NSC LMH7322SQX

LMH7322
Dual 700 ps High Speed Comparator with RSPECL Outputs
General Description
Features
The LMH7322 is a dual comparator with 700 ps propagation
delay and low dispersion of 75 ps. The input voltage range
extends from VCC-1.5V to VEE. The devices can be operated
from a wide input supply voltage range of 2.7V to 12V. The
adjustable hysteresis adds flexibility and prevents oscillations. The outputs and latch inputs of the LMH7322 are
RSPECL compatible.
The LMH7322 is available in a 24-pin LLP package.
(VCCI = +5V, VCCO = +5V)
700 ps
■ Propagation delay
75 ps
■ Overdrive dispersion 20 mV-1V
160 ps
■ Fast rise and fall times
2.7V to 12V
■ Wide supply range
■ Input common mode range extends 200 mV below
negative rail
■ Adjustable hysteresis
■ RSPECL outputs (see application note)
■ (RS)PECL latch inputs (see application note)
Applications
■
■
■
■
■
■
Digital receivers
High-speed signal restoration
Zero-crossing detectors
High-speed sampling
Window comparators
High-speed signal triggering
Typical Application
(RS)ECL to RSPECL Converter
20183205
© 2007 National Semiconductor Corporation
201832
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LMH7322 Dual 700 ps High Speed Comparator with RSPECL Outputs
June 2007
LMH7322
Wave Soldering (10 sec)
Storage Temperature Range
Junction Temperature (Note 7)
Absolute Maximum Ratings (Note 1)
If Military/Aerospace specified devices are required,
please contact the National Semiconductor Sales Office/
Distributors for availability and specifications.
ESD Tolerance (Note 2)
Human Body Model
Machine Model
Output Short Circuit Duration
Supply Voltages (V+–V−)
Voltages at Input/Output Pins
Soldering Information
Infrared or Convection (20 sec)
260°C
−65°C to +150°C
+150°C
Operating Conditions
(Note 1)
(V+–V−)
Supply Voltage
Operating Temperature Range
(Notes 5, 6)
Package Thermal Resistance
(Notes 5, 6)
24-Pin LLP
2.5 kV
250V
(Notes 3, 4)
13.2V
±13V
2.7V to 12V
−40°C to +125°C
38°C/W
235°C
12V DC Electrical Characteristics
Unless otherwise specified, all limits are guaranteed for TJ = 25°C,
VCCI = VCCO = 12V, VEE = 0V, RL = 50Ω to VCCO-2V, VCM = 300 mV, RHYS = 1 kΩ. Boldface limits apply at temperature extremes.
Symbol
Parameter
Conditions
Min
(Note 8)
Typ
(Note 7)
−5
−2.9
Max
(Note 8)
Units
INPUT CHARACTERISTICS
IB
Input Bias Current
VIN Differential = 0V; RHYS = 8 kΩ Biased
at VCM
IOS
Input Offset Current
VIN Differential = 0V
TC IOS
Input Offset Current TC
VIN Differential = 0V
VOS
Input Offset Voltage
TC VOS
Input Offset Voltage TC
VRI
Input Voltage Range
VRID
Input Differential Voltage Range
CMRR
Common Mode Rejection Ratio
PSRR
AV
Hyst
Hysteresis
−250
40
µA
+250
0.2
−8
−2
+8
12
for CMRR ≥ 50 dB
nA
nA/°C
mV
µV/°C
VEE−0.2
VCCI−1.5
V
−1
+1
V
0V ≤ VCM ≤ VCC1−0.2
80
dB
Power Supply Rejection Ratio
80
dB
Active Gain
53
dB
RHYS = 0Ω
55
100
mV
3
10
µA
LATCH ENABLE CHARACTERISTICS
IB-LE
Latch Enable Bias Current
Biased at RSPECL Level
VOS-LE
Latch Enable Offset Voltage
Biased at RSPECL Level
VRI-LE
Latch Enable Voltage Range
for CMRR ≥ 50 dB
VRID-LE
Latch Enable Differential Voltage
Range
−5
VEE+1.4
mV
VCCO-0.8
V
±0.4
V
OUTPUT CHARACTERISTICS
VOH
Output Voltage High
VIN Differential = 50 mV
VCCO−1.1V
mV
VOL
Output Voltage Low
VIN Differential = 50 mV
VCCO−1.5V
mV
VOD
Output Voltage Differential
VIN Differential = 50 mV
360
mV
POWER SUPPLIES
IVCCI
VCCI Supply Current/ Channel
IVCCO
VCCO Supply Current/ Channel
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Load Current Excluded
2
6.5
10
12
16.3
20
25
mA
mA
Unless otherwise specified, all limits are guaranteed for TJ = 25°C,
VCCI = VCCO = 12V, VEE = 0V, RL = 50Ω to VCCO-2V, VCM = 300 mV, RHYS = none.Boldface limits apply at temperature extremes.
Symbol
TR
tPDH
tOD-disp
Parameter
Conditions
Min
(Note 8)
Typ
(Note 7)
Max
(Note 8)
Units
Maximum Toggle Rate
Overdrive = ±50 mV; CL = 2 pF
@ 50% of Output Swing
4
Gb/s
Minimum Pulse Width
Overdrive = ±50 mV; CL = 2 pF
@ 50% of Output Swing
255
ps
Jitter
Overdrive = ±50 mV; CL = 2 pF
@ Freq = 140 MHz
31
fs
Propagation Delay.
(see Figure 3 application note)
Overdrive 20 mV
818
Overdrive 50 mV
723
Input SR = Constant
VIN Startvalue = VREF −100 mV
Overdrive 100 mV
708
Overdrive 1V
703
Input Overdrive Dispersion
tPDH @ Overdrive 20 mV ↔ 100 mV
110
ps
ps
ps
tPDH @ Overdrive 100 mV ↔ 1V
5
0.1 V/ns to 1 V/ns; Overdrive = 100 mV
48
ps
43
ps
tSR-disp
Input Slew Rate Dispersion
tCM-disp
Input Common Mode Dispersion SR = 1 V/ns; Overdrive = 100 mV;
ΔtPDLH
Q to Q Time Skew |tPDH – tPDL|
Overdrive = 100 mV; CL = 2 pF
24
ps
ΔtPDHL
Q to Q Time Skew |tPDL – tPDH|
Overdrive = 100 mV; CL = 2 pF
45
ps
tr
Output Rise Time (20%–80%)
Overdrive = 100 mV; CL = 2 pF
155
ps
tf
Output Fall Time (20%–80%)
Overdrive = 100 mV; CL = 2 pF
155
ps
tsLE
Latch Setup Time
77
ps
thLE
Latch Hold Time
33
ps
tPD_LE
Latch to Output Delay Time
944
ps
0V ≤ VCM ≤ VCCI- 1.5V
5V DC Electrical Characteristics
Unless otherwise specified, all limits are guaranteed for TJ = 25°C,
VCCI = VCCO = 5V, VEE = 0V, RL = 50Ω to VCCO-2V, VCM = 300 mV, RHYS = 1 kΩ.Boldface limits apply at temperature extremes.
Symbol
Parameter
Conditions
Min
(Note 8)
Typ
(Note 7)
−5
−2.6
−250
40
Max
(Note 8)
Units
INPUT CHARACTERISTICS
IB
Input Bias Current
VIN Differential = 0V; RHYS = 8 kΩ
Biased at VCM
µA
IOS
Input Offset Current
VIN Differential = 0V
TC IOS
Input Offset Current TC
VIN Differential = 0V
VOS
Input Offset Voltage
TC VOS
Input Offset Voltage TC
VRI
Input Voltage Range
VRID
Input Differential Voltage
Range
CMRR
Common Mode Rejection Ratio 0V ≤ VCM ≤ VCC1−0.2
80
dB
PSRR
Power Supply Rejection Ratio
80
dB
AV
Active Gain
53
dB
Hyst
Hysteresis
+250
0.3
−8
−2
nA/°C
+8
mV
12
for CMRR ≥ 50 dB
nA
µV/°C
VEE−0.2
VCCI−1.5
V
−1
+1
V
RHYS = 0Ω
55
100
10
mV
LATCH ENABLE CHARACTERISTICS
IB-LE
Latch Enable Bias Current
Biased at RSPECL Level
3
VOS-LE
Latch Enable Offset Voltage
Biased at RSPECL Level
+5
VRI-LE
Latch Enable Voltage Range
for CMRR ≥ 50 dB
VEE+1.4
3
µA
mV
VCCO-0.8
V
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LMH7322
12 AC Electrical Characteristics
LMH7322
Symbol
VRID-LE
Parameter
Conditions
Min
(Note 8)
Latch Enable Differential
Voltage Range
Typ
(Note 7)
Max
(Note 8)
Units
±0.4
V
OUTPUT CHARACTERISTICS
VOH
Output Voltage High
VCCO−1.1V
mV
VOL
Output Voltage Low
VCCO−1.5V
mV
VOD
Output Voltage Differential
355
mV
POWER SUPPLIES
IVCCI
VCCI Supply Current/ Channel
6.3
10
12
mA
IVCCO
VCCO Supply Current/ Channel Load Current Excluded
15.8
20
25
mA
5V AC Electrical Characteristics
Unless otherwise specified, all limits are guaranteed for TJ = 25°C,
VCCI = VCCO = 12V, VEE = 0V, RL = 50Ω to VCCO-2V, VCM = 300 mV, RHYS = none. Boldface limits apply at temperature extremes.
Symbol
TR
tPDLH
Parameter
Conditions
Min
(Note 8)
Max
(Note 8)
Units
Maximum Toggle Rate
Overdrive = ±50 mV; CL = 2 pF
@ 50% of Output Swing
3.9
Gb/s
Minimum Pulse Width
Overdrive = ±50 mV; CL = 2 pF
@ 50% of Output Swing
260
ps
Jitter
Overdrive = ±50 mV; CL = 2 pF
@ Freq = 140 MHz
98
fs
Propagation Delay.
(see Figure 3 application note)
Overdrive 20 mV
783
Overdrive 50 mV
718
Input SR = Constant
Overdrive 100 mV
VIN startvalue = VREF – 100 mV Overdrive 1V
tOD-disp
Typ
(Note 7)
Input Overdrive Dispersion
ps
708
ps
708
tPDH @ Overdrive 20 mV ↔ 100 mV
75
tPDH @ Overdrive 100 mV ↔ 1V
5
0.1 V/ns to 1 V/ns; Overdrive = 100 mV
50
ps
24
ps
ps
tSR-disp
Input Slew Rate Dispersion
tCM-disp
Input Common Mode Dispersion SR = 1 V/ns; Overdrive = 100 mV;
ΔtPDLH
Q to Q Time Skew |tPDH – tPDL|
Overdrive = 100 mV; CL = 2 pF
29
ps
ΔtPDHL
Q to Q Time Skew |tPDL – tPDH|
Overdrive = 100 mV; CL = 2 pF
47
ps
tr
Output Rise Time (20%–80%)
Overdrive = 100 mV; CL = 2 pF
160
ps
tf
Output Fall Time (20%–80%)
Overdrive = 100 mV; CL = 2 pF
160
ps
tsLE
Latch Setup Time
95
ps
thLE
Latch Hold Time
29
ps
tPD_LE
Latch to Output Delay Time
893
ps
0V ≤ VCM ≤ VCCI- 1.5V
2.7V DC Electrical Characteristics
Unless otherwise specified, all limits are guaranteed for TJ = 25°C,
VCCI = VCCO = 2.7V, VEE = 0V, RL = 50Ω to VCCO-2V, VCM = 300 mV, RHYS = 1 kΩ. Boldface limits apply at temperature extremes.
Symbol
Parameter
Conditions
Min
(Note 8)
Typ
(Note 7)
−5
−2.5
−250
40
Max
(Note 8)
Units
INPUT CHARACTERISTICS
IB
Input Bias Current
VIN Differential = 0V; RHYS = 8 kΩ
Biased at VCM
IOS
Input Offset Current
VIN Differential = 0V
TC IOS
Input Offset Current TC
VIN Differential = 0V
VOS
Input Offset Voltage
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µA
+250
0.2
−8
4
−2
nA
nA/°C
+8
mV
Parameter
TC VOS
Input Offset Voltage TC
VRI
Input Voltage Range
VRID
Input Differential Voltage
Range
CMRR
Common Mode Rejection
Ratio
PSRR
AV
Hyst
Hysteresis
Conditions
Min
(Note 8)
Typ
(Note 7)
Max
(Note 8)
12
for CMRR ≥ 50 dB
Units
µV/°C
VEE−0.2
VCCI−1.5
V
−1
+1
V
0V ≤ VCM ≤ VCC1−2
80
dB
Power Supply Rejection Ratio
80
dB
Active Gain
53
dB
RHYS = 0Ω
55
100
10
mV
LATCH ENABLE CHARACTERISTICS
IB-LE
Latch Enable Bias Current
Biased at RSPECL Level
3
VOS-LE
Latch Enable Offset Voltage
Biased at RSPECL Level
−5
VRI-LE
Latch Enable Voltage Range
for CMRR ≥ 50 dB
VRID-LE
Latch Enable Differential
Voltage Range
VEE+1.4
µA
mV
VCCO-0.8
V
±0.4
V
OUTPUT CHARACTERISTICS
VOH
Output Voltage High
VCCO−1.1V
mV
VOL
Output Voltage Low
VCCO−1.5V
mV
VOD
Output Voltage Differential
350
mV
POWER SUPPLIES
IVCCI
VCCI Supply Current/ Channel
6.2
10
12
mA
IVCCO
VCCO Supply Current/ Channel Load Current Excluded
15.5
20
25
mA
2.7V AC Electrical Characteristics
Unless otherwise specified, all limits are guaranteed for TJ = 25°C,
VCCI = VCCO = 2.7V, VEE = 0V, RL = 50Ω to VCCO-2V, VCM = 300 mV, RHYS = none. Boldface limits apply at temperature extremes.
Symbol
TR
tPDH
tOD-disp
Parameter
Conditions
Min
(Note 8)
Typ
(Note 7)
Max
(Note 8)
Units
Maximum Toggle Rate
Overdrive = ±50 mV; CL = 2 pF
@ 50% of Output Swing
3.8
Gb/s
Minimum Pulse Width
Overdrive = ±50 mV; CL = 2 pF
@ 50% of Output Swing
265
ps
Jitter
Overdrive = ±50 mV; CL = 2 pF
@ Freq = 140 MHz
170
fs
Propagation Delay.
Overdrive 20 mV
(see Figure 3 application note) Overdrive 50 mV
783
Input SR = Constant
Overdrive 100 mV
VIN startvalue = VREF – 100 mV Overdrive 1V
713
Input Overdrive Dispersion
728
718
tPDH @ Overdrive 20 mV ↔ 100 mV
70
tPDH @ Overdrive 100 mV ↔ 1V
5
ps
ps
ps
tSR-disp
Input Slew Rate Dispersion
0.1 V/ns to 1 V/ns; Overdrive = 100 mV
54
ps
tCM-disp
Input Common Mode
Dispersion
SR = 1 V/ns; Overdrive = 100 mV;
12
ps
ΔtPDLH
Q to Q Time Skew |tPDH – tPDL| Overdrive = 100 mV; CL = 2 pF
35
ps
ΔtPDHL
Q to Q Time Skew |tPDL – tPDH| Overdrive = 100 mV; CL = 2 pF
53
ps
tr
Output Rise Time (20%–80%) Overdrive = 100 mV; CL = 2 pF
165
ps
tf
Output Fall Time (20%–80%)
165
ps
0V ≤ VCM ≤ VCCI- 1.5V
Overdrive = 100 mV; CL = 2 pF
5
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LMH7322
Symbol
LMH7322
Symbol
Parameter
Conditions
Min
(Note 8)
Typ
(Note 7)
Max
(Note 8)
Units
tsLE
Latch Setup Time
102
ps
thLE
Latch Hold Time
37
ps
tPD_LE
Latch to Output Delay Time
906
ps
Note 1: Absolute Maximum Ratings indicate limits beyond which damage to the device may occur. Operating Ratings indicate conditions for which the device is
intended to be functional, but specific performance is not guaranteed. For guaranteed specifications and the test conditions, see the Electrical Characteristics.
Note 2: Human Body Model, applicable std. MIL-STD-883, Method 3015.7. Machine Model, applicable std. JESD22-A115-A (ESD MM std. of JEDEC)
Field-Induced Charge-Device Model, applicable std. JESD22-C101-C (ESD FICDM std. of JEDEC).
Note 3: Applies to both single-supply and split-supply operation. Continuous short circuit operation at elevated ambient temperature can result in exceeding the
maximum allowed junction temperature of 150°C.
Note 4: Short circuit test is a momentary test. See next note.
Note 5: The maximum power dissipation is a function of TJ(MAX), θJA. The maximum allowable power dissipation at any ambient temperature is
PD = (TJ(MAX) – TA)/ θJA. All numbers apply for packages soldered directly onto a PC Board.
Note 6: Electrical Table values apply only for factory testing conditions at the temperature indicated. Factory testing conditions result in very limited self-heating
of the device such that TJ = TA. No guarantee of parametric performance is indicated in the electrical tables under conditions of internal self-heating where TJ >
TA. See Applications section for information on temperature de-rating of this device.
Note 7: Typical values represent the most likely parametric norm as determined at the time of characterization. Actual typical values may vary over time and will
also depend on the application and configuration. The typical values are not tested and are not guaranteed on shipped production material.
Note 8: All limits are guaranteed by testing or statistical analysis.
Note 9: Positive current corresponds to current flowing into the device.
Note 10: Slew rate is the average of the positive and negative slew rate.
Note 11: Average Temperature Coefficient is determined by dividing the change in a parameter at temperature extremes by the total temperature change.
Connection Diagrams
Schematic
Footprint
20183202
20183201
Ordering Information
Package
Part Number
24-Pin LLP
NOPB
LMH7322SQ
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LMH7322SQX
Package Marking
Transport Media
1k Units Tape and Reel
L7322SQ
4.5 Units Tape and Reel
6
NSC Drawing
SQA24A
At TJ = 25°C; VCCI = +5V; VCCO = +3.3V; VEE = −5V; unless
otherwise specified.
Propagation Delay vs. Supply Voltage
Propagation Delay vs. Temperature
20183226
20183227
Propagation Delay vs. Supply Voltage
Propagation Delay vs. Overdrive Voltage
20183228
20183229
Propagation Delay vs. Common Mode Voltage
Propagation Delay vs. Slew Rate
20183230
20183231
7
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LMH7322
Typical Performance Characteristics
LMH7322
TPD Dispersion vs. Supply Voltage
Slew Rate Dispersion vs. Voltage Supply
20183232
20183233
Common Mode Dispersion vs. Supply Voltage
Bias Current vs. Temperature
20183234
20183235
Input Current vs. Differential Input Voltage
Maximum Toggle Rate
20183236
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20183237
8
Hysteresis Voltage vs. Hysteresis Resistor
20183239
20183238
9
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LMH7322
Output Voltage vs. Input Voltage
LMH7322
Application Information
INTRODUCTION
The LMH7322 is a high speed comparator with RS(P)ECL
(Reduced Swing Positive Emitter Coupled Logic) outputs,
and is compatible with LVDS (Low Voltage Differential Signaling) if VCCO is set to 2.5V. The use of complementary
outputs gives a high level of suppression for common mode
noise. The very fast rise and fall times of the LMH7322 enable
data transmission rates up to several Gigabits per second
(Gbps). The LMH7322 inputs have a common mode voltage
range that extends 200 mV below the negative supply voltage
thus allowing ground sensing in case of single supply. The
rise and fall times of the LMH7322 are about 160 ps, while the
propagation delay time is about 700 ps. The LMH7322 can
operate over the full supply voltage range of 2.7V to 12V,
while using single or dual supply voltages. This is a very usefull feature because it provides a flexible way to interface
between several high speed logic families. Several setups are
shown in the application information section “INTERFACE
BETWEEN LOGIC FAMILIES”. The outputs are referenced
to the positive VCCO supply rail. The supply current is 23 mA
at 5V (per comparator, load current excluded.) The LMH7322
is available in a 24-Pin LLP package.
• Input and output topology
• Specification definitions
• Propagation delay and dispersion
• Hysteresis and oscillations
• Output
• Applying transmission lines
• PCB layout
20183209
FIGURE 1. Equivalent Input Circuitry
The output stage of the LMH7322 is build using two emitter
followers, which are referenced to the VCCO (see Figure 2.)
Each of the output transistors is active when a current is flowing through any external output resistor connected to a lower
supply rail. The output structure is actually the same as for
the old fashioned ECL devices. Activating the outputs is done
by connecting the emitters to a termination voltage which lies
2V below the VCCO. In this case a termination resistor of
50Ω can be used and a transmission line of 50Ω can be driven. Another method is to connect the emitters through a
resistor to the most negative supply by calculating the right
value for the emitter current in accordance with the datasheet
tables. Both methods are useful, but they each have good and
bad aspects.
INPUT & OUTPUT TOPOLOGY
All input and output pins are protected against excessive voltages by ESD diodes. These diodes are conducting from the
negative supply to the positive supply. As can be seen in
Figure 1, both inputs are connected to these diodes. Further
protection of the inputs is provided by the two resistors of
250Ω, in conjunction with the string of anti-parallel diodes
connected between both bases of the input stage. This combination of resistors and diodes reduces excessive input voltages over the input stage, but is low enough to maintain
switching speed to the output signal.
Protection against excessive supply voltages is provided by
a power clamp between VCC and GND.
When using this part be aware of situations in which the differential input voltage level is such that these diodes are
conducting. In this case the input current is raised far above
the normal value stated in the datasheet tables because input
current is flowing through the bypass diode string between
both inputs.
20183210
FIGURE 2. Equivalent Output Circuitry
The output voltages for ‘1’ and ‘0’ have a difference of approximately 400 mV and are respectively 1.1V (for the ‘1’) and
1.4V (for the ‘0’) below the VCCO. This swing of 400 mV is
enough to drive any LVDS input but can also be used to drive
any ECL or PECL input, when the right supply voltage is chosen, especially the right level for the VCCO.
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10
Symbol
Text
Description
IB
Input Bias Current
Current flowing in or out of the input pins, when both are biased at the
VCM voltage as specified in the tables.
IOS
Input Offset Current
Difference between the input bias current of the inverting and noninverting inputs.
TC IOS
Average Input Offset Current Drift Temperature coefficient of IOS.
VOS
Input Offset Voltage
TC VOS
Average Input Offset Voltage Drift Temperature coefficient of VOS .
VRI
Input Voltage Range
VRID
Input Differential Voltage Range Differential voltage between positive and negative input at which the input
clamp is not working. The difference can be as high as the supply voltage
but excessive input currents are flowing through the clamp diodes and
protection resistors.
CMRR
Common Mode Rejection Ratio
Ratio of input offset voltage change and input common mode voltage
change.
PSRR
Power Supply Rejection Ratio
Ratio of input offset voltage change and supply voltage change from VSMIN to VS-MAX.
AV
Active Gain
Overall gain of the circuit.
Hyst
Hysteresis
Difference between the switching point ‘0’ to ‘1’ and vice versa.
IB-LE
Latch Enable Bias Current
Current flowing in or out of the input pins, when both are biased at normal
PECL levels.
IOS-LE
Latch Enable Offset Current
Difference between the input bias current of the LE and LE pin.
TC IOS-LE
Temp Coefficient Latch Enable
Offset Current
Temperature coefficient of IOS-LE.
VOS-LE
Latch Enable Offset Voltage
Voltage difference needed between LE and LE to place the part in the
latched or the transparent state.
TC VOS-LE
Temp Coefficient Latch Enable
Offset Voltage
Temperature coefficient of VOS-LE.
VRI-LE
Latch Enable Voltage Range
Voltage which can be applied to the LE input pins without damaging the
device.
VRID-LE
Latch Enable Differential Voltage Differential Voltage between LE and LE at which the clamp isn’t working.
Range
The difference can be as high as the supply voltage but excessive input
currents are flowing through the clamp diodes and protection resistors.
VOH
Output Voltage High
High state single ended output voltage (Q or Q) (see Figure 17).
VOL
Output Voltage Low
Low state single ended output voltage (Q or Q) (see Figure 17).
VOD
average of VODH and VODL
(VODH + VODL)/2.
IVCCI
Supply Current Input Stage
Supply current into the input stage.
IVCCO
Supply Current Output Stage
Supply current into the output stage while current through the load
resistors is excluded.
IVEE
Supply Current VEE pin
Current flowing to the negative supply pin.
TR
Maximum Toggle Rate
Maximum frequency at which the outputs can toggle between the nominal
VOH and VOL.
PW
Pulse Width
Time from 50% of the rising edge of a signal to 50% of the falling edge.
Voltage difference needed between IN+ and IN- to make the outputs
change state, averaged for H to L and L to H transitions.
Voltage which can be applied to the input pin maintaining normal
operation.
11
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LMH7322
DEFINITIONS
LMH7322
Symbol
Text
tPDH resp tPDL
Propagation Delay
Description
Delay time between the moment the input signal crosses the switching
level L to H and the moment the output signal crosses 50% of the rising
edge of Q output (tPDH), or Delay time between the moment the input
signal crosses the switching level H to L and the moment the output signal
crosses 50% of the falling edge of Q output (tPDL).
tPDL resp tPDH
Delay time between the moment the input signal crosses the switching
level L to H and the moment the output signal crosses 50% of the falling
edge of Q output (tPDL), or delay time between the moment the input signal
crosses the switching level H to L and the moment the output signal
crosses 50% of the rising edge of Q output (tPDH).
tPDLH
Average of tPDH and tPDL .
tPDHL
Average of tPDL and tPDH.
tPD
Average of tPDLH and tPDHL.
tPDHd resp tPDLd
Delay time between the moment the input signal crosses the switching
level L to H and the zero crossing of the rising edge of the differential
output signal (tPDHd), or delay time between the moment the input signal
crosses the switching level H to L and the zero crossing of the falling edge
of the differential output signal (tPDLd).
tOD-disp
Input Overdrive Dispersion
Change in tPD for different overdrive voltages at the input pins.
tSR-disp
Input Slew Rate Dispersion
Change in tPD for different slew rates at the input pins.
tCM-disp
Input Common Mode Dispersion Change in tPD for different common mode voltages at the input pins.
ΔtPDLH resp ΔtPDHL
Q to Q Time Skew
Time skew between 50% levels of the rising edge of Q output and the
falling edge of output (ΔtPDLH), or time skew between 50% levels of falling
ΔtPD
Average Q to Q Time Skew
Average of tPDLH and tPDHL for L to H and H to L transients.
ΔtPDd
Average Diff. Time Skew
Average of tPDHd and tPDLd for L to H and H to L transients.
tr / trd
Output Rise Time (20% - 80%)
Time needed for the (single ended or differential) output voltage to change
from 20% of its nominal value to 80%.
tf / tfd
Output Fall Time (20% - 80%)
Time needed for the (single ended or differential) output voltage to change
from 80% of its nominal value to 20%.
tsLE
Latch Setup Time
Time the input signal has to be stable before enabling the latch
functionality.
thLE
Latch Hold Time
Time the input signal has to remain stable after enabling the latch
functionality.
tPD-LE
Latch to Output Delay Time
Delay time between the moment the latch input crosses the switching
level H to L and the moment the differential output signal crosses the 50%
level.
Note: input signal is opposite to output signal when latch becomes
enabled.
edge of Q output and rising edge of Q output (ΔtPDHL).
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LMH7322
20183204
FIGURE 3. Timing Definitions
20183203
FIGURE 4. LE Timing
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LMH7322
Pin Descriptions
Pin
Name
Description
Comment
1.
VCCOA
Positive Supply Output Stage part A
The supply pin for the output stage is independent of the supply
pin for the input pin. This allows output levels of different logic
families.
2.
LEA
Latch Enable Input
part A
Logic ‘1’ sets the part on hold. Logic levels are RSPECL (Reduced
Swing PECL) compatible.
3.
LEA
Latch Enable Input Not
part A
Logic ‘0’ sets the part on hold. Logic levels are RSPECL
compatible.
4.
VEEA
Negative Supply
part A
The supply pin for the negative supply is connected to the VEEB
via a string of two anti-parallel diodes (see Figure 1)
5.
VCCIA
Positive Supply for Input
Stage
part A
The supply pin for the input stage is independent of the supply for
the output stage.
6.
RHYSA
Hysteresis Resistor
part A
The hysteresis voltage is determined by connecting a resistor from
this pin to RHREFA.
7.
INA-
Negative Input
part A
Input for analog voltages between 200 mV below VEEA and 2V
below VCCIA.
8.
INA+
Positive Input
part A
Input for analog voltages between 200 mV below VEEA and 2V
below VCCIA.
9.
RHREFA
Reference Voltage Hysteresis part A
Resistor
The hysteresis voltage is determined by connecting a resistor from
this pin to RHYSA.
10.
RHREFB
Reference Voltage Hysteresis part B
Resistor
The hysteresis voltage is determined by connecting a resistor from
this pin to RHYSB.
11.
INB+
Positive Input
part B
Input for analog voltages between 200 mV below VEEB and 2V
below VCCIB.
12.
INB−
Negative Input
part B
Input for analog voltages between 200 mV below VEEB and 2V
below VCCIB.
13.
RHYSB
Hysteresis Resistor
part B
The hysteresis voltage is determined by connecting a resistor from
this pin to RHREFB.
14.
VCCIB
Positive Supply for Input
Stage
part B
The supply pin for the input stage is independent of the supply for
the output stage.
15.
VEEB
Negative Supply
part B
The supply pin for the negative supply is connected to the VEEA
via a string of two anti-parallel diodes (see Figure 1).
16.
LEB
Latch Enable Input Not
part B
Logic ‘0’ sets the part on hold. Logic levels are RSPECL
compatible.
17.
LEB
Latch Enable Input Logic
part B
‘1’ sets the part on hold. Logic levels are RSPECL compatible.
18.
VCCOB
Positive Supply for Output
Stage
part B
The supply pin for the output stage is independent of the supply
pin for the input pin. This allows output levels of different logic
families.
19.
QB
Inverted Output
part B
Output levels are determined by the choice of VCCOB.
20.
QB
Output
part B
Output levels are determined by the choice of VCCOB.
21.
VCCOB
Positive Supply for Output
Stage
part B
See other VCCOB
22.
VCCOA
Positive Supply for Output
Stage
part A
See other VCCOA.
23.
QA
Output
part A
Output levels are determined by the choice of VCCOA.
24.
QA
Inverted Output
part A
Output levels are determined by the choice of VCCOA.
25.
DAP
Central pad at the bottom of
the package
A&B
This pad is connected to the VEE pins and its purpose is to transfer
heat outside the part.
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14
THE LATCH ENABLE PINS
The latch function is intended to stop the device from comparing the signals on both input pins. If the latch function is
enabled the output is frozen and the logic information on the
output pins, present at that moment is held until the latch
function is disabled. The timing of this process can be seen
in Figure 4. The input levels for the latch pins should comply
with RSPECL, but can also be driven with PECL type of signals if the minimum supply (VCCO –V EE) is larger or equal to
3.3V. The minimum differential latch input voltage should be
100 mV. Another possibility to set the LE function in a steady
state is to connect the pins via a resistor to the power supply.
If the LE pin is connected to VEE via a resistor of 10 kΩ and
the LE-not pin is connected via 10 kΩ to the VCCO pin the part
is continuously on. Since the latch input stage is referenced
to VCCO, the resistors to set the LE function should be connected to this voltage. This is very important when working
with different voltages for VCCI and VCCO. If connected to the
wrong supply the latch function will not work.
20183225
FIGURE 5. DAP Connection
INTERFACE BETWEEN LOGIC FAMILIES
As can be seen in the typical schematics (see the first part of
the datasheet) the LMH7322 can be used to interface between different logic families. The feature that facilitates this
property is the fact that the input stage and the output stage
use different positive power supply pins which can be used at
different supply voltages. The negative supply pins are connected together for both parts. Using the power pins at different supply voltages makes it possible to create several
translations for logic families. It is possible to translate from
logic at negative voltage levels such as ECL to logic at positive
levels such as RSPECL and LVDS and vice versa.
THE DAP AND THE VEE PINS
To assure that both VEE pins are always operating at the
same voltage level both VEE pins are connected to the DAP.
This means the DAP is always at the lowest power supply
level. This gives also the possibility to power the part via the
DAP which means there are bond wires used for the connection to the VEE pins. A beter solution is to external connect
the VEE and the DAP by pcb track. (see Figure 5).
To protect the device during handling and production two antiparallel connected diodes are connected between both VEE
Interface from ECL to RSPECL
The supply pin VCCI can be connected to ground because the
input levels are negative and the VCCO pin must operate at 5V
to create the RSPECL levels (see Figure 6). When working
with ECL, the negative supply pin (VEE) can be connected to
the −5.2V ECL supply voltage.
20183205
FIGURE 6. ECL TO RSPECL
to the ground level in order to create the RSECL levels. The
high level of the output of the LMH7322 is normally 1.1V below
the VCCO supply voltage, and the low level is 1.5V below this
supply. The output levels are now −1100 mV for the logic ‘1’
Interface from PECL to (RS)ECL
The conversion from PECL to RS-ECL is possible when connecting the VCCI pin to +5V, which allows the input stage to
handle these positive levels. The VCCO pin must be connected
15
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LMH7322
pins. Under normal operating conditions these diodes are
shortened via the DAP.
The DAP (Die Attach Paddle) functions as a heat sink which
means that heat can be transferred using vias below this pad
to any appropriate copper plane.
TIPS & TRICKS USING THE LMH7322
In this section several aspects are discussed concerning special applications using the LMH7322.
This concerns the LE function, the connection of the DAP in
conjunction to the VEE pins and the use of this part as an interface between several logic families.
LMH7322
and −1500 mV for the logic ‘0’ (see Figure 7). In the same way
the VEE can be connected to the ECL supply voltage of −5.2V.
20183206
FIGURE 7. PECL TO RSECL
use of a 10 kΩ resistor. With this input configuration the input
stage can work in a linear area with signals of approximately
3 VPP (see input level restrictions in the data tables.)
Interface from Analog to LVDS
As seen in Figure 8, the LMH7322 can be configured to create
LVDS levels. This is done by connecting the VCCO to 2.5V. As
discussed before the output levels are now at VCCO –1.1V for
the logic ‘1’ and at VCCO −1.5V for the logic ‘0’. These levels
of 1000 mV and 1400 mV comply with the LVDS levels. As
can be seen in this setup, an AC coupled signal via a transmission line is used. This signal is terminated with 50Ω.
20183208
FIGURE 9. Standard Setup
20183207
FIGURE 8. ANALOG TO LVDS
DELAY AND DISPERSION
Comparators are widely used to connect the analog world to
the digital one. The accuracy of a comparator is dictated by
its DC properties, such as offset voltage and hysteresis, and
by its timing aspects, such as rise and fall times and delay.
For low frequency applications most comparators are much
faster than the analog input signals they handle. The timing
aspects are less important here than the accuracy of the input
switching levels. The higher the frequencies, the more important the timing properties of the comparator become, because
the response of the comparator can make a noticeable
change in critical parameters such as time frame or duty cy-
Figure 9 shows a standard comparator setup which creates
RSPECL levels because the VCCO supply voltage is +5V. In
this case the VEE pin is connected to the ground level. The
VCCI pin is connected to the VCCO pin because there is no
need to use different positive supply voltages. The input signal is AC coupled to the positive input. To maintain reliable
results the input pins IN+ and IN− are biased at 1.4V through
a resistive divider using a resistor of 1 kΩ to ground and a
resistor of 2.5 kΩ to the VCC and by adding two decoupling
capacitors. Both inputs are connected to the bias level by the
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LMH7322
cle. A designer has to know these effects and has to deal with
them. In order to predict what the output signal will do, several
parameters are defined which describe the behavior of the
comparator. For a good understanding of the timing parameters discussed in the following section, a brief explanation is
given and several timing diagrams are shown for clarification.
PROPAGATION DELAY
The propagation delay parameter is described in the definition
section. Due to this definition there are two parameters, tPDH
and tPDL (Figure 10). Both parameters do not necessarily have
the same value. It is possible that differences will occur due
to a different response of the internal circuitry. As a derivative
of this effect another parameter is defined: ΔtPD. This parameter is defined as the absolute value of the difference between
tPDH and tPDL.
20183212
FIGURE 11. tPD with Complementary Outputs
Both output circuits should be symmetrical. At the moment
one output is switching ‘on’ the other is switching ‘off’ with
ideally no skew between both outputs. The design of the
LMH7322 is optimized so that this timing difference is minimized. The propagation delay, tPD, is defined as the average
delay of both outputs at both slopes: (tPDLH + tPDHL)/2.
Both overdrive and starting point should be equally divided
around the VREF (absolute values).
20183211
DISPERSION
There are several circumstances that will produce a variation
of the propagation delay time. This effect is called dispersion.
FIGURE 10. Propagation Delay
If ΔtPD is not zero, duty cycle distortion will occur. For example
when applying a symmetrical waveform (e.g. a sinewave) at
the input, it is expected that the comparator will produce a
symmetrical square wave at the output with a duty cycle of
50%. When tPDH and tPDL are different, the duty cycle of the
output signal will not remain at 50%, but will be increased or
decreased. In addition to the propagation delay parameters
for single ended outputs discussed before, there are other
parameters in the case of complementary outputs. These parameters describe the delay from input to each of the outputs
and the difference between both delay times (See Figure
11.) When the differential input signal crosses the reference
level from L to H, both outputs will switch to their new state
with some delay. This is defined as tPDH for the Q output and
tPDL for the Q output, while the difference between both signals is defined as ΔtPDLH. Similar definitions for the falling
slope of the input signal can be seen in Figure 3.
Amplitude Overdrive Dispersion
One of the parameters that causes dispersion is the amplitude
variation of the input signal. Figure 12 shows the dispersion
due to a variation of the input overdrive voltage. The overdrive
is defined as the ‘go to’ differential voltage applied to the inputs. Figure 12 shows the impact it has on the propagation
delay time if the overdrive is varied from 10 mV to 100 mV.
This parameter is measured with a constant slew rate of the
input signal.
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LMH7322
Common Mode Dispersion
Dispersion will also occur when changing the common mode
level of the input signal (Figure 14). When VREF is swept
through the CMVR (Common Mode Voltage Range), It results
in a variation of the propagation delay time. This variation is
called Common Mode Dispersion.
20183213
FIGURE 12. Overdrive Dispersion
The overdrive dispersion is caused by the switching currents
in the input stage which is dependent on the level of the differential input signal.
20183215
Slew Rate Dispersion
The slew rate is another parameter that affects propagation
delay. The higher the input slew rate, the faster the input stage
switches (See Figure 13).
FIGURE 14. Common Mode Dispersion
All of the dispersion effects described previously influence the
propagation delay. In practice the dispersion is often caused
by a combination of more than one varied parameter.
HYSTERESIS & OSCILLATIONS
In contrast to an op amp, the output of a comparator has only
two defined states ‘0’ or ‘1.’ Due to finite comparator gain
however, there will be a small band of input differential voltage
where the output is in an undefined state. An input signal with
fast slopes will pass this band very quickly without problems.
During slow slopes however, passing the band of uncertainty
can take a relatively long time. This enables the comparators
output to switch back and forth several times between ‘0’ and
‘1’ on a single slope. The comparator will switch on its input
noise, ground bounce (possible oscillations), ringing etc.
Noise in the input signal will also contribute to these undesired
switching actions. The next sections explain these phenomena in situations where no hysteresis is applied, and discuss
the possible improvement hysteresis can give.
Using No Hysteresis
Figure 15 shows what happens when the input signal rises
from just under the threshold VREF to a level just above it.
From the moment the input reaches the lowest dotted line
around VREF at t=0, the output toggles on noise etc. Toggling
ends when the input signal leaves the undefined area at t=1.
In this example the output was fast enough to toggle three
times. Due to this behavior digital circuitry connected to the
output will count a wrong number of pulses. One way to prevent this is to choose a very slow comparator with an output
that is not able to switch more than once between ‘0’ and ‘1’
during the time the input state is undefined.
20183214
FIGURE 13. Slew Rate Dispersion
A combination of overdrive and slew rate dispersion occurs
when applying signals with different amplitudes at constant
frequency. A small amplitude will produce a small voltage
change per time unit (dV/dt) but also a small maximum switching current (overdrive) in the input transistors. High amplitudes produce a high dV/dt and a bigger overdrive.
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The Output
20183216
OUTPUT SWING PROPERTIES
The LMH7322 has differential outputs which means that both
outputs have the same swing but in opposite directions (See
Figure 17). Both outputs swing around the common mode
output voltage (VO). This voltage can be measured at the
midpoint between two equal resistors connected to each output. The absolute value of the difference between both voltages is called VOD. The outputs cannot be held at the VO level
because of their digital nature. They only cross this level during a transition. Due to the symmetrical structure of the circuit,
both output voltages cross at VO regardless of whether the
output changes from ‘0’ to ‘1’ or vise versa.
FIGURE 15. Oscillations on Output Signal
In most circumstances this is not an option because the slew
rate of the input signal will vary.
Using Hysteresis
A good way to avoid oscillations and noise during slow slopes
is the use of hysteresis. For this purpose the switching level
is forced to a new level at the moment the input signal crosses
this level. This can be seen in Figure 16.
20183219
FIGURE 17. Output Swing
LOADING THE OUTPUT
Both outputs are activated when current is flowing through a
resistor that is externally connected to VT. The termination
voltage should be set 2V below the VCCO. This makes it possible to terminate each of the outputs directly with 50Ω, and
if needed to connect through a transmission line with the
same impedance (see Figure 18). Due to the low ohmic nature of the output emitter followers and the 50Ω load resistor,
a capacitive load of several pF does not dramatically affect
the speed and shape of the signal. When transmitting the signal from one output to any input the termination resistor
should match the transmission line. The capacitive load (CP)
will distort the received signal. When measuring this input with
a probe, a certain amount of capacitance from the probe is
parallel to the termination resistor. The total capacitance can
be as large as 10 pF. In this case there is a pole at:
f = 1/(2*π*C*R)
f = 1e9/ π
f = 318 MHz
20183218
FIGURE 16. Hysteresis
In this picture there are two dotted lines A and B, both indicating the resulting level at which the comparator output will
switch over. Assume that for this situation the input signal is
connected to the negative input and the switching level
(VREF) to the positive input. The LMH7322 has a hysteresis
pin, so a resistor connected to this pin determines the variation of the VREF level dependent on the state of the output.
The hysteresis pin must be connected to the VEE and can be
varied from a short to an open pin. A short to VEE means the
highest hysteresis voltage variation and an open pin means
no level variation. The input level of Figure 16 starts much
lower as the reference level and this means that the state of
the input stage is well defined with the inverting input much
lower than the non-inverting input. As a result the output will
be in the high state. Internally the switching level is at A, with
the input signal sloping up, this situation remains until VIN
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LMH7322
crosses level A at t=1. Now the output toggles, and the internal switching level is lowered to level B. So before the output
has the possibility to toggle again, the difference between the
inputs is made sufficient to have a stable situation again.
When the input signal comes down from high to low, the situation is stable until level B is reached at t=0. At this moment
the output will toggle back, and the circuit is back in the starting situation with the inverting input at a much lower level than
the non inverting input. In the situation without hysteresis, the
output will toggle exactly at VREF. With hysteresis this happens at the internally introduced levels A and B, as can be
seen in Figure 16. Varying the levels A and B due to the
change of the hysteresis resistor will also vary the timing of
t=0 and t=1. When designing a circuit be aware of this effect.
Introducing hysteresis will cause some time shift between
output and input (e.g. duty cycle variations), but will eliminate
undesired switching of the output.
LMH7322
In this case the current IP has the same value as the current
through the termination resistor. This means that the voltage
drops at the input and the rise and fall times are dramatically
different from the specified numbers for this part.
Another parasitic capacity that can affect the output signal is
the capacity directly between both outputs, called CPAR (see
Figure 18). The LMH7322 has two complementary outputs so
there is the possibility to transport the output signal by a symmetrical transmission line. In this case both output tracks form
a coupled line with their own parasitics and both receiver inputs connected to the transmission line. Actually the line
termination looks like 100Ω and the input capacities, which
are in series, are parallel to the 100Ω termination. The best
way to measure the input signal is to use a differential probe
directly across both inputs. Such a probe is very suitable for
measuring these fast signals because it has good high frequency characteristics and low parasitic capacitance.
Maximum Bit Rates
The rise and fall times are very important specifications in high
speed circuits. In fact these times determine the maximum
toggle rate of the part. Rise and fall times are normally specified at 20% and 80% of the signal amplitude (60% difference).
The maximum toggle rate is defined at an amplitude of 50%
of the nominal output signal. In order to know what the maximum toggle rate is, it is required to recalculate the rise and
fall times to 50% swing instead of 60%.
Using a rise and fall time of 160 ps the calculated maximum
bit rate is as follows:
f = 1/ (2*((50/60) * 160e-12))
f = 3.75 GHz
which means a maximum bit rate of 7.5 Gb. During one frequency period, 2 bits of NRZ (Non Return to Zero) format can
be transmitted (see Figure 19).
20183222
FIGURE 19. Bit Rates
Need for Terminated Transmission Lines
During the 1980’s and 90’s, National fabricated the 100K ECL
logic family. The rise and fall time specifications were 0.75 ns,
which are considered very fast. If sufficient care has not been
given in designing the transmission lines and choosing the
correct terminations, then errors in digital circuits are introduced. To be helpful to designers that use ECL with “old”
PCB-techniques, the 10K ECL family was introduced with a
rise and fall time specification of 2 ns. This was much slower
and easier to use. The RSPECL output signals of the
LMH7322 have transition times that extend the fastest ECL
family. A careful PCB design is needed using RF techniques
for transmission and termination. Transmission lines can be
formed in several ways. The most commonly used types are
the coaxial cable and the twisted pair telephony cable (Figure
20).
20183221
FIGURE 18. Parasitic Capacities
TRANSMISSION LINES & TERMINATION
TECHNOLOGIES
The LMH7322 uses complementary RSPECL outputs and
emitter followers, which means high output current capability
and low sensitivity to parasitic capacitance. The use of Reduced Swing Positive Emitter Coupled Logic reduces the
supply voltage to 2.7V, being the lowest possible value, and
raises the maximum frequency response. Data rates are
growing, which requires increasing speed. Data is not only
connected to other IC’s on a single PCB board but, in many
cases, there are interconnections from board to board or from
equipment to equipment. Distances can be short or long but
it is always necessary to have a reliable connection, which
consumes low power and is able to handle high data rates.
The complementary outputs of the LMH7322 make it possible
to use symmetrical transmission lines The advantage over
single ended signal transmission is that the LMH7322 has
higher immunity to common mode noise. Common mode signals are signals that are equally apparent on both lines and
because the receiver only looks at the difference between
both lines, this noise is canceled.
20183223
FIGURE 20. Cable Types
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20
of the track determines the resulting impedance. So, if the
PCB manufacturer can produce reliable boards with low track
spacing the track width for a given impedance is also small.
The wider the spacing, the wider tracks are needed for a specific impedance. For example two tracks of 0.2 mm width and
0.1 mm spacing have the same impedance as two tracks of
0.8 mm width and 0.4 mm spacing. With high-end PCB processes, it is possible to design very narrow differential microstrip transmission lines. It is desirable to use these to
create optimal connections to the receiving part or the terminating resistor, in accordance to their physical dimensions.
Seen from the comparator, the termination resistor must be
connected at the far end of the line. Open connections after
the termination resistor (e.g. to an input of a receiver) must
be as short as possible. The allowed length of such connections varies with the received transients. The faster the transients, the shorter the open lines must be to prevent signal
degradation.
PCB LAYOUT CONSIDERATIONS AND COMPONENT
VALUE SELECTION
High frequency designs require that both active and passive
components be selected from those that are specially designed for this purpose. The LMH7322 is fabricated in a 24pin LLP package intended for surface mount design. For
reliable high speed design it is highly recommended to use
small surface mount passive components because these
packages have low parasitic capacitance and low inductance
simply because they have no leads to connect them to the
PCB. It is possible to amplify signals at frequencies of several
hundreds of MHz using standard through-hole resistors. Surface mount devices however, are better suited for this purpose. Another important issue is the PCB itself, which is no
longer a simple carrier for all the parts and a medium to interconnect them. The PCB becomes a real component itself
and consequently contributes its own high frequency properties to the overall performance of the circuit. Good practice
dictates that a high frequency design have at least one ground
plane, providing a low impedance path for all decoupling capacitors and other ground connections. Care should be given
especially that on-board transmission lines have the same
impedance as the cables to which they are connected. Most
single ended applications have 50Ω impedance (75Ω for
video and cable TV applications). Such low impedance, single
ended microstrip transmission lines usually require much
wider traces (2 to 3 mm) on a standard double sided PCB
board than needed for a ‘normal’ trace. Another important issue is that inputs and outputs should not ‘see’ each other. This
occurs if input and output tracks are routed in parallel over the
PCB with only a small amount of physical separation, particularly when the difference in signal level is high. Furthermore,
components should be placed as flat and low as possible on
the surface of the PCB. For higher frequencies a long lead
can act as a coil, a capacitor or an antenna. A pair of leads
can even form a transformer. Careful design of the PCB minimizes oscillations, ringing and other unwanted behavior. For
ultra high frequency designs only surface mount components
will give acceptable results. (For more information see
OA-15).
20183224
FIGURE 21. PBC Lines
Differential Microstrip
Line The transmission line which is ideally suited for complementary signals is the differential microstrip line. This is a
double microstrip line with a narrow space in between. This
means both lines have strong coupling and this determines
the characteristic impedance. The fact that they are routed
above a copper plane does not affect differential impedance,
only CM-capacitance is added. Each of the structures above
has its own geometric parameters, so for each structure there
is different formula to calculate the right impedance. For calculations on these transmission lines visit the National website or order RAPIDESIGNER. At the end of the transmission
line there must be a termination having the same impedance
as that of the transmission line itself. It does not matter what
impedance the line has, if the load has the same value no
reflections will occur. When designing a PCB board with
transmission lines on it, space becomes an important item
especially on high density boards. With a single microstrip
line, line width is fixed for given impedance and a board material. Other line widths will result in different impedances.
Advantages of Differential MicrostripLines
Impedances of transmission lines are always dictated by their
geometric parameters. This is also true for differential microstrip lines. Using this type of transmission line, the distance
NSC suggests the following evaluation board as a guide for
high frequency layout and as an aid in device testing ULV94V-0
551013148-001 Rev A
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LMH7322
These cables have a characteristic impedance determined by
their geometric parameters. Widely used impedances for the
coaxial cable are 50Ω and 75Ω. Twisted pair cables have
impedances of about 120Ω to 150Ω.
Other types of transmission lines are the strip line and the
micro strip line. These last types are used on PCB boards.
They have the characteristic impedance dictated by the physical dimensions of a track placed over a metal ground plane
(see Figure 21).
LMH7322
Physical Dimensions inches (millimeters) unless otherwise noted
24-Pin LLP Package
NS Package Number SQA24A
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22
LMH7322
Notes
23
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LMH7322 Dual 700 ps High Speed Comparator with RSPECL Outputs
Notes
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(“NATIONAL”) PRODUCTS. NATIONAL MAKES NO REPRESENTATIONS OR WARRANTIES WITH RESPECT TO THE ACCURACY
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