AMSCO AS8500_1

1.1
2
AS8500
Universal multi pupose data aquisition system
Data Sheet
3
DATA SHEET
1
2
3
Features
INTERNAL TEMPERATURE
16 bits resolution
differential inputs
Single + 5V supply
Low power 15 mW
SOIC16 package
16 kHz maximum sampling frequency
internal temperature measurement
internal reference
programmable current sources
digital comparator
active wake-up
PGA gains 6, 24, 50, 100
Zero offset
Zero offset TC
Extremely low noise
Internal oscillator with comparator for active wake up
3-wire serial interface, !P compatible
temperature range – 40 to + 125 °C
ETR
ETS
VBAT
VDDA
VSSA
1.26 V
REFERENCE
VDDD
CALIBRATION
DATA
BUF
VSSD
INPUT MUX
CHOPPER
DSP
CONTROLLER
FILTER
INT. CLOCK
TIMER
16 BIT - CONVERTER
PROTECTION
RSHH
PGA
and
LEVEL SHIFT
RSHL
CURRENT
SOURCES
CLK
EZPRG
COMPARATOR
SERIAL INTERFACE / CONTROL REGISTERS
SCLK
SDAT
INTN
Figure 1: Functional Block Diagram
the high internal chopping frequency the system is free of 1/f-noise down
to DC.The 0-10 Hz noise is typical below 1 µ V i.e. as good or better than
any other available chopper amplifier.
For high speed synchronous measurements the chip can run in an
automatic switching mode between two input channels with preprogrammed parameter sets.
The circuit has been optimised for the application in battery management
systems in automotive systems. As a front end data acquisition system it
allows an high quality measurement of current, voltage and temperature
of the battery.
Applications
battery management for automotive systems
power management
mV/µ V-meter
thermocouple temperature measurement
RTD precision temperature measurement
high-precision voltage and current measurement
General description
The AS8500 is a complete, low power data acquisition system
for very small signals (i.e. voltages from shunt resistors,
thermocouples) that operates on a single 5 V power supply. The
chip powers up with a set of default conditions at which time it
can be operated as a read-only-converter. Reprogramming is at
any time possible by just writing into two internal registers via
the serial interface.
The AS8500 has four ground refering inputs which can be
switched separately to the internal PGA. Two input channels can
also be operated as a fully differential ground free input. The
system can measure both positive and negative input signals.
The PGA amplification ranges from 6 to 100 which enables the
system to measure signals from 7mV to 120 mV full scale range
with high accuracy, linearity and speed.
The chip contains a high precision bandgap reference and an
active offset compensation that makes the system offset free
(better than 0,5 !V) and the offset-TC value negligible. The builtin programmable digital filter allows an effective noise
suppression if the high speed is not necessary in the application.
The input noise density is only 35 nV / Hz and due to
Revision 1.2, 08-Junel-06
AGND
REF
With a high quality 100 !" resistor the system can handle the starter
current of up to 1500 A, a continuous current of # 300 A as well as the
very low idle current of a few mA in the standby mode.
For external temperature measurement the chip can use a wide variety of
different temperature sensors such as RTD, PTC, NTC, thermocouples or
even diodes or transistors. A built-in programmable current source can be
switched to any input and activate these sensors without the need of
other external components.
The measurement of the chip temperature with the integrated internal
temperature sensor allows in addition the temperature compensation of
sensitive parameters which increases the total accuracy considerably.
The flexibility of the system is further increased by a digital comparator
that can be assigned to any measured property
(current, voltage, temperature) and an active wake-up in the sleep-mode.
All analog input-terminals can be checked for wire break via the SDIinterface.
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AS8500 - Data Sheet
CONTENTS
1
FEATURES ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 1
2
APPLICATIONS................................................................................................................................................................................. 1
3
GENERAL DESCRIPTION ................................................................................................................................................................ 1
4
PIN FUNCTION DESCRIPTION FOR SOIC 16 PACKAGE.............................................................................................................. 3
5
ABSOLUTE MAXIMUM RATINGS.................................................................................................................................................... 4
6
ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS ................................................................................................................................................. 5
7
FUNCTIONAL DESCRIPTION .......................................................................................................................................................... 9
POWER ON RESET ........................................................................................................................................................................... 9
ANALOG PART, GENERAL DESCRIPTION ............................................................................................................................................ 9
7.2.1
Reference voltage ............................................................................................................................................................ 10
7.2.2
Current sources ................................................................................................................................................................ 12
7.2.3
Internal temperature sensor ............................................................................................................................................. 13
7.3 DIGITAL PART ................................................................................................................................................................................ 13
7.3.1
Sampling rate ................................................................................................................................................................... 13
7.3.2
Calibration ........................................................................................................................................................................ 13
7.4 MODES OF OPERATION .................................................................................................................................................................. 15
7.5 REGISTER DESCRIPTION ................................................................................................................................................................ 16
7.5.1
OPM operation mode register ( 4 bits ) ............................................................................................................................ 17
7.5.2
CRG general configuration register ( 28 bits ) .................................................................................................................. 17
7.5.3
CRA measurement channel A configuration register ( 17 bits ) ..................................................................................... 18
7.5.4
CRB measurement channel B configuration register ( 17 bits ) ...................................................................................... 20
7.5.5
ZZR Zener-Zap register (188 bits ):................................................................................................................................. 21
7.5.6
CAR calibration register ( 110 bits )................................................................................................................................. 23
7.5.7
TRR trimming register ( 20 bits ) ...................................................................................................................................... 23
7.5.8
THR alarm (Wake-up) threshold register ( 17 bits )......................................................................................................... 26
7.5.9
MSR measurement result register ( 18 bits )................................................................................................................... 26
8
DIGITAL INTERFACE DESCRIPTION............................................................................................................................................ 26
8.1 CLK ............................................................................................................................................................................................. 26
8.2 INTN............................................................................................................................................................................................ 26
8.3 SDI BUS OPERATION...................................................................................................................................................................... 27
8.4 DATA TRANSFERS .......................................................................................................................................................................... 28
8.5 SDI BUS TIMING............................................................................................................................................................................. 29
8.6 SDI ACCESS TO OTP MEMORY ....................................................................................................................................................... 30
8.6.1
ZZR register bit mapping .................................................................................................................................................. 30
8.6.2
Stored ZZR-register mapping ........................................................................................................................................... 34
9
GENERAL APPLICATION HINTS................................................................................................................................................... 35
9.1 GROUND CONNECTION, ANALOG COMMON....................................................................................................................................... 35
9.2 THERMAL EMF.............................................................................................................................................................................. 35
9.3 NOISE CONSIDERATIONS ................................................................................................................................................................ 35
9.4 SHIELDING, GUARDING ................................................................................................................................................................... 36
10 TYPICAL PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS.......................................................................................................................... 37
7.1
7.2
11
PACKAGE DIMENSIONS................................................................................................................................................................ 39
12
REVISION HISTORY ....................................................................................................................................................................... 39
13
ORDERING INFORMATION............................................................................................................................................................ 39
14
CONTACT........................................................................................................................................................................................ 40
14.1
HEADQUARTERS ...................................................................................................................................................................... 40
14.2
SALES OFFICES ....................................................................................................................................................................... 40
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AS8500 - Data Sheet
4
PIN function description for SOIC 16 package
PIN
Name
description
1
RSHL
anlalog input from shunt resistor low side
2
RSHH
anlalog input from shunt resistor high side
3
ETS
analog input with reference to RSHL
Comment
analog common for VBAT, ETS and ETR; return for internal
current source
analog input for differential input ETS-VBAT
analog output for current-source
4
VBAT
analog input with reference to RSHL
analog input for differential input ETS-VBAT
analog output for current-source
5
VSS
0V-power supply for analog part
6
EZPRG
digital power input for programming Zener fuses.
7
VSSD
0V-power supply and ground reference point for digital part
This input must be open or connected to VDDD. It is not intended,
that OTP content is modified by the user.
8
CLK
digital input for external clock, master clock input
external clock typical 8.192 MHz; during MWU-mode (see 7.4)
external connection must be high impedance or connected to
VDDD to reduce current consumption
9
SCLK
serial port clock input for SDI-port
the user must provide a serial clock on this input
10
SDAT
serial data in- and output
11
INTN
Digital I/O for interrupt from comparator
signal wake-up to external µ C
conversion ready flag for external interupt and synchronisation in normal mode
12
VDDD
+ 5V digital power supply
13
VDDA
+ 5V analog power supply
14
REF
reference input/output
15
AGND
analog ground, ground reference for ADC
16
ETR
analog input with reference to RSHL
must be connected to VSS with a 30 nF capacitor
this PIN must be connected with a 50-100nF-capacitor to VSS;
no direct connection to VSSD/VSS allowed
analog output for current-source
Table 1: Pin Description
Figure 2: Schematic Package outline SOIC 16
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AS8500 - Data Sheet
5
Absolute Maximum Ratings
Stress beyond those listed under “Absolute Maximum Ratings“ may cause permanent damage to the device. These are stress ratings only. Functional
operation of the device at these or any other conditions beyond those indicated under “Operating Conditions” is not implied. Exposure to absolute
maximum rating conditions for extended periods may affect device reliability. All voltages are defined with respect to VSS and VSSD. Positive currents
flow into the IC.
Absolute maximum ratings (TA = -40°C to 125°C unless otherwise specified)
Nr.
0
1
2
PARAMETER
Supply voltage
Analogue VDDA and digital VDDD
Input pin voltage
3
Input current
(latch-up immunity)
Electrostatic discharge
4
Ambient temperature
5
6
7
8
9
Storage temperature
Soldering conditions
Humidity, non-condensing
Thermal resistance
Power dissipation
SYMBOL
VDD
MIN
-0.3
Vin
TYP
MAX
7.0
UNIT
V
-0.3
VDD +0.3
V
ISCR
-100
100
mA
ESD
-2
2
kV
TA
-40
125
OC
TSTRG
TLEAD
-55
150
260
85
75
350
OC
5
RthJA
PTOT
°C
%
K/W
mW
NOTE
Polarity inversion externally
protected
JEDEC 17
1)
(Tj = 150°C)
2)
Notes:
1) MIL 883 E method 3015, HBM: R =1.5 k", C =100pF.
2) Jedec Std – 020C, lead free
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AS8500 - Data Sheet
6
Electrical characteristics
VDDA=5V +/-0.1 V, fclk=8.192 MHz, chopping ratio MM=4 (see 7.5.3), oversampling frequency=2.048 MHz, oversampling ratio=128
temperature range : -40 to 125°C if not otherwise noted
symbol
parameter
conditions
min
typ
max
units
input characteristics
for gain 1 the input signal is connected directly to th input of the converter, this is not possible for the RSHH-RSHL
G1
input
Gain
gains of PGA
6, 24, 50, 100
AC_g6
Accuracy at gain 6
0 to 85 °C
0.4
% @-120mV
-40 to 125°C
1.0
% @-120mV
AC_g24
Accuracy at gain 24
0 to 85 °C
0.2
% @+-20mV
-40 to 125°C
0.6
% @+-20mV
AC_g50
Accuracy at gain 50
0 to 85 °C
1
% @+-10mV
AC_g100
Accuracy at gain 100
0 to 85 °C
1
% @+-5mV
Vin
input voltage ranges
G1
-300 to + 800
mV
(with reference to RSHL)
G6
+/- 120
mV
G24
+/- 30
mV
G50
+/- 15
mV
G100
+/- 7.5
mV
1)
2)
2),3)
2)
2) 3)
2)4)
2)4)
5)
6)
6)
7)
7)
Notes:
1) the absolute gain values are subjected to a manufacturing spread of +/-30%
2) Accuracy relies on bandgap characteristic, on the gain variation over temperature and on the trimm information. To achieve optimum performance,
the circuit may be trimmed by the user for best temperature stability by writting aproporiate data to the TRR register (see sections 7.4 and 7.5)
Default content of TRR register is 17.
3) due to a nonlinear behaviour of the gain and reference voltage over temperature the accuracy is lower for the extended temperature range.
4) It is recommended to use these gain settings only for applications in the temperature range 0 t0 85°C
therefore it is recommended to use these gain settings only for applications in the temperature range 0 to 85°C.
5) this gain range is not using the internal PGA, the input is directely connected to the AD-converter. Therefore the input resistance is lower then for
other gain ranges.
It has been designed mainly for positive input voltages up to 0.8 V i.e. for measurements of temperature with transistors and diodes.
The limitation for negative input voltages is due to the onset of conduction of the input protection diodes.
6) the ASSP is optimised for G6 and G24 concerning linearity, speed and TC, therefore these ranges are recommended whenever possible.
7) because of higher TC value at elevated temperature G50 and G100 are recommended for applications in the temperature range 0 to 85°C
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AS8500 - Data Sheet
Electrical characteristics (continued)
VDDA=5V +/-0.1 V, fclk=8.192 MHz, chopping ratio MM=4 (see 7.5.3), oversampling frequency=2.048 MHz, oversampling ratio=128
temperature range : -40 to 125°C if not otherwise noted
symbol
cal_err
lin_err
lin_errTC
Vos
dVos/dT
Ib
Vndin
Indin
en p_p
en_RMS
SNR
SDR
CCI
PSRR
parameter
calibration error
for 30 000 digits output at
full range
nonlinearity
TC of linearity error
offset voltage:
RSHH_RSHL
offset voltage: ETS, ETR,
VBAT
Offset voltage drift: RSHHRSHL
input bias/leakage current,
all channels
voltage noise density
(G=24)
current noise density
(G=24)
voltage noise, peak (G=24)
conditions
min
G1, 720 mV
G6, 120 mV
G24, 30 mV
G50, 15 mV
G100, 7.5 mV
gain 6 @ room temp
gain 24 @ room temp
gain 50 @ room temp
gain 100 @ room temp
all gains
typ
max
Device is not
factory
calibrated
0.1
0.03
0.05
0.05
1
units
%
5
% or 30 digits
% or 10 digits
% or 15 digits
% or 20 digits
ppm/K
1)
2)
2)
2)
2)
3)
-40 to 125°C
-0.5
0.2
0.5
µV
4)
-40 to 85°C
85 to 125°C
-2
-4
0.5
1
1
2
µV
µV
4)
-40 to 85 °C
room temperature
0.002
-1000
f=0 to 1 kHz
f=10 Hz
0 to 100 Hz
0 to 10 Hz
voltage noise, RMS (G=24) 1000 Hz
signal to noise (G=24, G=6) room temperature
signal to distortion (G=24,
G=6)
room temperature
chanel to chanel insulation room temperature
power supply rejection ratio 4.9 to 5.1 V
4)
µ V/K
0.2
1000
nA
5)
35
50
nV//Hz
6)
20
3
1
1.5
100
fA//Hz
µV
µV
µV
dBmin
6)
100
-90
-60
dBmin
dBmax
dBmax
6)
6)
6)
Notes:
1) The output response might be calibrated by the user by writing appropriate calibration constants to the CAR register (see 7.5. ). The default values
are 1548 dec
2) whatever is lower
3) max limit is derived fromdevice characterization and not tested
4) Min/Maximum limits over temperature range are derived from device characterization and not etsted. In normal operation a termperature independent
digital offset of -0.7 digits is present due to internal raunding.
5) Typical leakage current is valid for all gain settings except G=1 for positive input voltages below 200 mV. In the temperature range 85-125°C it may
be as high as 5 nA. In normal operation a temperature independent digital offset of -0.7 digits is present due to internal rounding.
6) This parameter is not measured directly. It is measured indirectly via gain measurement of the whole path at room temperature
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AS8500 - Data Sheet
Electrical characteristics (continued)
VDDA=5V +/-0.1 V, fclk=8.192 MHz, chopping ratio MM=4 (see 7.5.3), oversampling frequency=2.048 MHz, oversampling ratio =128
temperature range : -40 to 125°C if not otherwise noted
symbol
parameter
conditions
min
typ
max
units
data conversion
RES
resolution
all channels
16
bits
Vref
reference voltage
room temperature
1.21
V
0-85°C,box
Vref_TC
temperature coefficient of Vref
method
20
ppm/K
Vref_Ri
internal resistance of Vref
Rload > 50 kOhm
200
Ohm
fovs
clock frequency
4.096
MHz
R1
oversamplig ratio
64
128
MM
conversions during chopper cycle
4
8
BW
bandwidth
7.8
1000
16000
Hz
av
internal averaging
1
4
1024
cycles
fclk
external clock frequency
0.05
8.192
10
MHz
CLK_extdiv
clock division factor
2
4
DR_clk
duty ratio of external clock
50
%
int_fclk
internal clock frequency
180
250
330
kHz
analog inputs
RSHH, VBAT, ETS, ETS
Rin
input resistance
Ue < 150 mV
50
100
MOhm
Cin
input capacitance at gain 24
8
15
30
pF
internal temperature sensor
T_out20
output at 23°C
G 6, typical
23 000
digits
T_sl
slope
-20 to 100°C
75
digits/degC
current source
output to RSHH, RSHL
Icurr_rshh
2
µA
1) 2)
3)
4)
Notes:
1) with external averaging the resolution can be increased up to 21 bits with an effective sampling rate below 10 Hz
2) the system works in overflow condition without degradation of accuracy up to 1.4 * range width.
This means that the overflow bit can work as bit no.17 in this range.
3) TC- value of the reference voltage may be set through trimm bits intentionally higher to minimize TC of the entire measurement path for gain 24
4) in the temperature range 0 - 85°C the clock frequency can be increased to 12 MHz
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AS8500 - Data Sheet
Electrical characteristics (continued)
VDDA=5V +/-0.1 V, fclk=8.192 MHz, chopping ratio MM=4 (see 7.5.3), oversampling frequency=2.048 MHz, oversampling ratio=128
temperature range : -40 to 125°C if not otherwise noted
symbol
parameter
conditions
min
typ
max
units
programmable current source
output to Vbat, ETS, or ETR
Icurr_ON
current level
0
248
µA
I_steps
current steps
6
8
10
µA
TC_CS
temperature coefficient
900
ppm/K
Icurr_OFF
current when off
room temperature
0.001
µA
Icurr_Ri
internal resistance of current source Ua < 2 V
10
MOhm
digital CMOS inputs with pull up and schmidt-trigger
input PINs CLK and SCLK
Vih
high level input voltage
VDDD=5V
3.5
V
Vil
low level input voltage
VDDD=5V
1.5
V
Iih
current level
VDDD=5V, Vih=5V
-1
1
µA
Iil
current level
VDDD=5V, Vil=0
30
120
µA
digital CMOS outputs
output PINs SDAT and INTN
Voh
high level output voltage
VDDD=5V, -633uA
4.5
V
Vol
low level output voltage
VDDD=5V, 564uA
0.4
V
Cl
capacitive load
20
pF
Tristate digital I/O
Voh
high level output voltage
VDDD=5V, -633uA
4.5
V
Vol
low level output voltage
VDDD=5V, 564uA
0.4
V
tristate leakage current to
Ioz
VDDD,VSSD
VDDD=5V
-1
1
µA
Vih
high level input voltage
VDDD=5V
3.5
V
Vil
low level input voltage
VDDD=5V
1.5
V
supply current
Isup
normal operation
VDDD=VDDA=5V
3
5
mA
Iaw
active wake-up
VDDD=VDDA=5V
40
100
µA
supply voltage
VDDA
positive analog supply voltage
4.7
5.0
5.3
V
VDDD
positive digital supply voltage
4.5
5.0
5.5
V
VSS, VSSD
negative supply voltage
0
V
Power On Reset
Vporhi
Power on reset Hi
3.1
V
Vhyst
Hysteresis
0.2
V
1)
2)
Notes:
1) the average current is dependent on the on-time of the measurement system i.e. it can be programed via the CRA register
2) dynamic stability of analog supply should be within +/- 0.1 V
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AS8500 - Data Sheet
7
7.1
Functional Description
Power on Reset
The power on reset is iniciated during each power up of the ASSP and can be triggered purpously by reducing the analog supply voltage (VDDA) to a
value lower than Vporlo for a time interval longer than 0.5 µ sec.
During power on reset sequence the following steps are performed automatically:
The chip goes to mode MZL (see 7.4)
Internal clock is enabled
The calibration constants are loaded from Zener-zap memory to the appropriate registers (ZTR=>TRR, ZCL=>CAR). The load procedure is
directed by the internal clock and can be monitored on INTN pin. 188 clock pulses are generated from the internal oscillator source. Pulse period
is equal to internal clock period.
After the power-on reset sequence is finished:
the operation continues with internal clock if no external clock is detected. In this case the ASSPs switches to mode MWU with default value of
threshold register ( 214 )
If external clock is available the ASSP switches to mode current measurement MMS (default measurement with default configuration: gain=100,
fovs=4.096MHz, R1=64, MM=4, R2=1, NTH=214).
The microcontroller can communicate via SDI interface whenever appropriate, i.e. CAR and TRR register can be rewritten from the µ C if
necessary.
Because the automatic selected calibration factor (CGI4) is loaded with zeros, the ASSP delivers constant zero at the output to allow the µ C to
check for an unwanted POR. To bring the ASSP back into normal operation for current
measurement with gain100 the µ C has to copy the CAU4 default content or a customer specific calibration factor into the CAR-register.
(see also 7.5.5 and 8.6.2)
7.2
Analog part, general description
The input signals are level shifted to AGND (+ 2.5 V) then switched by the special high quality MUX- which contains also the chopper – to the input of
the programmable gain amplifier (PGA). This low noise amplifier is optimised for best linearity, TC- value and speed at gain 24.
The systems contains an internal bandgap reference with high stability, low noise and low TC-value. The output of a programmable current source can
be switched to the analog inputs VBAT, ETS and ETR for testing the sensor connections
or for external activation of resistors, bridges or sensors (RTD, NTC). The voltage drop generated by the current is measured at the corresponding
input/output PIN.
For the wire break test of the RSHH and RSHL inputs special low noise current sources are implemented.
The integrated temperature sensor can also be switched to the PGA by the MUX and measured any time. The chip temperature can be used for the
temperature compensation of
the gain of the different channels in the external µ C, which increases the absolute accuracy considerably.
The offset of the amplifier itself is already fairly low, but to guarantee the full dynamic range it can be trimmed via the digital interface to nearly zero
independent of the autozero chopping function.
In the same way the manufacturing spread of the absolute value of the reference voltage can be eliminated and the TC-value set to nearly zero by a
trimming process via the SDI interface.
For more details of the input multiplexer see the following schematic. The position of all switches is defined by writing into the registers CRA, CRB and
CRG via the SDI bus, which is explained in 7.5.2 through 7.5.4.
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AS8500 - Data Sheet
M7
M6
INTERNAL
TEMPERATURE
CURRENT
SOURCE
ETR
M9
M8
ETS
M 15
M2
M 14
VBAT
M 10
M4
M3
M5
RSHH
M1
PGA
ADCONVERTER
M 12
RSHL
AUXILIARY
CURRENT
SOURCE
M 13
Figure 3: Multiplexer
7.2.1
Reference voltage
The ASSP contains a highly sophisticated precision reference voltage. Its typical temperature dependence is a slight parabola shaped curve and is
shown in figure 14. This reference voltage is used mainly for the internal AD-converter, but can also be used for external purposes if the impedance of
the external circuitry is high enough.
reference voltage as function of resistance load
1,26
reference voltage in V
1,24
1,22
1,20
1,18
measurement
open loop value
1,16
1,14
1,12
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
110
resistance load in kOhm
The absolute value and its temperature coefficient (TC) is given by the content of the TRR register. This opens the possibility to calibrate the reference
voltage to the optimum absolute value (i.e. 1.28 V) and the TC value to zero thus eliminating fully the production spread.
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AS8500 - Data Sheet
Writing into subregister TRIMBV of TRR changes the absolute value linearly by 5.1 mV per digit as shown in the following graph and described in full
detail in 7.5.7
as function of temperature
reference voltage in V
1,36
1,32
75 °C
24 °C
1,28
1,24
1,20
1,16
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
content of TRIMBV in bits
Trimming the TC value is similarly done by writing into subregister TRIMBTC. Since the TC trimming is also changing the absolute value it is important
to trim the TC first and then the absolute value.
temperature coefficient as function of TRIMBTC setting
temperature coefficient in ppm/K
200
150
100
change 12.7 ppm/K
per step
50
0
-50
-100
-150
-200
-250
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
setting of subregister TRIMBTC of TRR
The TC trimming also opens the unique possibility to change the TC-value within the time of reprogramming of the TRR-register (i.e. within µ sec) to
allow the compensation of
different TC-values of the external circuitry for different channels.
In addition it can be used for very fast autocalibration of the total TC of a given channel. An external reference voltage is applied to the channel to be
checked. Then all numbers from 0 to 31 are written into subregister TRIMBTC and a reading is done for the input voltage and the internal temperature
as well. The same is repeated at any temperature above RT. From these data the TRIMBTC setting for a minimum drift can be easily calculated.
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AS8500 - Data Sheet
7.2.2
Current sources
The AS8500 contains several current sources which can be used for checking all input lines for wire brake, to control external circuitry or to activate
external sensors.
Main current source
The main current source can be digitally controlled via the content of the CRG register in 31 steps of 8 µ A in the range of 0 to 248 µ A. Its absolute
value can be calibrated by writing in the subregister TRIMC of TRR.
The current source can be switched to the inputs VBAT, ETR or ETS to activate external sensors like RTDs, NTCs or resistance briges and strain
gages. It can also be used to detect a wire breake of external connected sensors. Performing a measurement with a high and a low (or zero) current
opens the possiblity to eliminate thermal EMF voltages in external sensors.
Secondary current sources
The ASSP contains two other high quality current sources supplying a current of approx. 2µ A at the inputs RSHL and RSHH. These current sources
can be switched on and off at any time to check the correct connection of both terminals. During off state they must not interfere with the high sensitive
voltage inputs, especially the noise level should not be increased. If one of the terminals is an open connection the amplifier goes into saturation and
the overflow bit is set.
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AS8500 - Data Sheet
7.2.3
Internal temperature sensor
The ASSP contains a high sensitive precision temperature sensor which can be used at any time. The sensor supplies a very linear voltage with
temperature. The voltage can be measured using the internal circuitry with gain 6, with free selection of all other parameters defining the sampling rate.
measurement of internal temperature sensor over oil bath temperature
35000
100
50
25
25000
0
-25
20000
-50
output signal
linearity deviation
inearity deviation in digits
internal temperature in digits
75
30000
-75
cubic fit
15000
-100
-50
-25
0
25
50
75
100
125
150
175
temperature in deg C
The slope of the curve is approx. 75 digits per degC.
The calculation of the temperature has to be done in the external µ C acc. to the following simple formula:
Tint=( Uint(T)-Uint(23) ) / 75 + 23°C
Uint(T) is the measured result and Uint(23) is the reference value at 23°C, which is stored as an 11 bit-word in the ZZR-register.
7.3
Digital part
In the digital part the result of the AD-converter is processed, i.e. calibration, active offset cancellation and filtering is done. In addition the
communication via the serial SDI interface is handled and all circuit functions (like voltage and current path settings, chopping, dechopping) are
controlled.
Whenever the power supply line returns from below POR threshold a power-up circuitry is activated which loads the internal calibration registers from
the Zener-Zap memory into the working register and starts the chip in a special default mode.
7.3.1
Sampling rate
the sampling rate (SR) is defined by the setting of parameters in register CRA or CRB. The oversampling frequency (OSF), the oversampling ratio
(OSR), the chopping ratio (MM) and the averaging number (AV). The sampling rate can be calculated acc. to the following formula:
SR= OSF/(OSR*MM*AV)
For an clock frequency of 8.192 MHz it can vary between
16 000 Hz and 1.95 Hz.
In the dual mode (see 7.4 mode 2) the ASSP is switching automatically between the two channels and it needs at least one measurement for each
polarity to get a valid measurement. In addition the ASSP needs some time to reprogram the internal registers and switches. Therefore the maximum
sampling frequency is limited to 7.5 kHz for the above given clock frequency. The internal averaging is not working in the dual mode, but the sampling
frequency can be different for each channel.
7.3.2
Calibration
The calibration of the ASSP is done by a test setup as follows:
room temperature calibration of the internal temperature sensor
absolute input-output calibration for all gain settings
TC calibration for the measurement path for gain 24
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AS8500 - Data Sheet
The absolute input-output calibration of the gain ranges can be done that way that for a given input voltage 30 000 digits at the output are produced:
Table 7.2.2
gain
input/mV
output/digits
1
6
24
50
100
720
120
30
15
7.5
30 000
30 000
30 000
30 000
30 000
The TC-value of the output (total measurement path) for G24 can be trimmed to a minimum value by selecting the best setting of the TRIMBTC
subregister of the TRR register (see 7.5.7).
A factory calibration is done for the amplifier offset (TRIMA).
This data is stored in the ZZR register. ZZR-register mapping is given in 8.6.2
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AS8500 - Data Sheet
7.4
Modes of operation
The AS8500 can run in different operation modes, which are selected and activated via the serial interface.
Detailed description:
Mode 0: MZL
In power-on reset sequence, which is initiated by the on-chip power-on reset circuit whenever the power is connected , the registers are loaded from the
Zener-Zap memory.
Mode 1: MMS
Measurement mode where the definition is taken from the registers CRA and CRG defined later on. The measurements are continuous and measured
results are available after the ready flag (INTN pin) is set to LO. The result can be read by the µ C any time after this bit is set to LO. However, to obtain
the best noise performances the result should be read when INTN pin is at LO state. All modules are in power-up.
Mode 2: MMD
Dual channel measurement mode. Two consecutive different measurements are performed according to the settings in the configuration registers CRA,
CRB and CRG defined later (usually CRA defining current measurements and CRB voltage measurement). One complete measurement is performed
with each setting. CRG register holds common settings.
The measurements are continuous (A,B,A,B). The 17th bit in the output register defines, which measurement has been executed according to the
definition LO=A, HI=B.
The number of consecutive measurements with equal configuration is defined in register CRG (bits s3,s2,s1,s0). All modules are in power-up.
Mode 3: MWU
In this wake-up mode the internal clock finclk=256kHz is running and one complete measurement is performed in the period from 1 to 1.5 s with the
parameter settings of the CRA register. Before the actual measurement is performed the logic powers up all internal circuits especially the AGND and
the Vref. If the external load is higher than 70 kOhms both signals can be used for external triggering or even as interrupt for the µ C.
If the external clock is not running, this input should be high impedance. To achieve a stable low idle current the oversampling ratio should be set to
R1=128 and the CFG register must be programmed to x00003, see also 7.4 ‘Register description’. It is assumed that the threshold level in the THR
register is defined within the 16 bit range, if not the default value is 210
After one measurement is finished all modules except the on- board oscillator and divider are switched into power down condition to save power. The
MSR register is updated with the last measurement result. Whenever this value exceeds the digital threshold the (wake-up) INTN pin goes LO for one
clock cycle to trigger the wake-up event in the external µ C.
After that the circuit returns in power-down for approximately 1s. During this time the last measurement (MSR register) is available on the SDI interface.
In this intermediate sleep-mode all modules except internal oscillator and divider are in power-down mode. The SDI interface works independent which
means that the measurement result is available by reading the MSR register. At any time the microprocessor can start any other mode via SDI. In such
a case the external clock must be switched on first.
The chip goes in MWU mode (mode 3) after it received the command for that. After that command 6 or more additional CLK pulses are needed before
external clock may go to power down mode (no CLK pulses, high level because of internal pull-up resistors). This 6 CLK pulses are needed for
synchronisation. On the way back to normal mode this restriction is not needed.
Mode 4: MAM
In this alarm mode the measurement defined in CRA is going on. The channel bit in the THR register must be cleared (channel A). The threshold value
may be positive or negative. Whenever the measured value exceeds the digital threshold value in the THR register the pin INTN (in this mode its
function is to signal alarm-condition) goes LO for one clock cycle. For negative threshold value the signed measurement result must be more negative
than the THR value to activate the alarm. During measurements the signal INTN is high. All modules are in power-up, measurements are continuously
going on.
Mode 5: MZP
Zener-Zap programming/reading. This mode for factory programming only and should not be used by the customer.
Mode 6: MPD
Power down mode. Individual analog blocks can be disabled/enabled. The data acquisition system is not running during this mode is activated.
Mode 7: MSI
The operation in this mode is exactly the same as in MMS mode except that the internal clock is used.
The SDI interface signals can become active whenever appropriate. This mode can be used if no external clock CLK is available. The measuring speed
is reduced by a factor of 16.
Modes 8-15: These modes are reserved for testing purposes and should not be used by the customer. Reading and writing of some registers is only
possible in these higher modes. Write to registers CAR (calibration register) and TRR (trimming register) is allowed only in test modes.
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AS8500 - Data Sheet
Modes of operation, register OPM
Mode
0
Name
MZL
Description
Power on, loading from Zener-Zap
memory
Single measurement
mo3
0
mo2
0
mo1
0
mo0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
1
0
0
0
1
1
1
MMS
2
MMD
3
MWU
Double measurement
(A,B,A,B …)
Wake-up
4
MAM
Alarm
0
1
0
0
5
MZP
Zener program/read
0
1
0
1
6
MPD
Power down
0
1
1
0
7
MSI
0
1
1
1
1
x
x
x
8-15
Reserved for testing
1)
Notes:
1) Register addresses 12, 13, 14 and 15 are reserved for testing and future options; operations on these
registers must be avoided
7.5
Register description
In the following sections the register contents and their functions are described in detail. Since the length of some
registers is too long to present clearly, the registers are logically subdivided according to their functions and described
separately.
All internal functions are controlled by the contents of these registers which can be reloaded via the serial SDI interface at
any time. The AS8500 contains the following registers:
REGISTER
ADDRESS
SIZE
OPM
0
4
Operating mode register
7.5.1
CRA
1
17
Measurement A configuration register
7.5.3
CRB
2
17
Measurement B configuration register
7.5.4
CRG
3
28
General configuration register
7.5.2
MSR
4
18
Measurement result register
7.5.9
ZZR
5
188
Zener-Zap register
7.5.5
CAR
6
110
Calibration register
7.5.6
TRR
7
20
Trimming register
7.5.7
THR
8
17
Alarm or wake-up threshold register
7.5.8
CFG
9
20
Test and special configuration register
reserved
10-12
Note:
1)
Contents
Detailled description see
1)
Test registers
This register is reserved for testing modes. Writing is possible only in mode 8. In order to assure
stable conditions in power-down modes MWU(3), MPD(6), TMSS(8) and MSI(13) the default
setting of the CFG register must be changed to x00003. It is not necessary to change this value
during normal operation.
Write commands not supported in a certain mode can be released immediately after the register address. The ASSP will
resume operation with the next start condition. Registers CAR and TRR are not buffered. Any read operation of the CAR
or TRR register may generate transients in the analog circuitry; further accurate measurements require a delay time for
settling.
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AS8500 - Data Sheet
7.5.1
no.
0
1)
OPM operation mode register ( 4 bits )
Bit
default
mo3
0
mo2
0
mo1
0
mo0
0
Note
1)
This register has been described in detail under 7.4
7.5.2
no.
0
CRG general configuration register ( 28 bits )
CRG bits
27-22
CRS
21-11
CRI
10-7
CRV
6-0
CRP
NOTE
subregister CRS: Sequence length, dechop and chop ( 6 bits )
Nr.
0
1
Bits
CRS bit
names
Default
5
s3
4
s2
3
s1
2
s0
1
d
0
c
0
0
0
1
1
1
NOTE
1)
2)
Notes:
1) This register defines the sequence length, chopping (c) and dechopping (d) of the input signal
2) Default power-up state before any setting
Sequence length bits ( 4bits)
Nr.
0
No. of measurements
16
s3
0
s2
0
s1
0
s0
0
1
1
0
0
0
1
…
…
…
…
…
…
14
14
1
1
1
0
15
15
1
1
1
1
NOTE
1)
default
Notes:
1)Number of consecutive measurements of A and B with settings defined in CRA,CRB
and other settings in CRG register. This setting is used only for mode MMD.
DECHOPPING BIT
Nr.
0
Dechopping
No dechopping
d
0
1
Dechopping
1
Nr.
0
Chopping
No chopping
c
0
1
chopping
1
NOTE
CHOPPING BIT
NOTE
subregister CRI: Current configuration ( 11 bits )
Nr.
0
10
M14
9
M13
8
M12
7
M11
6
M8
5
M6
4
i4
3
i3
2
I2
1
i1
0
i0
1
Bits
CRI bit
names
Default
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
2
output
VBAT
RSHL
RSHH
no
ETS
ETR
NOTE
1),3)
2)
Notes:
1) whenever M1=1 in (CRA,CRB) it is good practice to set all M6 to M14 to zero, but it is not mandatory
2) default logic state after power up and before any setting
3) All bits with names M14 to M1 represent control signals of the multiplexer with positive logic (for example M14=1
means that corresponding switch is closed).
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AS8500 - Data Sheet
Current source setting bits (5 bits)
Nr.
0
Current [uA]
0
i4
0
i3
0
i2
0
i1
0
i0
0
1
8
0
0
0
0
1
2
16
0
0
0
1
0
3
24
0
0
0
1
1
4
32
0
0
1
0
0
…
…
…
…
…
…
31
248
1
1
1
1
1
NOTE
subregister CRV: Voltage configuration (4 bits )
Nr.
0
3
M15
2
M10
1
M9
0
M7
1
Bits
CRV bit
names
Defaults
NOTE
0
0
0
0
2
channel
VBATRSHL
VBAT-ETS
differential
ETS-RSHL
ETRRSHL
1),3)
2)
Notes:
1) This register defines the connection of the analog voltage- bus to the input-PINs and to the A/D converter
2) Default logic state after power-up and before any setting
subregister CRP: Power down configuration ( 7 bits )
Nr.
0
1
Bits
CRP bit
names
Defaults
2
block
p6
pdosc
p5
pda
p4
pdm
p3
pdb
p2
pdc
p1
pdi
p0
pdg
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
modulator
ref. bias
current
source
internal
temp.
analog
GND
oscillator amplifier
NOTE
1),3)
2)
Notes:
1) This register defines the power-down signals of the building blocks
2) Default power-up state before any setting
3) The logic is positive (pdosc=1 means the corresponding block is in power-down)
7.5.3
CRA measurement channel A configuration register ( 17 bits )
Nr.
0
1
Bits
CRA bit
names
Defaults
2
subreg.
16
cu2
15
cu1
14
cu0
13
M5
12
M4
11
M3
10
M2
9
M1
8
g1
7
g0
6
f
5
r
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
0
0
OSF
OSR
MM
CRU
CRM
GN
4
3 2
mm n3 n2
0
0
1
n1
0
n0
0
0
NOTE
1), 3)
2)
CRN
Notes:
1) This register defines the measurement channel A configuration
2) Default power-up state before any setting
3) Bit M1 is control signal of the multiplexer for current input
(for example M1=1 means that corresponding switch is closed).
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AS8500 - Data Sheet
subregister CRU: calibration constant selection for voltage path ( 3 bits) in registers CRA,CRB
Nr.
0
Calibration const. U
CAU0
cu2 cu1 cu0
0
0
0
1
CAU1
0
0
1
2
CAU2
0
1
0
3
CAU3
0
1
1
4
CAU4
1
0
0
5
CAU5
1
0
1
6
1548
1
1
0
7
1548
1
1
1
NOTE
subregister CRM: measurement path for registers CRA,CRB
Nr.
Bits
CRA bit
names
Defaults
13
M5
12
M4
11
M3
10
M2
9
M1
0
0
0
0
1
measurement RSHH-RSHL
2
0
1
0
0
0
voltage bus
3
0
1
0
1
0
voltage bus, internal temperature
4
0
1
1
0
0
voltage bus, reference low=RSHL
5
1
0
0
0
0
voltage bus, gain=1
6
1
0
0
1
0
voltage bus,gain=1, internal temperature
7
1
0
1
0
0
voltage bus, gain=1, reference low=RSHL
1
NOTE
1), 2)
Notes:
1) these bits define the inner part of the voltage path settings
2) only the listed combinations are allowed
subregister GN: gain definition bits, Registers CRA,CRB
Nr.
0
GAIN
6
g1
0
g0
0
1
24
0
1
2
50
1
0
3
100
1
1
NOTE
subregister OSF: oversampling frequency bit, Registers CRA,CRB
Nr.
0
Fovs (fclk=8MHz)
2.048MHz
Fovs (internal osc)
132kHz
f
0
1
4.096MHz
264kHz
1
NOTE
1)
1)
Notes:
1) For internal oscillator typical values
subregister OSR: oversampling ratio bit, Registers CRA, CRB
Nr.
0
R1
64
r
0
1
128
1
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AS8500 - Data Sheet
subregister MM: chopping ratio bit, Registers CRA, CRB
Nr.
0
MM
4
mm
0
1
8
1
2
1
x
NOTE
1)
Notes:
1) For c=0 and d=0 , chopping and dechopping is switched off and every cycle is active regardless
of mm, i.e. the sampling frequenzy is higher by a factor of 4
subregister CRN: averaging bits ( 4 bits), registers CRA,CRB
Nr.
0
R2
1
n3
0
n2
0
n1
0
n0
0
NOTE
1
2
0
0
0
1
2
4
0
0
1
0
3
8
0
0
1
1
4
16
0
1
0
0
5
32
0
1
0
1
6
64
0
1
1
0
7
128
0
1
1
1
8
256
1
0
0
0
9
512
1
0
0
1
10
1024
1
0
1
0
11-14
Reserved for test
1
x
x
x
1)
15
raw mode
1
1
1
1
2)
Note:
1) combinations from B to E are reserved for test
2) this mode delivers the AD-values without calibration and averaging but multiplied by a factor which is dependent on the
setting of the oversampling ratio. It can be used for high resolution measurements of very low signals since it eliminates
the internal rounding error.
The ratio between raw result (Nr) and normal result (Nn) is given by: Nr/Nn = 2^(11+x)/CAL where x=6 for R=128 and x=3
for R=64. CAL is the calibration constant used.
7.5.4
Nr.
0
CRB measurement channel B configuration register ( 17 bits )
1
Bits
CRB bit
names
Defaults
2
subreg.
16
cu2
15
cu1
14
cu0
13
M5
12
M4
11
M3
10
M2
9
M1
8
g1
7
g0
6
f
5
r
4
mm
3
n3
2
n2
1
n1
0
n0
0
0
0
0
1
1
0
0
0
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
OSF
OSR
MM
CRU
CRM
GN
NOTE
1), 3)
2)
CRN
Notes:
1) This register defines the measurement channel B configuration, the functions of the subregisters are the same as
described above for measurement channel A
2) Default power-up state before any setting
3) In this mode the chip cannot measure the current sensing input RSHH-RSHL, therefore M1=0 for all settings
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AS8500 - Data Sheet
7.5.5
ZZR Zener-Zap register (188 bits ):
For the AS8500 the zener zap registers are set to a predefined default value. As an exception the TRIMA bits
in the ZTR subregister is factory adjusted for minimum amplifier offset to ensure optimum linearity over input
range.
Nr.
0
ZZR bits
183-187
ZLO
163-182
ZTR
53-162
ZCL
0-52
ZTC1)
NOTE
2)
Notes:
1) 5 bits are reserved for:
- 1 bit eventually destroyed during testing,
- 2 bits for testing programmed 0 and 1
- 2 bits reserved for locking
2) due to a limited driving capability of the ZZR-cells the maximum reading speed is limited to 500 kHz
subregister ZLO: Zener spare bits ( 5 bits )
Nr.
1
Name
Reserved bits
SYMBOL
ZLO
WORD WIDTH
5
Default Hex
F
subregister ZTR: trimming bits (20 bits)
Nr.
0
TC of reference
TRIMBTC
WORD
WIDTH
5
1
absolute value of reference
TRIMBV
5
Bits
2
amplifier offset
TRIMA
5
Bits
3
current source for external
temperature
∑ trim bits
TRIMC
5
Bits
TRIMREG
20
Bits
4
PARAMETER
SYMBOL
UNIT
Bits
subregister ZCL: calibration bits ( 110 bits )
Nr.
PARAMETER
SYMBOL
0
Calibration G=6, I
CGI1
WORD
WIDTH
11
UNIT
1
Calibration G=24, I
CGI2
11
Bits
2
Calibration G=50, I
CGI3
11
Bits
3
Calibration G=100, I
CGI4
11
Bits
4
Calibration U0
CAU0
11
Bits
5
Calibration U1
CAU1
11
Bits
6
Calibration U2
CAU2
11
Bits
7
Calibration U3
CAU3
11
Bits
8
Calibration U4
CAU4
11
Bits
9
Calibration U5
CAU5
11
Bits
10
∑ cal. Bits
ZCL
110
Bits
Bits
Calibration constants are selected dependent on state of M1 ( see table below). For M1=1 one of
CGI1 to CGI4 is selected according to selected gain of amplifier. For M1=0 the selection of the
calibration constants is defined by bits (cu2,cu1,cu0), which are part of CRA and CRB registers and
are defined via SDI interface independently of any other selection.
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AS8500 - Data Sheet
Calibration constant selection truth table
Nr.
cu2 cu1 cu0 M1 g1
x
x
x
1
0
0
g0
0
CAL CONST
CGI1
1)
NOTE
1
x
x
x
1
0
1
CGI2
1)
2
x
x
x
1
1
0
CGI3
1)
3
x
x
x
1
1
1
CGI4
1)
4
0
0
0
0
x
x
CAU0
2)
5
0
0
1
0
x
x
CAU1
2)
6
0
1
0
0
x
x
CAU2
2)
7
0
1
1
0
x
x
CAU3
2)
8
1
0
0
0
x
x
CAU4
2)
9
1
0
1
0
x
x
CAU5
2)
10
1
1
0
0
x
x
1548
11
1
1
1
0
x
x
1548
Notes:
1) CGIx calibration constants are selected when M1=1 according to selected gain
2) CGUx calibration constants are selected when M1=0 according to bits cu2 to cu0 defined via SDI in CRA and/or CRB
registers.
subregister ZTC:
These bits are spare bits and can be used on special request (e.g. ID number).
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AS8500 - Data Sheet
7.5.6
CAR calibration register ( 110 bits )
The aim of the calibration register is to hold the calibration constants that are used by the internal DSP for the correction
of each measurement (for the factory calibrated version AS8501). At power-up sequence the Zener-Zap subregister ZCL
default setting is copied into the CAR register. The register can be read or written in mode 8 via the SDI bus at any time.
In particular for the AS8500, which is not factory calibrated it is intended to overwrite the default setting with external data
defined by the user.
Nr.
0
1
CAR bits 109-99 98-88
Subregister CGI1 CGI2
default
1548
87-77
CGI3
76-66
CGI4
65-55
CAU0
54-44
CAU1
43-33
CAU2
32-22
CAU3
21-11
CAU4
10-0
CAU5
1548
0
1548
2047
2047
1548
1548
1548
1548
NOTE
1)
2)
Notes:
1)
Calibration register is composed of the following constants each having 11 bits:
CGI1, CGI2, CGI3, CGI4, CAU0, CAU1, CAU2, CAU3, CAU4, CAU5
2) Decimal default value of the calibration constant for voltage and current is calculated
using formula: CGdef=Nmax/NADdef=(Vref*1024)/(Vin*Gmax)=1548
7.5.7
TRR trimming register ( 20 bits )
In the TRR register the calibration constants for the reference voltage, for the amplifier-offset trim and for the current source setting are stored.
At power-up sequence the Zener-Zap subregister ZTR is loaded into the TRR register. This register can be read or written in mode 8 via the
SDI bus. In particular it is possible to write preliminary calibration constants into TRR or overwrite the loaded ZTR data, if a calibration has been
changed. The trimming of the TRR-registors is usually done at the factory before supplying the part.
Nr.
0
TRR bits
Subregister
19-15
TRIMC
14-10
TRIMA
9-5
TRIMBV
4-0
TRIMBTC
1
default
4
typ 0 or 1
16
17
NOTE
1)
Notes:
1)writing into TRR register is done as usual with the MSB first
subregister TRIMC
change of current source output with TRIMC bits
Nr.
trimcs
trimc3
trimc2
trimc1
trimc0
dI/Io
%
Notes
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1),2)
1
0
0
0
0
1
-1*2.3
1),2)
2
0
0
0
1
0
-2*2.3
1),2)
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
14
0
1
1
1
0
–14*2.3
1),2)
15
0
1
1
1
1
–15*2.3
1),2)
16
17
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
16*2.3
15*2.3
1),2)
18
1
0
0
1
0
14*2.3
1),2)
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
30
1
1
1
1
0
2*2.3
31
1
1
1
1
1
1*2.3
1),2)
Notes:
1) Io is the current in µ A at TRIMC = 00000
2) The output current of the internal current source can be controlled in a wide range via the bit setting in CRG. In some applications it may be
necessary to trim the current in the rang of +/- 30% for an optimum result of the external temperature measurement. This trimming is achieved
with writing into subregister TRIMC of the TRR register. The trimming is done in % for all ranges selected in CRG register.
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AS8500 - Data Sheet
subregister TRIMA
The offset of the PGA is factory trimmed to a mimimum absolute value to guarantee the
full dynamic range with all gain settings.
change of amplifier offset with TRIMA bits
Nr.
trimas
trima3
trima2
trima1
trima0
Voffset
mV
Notes
0
0
0
0
0
0
Uos
1),2) ,3)
1
0
0
0
0
1
Uos -1*1.34
1),2)
2
0
0
0
1
0
Uos -2*1.34
1),2)
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
14
0
1
1
1
0
Uos –14*1.34
1),2)
15
0
1
1
1
1
Uos –15*1.34
1),2)
16
17
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
Uos
Uos +1*1.34
1),2)
18
1
0
0
1
0
Uos +2*1.34
1),2)
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
30
1
1
1
1
0
Uos +14*1.34
31
1
1
1
1
1
Uos +15*1.34
1),2)
Notes:
1) Uos is the input offset voltage in mV at TRIMA = 00000
2) Every step of TRIMA settings brings $offset=1.34 mV change in absolute value of the input offset voltage.
If the measured value is Uos then the number that should be written into the TRIMA for minimum
final absolute value is calculated as TRIMA=int((Uos)/1.34) for Uos above zero and
TRIMA=16+int(-Uos)/1.34) for Uos below zero.
3) The input offset voltage can be measured with chopping and dechopping bits being cleared in register CRG.
Any input channel as well as gain settings can be used. The input should be shorted to avoid any external voltages to interfere with the
measurement. If the measured output voltage is Va then the offset voltage is calculated acc. Vos = Va/gain.
subregister TRIMBV
change of reference voltage Uo with TRIMBV bits
Nr.
trimbvs
trimbv3
trimbv2
trimbv1
trimbv0
VREF
mV
Notes
0
0
0
0
0
0
Ua
1),2)
1
0
0
0
0
1
Ua -1*5.1
1),2)
2
0
0
0
1
0
Ua -2*5.1
1),2)
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
14
0
1
1
1
0
Ua –14*5.1
1),2)
15
0
1
1
1
1
Ua –15*5.1
1),2)
16
17
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
Ua
Ua +1*5.1
1),2)
18
1
0
0
1
0
Ua +2*5.1
1),2)
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
30
1
1
1
1
0
Ua +14*5.1
31
1
1
1
1
1
Ua +15*5.1
1),2)
Notes:
1) Ua is the reference voltage in mV at TRIMBTC = 00000, the optimum value is 1.232V.
2) Every step of TRIMBV settings brings $BV=5.1 mV change in absolute value of the reference voltage.
For trimming the TC value and absolute value of the reference voltage it is recommended to trim the TC
value first and then trim the absolute value since TRIMBTC is changing both TC and absolute value, whereas
TRIMBV is changing only the absolute value.
If the measured absolute value is Uam then the number that should be written into the TRIMBV for optimum
final absolute value is calculated as TRIMBV=int((Uam-1.231)/0.0051) for Uam above the ideal value and
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AS8500 - Data Sheet
TRIMBV=16+int(-(Uam-1.232)/0.0051) for Uam below the ideal value.
subregister TRIMBTC
change of reference voltage Uo and TC-value with TRIMBTC bits
Nr.
trimbtcs
trimbtc3
trimbtc2
1
trimbtc1
1
trimbtc0
VREF
mV
TC
ppm/K
Notes
0
0
0
0
0
0
Uo
TCo
1),2)
1
0
0
0
0
1
Uo -1*5.2
TCo -1*12.7
1),2)
2
0
0
0
1
0
Uo -2*5.2
TCo -2*12.7
1),2)
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
14
0
1
1
1
0
Uo –14*5.2
TCo -14*12.7
1),2)
15
0
1
1
1
1
Uo –15*5.2
TCo -15*12.7
1),2)
16
17
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
Uo
Uo +1*5.2
TCo +1*12.7
18
1
0
0
1
0
Uo +2*5.2
TCo -2*12.7
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
30
1
1
1
1
0
Uo +14*5.2
TCo -14*12.7
31
1
1
1
1
1
Uo +15*5.2
TCo -15*12.7
1),2)
1),2)
1),2)
Notes:
1) Uo is the reference voltage in mV and TCo is the TC value in ppm/K at TRIMBV = 00000
2) Every step of TRIMBTC settings brings $BTC=5.2 mV change in absolute value of the reference voltage and
S=12.7 ppm/K change in the slope of temperature dependence. So for trimming the temperature coefficient of
the band-gap reference 2 measurements are recommended ( at T1=25oC and at T2=125oC ). If the measured TC
value is TCm then the number that should be written into the TRIMBTC for minimum final TC is calculated as
trimBTC=int(TCM/12.7) for positive values and trimBTC=16+int(-TCM/12.7) for negative values.
The absolute voltage is also changed in this way, which must be compensated by bringing back the absolute value by changing the TRIMBV
register. Usually the TRIMBVx=-TRIMBTCx+1 is sufficient. If further accuracy or change of absolute value is necessary it can be adjusted by
making some more measurements and adjustments.
ZZR REGISTER:
ZLO
ZTR
ZCL
ZTC
5
20
110
53
R/W
TRR
CAR
reg.7
reg.6
bit0
data in
bit0
CAR
bit0
188
TRR
ZLO
bit0
Figure 4 Copying of ZCL and ZTR registers into CAR and TRR registers
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AS8500 - Data Sheet
7.5.8
THR alarm (Wake-up) threshold register ( 17 bits )
Nr.
MR16
MR15
MR14
0
A/B
s
Msb
default
0
0
1
MR13
MR12
MR11 … MR1
MR0
NOTE
lsb
0
0
0
1)
Notes:
1) _ All measurements are performed in channel A therefore MR16 must be set to zero. When channel B is selected
no interrupt will be generated.
- The signed value is used. For positive THR values the ASSP will initiate an interrupt whenever the measured
value is bigger than the THR value. For negtive THR values the interrupt will be generated for a negative
result with an absolute value bigger than the absolute value of the THR register.
7.5.9
MSR measurement result register ( 18 bits )
Nr.
MR17
MR16
MR15
MR14
Overflow/un
derflow
A/B
S
msb
MR13
MR12
MR11 … MR1
MR0
lsb
NOTE
1)
Notes:
1) - Result word length is 16 bits because of calibration accuracy
and to maintain all possible resolutions ( different setting ).
- A/B bit signifies which measurement was performed: the one defined in CRA or CRB:
MR16=0 -> A
MR16=1 -> B
- Overflow/underflow bit is set whenever the result after multiplication by calibration
constant is bigger than 32767 or smaller than –32767.
In Wake-up or Alarm mode the overflow/underflow always sets INTN signal to LO.
8
Digital interface description
The digital interface of the AS8500 consists of two input pins (CLK and SCLK) and two I/O pins (INTN and SDAT). The SCLK and SDAT pins
are used as universal serial data interface (SDI). SDI operates only if external clock signal (CLK) is running.
8.1
CLK
In all operating modes except the Wake-up mode this pin must be connected to 8 MHz clock signal. In the Wake-up mode (MWU) the CLK pin
must be connected to logic HI or float.
8.2
INTN
The INTN pin is used to signal various conditions to the microcontroller, depending on the operating mode.
application modes of the INTN pin
Mode
0
Signal
Load clock (internal)
Direction
Output
Purpose
Indicates progress of the Zener-Zap load process
1, 2,7
SDI clock disable
Output
3
idle / wake-up not
Output
Signals new result and suggests when to disable SCLK in
high-precision measurement phase
Signals the wake-up condition
4
idle / alarm not
Output
Signals the alarm condition
5
PW1
Input
Shows the programming pulse width
Logic ‘0’
Output
No purpose
10
t12
Output
Test mode
10
t18
Output
Test mode
6,8,9
Note
1)
2)
Notes:
1) 188 clock pulses are generated from the internal oscillator source during the loading time.
2) In measurement modes (MMS and MMD) the INTN pin is used to synchronize the SDI bus operations (see figure 5).
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AS8500 - Data Sheet
The trailing edge of INTN signals the start of a new measurement.
i-1
start measurement i
i+1
Tcnv
INTN
available
results on SDI
i-2
i-1
i
Tres
Figure 5: INTN pin in modes 1 and 2
The determination of Tcnv and Tres from the parameter settings is:
Tcnv % R1/(fovs*2)
8.3
Tres = MM*Tcnv*R2*2
with R1=OSR and R2=number of averages
SDI bus operation
SDI bus is a 2-line bi-directional interface between one master and one slave unit. Typically the master unit is a microcontroller with softwareimplemented SDI protocol. The ASSP is always the slave unit. SDI bus operation is presented on figure 6.
During data transfers the sdat signal changes while sclk is low. The sdat signal can change while sclk is high only to generate start or
exception conditions.
Direction
Register data
Address
sclk
SDAT
Start
Figure 6: SDI bus operation
Exception
Data transfer
Strobe ASSP
The master unit always generates the sclk signal.
The master unit generates the sdat signal in start, direction, address, master-write data and exception conditions. The master sdat pin is in
high-impedance state in master-read data condition.
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AS8500 - Data Sheet
The slave unit drives the sdat signal only in master-read data condition. In all other cases the slave sdat pin is in high-impedance state. During
data transfer in read condition the internal AD-conversion in continuing but the data in the MSR-register is not updated and the output of the
INTN signal is suppressed. Only after the completion of the reading cycle the ASSP returns to the normal condition and updates the MSRregister immediately if a new AD-conversion has been finished during data transfer.
The master unit does not detect any bus conditions since it generates them. Data transfer conditions (direction, register address and register
data) must not be changed until the current condition is over. The slave unit does not detect start and exception condition when master-read is
in progress.
The exception condition is reserved for future use and should be avoided.
8.4
Data transfers
Generally the SDI interface is active in all ASSP modes. For security reasons some write operations are restricted to certain modes. Read
operations are never disabled in order to keep consistent sdat driving conditions.
Writing to the result, trimming and calibration registers (MSR, CAR and TRR) is allowed only in test modes.
Writing to the Zener-Zap register is allowed only in mode MZP.
The first data bit after the start condition in each data transfer defines the data direction: sdat=high is used for master-read data (mr) condition
and sdat=low for master-write data (mw) condition.
Data is transferred with the most significant bit (MSB) first. Data bits are composed of register address and register data bits. Register address
is transmitted first, followed by the register data bits. The register address is always 4 bits long. The number of register data bits (see 7.5) is
implied by the register address.
sclk
mr
sdat
a3
a2
a1
a0
MSB
LSB
mw
Direction
Register address
Register data
Figure 7: SDI Data transfer
The ASSP supports the data transfers presented in the following table:
master read-write operations
REGISTER
ADDRESS
OPM
0
operating mode
CRA
1
measurement set-up A
All
All
CRB
2
measurement set-up B
All
All
CRG
3
general measurement conditions
All
All
MSR
4
measurement result
All
>7
ZZR
5
Zener-Zap data
All
5
CAR
6
calibration register
All
>7
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Contents
read
write allowed in
allowed in
modes
modes
All
All
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AS8500 - Data Sheet
8.5
TRR
7
trimming register
All
>7
THR
8
alarm or wake-up threshold register
All
All
SDI bus timing
Timing definitions for SDI bus are based on software-implemented master unit protocol
MDE
DV_m
PW_sclk
DV_m
TS_m
LO_sclk
TS_m
sclk
(uP)
master sdat
HI - Z
(uP)
slave sdat
(ASIC)
HI - Z
TS_s
DV_s
TS_S
CDD
strobe ASSP
strobe µC
Figure 8: SDI Bus timing
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AS8500 - Data Sheet
SDI bus timing
Nr.
PARAMETER
SYMBOL
MIN
0
SCLK pulse width
PW_sclk
1
SCLK low
LO_sclk
2
5
Master SDAT exception
after SCLK
Master SDAT valid
before/after SCLK
Slave SDAT not valid
after SCLK
Master 3-state ON/OFF
6
Slave 3-state ON/OFF
TS_s
Bus condition detection
disabled in slave unit
CDD
3
4
7
TYP
Unit
Conditions
120
ns
All
120
ns
All
MDE
120
ns
All
DV_m
120
ns
All
ns
Master read
ns
Master read
ns
Master read
ns
Master read
TSW
DV_s
TS_m
MAX
120
TS_s
TSW
120
NOTE
5), 6)
1)
3)
Notes:
1)TSW is typical time required by the microcontroller program to change or to read the state of
the I/O pin
3) Start detection is disabled when slave unit transmits data
5) LO_sclk>300ns and PW_sclk> 2µ sec required to read ZZR.
6) LO_sclk > (3/2)*TCLK = (3/2)/f CLK = (3/2)/8MHz=187.5ns required for results synchronisation in MSR.
8.6
SDI access to OTP memory
SDI can read the OTP memory in any mode by reading the register ZZR.
8.6.1
ZZR register bit mapping
Cell index
Purpose
0
pos A 1)
1
pos B 2)
2
pos C 3)
ZZR field
ZLO
ZLO
ZLO
ZZR bit
187 (msb)
186
185
3
lock A
4
lock B 5)
5
trimcs
6
trimc3
7
trimc2
ZLO
ZLO
ZTR
ZTR
ZTR
184
183
182
181
180
4)
1) Always
programmed to '0' during the production test
programmed to '0' during the production test
3) Always programmed to '1' during the production test
4) Reserved
5) Reserved
2) Always
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AS8500 - Data Sheet
Cell index
Purpose
8
trimc1
9
trimc0
10
trimas
11
trima3
12
trima2
13
trima1
14
trima0
15
trimbvs
ZZR field
ZTR
ZTR
ZTR
ZTR
ZTR
ZTR
ZTR
ZTR
ZZR bit
179
178
177
176
175
174
173
172
Cell index
Purpose
16
trimbv3
17
trimbv2
18
trimbv1
19
trimbv0
20
trimbtcs
21
trimbtc3
22
trimbtc2
23
trimbtc1
ZZR field
ZTR
ZTR
ZTR
ZTR
ZTR
ZTR
ZTR
ZTR
ZZR bit
171
170
169
168
167
166
165
164
Cell index
Purpose
24
trimbtc0
25
cgi1_10
26
cgi1_9
27
cgi1_8
28
cgi1_7
29
cgi1_6
30
cgi1_5
31
cgi1_4
ZZR field
ZTR
ZCL
ZCL
ZCL
ZCL
ZCL
ZCL
ZCL
ZZR bit
163
162
161
160
159
158
157
156
Cell index
Purpose
32
cgi1_3
33
cgi1_2
34
cgi1_1
35
cgi1_0
36
cgi2_10
37
cgi2_9
38
cgi2_8
39
cgi2_7
ZZR field
ZCL
ZCL
ZCL
ZCL
ZCL
ZCL
ZCL
ZCL
ZZR bit
155
154
153
152
151
150
149
148
Cell index
Purpose
40
cgi2_6
41
cgi2_5
42
cgi2_4
43
cgi2_3
44
cgi2_2
45
cgi2_1
46
cgi2_0
47
cgi3_10
ZZR field
ZCL
ZCL
ZCL
ZCL
ZCL
ZCL
ZCL
ZCL
ZZR bit
147
146
145
144
143
142
141
140
Cell index
Purpose
48
cgi3_9
49
cgi3_8
50
cgi3_7
51
cgi3_6
52
cgi3_5
53
cgi3_4
54
cgi3_3
55
cgi3_2
ZZR field
ZCL
ZCL
ZCL
ZCL
ZCL
ZCL
ZCL
ZCL
ZZR bit
139
138
137
136
135
134
133
132
Cell index
Purpose
56
cgi3_1
57
cgi3_0
58
cgi4_10
59
cgi4_9
60
cgi4_8
61
cgi4_7
62
cgi4_6
63
cgi4_5
ZZR field
ZCL
ZCL
ZCL
ZCL
ZCL
ZCL
ZCL
ZCL
ZZR bit
131
130
129
128
127
126
125
124
Cell index
Purpose
64
cgi4_4
65
cgi4_3
66
cgi4_2
67
cgi4_1
68
cgi4_0
69
cau0_10
70
cau0_9
71
cau0_8
ZZR field
ZCL
ZCL
ZCL
ZCL
ZCL
ZCL
ZCL
ZCL
ZZR bit
123
122
121
120
119
118
117
116
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AS8500 - Data Sheet
Cell index
Purpose
72
cau0_7
ZZR field
cau0_6
74
cau0_5
75
cau0_4
76
cau0_3
77
cau0_2
78
cau0_1
79
cau0_0
ZCL
ZCL
ZCL
ZCL
ZCL
ZCL
ZCL
ZCL
ZZR bit
115
114
113
112
111
110
109
108
Cell index
Purpose
ZZR field
80
cau1_10
ZCL
81
cau1_9
ZCL
82
cau1_8
ZCL
83
cau1_7
ZCL
84
cau1_6
ZCL
85
cau1_5
ZCL
86
cau1_4
ZCL
87
cau1_3
ZCL
ZZR bit
107
106
105
104
103
102
101
100
Cell index
Purpose
88
cau1_2
89
cau1_1
90
cau1_0
91
cau2_10
92
cau2_9
93
cau2_8
94
cau2_7
95
cau2_6
ZZR field
ZCL
ZCL
ZCL
ZCL
ZCL
ZCL
ZCL
ZCL
ZZR bit
99
98
97
96
95
94
93
92
Cell index
Purpose
96
cau2_5
97
cau2_4
98
cau2_3
99
cau2_2
100
cau2_1
101
cau2_0
102
cau3_10
103
cau3_9
ZZR field
ZCL
ZCL
ZCL
ZCL
ZCL
ZCL
ZCL
ZCL
ZZR bit
91
90
89
88
87
86
85
84
Cell index
Purpose
104
cau3_8
105
cau3_7
106
cau3_6
107
cau3_5
108
cau3_4
109
cau3_3
110
cau3_2
111
cau3_1
ZZR field
ZCL
ZCL
ZCL
ZCL
ZCL
ZCL
ZCL
ZCL
ZZR bit
83
82
81
80
79
78
77
76
Cell index
Purpose
112
cau3_0
113
cau4_10
114
cau4_9
115
cau4_8
116
cau4_7
117
cau4_6
118
cau4_5
119
cau4_4
ZZR field
ZCL
ZCL
ZCL
ZCL
ZCL
ZCL
ZCL
ZCL
ZZR bit
75
74
73
72
71
70
69
68
Cell index
Purpose
120
cau4_3
121
cau4_2
122
cau4_1
123
cau4_0
124
cau5_10
125
cau5_9
126
cau5_8
127
cau5_7
ZZR field
ZCL
ZCL
ZCL
ZCL
ZCL
ZCL
ZCL
ZCL
ZZR bit
67
66
65
64
63
62
61
60
Cell index
Purpose
128
cau5_6
129
cau5_5
130
cau5_4
131
cau5_3
132
cau5_2
133
cau5_1
134
cau5_0
135
tcu1_8
ZZR field
ZCL
ZCL
ZCL
ZCL
ZCL
ZCL
ZCL
ZTC
ZZR bit
59
58
57
56
55
54
53
52
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AS8500 - Data Sheet
Cell index
Purpose
136
tcu1_7
ZZR field
tcu1_6
138
tcu1_5
139
tcu1_4
140
tcu1_3
141
tcu1_2
142
tcu1_1
143
tcu1_0
ZTC
ZTC
ZTC
ZTC
ZTC
ZTC
ZTC
ZTC
ZZR bit
51
50
49
48
47
46
45
44
Cell index
Purpose
144
tcu0_8
145
tcu0_7
146
tcu0_6
147
tcu0_5
148
tcu0_4
149
tcu0_3
150
tcu0_2
151
tcu0_1
ZZR field
ZTC
ZTC
ZTC
ZTC
ZTC
ZTC
ZTC
ZTC
ZZR bit
43
42
41
40
39
38
37
36
Cell index
Purpose
152
tcu0_0
153
trt0_10
154
trt0_9
155
trt0_8
156
trt0_7
157
trt0_6
158
trt0_5
159
trt0_4
ZZR field
ZTC
ZTC
ZTC
ZTC
ZTC
ZTC
ZTC
ZTC
ZZR bit
35
34
33
32
31
30
29
28
Cell index
Purpose
160
trt0_3
161
trt0_2
162
trt0_1
163
trt0_0
164
tcn3_7
165
tcn3_6
166
tcn3_5
167
tcn3_4
ZZR field
ZTC
ZTC
ZTC
ZTC
ZTC
ZTC
ZTC
ZTC
ZZR bit
27
26
25
24
23
22
21
20
Cell index
Purpose
168
tcn3_3
169
tcn3_2
170
tcn3_1
171
tcn3_0
172
tcn2_7
173
tcn2_6
174
tcn2_5
175
tcn2_4
ZZR field
ZTC
ZTC
ZTC
ZTC
ZTC
ZTC
ZTC
ZTC
ZZR bit
19
18
17
16
15
14
13
12
Cell index
Purpose
176
tcn2_3
177
tcn2_2
178
tcn2_1
179
tcn2_0
180
tcn1_7
181
tcn1_6
182
tcn1_5
183
tcn1_4
ZZR field
ZTC
ZTC
ZTC
ZTC
ZTC
ZTC
ZTC
ZTC
ZZR bit
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
Cell index
Purpose
184
tcn1_3
185
tcn1_2
186
tcn1_1
187
tcn1_0
ZZR field
ZTC
ZTC
ZTC
ZTC
3
2
1
0
ZZR bit
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Page 33 of
austriamicrosystems
AS8500 - Data Sheet
8.6.2
ZZR
ZLO
ZTR
ZCL
Stored ZZR-register mapping
subreg
TRIMC
TRIMA
TRIMBV
TRIMBTC
CGI1
CGI2
CGI3
CGI4
CAU0
CAU1
CAU2
CAU3
CAU4
CAU5
bitno in subregister
10 9 8 7 6
msb
1
1
1
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
ZTC
Revision 1.2, 08-Junel-06
41
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
0
0
0
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
ZZR bits
5
4
3
2
1
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
x
0
x
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
x
0
x
0
0
1
1
1
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
x
1
x
0
0
1
1
1
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
x
0
x
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
lsb
x
0
x
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
187
182
177
172
167
162
151
140
129
118
107
96
85
74
63
52
43
34
23
15
7
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Remarks
183
178
173
168
163
152
141
130
119
108
97
86
75
64
53
44
35
24
16
8
0
current souce
PGA offset
voltage reference
reference TC
gain 6 current
gain 24 current
gain 50 current
gain 100 current
gain 24
gain 1
gain 100
inernal temperature
spare bits
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AS8500 - Data Sheet
9
General application hints
Since the AS8500 is optimised for low voltage applications extreme care should be taken that the signal is not disturbed by influences like bad ground
reference, external noise pick-up, thermal EMFs generated at the transition of different materials or ground loops. The influence of these error
sources can be quite high and they may completely shadow the excellent properties of the device if not handled properly. The following sections are
supposed to supply additional informations to the design engineer how to get around some of these problems.
9.1
Ground connection, analog common
The analog common terminal where all voltages are referring to is RSHL. All ground lines of the external circuitry of VBAT, ETS and ETR as well as
the voltage sense line of the low ohmic current sensing resistor should be connected to each other in a star like ground point. It is recommended that
this point is as close as possible situated to the low side sense terminal of the current sensing resistor. It should also be connected to the VSS and
VSSD terminal, but the return line of both must leave this point separately. Also the power decoupling capacitors should be connected to the analog
common.
To give an example of the magnitude of possible errors consider that the ground return of the power supply is not connected properly and 5 mm of a
copper track 35µ m thick and 0.1 mm wide are within the measuring circuit with a current flow of 5 mA. This will result in an offset of 120 µ V which is
more than 500 times higher than the typical offset of the ASSP. In addition the current fluctuations will act as an extra noise voltage which is also way
above that of the device itself.
9.2
Thermal EMF
another major source of error for low level measurements are thermal voltages (electromotive force, thermal EMF) or Seebeck voltages which are
principally produced by any junction of two dissimilar materials. On PC-boards pairs of dissimilar materials may consist of the copper tracks and the
solder, the leads of different components or different materials used in the construction within the components. Any temperature difference between
two connection produces a voltage which is superimposed to the measuring voltage.
A number of strategies are known to detect or minimise their influence on the measuring result:
-
-
-
in cases were a current has to be measured directly or a current is to be used to activate a resistive sensor (like
Ohm-meter or temperature measurement with RTDs, NTC or PTC) a switch in the circuit could be used to interrupt or invert the current thus
producing a current change dI. In the difference of the two voltage states dU the EMFs as well as the Offset voltages of the amplifier are fully
eliminated. For resistance measurements this method is known as ‘true Ohm’ measurement.
in applications were this is not possible and the problematic device (i.e. the input resistor of an amplifier) can be located it may help to place a
dummy device of the same type in the circuit as close and thermally connected as good as possible to compensate the influence of the first
one.
Since the thermal EMFs are proportional to the temperature difference it is important to maintain a homogeneous temperature distribution in
the vicinity of the sensitive area. This is possible by keeping this area as small as possible, by avoiding any heat sources nearby or by
increasing the heat conductivity of the substrate, i.e. wide and thick copper tracks, multilayer board or even metal substrate.
The best solution of all however is to avoid the thermal EMFs by using only components which are matched to the copper world which means
that their thermo-electrical power against copper is zero. This is specially important for current measurements in the range of 10- 1000A. In this
case the resistance value has to be very low (down to 100µ Ohms) to limit the measuring power and avoid an overheating of the sensing
resistor. On the other hand the voltages to be detected are extremely low if a high resolution is required. If for instance a current of 10 mA has
to be measured with a 100µ Ohm resistor, the resolution of the measuring system must be better than 1µ V and the error voltages due to
thermal EMFs must be below this limit. Quite often people are trying to use the well known Konstantan (CuNi44) for current sensing resistors.
This is a bad choice since the thermal EMF versus copper is very high.
With –40µ V/deg already a temperature difference of
2.5 K is enough to produce an error which is 100 times lager than the required resolution. Or vice versa a temperature fluctuation of only 1/100
K produces a ‘thermal noise’ which is equivalent to the required resolution.
With such materials and high currents of 10A and above the other thermoelectric effect, the so called Peltier-effect, can also play an important
role. Under current flow this effect generates heat in one junction and destroys the same amount of heat in the other junction. The amount of
heat is proportional to the current and its direction. The result is a temperature difference which in turn generates a thermal EMF proportional to
it. Finally this means that such a resistor produces its own error voltage and it is never possible to measure better than 1-2% with such badly
matched materials. The precision resistance materials Manganin, Zeranin and Isaohm are perfectly matched to the copper world and resistors
made from these materials can achieve the high quality that is necessary for low
level measurements and high resolution.
9.3
Noise considerations
for every low level measuring system it is essential to know the origin of noise and to accept the limitations given by it. Three major sources of noise
have to be considered. The input voltage noise and the input current noise of the amplifier and the thermal noise (Johnson noise) of resistors in the
external circuitry around the amplifier. Due to the fact that these three sources are not correlated they can be added in the well known square root
equation.
In most applications the input resistor or input divider is low ohmic (i.e. below 10 kOhms) which mean that the noise voltage produced by the input
current noise is negligible compared to the input voltage noise. The input noise density (En) of the AS8500 is with only 35 nV/sqr(Hz) extremely low.
This could be achieved with a special internal analog and digital chopper circuitry which eliminates the CMOS typical 1/f-noise completely. Even
though the overall noise will be dominated by the input amplifier as long as the external resistors are below 10 kOhm.
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AS8500 - Data Sheet
The total noise voltage generated at a given frequency resp. in a given frequency band (BW) is given by:
Un= En*sqr(BW)
This square root dependence can be seen very nicely in fig. 9.10. The typical square-root shaped dependence is found for both the peak to peak
noise as well as for the equivalent RMS noise.
The bandwidth resp. the sampling frequency of the AS8500 can be adapted to the requirements of the application by programming the internal digital
filter via the SDI bus. For a sampling frequency of 16kHz the input voltage RMS noise is less than 5µ V, whereas at 500 Hz already 1µ V (or 1LSB) is
reached.
If the customer needs even higher resolution at a lower measuring speed the internal integration time can be further increased but due to the
limitation of the digital noise ( 1LSB) it is better to perform an external averaging in the attached µ C. In this way the resolution of the system can be
considerably increased to less than 0.1 µ V for sampling rates of 5 Hz and below which corresponds to an effective AD-converter width of more than
20 bits. (see fig. 9.10)
9.4
Shielding, guarding
In many applications it is difficult to gain full benefit from the AS8500 performance since a number of external error sources can disturb the
measurement. To achieve the maximum performance the design engineer has to take care specially of the layout of the PC-board and the sense
connections to the external components. To avoid noise pick-up from external magnetic fields all tracks on the PC-board should be parallel strip lines
and they should be traced as close as possible to each other. External sensing cables should be twisted and kept away from current carrying cables
as far as possible. For longer cables a shielding is sometimes helpful but care should be taken that the shield is not connected to one of the sense
leads. For an optimum performance it should be open on one side, the other side should be connected to the central (star like) analog common point.
In very sensitive applications it may be wise to use a guard ring around both inputs and it should be connected again to the analog common point.
This procedure minimises leakage currents and parasitic capacitances between different terminals and components on the PC-board.
EMV interferences can be affectively avoided in most cases by using standard SMD-type high frequency filters in the analog input lines as well as in
the digital output lines.
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AS8500 - Data Sheet
10
Typical performance characteristics
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AS8500 - Data Sheet
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austriamicrosystems
AS8500 - Data Sheet
Package Dimensions
Thermal Resistance junction / ambient.: 66 K/W (typ.) in still air
11
Revision History
Revision
12
Date
Description
1.0
Feb.10, 2006
Initial Revision
1.1
March 23, 2006
TRIMA 8.6.2, RthJA
1.2
8th,
Remove preliminary
June
2006
Ordering Information
Delivery: Tape and Reel (1 reel = 1500 devices) = MOQ
Order AS8500
Revision 1.2, 08-Junel-06
41
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Page 39 of
austriamicrosystems
AS8500 - Data Sheet
13
13.1
Contact
Headquarters
austriamicrosystems AG
A 8141 Schloss Premstätten, Austria
Phone: +43 3136 500 0
Fax:
+43 3136 525 01
industry.medical@austriamicrosystems.com
www.austriamicrosystems.com
13.2
Sales Offices
austriamicrosystems Germany GmbH
Tegernseer Landstrasse 85
D-81539 München, Germany
Phone:
+49 89 69 36 43 0
Fax:
+49 89 69 36 43 66
austriamicrosystems Italy S.r.l.
Via A. Volta, 18
I-20094 Corsico (MI), Italy
Phone:
+39 02 4586 4364
Fax:
+39 02 4585 773
austriamicrosystems France S.A.R.L.
124, Avenue de Paris
F-94300 Vincennes, France
Phone:
+33 1 43 74 00 90
Fax:
+33 1 43 74 20 98
austriamicrosystems Switzerland AG
Rietstrasse 4
CH 8640 Rapperswil, Switzerland
Phone:
+41 55 220 9008
Fax:
+41 55 220 9001
austriamicrosystems UK, Ltd.
88, Barkham Ride,
Finchampstead, Wokingham
Berkshire RG40 4ET, United Kingdom
Phone:
+44 118 973 1797
Fax:
+44 118 973 5117
austriamicrosystems AG
Klaavuntie 9 G 55
FI 00910 Helsinki, Finland
Phone:
+358 9 72688 170
Fax:
+358 9 72688 171
austriamicrosystems AG
Bivägen 3B
S 19163 Sollentuna, Sweden
Phone:
+46 8 6231 710
Revision 1.2, 08-Junel-06
41
austriamicrosystems USA, Inc.
8601 Six Forks Road
Suite 400
Raleigh, NC 27615, USA
Phone:
+1 919 676 5292
Fax:
+1 509 696 2713
austriamicrosystems USA, Inc.
4030 Moorpark Ave
Suite 116
San Jose, CA 95117, USA
Phone:
+1 408 345 1790
Fax:
+1 509 696 2713
austriamicrosystems AG
Suite 811, Tsimshatsui Centre
East Wing, 66 Mody Road
Tsim Sha Tsui East, Kowloon, Hong Kong
Phone:
+852 2268 6899
Fax:
+852 2268 6799
austriamicrosystems AG
AIOS Gotanda Annex 5th Fl., 1-7-11,
Higashi-Gotanda, Shinagawa-ku
Tokyo 141-0022, Japan
Phone:
+81 3 5792 4975
Fax:
+81 3 5792 4976
austriamicrosystems AG
#805, Dong Kyung Bldg.,
824-19, Yeok Sam Dong,
Kang Nam Gu, Seoul
Korea 135-080
Phone:
+82 2 557 8776
Fax:
+82 2 569 9823
austriamicrosystems AG
Singapore Representative Office
83 Clemenceau Avenue, #02-01 UE Square
239920, Singapore
Phone:
+65 68 30 83 05
Fax:
+65 62 34 31 20
www.austriamicrosystems.com
Page 40 of
austriamicrosystems
AS8500 - Data Sheet
Disclaimer
Devices sold by austriamicrosystems AG are covered by the warranty and patent identification provisions
appearing in its Term of Sale. austriamicrosystems AG makes no warranty, express, statutory, implied, or by
description regarding the information set forth herein or regarding the freedom of the described devices from
patent infringement. austriamicrosystems AG reserves the right to change specifications and prices at any time
and without notice. Therefore, prior to designing this product into a system, it is necessary to check with
austriamicrosystems AG for current information. This product is intended for use in normal commercial
applications. Applications requiring extended temperature range, unusual environmental requirements, or high
reliability applications, such as military, medical life-support or life-sustaining equipment are specifically not
recommended without additional processing by austriamicrosystems AG for each application.
The information furnished here by austriamicrosystems AG is believed to be correct and accurate. However,
austriamicrosystems AG shall not be liable to recipient or any third party for any damages, including but not
limited to personal injury, property damage, loss of profits, loss of use, interruption of business or indirect,
special, incidental or consequential damages, of any kind, in connection with or arising out of the furnishing,
performance or use of the technical data herein. No obligation or liability to recipient or any third party shall arise
or flow out of austriamicrosystems AG rendering of technical or other services.
Copyright
Devices sold by austriamicrosystems are covered by the warranty and patent indemnification provisions appearing in its Term of Sale. austriamicrosystems makes no warranty, express, statutory,
implied, or by description regarding the information set forth herein or regarding the freedom of the described devices from patent infringement. austriamicrosystems reserves the right to change
specifications and prices at any time and without notice. Therefore, prior to designing this product into a system, it is necessary to check with austriamicrosystems for current information. This
product is intended for use in normal commercial applications.
Copyright © 2004 austriamicrosystems. Trademarks registered ®. All rights reserved. The material herein may not be reproduced, adapted, merged, translated, stored, or used without the prior
written consent of the copyright owner. To the best of its knowledge, austriamicrosystems asserts that the information contained in this publication is accurate and correct. However,
austriamicrosystems shall not be liable to recipient or any third party for any damages, including but not limited to personal injury, property damage, loss of profits, loss of use, interruption of
business or indirect, special, incidental or consequential damages, of any kind, in connection with or arising out of the furnishing, performance or use of the technical data herein. No obligation or
liability to recipient or any third party shall arise or flow out of austriamicrosystems rendering of technical or other service
Revision 1.2, 08-Junel-06
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Page 41 of