19-1527; Rev 0; 8/99 ±15kV ESD-Protected, +5V, 1µA, Single RS-232 Transceiver with AutoShutdown Features ♦ Single RS-232 Transceiver in a Small 16-Pin TSSOP ♦ ESD Protection for RS-232 I/O Pins ±15kV—Human Body Model ±8kV—IEC 1000-4-2, Contact Discharge ±15kV—IEC 1000-4-2, Air-Gap Discharge ♦ Latchup Free ♦ 1µA Supply Current ♦ AutoShutdown Saves Power without Changes to BIOS ♦ Guaranteed 250kbps Data Rate Ordering Information PART TEMP. RANGE MAX221ECUE 0°C to +70°C 16 TSSOP MAX221ECAE MAX221EEUE MAX221EEAE 0°C to +70°C 40°C to +85°C 40°C to +85°C 16 SSOP 16 TSSOP 16 SSOP Applications Typical Operating Circuit Maintenance/Diagnostic Ports Industrial Systems +5V Telecommunications CBYPASS 0.1µF Set-Top Boxes Pin Configuration C1 0.1µF 15 2 C1+ 4 C15 C2 0.1µF TOP VIEW 6 16 FORCEOFF EN 1 VCC 15 VCC V+ 3 14 GND MAX221E 12 FORCEON C2- 6 11 TIN 10 INVALID 9 RIN 8 C3 0.1µF MAX221E C2+ V- 7 C4 0.1µF C2TOUT 13 9 ROUT RIN 8 13 TOUT C2+ 5 V- 7 3 V+ 11 TIN C1+ 2 C1- 4 PIN-PACKAGE 5k 1 EN INVALID 10 ROUT 12 TSSOP/SSOP FORCEON GND FORCEOFF 16 TO POWERMANAGEMENT UNIT VCC 14 AutoShutdown is a trademark of Maxim Integrated Products. CAPACITORS MAY BE POLARIZED OR UNPOLARIZED. ________________________________________________________________ Maxim Integrated Products 1 For free samples & the latest literature: http://www.maxim-ic.com, or phone 1-800-998-8800. For small orders, phone 1-800-835-8769. MAX221E General Description The MAX221E is a +5V powered, single transmit/ receive RS-232 and V.28 communications interface with automatic shutdown/wake-up features and high data rate capabilities. The MAX221E features enhanced electrostatic discharge (ESD) protection. Both the transmitter output and receiver input are protected to ±15kV using the IEC 1000-4-2 AirGap Discharge Method, to ±8kV using the IEC 1000-4-2 Contact Discharge Method, and to ±15kV using the Human Body Model. The MAX221E achieves a low 1µA supply current with Maxim’s revolutionary AutoShutdown™ feature. AutoShutdown saves power without changes to the existing BIOS or operating system by entering lowpower shutdown mode when the RS-232 cable is disconnected or when the transmitter of the connected peripheral is off. The MAX221E wakes up and drives the INVALID pin high when an active RS-232 cable is connected, signaling the host that a peripheral is connected to the communications port. The MAX221E is available in a 16-pin SSOP package as well as a 16-pin TSSOP that uses 50% less board space than a 16-pin SO. MAX221E ±15kV ESD-Protected, +5V, 1µA, Single RS-232 Transceiver with AutoShutdown ABSOLUTE MAXIMUM RATINGS VCC ..........................................................................-0.3V to +6V V+ ...............................................................(VCC - 0.3V) to +14V V- ...........................................................................-14V to +0.3V Input Voltages TIN ............................................................-0.3V to (V+ + 0.3V) RIN ...................................................................................±30V FORCEON, FORCEOFF, EN ..................-0.3V to (VCC + 0.3V) Output Voltages TOUT ................................................(V- - 0.3V) to (V+ + 0.3V) ROUT, INVALID ......................................-0.3V to (VCC + 0.3V) Short-Circuit Duration, TOUT .....................................Continuous Continuous Power Dissipation (TA = +70°C) 16-Pin TSSOP (derated 6.7mW/°C above +70°C) .......533mW 16-Pin SSOP (derated 7.1mW/°C above +70°C) .........571mW Operating Temperature Range MAX221EC_ _. ....................................................0°C to +70°C MAX221EE_ _ ..................................................-40°C to +85°C Maximum Junction Temperature .................................... +150°C Storage Temperature Range ........................... -65°C to +150°C Lead Temperature (soldering, 10sec) ............................ +300°C Stresses beyond those listed under “Absolute Maximum Ratings” may cause permanent damage to the device. These are stress ratings only, and functional operation of the device at these or any other conditions beyond those indicated in the operational sections of the specifications is not implied. Exposure to absolute maximum rating conditions for extended periods may affect device reliability. ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS (VCC = +5V ±10%, C1–C4 = 0.1µF, TA = TMIN to TMAX, unless otherwise noted. Typical values are at TA = +25°C.) PARAMETER SYMBOL CONDITIONS MIN TYP MAX UNITS DC CHARACTERISTICS VCC Supply Current Shutdown Supply Current AutoShutdown Supply Current ICC No load, TA = +25°C 5 10 mA ISHDN TA = +25°C, Figure 1 1 10 µA 1 10 µA IAS LOGIC INPUTS TIN = 0 to VCC ±1 µA Input Threshold Low VIL TIN, EN, FORCEOFF, FORCEON 0.8 V Input Threshold High VIH EN, FORCEOFF, TIN Output Voltage Low VOL ROUT; ISINK = 3.2mA Output Voltage High VOH ROUT; ISOURCE = 1.0mA Input Leakage Current 2.4 0.4 V ±10 µA 3.5 EN = VCC, 0 ≤ ROUT ≤ VCC Output Leakage Current V V ±0.05 AUTOSHUTDOWN Receiver Input Threshold, Transmitter Enabled Figure 3 Receiver Input Threshold, Transmitter Disabled ICC = 1µA, Figure 3 INVALID Output Voltage Low ISINK = 1.6mA INVALID Output Voltage High ISOURCE = 1.0mA Receiver Threshold to Transmitter Enabled 2.7 Positive threshold Negative threshold -2.7 -0.3 VCC - 0.6 V 0.3 V 0.4 V V tWU Figure 3 250 µs Receiver Positive or Negative Threshold to INVALID High tINVH Figure 3 1 µs Receiver Positive or Negative Threshold to INVALID Low tINVL Figure 3 30 µs 2 _______________________________________________________________________________________ ±15kV ESD-Protected, +5V, 1µA, Single RS-232 Transceiver with AutoShutdown (VCC = +5V ±10%, C1–C4 = 0.1µF, TA = TMIN to TMAX, unless otherwise noted. Typical values are at TA = +25°C.) PARAMETER SYMBOL CONDITIONS MIN TYP MAX UNITS 25 V 2.4 V RECEIVER INPUT Input Voltage Range -25 Input Threshold Low TA = +25°C, VCC = 5V Input Threshold High TA = +25°C, VCC = 5V 0.8 1.7 1.2 Input Hysteresis VCC = 5V, no hysteresis in shutdown 0.5 Input Resistance TA = +25°C, VCC = 5V 3 5 ±9 V V 7 kΩ TRANSMITTER OUTPUT Output Voltage Swing Driver loaded with 3kΩ to ground ±5 Output Resistance VCC = V+ = V- = 0, VOUT = ±2V 300 Output Short-Circuit Current V Ω ±10 ±60 mA ESD PROTECTION IEC 1000-4-2 Air-Gap Discharge RIN, TOUT ±15 IEC 1000-4-2 Contact Discharge ±8 Human Body Model ±15 kV TIMING CHARACTERISTICS (VCC = +5V ±10%, C1–C4 = 0.1µF, TA = TMIN to TMAX, unless otherwise noted. Typical values are at TA = +25°C.) PARAMETER SYMBOL CONDITIONS RL = 3kΩ to 7kΩ, CL = 50pF to 1000pF, VCC = 4.5V Maximum Data Rate MIN TYP MAX 250 UNITS kbps CL = 150pF 0.15 ms Receiver Output Enable Time Normal operation 300 ns Receiver Output Disable Time Normal operation 200 ns Receiver Propagation Delay tPHL, tPLH Transmitter Skew | tPHL tPLH | (Note 1) 200 ns Receiver Skew | tPHL tPLH | 50 ns Transition-Region Slew Rate TA = +25°C, VCC = 5V, RL = 3kΩ to 7kΩ, CL = 500pF to 1000pF, measured from -3V to +3V or +3V to -3V 3 6 30 V/µs Note 1: Transmitter skew is measured at the transmitter zero crosspoints. _______________________________________________________________________________________ 3 MAX221E ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS (continued) Typical Operating Characteristics (VCC = +5V, 250kbps data rate, 0.1µF capacitors, transmitter loaded with 3kΩ and CL, TA = +25°C, unless otherwise noted.) TRANSMITTER OUTPUT VOLTAGE vs. LOAD CAPACITANCE SLEW RATE vs. LOAD CAPACITANCE 20kbps 120kbps 250kbps 2 0 250kbps -2 -4 20kbps -6 +SLEW 30 20 -SLEW 120kbps MAX221Etoc03 40 SLEW RATE (V/µs) 4 40 SUPPLY CURRENT (mA) 6 50 MAX221Etoc02 8 OPERATING SUPPLY CURRENT vs. LOAD CAPACITANCE 50 MAX221Etoc01 10 TRANSMITTER OUTPUT VOLTAGE (V) MAX221E ±15kV ESD-Protected, +5V, 1µA, Single RS-232 Transceiver with AutoShutdown 250kbps 30 20 10 10 0 0 -8 120kbps -10 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 LOAD CAPACITANCE (pF) 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 0 LOAD CAPACITANCE (pF) 1000 20kbps 2000 3000 4000 5000 LOAD CAPACITANCE (pF) Pin Description 4 PIN NAME FUNCTION 1 EN 2 C1+ 3 V+ Positive Voltage Generated by the Charge Pump 4 C1- Negative Terminal of the Voltage Doubler Charge-Pump Capacitor 5 C2+ Positive Terminal of the Inverting Charge-Pump Capacitor 6 C2- Negative Terminal of the Inverting Charge-Pump Capacitor 7 V- 8 RIN 9 ROUT 10 INVALID 11 TIN 12 FORCEON 13 TOUT RS-232 Transmitter Output, ±15kV ESD Protected 14 GND Ground 15 VCC +4.5V to +5.5V Supply Voltage 16 FORCEOFF Receiver Enable Control. Drive low for normal operation. Drive high to force the receiver output (ROUT) into a high-impedance state. Positive Terminal of the Voltage Doubler Charge-Pump Capacitor Negative Voltage Generated by the Charge Pump RS-232 Receiver Input, ±15kV ESD protected TTL/CMOS Receiver Output Output of the Invalid Signal Detector. INVALID is pulled low if no valid RS-232 level is present on the receiver input. TTL/CMOS Transmitter Input Drive high to override automatic circuitry, keeping transmitter and charge pump on. FORCEOFF must be high (Table 1). Force-Off Input, active low. Drive low to shut down transmitter, receiver, and on-board charge pump. This overrides all automatic circuitry and FORCEON (Table 1). _______________________________________________________________________________________ ±15kV ESD-Protected, +5V, 1µA, Single RS-232 Transceiver with AutoShutdown +5V CBYPASS 0.1µF C1 0.1µF 15 2 C1+ 6 3 C3 0.1µF V+ 4 C15 C2 0.1µF VCC MAX221E C2+ V- 7 C4 0.1µF C2- 11 TIN TOUT 13 3k 9 ROUT The MAX221E’s receiver converts RS-232 signals to CMOS-logic output levels. The receiver has an inverting three-state output and can be active or inactive. In shutdown (FORCEOFF = low) or in AutoShutdown, the receiver is active (Table 1). Drive EN high to place the receiver in a high-impedance state. The receiver is high-impedance when the MAX221E is in shutdown (FORCEOFF = low). The MAX221E’s INVALID output is pulled low when there is no valid RS-232 signal level detected on the receiver input. INVALID is functional in any mode (Figures 2 and 3). RIN 8 AutoShutdown 5k 1 12 EN INVALID FORCEON GND FORCEOFF 10 TO POWERMANAGEMENT UNIT 16 14 Figure 1. Shutdown Current Test Circuit _______________Detailed Description Dual Charge-Pump Voltage Converter The MAX221E’s internal power supply consists of a dual charge pump that provides a positive output voltage (doubling charge pump) and negative output voltage (inverting charge pump) from a single +5V supply. The charge pumps operate in continuous mode. Each charge pump requires a flying capacitor (C1, C2) and a reservoir capacitor (C3, C4) to generate the V+ and Vsupplies. RS-232 Transmitter The transmitter is an inverting level translator that converts CMOS-logic levels to 5.0V EIA/TIA-232 levels. It guarantees a 250kbps data rate with worst-case loads of 3kΩ in parallel with 1000pF. When FORCEOFF is driven to ground, or when the AutoShutdown circuitry senses invalid voltage levels on the receiver input, the transmitter is disabled and the output is forced into a high-impedance state. The transmitter input does not have a pull-up resistor. The MAX221E achieves 1µA supply current with Maxim’s AutoShutdown feature, which operates when FORCEON is low and FORCEOFF is high. When the device senses no valid signal levels on the receiver input for 30µs, the on-board charge pump and driver are shut off, reducing supply current to 1µA. This occurs if the RS-232 cable is disconnected or the connected peripheral transmitter is turned off. The MAX221E turns on again when a valid level is applied to the RS-232 receiver input. As a result, the system saves power without changes to the existing BIOS or operating system. Table 1 and Figure 2c summarize the MAX221E operating modes. FORCEON and FORCEOFF override AutoShutdown. When neither control is asserted, the device selects between these states automatically, based on the receiver input level. Figures 2a, 2b, and 3a depict valid and invalid RS-232 receiver levels. Figure 3 shows the input levels and timing diagram for AutoShutdown operation. A device or another system with AutoShutdown connected to the MAX221E may need time to wake up. Figure 4 shows a circuit that forces the transmitter on for 100ms, allowing enough time for the other system to realize that the MAX221E is awake. If the other system transmits valid RS-232 signals within that time, the RS-232 ports on both systems remain enabled. When shut down, the device’s charge pumps turn off, V+ is pulled to VCC, V- is pulled to ground, and the transmitter output is high impedance. The time required to exit shutdown is typically 100µs (Figure 3b). _______________________________________________________________________________________ 5 MAX221E RS-232 Receiver ISHDN MAX221E ±15kV ESD-Protected, +5V, 1µA, Single RS-232 Transceiver with AutoShutdown Table 1. Output Control Truth Table OPERATION STATUS FORCEON FORCEOFF EN VALID RECEIVER TOUT ROUT Shutdown (Forced Off) X 0 0 X High-Z Active X 0 1 X High-Z High-Z Normal Operation (Forced On) 1 1 0 X Active Active 1 1 1 X Active High-Z 0 1 0 Yes Active Active 0 1 1 Yes Active High-Z 0 1 0 No High-Z Active 0 1 1 No High-Z High-Z Normal Operation (AutoShutdown) Shutdown (AutoShutdown) x = Don’t care +0.3V RIN -0.3V FORCEOFF 30µs COUNTER R TO MAX221E POWER SUPPLY AND TRANSMITTER POWER DOWN FORCEON INVALID INVALID INVALID IS AN INTERNALLY GENERATED SIGNAL USED BY AUTOSHUTDOWN LOGIC AND APPEARS AS AN OUTPUT. POWER DOWN IS ONLY AN INTERNAL SIGNAL. IT CONTROLS THE OPERATIONAL STATUS OF THE TRANSMITTER AND POWER SUPPLIES. * TRANSMITTER IS DISABLED, REDUCING SUPPLY CURRENT TO 1µA IF RECEIVER INPUT IS BETWEEN +0.3V AND -0.3V FOR AT LEAST 30µs. Figure 2a. Entering 1µA Supply Mode via AutoShutdown Figure 2c. AutoShutdown Logic +2.7V RIN -2.7V 30µs COUNTER R TO MAX221E POWER SUPPLY Table 2. INVALID Truth Table INVALID * TRANSMITTER IS ENABLED IF: RECEIVER INPUT IS GREATER THAN +2.7V OR LESS THAN -2.7V. RECEIVER INPUT HAS BEEN BETWEEN +0.3V AND -0.3V FOR LESS THAN 30µs. RS-232 SIGNAL PRESENT AT RECEIVER INPUT INVALID OUTPUT Yes High No Low Figure 2b. Transmitter Enabled Using AutoShutdown 6 _______________________________________________________________________________________ ±15kV ESD-Protected, +5V, 1µA, Single RS-232 Transceiver with AutoShutdown RECEIVER INPUT LEVEL TRANSMITTER ENABLED, INVALID HIGH +2.7V INDETERMINATE +0.3V 0 ±15kV ESD Protection AUTOSHUTDOWN, TRANSMITTER DISABLED, 1µA SUPPLY CURRENT, INVALID LOW -0.3V INDETERMINATE -2.7V TRANSMITTER ENABLED, INVALID HIGH a) RECEIVER INPUT VOLTAGE (V) INVALID REGION VCC INVALID OUTPUT (V) 0 2) ±8kV using the Contact-Discharge Method specified in IEC 1000-4-2 tINVL 3) ±15kV using IEC 1000-4-2’s Air-Gap Method tINVH tWU ESD Test Conditions ESD performance depends on a variety of conditions. Contact Maxim for a reliability report that documents test setup, test methodology, and test results. V+ VCC 0 V- Human Body Model Figure 5a shows the Human Body Model, and Figure 5b shows the current waveform it generates when discharged into a low impedance. This model consists of a 100pF capacitor charged to the ESD voltage of interest, which is then discharged into the test device through a 1.5kΩ resistor. b) Figure 3. AutoShutdown Trip Levels POWERMANAGEMENT UNIT As with all Maxim devices, ESD-protection structures are incorporated on all pins to protect against electrostatic discharges encountered during handling and assembly. The driver output and receiver input of the MAX221E have extra protection against static electricity. Maxim’s engineers have developed state-of-the-art structures to protect these pins against ESD of ±15kV without damage. The ESD structures withstand high ESD in all states: normal operation, shutdown, and powered down. After an ESD event, Maxim’s E versions keep working without latchup, whereas competing RS-232 products can latch and must be powered down to remove latchup. ESD protection can be tested in various ways; the transmitter output and receiver input of the MAX221E are characterized for protection to the following limits: 1) ±15kV using the Human Body Model MASTER SHDN LINE 0.1µF 1MΩ FORCEOFF FORCEON MAX221E Figure 4. AutoShutdown with Initial Turn-On to Wake Up a Mouse or Another System IEC 1000-4-2 The IEC 1000-4-2 standard covers ESD testing and performance of finished equipment; it does not specifically refer to integrated circuits. The MAX221E helps you design equipment that meets Level 4 (the highest level) of IEC 1000-4-2, without the need for additional ESD-protection components. The major difference between tests done using the Human Body Model and IEC 1000-4-2 (Figure 6) is higher peak current in the IEC 1000-4-2 because series resistance is lower in the IEC 1000-4-2 model. Hence, _______________________________________________________________________________________ 7 MAX221E Software-Controlled Shutdown For direct software control, use INVALID to indicate a DTR or Ring Indicator signal. Connect FORCEOFF and FORCEON together to disable AutoShutdown so the line acts like a SHDN input. MAX221E ±15kV ESD-Protected, +5V, 1µA, Single RS-232 Transceiver with AutoShutdown RC 1MΩ CHARGE-CURRENT LIMIT RESISTOR HIGHVOLTAGE DC SOURCE Cs 100pF RD 1500Ω DISCHARGE RESISTANCE DEVICE UNDER TEST STORAGE CAPACITOR Figure 5a. Human Body ESD Test Model RC 50MΩ to 100MΩ RD 330Ω CHARGE-CURRENT LIMIT RESISTOR DISCHARGE RESISTANCE HIGHVOLTAGE DC SOURCE Cs 150pF DEVICE UNDER TEST STORAGE CAPACITOR Figure 6a. IEC 1000-4-2 ESD Test Model I 100% IP 100% 90% 90% PEAK-TO-PEAK RINGING (NOT DRAWN TO SCALE) I PEAK Ir AMPERES 36.8% 10% 0 0 tRL TIME tDL CURRENT WAVEFORM 10% t r = 0.7ns to 1ns Figure 5b. Human Body Model Current Waveform t 30ns 60ns Figure 6b. IEC 1000-4-2 ESD Generator Current Waveform the ESD that withstands voltage measured to IEC 10004-2 is generally lower than that measured using the Human Body Model. Figure 6a shows the IEEE 1000-42 model and Figure 6b shows the current waveform for the ±8kV IEC 1000-4-2 Level 4 ESD Contact-Discharge test. The Air-Gap Method involves approaching the device with a charged probe. The Contact-Discharge Method connects the probe to the device before the probe is energized. 8 Machine Model The Machine Model for ESD tests all pins, using a 200pF storage capacitor and zero discharge resistance. Its objective is to emulate the stress caused not only by RS-232 inputs and outputs, but also by contact that occurs due to handling and assembling during manufacturing. Therefore, after PC board assembly, the Machine Model is less relevant to I/O ports. _______________________________________________________________________________________ ±15kV ESD-Protected, +5V, 1µA, Single RS-232 Transceiver with AutoShutdown Using INVALID INVALID indicates when an RS-232 signal is present at the receiver input, and therefore when the port is in use. INVALID can be used in alternative shutdown control schemes where it relieves the processor from constantly polling the part for activity. Capacitor Selection The capacitor type used for C1–C4 is not critical for proper operation; either polarized or nonpolarized capacitors are acceptable. If polarized capacitors are used, connect polarity as shown in the Typical Operating Circuit . The charge pump requires 0.1µF capacitors. Increasing the capacitor values (e.g., by a factor of 2) reduces ripple on the transmitter output, and slightly reduces power consumption. C2, C3, and C4 can be increased without changing C1’s value. However, do not increase C1’s value without also increasing the values of C2, C3, and C4 to maintain the proper ratios (C1 to the other capacitors). When using the minimum 0.1µF capacitors, make sure the capacitance does not degrade excessively with temperature. If in doubt, use capacitors with a larger nominal value. The capacitor’s equivalent series resistance (ESR) usually rises at low temperatures and influences the amount of ripple on V+ and V-. Power-Supply Decoupling In most circumstances, a 0.1µF VCC bypass capacitor is adequate. In applications that are sensitive to powersupply noise, use a capacitor of the same value as the charge-pump capacitor C1. Connect bypass capacitors as close to the IC as possible. Transmitter Output when Exiting Shutdown Figure 7 shows the transmitter output when exiting shutdown mode. The transmitter is loaded with 3kΩ in parallel with 1000pF. The transmitter output displays no ringing or undesirable transients as the MAX221E comes out of shutdown. High Data Rates The MAX221E maintains the RS-232 ±5.0V minimum transmitter output voltage even at high data rates. Figure 8 shows a transmitter loopback test circuit. Figure 9 shows the loopback test result at 120kbps, and Figure 10 shows the same test at 250kbps. +5V 5V/div TIN = GND 0.1µF FORCEON = FORCEOFF C1+ C3 VCC V+ C1 C15V/div TOUT C2+ MAX221E VC4 C2 C2TIN = VCC TOUT TIN RIN ROUT 50µs/div 0V Figure 7. Transmitter Output when Exiting Shutdown or Powering Up VCC EN 5k 1000pF FORCEOFF FORCEON GND INVALID Figure 8. Loopback Test Circuit _______________________________________________________________________________________ 9 MAX221E __________Applications Information MAX221E ±15kV ESD-Protected, +5V, 1µA, Single RS-232 Transceiver with AutoShutdown 5V/div TIN 5V/div TIN 5V/div TOUT 5V/div TOUT 5V/div ROUT 5V/div ROUT 2µs/div Figure 9. Loopback Test Result at 120kbps 2µs/div Figure 10. Loopback Test Result at 250kbps ___________________Chip Information TRANSISTOR COUNT: 157 10 ______________________________________________________________________________________ ±15kV ESD-Protected, +5V, 1µA, Single RS-232 Transceiver with AutoShutdown TSSOP.EPS ______________________________________________________________________________________ 11 MAX221E Package Information ±15kV ESD-Protected, +5V, 1µA, Single RS-232 Transceiver with AutoShutdown SSOP.EPS MAX221E Package Information (continued) Maxim cannot assume responsibility for use of any circuitry other than circuitry entirely embodied in a Maxim product. No circuit patent licenses are implied. Maxim reserves the right to change the circuitry and specifications without notice at any time. 12 ____________________Maxim Integrated Products, 120 San Gabriel Drive, Sunnyvale, CA 94086 408-737-7600 © 1999 Maxim Integrated Products Printed USA is a registered trademark of Maxim Integrated Products.