory)
No
operation
No operation
(Write
TABLAT)
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS39762E-page 401
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
TBLWT
Table Write
TBLWT
Table Write (Continued)
Syntax:
TBLWT ( *; *+; *-; +*)
Example 1:
TBLWT*+;
Operands:
None
Operation:
if TBLWT*,
(TABLAT) → Holding Register;
TBLPTR – No Change
if TBLWT*+,
(TABLAT) → Holding Register;
(TBLPTR) + 1 → TBLPTR
if TBLWT*-,
(TABLAT) → Holding Register;
(TBLPTR) – 1 → TBLPTR
if TBLWT+*,
(TBLPTR) + 1 → TBLPTR;
(TABLAT) → Holding Register
Status Affected:
Example 2:
None
Encoding:
Description:
Before Instruction
TABLAT
=
55h
TBLPTR
=
00A356h
HOLDING REGISTER
(00A356h)
=
FFh
After Instructions (table write completion)
TABLAT
=
55h
TBLPTR
=
00A357h
HOLDING REGISTER
(00A356h)
=
55h
0000
0000
0000
11nn
nn=0 *
=1 *+
=2 *=3 +*
This instruction uses the 3 LSBs of
TBLPTR to determine which of the
8 holding registers the TABLAT is written
to. The holding registers are used to
program the contents of Program Memory
(P.M.). (Refer to Section 5.0 “Memory
Organization” for additional details on
programming Flash memory.)
TBLWT +*;
Before Instruction
TABLAT
=
34h
TBLPTR
=
01389Ah
HOLDING REGISTER
(01389Ah)
=
FFh
HOLDING REGISTER
(01389Bh)
=
FFh
After Instruction (table write completion)
TABLAT
=
34h
TBLPTR
=
01389Bh
HOLDING REGISTER
(01389Ah)
=
FFh
HOLDING REGISTER
(01389Bh)
=
34h
The TBLPTR (a 21-bit pointer) points to
each byte in the program memory.
TBLPTR has a 2-Mbyte address range.
The LSb of the TBLPTR selects which
byte of the program memory location to
access.
TBLPTR[0] = 0: Least Significant Byte
of Program Memory
Word
TBLPTR[0] = 1: Most Significant Byte
of Program Memory
Word
The TBLWT instruction can modify the
value of TBLPTR as follows:
•
•
•
•
no change
post-increment
post-decrement
pre-increment
Words:
1
Cycles:
2
Q Cycle Activity:
Q1
Decode
Q2
Q3
Q4
No
No
No
operation operation operation
No
No
No
No
operation operation operation operation
(Read
(Write to
TABLAT)
Holding
Register)
DS39762E-page 402
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
TSTFSZ
Test f, Skip if 0
XORLW
Exclusive OR Literal with W
Syntax:
TSTFSZ f {,a}
Syntax:
XORLW k
Operands:
0 ≤ f ≤ 255
a ∈ [0,1]
Operands:
0 ≤ k ≤ 255
Operation:
(W) .XOR. k → W
Status Affected:
N, Z
Operation:
skip if f = 0
Status Affected:
None
Encoding:
Encoding:
0110
Description:
011a
ffff
ffff
If ‘f’ = 0, the next instruction fetched
during the current instruction execution
is discarded and a NOP is executed,
making this a two-cycle instruction.
If ‘a’ is ‘0’, the Access Bank is selected.
If ‘a’ is ‘1’, the BSR is used to select the
GPR bank (default).
If ‘a’ is ‘0’ and the extended instruction
set is enabled, this instruction operates
in Indexed Literal Offset Addressing
mode whenever f ≤ 95 (5Fh). See
Section 25.2.3 “Byte-Oriented and
Bit-Oriented Instructions in Indexed
Literal Offset Mode” for details.
Words:
1
Cycles:
1(2)
Note: 3 cycles if skip and followed
by a 2-word instruction.
0000
1010
kkkk
kkkk
Description:
The contents of W are XORed with
the 8-bit literal ‘k’. The result is placed
in W.
Words:
1
Cycles:
1
Q Cycle Activity:
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
Decode
Read
literal ‘k’
Process
Data
Write to
W
Example:
Before Instruction
W
=
After Instruction
W
=
XORLW
0AFh
B5h
1Ah
Q Cycle Activity:
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
Decode
Read
register ‘f’
Process
Data
No
operation
If skip:
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
No
operation
No
operation
No
operation
No
operation
If skip and followed by 2-word instruction:
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
No
operation
No
operation
No
operation
No
operation
No
operation
No
operation
No
operation
No
operation
Example:
HERE
NZERO
ZERO
Before Instruction
PC
After Instruction
If CNT
PC
If CNT
PC
TSTFSZ
:
:
CNT, 1
=
Address (HERE)
=
=
≠
=
00h,
Address (ZERO)
00h,
Address (NZERO)
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS39762E-page 403
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
XORWF
Exclusive OR W with f
Syntax:
XORWF
Operands:
0 ≤ f ≤ 255
d ∈ [0,1]
a ∈ [0,1]
Operation:
(W) .XOR. (f) → dest
Status Affected:
N, Z
Encoding:
0001
Description:
f {,d {,a}}
10da
ffff
ffff
Exclusive OR the contents of W with
register ‘f’. If ‘d’ is ‘0’, the result is stored
in W. If ‘d’ is ‘1’, the result is stored back
in the register ‘f’ (default).
If ‘a’ is ‘0’, the Access Bank is selected.
If ‘a’ is ‘1’, the BSR is used to select the
GPR bank (default).
If ‘a’ is ‘0’ and the extended instruction
set is enabled, this instruction operates
in Indexed Literal Offset Addressing
mode whenever f ≤ 95 (5Fh). See
Section 25.2.3 “Byte-Oriented and
Bit-Oriented Instructions in Indexed
Literal Offset Mode” for details.
Words:
1
Cycles:
1
Q Cycle Activity:
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
Decode
Read
register ‘f’
Process
Data
Write to
destination
Example:
XORWF
Before Instruction
REG
=
W
=
After Instruction
REG
=
W
=
DS39762E-page 404
REG, 1, 0
AFh
B5h
1Ah
B5h
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
25.2
Extended Instruction Set
A summary of the instructions in the extended instruction set is provided in Table 25-3. Detailed descriptions
are provided in Section 25.2.2 “Extended Instruction
Set”. The opcode field descriptions in Table 25-1 (page
364) apply to both the standard and extended PIC18
instruction sets.
In addition to the standard 75 instructions of the PIC18
instruction set, the PIC18F97J60 family of devices also
provide an optional extension to the core CPU functionality. The added features include eight additional
instructions that augment Indirect and Indexed
Addressing operations and the implementation of
Indexed Literal Offset Addressing for many of the
standard PIC18 instructions.
Note:
The additional features of the extended instruction set
are enabled by default on unprogrammed devices.
Users must properly set or clear the XINST Configuration bit during programming to enable or disable these
features.
The instructions in the extended set can all be
classified as literal operations, which either manipulate
the File Select Registers, or use them for Indexed
Addressing. Two of the instructions, ADDFSR and
SUBFSR, each have an additional special instantiation
for using FSR2. These versions (ADDULNK and
SUBULNK) allow for automatic return after execution.
25.2.1
EXTENDED INSTRUCTION SYNTAX
Most of the extended instructions use indexed arguments, using one of the File Select Registers and some
offset to specify a source or destination register. When
an argument for an instruction serves as part of
Indexed Addressing, it is enclosed in square brackets
(“[ ]”). This is done to indicate that the argument is used
as an index or offset. The MPASM™ Assembler will
flag an error if it determines that an index or offset value
is not bracketed.
The extended instructions are specifically implemented
to optimize reentrant program code (that is, code that is
recursive or that uses a software stack) written in
high-level languages, particularly C. Among other
things, they allow users working in high-level
languages to perform certain operations on data
structures more efficiently. These include:
When the extended instruction set is enabled, brackets
are also used to indicate index arguments in
byte-oriented and bit-oriented instructions. This is in
addition to other changes in their syntax. For more
details, see Section 25.2.3.1 “Extended Instruction
Syntax with Standard PIC18 Commands”.
• Dynamic allocation and deallocation of software
stack space when entering and leaving
subroutines
• Function Pointer invocation
• Software Stack Pointer manipulation
• Manipulation of variables located in a software
stack
TABLE 25-3:
The instruction set extension and the
Indexed Literal Offset Addressing mode
were designed for optimizing applications
written in C; the user may likely never use
these instructions directly in assembler.
The syntax for these commands is
provided as a reference for users who may
be reviewing code that has been
generated by a compiler.
Note:
In the past, square brackets have been
used to denote optional arguments in the
PIC18 and earlier instruction sets. In this
text and going forward, optional
arguments are denoted by braces (“{ }”).
EXTENSIONS TO THE PIC18 INSTRUCTION SET
Mnemonic,
Operands
ADDFSR
ADDULNK
CALLW
MOVSF
f, k
k
MOVSS
zs, zd
PUSHL
k
SUBFSR
SUBULNK
f, k
k
zs, fd
Description
Add Literal to FSR
Add Literal to FSR2 and Return
Call Subroutine using WREG
Move zs (source) to 1st word
fd (destination) 2nd word
Move zs (source) to 1st word
zd (destination) 2nd word
Store Literal at FSR2,
Decrement FSR2
Subtract Literal from FSR
Subtract Literal from FSR2 and
Return
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
Cycles
1
2
2
2
16-Bit Instruction Word
MSb
LSb
Status
Affected
1000
1000
0000
1011
ffff
1011
xxxx
1010
ffkk
11kk
0001
0zzz
ffff
1zzz
xzzz
kkkk
kkkk
kkkk
0100
zzzz
ffff
zzzz
zzzz
kkkk
None
None
None
None
1
1110
1110
0000
1110
1111
1110
1111
1110
1
2
1110
1110
1001
1001
ffkk
11kk
kkkk
kkkk
None
None
2
None
None
DS39762E-page 405
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
25.2.2
EXTENDED INSTRUCTION SET
ADDFSR
Add Literal to FSR
ADDULNK
Syntax:
ADDFSR f, k
Syntax:
ADDULNK k
Operands:
0 ≤ k ≤ 63
f ∈ [ 0, 1, 2 ]
Operands:
0 ≤ k ≤ 63
Operation:
FSR(f) + k → FSR(f)
Status Affected:
None
Encoding:
1110
Add Literal to FSR2 and Return
FSR2 + k → FSR2,
Operation:
(TOS) → PC
Status Affected:
1000
ffkk
kkkk
Description:
The 6-bit literal ‘k’ is added to the
contents of the FSR specified by ‘f’.
Words:
1
Cycles:
1
None
Encoding:
1110
Description:
Q2
Q3
Q4
Decode
Read
literal ‘k’
Process
Data
Write to
FSR
Example:
After Instruction
FSR2
=
03FFh
Words:
1
Cycles:
2
Q Cycle Activity:
0422h
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
Decode
Read
literal ‘k’
Process
Data
Write to
FSR
No
Operation
No
Operation
No
Operation
No
Operation
Example:
Note:
kkkk
This may be thought of as a special
case of the ADDFSR instruction,
where f = 3 (binary ‘11’); it operates
only on FSR2.
ADDFSR 2, 23h
Before Instruction
FSR2
=
11kk
The instruction takes two cycles to
execute; a NOP is performed during
the second cycle.
Q Cycle Activity:
Q1
1000
The 6-bit literal ‘k’ is added to the
contents of FSR2. A RETURN is then
executed by loading the PC with the
TOS.
ADDULNK 23h
Before Instruction
FSR2
=
PC
=
03FFh
0100h
After Instruction
FSR2
=
PC
=
0422h
(TOS)
All PIC18 instructions may take an optional label argument preceding the instruction mnemonic for use in
symbolic addressing. If a label is used, the instruction format then becomes: {label} instruction argument(s).
DS39762E-page 406
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
CALLW
Subroutine Call using WREG
MOVSF
Move Indexed to f
Syntax:
CALLW
Syntax:
MOVSF [zs], fd
Operands:
None
Operands:
Operation:
(PC + 2) → TOS,
(W) → PCL,
(PCLATH) → PCH,
(PCLATU) → PCU
0 ≤ zs ≤ 127
0 ≤ fd ≤ 4095
Operation:
((FSR2) + zs) → fd
Status Affected:
None
Status Affected:
None
Encoding:
0000
Description
0000
0001
0100
First, the return address (PC + 2) is
pushed onto the return stack. Next, the
contents of W are written to PCL; the
existing value is discarded. Then, the
contents of PCLATH and PCLATU are
latched into PCH and PCU,
respectively. The second cycle is
executed as a NOP instruction while the
new next instruction is fetched.
Encoding:
1st word (source)
2nd word (destin.)
Description:
Unlike CALL, there is no option to
update W, STATUS or BSR.
Words:
1
Cycles:
2
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
Read
WREG
Push PC to
stack
No
operation
No
operation
No
operation
No
operation
No
operation
HERE
Before Instruction
PC
=
PCLATH =
PCLATU =
W
=
After Instruction
PC
=
TOS
=
PCLATH =
PCLATU =
W
=
CALLW
Words:
2
Cycles:
2
Q Cycle Activity:
Decode
Decode
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
zzzzs
ffffd
If the resultant source address points to
an indirect addressing register, the
value returned will be 00h.
address (HERE)
10h
00h
06h
001006h
address (HERE + 2)
10h
00h
06h
0zzz
ffff
The contents of the source register are
moved to destination register ‘fd’. The
actual address of the source register is
determined by adding the 7-bit literal
offset ‘zs’, in the first word, to the value
of FSR2. The address of the destination
register is specified by the 12-bit literal
‘fd’ in the second word. Both addresses
can be anywhere in the 4096-byte data
space (000h to FFFh).
Q1
Example:
1011
ffff
The MOVSF instruction cannot use the
PCL, TOSU, TOSH or TOSL as the
destination register.
Q Cycle Activity:
Decode
1110
1111
Q2
Q3
Determine
Determine
source addr source addr
No
operation
No
operation
No dummy
read
Example:
MOVSF
Before Instruction
FSR2
Contents
of 85h
REG2
After Instruction
FSR2
Contents
of 85h
REG2
Q4
Read
source reg
Write
register ‘f’
(dest)
[05h], REG2
=
80h
=
=
33h
11h
=
80h
=
=
33h
33h
DS39762E-page 407
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
MOVSS
Move Indexed to Indexed
PUSHL
Store Literal at FSR2, Decrement FSR2
Syntax:
MOVSS [zs], [zd]
Syntax:
PUSHL k
Operands:
0 ≤ zs ≤ 127
0 ≤ zd ≤ 127
Operands:
0 ≤ k ≤ 255
Operation:
k → (FSR2),
FSR2 – 1 → FSR2
Status Affected:
None
Operation:
((FSR2) + zs) → ((FSR2) + zd)
Status Affected:
None
Encoding:
1st word (source)
2nd word (dest.)
1110
1111
Description
1011
xxxx
1zzz
xzzz
zzzzs
zzzzd
The contents of the source register are
moved to the destination register. The
addresses of the source and destination
registers are determined by adding the
7-bit literal offsets ‘zs’ or ‘zd’,
respectively, to the value of FSR2. Both
registers can be located anywhere in
the 4096-byte data memory space
(000h to FFFh).
The MOVSS instruction cannot use the
PCL, TOSU, TOSH or TOSL as the
destination register.
If the resultant source address points to
an indirect addressing register, the
value returned will be 00h. If the
resultant destination address points to
an indirect addressing register, the
instruction will execute as a NOP.
Words:
2
Cycles:
2
Q Cycle Activity:
Q1
Decode
Decode
Q2
Q3
Determine
Determine
source addr source addr
Determine
dest addr
Example:
1111
Description:
1010
kkkk
kkkk
The 8-bit literal ‘k’ is written to the data
memory address specified by FSR2.
FSR2 is decremented by 1 after the
operation.
This instruction allows users to push
values onto a software stack.
Words:
1
Cycles:
1
Q Cycle Activity:
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
Decode
Read ‘k’
Process
data
Write to
destination
Example:
PUSHL 08h
Before Instruction
FSR2H:FSR2L
Memory (01ECh)
=
=
01ECh
00h
After Instruction
FSR2H:FSR2L
Memory (01ECh)
=
=
01EBh
08h
Q4
Read
source reg
Write
to dest reg
MOVSS [05h], [06h]
Before Instruction
FSR2
Contents
of 85h
Contents
of 86h
After Instruction
FSR2
Contents
of 85h
Contents
of 86h
DS39762E-page 408
Determine
dest addr
Encoding:
=
80h
=
33h
=
11h
=
80h
=
33h
=
33h
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
SUBFSR
Subtract Literal from FSR
SUBULNK
Syntax:
SUBFSR f, k
Syntax:
SUBULNK k
Operands:
0 ≤ k ≤ 63
Operands:
0 ≤ k ≤ 63
f ∈ [ 0, 1, 2 ]
Operation:
Operation:
FSRf – k → FSRf
FSR2 – k → FSR2,
(TOS) → PC
Status Affected:
None
Status Affected:
None
Encoding:
1110
1001
ffkk
kkkk
Description:
The 6-bit literal ‘k’ is subtracted from
the contents of the FSR specified
by ‘f’.
Words:
1
Cycles:
1
Encoding:
1110
Description:
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
Read
register ‘f’
Process
Data
Write to
destination
Example:
Before Instruction
FSR2
=
After Instruction
FSR2
=
SUBFSR 2, 23h
1001
11kk
kkkk
The 6-bit literal ‘k’ is subtracted from the
contents of the FSR2. A RETURN is then
executed by loading the PC with the
TOS.
The instruction takes two cycles to
execute; a NOP is performed during the
second cycle.
Q Cycle Activity:
Decode
Subtract Literal from FSR2 and Return
This may be thought of as a special case
of the SUBFSR instruction, where f = 3
(binary ‘11’); it operates only on FSR2.
Words:
1
Cycles:
2
Q Cycle Activity:
03FFh
03DCh
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
Decode
Read
register ‘f’
Process
Data
Write to
destination
No
Operation
No
Operation
No
Operation
No
Operation
Example:
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
SUBULNK 23h
Before Instruction
FSR2
=
PC
=
03FFh
0100h
After Instruction
FSR2
=
PC
=
03DCh
(TOS)
DS39762E-page 409
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
25.2.3
Note:
BYTE-ORIENTED AND
BIT-ORIENTED INSTRUCTIONS IN
INDEXED LITERAL OFFSET MODE
Enabling the PIC18 instruction set extension may cause legacy applications to
behave erratically or fail entirely.
In addition to eight new commands in the extended set,
enabling the extended instruction set also enables
Indexed Literal Offset Addressing (Section 5.6.1
“Indexed Addressing with Literal Offset”). This has
a significant impact on the way that many commands of
the standard PIC18 instruction set are interpreted.
When the extended set is disabled, addresses embedded in opcodes are treated as literal memory locations:
either as a location in the Access Bank (a = 0) or in a
GPR bank designated by the BSR (a = 1). When the
extended instruction set is enabled and a = 0, however,
a file register argument of 5Fh or less is interpreted as
an offset from the pointer value in FSR2 and not as a
literal address. For practical purposes, this means that
all instructions that use the Access RAM bit as an
argument – that is, all byte-oriented and bit-oriented
instructions, or almost half of the core PIC18 instructions – may behave differently when the extended
instruction set is enabled.
When the content of FSR2 is 00h, the boundaries of the
Access RAM are essentially remapped to their original
values. This may be useful in creating
backward-compatible code. If this technique is used, it
may be necessary to save the value of FSR2 and
restore it when moving back and forth between C and
assembly routines in order to preserve the Stack
Pointer. Users must also keep in mind the syntax
requirements of the extended instruction set (see
Section 25.2.3.1 “Extended Instruction Syntax with
Standard PIC18 Commands”).
Although the Indexed Literal Offset mode can be very
useful for dynamic stack and pointer manipulation, it
can also be very annoying if a simple arithmetic operation is carried out on the wrong register. Users who are
accustomed to the PIC18 programming must keep in
mind that, when the extended instruction set is
enabled, register addresses of 5Fh or less are used for
Indexed Literal Offset Addressing.
Representative examples of typical byte-oriented and
bit-oriented instructions in the Indexed Literal Offset
mode are provided on the following page to show how
execution is affected. The operand conditions shown in
the examples are applicable to all instructions of these
types.
DS39762E-page 410
25.2.3.1
Extended Instruction Syntax with
Standard PIC18 Commands
When the extended instruction set is enabled, the file
register argument ‘f’ in the standard byte-oriented and
bit-oriented commands is replaced with the literal offset
value ‘k’. As already noted, this occurs only when ‘f’ is
less than or equal to 5Fh. When an offset value is used,
it must be indicated by square brackets (“[ ]”). As with
the extended instructions, the use of brackets indicates
to the compiler that the value is to be interpreted as an
index or an offset. Omitting the brackets, or using a
value greater than 5Fh within the brackets, will
generate an error in the MPASM Assembler.
If the index argument is properly bracketed for Indexed
Literal Offset Addressing, the Access RAM argument is
never specified; it will automatically be assumed to be
‘0’. This is in contrast to standard operation (extended
instruction set disabled), when ‘a’ is set on the basis of
the target address. Declaring the Access RAM bit in
this mode will also generate an error in the MPASM
Assembler.
The destination argument ‘d’ functions as before.
In the latest versions of the MPASM Assembler,
language support for the extended instruction set must
be explicitly invoked. This is done with either the
command line option, /y, or the PE directive in the
source listing.
25.2.4
CONSIDERATIONS WHEN
ENABLING THE EXTENDED
INSTRUCTION SET
It is important to note that the extensions to the instruction set may not be beneficial to all users. In particular,
users who are not writing code that uses a software
stack may not benefit from using the extensions to the
instruction set.
Additionally, the Indexed Literal Offset Addressing
mode may create issues with legacy applications
written to the PIC18 assembler. This is because
instructions in the legacy code may attempt to address
registers in the Access Bank below 5Fh. Since these
addresses are interpreted as literal offsets to FSR2
when the instruction set extension is enabled, the
application may read or write to the wrong data
addresses.
When porting an application to the PIC18F97J60 family, it is very important to consider the type of code. A
large, reentrant application that is written in C and
would benefit from efficient compilation will do well
when using the instruction set extensions. Legacy
applications that heavily use the Access Bank will most
likely not benefit from using the extended instruction
set.
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
ADD W to Indexed
(Indexed Literal Offset mode)
BSF
Bit Set Indexed
(Indexed Literal Offset mode)
Syntax:
ADDWF
Syntax:
BSF [k], b
Operands:
0 ≤ k ≤ 95
d ∈ [0,1]
Operands:
0 ≤ f ≤ 95
0≤b≤7
Operation:
(W) + ((FSR2) + k) → dest
Operation:
1 → ((FSR2) + k)<b>
Status Affected:
N, OV, C, DC, Z
Status Affected:
None
ADDWF
Encoding:
[k] {,d}
0010
Description:
01d0
kkkk
kkkk
The contents of W are added to the
contents of the register indicated by
FSR2, offset by the value ‘k’.
If ‘d’ is ‘0’, the result is stored in W. If ‘d’
is ‘1’, the result is stored back in
register ‘f’ (default).
Words:
1
Cycles:
1
Encoding:
1000
bbb0
kkkk
kkkk
Description:
Bit ‘b’ of the register indicated by FSR2,
offset by the value ‘k’, is set.
Words:
1
Cycles:
1
Q Cycle Activity:
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
Decode
Read
register ‘f’
Process
Data
Write to
destination
Q Cycle Activity:
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
Decode
Read ‘k’
Process
Data
Write to
destination
Example:
ADDWF
Before Instruction
W
OFST
FSR2
Contents
of 0A2Ch
After Instruction
W
Contents
of 0A2Ch
[OFST] ,0
=
=
=
17h
2Ch
0A00h
=
20h
=
37h
=
20h
Example:
BSF
Before Instruction
FLAG_OFST
FSR2
Contents
of 0A0Ah
After Instruction
Contents
of 0A0Ah
[FLAG_OFST], 7
=
=
0Ah
0A00h
=
55h
=
D5h
SETF
Set Indexed
(Indexed Literal Offset mode)
Syntax:
SETF [k]
Operands:
0 ≤ k ≤ 95
Operation:
FFh → ((FSR2) + k)
Status Affected:
None
Encoding:
0110
1000
kkkk
kkkk
Description:
The contents of the register indicated by
FSR2, offset by ‘k’, are set to FFh.
Words:
1
Cycles:
1
Q Cycle Activity:
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
Decode
Read ‘k’
Process
Data
Write
register
Example:
SETF
Before Instruction
OFST
FSR2
Contents
of 0A2Ch
After Instruction
Contents
of 0A2Ch
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
[OFST]
=
=
2Ch
0A00h
=
00h
=
FFh
DS39762E-page 411
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
25.2.5
SPECIAL CONSIDERATIONS WITH
MICROCHIP MPLAB® IDE TOOLS
The latest versions of Microchip’s software tools have
been designed to fully support the extended instruction
set for the PIC18F97J60 family. This includes the
MPLAB C18 C Compiler, MPASM assembly language
and MPLAB Integrated Development Environment
(IDE).
When selecting a target device for software
development, MPLAB IDE will automatically set default
Configuration bits for that device. The default setting for
the XINST Configuration bit is ‘0’, disabling the
extended instruction set and Indexed Literal Offset
Addressing. For proper execution of applications
developed to take advantage of the extended
instruction set, XINST must be set during
programming.
DS39762E-page 412
To develop software for the extended instruction set,
the user must enable support for the instructions and
the Indexed Addressing mode in their language tool(s).
Depending on the environment being used, this may be
done in several ways:
• A menu option or dialog box within the
environment that allows the user to configure the
language tool and its settings for the project
• A command line option
• A directive in the source code
These options vary between different compilers,
assemblers and development environments. Users are
encouraged to review the documentation accompanying their development systems for the appropriate
information.
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
26.0
DEVELOPMENT SUPPORT
The PIC® microcontrollers and dsPIC® digital signal
controllers are supported with a full range of software
and hardware development tools:
• Integrated Development Environment
- MPLAB® IDE Software
• Compilers/Assemblers/Linkers
- MPLAB C Compiler for Various Device
Families
- HI-TECH C for Various Device Families
- MPASMTM Assembler
- MPLINKTM Object Linker/
MPLIBTM Object Librarian
- MPLAB Assembler/Linker/Librarian for
Various Device Families
• Simulators
- MPLAB SIM Software Simulator
• Emulators
- MPLAB REAL ICE™ In-Circuit Emulator
• In-Circuit Debuggers
- MPLAB ICD 3
- PICkit™ 3 Debug Express
• Device Programmers
- PICkit™ 2 Programmer
- MPLAB PM3 Device Programmer
• Low-Cost Demonstration/Development Boards,
Evaluation Kits, and Starter Kits
26.1
MPLAB Integrated Development
Environment Software
The MPLAB IDE software brings an ease of software
development previously unseen in the 8/16/32-bit
microcontroller market. The MPLAB IDE is a Windows®
operating system-based application that contains:
• A single graphical interface to all debugging tools
- Simulator
- Programmer (sold separately)
- In-Circuit Emulator (sold separately)
- In-Circuit Debugger (sold separately)
• A full-featured editor with color-coded context
• A multiple project manager
• Customizable data windows with direct edit of
contents
• High-level source code debugging
• Mouse over variable inspection
• Drag and drop variables from source to watch
windows
• Extensive on-line help
• Integration of select third party tools, such as
IAR C Compilers
The MPLAB IDE allows you to:
• Edit your source files (either C or assembly)
• One-touch compile or assemble, and download to
emulator and simulator tools (automatically
updates all project information)
• Debug using:
- Source files (C or assembly)
- Mixed C and assembly
- Machine code
MPLAB IDE supports multiple debugging tools in a
single development paradigm, from the cost-effective
simulators, through low-cost in-circuit debuggers, to
full-featured emulators. This eliminates the learning
curve when upgrading to tools with increased flexibility
and power.
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS39762E-page 413
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
26.2
MPLAB C Compilers for Various
Device Families
The MPLAB C Compiler code development systems
are complete ANSI C compilers for Microchip’s PIC18,
PIC24 and PIC32 families of microcontrollers and the
dsPIC30 and dsPIC33 families of digital signal controllers. These compilers provide powerful integration
capabilities, superior code optimization and ease of
use.
For easy source level debugging, the compilers provide
symbol information that is optimized to the MPLAB IDE
debugger.
26.3
HI-TECH C for Various Device
Families
The HI-TECH C Compiler code development systems
are complete ANSI C compilers for Microchip’s PIC
family of microcontrollers and the dsPIC family of digital
signal controllers. These compilers provide powerful
integration capabilities, omniscient code generation
and ease of use.
For easy source level debugging, the compilers provide
symbol information that is optimized to the MPLAB IDE
debugger.
The compilers include a macro assembler, linker, preprocessor, and one-step driver, and can run on multiple
platforms.
26.4
MPASM Assembler
The MPASM Assembler is a full-featured, universal
macro assembler for PIC10/12/16/18 MCUs.
The MPASM Assembler generates relocatable object
files for the MPLINK Object Linker, Intel® standard HEX
files, MAP files to detail memory usage and symbol
reference, absolute LST files that contain source lines
and generated machine code and COFF files for
debugging.
The MPASM Assembler features include:
26.5
MPLINK Object Linker/
MPLIB Object Librarian
The MPLINK Object Linker combines relocatable
objects created by the MPASM Assembler and the
MPLAB C18 C Compiler. It can link relocatable objects
from precompiled libraries, using directives from a
linker script.
The MPLIB Object Librarian manages the creation and
modification of library files of precompiled code. When
a routine from a library is called from a source file, only
the modules that contain that routine will be linked in
with the application. This allows large libraries to be
used efficiently in many different applications.
The object linker/library features include:
• Efficient linking of single libraries instead of many
smaller files
• Enhanced code maintainability by grouping
related modules together
• Flexible creation of libraries with easy module
listing, replacement, deletion and extraction
26.6
MPLAB Assembler, Linker and
Librarian for Various Device
Families
MPLAB Assembler produces relocatable machine
code from symbolic assembly language for PIC24,
PIC32 and dsPIC devices. MPLAB C Compiler uses
the assembler to produce its object file. The assembler
generates relocatable object files that can then be
archived or linked with other relocatable object files and
archives to create an executable file. Notable features
of the assembler include:
•
•
•
•
•
•
Support for the entire device instruction set
Support for fixed-point and floating-point data
Command line interface
Rich directive set
Flexible macro language
MPLAB IDE compatibility
• Integration into MPLAB IDE projects
• User-defined macros to streamline
assembly code
• Conditional assembly for multi-purpose
source files
• Directives that allow complete control over the
assembly process
DS39762E-page 414
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
26.7
MPLAB SIM Software Simulator
The MPLAB SIM Software Simulator allows code
development in a PC-hosted environment by simulating the PIC MCUs and dsPIC® DSCs on an instruction
level. On any given instruction, the data areas can be
examined or modified and stimuli can be applied from
a comprehensive stimulus controller. Registers can be
logged to files for further run-time analysis. The trace
buffer and logic analyzer display extend the power of
the simulator to record and track program execution,
actions on I/O, most peripherals and internal registers.
The MPLAB SIM Software Simulator fully supports
symbolic debugging using the MPLAB C Compilers,
and the MPASM and MPLAB Assemblers. The software simulator offers the flexibility to develop and
debug code outside of the hardware laboratory environment, making it an excellent, economical software
development tool.
26.8
MPLAB REAL ICE In-Circuit
Emulator System
MPLAB REAL ICE In-Circuit Emulator System is
Microchip’s next generation high-speed emulator for
Microchip Flash DSC and MCU devices. It debugs and
programs PIC® Flash MCUs and dsPIC® Flash DSCs
with the easy-to-use, powerful graphical user interface of
the MPLAB Integrated Development Environment (IDE),
included with each kit.
The emulator is connected to the design engineer’s PC
using a high-speed USB 2.0 interface and is connected
to the target with either a connector compatible with incircuit debugger systems (RJ11) or with the new highspeed, noise tolerant, Low-Voltage Differential Signal
(LVDS) interconnection (CAT5).
The emulator is field upgradable through future firmware
downloads in MPLAB IDE. In upcoming releases of
MPLAB IDE, new devices will be supported, and new
features will be added. MPLAB REAL ICE offers significant advantages over competitive emulators including
low-cost, full-speed emulation, run-time variable
watches, trace analysis, complex breakpoints, a ruggedized probe interface and long (up to three meters) interconnection cables.
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
26.9
MPLAB ICD 3 In-Circuit Debugger
System
MPLAB ICD 3 In-Circuit Debugger System is Microchip's most cost effective high-speed hardware
debugger/programmer for Microchip Flash Digital Signal Controller (DSC) and microcontroller (MCU)
devices. It debugs and programs PIC® Flash microcontrollers and dsPIC® DSCs with the powerful, yet easyto-use graphical user interface of MPLAB Integrated
Development Environment (IDE).
The MPLAB ICD 3 In-Circuit Debugger probe is connected to the design engineer's PC using a high-speed
USB 2.0 interface and is connected to the target with a
connector compatible with the MPLAB ICD 2 or MPLAB
REAL ICE systems (RJ-11). MPLAB ICD 3 supports all
MPLAB ICD 2 headers.
26.10 PICkit 3 In-Circuit Debugger/
Programmer and
PICkit 3 Debug Express
The MPLAB PICkit 3 allows debugging and programming of PIC® and dsPIC® Flash microcontrollers at a
most affordable price point using the powerful graphical
user interface of the MPLAB Integrated Development
Environment (IDE). The MPLAB PICkit 3 is connected
to the design engineer's PC using a full speed USB
interface and can be connected to the target via an
Microchip debug (RJ-11) connector (compatible with
MPLAB ICD 3 and MPLAB REAL ICE). The connector
uses two device I/O pins and the reset line to implement in-circuit debugging and In-Circuit Serial Programming™.
The PICkit 3 Debug Express include the PICkit 3, demo
board and microcontroller, hookup cables and CDROM
with user’s guide, lessons, tutorial, compiler and
MPLAB IDE software.
DS39762E-page 415
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
26.11 PICkit 2 Development
Programmer/Debugger and
PICkit 2 Debug Express
26.13 Demonstration/Development
Boards, Evaluation Kits, and
Starter Kits
The PICkit™ 2 Development Programmer/Debugger is
a low-cost development tool with an easy to use interface for programming and debugging Microchip’s Flash
families of microcontrollers. The full featured
Windows® programming interface supports baseline
(PIC10F,
PIC12F5xx,
PIC16F5xx),
midrange
(PIC12F6xx, PIC16F), PIC18F, PIC24, dsPIC30,
dsPIC33, and PIC32 families of 8-bit, 16-bit, and 32-bit
microcontrollers, and many Microchip Serial EEPROM
products. With Microchip’s powerful MPLAB Integrated
Development Environment (IDE) the PICkit™ 2
enables in-circuit debugging on most PIC® microcontrollers. In-Circuit-Debugging runs, halts and single
steps the program while the PIC microcontroller is
embedded in the application. When halted at a breakpoint, the file registers can be examined and modified.
A wide variety of demonstration, development and
evaluation boards for various PIC MCUs and dsPIC
DSCs allows quick application development on fully functional systems. Most boards include prototyping areas for
adding custom circuitry and provide application firmware
and source code for examination and modification.
The PICkit 2 Debug Express include the PICkit 2, demo
board and microcontroller, hookup cables and CDROM
with user’s guide, lessons, tutorial, compiler and
MPLAB IDE software.
26.12 MPLAB PM3 Device Programmer
The MPLAB PM3 Device Programmer is a universal,
CE compliant device programmer with programmable
voltage verification at VDDMIN and VDDMAX for
maximum reliability. It features a large LCD display
(128 x 64) for menus and error messages and a modular, detachable socket assembly to support various
package types. The ICSP™ cable assembly is included
as a standard item. In Stand-Alone mode, the MPLAB
PM3 Device Programmer can read, verify and program
PIC devices without a PC connection. It can also set
code protection in this mode. The MPLAB PM3
connects to the host PC via an RS-232 or USB cable.
The MPLAB PM3 has high-speed communications and
optimized algorithms for quick programming of large
memory devices and incorporates an MMC card for file
storage and data applications.
DS39762E-page 416
The boards support a variety of features, including LEDs,
temperature sensors, switches, speakers, RS-232
interfaces, LCD displays, potentiometers and additional
EEPROM memory.
The demonstration and development boards can be
used in teaching environments, for prototyping custom
circuits and for learning about various microcontroller
applications.
In addition to the PICDEM™ and dsPICDEM™ demonstration/development board series of circuits, Microchip
has a line of evaluation kits and demonstration software
for analog filter design, KEELOQ® security ICs, CAN,
IrDA®, PowerSmart battery management, SEEVAL®
evaluation system, Sigma-Delta ADC, flow rate
sensing, plus many more.
Also available are starter kits that contain everything
needed to experience the specified device. This usually
includes a single application and debug capability, all
on one board.
Check the Microchip web page (www.microchip.com)
for the complete list of demonstration, development
and evaluation kits.
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
27.0
ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS
Absolute Maximum Ratings(†)
Ambient temperature under bias.............................................................................................................-40°C to +100°C
Storage temperature .............................................................................................................................. -65°C to +150°C
Voltage on any digital only input pin or MCLR with respect to VSS (except VDD) ........................................ -0.3V to 6.0V
Voltage on any combined digital and analog pin with respect to VSS ............................................. -0.3V to (VDD + 0.3V)
Voltage on VDDCORE with respect to VSS ................................................................................................... -0.3V to 2.75V
Voltage on VDD with respect to VSS ........................................................................................................... -0.3V to 4.0V
Total power dissipation (Note 1) ...............................................................................................................................1.0W
Maximum current out of VSS pin ...........................................................................................................................300 mA
Maximum current into VDD pin ..............................................................................................................................250 mA
Input clamp current, IIK (VI < 0 or VI > VDD) (Note 2)........................................................................................................ ±0 mA
Output clamp current, IOK (VO < 0 or VO > VDD) (Note 2) ................................................................................................ ±0 mA
Maximum output current sunk by any PORTB and PORTC I/O pins......................................................................25 mA
Maximum output current sunk by any PORTD, PORTE and PORTJ I/O pins ..........................................................8 mA
Maximum output current sunk by any PORTA, PORTF, PORTG and PORTH I/O pins (Note 3) .............................2 mA
Maximum output current sourced by any PORTB and PORTC I/O pins.................................................................25 mA
Maximum output current sourced by any PORTD, PORTE and PORTJ I/O pins .....................................................8 mA
Maximum output current sourced by any PORTA, PORTF, PORTG and PORTH I/O pins (Note 3) ........................2 mA
Maximum current sunk by all ports combined.......................................................................................................200 mA
Maximum current sourced by all ports combined..................................................................................................200 mA
Note 1: Power dissipation is calculated as follows:
Pdis = VDD x {IDD – ∑ IOH} + ∑ {(VDD – VOH) x IOH} + ∑ (VOL x IOL) + ∑ (VTPOUT x ITPOUT)
2: No clamping diodes are present.
3: Exceptions are RA<1> and RA<0>, which are capable of directly driving LEDs up to 25 mA.
† NOTICE: Stresses above those listed under “Absolute Maximum Ratings” may cause permanent damage to the
device. This is a stress rating only and functional operation of the device at those or any other conditions above those
indicated in the operation listings of this specification is not implied. Exposure to maximum rating conditions for
extended periods may affect device reliability.
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS39762E-page 417
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
FIGURE 27-1:
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY VOLTAGE-FREQUENCY GRAPH, REGULATOR ENABLED
(ENVREG TIED TO VDD)
4.0V
3.6V
3.5V
Voltage (VDD)(1)
PIC18F6XJ6X/8XJ6X/9XJ6X
3.0V
2.7V
2.5V
2.0V
0
Note 1:
Frequency
41.6667 MHz
When the on-chip regulator is enabled, its BOR circuit will automatically trigger a device Reset
before VDD reaches a level at which full-speed operation is not possible.
FIGURE 27-2:
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY VOLTAGE-FREQUENCY GRAPH, REGULATOR DISABLED
(ENVREG TIED TO VSS)
3.00V
Voltage (VDDCORE)(1)
2.75V
2.7V
2.50V
PIC18F6XJ6X/8XJ6X/9XJ6X
2.35V
2.25V
2.00V
4 MHz
Frequency
41.6667 MHz
For frequencies between 4 MHz and 41.6667 MHz, FMAX = (107.619 MHz/V) * (VDDCORE – 2V) + 4 MHz
Note 1:
When the on-chip voltage regulator is disabled, VDD and VDDCORE must be maintained so that
VDDCORE ≤ VDD ≤ 3.6V.
DS39762E-page 418
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
27.1
DC Characteristics:
Supply Voltage, PIC18F97J60 Family (Industrial)
PIC18F97J60 Family
(Industrial)
Param
No.
Symbol
Standard Operating Conditions (unless otherwise stated)
Operating temperature
-40°C ≤ TA ≤ +85°C for industrial
Characteristic
Supply Voltage
D001
VDD
D001B
VDDCORE External Supply for
Microcontroller Core
Min
Typ
Max
Units
VDDCORE
2.7
3.1
—
—
—
3.6
3.6
3.6
V
V
V
2.0
—
2.7
V
D001C
AVDD
Analog Supply Voltage
VDD – 0.3
—
VDD + 0.3
V
D002
VDR
RAM Data Retention
Voltage(1)
1.5
—
—
V
D003
VPOR
VDD Power-on Reset
Voltage
—
—
0.7
V
D004
SVDD
VDD Rise Rate
to Ensure Internal
Power-on Reset
0.05
—
—
Note 1:
Conditions
ENVREG tied to VSS
ENVREG tied to VDD
Ethernet module enabled
(ECON2<5> = 1)
See Section 4.3 “Power-on
Reset (POR)” for details
V/ms See Section 4.3 “Power-on
Reset (POR)” for details
This is the limit to which VDD can be lowered in Sleep mode, or during a device Reset, without losing RAM
data.
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS39762E-page 419
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
27.2
DC Characteristics:
PIC18F97J60 Family
(Industrial)
Param
No.
Power-Down and Supply Current
PIC18F97J60 Family (Industrial)
Standard Operating Conditions (unless otherwise stated)
Operating temperature
-40°C ≤ TA ≤ +85°C for industrial
Device
Typ
Max
Units
Conditions
19.0
69.0
μA
-40°C
21.0
69.0
μA
+25°C
45.0
149.0
μA
+85°C
26.0
104.0
μA
-40°C
29.0
104.0
μA
+25°C
60.0
184.0
μA
+85°C
40.0
203.0
μA
-40°C
44.0
203.0
μA
+25°C
105.0
209.0
μA
+85°C
Power-Down Current (IPD)(1)
All devices
All devices
All devices
Note 1:
2:
3:
4:
5:
6:
VDD = 2.0V,
VDDCORE = 2.0V(4)
(Sleep mode)
VDD = 2.5V,
VDDCORE = 2.5V(4)
(Sleep mode)
VDD = 3.3V(5)
(Sleep mode)
The power-down current in Sleep mode does not depend on the oscillator type. Power-down current is measured with
the part in Sleep mode, with all I/O pins in high-impedance state and tied to VDD or VSS and all features that add delta
current disabled (such as WDT, Timer1 oscillator, etc.).
The supply current is mainly a function of operating voltage, frequency and mode. Other factors, such as I/O pin loading
and switching rate, oscillator type and circuit, internal code execution pattern and temperature, also have an impact on
the current consumption.
The test conditions for all IDD measurements in active operation mode are:
OSC1 = external square wave, from rail-to-rail; all I/O pins tri-stated, pulled to VDD;
MCLR = VDD; WDT enabled/disabled as specified.
Standard, low-cost 32 kHz crystals have an operating temperature range of -10°C to +70°C. Extended temperature
crystals are available at a much higher cost.
Voltage regulator disabled (ENVREG = 0, tied to VSS).
Voltage regulator enabled (ENVREG = 1, tied to VDD).
For ΔIETH, the specified current includes current sunk through TPOUT+ and TPOUT-. LEDA and LEDB are disabled for
all testing.
DS39762E-page 420
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
27.2
DC Characteristics:
PIC18F97J60 Family
(Industrial)
Param
No.
Power-Down and Supply Current
PIC18F97J60 Family (Industrial) (Continued)
Standard Operating Conditions (unless otherwise stated)
Operating temperature
-40°C ≤ TA ≤ +85°C for industrial
Device
Typ
Max
Units
Conditions
12.0
34.0
μA
-40°C
12.0
34.0
μA
+25°C
74.0
108.0
μA
+85°C
20.0
45.0
μA
-40°C
20.0
45.0
μA
+25°C
+85°C
Supply Current (IDD)(2,3)
All devices
All devices
82.0
126.0
μA
All devices 105.0
168.0
μA
-40°C
105.0
168.0
μA
+25°C
182.0
246.0
μA
+85°C
All devices
All devices
All devices
Note 1:
2:
3:
4:
5:
6:
8.0
32.0
μA
-40°C
8.0
32.0
μA
+25°C
62.0
98.0
μA
+85°C
12.0
35.0
μA
-40°C
12.0
35.0
μA
+25°C
70.0
95.0
μA
+85°C
90.0
152.0
μA
-40°C
90.0
152.0
μA
+25°C
170.0
225.0
μA
+85°C
VDD = 2.0V,
VDDCORE = 2.0V(4)
VDD = 2.5V,
VDDCORE = 2.5V(4)
FOSC = 31 kHz
(RC_RUN mode,
Internal Oscillator Source)
VDD = 3.3V(5)
VDD = 2.0V,
VDDCORE = 2.0V(4)
VDD = 2.5V,
VDDCORE = 2.5V(4)
FOSC = 31 kHz
(RC_IDLE mode,
Internal Oscillator Source)
VDD = 3.3V(5)
The power-down current in Sleep mode does not depend on the oscillator type. Power-down current is measured with
the part in Sleep mode, with all I/O pins in high-impedance state and tied to VDD or VSS and all features that add delta
current disabled (such as WDT, Timer1 oscillator, etc.).
The supply current is mainly a function of operating voltage, frequency and mode. Other factors, such as I/O pin loading
and switching rate, oscillator type and circuit, internal code execution pattern and temperature, also have an impact on
the current consumption.
The test conditions for all IDD measurements in active operation mode are:
OSC1 = external square wave, from rail-to-rail; all I/O pins tri-stated, pulled to VDD;
MCLR = VDD; WDT enabled/disabled as specified.
Standard, low-cost 32 kHz crystals have an operating temperature range of -10°C to +70°C. Extended temperature
crystals are available at a much higher cost.
Voltage regulator disabled (ENVREG = 0, tied to VSS).
Voltage regulator enabled (ENVREG = 1, tied to VDD).
For ΔIETH, the specified current includes current sunk through TPOUT+ and TPOUT-. LEDA and LEDB are disabled for
all testing.
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS39762E-page 421
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
27.2
DC Characteristics:
PIC18F97J60 Family
(Industrial)
Param
No.
Power-Down and Supply Current
PIC18F97J60 Family (Industrial) (Continued)
Standard Operating Conditions (unless otherwise stated)
Operating temperature
-40°C ≤ TA ≤ +85°C for industrial
Device
Typ
Max
Units
Conditions
0.8
1.5
mA
-40°C
0.8
1.5
mA
+25°C
0.9
1.7
mA
+85°C
1.1
1.8
mA
-40°C
1.1
1.8
mA
+25°C
1.2
2.0
mA
+85°C
2.1
3.4
mA
-40°C
2.0
3.4
mA
+25°C
2.1
3.4
mA
+85°C
Supply Current (IDD)(2)
All devices
All devices
All devices
All devices
All devices
All devices
All devices
Note 1:
2:
3:
4:
5:
6:
9.2
14.5
mA
-40°C
9.0
14.5
mA
+25°C
9.2
14.5
mA
+85°C
13.0
18.4
mA
-40°C
12.4
18.4
mA
+25°C
13.0
18.4
mA
+85°C
13.4
19.8
mA
-40°C
13.0
19.8
mA
+25°C
13.4
19.8
mA
+85°C
14.5
21.6
mA
-40°C
14.4
21.6
mA
+25°C
14.5
21.6
mA
+85°C
VDD = 2.0V,
VDDCORE = 2.0V(4)
VDD = 2.5V,
VDDCORE = 2.5V(4)
FOSC = 1 MHZ
(PRI_RUN mode,
EC oscillator)
VDD = 3.3V(5)
VDD = 2.5V,
VDDCORE = 2.5V(4)
VDD = 3.3V(5)
VDD = 2.5V,
VDDCORE = 2.5V(4)
VDD = 3.3V(5)
FOSC = 25 MHz
(PRI_RUN mode,
EC oscillator)
FOSC = 41.6667 MHZ
(PRI_RUN mode,
EC oscillator)
The power-down current in Sleep mode does not depend on the oscillator type. Power-down current is measured with
the part in Sleep mode, with all I/O pins in high-impedance state and tied to VDD or VSS and all features that add delta
current disabled (such as WDT, Timer1 oscillator, etc.).
The supply current is mainly a function of operating voltage, frequency and mode. Other factors, such as I/O pin loading
and switching rate, oscillator type and circuit, internal code execution pattern and temperature, also have an impact on
the current consumption.
The test conditions for all IDD measurements in active operation mode are:
OSC1 = external square wave, from rail-to-rail; all I/O pins tri-stated, pulled to VDD;
MCLR = VDD; WDT enabled/disabled as specified.
Standard, low-cost 32 kHz crystals have an operating temperature range of -10°C to +70°C. Extended temperature
crystals are available at a much higher cost.
Voltage regulator disabled (ENVREG = 0, tied to VSS).
Voltage regulator enabled (ENVREG = 1, tied to VDD).
For ΔIETH, the specified current includes current sunk through TPOUT+ and TPOUT-. LEDA and LEDB are disabled for
all testing.
DS39762E-page 422
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
27.2
DC Characteristics:
PIC18F97J60 Family
(Industrial)
Param
No.
Power-Down and Supply Current
PIC18F97J60 Family (Industrial) (Continued)
Standard Operating Conditions (unless otherwise stated)
Operating temperature
-40°C ≤ TA ≤ +85°C for industrial
Device
Typ
Max
Units
Conditions
2.8
5.2
mA
-40°C
2.5
5.2
mA
+25°C
2.8
5.2
mA
+85°C
Supply Current (IDD)(2)
All devices
All devices
All devices
All devices
All devices
All devices
All devices
All devices
Note 1:
2:
3:
4:
5:
6:
3.6
6.4
mA
-40°C
3.3
6.4
mA
+25°C
3.6
6.4
mA
+85°C
6.4
11.0
mA
-40°C
6.0
11.0
mA
+25°C
6.4
11.0
mA
+85°C
7.8
12.5
mA
-40°C
7.4
12.5
mA
+25°C
7.8
12.5
mA
+85°C
9.2
14.5
mA
-40°C
9.0
14.5
mA
+25°C
9.2
14.5
mA
+85°C
13.0
18.4
mA
-40°C
12.4
18.4
mA
+25°C
13.0
18.4
mA
+85°C
13.4
19.8
mA
-40°C
13.0
19.8
mA
+25°C
13.4
19.8
mA
+85°C
14.5
21.6
mA
-40°C
14.4
21.6
mA
+25°C
14.5
21.6
mA
+85°C
VDD = 2.5V,
VDDCORE = 2.5V(4)
VDD = 3.3V(5)
VDD = 2.5V,
VDDCORE = 2.5V(4)
VDD = 3.3V(5)
VDD = 2.5V,
VDDCORE = 2.5V(4)
VDD = 3.3V(5)
VDD = 2.5V,
VDDCORE = 2.5V(4)
VDD = 3.3V(5)
FOSC = 25 MHZ,
2.7778 MHz internal
(PRI_RUN HS mode)
FOSC = 25 MHZ,
13.8889 MHz internal
(PRI_RUN HSPLL mode)
FOSC = 25 MHZ,
25 MHz internal
(PRI_RUN HS mode)
FOSC = 25 MHZ,
41.6667 MHz internal
(PRI_RUN HSPLL mode)
The power-down current in Sleep mode does not depend on the oscillator type. Power-down current is measured with
the part in Sleep mode, with all I/O pins in high-impedance state and tied to VDD or VSS and all features that add delta
current disabled (such as WDT, Timer1 oscillator, etc.).
The supply current is mainly a function of operating voltage, frequency and mode. Other factors, such as I/O pin loading
and switching rate, oscillator type and circuit, internal code execution pattern and temperature, also have an impact on
the current consumption.
The test conditions for all IDD measurements in active operation mode are:
OSC1 = external square wave, from rail-to-rail; all I/O pins tri-stated, pulled to VDD;
MCLR = VDD; WDT enabled/disabled as specified.
Standard, low-cost 32 kHz crystals have an operating temperature range of -10°C to +70°C. Extended temperature
crystals are available at a much higher cost.
Voltage regulator disabled (ENVREG = 0, tied to VSS).
Voltage regulator enabled (ENVREG = 1, tied to VDD).
For ΔIETH, the specified current includes current sunk through TPOUT+ and TPOUT-. LEDA and LEDB are disabled for
all testing.
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS39762E-page 423
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
27.2
DC Characteristics:
PIC18F97J60 Family
(Industrial)
Param
No.
Power-Down and Supply Current
PIC18F97J60 Family (Industrial) (Continued)
Standard Operating Conditions (unless otherwise stated)
Operating temperature
-40°C ≤ TA ≤ +85°C for industrial
Device
Typ
Max
Units
Conditions
0.5
1.1
mA
-40°C
0.5
1.1
mA
+25°C
0.6
1.2
mA
+85°C
0.9
1.4
mA
-40°C
0.9
1.4
mA
+25°C
1.0
1.5
mA
+85°C
1.9
2.6
mA
-40°C
1.8
2.6
mA
+25°C
1.9
2.6
mA
+85°C
Supply Current (IDD)(2)
All devices
All devices
All devices
All devices
All devices
All devices
All devices
Note 1:
2:
3:
4:
5:
6:
5.9
9.5
mA
-40°C
5.6
9.5
mA
+25°C
5.9
9.5
mA
+85°C
7.5
13.2
mA
-40°C
7.2
13.2
mA
+25°C
7.5
13.2
mA
+85°C
8.6
14.0
mA
-40°C
8.0
14.0
mA
+25°C
8.6
14.0
mA
+85°C
9.8
16.0
mA
-40°C
9.4
16.0
mA
+25°C
9.8
16.0
mA
+85°C
VDD = 2.0V,
VDDCORE = 2.0V(4)
VDD = 2.5V,
VDDCORE = 2.5V(4)
FOSC = 1 MHz
(PRI_IDLE mode,
EC oscillator)
VDD = 3.3V(5)
VDD = 2.5V,
VDDCORE = 2.5V(4)
VDD = 3.3V(5)
VDD = 2.5V,
VDDCORE = 2.5V(4)
VDD = 3.3V(5)
FOSC = 25 MHZ
(PRI_IDLE mode,
EC oscillator)
FOSC = 41.6667 MHz
(PRI_IDLE mode,
EC oscillator)
The power-down current in Sleep mode does not depend on the oscillator type. Power-down current is measured with
the part in Sleep mode, with all I/O pins in high-impedance state and tied to VDD or VSS and all features that add delta
current disabled (such as WDT, Timer1 oscillator, etc.).
The supply current is mainly a function of operating voltage, frequency and mode. Other factors, such as I/O pin loading
and switching rate, oscillator type and circuit, internal code execution pattern and temperature, also have an impact on
the current consumption.
The test conditions for all IDD measurements in active operation mode are:
OSC1 = external square wave, from rail-to-rail; all I/O pins tri-stated, pulled to VDD;
MCLR = VDD; WDT enabled/disabled as specified.
Standard, low-cost 32 kHz crystals have an operating temperature range of -10°C to +70°C. Extended temperature
crystals are available at a much higher cost.
Voltage regulator disabled (ENVREG = 0, tied to VSS).
Voltage regulator enabled (ENVREG = 1, tied to VDD).
For ΔIETH, the specified current includes current sunk through TPOUT+ and TPOUT-. LEDA and LEDB are disabled for
all testing.
DS39762E-page 424
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
27.2
DC Characteristics:
PIC18F97J60 Family
(Industrial)
Param
No.
Power-Down and Supply Current
PIC18F97J60 Family (Industrial) (Continued)
Standard Operating Conditions (unless otherwise stated)
Operating temperature
-40°C ≤ TA ≤ +85°C for industrial
Device
Typ
Max
Units
Conditions
22.0
45.0
μA
-10°C
22.0
45.0
μA
+25°C
78.0
114.0
μA
+70°C
27.0
52.0
μA
-10°C
27.0
52.0
μA
+25°C
+70°C
Supply Current (IDD)(2)
All devices
All devices
92.0
135.0
μA
All devices 106.0
168.0
μA
-10°C
106.0
168.0
μA
+25°C
188.0
246.0
μA
+70°C
All devices
All devices
All devices
Note 1:
2:
3:
4:
5:
6:
18.0
37.0
μA
-10°C
18.0
37.0
μA
+25°C
75.0
105.0
μA
+70°C
21.0
40.0
μA
-10°C
21.0
40.0
μA
+25°C
84.0
98.0
μA
+70°C
94.0
152.0
μA
-10°C
94.0
152.0
μA
+25°C
182.0
225.0
μA
+70°C
VDD = 2.0V,
VDDCORE = 2.0V(4)
VDD = 2.5V,
VDDCORE = 2.5V(4)
FOSC = 32 kHz(3)
(SEC_RUN mode,
Timer1 as clock)
VDD = 3.3V(5)
VDD = 2.0V,
VDDCORE = 2.0V(4)
VDD = 2.5V,
VDDCORE = 2.5V(4)
FOSC = 32 kHz(3)
(SEC_IDLE mode,
Timer1 as clock)
VDD = 3.3V(5)
The power-down current in Sleep mode does not depend on the oscillator type. Power-down current is measured with
the part in Sleep mode, with all I/O pins in high-impedance state and tied to VDD or VSS and all features that add delta
current disabled (such as WDT, Timer1 oscillator, etc.).
The supply current is mainly a function of operating voltage, frequency and mode. Other factors, such as I/O pin loading
and switching rate, oscillator type and circuit, internal code execution pattern and temperature, also have an impact on
the current consumption.
The test conditions for all IDD measurements in active operation mode are:
OSC1 = external square wave, from rail-to-rail; all I/O pins tri-stated, pulled to VDD;
MCLR = VDD; WDT enabled/disabled as specified.
Standard, low-cost 32 kHz crystals have an operating temperature range of -10°C to +70°C. Extended temperature
crystals are available at a much higher cost.
Voltage regulator disabled (ENVREG = 0, tied to VSS).
Voltage regulator enabled (ENVREG = 1, tied to VDD).
For ΔIETH, the specified current includes current sunk through TPOUT+ and TPOUT-. LEDA and LEDB are disabled for
all testing.
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS39762E-page 425
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
27.2
DC Characteristics:
PIC18F97J60 Family
(Industrial)
Param
No.
D022
(ΔIWDT)
Standard Operating Conditions (unless otherwise stated)
Operating temperature
-40°C ≤ TA ≤ +85°C for industrial
Device
D027
ΔIETH(6)
4:
5:
6:
Units
Conditions
VDD = 2.0V,
VDDCORE = 2.0V(4)
7.0
19.0
8.0
μA
μA
μA
+25°C
+85°C
-40°C
3.0
14.0
5.0
5.0
19.0
12.0
8.0
22.0
12.0
12.0
30.0
20.0
μA
μA
μA
μA
μA
μA
+25°C
+85°C
-40°C
+25°C
+85°C
-40°C
12.0
24.0
13.0
20.0
36.0
21.0
μA
μA
μA
+25°C
+85°C
-40°C
13.0
26.0
14.0
14.0
29.0
21.0
38.0
25.0
25.0
40.0
μA
μA
μA
μA
μA
+25°C
+85°C
-40°C
+25°C
+85°C
1.2
10.0
μA
-40°C to +85°C
VDD = 2.0V,
VDDCORE = 2.0V(4)
1.2
10.0
μA
-40°C to +85°C
VDD = 2.5V,
VDDCORE = 2.5V(4)
1.2
Ethernet Module 130.0
11.0
156.0
μA
mA
-40°C to +85°C
-40°C to +85°C
180.0
214.0
mA
-40°C to +85°C
A/D Converter
3:
Max
2.4
12.0
3.0
Timer1 Oscillator
D026
(ΔIAD)
2:
Typ
Module Differential Currents (ΔIWDT, ΔIOSCB, ΔIAD, ΔIETH)
Watchdog Timer 2.4
7.0
μA
-40°C
D025
(ΔIOSCB)
Note 1:
Power-Down and Supply Current
PIC18F97J60 Family (Industrial) (Continued)
VDD = 2.5V,
VDDCORE = 2.5V(4)
VDD = 3.3V(5)
VDD = 2.0V,
VDDCORE = 2.0V(4)
32 kHz on Timer1(3)
VDD = 2.5V,
VDDCORE = 2.5V(4)
32 kHz on Timer1(3)
VDD = 3.3V(5)
32 kHz on Timer1(3)
A/D on, not converting
VDD = 3.3V(5)
VDD = 3.3V(5)
No transmit activity
Transmission in progress
The power-down current in Sleep mode does not depend on the oscillator type. Power-down current is measured with
the part in Sleep mode, with all I/O pins in high-impedance state and tied to VDD or VSS and all features that add delta
current disabled (such as WDT, Timer1 oscillator, etc.).
The supply current is mainly a function of operating voltage, frequency and mode. Other factors, such as I/O pin loading
and switching rate, oscillator type and circuit, internal code execution pattern and temperature, also have an impact on
the current consumption.
The test conditions for all IDD measurements in active operation mode are:
OSC1 = external square wave, from rail-to-rail; all I/O pins tri-stated, pulled to VDD;
MCLR = VDD; WDT enabled/disabled as specified.
Standard, low-cost 32 kHz crystals have an operating temperature range of -10°C to +70°C. Extended temperature
crystals are available at a much higher cost.
Voltage regulator disabled (ENVREG = 0, tied to VSS).
Voltage regulator enabled (ENVREG = 1, tied to VDD).
For ΔIETH, the specified current includes current sunk through TPOUT+ and TPOUT-. LEDA and LEDB are disabled for
all testing.
DS39762E-page 426
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
27.3
DC Characteristics: PIC18F97J60 Family (Industrial)
Standard Operating Conditions (unless otherwise stated)
Operating temperature -40°C ≤ TA ≤ +85°C for industrial
DC CHARACTERISTICS
Param
Symbol
No.
VIL
Characteristic
Min
Max
Units
Conditions
Input Low Voltage
All I/O Ports:
D030
with TTL Buffer
D031
with Schmitt Trigger Buffer
VSS
0.15VDD
V
VDD <2.7V
VSS
0.8
V
2.7V ≤ VDD ≤ 3.6V
VSS
0.2 VDD
V
D032
MCLR
VSS
0.2 VDD
V
D033
OSC1
VSS
0.3 VDD
V
HS, HSPLL modes
D033A
OSC1
VSS
0.2 VDD
V
EC mode
D034
T13CKI
VSS
0.3
V
0.25 VDD + 0.8V
VDD
V
0.8 VDD
VDD
V
0.25 VDD + 0.8V
5.5
V
VIH
Input High Voltage
I/O Ports, with Analog Functions:
D040
with TTL Buffer
D041
with Schmitt Trigger Buffer
I/O Ports, Digital Only:
with TTL Buffer
0.8 VDD
5.5
V
D042
MCLR
0.8 VDD
VDD
V
D043
OSC1
0.7 VDD
VDD
V
HS, HSPLL modes
D043A
OSC1
0.8 VDD
VDD
V
EC mode
1.6
VDD
V
with Schmitt Trigger Buffer
D044
T13CKI
IIL
Input Leakage Current(1)
D060
I/O Ports
—
±1
μA
VSS ≤ VPIN ≤ VDD,
Pin at high-impedance
D061
MCLR
—
±1
μA
Vss ≤ VPIN ≤ VDD
OSC1
—
±1
μA
Vss ≤ VPIN ≤ VDD
80
400
μA
VDD = 3.3V, VPIN = VSS
D063
D070
Note 1:
IPU
Weak Pull-up Current
IPURB
PORTB, PORTD, PORTE, PORTJ
Negative current is defined as current sourced by the pin.
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS39762E-page 427
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
27.3
DC Characteristics: PIC18F97J60 Family (Industrial) (Continued)
Standard Operating Conditions (unless otherwise stated)
Operating temperature -40°C ≤ TA ≤ +85°C for industrial
DC CHARACTERISTICS
Param
Symbol
No.
VOL
D080
Characteristic
Min
Max
Units
Conditions
PORTD, PORTE,
PORTJ
—
0.4
V
IOL = 4 mA, VDD = 3.3V,
-40°C to +85°C
PORTA<5:2>, PORTF,
PORTG, PORTH
—
0.4
V
IOL = 2 mA, VDD = 3.3V,
-40°C to +85°C
PORTA<1:0>, PORTB,
PORTC
—
0.4
V
IOL = 8 mA, VDD = 3.3V,
-40°C to +85°C
—
0.4
V
IOL = 2 mA, VDD = 3.3V,
-40°C to +85°C
PORTD, PORTE,
PORTJ
2.4
—
V
IOH = -4 mA, VDD = 3.3V,
-40°C to +85°C
PORTA<5:2>, PORTF,
PORTG, PORTH
2.4
—
V
IOH = -2 mA, VDD = 3.3V,
-40°C to +85°C
PORTA<1:0>, PORTB,
PORTC
2.4
—
V
IOH = -8 mA, VDD = 3.3V,
-40°C to +85°C
2.4
—
V
IOH = -1.0 mA, VDD = 3.3V,
-40°C to +85°C
—
15
pF
In HS mode when
external clock is used to
drive OSC1
Output Low Voltage
I/O Ports:
D083
OSC2/CLKO
(EC, ECPLL modes)
VOH
D090
Output High Voltage(1)
I/O Ports:
D092
OSC2/CLKO
(EC, ECPLL modes)
V
Capacitive Loading Specs
on Output Pins
D100
COSC2 OSC2 pin
D101
CIO
All I/O pins and OSC2
(in Internal RC mode, EC, ECPLL)
—
50
pF
To meet the AC timing
specifications
D102
CB
SCLx, SDAx
—
400
pF
I2C™ specification
Note 1:
Negative current is defined as current sourced by the pin.
DS39762E-page 428
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
TABLE 27-1:
MEMORY PROGRAMMING REQUIREMENTS
Standard Operating Conditions (unless otherwise stated)
Operating temperature -40°C ≤ TA ≤ +85°C for industrial
DC CHARACTERISTICS
Param
No.
Sym
Characteristic
Min
Typ†
Max
Units
Conditions
Program Flash Memory
D130
EP
Cell Endurance
100
1K
—
D131
VPR
VDD for Read
VMIN
—
3.6
V
VMIN = Minimum operating
voltage
Voltage for Self-Timed Erase or
Write
VDD
VDDCORE
2.70
2.35
—
—
3.6
2.7
V
V
ENVREG tied to VDD
ENVREG tied to VSS
—
2.8
—
ms
20
—
—
Year Provided no other
specifications are violated
—
10
—
mA
D132B VPEW
D133A TIW
Self-Timed Write Cycle Time
D134
TRETD Characteristic Retention
D135
IDDP
Supply Current during
Programming
E/W -40°C to +85°C
Ethernet module disabled
† Data in “Typ” column is at 3.3V, 25°C unless otherwise stated. These parameters are for design guidance
only and are not tested.
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS39762E-page 429
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
TABLE 27-2:
COMPARATOR SPECIFICATIONS
Operating Conditions: 3.0V ≤ VDD ≤ 3.6V, -40°C ≤ TA ≤ +85°C (unless otherwise stated)
Param
No.
Sym
Characteristics
Min
Typ
Max
Units
D300
VIOFF
Input Offset Voltage*
—
±5.0
±10
mV
D301
VICM
Input Common-Mode Voltage*
0
—
AVDD – 1.5
V
D302
CMRR
Common-Mode Rejection Ratio*
55
—
—
dB
300
TRESP
Response Time(1)*
—
150
400
ns
301
TMC2OV
Comparator Mode Change to
Output Valid*
—
—
10
μs
*
Note 1:
Comments
These parameters are characterized but not tested.
Response time measured with one comparator input at (AVDD – 1.5)/2, while the other input transitions
from VSS to AVDD.
TABLE 27-3:
VOLTAGE REFERENCE SPECIFICATIONS
Operating Conditions: 3.0V ≤ VDD ≤ 3.6V, -40°C ≤ TA ≤ +85°C (unless otherwise stated)
Param
No.
Sym
Characteristics
Min
Typ
Max
Units
D310
VRES
Resolution
VDD/24
—
VDD/32
LSb
D311
VRAA
Absolute Accuracy
—
—
1/2
LSb
D312
VRUR
Unit Resistor Value (R)
—
2k
—
Ω
TSET
Time(1)
—
—
10
μs
310
Note 1:
Settling
Comments
Settling time measured while CVRR = 1 and CVR3:CVR0 transitions from ‘0000’ to ‘1111’.
TABLE 27-4:
INTERNAL VOLTAGE REGULATOR SPECIFICATIONS
Operating Conditions: -40°C ≤ TA ≤ +85°C (unless otherwise stated)
Param
No.
Sym
Characteristics
Min
Typ
Max
Units
VRGOUT
Regulator Output Voltage
—
2.5
—
V
CF
External Filter Capacitor
Value
1
10
—
μF
DS39762E-page 430
Comments
Capacitor must be low
series resistance
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
27.4
27.4.1
AC (Timing) Characteristics
TIMING PARAMETER SYMBOLOGY
The timing parameter symbols have been created
following one of the following formats:
1. TppS2ppS
2. TppS
T
F
Frequency
Lowercase letters (pp) and their meanings:
pp
cc
ECCP1
ck
CLKO
cs
CS
di
SDIx
do
SDOx
dt
Data in
io
I/O port
mc
MCLR
Uppercase letters and their meanings:
S
F
Fall
H
High
I
Invalid (High-Impedance)
L
Low
I2C only
AA
Output access
BUF
Bus free
TCC:ST (I2C specifications only)
CC
HD
Hold
ST
DAT
DATA input hold
STA
Start condition
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
3. TCC:ST
4. Ts
(I2C specifications only)
(I2C specifications only)
T
Time
osc
rd
rw
sc
ss
t0
t1
wr
OSC1
RD
RD or WR
SCKx
SSx
T0CKI
T13CKI
WR
P
R
V
Z
Period
Rise
Valid
High-Impedance
High
Low
High
Low
SU
Setup
STO
Stop condition
DS39762E-page 431
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
27.4.2
TIMING CONDITIONS
The temperature and voltages specified in Table 27-5
apply to all timing specifications unless otherwise
noted. Figure 27-3 specifies the load conditions for the
timing specifications.
TABLE 27-5:
TEMPERATURE AND VOLTAGE SPECIFICATIONS – AC
AC CHARACTERISTICS
FIGURE 27-3:
Standard Operating Conditions (unless otherwise stated)
Operating temperature
-40°C ≤ TA ≤ +85°C for industrial
Operating voltage VDD range as described in DC spec Section 27.1 and
Section 27.3.
LOAD CONDITIONS FOR DEVICE TIMING SPECIFICATIONS
Load Condition 1
Load Condition 2
VDD/2
RL
CL
Pin
CL
Pin
VSS
VSS
RL = 464Ω
DS39762E-page 432
CL = 50 pF
for all pins except OSC2/CLKO
and including D and E outputs as ports
CL = 15 pF
for OSC2/CLKO
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
27.4.3
TIMING DIAGRAMS AND SPECIFICATIONS
FIGURE 27-4:
EXTERNAL CLOCK TIMING (ALL MODES EXCEPT PLL)
Q4
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
Q1
OSC1
1
3
4
3
4
2
CLKO
TABLE 27-6:
Param.
No.
1A
1
EXTERNAL CLOCK TIMING REQUIREMENTS
Symbol
FOSC
TOSC
Characteristic
Min
Max
Units
External CLKI Frequency(1)
Conditions
DC
41.6667
MHz
EC Oscillator mode
Oscillator Frequency(1)
6
25
MHz
HS Oscillator mode
Period(1)
24
—
ns
EC Oscillator mode
40
167
ns
HS Oscillator mode
External CLKI
Oscillator Period(1)
Time(1)
2
TCY
Instruction Cycle
96
—
ns
TCY = 4/FOSC, Industrial
3
TOSL,
TOSH
External Clock in (OSC1)
High or Low Time
10
—
ns
EC Oscillator mode
4
TOSR,
TOSF
External Clock in (OSC1)
Rise or Fall Time
—
7.5
ns
EC Oscillator mode
Clock Frequency Tolerance
—
±50
ppm
5
Note 1:
Ethernet module enabled
Instruction cycle period (TCY) equals four times the input oscillator time base period for all configurations
except PLL. All specified values are based on characterization data for that particular oscillator type under
standard operating conditions with the device executing code. Exceeding these specified limits may result
in an unstable oscillator operation and/or higher than expected current consumption. All devices are tested
to operate at “min.” values with an external clock applied to the OSC1/CLKI pin. When an external clock
input is used, the “max.” cycle time limit is “DC” (no clock) for all devices.
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS39762E-page 433
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
TABLE 27-7:
Param
No.
PLL CLOCK TIMING SPECIFICATIONS (VDD = 2.6V TO 3.6V)
Sym
Characteristic
Min
Typ†
Max
Units
Conditions
F10
FOSC Oscillator Frequency Range
8
8
—
—
25
37.5
MHz HSPLL mode
MHz ECPLL mode
F11
FSYS
On-Chip VCO System Frequency
20
—
62.5
MHz
F12
trc
PLL Start-up Time (Lock Time)
—
—
2
ms
F13
ΔCLK
CLKO Stability (Jitter)
-2
—
+2
%
† Data in “Typ” column is at 3.3V, 25°C, unless otherwise stated. These parameters are for design guidance
only and are not tested.
TABLE 27-8:
AC CHARACTERISTICS: INTERNAL RC ACCURACY
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY (INDUSTRIAL)
Param
No.
Note 1:
Characteristic
Min
Typ
Max
Units
INTRC Accuracy @ Freq = 31 kHz(1)
21.7
—
40.3
kHz
Conditions
INTRC frequency changes as VDDCORE changes.
DS39762E-page 434
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
FIGURE 27-5:
CLKO AND I/O TIMING
Q1
Q4
Q2
Q3
OSC1
11
10
CLKO
13
12
14
18
19
16
I/O pin
(Input)
15
17
I/O pin
(Output)
New Value
Old Value
20, 21
Note:
Refer to Figure 27-3 for load conditions.
TABLE 27-9:
Param
No.
CLKO AND I/O TIMING REQUIREMENTS
Symbol
Characteristic
Min
Typ
Max
Units Conditions
10
TOSH2CKL OSC1 ↑ to CLKO ↓
—
75
200
ns
11
TOSH2CKH OSC1 ↑ to CLKO ↑
—
75
200
ns
12
TCKR
CLKO Rise Time
—
15
30
ns
13
TCKF
CLKO Fall Time
—
15
30
ns
—
—
0.5 TCY + 20
ns
0.25 TCY + 25
—
—
ns
14
TCKL2IOV CLKO ↓ to Port Out Valid
15
TIOV2CKH Port In Valid before CLKO ↑
16
TCKH2IOI
17
TOSH2IOV OSC1 ↑ (Q1 cycle) to Port Out Valid
18
TOSH2IOI
19
20
Port In Hold after CLKO ↑
0
—
—
ns
—
50
150
ns
100
—
—
ns
TIOV2OSH Port Input Valid to OSC1 ↑
(I/O in setup time)
0
—
—
ns
TIOR
—
—
6
ns
OSC1 ↑ (Q2 cycle) to Port Input Invalid
(I/O in hold time)
Port Output Rise Time
21
TIOF
Port Output Fall Time
—
—
5
ns
22†
TINP
INTx pin High or Low Time
TCY
—
—
ns
TRBP
RB7:RB4 Change INTx High or Low Time
TCY
—
—
ns
23†
† These parameters are asynchronous events not related to any internal clock edges.
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS39762E-page 435
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
FIGURE 27-6:
PROGRAM MEMORY READ TIMING DIAGRAM
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
Q1
Q2
OSC1
A<19:16>
BA0
AD<15:0>
Address
Address
Address
Data from External
150
151
Address
163
160
162
161
155
166
167
ALE
168
164
169
171
CE
171A
OE
165
Operating Conditions: 2.0V < VCC < 3.6V, -40°C < TA < +125°C unless otherwise stated.
TABLE 27-10: CLKO AND I/O TIMING REQUIREMENTS
Param.
No
Symbol
Characteristics
Min
Typ
Max
Units
0.25 TCY – 10
—
—
ns
150
TadV2alL
Address Out Valid to ALE ↓
(address setup time)
151
TalL2adl
ALE ↓ to Address Out Invalid
(address hold time)
5
—
—
ns
155
TalL2oeL
ALE ↓ to OE ↓
10
0.125 TCY
—
ns
160
TadZ2oeL
AD high-Z to OE ↓ (bus release to OE)
0
—
—
ns
161
ToeH2adD OE ↑ to AD Driven
162
TadV2oeH Least Significant Data Valid before OE ↑
(data setup time)
0.125 TCY – 5
—
—
ns
20
—
—
ns
163
ToeH2adl
OE ↑ to Data In Invalid (data hold time)
0
—
—
ns
164
TalH2alL
ALE Pulse Width
—
TCY
—
ns
165
ToeL2oeH OE Pulse Width
0.5 TCY – 5
0.5 TCY
—
ns
166
TalH2alH
ALE ↑ to ALE ↑ (cycle time)
—
0.25 TCY
—
ns
167
Tacc
Address Valid to Data Valid
0.75 TCY – 25
—
—
ns
168
Toe
OE ↓ to Data Valid
—
0.5 TCY – 25
ns
169
TalL2oeH
ALE ↓ to OE ↑
0.625 TCY – 10
—
0.625 TCY + 10
ns
171
TalH2csL
Chip Enable Active to ALE ↓
0.25 TCY – 20
—
—
ns
171A
TubL2oeH AD Valid to Chip Enable Active
—
—
10
ns
DS39762E-page 436
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
FIGURE 27-7:
PROGRAM MEMORY WRITE TIMING DIAGRAM
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
Q1
Q2
OSC1
A<19:16>
BA0
Address
Address
166
AD<15:0>
Data
Address
Address
153
150
156
151
ALE
171
CE
171A
154
WRH or
WRL
157A
157
UB or
LB
Operating Conditions: 2.0V < VCC < 3.6V, -40°C < TA < +125°C unless otherwise stated.
TABLE 27-11: PROGRAM MEMORY WRITE TIMING REQUIREMENTS
Param.
No
Symbol
Characteristics
Min
Typ
Max
Units
0.25 TCY – 10
—
—
ns
150
TadV2alL
Address Out Valid to ALE ↓ (address setup time)
151
TalL2adl
ALE ↓ to Address Out Invalid (address hold time)
5
—
—
ns
153
TwrH2adl
WRn ↑ to Data Out Invalid (data hold time)
5
—
—
ns
154
TwrL
WRn Pulse Width
0.5 TCY – 5
0.5 TCY
—
ns
156
TadV2wrH Data Valid before WRn ↑ (data setup time)
0.5 TCY – 10
—
—
ns
157
TbsV2wrL Byte Select Valid before WRn ↓
(byte select setup time)
0.25 TCY
—
—
ns
157A
TwrH2bsI
WRn ↑ to Byte Select Invalid (byte select hold time)
0.125 TCY – 5
—
—
ns
166
TalH2alH
ALE ↑ to ALE ↑ (cycle time)
—
0.25 TCY
—
ns
171
TalH2csL
Chip Enable Active to ALE ↓
0.25 TCY – 20
—
—
ns
171A
TubL2oeH AD Valid to Chip Enable Active
—
—
10
ns
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS39762E-page 437
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
FIGURE 27-8:
RESET, WATCHDOG TIMER, OSCILLATOR START-UP TIMER AND
POWER-UP TIMER TIMING
VDD
MCLR
30
Internal
POR
33
PWRT
Time-out
32
Oscillator
Time-out
Internal
Reset
Watchdog
Timer
Reset
31
34
34
I/O pins
Note:
Refer to Figure 27-3 for load conditions.
TABLE 27-12: RESET, WATCHDOG TIMER, OSCILLATOR START-UP TIMER, POWER-UP TIMER
AND BROWN-OUT RESET REQUIREMENTS
Param.
Symbol
No.
Characteristic
Min
Typ
Max
Units
2
—
—
μs
4.1
5.4
ms
30
TMCL
MCLR Pulse Width (low)
31
TWDT
Watchdog Timer Time-out Period
(no postscaler)
2.8
1024 TOSC
—
1024 TOSC
—
46.2
66
85.8
ms
Conditions
32
TOST
Oscillation Start-up Timer Period
33
TPWRT
Power-up Timer Period
34
TIOZ
I/O High-Impedance from MCLR
Low or Watchdog Timer Reset
—
—
3TCY + 2
μs
System clock available
—
—
415
μs
System clock unavailable
(Sleep mode or
primary oscillator off)
CPU Start-up Time
—
200
—
μs
38
TCSD
DS39762E-page 438
TOSC = OSC1 period
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
FIGURE 27-9:
TIMER0 AND TIMER1 EXTERNAL CLOCK TIMINGS
T0CKI
41
40
42
T1OSO/T13CKI
46
45
47
48
TMR0 or
TMR1
Note:
Refer to Figure 27-3 for load conditions.
TABLE 27-13: TIMER0 AND TIMER1 EXTERNAL CLOCK REQUIREMENTS
Param
No.
Symbol
Characteristic
40
TT0H
T0CKI High Pulse Width
41
TT0L
T0CKI Low Pulse Width
42
TT0P
T0CKI Period
No prescaler
With prescaler
No prescaler
With prescaler
No prescaler
With prescaler
45
46
47
TT1H
TT1L
T13CKI High Synchronous, no prescaler
Time
Synchronous, with prescaler
Max
Units
0.5 TCY + 20
—
ns
10
—
ns
0.5 TCY + 20
—
ns
10
—
ns
TCY + 10
—
ns
Greater of:
20 ns or
(TCY + 40)/N
—
ns
0.5 TCY + 20
—
ns
10
—
ns
Asynchronous
30
—
ns
T13CKI Low Synchronous, no prescaler
Time
Synchronous, with prescaler
0.5 TCY + 5
—
ns
10
—
ns
Asynchronous
30
—
ns
Greater of:
20 ns or
(TCY + 40)/N
—
ns
TT1P
T13CKI Input Synchronous
Period
FT 1
T13CKI Oscillator Input Frequency Range
Asynchronous
48
Min
TCKE2TMRI Delay from External T13CKI Clock Edge to
Timer Increment
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
60
—
ns
DC
50
kHz
2 TOSC
7 TOSC
—
Conditions
N = prescale
value
(1, 2, 4,..., 256)
N = prescale
value
(1, 2, 4, 8)
DS39762E-page 439
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
FIGURE 27-10:
CAPTURE/COMPARE/PWM TIMINGS (INCLUDING ECCPx MODULES)
CCPx
(Capture Mode)
50
51
52
CCPx
(Compare or PWM Mode)
53
Note:
54
Refer to Figure 27-3 for load conditions.
TABLE 27-14: CAPTURE/COMPARE/PWM REQUIREMENTS (INCLUDING ECCPx MODULES)
Param
Symbol
No.
50
51
TCCL
TCCH
Characteristic
Min
Max
Units
CCPx Input Low No prescaler
Time
With prescaler
0.5 TCY + 20
—
ns
10
—
ns
CCPx Input
High Time
0.5 TCY + 20
—
ns
10
—
ns
3 TCY + 40
N
—
ns
No prescaler
With prescaler
52
TCCP
CCPx Input Period
53
TCCR
CCPx Output Fall Time
—
25
ns
54
TCCF
CCPx Output Fall Time
—
25
ns
Conditions
N = prescale
value (1, 4 or 16)
TABLE 27-15: PARALLEL SLAVE PORT REQUIREMENTS
Param.
No.
Symbol
Characteristic
Min
Max
Units
62
TdtV2wrH
Data In Valid before WR ↑ or CS ↑ (setup
time)
20
—
ns
63
TwrH2dtI
WR ↑ or CS ↑ to Data–In Invalid (hold time)
20
—
ns
64
TrdL2dtV
RD ↓ and CS ↓ to Data–Out Valid
—
80
ns
65
TrdH2dtI
RD ↑ or CS ↓ to Data–Out Invalid
10
30
ns
66
TibfINH
Inhibit of the IBF Flag bit being Cleared from
WR ↑ or CS ↑
—
3 TCY
DS39762E-page 440
Conditions
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
FIGURE 27-11:
EXAMPLE SPI MASTER MODE TIMING (CKE = 0)
SCKx
(CKP = 0)
78
79
79
78
SCKx
(CKP = 1)
80
bit 6 - - - - - - 1
MSb
SDOx
LSb
75, 76
SDIx
MSb In
bit 6 - - - - 1
LSb In
74
73
Note:
Refer to Figure 27-3 for load conditions.
TABLE 27-16: EXAMPLE SPI MODE REQUIREMENTS (MASTER MODE, CKE = 0)
Param
No.
Symbol
Characteristic
Min
Max Units
73
TDIV2SCH,
TDIV2SCL
Setup Time of SDIx Data Input to SCKx Edge
100
—
ns
74
TSCH2DIL,
TSCL2DIL
Hold Time of SDIx Data Input to SCKx Edge
100
—
ns
75
TDOR
SDOx Data Output Rise Time
—
25
ns
76
TDOF
SDOx Data Output Fall Time
—
25
ns
78
TSCR
SCKx Output Rise Time
—
25
ns
79
TSCF
SCKx Output Fall Time
—
25
ns
80
TSCH2DOV, SDOx Data Output Valid after SCKx Edge
TSCL2DOV
—
50
ns
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
Conditions
DS39762E-page 441
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
FIGURE 27-12:
EXAMPLE SPI MASTER MODE TIMING (CKE = 1)
81
SCKx
(CKP = 0)
79
73
SCKx
(CKP = 1)
80
78
MSb
SDOx
bit 6 - - - - - - 1
LSb
bit 6 - - - - 1
LSb In
75, 76
SDIx
MSb In
74
Note:
Refer to Figure 27-3 for load conditions.
TABLE 27-17: EXAMPLE SPI MODE REQUIREMENTS (MASTER MODE, CKE = 1)
Param.
No.
Symbol
Characteristic
Min
Max Units
73
TDIV2SCH,
TDIV2SCL
Setup Time of SDIx Data Input to SCKx Edge
100
—
ns
74
TSCH2DIL,
TSCL2DIL
Hold Time of SDIx Data Input to SCKx Edge
100
—
ns
75
TDOR
SDOx Data Output Rise Time
—
25
ns
76
TDOF
SDOx Data Output Fall Time
—
25
ns
78
TSCR
SCKx Output Rise Time
—
25
ns
79
TSCF
SCKx Output Fall Time
80
TSCH2DOV, SDOx Data Output Valid after SCKx Edge
TSCL2DOV
81
TDOV2SCH, SDOx Data Output Setup to SCKx Edge
TDOV2SCL
DS39762E-page 442
—
25
ns
—
50
ns
TCY
—
ns
Conditions
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
FIGURE 27-13:
EXAMPLE SPI SLAVE MODE TIMING (CKE = 0)
SSx
70
SCKx
(CKP = 0)
83
71
72
SCKx
(CKP = 1)
80
MSb
SDOx
bit 6 - - - - - - 1
LSb
75, 76
MSb In
SDIx
SDI
77
bit 6 - - - - 1
LSb In
74
73
Note:
Refer to Figure 27-3 for load conditions.
TABLE 27-18: EXAMPLE SPI MODE REQUIREMENTS (SLAVE MODE TIMING, CKE = 0)
Param
No.
Symbol
Characteristic
70
TSSL2SCH, SSx ↓ to SCKx ↓ or SCKx ↑ Input
TSSL2SCL
71
TSCH
SCKx Input High Time
TSCL
SCKx Input Low Time
71A
72
72A
Min
Max Units Conditions
TCY
—
ns
1.25 TCY + 30
—
ns
Single Byte
40
—
ns
Continuous
1.25 TCY + 30
—
ns
Single Byte
40
—
ns
100
—
ns
Continuous
73
TDIV2SCH, Setup Time of SDIx Data Input to SCKx Edge
TDIV2SCL
73A
TB2B
74
TSCH2DIL, Hold Time of SDIx Data Input to SCKx Edge
TSCL2DIL
75
TDOR
76
TDOF
Last Clock Edge of Byte 1 to the First Clock Edge of Byte 2 1.5 TCY + 40
—
ns
100
—
ns
SDOx Data Output Rise Time
—
25
ns
SDOx Data Output Fall Time
—
25
ns
77
TSSH2DOZ SSx ↑ to SDOx Output High-impedance
10
50
ns
80
TSCH2DOV, SDOx Data Output Valid after SCKx Edge
TSCL2DOV
—
50
ns
83
TSCH2SSH, SSx ↑ after SCKx Edge
TSCL2SSH
1.5 TCY + 40
—
ns
Note 1:
2:
(Note 1)
(Note 1)
(Note 2)
Requires the use of Parameter #73A.
Only if Parameter #71A and #72A are used.
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS39762E-page 443
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
FIGURE 27-14:
EXAMPLE SPI SLAVE MODE TIMING (CKE = 1)
82
SSx
SCKx
(CKP = 0)
70
83
71
72
SCKx
(CKP = 1)
80
MSb
SDOx
bit 6 - - - - - - 1
LSb
75, 76
SDI
SDIx
MSb In
77
bit 6 - - - - 1
LSb In
74
Note:
Refer to Figure 27-3 for load conditions.
TABLE 27-19: EXAMPLE SPI SLAVE MODE REQUIREMENTS (CKE = 1)
Param
No.
Symbol
Characteristic
Min
Max Units Conditions
70
TSSL2SCH, SSx ↓ to SCKx ↓ or SCKx ↑ Input
TSSL2SCL
71
TSCH
SCKx Input High Time
TSCL
SCKx Input Low Time
73A
TB2B
Last Clock Edge of Byte 1 to the First Clock Edge of Byte 2 1.5 TCY + 40
74
TSCH2DIL, Hold Time of SDIx Data Input to SCKx Edge
TSCL2DIL
75
TDOR
SDOx Data Output Rise Time
76
TDOF
SDOx Data Output Fall Time
—
25
ns
77
TSSH2DOZ SSx ↑ to SDOx Output High-Impedance
10
50
ns
80
TSCH2DOV, SDOx Data Output Valid after SCKx Edge
TSCL2DOV
—
50
ns
82
TSSL2DOV SDOx Data Output Valid after SSx ↓ Edge
—
50
ns
83
TSCH2SSH, SSx ↑ after SCKx Edge
TSCL2SSH
1.5 TCY + 40
—
ns
71A
72
72A
Note 1:
2:
TCY
—
ns
1.25 TCY + 30
—
ns
Single Byte
40
—
ns
Continuous
1.25 TCY + 30
—
ns
Single Byte
40
—
ns
(Note 1)
—
ns
(Note 2)
100
—
ns
—
25
ns
Continuous
(Note 1)
Requires the use of Parameter #73A.
Only if Parameter #71A and #72A are used.
DS39762E-page 444
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
FIGURE 27-15:
I2C™ BUS START/STOP BITS TIMING
SCLx
91
93
90
92
SDAx
Stop
Condition
Start
Condition
Note:
Refer to Figure 27-3 for load conditions.
TABLE 27-20: I2C™ BUS START/STOP BITS REQUIREMENTS (SLAVE MODE)
Param.
Symbol
No.
90
91
92
93
TSU:STA
THD:STA
TSU:STO
Characteristic
Max
Units
Conditions
ns
Only relevant for Repeated
Start condition
ns
After this period, the first
clock pulse is generated
Start Condition
100 kHz mode
4700
—
Setup Time
400 kHz mode
600
—
Start Condition
100 kHz mode
4000
—
Hold Time
400 kHz mode
600
—
Stop Condition
100 kHz mode
4700
—
Setup Time
400 kHz mode
600
—
100 kHz mode
4000
—
400 kHz mode
600
—
THD:STO Stop Condition
Hold Time
FIGURE 27-16:
Min
ns
ns
I2C™ BUS DATA TIMING
103
102
100
101
SCLx
90
106
107
91
92
SDAx
In
110
109
109
SDAx
Out
Note:
Refer to Figure 27-3 for load conditions.
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS39762E-page 445
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
TABLE 27-21: I2C™ BUS DATA REQUIREMENTS (SLAVE MODE)
Param.
Symbol
No.
100
THIGH
101
TLOW
102
TR
103
TF
90
91
106
Characteristic
Clock High Time
Clock Low Time
110
2:
—
μs
PIC18F97J60 family must
operate at a minimum of
1.5 MHz
400 kHz mode
0.6
—
μs
PIC18F97J60 family must
operate at a minimum of
10 MHz
MSSP module
1.5 TCY
—
100 kHz mode
4.7
—
μs
PIC18F97J60 family must
operate at a minimum of
1.5 MHz
400 kHz mode
1.3
—
μs
PIC18F97J60 family must
operate at a minimum of
10 MHz
1.5 TCY
—
—
1000
ns
400 kHz mode 20 + 0.1 CB
300
ns
SDAx and SCLx Fall
Time
100 kHz mode
300
ns
300
ns
CB is specified to be from
10 to 400 pF
Only relevant for Repeated
Start condition
—
400 kHz mode 20 + 0.1 CB
4.7
—
μs
400 kHz mode
0.6
—
μs
THD:STA Start Condition Hold
Time
100 kHz mode
4.0
—
μs
400 kHz mode
0.6
—
μs
100 kHz mode
0
—
ns
400 kHz mode
0
0.9
μs
CB
Note 1:
4.0
100 kHz mode
TBUF
D102
100 kHz mode
TSU:STA Start Condition Setup
Time
TAA
Conditions
MSSP module
100 kHz mode
250
—
ns
400 kHz mode
100
—
ns
100 kHz mode
4.7
—
μs
400 kHz mode
0.6
—
μs
Output Valid from Clock 100 kHz mode
—
3500
ns
400 kHz mode
—
—
ns
TSU:STO Stop Condition Setup
Time
109
Units
100 kHz mode
TSU:DAT Data Input Setup Time
92
Max
SDAx and SCLx Rise
Time
THD:DAT Data Input Hold Time
107
Min
Bus Free Time
Bus Capacitive Loading
100 kHz mode
4.7
—
μs
400 kHz mode
1.3
—
μs
—
400
pF
CB is specified to be from
10 to 400 pF
After this period, the first
clock pulse is generated
(Note 2)
(Note 1)
Time the bus must be free
before a new transmission
can start
As a transmitter, the device must provide this internal minimum delay time to bridge the undefined region
(min. 300 ns) of the falling edge of SCLx to avoid unintended generation of Start or Stop conditions.
A Fast mode I2C™ bus device can be used in a Standard mode I2C bus system, but the requirement,
TSU:DAT ≥ 250 ns, must then be met. This will automatically be the case if the device does not stretch the
LOW period of the SCLx signal. If such a device does stretch the LOW period of the SCLx signal, it must
output the next data bit to the SDAx line,
TR max. + TSU:DAT = 1000 + 250 = 1250 ns (according to the Standard mode I2C bus specification), before
the SCLx line is released.
DS39762E-page 446
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
FIGURE 27-17:
MASTER SSP I2C™ BUS START/STOP BITS TIMING WAVEFORMS
SCLx
93
91
90
92
SDAx
Stop
Condition
Start
Condition
Note:
Refer to Figure 27-3 for load conditions.
TABLE 27-22: MASTER SSP I2C™ BUS START/STOP BITS REQUIREMENTS
Param.
Symbol
No.
90
TSU:STA
Characteristic
After this period, the
first clock pulse is
generated
400 kHz mode
2(TOSC)(BRG + 1)
—
mode(1)
2(TOSC)(BRG + 1)
—
100 kHz mode
2(TOSC)(BRG + 1)
—
400 kHz mode
2(TOSC)(BRG + 1)
—
1 MHz mode(1)
2(TOSC)(BRG + 1)
—
Stop Condition
100 kHz mode
2(TOSC)(BRG + 1)
—
Setup Time
400 kHz mode
THD:STO Stop Condition
2(TOSC)(BRG + 1)
—
mode(1)
2(TOSC)(BRG + 1)
—
100 kHz mode
2(TOSC)(BRG + 1)
—
400 kHz mode
2(TOSC)(BRG + 1)
—
1 MHz mode(1)
2(TOSC)(BRG + 1)
—
2C™
Maximum pin capacitance = 10 pF for all I
FIGURE 27-18:
ns
Setup Time
Hold Time
Note 1:
Only relevant for
Repeated Start
condition
—
1 MHz
93
ns
2(TOSC)(BRG + 1)
Hold Time
92
Units
100 kHz mode
THD:STA Start Condition
TSU:STO
Max
Start Condition
1 MHz
91
Min
Conditions
ns
ns
pins.
MASTER SSP I2C™ BUS DATA TIMING
103
102
100
101
SCLx
90
106
91
107
92
SDAx
In
109
109
110
SDAx
Out
Note:
Refer to Figure 27-3 for load conditions.
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS39762E-page 447
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
TABLE 27-23: MASTER SSP I2C™ BUS DATA REQUIREMENTS
Param.
Symbol
No.
100
101
THIGH
TLOW
Characteristic
Min
Max
Units
Clock High Time 100 kHz mode
2(TOSC)(BRG + 1)
—
ms
400 kHz mode
2(TOSC)(BRG + 1)
—
ms
1 MHz mode(1)
2(TOSC)(BRG + 1)
—
ms
Clock Low Time 100 kHz mode
2(TOSC)(BRG + 1)
—
ms
400 kHz mode
2(TOSC)(BRG + 1)
—
ms
(1)
2(TOSC)(BRG + 1)
—
ms
—
1000
ns
20 + 0.1 CB
300
ns
—
300
ns
1 MHz mode
102
TR
SDAx and SCLx 100 kHz mode
Rise Time
400 kHz mode
1 MHz mode(1)
103
90
91
106
107
92
109
110
D102
TF
TSU:STA
SDAx and SCLx 100 kHz mode
Fall Time
400 kHz mode
Start Condition
Setup Time
THD:STA Start Condition
Hold Time
THD:DAT Data Input
Hold Time
TSU:DAT
Data Input
Setup Time
TSU:STO Stop Condition
Setup Time
TAA
TBUF
CB
Output Valid
from Clock
Bus Free Time
—
300
ns
20 + 0.1 CB
300
ns
1 MHz mode(1)
—
100
ns
100 kHz mode
2(TOSC)(BRG + 1)
—
ms
400 kHz mode
2(TOSC)(BRG + 1)
—
ms
1 MHz mode(1)
2(TOSC)(BRG + 1)
—
ms
100 kHz mode
2(TOSC)(BRG + 1)
—
ms
400 kHz mode
2(TOSC)(BRG + 1)
—
ms
1 MHz mode(1)
2(TOSC)(BRG + 1)
—
ms
100 kHz mode
0
—
ns
400 kHz mode
0
0.9
ms
1 MHz mode(1)
TBD
—
ns
100 kHz mode
250
—
ns
400 kHz mode
100
—
ns
1 MHz mode(1)
TBD
—
ns
100 kHz mode
2(TOSC)(BRG + 1)
—
ms
400 kHz mode
2(TOSC)(BRG + 1)
—
ms
1 MHz mode(1)
2(TOSC)(BRG + 1)
—
ms
100 kHz mode
—
3500
ns
400 kHz mode
—
1000
ns
(1)
1 MHz mode
—
—
ns
100 kHz mode
4.7
—
ms
400 kHz mode
1.3
—
ms
1 MHz mode(1)
TBD
—
ms
—
400
pF
Bus Capacitive Loading
Conditions
CB is specified to be from
10 to 400 pF
CB is specified to be from
10 to 400 pF
Only relevant for
Repeated Start
condition
After this period, the first
clock pulse is generated
(Note 2)
Time the bus must be free
before a new transmission
can start
Legend: TBD = To Be Determined
Note 1: Maximum pin capacitance = 10 pF for all I2C™ pins.
2: A Fast mode I2C bus device can be used in a Standard mode I2C bus system, but parameter #107 ≥ 250 ns
must then be met. This will automatically be the case if the device does not stretch the LOW period of the
SCLx signal. If such a device does stretch the LOW period of the SCLx signal, it must output the next data
bit to the SDAx line, parameter #102 + parameter #107 = 1000 + 250 = 1250 ns (for 100 kHz mode), before
the SCLx line is released.
DS39762E-page 448
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
FIGURE 27-19:
EUSARTx SYNCHRONOUS TRANSMISSION (MASTER/SLAVE) TIMING
TXx/CKx
pin
121
121
RXx/DTx
pin
120
Note:
122
Refer to Figure 27-3 for load conditions.
TABLE 27-24: EUSARTx SYNCHRONOUS TRANSMISSION REQUIREMENTS
Param
No.
120
Symbol
Characteristic
TCKH2DTV SYNC XMIT (MASTER and SLAVE)
Clock High to Data Out Valid
Min
Max
Units
—
40
ns
121
TCKRF
Clock Out Rise Time and Fall Time (Master mode)
—
20
ns
122
TDTRF
Data Out Rise Time and Fall Time
—
20
ns
FIGURE 27-20:
Conditions
EUSARTx SYNCHRONOUS RECEIVE (MASTER/SLAVE) TIMING
TXx/CKx
pin
125
RXx/DTx
pin
126
Note:
Refer to Figure 27-3 for load conditions.
TABLE 27-25: EUSARTx SYNCHRONOUS RECEIVE REQUIREMENTS
Param.
No.
Symbol
Characteristic
125
TDTV2CKL SYNC RCV (MASTER and SLAVE)
Data Hold before CKx ↓ (DTx hold time)
126
TCKL2DTL
Data Hold after CKx ↓ (DTx hold time)
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
Min
Max
Units
10
—
ns
15
—
ns
Conditions
DS39762E-page 449
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
TABLE 27-26: A/D CONVERTER CHARACTERISTICS: PIC18F97J60 FAMILY (INDUSTRIAL)
Param
Symbol
No.
Characteristic
Min
Typ
Max
Units
—
—
10
bit
Conditions
ΔVREF ≥ 2.0V
A01
NR
Resolution
A03
EIL
Integral Linearity Error
—
—
<±1
LSb ΔVREF ≥ 2.0V
A04
EDL
Differential Linearity Error
—
—
<±1
LSb ΔVREF ≥ 2.0V
A06
EOFF
Offset Error
—
—
<±3
LSb ΔVREF ≥ 2.0V
A07
EGN
Gain Error
—
—
<±3
LSb ΔVREF ≥ 2.0V
A10
—
Monotonicity
A20
ΔVREF
Reference Voltage Range
(VREFH – VREFL)
Guaranteed(1)
VREFSUM Reference Voltage Sum
(VREFH + VREFL)
—
VSS ≤ VAIN ≤ VREF
1.8
3
—
—
—
—
V
V
VDD < 3.0V
VDD ≥ 3.0V
—
—
AVDD + 0.5
V
A21
VREFH
Reference Voltage High
VREFL
—
AVDD
V
A22
VREFL
Reference Voltage Low
AVSS
—
VREFH
V
A25
VAIN
Analog Input Voltage
VREFL
—
VREFH
V
A30
ZAIN
Recommended Impedance of
Analog Voltage Source
—
—
2.5
kΩ
A50
IREF
VREF Input Current(2)
—
—
—
—
5
1000
μA
μA
Note 1:
2:
During VAIN acquisition.
During A/D conversion
cycle.
The A/D conversion result never decreases with an increase in the input voltage and has no missing
codes.
VREFH current is from RA3/AN3/VREF+ pin or AVDD, whichever is selected as the VREFH source.
VREFL current is from RA2/AN2/VREF- pin or AVSS, whichever is selected as the VREFL source.
FIGURE 27-21:
A/D CONVERSION TIMING
BSF ADCON0, GO
(Note 2)
131
Q4
A/D CLK(1)
130
132
9
A/D DATA
8
7
...
...
2
OLD_DATA
ADRES
1
0
NEW_DATA
TCY
ADIF
GO
DONE
SAMPLING STOPPED
SAMPLE
Note
1:
If the A/D clock source is selected as RC, a time of TCY is added before the A/D clock starts. This allows the SLEEP instruction
to be executed.
2:
This is a minimal RC delay (typically 100 ns), which also disconnects the holding capacitor from the analog input.
DS39762E-page 450
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
TABLE 27-27: A/D CONVERSION REQUIREMENTS
Param
Symbol
No.
Characteristic
Min
Max
Units
0.7
25.0(1)
μs
TOSC based, VREF ≥ 2.0V
A/D RC mode
130
TAD
A/D Clock Period
TBD
1
μs
131
TCNV
Conversion Time
(not including acquisition time) (Note 2)
11
12
TAD
μs
132
TACQ
Acquisition Time (Note 3)
1.4
—
135
TSWC
Switching Time from Convert → Sample
—
(Note 4)
TBD
TDIS
Discharge Time
0.2
—
Legend:
Note 1:
2:
3:
4:
27.5
Conditions
-40°C to +85°C
μs
TBD = To Be Determined
The time of the A/D clock period is dependent on the device frequency and the TAD clock divider.
ADRES registers may be read on the following TCY cycle.
The time for the holding capacitor to acquire the “New” input voltage when the voltage changes full scale
after the conversion (VDD to VSS or VSS to VDD). The source impedance (RS) on the input channels is 50Ω.
On the following cycle of the device clock.
Ethernet Specifications and Requirements
TABLE 27-28: REQUIREMENTS FOR ETHERNET TRANSCEIVER EXTERNAL MAGNETICS
Parameter
Min
Norm
Max
Units
—
1:1
—
—
TX Turns Ratio
—
1:1
—
—
Insertion Loss
—
—
-1.1
dB
RX Turns Ratio
μH
Primary Inductance
350
—
—
Transformer Isolation
1.5
—
—
Differential to Common-Mode
Rejection
40
—
—
dB
Return Loss
-16
—
—
dB
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
Conditions
Transformer Center Tap = 3.3V
8 mA bias
kVrms Required to meet IEEE 802.3 requirements
0.1 to 10 MHz
DS39762E-page 451
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
NOTES:
DS39762E-page 452
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
28.0
PACKAGING INFORMATION
28.1
Package Marking Information
Example
64-Lead TQFP
XXXXXXXXXX
XXXXXXXXXX
XXXXXXXXXX
YYWWNNN
18F67J60I/PT e3
0810017
Example
80-Lead TQFP
XXXXXXXXXXXX
XXXXXXXXXXXX
YYWWNNN
100-Lead TQFP (12x12x1 mm)
XXXXXXXXXXXX
XXXXXXXXXXXX
YYWWNNN
100-Lead TQFP (14x14x1 mm)
XXXXXXXXXXXX
XXXXXXXXXXXX
YYWWNNN
Legend: XX...X
Y
YY
WW
NNN
e3
*
Note:
PIC18F87J60I/PT e3
0810017
Example
PIC18F97J60I/PT e3
0810017
Example
PIC18F97J60I/PF e3
0810017
Customer-specific information
Year code (last digit of calendar year)
Year code (last 2 digits of calendar year)
Week code (week of January 1 is week ‘01’)
Alphanumeric traceability code
Pb-free JEDEC designator for Matte Tin (Sn)
This package is Pb-free. The Pb-free JEDEC designator ( e3 )
can be found on the outer packaging for this package.
In the event the full Microchip part number cannot be marked on one line, it will
be carried over to the next line, thus limiting the number of available
characters for customer-specific information.
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS39762E-page 453
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
28.2
Package Details
The following sections give the technical details of the packages.
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DS39762E-page 461
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
NOTES:
DS39762E-page 462
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
APPENDIX A:
REVISION HISTORY
Revision A (March 2006)
Original data sheet for the PIC18F97J60 family of
devices.
Revision B (October 2006)
First revision. Includes preliminary electrical specifications; revised and updated material on the Ethernet
module; updated material on Reset integration; and
updates to the device memory map.
Revision C (June 2007)
Corrected Table 10.2: Input Voltage Levels; added content on Ethernet module’s reading and writing to the
buffer; added new, 100-lead PT 12x12x1 mm TQFP
package to “Package Marking Information” and “Package Details” sections; updated other package details
drawings; changed Product Identification System
examples.
Revision D (January 2008)
Added one line to “Ethernet Features” description.
Added land pattern schematics for each package.
Revision E (October 2009)
Updated to remove Preliminary status.
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS39762E-page 463
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
APPENDIX B:
DEVICE
DIFFERENCES
The differences between the devices listed in this data
sheet are shown in Table B-1.
Interrupt Sources
I/O Ports (Pins)
Enhanced USART Modules
PIC18F86J65
PIC18F87J60
PIC18F96J60
PIC18F96J65
PIC18F97J60
Program Memory
(Instructions)
PIC18F86J60
Program Memory (Bytes)
PIC18F67J60
Features
PIC18F66J65
DEVICE DIFFERENCES BETWEEN PIC18F97J60 FAMILY MEMBERS
PIC18F66J60
TABLE B-1:
64K
96K
128K
64K
96K
128K
64K
96K
128K
32764
49148
65532
32764
49148
65532
32764
49148
65532
26
Ports A, B, C, D, E, F, G
(39)
1
MSSP Modules
Parallel Slave Port
Communications (PSP)
External Memory Bus
10-Bit Analog-to-Digital
Module
Packages
DS39762E-page 464
27
29
Ports A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, J Ports A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, J
(55)
(70)
2
1
2
No
Yes
No
Yes
11 input channels
15 input channels
16 input channels
64-pin TQFP
80-pin TQFP
100-pin TQFP
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
INDEX
A
A/D ................................................................................... 329
A/D Converter Interrupt, Configuring ....................... 333
Acquisition Requirements ........................................ 334
ADCAL Bit ................................................................ 337
ADCON0 Register .................................................... 329
ADCON1 Register .................................................... 329
ADCON2 Register .................................................... 329
ADRESH Register ............................................ 329, 332
ADRESL Register .................................................... 329
Analog Port Pins, Configuring .................................. 335
Associated Registers ............................................... 337
Automatic Acquisition Time ...................................... 335
Configuring the Module ............................................ 333
Conversion Clock (TAD) ........................................... 335
Conversion Requirements ....................................... 451
Conversion Status (GO/DONE Bit) .......................... 332
Conversions ............................................................. 336
Converter Calibration ............................................... 337
Converter Characteristics ........................................ 450
Operation in Power-Managed Modes ...................... 337
Special Event Trigger (ECCP) ......................... 196, 336
Use of the ECCP2 Trigger ....................................... 336
Absolute Maximum Ratings ............................................. 417
AC (Timing) Characteristics ............................................. 431
Load Conditions for Device Timing Specifications ... 432
Parameter Symbology ............................................. 431
Temperature and Voltage Specifications ................. 432
Timing Conditions .................................................... 432
Access Bank ...................................................................... 97
ACKSTAT ........................................................................ 294
ACKSTAT Status Flag ..................................................... 294
ADCAL Bit ........................................................................ 337
ADCON0 Register ............................................................ 329
GO/DONE Bit ........................................................... 332
ADCON1 Register ............................................................ 329
ADCON2 Register ............................................................ 329
ADDFSR .......................................................................... 406
ADDLW ............................................................................ 369
ADDULNK ........................................................................ 406
ADDWF ............................................................................ 369
ADDWFC ......................................................................... 370
ADRESH Register ............................................................ 329
ADRESL Register .................................................... 329, 332
Affected Instructions .......................................................... 95
Analog-to-Digital Converter. See A/D.
ANDLW ............................................................................ 370
ANDWF ............................................................................ 371
Assembler
MPASM Assembler .................................................. 414
B
Baud Rate Generator ....................................................... 290
BC .................................................................................... 371
BCF .................................................................................. 372
BF .................................................................................... 294
BF Status Flag ................................................................. 294
Block Diagrams
16-Bit Byte Select Mode .......................................... 115
16-Bit Byte Write Mode ............................................ 113
16-Bit Word Write Mode ........................................... 114
8-Bit Multiplexed Mode ............................................ 117
A/D ........................................................................... 332
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
Analog Input Model .................................................. 333
Baud Rate Generator .............................................. 290
Capture Mode Operation ......................................... 187
Comparator Analog Input Model .............................. 343
Comparator I/O Operating Modes ........................... 340
Comparator Output .................................................. 342
Comparator Voltage Reference ............................... 346
Comparator Voltage Reference Output Buffer Example
347
Compare Mode Operation ....................................... 188
Connections for On-Chip Voltage Regulator ........... 358
Device Clock .............................................................. 43
Enhanced PWM ....................................................... 197
Ethernet Interrupt Logic ........................................... 229
Ethernet Module ...................................................... 209
EUSARTx Receive .................................................. 319
EUSARTx Transmit ................................................. 316
External Power-on Reset Circuit (Slow VDD Power-up)
59
Fail-Safe Clock Monitor ........................................... 360
Generic I/O Port Operation ...................................... 139
Interrupt Logic .......................................................... 124
MSSP (I2C Master Mode) ........................................ 288
MSSP (I2C Mode) .................................................... 269
MSSP (SPI Mode) ................................................... 259
On-Chip Reset Circuit ................................................ 57
PIC18F66J60/66J65/67J60 ....................................... 15
PIC18F86J60/86J65/87J60 ....................................... 16
PIC18F96J60/96J65/97J60 ....................................... 17
PORTD and PORTE (Parallel Slave Port) ............... 163
PWM Operation (Simplified) .................................... 190
Reads from Flash Program Memory ....................... 103
Required External Components for Ethernet ........... 211
Single Comparator ................................................... 341
Table Read Operation ............................................... 99
Table Write Operation ............................................. 100
Table Writes to Flash Program Memory .................. 105
Timer0 in 16-Bit Mode ............................................. 168
Timer0 in 8-Bit Mode ............................................... 168
Timer1 ..................................................................... 172
Timer1 (16-Bit Read/Write Mode) ............................ 172
Timer2 ..................................................................... 178
Timer3 ..................................................................... 180
Timer3 (16-Bit Read/Write Mode) ............................ 180
Timer4 ..................................................................... 184
Watchdog Timer ...................................................... 357
BN .................................................................................... 372
BNC ................................................................................. 373
BNN ................................................................................. 373
BNOV .............................................................................. 374
BNZ ................................................................................. 374
BOR. See Brown-out Reset.
BOV ................................................................................. 377
BRA ................................................................................. 375
BRG. See Baud Rate Generator.
Brown-out Reset (BOR) ..................................................... 59
and On-Chip Voltage Regulator .............................. 358
Detecting ................................................................... 59
BSF .................................................................................. 375
BTFSC ............................................................................. 376
BTFSS ............................................................................. 376
BTG ................................................................................. 377
BZ .................................................................................... 378
DS39762E-page 465
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
C
C Compilers
MPLAB C18 ............................................................. 414
CALL ................................................................................ 378
CALLW ............................................................................. 407
Capture (CCP Module) ..................................................... 187
Associated Registers ............................................... 189
CCPRxH:CCPRxL Registers ................................... 187
CCPx Pin Configuration ........................................... 187
Prescaler .................................................................. 187
Software Interrupt .................................................... 187
Timer1/Timer3 Mode Selection ................................ 187
Capture (ECCP Module) .................................................. 196
Capture/Compare/PWM (CCP) ........................................ 185
Capture Mode. See Capture.
CCPRxH Register .................................................... 186
CCPRxL Register ..................................................... 186
CCPx/ECCPx Interconnect Configurations .............. 186
CCPx/ECCPx Mode and Timer Resources ............. 186
Compare Mode. See Compare.
Module Configuration ............................................... 186
Clock Sources
Default System Clock on Reset ................................. 48
Effects of Power-Managed Modes ............................. 48
Oscillator Switching .................................................... 46
CLRF ................................................................................ 379
CLRWDT .......................................................................... 379
Code Examples
16 x 16 Signed Multiply Routine .............................. 122
16 x 16 Unsigned Multiply Routine .......................... 122
8 x 8 Signed Multiply Routine .................................. 121
8 x 8 Unsigned Multiply Routine .............................. 121
Changing Between Capture Prescalers ................... 187
Computed GOTO Using an Offset Value ................... 77
Erasing a Flash Program Memory Row ................... 104
Fast Register Stack .................................................... 77
How to Clear RAM (Bank 1) Using Indirect Addressing .
92
Implementing a Real-Time Clock Using a Timer1 Interrupt Service ...................................................... 175
Initializing PORTA .................................................... 140
Initializing PORTB .................................................... 142
Initializing PORTC .................................................... 145
Initializing PORTD .................................................... 148
Initializing PORTE .................................................... 151
Initializing PORTF .................................................... 154
Initializing PORTG ................................................... 156
Initializing PORTH .................................................... 159
Initializing PORTJ .................................................... 161
Loading the SSP1BUF (SSP1SR) Register ............. 262
Reading a Flash Program Memory Word ................ 103
Saving STATUS, WREG and BSR Registers in RAM ...
138
Writing to Flash Program Memory ........................... 106
Code Protection ............................................................... 349
COMF ............................................................................... 380
Comparator ...................................................................... 339
Analog Input Connection Considerations ................. 343
Associated Registers ............................................... 343
Configuration ............................................................ 340
Effects of a Reset ..................................................... 342
Interrupts .................................................................. 342
Operation ................................................................. 341
Operation During Sleep ........................................... 342
DS39762E-page 466
Outputs .................................................................... 341
Reference ................................................................ 341
External Signal ................................................ 341
Internal Signal .................................................. 341
Response Time ........................................................ 341
Comparator Specifications ............................................... 430
Comparator Voltage Reference ....................................... 345
Accuracy and Error .................................................. 346
Associated Registers ............................................... 347
Configuring .............................................................. 345
Connection Considerations ...................................... 346
Effects of a Reset .................................................... 346
Operation During Sleep ........................................... 346
Compare (CCP Module) .................................................. 188
Associated Registers ............................................... 189
CCPRx Register ...................................................... 188
CCPx Pin Configuration ........................................... 188
Software Interrupt .................................................... 188
Timer1/Timer3 Mode Selection ................................ 188
Compare (ECCP Module) ................................................ 196
Special Event Trigger ...................................... 196, 336
Computed GOTO ............................................................... 77
Configuration Bits ............................................................ 349
Configuration Mismatch (CM) Reset .................................. 59
Configuration Register Protection .................................... 362
Core Features
Easy Migration ........................................................... 11
Expanded Memory ..................................................... 11
Extended Instruction Set ........................................... 11
External Memory Bus ................................................ 11
Oscillator Options ...................................................... 11
CPFSEQ .......................................................................... 380
CPFSGT .......................................................................... 381
CPFSLT ........................................................................... 381
Crystal Oscillator/Ceramic Resonators (HS Modes) .......... 44
Customer Change Notification Service ............................ 477
Customer Notification Service ......................................... 477
Customer Support ............................................................ 477
D
Data Addressing Modes .................................................... 92
Comparing Addressing Modes with the Extended Instruction Set Enabled ........................................ 96
Direct ......................................................................... 92
Indexed Literal Offset ................................................ 95
Indirect ....................................................................... 92
Inherent and Literal .................................................... 92
Data Memory ..................................................................... 80
Access Bank .............................................................. 82
Bank Select Register (BSR) ...................................... 80
Ethernet SFRs ........................................................... 84
Extended Instruction Set ........................................... 94
General Purpose Register File .................................. 82
Memory Maps
Ethernet Special Function Registers ................. 84
PIC18F97J60 Family ......................................... 81
Special Function Registers ................................ 83
Special Function Registers ........................................ 83
DAW ................................................................................ 382
DC Characteristics ........................................................... 427
Power-Down and Supply Current ............................ 420
Supply Voltage ........................................................ 419
DCFSNZ .......................................................................... 383
DECF ............................................................................... 382
DECFSZ .......................................................................... 383
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
Default System Clock ......................................................... 48
Development Support ...................................................... 413
Device Differences ........................................................... 464
Device Overview ................................................................ 11
Details on Individual Family Members ....................... 12
Features (100-Pin Devices) ....................................... 14
Features (64-Pin Devices) ......................................... 13
Features (80-Pin Devices) ......................................... 13
Direct Addressing ............................................................... 93
E
ECCP2
Pin Assignment ........................................................ 186
Effect on Standard PIC Instructions ................................. 410
Electrical Characteristics .................................................. 417
Requirements for Ethernet Transceiver External Magnetics ............................................................... 451
Enhanced Capture/Compare/PWM (ECCP) .................... 193
Associated Registers ............................................... 208
Capture and Compare Modes .................................. 196
Capture Mode. See Capture (ECCP Module).
ECCP1/ECCP3 Outputs and Program Memory Mode ...
194
ECCP2 Outputs and Program Memory Modes ........ 194
Enhanced PWM Mode ............................................. 197
Outputs and Configuration ....................................... 194
Pin Configurations for ECCP1 ................................. 195
Pin Configurations for ECCP2 ................................. 195
Pin Configurations for ECCP3 ................................. 196
PWM Mode. See PWM (ECCP Module).
Standard PWM Mode ............................................... 196
Timer Resources ...................................................... 194
Use of CCP4/CCP5 with ECCP1/ECCP3 ................ 194
Enhanced Universal Synchronous Asynchronous Receiver
Transmitter (EUSART). See EUSART.
ENVREG pin .................................................................... 358
Equations
A/D Acquisition Time ................................................ 334
A/D Minimum Charging Time ................................... 334
Calculating the A/D Minimum Required Acquisition Time
.......................................................................... 334
Random Access Address Calculation ...................... 243
Receive Buffer Free Space Calculation ................... 244
Errata ................................................................................... 9
Ethernet Module ............................................................... 209
Associated Registers, Direct Memory Access Controller
256
Associated Registers, Flow Control ......................... 248
Associated Registers, Reception ............................. 245
Associated Registers, Transmission ........................ 245
Buffer and Buffer Pointers ........................................ 213
Buffer Arbiter .................................................... 216
DMA Access .................................................... 216
Receive Buffer ................................................. 215
Transmit Buffer ................................................ 216
Buffer and Register Spaces ..................................... 212
Buffer Organization .................................................. 214
CRC ......................................................................... 238
Direct Memory Access Controller ............................ 255
Checksum Calculations ................................... 256
Copying Memory .............................................. 255
Disabling .................................................................. 236
Duplex Mode Configuration and Negotiation ........... 246
Ethernet and Microcontroller Memory Relationship . 212
Ethernet Control Registers ....................................... 217
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
Flow Control ............................................................ 247
Initializing ................................................................. 235
Interrupts ................................................................. 229
Interrupts and Wake-on-LAN ................................... 234
LED Configuration ................................................... 210
MAC and MII Registers ........................................... 219
Magnetics, Termination and Other External Components
......................................................................... 211
Oscillator Requirements .......................................... 210
Packet Format ......................................................... 237
Per-Packet Control Bytes ........................................ 239
PHSTAT Registers .................................................. 222
PHY Register Summary .......................................... 224
PHY Registers ......................................................... 222
PHY Start-up Timer ................................................. 210
Receive Filters ......................................................... 249
Broadcast ........................................................ 249
Hash Table ...................................................... 249
Magic Packet ................................................... 249
Multicast .......................................................... 249
Pattern Match .................................................. 249
Unicast ............................................................ 249
Resets ..................................................................... 257
Microcontroller Reset ....................................... 257
Receive Only ................................................... 257
Transmit Only .................................................. 257
Signal and Power Interfaces .................................... 210
Special Function Registers (SFRs) ......................... 217
Transmitting and Receiving Data ............................ 237
Packet Field Definitions ........................... 237–238
Reading Received Packets ............................. 243
Receive Buffer Space ...................................... 244
Receive Packet Layout .................................... 242
Receive Status Vectors ................................... 243
Receiving Packets ........................................... 242
Transmit Packet Layout ................................... 240
Transmit Status Vectors .................................. 241
Transmitting Packets ....................................... 239
Ethernet Operation, Microcontroller Clock ......................... 45
EUSARTx
Asynchronous Mode ................................................ 315
Associated Registers, Receive ........................ 319
Associated Registers, Transmit ....................... 317
Auto-Wake-up on Sync Break Character ........ 320
Break Character Sequence ............................. 322
Receiving ................................................. 322
Receiver .......................................................... 318
Setting Up 9-Bit Mode with Address Detect .... 318
Transmitter ...................................................... 315
Baud Rate Generator
Operation in Power-Managed Modes .............. 309
Baud Rate Generator (BRG) ................................... 309
Associated Registers ....................................... 310
Auto-Baud Rate Detect .................................... 313
Baud Rate Error, Calculating ........................... 310
Baud Rates, Asynchronous Modes ................. 311
High Baud Rate Select (BRGH Bit) ................. 309
Sampling ......................................................... 309
Synchronous Master Mode ...................................... 323
Associated Registers, Receive ........................ 326
Associated Registers, Transmit ....................... 324
Reception ........................................................ 325
Transmission ................................................... 323
DS39762E-page 467
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
Synchronous Slave Mode ........................................ 326
Associated Registers, Receive ........................ 328
Associated Registers, Transmit ....................... 327
Reception ......................................................... 327
Transmission .................................................... 326
Extended Instruction Set
ADDFSR .................................................................. 406
ADDULNK ................................................................ 406
CALLW ..................................................................... 407
MOVSF .................................................................... 407
MOVSS .................................................................... 408
PUSHL ..................................................................... 408
SUBFSR .................................................................. 409
SUBULNK ................................................................ 409
External Clock Input (EC Modes) ....................................... 44
External Memory Bus ....................................................... 109
16-Bit Byte Select Mode .......................................... 115
16-Bit Byte Write Mode ............................................ 113
16-Bit Data Width Modes ......................................... 112
16-Bit Mode Timing .................................................. 116
16-Bit Word Write Mode ........................................... 114
21-Bit Addressing ..................................................... 111
8-Bit Data Width Mode ............................................. 117
8-Bit Mode Timing .................................................... 118
Address and Data Line Usage (table) ...................... 111
Address and Data Width .......................................... 111
Address Shifting ....................................................... 111
Control ..................................................................... 110
I/O Port Functions .................................................... 109
Operation in Power-Managed Modes ...................... 119
Program Memory Modes ......................................... 112
Extended Microcontroller ................................. 112
Microcontroller ................................................. 112
Wait States ............................................................... 112
Weak Pull-ups on Port Pins ..................................... 112
F
Fail-Safe Clock Monitor ............................................ 349, 360
and the Watchdog Timer .......................................... 360
Exiting Operation ..................................................... 360
Interrupts in Power-Managed Modes ....................... 361
POR or Wake-up From Sleep .................................. 361
Fast Register Stack ............................................................ 77
Firmware Instructions ....................................................... 363
Flash Configuration Words ......................................... 72, 349
Flash Program Memory ...................................................... 99
Associated Registers ............................................... 107
Control Registers ..................................................... 100
EECON1 and EECON2 ................................... 100
TABLAT (Table Latch) Register ....................... 102
TBLPTR (Table Pointer) Register .................... 102
Erase Sequence ...................................................... 104
Erasing ..................................................................... 104
Operation During Code-Protect ............................... 107
Reading .................................................................... 103
Table Pointer
Boundaries Based on Operation ...................... 102
Table Pointer Boundaries ........................................ 102
Table Reads and Table Writes .................................. 99
Write Sequence ....................................................... 105
Writing ...................................................................... 105
Protection Against Spurious Writes ................. 107
Unexpected Termination .................................. 107
Write Verify ...................................................... 107
FSCM. See Fail-Safe Clock Monitor.
DS39762E-page 468
G
GOTO .............................................................................. 384
H
Hardware Multiplier .......................................................... 121
Introduction .............................................................. 121
Operation ................................................................. 121
Performance Comparison ........................................ 121
I
I/O Ports ........................................................................... 139
Pin Capabilities ........................................................ 139
I2C Mode (MSSP) ............................................................ 269
Acknowledge Sequence Timing .............................. 297
Associated Registers ............................................... 303
Baud Rate Generator .............................................. 290
Bus Collision
During a Repeated Start Condition .................. 301
During a Stop Condition .................................. 302
Clock Arbitration ...................................................... 291
Clock Rate w/BRG ................................................... 290
Clock Stretching ....................................................... 283
10-Bit Slave Receive Mode (SEN = 1) ............ 283
10-Bit Slave Transmit Mode ............................ 283
7-Bit Slave Receive Mode (SEN = 1) .............. 283
7-Bit Slave Transmit Mode .............................. 283
Clock Synchronization and the CKP Bit ................... 284
Effects of a Reset .................................................... 298
General Call Address Support ................................. 287
Master Mode ............................................................ 288
Baud Rate Generator ...................................... 290
Operation ......................................................... 289
Reception ........................................................ 294
Repeated Start Condition Timing .................... 293
Start Condition Timing ..................................... 292
Transmission ................................................... 294
Multi-Master Communication, Bus Collision and Arbitration ................................................................... 298
Multi-Master Mode ................................................... 298
Operation ................................................................. 274
Read/Write Bit Information (R/W Bit) ............... 274, 276
Registers ................................................................. 269
Serial Clock (SCKx/SCLx) ....................................... 276
Slave Mode .............................................................. 274
Address Masking ............................................. 275
Addressing ....................................................... 274
Reception ........................................................ 276
Transmission ................................................... 276
Sleep Operation ....................................................... 298
Stop Condition Timing ............................................. 297
INCF ................................................................................ 384
INCFSZ ............................................................................ 385
In-Circuit Debugger .......................................................... 362
In-Circuit Serial Programming (ICSP) ...................... 349, 362
Indexed Literal Offset Addressing
and Standard PIC18 Instructions ............................. 410
Indexed Literal Offset Mode ................................. 95, 97, 410
BSR ........................................................................... 97
Indirect Addressing ............................................................ 93
INFSNZ ............................................................................ 385
Initialization Conditions for All Registers ...................... 63–69
Instruction Cycle ................................................................ 78
Clocking Scheme ....................................................... 78
Flow/Pipelining ........................................................... 78
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
Instruction Set .................................................................. 363
ADDLW .................................................................... 369
ADDWF .................................................................... 369
ADDWF (Indexed Literal Offset Mode) .................... 411
ADDWFC ................................................................. 370
ANDLW .................................................................... 370
ANDWF .................................................................... 371
BC ............................................................................ 371
BCF .......................................................................... 372
BN ............................................................................ 372
BNC ......................................................................... 373
BNN ......................................................................... 373
BNOV ....................................................................... 374
BNZ .......................................................................... 374
BOV ......................................................................... 377
BRA .......................................................................... 375
BSF .......................................................................... 375
BSF (Indexed Literal Offset Mode) .......................... 411
BTFSC ..................................................................... 376
BTFSS ..................................................................... 376
BTG .......................................................................... 377
BZ ............................................................................ 378
CALL ........................................................................ 378
CLRF ........................................................................ 379
CLRWDT .................................................................. 379
COMF ...................................................................... 380
CPFSEQ .................................................................. 380
CPFSGT .................................................................. 381
CPFSLT ................................................................... 381
DAW ......................................................................... 382
DCFSNZ .................................................................. 383
DECF ....................................................................... 382
DECFSZ ................................................................... 383
Extended Instructions .............................................. 405
Considerations when Enabling ........................ 410
Syntax .............................................................. 405
Use with MPLAB IDE Tools ............................. 412
General Format ........................................................ 365
GOTO ...................................................................... 384
INCF ......................................................................... 384
INCFSZ .................................................................... 385
INFSNZ .................................................................... 385
IORLW ..................................................................... 386
IORWF ..................................................................... 386
LFSR ........................................................................ 387
MOVF ....................................................................... 387
MOVFF .................................................................... 388
MOVLB .................................................................... 388
MOVLW ................................................................... 389
MOVWF ................................................................... 389
MULLW .................................................................... 390
MULWF .................................................................... 390
NEGF ....................................................................... 391
NOP ......................................................................... 391
POP ......................................................................... 392
PUSH ....................................................................... 392
RCALL ..................................................................... 393
RESET ..................................................................... 393
RETFIE .................................................................... 394
RETLW .................................................................... 394
RETURN .................................................................. 395
RLCF ........................................................................ 395
RLNCF ..................................................................... 396
RRCF ....................................................................... 396
RRNCF .................................................................... 397
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
SETF ....................................................................... 397
SETF (Indexed Literal Offset Mode) ........................ 411
SLEEP ..................................................................... 398
Standard Instructions ............................................... 363
SUBFWB ................................................................. 398
SUBLW .................................................................... 399
SUBWF .................................................................... 399
SUBWFB ................................................................. 400
SWAPF .................................................................... 400
TBLRD ..................................................................... 401
TBLWT .................................................................... 402
TSTFSZ ................................................................... 403
XORLW ................................................................... 403
XORWF ................................................................... 404
INTCON Register
RBIF Bit ................................................................... 142
INTCON Registers ........................................................... 125
Inter-Integrated Circuit. See I2C Mode.
Internal Oscillator Block ..................................................... 45
Internal RC Oscillator
Use with WDT .......................................................... 357
Internal Voltage Regulator Specifications ........................ 430
Internet Address .............................................................. 477
Interrupt Sources ............................................................. 349
A/D Conversion Complete ....................................... 333
Capture Complete (CCP) ........................................ 187
Compare Complete (CCP) ...................................... 188
Interrupt-on-Change (RB7:RB4) .............................. 142
INTx Pin ................................................................... 138
PORTB, Interrupt-on-Change .................................. 138
TMR0 ....................................................................... 138
TMR0 Overflow ........................................................ 169
TMR1 Overflow ........................................................ 171
TMR2 to PR2 Match (PWM) .................................... 197
TMR3 Overflow ................................................ 179, 181
TMR4 to PR4 Match ................................................ 184
TMR4 to PR4 Match (PWM) .................................... 183
Interrupts ......................................................................... 123
Context Saving ........................................................ 138
Interrupts, Flag Bits
Interrupt-on-Change (RB7:RB4) Flag (RBIF Bit) ..... 142
INTRC. See Internal Oscillator Block.
IORLW ............................................................................. 386
IORWF ............................................................................. 386
IPR Registers ................................................................... 134
L
LFSR ............................................................................... 387
M
Master Clear (MCLR) ......................................................... 59
Master Synchronous Serial Port (MSSP). See MSSP.
Memory Organization ........................................................ 71
Data Memory ............................................................. 80
Program Memory ....................................................... 71
Memory Programming Requirements .............................. 429
Microchip Internet Web Site ............................................. 477
MOVF .............................................................................. 387
MOVFF ............................................................................ 388
MOVLB ............................................................................ 388
MOVLW ........................................................................... 389
MOVSF ............................................................................ 407
MOVSS ............................................................................ 408
MOVWF ........................................................................... 389
MPLAB ASM30 Assembler, Linker, Librarian .................. 414
DS39762E-page 469
PIC18F97J60 FAMILY
MPLAB Integrated Development Environment Software . 413
MPLAB PM3 Device Programmer .................................... 416
MPLAB REAL ICE In-Circuit Emulator System ................ 415
MPLINK Object Linker/MPLIB Object Librarian ............... 414
MSSP
ACK Pulse ........................................................ 274, 276
Control Registers (general) ...................................... 259
Module Overview ..................................................... 259
SPI Master/Slave Connection .................................. 263
SSPxBUF Register .................................................. 264
SSPxSR Register ..................................................... 264
MULLW ............................................................................ 390
MULWF ............................................................................ 390
N
NEGF ............................................................................... 391
NOP ................................................................................. 391
O
Opcode Field Descriptions ............................................... 364
Organizationally Unique Identifier (OUI) .......................... 238
Oscillator Configuration ...................................................... 43
EC .............................................................................. 43
ECPLL ........................................................................ 43
HS .............................................................................. 43
HSPLL ........................................................................ 43
Internal Oscillator Block ............................................. 45
INTRC ........................................................................ 43
Oscillator Selection .......................................................... 349
Oscillator Start-up Timer (OST) ......................................... 48
Oscillator Transitions .......................................................... 48
Oscillator, Timer1 ..................................................... 171, 181
Oscillator, Timer3 ............................................................. 179
OUI. See Organizationally Unique Identifier.
P
Packaging ........................................................................ 453
Details ...................................................................... 454
Marking .................................................................... 453
Parallel Slave Port (PSP) ................................................. 163
Associated Registers ............................................... 165
PORTD .................................................................... 163
Select (PSPMODE Bit) ............................................ 163
PIE Registers ................................................................... 131
Pin Functions
AVDD .............................................................. 24, 32, 42
AVSS .............................................................. 24, 32, 42
ENVREG ........................................................ 24, 32, 42
MCLR ............................................................. 18, 25, 33
OSC1/CLKI .................................................... 18, 25, 33
OSC2/CLKO .................................................. 18, 25, 33
RA0/LEDA/AN0 .............................................. 18, 25, 33
RA1/LEDB/AN1 .............................................. 18, 25, 33
RA2/AN2/VREF- .............................................. 18, 25, 33
RA3/AN3/VREF+ ............................................. 18, 25, 33
RA4/T0CKI ..................................................... 18, 25, 33
RA5/AN4 ........................................................ 18, 25, 33
RB0/INT0/FLT0 .............................................. 19, 26, 34
RB1/INT1 ....................................................... 19, 26, 34
RB2/INT2 ....................................................... 19, 26, 34
RB3/INT3 ............................................................. 19, 26
RB3/INT3/ECCP2/P2A .............................................. 34
DS39762E-page 470
RB4/KBI0 ....................................................... 19, 26, 34
RB5/KBI1 ....................................................... 19, 26, 34
RB6/KBI2/PGC .............................................. 19, 26, 34
RB7/KBI3/PGD .............................................. 19, 26, 34
RBIAS ............................................................ 24, 32, 42
RC0/T1OSO/T13CKI ..................................... 20, 27, 35
RC1/T1OSI/ECCP2/P2A ............................... 20, 27, 35
RC2/ECCP1/P1A ........................................... 20, 27, 35
RC3/SCK1/SCL1 ........................................... 20, 27, 35
RC4/SDI1/SDA1 ............................................ 20, 27, 35
RC5/SDO1 ..................................................... 20, 27, 35
RC6/TX1/CK1 ................................................ 20, 27, 35
RC7/RX1/DT1 ................................................ 20, 27, 35
RD0 ............