NSC LM27952SDX

LM27952
White LED Adaptive 1.5X/1X Switched Capacitor Current
Driver
General Description
Features
The LM27952 is a switched capacitor white-LED driver capable of driving up to 4 LEDs with 30mA through each LED.
Its 4 tightly regulated current sinks ensure excellent LED
current and brightness matching. LED drive current is programmed by an external sense resistor. The LM27952 operates over an input voltage range from 3.0V to 5.5V and
requires only four low-cost ceramic capacitors.
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The LM27952 provides excellent efficiency without the use
of an inductor by operating the charge pump in a gain of 3/2,
or in a gain of 1. Maximum efficiency is achieved over the
input voltage range by actively selecting the proper gain
based on the LED forward voltage requirements.
The LM27952 uses constant frequency pre-regulation to
minimize conducted noise on the input. It has a fixed 750kHz
switching frequency optimized for portable applications. The
LM27952 consumes less than 1µA of supply current when
shut down.
The LM27952 is available in a 14-pin No-Pullback Leadless
Leadframe Package: LLP-14.
Drives up to 4 LEDs with up to 30mA each
Regulated current sources with 0.2%(typ.) matching
3/2x, 1x Gain transition based on LED VF
Peak Efficiency Over 85%
Input Voltage Range: 3.0V to 5.5V
PWM Brightness Control
Very Small Solution Size - NO INDUCTOR
Fixed 750kHz Switching Frequency
< 1µA Shutdown Current
14-pin LLP Package: 4.0mm X 3.0mm X 0.8mm
Applications
n White LED Display Backlights
n White LED Keypad Backlights
n General Purpose LED Lighting
Typical Application Circuit
20148001
© 2005 National Semiconductor Corporation
DS201480
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LM27952 White LED Adaptive 1.5X/1X Switched Capacitor Current Driver
May 2005
LM27952
Connection Diagram
LM27952
14-pin No-Pullback Leadless Leadframe Package (LLP-14)
4mm x 3mm x 0.8mm
NS Package Number SDA14A
20148002
Pin Description
Pin
Name
1
C2+
Flying Capacitor C2 Connection
Description
2
VOUT
Pre-Regulated Charge Pump Output
3
C1+
Flying Capacitor C1 Connection
4
D4
Regulated Current Sink Input.
5
D3
Regulated Current Sink Input.
6
D2
Regulated Current Sink Input.
7
D1
Regulated Current Sink Input.
8
ISET
Current Set Input. Placing a resistor (RSET) between this pin and GND sets
the LED current for all the LEDs. LED Current = 200 x (1.25V ÷ RSET).
9
EN
Enable Logic Input Pin. Logic Low = Shut Down, Logic High = Enabled. There
is a 150kΩ (typ.) resistor connected internally between the EN pin and GND.
10
PWM
11
VIN
Input Supply Range: 3.0V to 5.5V.
12
C2-
Flying Capacitor C2 Connection.
13
GND
14
C1-
Current Sink Modulation Logic Input Pin. Logic Low = Off, Logic High = On.
Applying a Pulse Width Modulated (PWM) signal to this pin allows the
regulated current sinks to be modulated without shutting down the internal
Charge Pump and the VOUT node.
Power Supply Ground Connection.
Flying Capacitor C1 Connection.
Ordering Information
Order Number
Package Description
Package Marking
Supplied as Tape and Reel
(Units)
LM27952SD
No-Pullback
LLP-14
XXXXX
YYYYY = D005B
1000
LM27952SDX
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2
4500
Operating Ratings (Notes 2, 7)
If Military/Aerospace specified devices are required,
please contact the National Semiconductor Sales Office/
Distributors for availability and specifications.
-0.3V to 6.0V
VIN
EN, PWM
-0.3V to (VIN + 0.3V)
w/ 6.0V max
Continuous Power Dissipation
(Note 3)
Junction Temperature Range (TJ)
-40˚C to +115˚C
Ambient Temperature Range (TA)
(Note 5)
-40˚C to +85 ˚C
Junction-to-Ambient Thermal Resistance,
LLP-14 Package (θJA) (Note 6)
150˚C
Storage Temperature Range
3.0V to 5.5V
2.5V to 3.9V
Thermal Information
Internally Limited
Junction Temperature
(TJ-MAX-ABS)
Input Voltage VIN
LED Voltage Range
45˚C/W
-65˚C to 150˚C
Lead Temp. (Soldering, 5 sec.)
260˚C
ESD Rating (Note 4)
Human Body Model
2kV
Electrical Characteristics
(Notes 2, 7)
Limits in standard typeface are for TA = 25˚C, and limits in boldface type apply over the full operating junction temperature
range (-40˚C to +85 ˚C). Unless otherwise noted, specifications apply to the LM27952 Typical Application Circuit (pg.1) with VIN
= 3.6V, V(EN) = 1.8V, V(PWM) = 1.8V, 4 LEDs, VDX = 0.45V, CIN = COUT = 3.3µF, C1 = C2 = 1µF, RSET = 12.5kΩ (Note 8)
Symbol
IDX
Parameter
LED Current Regulation
Conditions
3.0V ≤ VIN ≤ 5.5V
RSET = 12.5kΩ
IVOUT = 0mA
Min
Typ
Max
Units
19.32
(−8%)
21
22.68
(+8%)
mA
3.0V ≤ VIN ≤ 5.5V
RSET = 8.32kΩ
IVOUT = 0mA
31
3.0V ≤ VIN ≤ 5.5V
RSET = 24.9kΩ
IVOUT = 0mA
11
ID-MATCH
LED Current Matching
(Note 9)
RSET = 8.32kΩ
0.2
1
%
IQ
Quiescent Supply Current
D(1-4) = OPEN
RSET = OPEN
1.3
1.7
mA
ISD
Shutdown Supply Current
3.0V ≤ VIN ≤ 5.5V
V(EN) = 0V
0.1
1
µA
VSET
ISET Pin Voltage
3.0V ≤ VIN ≤ 5.5V
1.25
IDX / ISET
Output Current to Current
Set Ratio
VHR
Current Sink Voltage
Headroom Requirement
(Note 10)
V
200
IDX = 95% IDX (nom.)
RSET = 8.32kΩ
(IDX nom. = 31mA)
360
IDX = 95% IDX (nom.)
RSET = 12.5kΩ
(IDX nom. = 21mA)
240
fSW
Switching Frequency
525
(-30%)
VIH
Logic Input High
Input Pins: EN, PWM
3.0V ≤ VIN ≤ 5.5V
VIL
Logic Input Low
Input Pins: EN, PWM
3.0V ≤ VIN ≤ 5.5V
3
750
mV
975
(+30%)
kHz
1.0
VIN
V
0
0.4
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LM27952
Absolute Maximum Ratings (Notes 1, 2)
LM27952
Electrical Characteristics
(Notes 2, 7) (Continued)
Limits in standard typeface are for TA = 25˚C, and limits in boldface type apply over the full operating junction temperature
range (-40˚C to +85 ˚C). Unless otherwise noted, specifications apply to the LM27952 Typical Application Circuit (pg.1) with VIN
= 3.6V, V(EN) = 1.8V, V(PWM) = 1.8V, 4 LEDs, VDX = 0.45V, CIN = COUT = 3.3µF, C1 = C2 = 1µF, RSET = 12.5kΩ (Note 8)
Symbol
IIH
Parameter
Logic Input High Current
Conditions
Min
Typ
Max
Units
Input Pin: PWM
V(PWM) = 1.8V
10
nA
Input Pin: EN
V(EN) = 1.8V (Note 11)
12
µA
Input Pins: EN, PWM
V(EN, PWM) = 0V
10
nA
3.3
Ω
IIL
Logic Input Low Current
ROUT
Charge Pump Output
Resistance (Note 12)
VGDX
1x to 3/2x Gain Transition
Voltage Threshold on VDX
VDX Falling
450
mV
tON
Startup Time
IDX = 90% steady state
330
µs
Note 1: Absolute Maximum Ratings indicate limits beyond which damage to the component may occur. Operating Ratings are conditions under which operation of
the device is guaranteed. Operating Ratings do not imply guaranteed performance limits. For guaranteed performance limits and associated test conditions, see the
Electrical Characteristics tables.
Note 2: All voltages are with respect to the potential at the GND pin.
Note 3: Internal thermal shutdown circuitry protects the device from permanent damage. Thermal shutdown engages at TJ=150˚C (typ.) and disengages at TJ =
140˚C (typ.).
Note 4: The Human-body model is a 100 pF capacitor discharged through a 1.5kΩ resistor into each pin.
Note 5: In applications where high power dissipation and/or poor package thermal resistance is present, the maximum ambient temperature may have to be
derated. Maximum ambient temperature (TA-MAX) is dependent on the maximum operation junction temperature (TJ-MAX-OP = 115oC), the maximum power
dissipation of the device in the application (PD-MAX), and the junction-to ambient thermal resistance of the part/package in the application (θJA), as given by the
following equation: TA-MAX = TJ-MAX-OP - (θJA x PD-MAX).
Note 6: Junction-to-ambient thermal resistance (θJA) is taken from a thermal modeling result, performed under the conditions and guidelines set forth in the JEDEC
standard JESD51-7. The test board is a 4 layer FR-4 board measuring 102mm x 76mm x 1.6mm with a 2 x 1 array of thermal vias. The ground plane on the board
is 50mm x 50mm. Thickness of copper layers are 36µm/18µm /18µm/36µm (1.5oz/1oz/1oz/1.5oz). Ambient temperature in simulation is 22˚C, still air. Power
dissipation is 1W.
The value of θJA of the LM27952 in LLP-14 could fall in a range as wide as 45oC/W to 150oC/W (if not wider), depending on PWB material, layout, and environmental
conditions. In applications where high maximum power dissipation exists (high VIN, high IOUT), special care must be paid to thermal dissipation issues. For more
information on these topics, please refer to Application Note 1187: Leadless Leadframe Package (LLP) and the Power Efficiency and Power Dissipation
section of this datasheet..
Note 7: Min and Max limits are guaranteed by design, test, or statistical analysis. Typical numbers are not guaranteed, but do represent the most likely norm.
Note 8: CIN, COUT, C1, C2: Low-ESR Surface-Mount Ceramic Capacitors (MLCCs) used in setting electrical characteristics
Note 9: LED Current Matching is based on two calculations: [(IMAX - IAVG) ÷ IAVG] and [(IAVG - IMIN) ÷ IAVG]. IMAX and IMIN are the highest and lowest respective
Dx currents, and IAVG is the average Dx current of all four current sinks. The largest number of the two calculations (worst case) is considered the matching figure
for the part. The typical specification provided is the most likely norm of the matching figure for all parts.
Note 10: Headroom Voltage = VDX to GND. If headroom voltage requirement is not met, LED current regulation will be compromised.
Note 11: EN Logic Input High Current (IIH) is due to a 150kΩ (typ.) pull-down resistor connected internally between the EN and GND pins.
Note 12: The open loop output resistance (ROUT) models all voltage losses in the charge pump. ROUT can be used to estimate the voltage at the charge pump
output VOUT and the maximum current capability of the device under low VIN and high IOUT conditions, beyond what is specified in the electrical specifications table:
VOUT = (G x VIN) - (ROUT x IOUT). In the equation, G is the charge pump gain mode, and IOUT is the total output current (sum of all active Dx current sinks and all
current drawn from VOUT).
Note 13: Turn-on time is measured from when the EN signal is pulled high until the output voltage on VOUT crosses 90% of its final value.
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CIRCUIT DESCRIPTION
The LM27952 is an adaptive 1.5x/1x CMOS charge pump,
optimized for driving white LEDs used in backlighting smallformat displays. It provides four constant current inputs capable of sinking up to 30mA through each LED. The wellmatched current sinks ensure the current through all the
LEDs are virtually identical, providing a uniform brightness
across the entire display.
Each LED is driven from VOUT and connected to one of the
four current sinks. LED drive current is programmed by
connecting a resistor, RSET, to the current set pin, ISET. LED
brightness is adjusted by applying a Pulse Width Modulated
(PWM) signal to the dedicated PWM input pin.
ADJUSTING LED BRIGHTNESS (PWM control)
Perceived LED brightness can be adjusted using a PWM
control signal on the LM27952 PWM logic input pin, turning
the current sources ON and OFF at a rate faster than perceptible by the eye. When this is done, the total brightness
perceived is proportional to the duty cycle (D) of the PWM
signal (D = the percentage of time that the LED is on in every
PWM cycle). A simple example: if the LEDs are driven at
15mA each with a PWM signal that has a 50% duty cycle,
perceived LED brightness will be about half as bright as
compared to when the LEDs are driven continuously with
15mA.
CHARGE PUMP
The input to the 1.5x/1x charge pump is connected to the VIN
pin, and the loosely regulated output of the charge pump is
connected to the VOUT pin. The recommended input voltage
range of the LM27952 is 3.0V to 5.5V. The device’s looselyregulated charge pump has both open loop and closed loop
modes of operation. When the device is in open loop, the
voltage at VOUT is equal to the gain times the voltage at the
input. When the device is in closed loop, the voltage at VOUT
is loosely regulated to 4.5V (typ.). The charge pump gain
transitions are actively selected to maintain regulation based
on LED forward voltage and load requirements. This allows
the charge pump to stay in the most efficient gain (1x) over
as much of the input voltage range as possible, reducing the
power consumed from the battery.
The minimum recommended PWM frequency is 100Hz. Frequencies below this may be visibly noticeable as flicker or
blinking. The maximum recommended PWM frequency is
1kHz. Frequencies above this may cause interference with
internal current driver circuitry and/or noise in the audible
range. Due to the regulation control loop, the maximum
frequency and minimum duty cycle applied to the PWM pin
should be chosen such that the minimum ON time is no less
than 30µs in duration. If a PWM signal is applied to the EN
pin instead, the maximum frequency and minimum duty
cycle should be chosen to accommodate both the LM27952
startup time (330µs typ.) and the 30µs control loop delay.
The preferred method to adjust brightness is to keep the
master EN voltage ON continuously and apply a PWM signal
to the dedicated PWM input pin. The benefit of this type of
connection can be best understood with a contrary example.
When a PWM signal is connected to the master enable (EN)
pin, the charge pump repeatedly turns on and off. Every time
the charge pump turns on, there is an inrush of current as the
capacitances, both internal and external, are recharged. This
inrush current results in a current spike and a voltage dip at
the input of the part. By only applying the PWM signal to
PWM logic input pin, the charge pump continuously stays
on, resulting in much lower input noise.
In cases where a PWM signal must be connected to the EN
pin, measures can be taken to reduce the magnitude of the
charge-pump turn-on transient response. More input capacitance, series resistors and/or ferrite beads may provide benefits. If the current spikes and voltage dips can be tolerated,
connecting the PWM signal to the EN pin does provide a
benefit of lower supply current consumption. When the PWM
signal to the EN pin is low, the LM27952 will be shutdown
and input current will only be a few micro-amps. This results
in a lower time-averaged input current than the prior suggestion, where EN is kept on continuously.
SOFT START
The LM27952 contains internal soft-start circuitry to limit
input inrush currents when the part is enabled. Soft start is
implemented internally with a controlled turn-on of the internal voltage reference. Due to the soft-start circuitry, startup
time of the LM27952 is approximately 330µs (typ.).
ENABLE AND PWM PINS
The LM27952 has 2 logic control pins. Both pins are activehigh logic (HIGH = ON). There is an internal pull-down
resistor (150kΩ typ.) connected between the enable pin (EN)
and GND. There is no pull-up or pull-down connected to the
Pulse Width Modulated (PWM) pin.
The EN pin is the master enable pin for the part. When the
voltage on this pin is low ( < 0.4V), the part is in shutdown
mode. In this mode, all internal circuitry is OFF and the part
consumes very little supply current ( < 1µA typ.). When the
voltage on the EN pin is high ( > 1.0V), the part will activate
the charge pump and regulate the output voltage to its
nominal value.
The PWM pin serves as a dedicated logic input for LED
brightness control. When the voltage on this pin is low
( < 0.4V), the current sinks will be turned off and no current
will flow through the LEDs. When the voltage on this pin is
high ( > 1.0V), the currents sinks will turn on and regulate to
the current level set by the resistor connected to the ISET pin.
MAXIMUM OUTPUT CURRENT, MAXIMUM LED
VOLTAGE, MINIMUM INPUT VOLTAGE
The LM27952 can drive 4 LEDs at 30mA each from an input
voltage as low as 3.0V, so long as the LEDs have a forward
voltage of 3.5V or less (room temperature).
The statement above is a simple example of the LED drive
capabilities of the LM27952. The statement contains key
application parameters required to validate an LED-drive
design using the LM27952: LED current (ILED), number of
active LEDs (N), LED forward voltage (VLED), and minimum
input voltage (VIN-MIN).
SETTING LED CURRENTS
The current through the four LEDs connected to D1-4 can be
set to a desired level simply by connecting an appropriately
sized resistor (RSET) between the ISET pin of the LM27952
and GND. The LED currents are proportional to the current
that flows out of the ISET pin and are a factor of 200 times
5
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LM27952
greater than the ISET current. The feedback loop of an internal amplifier sets the voltage of the ISET pin to 1.25V (typ.).
The statements above are simplified in the equations below:
IDx = 200 x(VSET / RSET)
RSET = 200 x (1.25V / IDx)
Application Information
LM27952
Application Information
The LED current programmed should be chosen so that the
current through each of the outputs is programmed to 25% of
the total desired LED current. For example, if 60mA is the
desired drive current for the single LED, RSET should be
selected such that the current through each of the current
sink inputs is 15mA. Similarly, if two LEDs are to be driven by
pairing up the D1-4 inputs (i.e D1-2, D3-4), RSET should be
selected such that the current through each current sink
input is 50% of the desired LED current.
(Continued)
The equation below can be used to estimate the total output
current capability of the LM27952:
ILED_MAX = ((1.5 x VIN) - VLED) / ((N x ROUT) + kHR) (eq. 1)
ILED_MAX = ((1.5 x VIN ) - VLED) / ((N x 3.3Ω) + 12mV/mA)
ROUT – Output resistance. This parameter models the internal losses of the charge pump that result in voltage droop at
the pump output VOUT. Since the magnitude of the voltage
droop is proportional to the total output current of the charge
pump, the loss parameter is modeled as a resistance. The
output resistance of the LM27952 is typically 3.3Ω (VIN =
3.0V, TA = 25˚C). In equation form:
(eq. 2)
VVOUT = 1.5 x VIN – N x ILED x ROUT
kHR – Headroom constant. This parameter models the minimum voltage required across the current sinks for proper
regulation. This minimum voltage is proportional to the programmed LED current, so the constant has units of mV/mA.
The typical kHR of the LM27952 is 12mV/mA. In equation
form:
(eq. 3)
(VVOUT – VLED) > kHR x ILED
The "ILED-MAX" equation (eq. 1) is obtained from combining
the ROUT equation (eq. 2) with the kHR equation (eq. 3) and
solving for ILED. Maximum LED current is highly dependent
on minimum input voltage and LED forward voltage. Output
current capability can be increased by raising the minimum
input voltage of the application, or by selecting LEDs with a
lower forward voltage. Excessive power dissipation may also
limit output current capability of an application.
Connecting the outputs in parallel does not affect internal
operation of the LM27952 and has no impact on the Electrical Characteristics and limits previously presented. The
available diode output current, maximum diode voltage, and
all other specifications provided in the Electrical Characteristics table apply to this parallel output configuration, just as
they do to the standard 4-LED application circuit.
POWER EFFICIENCY
Efficiency of LED drivers is commonly taken to be the ratio of
power consumed by the LEDs (PLED) to the power drawn at
the input of the part (PIN). With a 1.5x/1x charge pump, the
input current is equal to the charge pump gain times the
output current (total LED current). For a simple approximation, the current consumed by internal circuitry can be neglected and the efficiency of the LM27952 can be predicted
as follows:
PLED = N x VLED x ILED
PIN = VIN x IIN
PIN = VIN x (Gain x N x ILED + IQ)
E = (PLED ÷ PIN)
Neglecting IQ will result in a slightly higher efficiency prediction, but this impact will be no more than a few percentage
points when several LEDs are driven at full power. It is also
worth noting that efficiency as defined here is in part dependent on LED voltage. Variation in LED voltage does not
affect power consumed by the circuit and typically does not
relate to the brightness of the LED. For an advanced analysis, it is recommended that power consumed by the circuit
(VIN x IIN) be evaluated rather than power efficiency.
CAPACITOR SELECTION
The LM27952 requires 4 external capacitors for proper operation. Surface-mount multi-layer ceramic capacitors are
recommended. These capacitors are small, inexpensive and
have very low equivalent series resistance (ESR < 20mΩ
typ.). Tantalum capacitors, OS-CON capacitors, and aluminum electrolytic capacitors are not recommended for use
with the LM27952 due to their high ESR, as compared to
ceramic capacitors.
For most applications, ceramic capacitors with X7R or X5R
temperature characteristic are preferred for use with the
LM27952. These capacitors have tight capacitance tolerance (as good as ± 10%) and hold their value over temperature (X7R: ± 15% over -55˚C to 125˚C; X5R: ± 15% over
-55˚C to 85˚C).
Capacitors with Y5V or Z5U temperature characteristic are
generally not recommended for use with the LM27952. Capacitors with these temperature characteristics typically
have wide capacitance tolerance (+80%, -20%) and vary
significantly over temperature (Y5V: +22%, -82% over -30˚C
to +85˚C range; Z5U: +22%, -56% over +10˚C to +85˚C
range). Under some conditions, a nominal 1µF Y5V or Z5U
capacitor could have a capacitance of only 0.1µF. Such
detrimental deviation is likely to cause Y5V and Z5U capacitors to fail to meet the minimum capacitance requirements of
the LM27952.
The voltage rating of the output capacitor should be 10V or
more. All other capacitors should have a voltage rating at or
above the maximum input voltage of the application.
THERMAL PROTECTION
Internal thermal protection circuitry disables the LM27952
when the junction temperature exceeds 150˚C (typ.). This
feature protects the device from being damaged by high die
temperatures that might otherwise result from excessive
power dissipation. The device will recover and operate normally when the junction temperature falls below 140˚C (typ.).
It is important that the board layout provide good thermal
conduction to keep the junction temperature within the specified operating ratings.
POWER DISSIPATION
The power dissipation (PDISSIPATION) and junction temperature (TJ) can be approximated with the equations below. PIN
is the power generated by the 1.5x/1x charge pump, PLED is
the power consumed by the LEDs, TAis the ambient temperature, and θJA is the junction-to-ambient thermal resistance for the LLP-14 package. VIN is the input voltage to the
LM27952, VLED is the nominal LED forward voltage, and
ILED is the programmed LED current.
PDISSIPATION = PIN - PLED
= [Gain x VIN x (4 x ILED)] − (VLED x 4 x ILED)
TJ = TA + (PDISSIPATION x θJA)
PARALLEL DX OUTPUTS FOR INCREASED CURRENT
DRIVE
Outputs D1-4 may be connected together to drive a one or
two LEDs at higher currents. In such a configuration, all four
parallel current sinks of equal value drive the single LED.
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6
exposed DAP (die attach pad) at the center of the package
measuring 3.0mm x 1.6mm. The main advantage of this
exposed DAP is to offer lower thermal resistance when it is
soldered to the thermal land on the PCB. For PCB layout,
National highly recommends a 1:1 ratio between the package and the PCB thermal land. To further enhance thermal
conductivity, the PCB thermal land may include vias to a
ground plane. For more detailed instructions on mounting
LLP packages, please refer to National Semiconductor Application Note AN-1187.
(Continued)
The junction temperature rating takes precedence over the
ambient temperature rating. The LM27952 may be operated
outside the ambient temperature rating, so long as the junction temperature of the device does not exceed the maximum operating rating of 115˚C. The maximum ambient temperature rating must be derated in applications where high
power dissipation and/or poor thermal resistance causes the
junction temperature to exceed 115˚C.
PCB Layout Considerations
The LLP is a leadframe based Chip Scale Package (CSP)
with very good thermal properties. This package has an
7
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LM27952
Application Information
LM27952 White LED Adaptive 1.5X/1X Switched Capacitor Current Driver
Physical Dimensions
inches (millimeters) unless otherwise noted
14-Pin LLP
NS Package Number SDA14A
National does not assume any responsibility for use of any circuitry described, no circuit patent licenses are implied and National reserves
the right at any time without notice to change said circuitry and specifications.
For the most current product information visit us at www.national.com.
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