M HCS361 Code Hopping Encoder* FEATURES PACKAGE TYPES PDIP, SOIC Security Programmable 28/32-bit serial number Programmable 64-bit encryption key Each transmission is unique 67-bit transmission code length 32-bit hopping code 35-bit fixed code (28/32-bit serial number, 4/0-bit function code, 1-bit status, 2-bit CRC) • Encryption keys are read protected S0 1 S1 2 S2 3 S3 4 8 VDD 7 LED 6 PWM 5 VSS HCS361 • • • • • • HCS361 BLOCK DIAGRAM Operating • 2.0-6.6V operation • Four button inputs - 15 functions available • Selectable baud rate • Automatic code word completion • Battery low signal transmitted to receiver • Nonvolatile synchronization data • PWM and VPWM modulation Oscillator Power latching and switching Controller Reset circuit LED LED driver EEPROM Encoder Other • • • • • • PWM Easy to use programming interface On-chip EEPROM On-chip oscillator and timing components Button inputs have internal pulldown resistors Current limiting on LED output Minimum component count 32-bit shift register VSS Enhanced Features Over HCS300 • • • • • • • S3 S2 48-bit seed vs. 32-bit seed 2-bit CRC for error detection 28/32-bit serial number select Two seed transmission methods PWM and VPWM modulation Wake-up signal in VPWM mode IR modulation mode The HCS361 is ideal for Remote Keyless Entry (RKE) applications. These applications include: Automotive RKE systems Automotive alarm systems Automotive immobilizers Gate and garage door openers Identity tokens Burglar alarm systems S1 S0 DESCRIPTION Typical Applications • • • • • • Button input port VDD The HCS361 is a code hopping encoder designed for secure Remote Keyless Entry (RKE) systems. The HCS361 utilizes the KEELOQ code hopping technology, which incorporates high security, a small package outline and low cost, to make this device a perfect solution for unidirectional remote keyless entry systems and access control systems. The HCS361 combines a 32-bit hopping code generated by a nonlinear encryption algorithm, with a 28/32-bit serial number and 7/3 status bits to create a 67-bit transmission stream. The length of the transmission eliminates the threat of code scanning and the code hopping mechanism makes each transmission unique, thus rendering code capture and resend (code grabbing) schemes useless. KEELOQ is a trademark of Microchip Technology Inc. *Code hopping encoder patents issued in Europe, U. S. A., R. S. A. — US: 5,517,187; Europe: 0459781 1996 Microchip Technology Inc. Preliminary DS40146C-page 1 HCS361 The encryption key, serial number, and configuration data are stored in EEPROM which is not accessible via any external connection. This makes the HCS361 a very secure unit. The HCS361 provides an easy to use serial interface for programming the necessary security keys, system parameters, and configuration data. The encryption keys and code combinations are programmable but read-protected. The keys can only be verified after an automatic erase and programming operation. This protects against attempts to gain access to keys and manipulate synchronization values. The HCS361 operates over a wide voltage range of 2.0V to 6.6V and has four button inputs in an 8-pin configuration. This allows the system designer the freedom to utilize up to 15 functions. The only components required for device operation are the buttons and RF circuitry, allowing a very low system cost. 1.0 SYSTEM OVERVIEW 1.1 Key Terms • Manufacturer’s Code – a 64-bit word, unique to each manufacturer, used to produce a unique encryption key in each transmitter (encoder). • Encryption Key – a unique 64-bit key generated and programmed into the encoder during the manufacturing process. The encryption key controls the encryption algorithm and is stored in EEPROM on the encoder device. • Learn – The HCS product family facilitates several learning strategies to be implemented on the decoder. The following are examples of what can be done. Normal Learning The receiver uses the same information that is transmitted during normal operation to derive the transmitter’s secret key, decrypt the discrimination value and the synchronization counter. Secure Learn* The transmitter is activated through a special button combination to transmit a stored 48-bit value (random seed) that can be used for key generation or be part of the key. Transmission of the random seed can be disabled after learning is completed. The HCS361 is a code hopping encoder device that is designed specifically for keyless entry systems, primarily for vehicles and home garage door openers. It is meant to be a cost-effective, yet secure solution to such systems. The encoder portion of a keyless entry system is meant to be held by the user and operated to gain access to a vehicle or restricted area. The HCS361 requires very few external components (Figure 2-1). Most keyless entry systems transmit the same code from a transmitter every time a button is pushed. The relative number of code combinations for a low end sys- tem is also a relatively small number. These shortcomings provide the means for a sophisticated thief to create a device that ‘grabs’ a transmission and retransmits it later or a device that scans all possible combinations until the correct one is found. The HCS361 employs the KEELOQ code hopping technology and an encryption algorithm to achieve a high level of security. Code hopping is a method by which the code transmitted from the transmitter to the receiver is different every time a button is pushed. This method, coupled with a transmission length of 67 bits, virtually eliminates the use of code ‘grabbing’ or code ‘scanning’. As indicated in the block diagram on page one, the HCS361 has a small EEPROM array which must be loaded with several parameters before use. The most important of these values are: • A 28/32-bit serial number which is meant to be unique for every encoder • An encryption key that is generated at the time of production • A 16-bit synchronization value The serial number for each transmitter is programmed by the manufacturer at the time of production. The generation of the encryption key is done using a key generation algorithm (Figure 1-1). Typically, inputs to the key generation algorithm are the serial number of the transmitter or seed value, and a 64-bit manufacturer’s code. The manufacturer’s code is chosen by the system manufacturer and must be carefully controlled. The manufacturer’s code is a pivotal part of the overall system security. The 16-bit synchronization value is the basis for the transmitted code changing for each transmission, and is updated each time a button is pressed. Because of the complexity of the code hopping encryption algorithm, a change in one bit of the synchronization value will result in a large change in the actual transmitted code. There is a relationship (Figure 1-2) between the key values in EEPROM and how they are used in the encoder. Once the encoder detects that a button has been pressed, the encoder reads the button and updates the synchronization counter. The synchronization value is then combined with the encryption key in the encryption algorithm and the output is 32 bits of encrypted information. This data will change with every button press, hence, it is referred to as the hopping portion of the code word. The 32-bit hopping code is combined with the button information and the serial number to form the code word transmitted to the receiver. The code word format is explained in detail in Section 4.2. Any type of controller may be used as a receiver, but it is typically a microcontroller with compatible firmware that allows the receiver to operate in conjunction with a transmitter, based on the HCS361. Section 7.0 provides more detail on integrating the HCS361 into a total system. *Secure Learning patents pending. DS40146C-page 2 Preliminary 1996 Microchip Technology Inc. HCS361 format, the serial number is checked and, if it is from a learned transmitter, the message is decrypted and the decrypted synchronization counter is checked against what is stored. If the synchronization value is verified, then the button status is checked to see what operation is needed. Figure 1-3 shows the relationship between some of the values stored by the receiver and the values received from the transmitter. Before a transmitter can be used with a particular receiver, the transmitter must be ‘learned’ by the receiver. Upon learning a transmitter, information is stored by the receiver so that it may track the transmitter, including the serial number of the transmitter, the current synchronization value for that transmitter and the same encryption key that is used on the transmitter. If a receiver receives a message of valid FIGURE 1-1: CREATION AND STORAGE OF ENCRYPTION KEY DURING PRODUCTION HCS361 EEPROM Array Transmitter Serial Number or Seed Key Generation Algorithm Manufacturer’s Code FIGURE 1-2: Serial Number Encryption Key Sync Counter . . . Encryption Key BASIC OPERATION OF TRANSMITTER (ENCODER) Transmitted Information KEELOQ Encryption Algorithm EEPROM Array 32 Bits of Encrypted Data Serial Number Button Press Information Decryption Key Sync Counter Serial Number FIGURE 1-3: BASIC OPERATION OF RECEIVER (DECODER) Check for Match EEPROM Array KEELOQ Decryption Algorithm Decryption Key Decrypted Synchronization Counter Sync Counter Serial Number Check for Match Manufacturer Code Button Press Information Serial Number 32 Bits of Encrypted Data Received Information 1996 Microchip Technology Inc. Preliminary DS40146C-page 3 HCS361 2.0 DEVICE OPERATION TABLE 2-1 As shown in the typical application circuits (Figure 2-1), the HCS361 is a simple device to use. It requires only the addition of buttons and RF circuitry for use as the transmitter in your security application. A description of each pin is described in Table 2-1. FIGURE 2-1: TYPICAL CIRCUITS VDD B0 S0 B1 S1 LED S2 PWM S3 VSS VDD Tx out 2 button remote control VDD B4 B3 B2 B1 B0 S0 VDD S1 LED S2 PWM S3 VSS Tx out 5 button remote control (Note) Note: Up to 15 functions can be implemented by pressing more than one button simul- PIN DESCRIPTIONS Name Pin Number S0 1 Switch input 0 S1 2 Switch input 1 S2 3 Switch input 2/Can also be clock pin when in programming mode S3 4 Switch input 3/Clock pin when in programming mode VSS 5 Ground reference connection PWM 6 Pulse width modulation (PWM) output pin/Data pin for programming mode LED 7 Cathode connection for directly driving LED during transmission VDD 8 Positive supply voltage connection Description The high security level of the HCS361 is based on the patented KEELOQ technology. A block cipher type of encryption algorithm based on a block length of 32 bits and a key length of 64 bits is used. The algorithm obscures the information in such a way that even if the transmission information (before coding) differs by only one bit from the information in the previous transmission, the next coded transmission will be totally different. Statistically, if only one bit in the 32-bit string of information changes, approximately 50 percent of the coded transmission will change. The HCS361 will wake up upon detecting a switch closure and then delay approximately 6.5 ms for switch debounce (Figure 2-2). The synchronization information, fixed information, and switch information will be encrypted to form the hopping code. The encrypted or hopping code portion of the transmission will change every time a button is pressed, even if the same button is pushed again. Keeping a button pressed for a long time will result in the same code word being transmitted until the button is released or time-out occurs. A code that has been transmitted will not occur again for more than 64K transmissions. This will provide more than 18 years of typical use before a code is repeated based on 10 operations per day. Overflow information programmed into the encoder can be used by the decoder to extend the number of unique transmissions to more than 128K. If in the transmit process it is detected that a new button(s) has been pressed, a reset will immediately be forced and the code word will not be completed. Please note that buttons removed will not have any effect on the code word unless no buttons remain pressed in which case the current code word will be completed and the power down will occur. DS40146C-page 4 Preliminary 1996 Microchip Technology Inc. HCS361 FIGURE 2-2: ENCODER OPERATION 3.0 EEPROM MEMORY ORGANIZATION Power Up (A button has been pressed) Reset and Debounce Delay (6.5 ms) Sample Inputs The HCS361 contains 192 bits (12 x 16-bit words) of EEPROM memory (Table 3-1). This EEPROM array is used to store the encryption key information, synchronization value, etc. Further descriptions of the memory array is given in the following sections. TABLE 3-1 Update Sync Info WORD ADDRESS Encrypt With Encryption Key Yes EEPROM MEMORY MAP MNEMONIC DESCRIPTION 0 KEY_0 64-bit encryption key (word 0) Load Transmit Register 1 KEY_1 64-bit encryption key (word 1) Transmit 2 KEY_2 64-bit encryption key (word 2) 3 KEY_3 64-bit encryption key (word 3) 4 SYNC_A 16-bit synchronization value 5 SYNC_B/SEED_2 16-bit synchronization or seed value (word 2) 6 RESERVED Set to 0000H 7 SEED_0 Seed Value (word 0) 8 SEED_1 Seed Value (word 1) 7 SER_0 Device Serial Number (word 0) 10 SER_1 Device Serial Number (word 1) 11 CONFIG Configuration Word Buttons Added ? No All Buttons Released ? Yes No Complete Code Word Transmission Stop 3.1 Key_0 - Key_3 (64-Bit Encryption Key) The 64-bit encryption key is used by the transmitter to create the encrypted message transmitted to the receiver. This key is created and programmed at the time of production using a key generation algorithm. Inputs to the key generation algorithm are the serial number for the particular transmitter being used and a secret manufacturer’s code. While the key generation algorithm supplied from Microchip is the typical method used, a user may elect to create their own method of key generation. This may be done providing that the decoder is programmed with the same means of creating the key for decryption purposes. If a seed is used, the seed will also form part of the input to the key generation algorithm. 1996 Microchip Technology Inc. Preliminary DS40146C-page 5 HCS361 3.2 SYNC_A, SYNC_B (Synchronization Counter) TABLE 3-2 Bit Number Symbol This is the 16-bit synchronization value that is used to create the hopping code for transmission. This value will be changed after every transmission. A second synchronization value can be used to stay synchronized with a second receiver. 3.3 0 1 2 SEED_0, SEED_1, and SEED_2 (Seed Word) 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 This is the three word (48 bits) seed code that will be transmitted when seed transmission is selected. This allows the system designer to implement the secure learn feature or use this fixed code word as part of a different key generation/tracking process or purely as a fixed code transmission. 3.4 SER_0, SER_1 (Encoder Serial Number) SER_0 and SER_1 are the lower and upper words of the device serial number, respectively. There are 32 bits allocated for the serial number and a selectable configuration bit determines whether 32 or 28 bits will be transmitted. The serial number is meant to be unique for every transmitter. 3.5 CONFIGURATION WORD CONFIG (Configuration Word) The configuration word is a 16-bit word stored in EEPROM array that is used by the device to store information used during the encryption process, as well as the status of option configurations. Further explanations of each of the bits are described in the following sections. 13 14 15 3.5.1 Bit Description BACW Blank Alternate Code Word FAST Baud Rate Selection TXWAK PWM mode: 1/6, 2/6 or 1/3, 2/3 select VPWM mode: Wakeup enable SPM Sync Pulse Modulation SEED Seed Transmission enable DELM Delay mode enable TIMO Time out enable IND Independent mode enable USRA0 User bit USRA1 User bit USRB0 User bit USRB1 User bit XSER Extended serial number enable TMPSD Temporary seed transmission enable VPWM VPWM select OVR Overflow bit BACW: BLANK ALTERNATE CODE WORD BACW = 1 selects the encoder to transmit every second code word. This can be used to reduce the average power transmitted over a 100ms window and thereby transmit a higher peak power. 3.5.2 FAST: SELECT FAST TRANSMISSION FAST selects the baud rate. If FAST = 1, the baud rate is nominally 1667 bits per second and with FAST = 0, 833 bits per second. 3.5.3 TXWAK: BIT FORMAT SELECT OR WAKEUP In PWM mode, this bit selects the bit format. If TXWAK = 1, the PWM pulse is 1/6;2/6 and for TXWAK = 0, 1/ 3;2/3 (Figure 4-1, VPWM = 0). In VPWM mode, this bit enables the wake-up signal. With TXWAK = 1, transmission of the wake-up and dead time sequence is enabled (Figure 4-2, VPWM = 1). Wakeup is transmitted before the first code word of each transmission only. For TXWAK = 0, the transmission will skip wake-up and start transmitting the preamble portion of the code word (Figure 4-2, VPWM = 1). 3.5.4 SPM: SYNC PULSE MODULATION Select modulation mode of Sync Pulse. If SPM = 1, the sync pulse is modulated (Figure 4-1 and Figure 4-2). DS40146C-page 6 Preliminary 1996 Microchip Technology Inc. HCS361 3.5.5 SEED: ENABLE SEED TRANSMISSION If SEED = 0, seed transmission is disabled. The independent counter mode can only be used with seed transmission disabled since SEED_2 is shared with the second synchronization counter. With SEED = 1, seed transmission is enabled. The appropriate button code(s) must be activated to transmit the seed information. In this mode, the seed infor- FIGURE 3-1: mation (SEED_0, SEED_1, and SEED_2) and the upper 12- or 16-bits of the serial number (SER_1)are transmitted instead of the hop code. Seed transmission is available for function codes (Table 3-7) S[3:0] = 1001 and S[3:0] = 0011 (delayed). This takes place regardless of the setting of the IND bit. The two seed transmissions are shown in Figure 3-1. SEED TRANSMISSION All examples shown with XSER = 1, SEED = 1 When S[3:0] = 1001, delay is not applicable. CRC+VLOW SER_1 SEED_2 SEED_1 SEED_0 Data transmission direction For S[3:0] = 0x3 before delay: 16-bit Data Word 16-bit Counter Encrypt CRC+VLOW SER_1 SER_0 Encrypted Data Data transmission direction For S[3:0] = 0011 after delay (Note 1, Note 2): CRC+VLOW SER_1 SEED_2 SEED_1 SEED_0 Data transmission direction Note 1: For Seed Transmission, SEED_2 is transmitted instead of SER_0. 2: For Seed Transmission, the setting of DELM has no effect. 1996 Microchip Technology Inc. Preliminary DS40146C-page 7 HCS361 3.5.6 TABLE 3-5 DELM: DELAY MODE If DELM = 1, delay transmission is enabled. A delayed transmission is indicated by inverting the lower nibble of the discrimination value. The delay mode is primarily for compatibility with previous KEELOQ devices. If DELM = 0, delay transmission is disabled (Table 3-3). TABLE 3-3 TXWAK Time Before Delay Mode (VPWM = 0) 0 28 ≈ 2.8s 0 1 56 ≈ 2.9s 1 0 28 ≈ 2.6s 1 1 56 ≈ 2.8s TYPICAL TIME-OUT TIMES TXWAK FAST Time Before Time-out (VPWM = 0) 0 0 256 ≈ 25.6s 0 1 512 ≈ 27.2s 1 0 256 ≈ 23.8s 1 1 512 ≈ 25.4s 3.5.8 0 1 1 0 1 1 (400µs) (16x) (200µs) (8x) (100µs) (8x) USRA,B: USER BITS User bits form part of the discrimination value. The user bits together with the IND bit can be used to identify the counter that is used in independent mode. If TIMO = 1, the time-out is enabled. Time-out can be used to terminate accidental continuous transmissions. When time-out occurs, the PWM output is set low and the LED is turned off. Current consumption will be higher than in standby mode since current will flow through the activated input resistors. This state can be exited only after all inputs are taken low. TIMO = 0, will enable continuous transmission (Table 3-4). Maximum Number of Code Words Transmitted 0 3.5.9 TIMO: TIME-OUT TABLE 3-4 0 Basic Pulse Period = 25µs Number of Code Words before Delay Mode 0 3.5.7 TXWAK FAST TYPICAL DELAY TIMES FAST IR MODULATION IND: INDEPENDENT MODE The independent mode can be used where one encoder is used to control two receivers. Two counters (SYNC_A and SYNC_B) are used in independent mode. As indicated in Table 3-7, function codes 1 to 7 use SYNC_A and 8 to 15 SYNC_B. The independent mode also selects IR mode. In IR mode function codes 12 to 15 will use counter B. The PWM output signal is modulated with a 40 kHz carrier. It must be pointed out the 40 kHz is derived from the internal clock and will therefore vary with the same percentage as the baud rate. If IND = 0, SYNC_A is used for all function codes. If IND = 1, independent mode is enabled and counters for functions are used according to Table 3-7. 3.5.10 XSER: EXTENDED SERIAL NUMBER If XSER = 1, the full 32-bit serial number [SER_1, SER_0] is transmitted. If XSER = 0, the four most significant bits of the serial number are substituted by S[3:0] and is compatible with the HCS200/300/301. 3.5.11 TMPSD: TEMPORARY SEED TRANSMISSION The temporary seed transmission can be used to disable learning after the transmitter has been used for a programmable number of operations. This feature can be used to implement very secure systems. After learning is disabled, the seed information cannot be accessed even if physical access to the transmitter is possible. If TMPSD = 1 the seed transmission will be disabled after a number of code hopping transmissions. The number of transmissions before seed transmission is disabled, can be programmed by setting the synchronization counter (SYNC_A or SYNC_B) to a value as shown in Table 3-6. TABLE 3-6 SYNCHRONOUS COUNTER INITIALIZATION VALUES Synchronous Counter Values Number of Transmissions 0000H 128 0060H 64 0050H 32 0048H 16 For IND = 1 and S[3:0] ≡ 0xC, 0xD, 0xE, 0xF, Basic Pulse Width modulation becomes: DS40146C-page 8 Preliminary 1996 Microchip Technology Inc. HCS361 TABLE 3-7 FUNCTION CODES S3 S2 S1 S0 IND = 0 IND = 1 Comments Counter 1 0 0 0 1 A A 2 0 0 1 0 A A 3 0 0 1 1 A A 4 0 1 0 0 A A 5 0 1 0 1 A A 6 0 1 1 0 A A 7 0 1 1 1 A A 8 1 0 0 0 A B 9 1 0 0 1 A B 10 1 0 1 0 A B 11 1 0 1 1 A B 12 1 1 0 0 A B IR mode 13 1 1 0 1 A B IR mode 14 1 1 1 0 A B IR mode 15 1 1 1 1 A B IR mode 3.5.12 If SEED = 1, transmit seed after delay. If SEED = 1, transmit seed immediately. VPWM: VARIABLE PULSE WIDTH MODULATION VPWM selects between VPWM modulation and PWM modulation. If VPWM = 1, VPWM modulation is selected as well as the following: 1. 2. Enables the TXWAK bit to select the WAKEUP transmission. Extends the Guard Time. If VPWM = 0, PWM modulation is selected. 3.5.13 OVR: OVERFLOW The overflow bit is used to extend the number of possible synchronization values. The synchronization counter is 16 bits in length, yielding 65,536 values before the cycle repeats. Under typical use of 10 operations a day, this will provide nearly 18 years of use before a repeated value will be used. Should the system designer conclude that is not adequate, then the overflow bit can be utilized to extend the number of unique values. This can be done by programming OVR to 1 at the time of production. The encoder will automatically clear OVR the first time that the transmitted synchronization value wraps from 0xFFFF to 0x0000. Once cleared, OVR cannot be set again, thereby creating a permanent record of the counter overflow. This prevents fast cycling of 64K counter. If the decoder system is programmed to track the overflow bits, then the effective number of unique synchronization values can be extended to 128K. If programmed to zero, the system will be compatible with the NTQ104/5/6 devices (i.e., no overflow with discrimination bits set to zero). 1996 Microchip Technology Inc. Preliminary DS40146C-page 9 HCS361 4.0 TRANSMITTED WORD 4.2 4.1 Transmission Format (PWM) The HCS361 transmits a 67-bit code word when a button is pressed. The 67-bit word is constructed from a Fixed Code portion and an Encrypted Code portion (Figure 4-3). The HCS361 transmission is made up of several parts (Figure 4-1 and Figure 4-2). Each transmission is begun with a preamble and a header, followed by the encrypted and then the fixed data. The actual data is 67 bits which consists of 32 bits of encrypted data and 35 bits of fixed data. Each transmission is followed by a guard period before another transmission can begin. Refer to Table and Table for transmission timing specifications. The encrypted portion provides up to four billion changing code combinations and includes the function bits (based on which buttons were activated) along with the synchronization counter value and discrimination value. The non-encrypted portion is comprised of the CRC bits, VLOW bits, the function bits and the 28/32-bit serial number. The encrypted and nonencrypted sections combined increase the number of combinations to 1.47 x 1020. FIGURE 4-1: Code Word Organization The Encrypted Data is generated from 4 function bits, 2 user bits, overflow bit, independent mode bit, and 8 serial number bits, and the 16-bit synchronization value (Figure 8-4). The Non-encrypted Code Data is made up of VLOW bit, 2 CRC bits, 4 function bits, and the 28-bit serial number. If the extended serial number (32 bits) is selected, the 4 function code bits will not be transmitted. TRANSMISSION FORMAT—VPWM = 0 TRANSMISSION SEQUENCE: 1 CODE WORD Preamble Sync Encrypt Fixed Guard Preamble Sync CODE WORD: Encrypt BIT TXWAK=1 TBP LOGIC "0" LOGIC "1" TE BIT TXWAK=0 TBP SPM=1 TXWAK=0 • TXWAK=1 SPM=0 Preamble Header Encrypted Data Fixed Code Data Guard Time Code Word DS40146C-page 10 Preliminary 1996 Microchip Technology Inc. HCS361 FIGURE 4-2: TRANSMISSION FORMAT—VPWM = 1 TOTAL TRANSMISSION: 1 CODE WORD WAKEUP (OPTION) Dead Time Preamble Sync Te x84 Encrypt LSB Fixed Guard Preamble Sync Encrypt MSB CODE WORD: TRANSITION LOGIC "1" LOGIC "0" Te TE SPM=1 • SPM=0 Preamble Header Encrypted Data Guard Time Fixed Code Data Code Word FIGURE 4-3: CODE WORD ORGANIZATION (RIGHT-MOST BIT IS CLOCKED-OUT FIRST) Fixed Code Data CRC (2 bit) VLOW (1 bit) Button Status (4 bits) Encrypted Code Data 28-bit Serial Number Button Status (4 bits) Discrimination bits (12 bits) MSB CRC (2 bit) VLOW bit 1996 Microchip Technology Inc. + Serial Number and Button Status (32 bits) + Preliminary 16-bit Synch Value LSB 32 bits of Encrypted Data 67 bits of Data Transmitted DS40146C-page 11 HCS361 5.0 SPECIAL FEATURES 5.1 Code Word Completion EQUATION 0-1: CRC CALCULATION CRC [ 1 ] n + 1 = CRC [ 0 ] n ∧ Di n and Code word completion is an automatic feature that ensures that the entire code word is transmitted, even if the button is released before the transmission is complete and that a minimum of two words are completed. The HCS361 encoder powers itself up when a button is pushed and powers itself down after the current transmission is finished, if the user has already released the button. If the button is held down beyond the time for two transmissions, then multiple transmissions will result. The HCS361 transmits at least two transmissions before powering down. If another button is activated during a transmission, the active transmission will be aborted and the new code will be generated using the new button information. 5.2 Blank Alternate Code Word Federal Communications Commission (FCC) part 15 rules specify the limits on fundamental power and harmonics that can be transmitted. Power is calculated on the worst case average power transmitted in a 100ms window. It is therefore advantageous to minimize the duty cycle of the transmitted word. This can be achieved by minimizing the duty cycle of the individual bits and by blanking out consecutive words. Blank Alternate Code Word (BACW) is used for reducing the average power of a transmission (Figure 5-1). This is a selectable feature. Using the BACW allows the user to transmit a higher amplitude transmission if the transmission length is shorter. The FCC puts constraints on the average power that can be transmitted by a device, and BACW effectively prevents continuous transmission by only allowing the transmission of every second word. This reduces the average power transmitted and hence, assists in FCC approval of a transmitter device. 5.3 CRC (Cycle Redundancy Check) Bits The CRC bits are calculated on the 65 previously transmitted bits. The CRC bits can be used by the receiver to check the data integrity before processing starts. The CRC can detect all single bit and 66% of double bit errors. The CRC is computed as follows: FIGURE 5-1: CRC [ 0 ] n + 1 = ( CRC [ 0 ] n ∧ Di n ) ∧ CRC [ 1 ] n with CRC [ 1, 0 ] 0 = 0 and Din the nth transmission bit 0 ≤ n ≤ 64 5.4 In order to increase the level of security in a system, it is possible for the receiver to implement what is known as a secure learning function. This can be done by utilizing the seed value on the HCS361 which is stored in EEPROM. Instead of the normal key generation method being used to create the encryption key, this seed value is used and there should not be any mathematical relationship between serial numbers and seeds for the best security. 5.5 Auto-shutoff The Auto-shutoff function automatically stops the device from transmitting if a button inadvertently gets pressed for a long period of time. This will prevent the device from draining the battery if a button gets pressed while the transmitter is in a pocket or purse. This function can be enabled or disabled and is selected by setting or clearing the time-out bit (Section 3.5.7). Setting this bit will enable the function (turn Auto-shutoff function on) and clearing the bit will disable the function. Time-out period is approximately 25 seconds. 5.6 VLOW: Voltage LOW Indicator The VLOW bit is transmitted with every transmission (Figure 4-2) and will be transmitted as a one if the operating voltage has dropped below the low voltage trip point, typically 3.8V at 25°C. This VLOW signal is transmitted so the receiver can give an indication to the user that the transmitter battery is low. 5.7 LED Output Operation During normal transmission the LED output is LOW. If the supply voltage drops below the low voltage trip point, the LED output will be toggled at approximately 1Hz during the transmission. BLANK ALTERNATE CODE WORD Amplitude One Code Word 100ms 100ms BACW Disabled (All words transmitted) A BACW Enabled (1 out of 2 transmitted) 2A Min Tx Length DS40146C-page 12 Secure Learning 100ms 100ms Time Preliminary 1996 Microchip Technology Inc. HCS361 6.0 PROGRAMMING THE HCS361 is loaded, a programming delay is required for the internal program cycle to complete. An acknowledge bit can be read back after the programming delay (TWC). After the first word and its complement have been downloaded, an automatic bulk write is performed. This delay can take up to Twc. At the end of the programming cycle, the device can be verified (Figure 6-2) by reading back the EEPROM. Reading is done by clocking the S3 line and reading the data bits on PWM. For security reasons, it is not possible to execute a verify function without first programming the EEPROM. A verify operation can only be done once, immediately following the program cycle. When using the HCS361 in a system, the user will have to program some parameters into the device including the serial number and the secret key before it can be used. The programming cycle allows the user to input all 192 bits in a serial data stream, which are then stored internally in EEPROM. Programming will be initiated by forcing the PWM line high, after the S3 line has been held high for the appropriate length of time. S0 and S1 should be held low during the entire program cycle (Table 6-1 and Figure 6-1). The device can then be programmed by clocking in 16 bits at a time, followed by the word’s complement using S3 or S2 as the clock line and PWM as the data in line. After each 16-bit word FIGURE 6-1: PROGRAMMING WAVEFORMS Enter Program Mode S2/S3 (Clock) TWC TCLKH TDS T1 Bit 0 T2 Bit 1 Acknowledge TDH TCLKL PWM (Data) Bit 2 Bit 3 Bit 14 Bit 15 Bit 0 Bit 1 Bit 2 Bit 3 Bit 14 Bit 15 Bit 16 Bit 17 Data for Word 1 Data for Word 0 (KEY_0) Repeat 12 times for each word Note 1: Unused button inputs to be held to ground during the entire programming sequence. 2: The VDD pin must be taken to ground after a program/verify cycle. FIGURE 6-2: VERIFY WAVEFORMS Begin Verify Cycle Here End of Programming Cycle PWM (Data) Bit190 Bit191 Bit 0 TWC Bit 1 Bit 2 Data in Word 0 Bit 3 Bit 14 Bit 15 Bit 16 Bit 17 Bit190 Bit191 TDV S2/S3 (Clock) Note: If a Verify operation is to be done, then it must immediately follow the Program cycle. TABLE 6-1 PROGRAMMING/VERIFY TIMING REQUIREMENTS VDD = 5.0V ± 10% 25° C ± 5 °C Parameter Symbol Min. Max. Units Program mode setup time Hold time 1 Programming delay Clock low time Clock high time Data setup time Data hold time Data out valid time T2 T1 TWC TCLKL TCLKH TDS TDH TDV 0 9.0 — 25 25 0 18 — 4.9 — 30 — — — — 24 ms ms ms µs µs µs µs µs 1996 Microchip Technology Inc. Preliminary DS40146C-page 13 HCS361 7.0 INTEGRATING THE HCS361 INTO A SYSTEM FIGURE 7-1: Use of the HCS361 in a system requires a compatible decoder. This decoder is typically a microcontroller with compatible firmware. Firmware routines that accept transmissions from the HCS361 and decrypt the hopping code portion of the data stream are available. These routines provide system designers the means to develop their own decoding system. 7.1 Learning a Transmitter to a Receiver In order for a transmitter to be used with a decoder, the transmitter must first be ‘learned’. Several learning strategies can be followed in the decoder implementation. When a transmitter is learned to a decoder, it is suggested that the decoder stores the serial number and current synchronization value in EEPROM. The decoder must keep track of these values for every transmitter that is learned (Figure 7-1). The maximum number of transmitters that can be learned is only a function of how much EEPROM memory storage is available. The decoder must also store the manufacturer’s code in order to learn a transmission transmitter, although this value will not change in a typical system so it is usually stored as part of the microcontroller ROM code. Storing the manufacturer’s code as part of the ROM code is also better for security reasons. It must be stated that some learning strategies have been patented and care must be taken not to infringe. TYPICAL LEARN SEQUENCE Enter Learn Mode Wait for Reception of a Valid Code Generate Key from Serial Number Use Generated Key to Decrypt Compare Discrimination Value with Fixed Value Equal ? No Yes Wait for Reception of Second Valid Code Use Generated Key to Decrypt Compare Discrimination Value with Fixed Value Equal ? No Yes Counters Sequential ? Yes No Learn successful Store: Learn Unsuccessful Serial number Encryption key Synchronization counter Exit DS40146C-page 14 Preliminary 1996 Microchip Technology Inc. HCS361 7.2 Decoder Operation 7.3 In a typical decoder operation (Figure 7-2), the key generation on the decoder side is done by taking the serial number from a transmission and combining that with the manufacturer’s code to create the same secret key that was used by the transmitter. Once the secret key is obtained, the rest of the transmission can be decrypted. The decoder waits for a transmission and immediately can check the serial number to determine if it is a learned transmitter. If it is, it takes the encrypted portion of the transmission and decrypts it using the stored key It uses the discrimination bits to determine if the decryption was valid. If everything up to this point is valid, the synchronization value is evaluated. FIGURE 7-2: TYPICAL DECODER OPERATION Start No Transmission Received ? Yes No No The KEELOQ technology features a sophisticated synchronization technique (Figure 7-3) which does not require the calculation and storage of future codes. If the stored counter value for that particular transmitter and the counter value that was just decrypted are within a formatted window of say 16, the counter is stored and the command is executed. If the counter value was not within the single operation window, but is within the double operation window of say 32K window, the transmitted synchronization value is stored in temporary location and it goes back to waiting for another transmission. When the next valid transmission is received, it will check the new value with the one in temporary storage. If the two values are sequential, it is assumed that the counter had just gotten out of the single operation ‘window’, but is now back in sync, so the new synchronization value is stored and the command executed. If a transmitter has somehow gotten out of the double operation window, the transmitter will not work and must be relearned. Since the entire window rotates after each valid transmission, codes that have been used are part of the ‘blocked’ (32K) codes and are no longer valid. This eliminates the possibility of grabbing a previous code and retransmitting to gain entry. Note: Does Serial Number Match ? Yes Decrypt Transmission Blocked (32K Codes) Yes Execute Command and Update Counter Current Position Double Operation (32K Codes) No No SYNCHRONIZATION WINDOW Entire Window rotates to eliminate use of previously used codes Is Decryption Valid ? Is Counter Within 16 ? The synchronization method described in this section is only a typical implementation and because it is usually implemented in firmware, it can be altered to fit the needs of a particular system FIGURE 7-3: Yes No Synchronization with Decoder Single Operation Window (16 Codes) Is Counter Within 32K ? Yes Save Counter in Temp Location 1996 Microchip Technology Inc. Preliminary DS40146C-page 15 HCS361 8.0 ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS TABLE 8-1 ABSOLUTE MAXIMUM RATINGS Note: Symbol Item Rating Units VDD Supply voltage -0.3 to 6.9 V VIN Input voltage -0.3 to VDD + 0.3 V VOUT Output voltage -0.3 to VDD + 0.3 V IOUT Max output current 25 mA TSTG Storage temperature -55 to +125 °C (Note) TLSOL Lead soldering temp 300 °C (Note) VESD ESD rating 4000 V Stresses above those listed under “ABSOLUTE MAXIMUM RATINGS” may cause permanent damage to the device. TABLE 8-2 Commercial Industrial DC CHARACTERISTICS (C): Tamb = 0°C to +70°C (I): Tamb = -40°C to +85°C 2.0V < VDD < 3.3 Parameter Sym. Operating current (avg) Standby current Auto-shutoff current Min ICC Max 0.3 1.2 0.1 ICCS 2,3 Typ1 ICCS 40 High level Input voltage VIH 0.55VDD Low level input voltage VIL -0.3 High level output voltage VOH 0.7VDD Low level output voltage VOL LED sink current ILED 3.0 < VDD < 6.6 Typ1 Max Unit 0.7 1.6 mA VDD = 3.3V VDD = 6.6V 1.0 0.1 1.0 µA 75 160 Min 350 µA VDD+0.3 0.55VDD VDD+0.3 V 0.15VDD 0.15VDD V -0.3 0.7VDD 0.08VDD 0.15 1.0 4.0 0.08VDD 0.15 1.0 Conditions V IOH = -1.0mA, VDD = 2.0V IOH = -2.0mA, VDD = 6.6V V IOL = 1.0mA, VDD = 2.0V IOL = 2.0mA, VDD = 6.6V 4.0 mA Vled = 1.5V, VDD = 6.6V Resistance; S0-S3 RS0-3 40 60 80 40 60 80 KΩ VDD = 4.0V Resistance; PWM RPWM 80 120 160 80 120 160 KΩ VDD = 4.0V Note 1: Typical values are at 25°C. 2: Auto-shutoff current specification does not include the current through the input pulldown resistors. 3: Auto-shutoff current is periodically sampled and not 100% tested. DS40146C-page 16 Preliminary 1996 Microchip Technology Inc. HCS361 FIGURE 8-1: POWER UP AND TRANSMIT TIMING Button Press Detect Code Word Transmission TBP TTD TDB Code Word 1 PWM Code Word 3 Code Word 2 Code Word n TTO Sn TABLE 8-3 POWER UP AND TRANSMIT TIMING REQUIREMENTS VDD = +2.0 to 6.6V Commercial (C): Tamb = 0°C to +70°C Industrial (I): Tamb = -40°C to +85°C Parameter Symbol Min Max Unit Remarks Time to second button press TBP 10 + Code Word Time 26 + Code Word Time ms (Note 1) Transmit delay from button detect TTD 4.5 26 ms (Note 2) Debounce delay TDB 4 13 ms Auto-shutoff time-out period TTO 15 35 s (Note 3) Note 1: TBP is the time in which a second button can be pressed without completion of the first code word and the intention was to press the combination of buttons. 2: Transmit delay maximum value if the previous transmission was successfully transmitted. 3: The auto shutoff timeout period is not tested. FIGURE 8-2: PWM FORMAT SUMMARY (VPWM = 0) TE TE TE TXWAK = 0 TXWAK = 1 LOGIC ‘0’ LOGIC ‘0’ LOGIC ‘1’ LOGIC ‘1’ TBP TBP Preamble TP 1996 Microchip Technology Inc. Header TH Encrypted Portion of Transmission THOP Preliminary Fixed portion of Transmission TFIX Guard Time TG DS40146C-page 17 HCS361 FIGURE 8-3: PWM PREAMBLE/HEADER FORMAT Preamble Header SPM = 0 SPM = 1 30Te FIGURE 8-4: PWM DATA WORD FORMAT Serial Number MSB LSB Bit 0 Bit 1 LSB Function Code MSB FIGURE 8-5: S3 S0 S1 Status S2 CRC VLOW CRC0 CRC1 Bit 58 Bit 59 Bit 60 Bit 61 Bit 62 Bit 63 Bit 64 Bit 65 Bit 66 Bit 30 Bit 31 Bit 32 Bit 33 Guard Time Fixed Code Data Encrypted Data Header 10Te 10Te VPWM FORMAT SUMMARY (VPWM = 1) Wakeup Dead Time Preamble Header Encrypt Serial Number Function VLOW FIGURE 8-6: CRC VPWM WAKEUP FORMAT Wakeup Dead Time TE 252 TE FIGURE 8-7: 256 TE VPWM PREAMBLE/HEADER FORMAT Preamble Header SPM = 0 SPM = 1 30Te FIGURE 8-8: VPWM DATA WORD FORMAT 1 0 0 Encrypted Data 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 0 Serial Number 1 1 0 0 1 Function Code 1 0 0 1 CRC 1 0 1 0 1 2 3 28 29 30 31 28 29 30 31 59 60 61 64 65 66 56 57 bit Note: 10Te 10Te 58 62 63 VLOW The bit values are only shown as an example. DS40146C-page 18 Preliminary 1996 Microchip Technology Inc. HCS361 FIGURE 8-9: HCS361 NORMALIZED TE VS. TEMP 1.7 Typical 1.6 TE Max. 1.5 VDD LEGEND = 2.0V = 3.0V = 6.0V 1.4 1.3 TE 1.2 1.1 1.0 0.9 0.8 0.7 TE Min. 0.6 -50 -40 -30 -20 -10 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 Temperature °C TABLE 8-4 CODE WORD TRANSMISSION TIMING PARAMETERS PWM Mode (TXWAK = 0) VDD = +2.0 to 6.6V Commercial (C):Tamb = 0°C to +70°C Industrial (I):Tamb = -40°C to +85°C Symbol Characteristic Number of TE Code Words Transmitted FAST = 0, TXWAK = 0 Min Typ. FAST = 1, TXWAK = 0 Max. Number of TE Basic pulse element 1 260 400 620 1 TE TBP PWM bit pulse width 3 780 1200 1860 3 TP Preamble duration 28 7.3 11.2 17.4 28 TH Header duration 10 2.6 4.0 6.2 10 THOP Hopping code duration 96 25.0 38.4 59.5 96 TFIX Fixed code duration 105 27.3 42.0 65.1 105 TG Guard Time 16 4.2 6.4 9.9 32 Total Transmit Time 255 66.3 102.0 158.1 271 PWM data rate 1282 833 538 Note: The timing parameters are not tested but derived from the oscillator clock. Min. Typ. Max. Units 130 390 3.6 1.3 12.5 13.7 4.2 35.2 2564 200 600 5.6 2.0 19.2 21.0 6.4 54.2 1667 310 930 8.7 3.1 29.8 32.6 9.9 84.0 1075 µs µs ms ms ms ms ms ms bps PWM Mode (TXWAK = 1) VDD = +2.0 to 6.6V Commercial (C):Tamb = 0°C to +70°C Industrial (I):Tamb = -40°C to +85°C Symbol Characteristic Number of TE Code Words Transmitted FAST = 0, TXWAK = 1 Min Typ. Max. FAST = 1, TXWAK = 1 Number of TE Basic pulse element 1 130 200 310 1 TE TBP PWM bit pulse width 6 780 1200 1860 6 TP Preamble duration 28 3.6 5.6 8.7 28 TH Header duration 10 1.3 2.0 3.1 10 THOP Hopping code duration 192 25.0 38.4 59.5 192 TFIX Fixed code duration 210 27.3 42.0 65.1 210 TG Guard Time 32 4.2 6.4 9.9 64 Total Transmit Time 472 61.4 94.4 146.3 504 PWM data rate — 1282 833 538 — Note: The timing parameters are not tested but derived from the oscillator clock. 1996 Microchip Technology Inc. Preliminary Min. Typ. Max. Units 65 390 1.8 0.7 12.5 13.7 4.2 32.8 2564 100 600 2.8 1.0 19.2 21.0 6.4 50.4 1667 155 930 4.3 1.6 29.8 32.6 9.9 78.1 1075 µs µs ms ms ms ms ms ms bps DS40146C-page 19 HCS361 TABLE 8-5 CODE WORD TRANSMISSION TIMING PARAMETERS VPWM Mode (FAST = 0) Commercial Industrial VDD = +2.0 to 6.6V (C): Tamb = 0°C to +70°C (I): Tamb = -40°C to +85°C Code Words Transmitted FAST = 0, Shortest FAST = 0, Longest Symbol Characteristic Number of TE Min Typ. Max. Number of TE Min. Typ. Max. Units TE Basic pulse element 1 260 400 620 1 260 400 620 µs TP Preamble duration 28 7.3 11.2 17.4 28 7.3 11.2 17.4 ms TH Header duration 10 2.6 4.0 6.2 10 2.6 4.0 6.2 ms THOP Hopping code duration 32 8.3 12.8 19.8 64 16.6 25.6 39.7 ms TFIX Fixed code duration 35 9.1 14.0 21.7 70 18.2 28.0 43.4 ms TG Guard Time 112 29.1 44.8 69.4 112 29.1 44.8 69.4 ms Total Transmit Time 217 56.4 86.8 134.5 284 73.8 113.6 176.1 ms VPWM data rate 3846 2500 1613 3846 2500 1613 ms Note: The timing parameters are not tested but derived from the oscillator clock. VPWM Mode (FAST = 1) VDD = +2.0 to 6.6V Commercial (C): Tamb = 0°C to +70°C Industrial (I): Tamb = -40°C to +85°C Code Words Transmitted FAST = 1, Shortest FAST = 1, Longest Symbol Characteristic Number of TE Min Typ. Max. Number of TE Min. Typ. Max. Units TE Basic pulse element 1 130 200 310 1 130 200 310 µs TP Preamble duration 28 3.6 5.6 8.7 28 3.6 5.6 8.7 ms TH Header duration 10 1.3 2.0 3.1 10 1.3 2.0 3.1 ms THOP Hopping code duration 32 4.2 6.4 9.9 64 8.3 12.8 19.8 ms TFIX Fixed code duration 35 4.6 7.0 10.9 70 9.1 14.0 21.7 ms TG Guard Time 224 29.1 44.8 69.4 224 29.1 44.8 69.4 ms Total Transmit Time 329 42.8 65.8 102.0 396 51.5 79.2 122.8 ms VPWM data rate 7692 5000 3226 7692 5000 3226 bps Note: The timing parameters are not tested but derived from the oscillator clock. DS40146C-page 20 Preliminary 1996 Microchip Technology Inc. HCS361 NOTES: 1996 Microchip Technology Inc. Preliminary DS40146C-page 21 HCS361 NOTES: DS40146C-page 22 Preliminary 1996 Microchip Technology Inc. HCS361 HCS361 PRODUCT IDENTIFICATION SYSTEM To order or obtain information, e.g., on pricing or delivery, refer to the factory or the listed sales office. HCS361 — /P Package: Temperature Range: Device: P = Plastic DIP (300 mil Body), 8-lead SN = Plastic SOIC (150 mil Body), 8-lead Blank = 0˚C to +70˚C I = –40˚C to +85˚C HCS361 HCS361T Code Hopping Encoder Code Hopping Encoder (Tape and Reel) Sales and Support Data Sheets Products supported by a preliminary Data Sheet may have an errata sheet describing minor operational differences and recommended workarounds. To determine if an errata sheet exists for a particular device, please contact one of the following: 1. Your local Microchip sales office (see last page) 2. The Microchip Corporate Literature Center U.S. FAX: (602) 786-7277 3. The Microchip’s Bulletin Board, via your local CompuServe number (CompuServe membership NOT required). Please specify which device, revision of silicon and Data Sheet (include Literature #) you are using. 1996 Microchip Technology Inc. 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Two Prestige Place, Suite 150 Miamisburg, OH 45342 Tel: 937-291-1654 Fax: 937-291-9175 Taiwan, R.O.C Los Angeles Microchip Technology Taiwan 10F-1C 207 Tung Hua North Road Taipei, Taiwan, ROC Tel: 886 2-717-7175 Fax: 886-2-545-0139 Microchip Technology Inc. 18201 Von Karman, Suite 1090 Irvine, CA 92612 Tel: 714-263-1888 Fax: 714-263-1338 New York JAPAN Microchip Technology Intl. Inc. Benex S-1 6F 3-18-20, Shin Yokohama Kohoku-Ku, Yokohama Kanagawa 222 Japan Tel: 81-4-5471- 6166 Fax: 81-4-5471-6122 1/14/97 Microchip Technology Inc. 150 Motor Parkway, Suite 416 Hauppauge, NY 11788 Tel: 516-273-5305 Fax: 516-273-5335 San Jose Microchip Technology Inc. 2107 North First Street, Suite 590 San Jose, CA 95131 Tel: 408-436-7950 Fax: 408-436-7955 Toronto Microchip Technology Inc. 5925 Airport Road, Suite 200 Mississauga, Ontario L4V 1W1, Canada Tel: 905-405-6279 Fax: 905-405-6253 M All rights reserved. © 1997, Microchip Technology Incorporated, USA. 1/97 Printed on recycled paper. Information contained in this publication regarding device applications and the like is intended for suggestion only and may be superseded by updates. No representation or warranty is given and no liability is assumed by Microchip Technology Incorporated with respect to the accuracy or use of such information, or infringement of patents or other intellectual property rights arising from such use or otherwise. Use of Microchip’s products as critical components in life support systems is not authorized except with express written approval by Microchip. No licenses are conveyed, implicitly or otherwise, under any intellectual property rights. The Microchip logo and name are registered trademarks of Microchip Technology Inc. in the U.S.A. and other countries. All rights reserved. All other trademarks mentioned herein are the property of their respective companies. DS40146C-page 24 Preliminary 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.